Science.gov

Sample records for aeromonas salmonicida yersinia

  1. Historical record of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida among sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Coll, J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.

  2. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  3. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed. PMID:25850398

  4. Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in culture fisheries.

    PubMed

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Ciftci, Alper; Findik, Arzu; Durmaz, Yuksel

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial cold water disease, enteric red mouth disease and frunculosis are the common bacterial diseases of fish worldwide. The etiologic agents of these diseases are Flavobacterium (F.) psychrophilum, Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri and Aeromonas (A.) salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, respectively. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) method with YER8/10-Fer3/4-FP1/3 primer pairs which can identify these fish pathogens simultaneously was developed and optimized. In optimized conditions, neither false specific nor nonspecific amplification occurred. The detection limits of the m-PCR method using DNA extracts from dilutions of pure cultures of bacteria were 35 pg for Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 70 pg for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. It was determined that 15 CFU Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 30 CFU A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida could be detected by m-PCR developed using genomic DNA extracted from dilutions of the suspensions. The detection limits in the presence of tissue debris were 125 CFU for Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 250 CFU for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. In conclusion, we submit that the m-PCR method developed and optimized in this study can be used for accurate and rapid identification of these bacteria.

  5. Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in culture fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Findik, Arzu; Durmaz, Yuksel

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial cold water disease, enteric red mouth disease and frunculosis are the common bacterial diseases of fish worldwide. The etiologic agents of these diseases are Flavobacterium (F.) psychrophilum, Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri and Aeromonas (A.) salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, respectively. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) method with YER8/10-Fer3/4-FP1/3 primer pairs which can identify these fish pathogens simultaneously was developed and optimized. In optimized conditions, neither false specific nor nonspecific amplification occurred. The detection limits of the m-PCR method using DNA extracts from dilutions of pure cultures of bacteria were 35 pg for Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 70 pg for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. It was determined that 15 CFU Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 30 CFU A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida could be detected by m-PCR developed using genomic DNA extracted from dilutions of the suspensions. The detection limits in the presence of tissue debris were 125 CFU for Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 250 CFU for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. In conclusion, we submit that the m-PCR method developed and optimized in this study can be used for accurate and rapid identification of these bacteria. PMID:20706031

  6. Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, P.W.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed using first-round primers complementary to highly conserved regions within the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (universal eubacterial primers) and second-round primers specific for sequences within the 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, andFlavobacterium psychrophilum. Following optimization of the MgCl2 concentration and primer annealing temperature, PCR employing the universal eubacterial primers was used to amplify a 1,500-base-pair (bp) product visible in agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The calculated detection limit of this single-round assay was less than 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for all bacterial species tested. Single-round PCR using primer sets specific for A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, and F. psychrophilumamplified bands of 271, 575, and 1,100 bp, respectively, with detection limits of less than 1.4 × 104, 1.4 × 105, and 1.4 × 105 CFU per reaction. Using the universal eubacterial primers in the first round and the species-specific primer sets in the second round of nested PCR assays improved the detection ability by approximately four orders of magnitude to fewer than 14 CFU per sample for each of the three bacterial species. Such nested assays could be adapted to a wide variety of bacterial fish pathogens for which 16S sequences are available.

  7. Analysis of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) knockout mutant in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Ebanks, Roger O; Goguen, Michel; Knickle, Leah; Dacanay, Andrew; Leslie, Andrew; Ross, Neil W; Pinto, Devanand M

    2013-03-23

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis; a serious infectious disease in aquaculture raised salmonids. Iron acquisition has been shown to be critical for the survival of pathogenic bacteria during the course of infection. Previous work has demonstrated that A. salmonicida expresses iron-repressible IROMP proteins, suggesting the presence of iron acquisition systems that are under the control of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur). In this study, the A. salmonicida fur has been sequenced and a fur deletion strain generated. The A. salmonicida fur gene has an open reading frame of 428 bp, coding for a protein of 143 amino acids, and with high homology to previously described Fur proteins. The Fur protein product had a 94% sequence identity and 96% sequence similarity to the Aeromonas hydrophila Fur protein product. Transcription of the A. salmonicida fur gene was not regulated by the iron status of the bacterium and is not autoregulated, as in Escherichia coli. Proteomic analysis of the A. salmonicida fur mutant, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. The A. salmonicida fur::KO mutant shows significantly reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild-type parental strain. In addition, the A. salmonicida fur mutant provides an important tool for further investigation of the iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by A. salmonicida.

  8. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture.

  9. Optimization of a plasmid electroporation protocol for Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Attéré, Sabrina A; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Mélanie V; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J

    2014-03-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a major fish pathogen. Molecular tools are required to study the virulence and genomic stability of this bacterium. An efficient electroporation-mediated transformation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida would make genetic studies faster and easier. In the present study, we designed the 4.1-kb pSDD1 plasmid as a tool for optimizing an electroporation protocol for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We systematically tested the electroporation conditions to develop a protocol that generates the maximum number of transformants. Under these optimal conditions (25 kV/cm, 200 Ω, 25 μF), we achieved an electroporation efficiency of up to 1×10(5) CFU/μg DNA. The electroporation protocol was also tested using another plasmid of 10.6-kb and three different strains of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The strains displayed significant differences in their electro-transformation competencies. Strain 01-B526 was the easiest to electroporate, especially with the pSDD1 plasmid. This plasmid was stably maintained in the 01-B526 transformants, as were the native plasmids, but could be easily cured by removing the selection conditions. This is the first efficient electroporation protocol reported for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and offers new possibilities for studying this bacterium.

  10. Genetics and Proteomics of Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide Core Biosynthesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Natalia; Lacasta, Anna; Vilches, Silvia; Reyes, Mercé; Vazquez, Judit; Aquillini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison between the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structures of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A450 and Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 shows great similarity in the inner LPS core and part of the outer LPS core but some differences in the distal part of the outer LPS core (residues ld-Hep, d-Gal, and d-GalNAc). The three genomic regions encoding LPS core biosynthetic genes in A. salmonicida A450, of which regions 2 and 3 have genes identical to those of A. hydrophila AH-3, were fully sequenced. A. salmonicida A450 region 1 showed seven genes: three identical to those of A. hydrophila AH-3, three similar but not identical to those of A. hydrophila AH-3, and one without any homology to any well-characterized gene. A. salmonicida A450 mutants with alterations in the genes that were not identical to those of A. hydrophila AH-3 were constructed, and their LPS core structures were fully elucidated. At the same time, all the A. salmonicida A450 genes identical to those of A. hydrophila AH-3 were used to complement the previously obtained A. hydrophila AH-3 mutants for each of these genes. Combining the gene sequence and complementation test data with the structural data and phenotypic characterization of the mutant LPSs enabled a presumptive assignment of all LPS core biosynthesis gene functions in A. salmonicida A450. Furthermore, hybridization studies with internal probes for the A. salmonicida-specific genes using different A. salmonicida strains (strains of different subspecies or atypical strains) showed a unique or prevalent LPS core type, which is the one fully characterized for A. salmonicida A450. PMID:19151135

  11. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in the light of its type-three secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Bergh, Philippe; Frey, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an important pathogen in salmonid aquaculture and is responsible for the typical furunculosis. The type-three secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence system. In this work, we review structure and function of this highly sophisticated nanosyringe in A. salmonicida. Based on the literature as well as personal experimental observations, we document the genetic (re)organization, expression regulation, anatomy, putative functional origin and roles in the infectious process of this T3SS. We propose a model of pathogenesis where A. salmonicida induces a temporary immunosuppression state in fish in order to acquire free access to host tissues. Finally, we highlight putative important therapeutic and vaccine strategies to prevent furunculosis of salmonid fish. PMID:24119189

  12. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  13. Infection of sea lamprey with an unusual strain of Aeromonas salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, Arfang; Loch, Thomas P.; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Winters, Andrew D.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the fish-parasitic sea lamprey has led to catastrophic consequences, including the potential introduction of fish pathogens. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes devastating losses worldwide. Currently, there are five accepted subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida: A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, and pectinolytica. We discuss the discovery of an isolate of A. salmonicida that is pathogenic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and exhibits unique phenotypic and molecular characteristics. We examined 181 adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Humber River (Lake Ontario watershed) and 162 adult sea lamprey from Duffins Creek (Lake Ontario watershed) during the spring seasons of 2005–11. Among those, 4/343 (1.2%) sea lamprey were culture positive for A. salmonicida, whereby biochemical and molecular studies identified three of the isolates as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The remaining isolate (As-SL1) recovered from Humber River sea lamprey was phenotypically more similar to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida than to the four other A. salmonicida subspecies. However, unlike A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, As-SL1 was sucrose positive, produced an acid-over-acid reaction on triple-sugar iron medium and did not amplify with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial stretches of the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B genes further confirmed that the As-SL1 isolate was not A. salmonicida subsp. masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, or pectinolytica. Based on our analyses, the As-SL1 isolate is either an unusual strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or a novel A. salmonicida subspecies. The four A. salmonicida isolates that were recovered from sea lamprey were pathogenic to rainbow trout in experimental challenge studies. Our study also underscores the potential role of sea lamprey in the ecology of

  14. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Reith, Michael E; Singh, Rama K; Curtis, Bruce; Boyd, Jessica M; Bouevitch, Anne; Kimball, Jennifer; Munholland, Janet; Murphy, Colleen; Sarty, Darren; Williams, Jason; Nash, John HE; Johnson, Stewart C; Brown, Laura L

    2008-01-01

    Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types) are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other Aeromonas species. Conclusion

  15. Effects of temperature on biochemical reactions and drug resistance of virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation temperatures of 11°, 18° and 28° did not substantially affect biochemical reactions of either virulent or avirulent forms of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida. The only change observed, amygdalin fermentation, was positive at 11° and 18° but negative at 28°C. Several isolates utilized sucrose, a characteristic not normally recognized for A. salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.Antimicrobial susceptibility screening indicated resistance to novobiocin increased at the higher incubation temperatures. Standardized drug sensitivity testing procedures and precise zone diameter interpretive standards for bacterial fish pathogens are needed.

  16. Isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida from Human Blood Sample: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rachna; Dudeja, Mridu; Nandy, Shyamasree; Das, Ayan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida belonging to the genus Aeromonas, is a common pathogen that causes furunculosis and septicaemia in variety of fishes. It infects cold blooded vertebrates living at low temperatures mainly salmonid fish hence named salmonicida. Untill recently Aeromanas salmonicida is considered to be a fish pathogen. A. salmonicida is considered to be non-pathogenic for humans as it cannot grow at 37ºC. "However, In our laboratory culture plates and broths were incubated twice at 37ºC and each time same type of colonies were isolated which were identified as A. samonicida by Vitek 2 compact system bioMerieux, Inc. (Durham, N.C.)". By far no report has been received regarding its isolation from humans biological sample. Here we present the first report of A. salmonicida isolated from the human blood. PMID:24701507

  17. Triclosan Resistance in a Bacterial Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is Mediated by an Enoyl Reductase, FabV.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raees; Lee, Myung Hwan; Joo, Hae-Jin; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Ahmad, Shabir; Choi, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan, the widely used biocide, specifically targets enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in the bacterial fatty acid synthesis system. Although the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exhibits triclosan resistance, the nature of this resistance has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to characterize the triclosan resistance of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causing furunculosis. The fosmid library of triclosan-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was constructed to select a fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance. With the fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance, a subsequent secondary library search resulted in the selection of subclone pTSR-1. DNA sequence analysis of pTSR-1 revealed the presence of a chromosomal-borne fabV-encoding ENR homolog. The ENR of A. salmonicida (FabVas) exhibited significant homology with previously known FabV, including the catalytic domain YX(8)K. fabVas introduction into E. coli dramatically increased its resistance to triclosan. Heterologous expression of FabVas might functionally replace the triclosan-sensitive FabI in vivo to confer E. coli with triclosan resistance. A genome-wide search for fabVas homologs revealed the presence of an additional fabV gene (fabVas2) paralog in A. salmonicida strains and the fabVas orthologs from other gram-negative fish pathogens. Both of the potential FabV ENRs expressed similarly with or without triclosan supplement. This is the first report about the presence of two potential FabV ENRs in a single pathogenic bacterium. Our result suggests that triclosan-resistant ENRs are widely distributed in various bacteria in nature, and the wide use of this biocide can spread these triclosan-tolerant ENRs among fish pathogens and other pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Diversity and Homogeneity among Small Plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida Linked with Geographical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Attéré, Sabrina A.; Vincent, Antony T.; Trudel, Mélanie V.; Chanut, Romain; Charette, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1) related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D). As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5) in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend for pAsa3 and p

  19. The mosaic architecture of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida pAsa4 plasmid and its consequences on antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Katherine H.; Vincent, Antony T.; Trudel, Mélanie V.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Frenette, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids, is an issue especially because many isolates of this bacterium display antibiotic resistances, which limit treatments against the disease. Recent results suggested the possible existence of alternative forms of pAsa4, a large plasmid found in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and bearing multiple antibiotic resistance genes. The present study reveals the existence of two newly detected pAsa4 variants, pAsa4b and pAsa4c. We present the extensive characterization of the genomic architecture, the mobile genetic elements and the antimicrobial resistance genes of these plasmids in addition to the reference pAsa4 from the strain A449. The analysis showed differences between the three architectures with consequences on the content of resistance genes. The genomic plasticity of the three pAsa4 variants could be partially explained by the action of mobile genetic elements like insertion sequences. Eight additional isolates from Canada and Europe that bore similar antibiotic resistance patterns as pAsa4-bearing strains were genotyped and specific pAsa4 variants could be attributed to phenotypic profiles. pAsa4 and pAsa4c were found in Europe, while pAsa4b was found in Canada. In accordance with their content in conjugative transfer genes, only pAsa4b and pAsa4c can be transferred by conjugation in Escherichia coli. The plasticity of pAsa4 variants related to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance indicates that these plasmids may pose a threat in terms of the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida bacteria. PMID:27812409

  20. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  1. The Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide Core from Different Subspecies: The Unusual subsp. pectinolytica

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Initial hydridization tests using Aeromonas salmonicida typical and atypical strains showed the possibility of different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer cores among these strains. By chemical structural analysis, LPS-core SDS-PAGE gel migration, and functional and comparative genomics we demonstrated that typical A. salmonicida (subsp. salmonicida) strains and atypical subsp. masoucida and probably smithia strains showed the same LPS outer core. A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strains show a similar LPS outer core but lack one of the most external residues (a galactose linked α1-6 to heptose), not affecting the O-antigen LPS linkage. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains show a rather changed LPS outer core, which is identical to the LPS outer core from the majority of the A. hydrophila strains studied by genomic analyses. The LPS inner core in all tested A. salmonicida strains, typical and atypical, is well-conserved. Furthermore, the LPS inner core seems to be conserved in all the Aeromonas (psychrophilic or mesophilic) strains studied by genomic analyses. PMID:26904002

  2. The Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide Core from Different Subspecies: The Unusual subsp. pectinolytica.

    PubMed

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Initial hydridization tests using Aeromonas salmonicida typical and atypical strains showed the possibility of different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer cores among these strains. By chemical structural analysis, LPS-core SDS-PAGE gel migration, and functional and comparative genomics we demonstrated that typical A. salmonicida (subsp. salmonicida) strains and atypical subsp. masoucida and probably smithia strains showed the same LPS outer core. A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strains show a similar LPS outer core but lack one of the most external residues (a galactose linked α1-6 to heptose), not affecting the O-antigen LPS linkage. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains show a rather changed LPS outer core, which is identical to the LPS outer core from the majority of the A. hydrophila strains studied by genomic analyses. The LPS inner core in all tested A. salmonicida strains, typical and atypical, is well-conserved. Furthermore, the LPS inner core seems to be conserved in all the Aeromonas (psychrophilic or mesophilic) strains studied by genomic analyses.

  3. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José

    2013-10-25

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed. PMID:23890674

  4. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains isolated from Chinese freshwater fish contain a novel genomic island and possible regional-specific mobile genetic elements profiles.

    PubMed

    Long, Meng; Nielsen, Tue K; Leisner, Jørgen J; Hansen, Lars H; Shen, Zhi X; Zhang, Qian Q; Li, Aihua

    2016-09-01

    Two strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, YK and BG, were isolated from largemouth bronze gudgeon and northern whitefish in China, and identified as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida based on phylogenetic analysis of vapA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. YK and BG originated from freshwater fish, one of which belonged to the cyprinid family, and the strains showed a difference in virulence. Subsequently, we performed whole genome sequencing of the strains, and comparison of their genomic sequences to the genome of the A449 reference strain revealed various genomic rearrangements, including a new variant of the genomic island AsaGEI in BG, designated as AsaGEI2c This is the first report on a GEI of A. salmonicida strain from China. Furthermore, both YK and BG strains contained a Tn7 transposon inserted at the same position in the chromosome. Finally, IS-dependent rearrangements on pAsa5 are deemed likely to have occurred, with omission of the resD gene in both strains as well as omission of genes related to the IncF conjugal transfer system in the YK isolate. This study demonstrates that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida can infect non-salmonids (cyprinids) in addition to salmonids, and that AsaGEI2c might be useful as a geographical indicator of Chinese A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. PMID:27493011

  5. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  6. Survival and Activity of lux-Marked Aeromonas salmonicida in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Y.; Glover, L. A.; McGillivray, D. M.; Prosser, J. I.

    1995-01-01

    The fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was chromosomally marked with genes encoding bacterial luciferase, luxAB, isolated from Vibrio fischeri, resulting in constitutive luciferase production. During exponential growth in liquid batch culture, luminescence was directly proportional to biomass concentration, and luminometry provided a lower detection limit of approximately 10(sup3) cells ml(sup-1), 1 order of magnitude more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection. In sterile seawater at 4(deg)C, lux-marked A. salmonicida entered a dormant, nonculturable state and population activity decreased rapidly. The activity per viable cell, however, increased by day 4, indicating that a proportion of the population remained active and culturable. Putative dormant cells were not resuscitated after the addition of a range of substrates. PMID:16535133

  7. Draft genome sequence of the Chilean isolate Aeromonas salmonicida strain CBA100.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Natalia; Espinoza, Carolina; Sanhueza, Loreto; Gonzalez, Alex; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    We report the draft genome sequence from Aeromonas salmonicida sp. strain CBA100, which was characterized as an antibiotic-resistant bacterium isolated from infected rainbow trout. The total size of the genome is 4,788,109 bp, with a G + C content of 60.55%. Comparison of its open reading frames shows that the closest homologue to one third of the genes of strain CBA100 are found in A. hydrophila. The strain contains several efflux pumps and putative genes that confer resistance to multiclass antibiotics, including macrolide, β-lactamics, florfenicol and quinolones. The antibiogram profile suggests that efflux pumps are the main mechanism of resistance to non-β-lactamic antibiotics. This is the first genome of a Chilean isolate of A. salmonicida, which should shed light on the design of strain-specific vaccines against this pathogen and reduce the use of antibiotics for preventive treatment in Chilean aquaculture.

  8. Diversity of antibiotic-resistance genes in Canadian isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida: dominance of pSN254b and discovery of pAsa8

    PubMed Central

    Trudel, Mélanie V.; Vincent, Antony T.; Attéré, Sabrina A.; Labbé, Myriam; Derome, Nicolas; Culley, Alexander I.; Charette, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a common pathogen in fish farms worldwide. Since the antibiotic resistance of this bacterial species is on the increase, it is important to have a broader view on this issue. In the present study, we tested the presence of known plasmids conferring multi-drug resistance as well as antibiotic resistance genes by a PCR approach in 100 Canadian A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. Our study highlighted the dominance of the conjugative pSN254b plasmid, which confers multi-drug resistance. We also identified a new multi-drug plasmid named pAsa8, which has been characterized by a combination of sequencing technologies (Illumina and Oxford nanopore). This new plasmid harbors a complex class 1 integron similar to the one of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) found in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis. Consequently, in addition to providing an update on the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates that are resistant to antibiotics, our data suggest that this bacterium is potentially an important reservoir of drug resistance genes and should consequently be monitored more extensively. In addition, we describe a screening method that has the potential to become a diagnostic tool that is complementary to other methods currently in use. PMID:27752114

  9. Evaluation of commercially prepared transport systems for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Bullock, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro studies indicated that commercially prepared transport systems containing Amies, Stuart's, and Cary-Blair media worked equally well in sustaining the viability of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida, which causes furunculosis. The bacterium remained viable without significant increase or decrease in cell numbers for as long as 48 h of incubation at 18-20??C in Stuart's transport medium; consequently, obtaining mucus samples in such tubes were comparable to on-site detection of A. salmonicida by dilution plate counts on Coomassie Brilliant Blue agar. In three different assays of 100 samples of mucus from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infected subclinically with A. salmonicida, dilution counts conducted on-site proved more reliable for detecting the pathogen than obtaining the samples in the transport system. In the on-site assays, dilution counts detected the pathogen in 34, 41, and 22 samples, whereas this was accomplished in only 15, 15, and 3 of the respective samples when the transport system was used. In an additional experiment, Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus sustaining a frank epizootic of furunculosis were sampled similarly. Here, too, dilution counts were more predictive of the prevalence of A. salmonicida and detected the pathogen in 46 mucus samples; in comparison, only 6 samples collected by using the transport system were positive. We also observed that the transport system supported the growth of the normal mucus bacterial flora. Particularly predominant among these were motile aeromonads and Pseudomonas fluorescens. In studies of mixed culture growth, two representatives of both of the latter genera of bacteria outgrew A. salmonicida - in some cases, to the total exclusion of the pathogen itself.

  10. The impact of Aeromonas salmonicida infection on innate immune parameters of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).

    PubMed

    Du, Yishuai; Yi, Mengmeng; Xiao, Peng; Meng, Lingjie; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Enzyme activities and gene expression of a number of innate immune parameters in the serum, mucus and skin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were investigated after challenge with a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas salmonicida (A. salmonicida). Fish were injected in the dorsal muscle with either 100 μl bacterium solution, about 3.05 × 10(7) CFU/ml A. salmonicida, or 100 μl 0.9% NaCl (as control group) and tissue samples were collected at days 0, 2, 4 and 6 post-injection. Lysozyme (LSZ) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities in serum, mucus and skin, and LSZ and AKP mRNA expression in skin of the challenged fish were higher than those of the control at most of the experimental time, with significant differences at several time points (P < 0.05), indicating the involvement of LSZ and AKP in the innate immunity of Atlantic salmon to A. salmonicida. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in mucus and skin, along with the SOD, POD and CAT mRNA expression in skin significantly decreased at day 4 and 6, indicating the decreased antioxidant capacity of the challenged fish. Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities in serum, mucus and skin of the challenged group were all higher than those of the control after the injection, and at several time points significant differences were found between the two groups, suggesting organs of fish were impaired after the pathogen infection. The changes of the GPT and GOT activities could be used as potential biomarkers for the impairment of physiological functions caused by the pathogen infection. Identified biomarkers of the immune responses will contribute to the early-warning system of the disease. So this study will not only provide a theoretical basis for vaccine development, but also provide basic data for the establishment of early warning systems for diseases caused by A. salmonicida in Atlantic salmon rearing.

  11. Molecular characterization of tetracycline- and quinolone-resistant Aeromonas salmonicida isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Sun Young; Son, Jee Soo; Han, Jee Eun; Jun, Jin Woo; Shin, Sang Phil; Choresca, Casiano; Choi, Yun Jaie; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance of 16 Aeromonas (A.) salmonicida strains isolated from diseased fish and environmental samples in Korea from 2006 to 2009 were investigated in this study. Tetracycline or quinolone resistance was observed in eight and 16 of the isolates, respectively, based on the measured minimal inhibitory concentrations. Among the tetracycline-resistant strains, seven of the isolates harbored tetA gene and one isolate harbored tetE gene. Additionally, quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) consisting of the gyrA and parC genes were amplified and sequenced. Among the quinolone-resistant A. salmonicida strains, 15 harbored point mutations in the gyrA codon 83 which were responsible for the corresponding amino acid substitutions of Ser83→Arg83 or Ser83→Asn83. We detected no point mutations in other QRDRs, such as gyrA codons 87 and 92, and parC codons 80 and 84. Genetic similarity was assessed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the results indicated high clonality among the Korean antibiotic-resistant strains of A. salmonicida. PMID:21368562

  12. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Keeling, S E; Brosnahan, C L; Johnston, C; Wallis, R; Gudkovs, N; McDonald, W L

    2013-05-01

    A real-time PCR assay using a molecular beacon was developed and validated to detect the vapA (surface array protein) gene in the fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. The assay had 100% analytical specificity and analytical sensitivities of 5 ± 0 fg (DNA), 2.2 × 10(4) ± 1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1) (without enrichment) and 40 ± 10 CFU g(-1) (with enrichment) in kidney tissue. The assay was highly repeatable and proved to be robust following equivalency testing using a different real-time PCR platform. Following analytical validation, diagnostic specificity was determined using New Zealand farmed Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), (n = 750) and pink shubunkin, Carassius auratus (L.) (n = 157). The real-time PCR was run in parallel with culture and all fish tested were found to be negative by both methods for A. salmonicida, resulting in 100% diagnostic specificity (95% confidence interval). The molecular beacon real-time PCR system is specific, sensitive and a reproducible method for the detection of A. salmonicida. It can be used for diagnostic testing, health certification and active surveillance programmes.

  13. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  14. Quarantine of Aeromonas salmonicida-harboring ebonyshell mussels (Fusconaia ebena) prevents transmission of the pathogen to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, was artificially induced in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an experimental tank. Ebonyshells (Fusconaia ebena) were placed to cohabit with these fish to acquire the pathogen through siphoning. After 2 wk of cohabitation, 10 of the mussels were assayed by bacterial culture and all were found to harbor A. salmonicida. The mean cell count from soft tissue homogenates was 1.84 ?? 105 cfu/g, which comprised an average 14.41% of the total bacteria isolated from tissues. From the fluids, a mean of 2.84 ?? 105 A. salmonicida cfu/mL was isolated, which comprised an average of 17.29% of the total bacterial flora. The mussels were removed from the cohabitation tank and distributed equally among five previously disinfected tanks, 35 per tank. The F. ebena in each tank were allowed to depurate A. salmonicida for various durations: 1, 5, 10, 15 or 30 days. After each group had depurated for their assigned time, 10 were assayed for bacteria, tank water was tested, and 20 pathogen-free bioindicator brook trout were added to cohabit with the remaining mussels. Depuration was considered successful if A. salmonicida was not isolated from tank water or the mussels, and there was no infection or mortality to bioindicator fish. After 1 day of depuration, A. salmonicida was not isolated from the soft tissues; however, it was isolated from one of the paired fluids (10% prevalence). The tank water tested positive, and the bioindicator fish became infected and died. From the 5-day depuration group, A. salmonicida was not isolated from soft tissues, but was isolated from three fluids (30%; mean = 1.56 ?? 102 cfu/mL). Tank water from the 5-day group was negative, and there was no mortality among the bioindicator fish. However, A. salmonicida was isolated from 2 of 20 fish at the end of the 14-day observation period. One F. ebena fluid sample was positive for A. salmonicida from the 10-day depuration group, but none of the

  15. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen. PMID:27431586

  16. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen.

  17. Detection of Variants of the pRAS3, pAB5S9, and pSN254 Plasmids in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida: Multidrug Resistance, Interspecies Exchanges, and Plasmid Reshaping

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Antony T.; Trudel, Mélanie V.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Boyle, Brian; Tanaka, Katherine H.; Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Daher, Rana K.; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous water-borne Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a worldwide disease in fish farms. Plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes have already been described for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize additional multidrug resistance plasmids in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We sequenced the plasmids present in two multiple antibiotic-resistant isolates using high-throughput technologies. We also investigated 19 other isolates with various multidrug resistance profiles by genotyping PCR and assessed their resistance to tetracycline. We identified variants of the pAB5S9 and pSN254 plasmids that carry several antibiotic resistance genes and that have been previously reported in bacteria other than A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, which suggests a high level of interspecies exchange. Genotyping analyses and the antibiotic resistance profiles of the 19 other isolates support the idea that multiple versions of pAB5S9 and pSN254 exist in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We also identified variants of the pRAS3 plasmid. The present study revealed that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida harbors a wide variety of plasmids, which suggests that this ubiquitous bacterium may contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. PMID:25267667

  18. Detection of variants of the pRAS3, pAB5S9, and pSN254 plasmids in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida: multidrug resistance, interspecies exchanges, and plasmid reshaping.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Paquet, Valérie E; Boyle, Brian; Tanaka, Katherine H; Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Daher, Rana K; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2014-12-01

    The ubiquitous water-borne Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a worldwide disease in fish farms. Plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes have already been described for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize additional multidrug resistance plasmids in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We sequenced the plasmids present in two multiple antibiotic-resistant isolates using high-throughput technologies. We also investigated 19 other isolates with various multidrug resistance profiles by genotyping PCR and assessed their resistance to tetracycline. We identified variants of the pAB5S9 and pSN254 plasmids that carry several antibiotic resistance genes and that have been previously reported in bacteria other than A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, which suggests a high level of interspecies exchange. Genotyping analyses and the antibiotic resistance profiles of the 19 other isolates support the idea that multiple versions of pAB5S9 and pSN254 exist in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We also identified variants of the pRAS3 plasmid. The present study revealed that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida harbors a wide variety of plasmids, which suggests that this ubiquitous bacterium may contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment.

  19. Aeromonas salmonicida possesses two genes encoding homologs of the major outer membrane protein, OmpA.

    PubMed Central

    Costello, G M; Vipond, R; MacIntyre, S

    1996-01-01

    Two homologs of the outer membrane protein OmpA were identified in Aeromonas salmonicida by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and amino-terminal sequence analyses. An A. salmonicida genomic DNA library was constructed by using lambda GEM-11 and recombinant phage carrying both genes ompAI and ompAII) selected by immunoscreening. A 5.0-kb BamHI fragment containing the two genes in tandem was subcloned in pBluescript and used for further subcloning and sequencing of the genes. The encoded proteins (Mr = 33,564 and 32,536 for mature OmpAI and OmpAII, respectively) had only 64% identity with each other and otherwise had the highest level of homology to OmpA proteins from the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Based on the Escherichia coli OmpA model, an eight-stranded amphipathic beta-barrel model for the membrane assembly of the N-terminal half of OmpAI and OmpAII was predicted. Most variation between the two proteins was localized to the predicted surface loops and periplasmic turns, while the transmembrane strands and C-terminals domains were highly conserved. Expression of ompAI and ompAII separately in E. coli indicated that both genes could be independently transcribed from their own promoters and that both gene products were assembled into the E. coli outer membrane. A survey of different Aeromonas spp. by PCR revealed that possession of two tandem ompA genes was widespread among this genus. This is the first report of any bacterial species possessing two genes for homologs of this major outer membrane protein. PMID:8626290

  20. Differential partition of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida and attenuated derivatives possessing specific cell surface alterations in polymer aqueous-phase systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, J. M.; Trust, T. J.; Brooks, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Two-polymer aqueous-phase systems in which partitioning of biological matter between the phases occurs according to surface properties such as hydrophobicity, charge, and lipid composition are used to compare the surface properties of strains of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. The differential ability of strains to produce a surface protein array crucial to their virulence, the A layer, and to produce smooth lipopolysaccharide is found to be important in the partitioning behavior of Aeromonas salmonicida. The presence of the A layer is shown to decrease the surface hydrophilicity of the pathogen, and to increase specifically its surface affinity for fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol. The method has application to the analysis of surface properties crucial to bacterial virulence, and to the selection of strains and mutants with specific surface characteristics.

  1. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M; Krossøy, Bjørn; Kania, Per W; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furunculosis. Fish were vaccinated with three different adjuvanted trivalent vaccines containing formalin killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a. These were 1) the commercial vaccine Alpha Ject 3000, 2) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil adjuvant, 3) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil in water adjuvant. Fish were then exposed to A. salmonicida challenge using i.p. injection, cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater (15 ppt) or combined fresh/saltwater cohabitation. Cohabitation reflects a more natural infection mode and was shown to give better differentiation of vaccine types compared to i.p. injection of live bacteria. The latter infection mode is less successful probably due to the intra-abdominal inflammatory reactions (characterized in this study according to the Speilberg scale) induced by i.p. vaccination whereby injected live bacteria more effectively become inactivated at the site of injection. Compared to cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater was less efficient probably due to reduced survivability of A. salmonicida in saltwater, which was also experimentally verified in vitro.

  2. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection. PMID:26119300

  3. Survival of two bacterial fish pathogens (Aeromonas salmonicida and the Enteric Redmouth Bacterium) in ozonated, chlorinated, and untreated waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.

    1977-01-01

    Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were determined in three water types at 20 °C for the destruction of the fish pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida, the etiologic agent of furunculosis, and the enteric redmouth bacterium (ERM). In phosphate-buffered distilled water, 0.01 mg/ℓ ozone inactivated 103 cells/ml of ERM and A. salmonicida in 1/2 and 10 min, respectively. Chlorine at this concentration had little effect on either pathogen and a residual of at least 0.05 mg/ℓ was needed to achieve a complete kill within a 10-min contact time. In soft lake water (30 mg/ℓ as CaCO3) a chlorine residual of 0.1 mg/ℓ rapidly  inactivated A. salmonicida and ERM but in hard water (120 mg/ℓ) A. salmonicida was more resistant and 0.2 mg/ℓ chlorine was required. Ozonation of the two lake waters at 90 mg O3∙h−1∙ℓ−1 (equivalent to a 0.01 mg/ℓ residual in ozone demand-free water) was required to destroy both pathogens within 10 min.In untreated soft lake water 103 cells/ml of A. salmonicida survived only 2 days, while the ERM bacterium (103 cells/ml) survived even after 20 day s in soft and hard untreated lake waters.

  4. Immunization of pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antipa, Ross; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of immunizing fish, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and hyperosmotic infiltration, were compared for control of vibriosis and furunculosis in pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Both methods provided significant protection against vibriosis under field test conditions. In coho salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration provided the best protection and fastest rise in antibody titer of seven treatments tested. In chinook salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines resulted in 83.3% survival in comparison with 28.7% survival in controls. Both i.p. injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida bacterins resulted in production of serum antibodies specific for each respective pathogen. Vaccination with bivalent V. anguillarum–A.salmonicida vaccines produced antibodies to both pathogens, and provided protection against vibriosis. Growth rates of vaccinated coho salmon were not significantly different from controls.

  5. Adverse and long-term protective effects following oil-adjuvanted vaccination against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic measures against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis, have been an active field of research for decades, with studies mainly focused on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In the present study we have examined the protective and adverse effects of mineral oil-adjuvanted injection vaccines on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A commercial vaccine and an experimental auto vaccine, as well as their respective adjuvant formulations alone were used to evaluate their individual effects, both prior to and during an experimental waterborne infection challenge. Macro- and microscopic examination revealed signs of vaccine-induced adverse effects from 10 weeks to 14 months post vaccination. Both vaccines induced statistically significant protection during the experimental challenge (P=0.018 for both vaccines), as well as significantly elevated levels of specific circulating antibodies prior to and during the experimental challenge when compared to an unvaccinated control group. During the early, critical time points of the infection, both vaccines appeared to protect against pathological changes to the liver and spleen, which provides a probable explanation for the reduced mortality seen in the vaccinated groups. A significant correlation was found between the level of A. salmonicida-specific antibodies measured prior to challenge and the endpoint survival of each group after the experimental infection, and furthermore, the levels of these antibodies remained elevated for at least 14 months post vaccination. PMID:25281580

  6. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Dalsgaard, Inger; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

    2007-12-13

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

  7. The Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exoproteome: determination of the complete repertoire of Type-Three Secretion System effectors and identification of other virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiologic agent of furunculosis, is a major pathogen of fisheries worldwide. Several virulence factors have been described, but the type-three secretion system (T3SS) is recognized as having a major effect on virulence by injecting effectors directly into fish cells. In this study we used high-throughput proteomics to display the differences between in vitro secretome of A. salmonicida wild-type (wt, hypervirulent, JF2267) and T3SS-deficient (isogenic ΔascV, extremely low-virulent, JF2747) strains in exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results Results confirmed the secretion of effectors AopH, AexT, AopP and AopO via T3SS, and for the first time demonstrated the impact of T3SS in secretion of Ati2, AopN and ExsE that are known as effectors in other pathogens. Translocators, needle subunits, Ati1, and AscX were also secreted in supernatants (SNs) dependent on T3SS. AopH, Ati2, AexT, AopB and AopD were in the top seven most abundant excreted proteins. EF-G, EF-Tu, DnaK, HtpG, PNPase, PepN and MdeA were moderately secreted in wt SNs and predicted to be putative T3 effectors by bioinformatics. Pta and ASA_P5G088 were increased in wt SNs and T3-associated in other bacteria. Ten conserved cytoplasmic proteins were more abundant in wt SNs than in the ΔascV mutant, but without any clear association to a secretion system. T1-secreted proteins were predominantly found in wt SNs: OmpAI, OmpK40, DegQ, insulinase ASA_0716, hypothetical ASA_0852 and ASA_3619. Presence of T3SS components in pellets was clearly decreased by ascV deletion, while no impact was observed on T1- and T2SS. Our results demonstrated that the ΔascV mutant strain excreted well-described (VapA, AerA, AerB, GCAT, Pla1, PlaC, TagA, Ahe2, GbpA and enolase) and yet uncharacterized potential toxins, adhesins and enzymes as much as or even more than the wt strain. Other putative important virulence factors were not detected. Conclusions We

  8. Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

  9. Ulcer disease prophylaxis in koi carp by bath immersion with chicken egg yolk containing anti-Aeromonas salmonicida IgY.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hongjian; He, Haiwen; Sato, Atsushi; Hatta, Hajime; Nakao, Miki; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2015-04-01

    Ulcer disease, caused by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, is a serious concern in ornamental koi carp, because it induces skin ulceration, disfiguring ornamental fish and causing economic loses. The present study aimed to establish a novel prophylaxis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgY, against ulcer disease and to assess its feasibility in the ornamental fish industry. Addition of egg yolk powder containing anti-A. salmonicida IgY to rearing water provided significant protection against an A. salmonicida bath infection, whereas administration of non-specific IgY did not. Consecutive immersion of fish into rearing water containing specific IgY completely prevented ulcer disease resulting from cohabitation infection, indicating that this prophylaxis could prevent infection from such type of contact. Thus, passive immunization induced by immersing fish into aquarium water containing specific IgY is a prospective prophylaxis against diseases caused by pathogens that invade the skin and gills. PMID:25687817

  10. Aeromonas salmonicida infection levels in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish assessed by culture and an amended qPCR assay.

    PubMed

    Gulla, S; Duodu, S; Nilsen, A; Fossen, I; Colquhoun, D J

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of 'cleaner fish' (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded. PMID:26514414

  11. Toll-like receptors in maraena whitefish: Evolutionary relationship among salmonid fishes and patterns of response to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Simone; Korytář, Tomáš; Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Nipkow, Mareen; Kühn, Carsten; Goldammer, Tom; Rebl, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) interact directly with particular pathogenic structures and are thus highly important to innate immunity. The present manuscript characterises a suite of 14 TLRs in maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena), a salmonid species with increasing importance for aquaculture. Whitefish TLRs were structurally and evolutionary analysed. The results revealed a close relationship with TLRs from salmonid fish species rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Profiling the baseline expression of TLR genes in whitefish indicated that mainly members of the TLR11 family were highly expressed across all investigated tissues. A stimulation model with inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida was used to induce inflammation in the peritoneal cavity of whitefish. This bacterial challenge induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and evoked a strong influx of granulated cells of myeloid origin into the peritoneal cavity. As a likely consequence, the abundance of TLR-encoding transcripts increased moderately in peritoneal cells, with the highest levels of transcripts encoding non-mammalian TLR22a and a soluble TLR5 variant. In the course of inflammation, the proportion of granulated cells increased in peripheral blood accompanied by elevated TLR copy numbers in spleen and simultaneously reduced TLR copy numbers in head kidney at day 3 post-stimulation. Altogether, the present study provides in-vivo evidence for relatively modest TLR response patterns, but marked trafficking of myeloid cells as an immunophysiological consequence of A. salmonicida inflammation in whitefish. The present results contribute to improved understanding of the host-pathogen interaction in salmonid fish. PMID:27131902

  12. Development of a PCR protocol for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish by amplification of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene.

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Magi, Gian Enrico; Balboa, Sabela; Barja, Juan L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2008-04-30

    The aims of the study were to evaluate a new PCR protocol designed to detect Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues and to develop a non-destructive method for the diagnosis of furunculosis. A set of primers (Fer3, Fer4), flanking a fragment of the fstA gene (coding for the ferric-siderophore receptor) was designed, showing to be sensitive and specific. When compared to PCR methods previously reported, the new protocol recognized all the 69 A. salmonicida strains evaluated, with no cross-reactions with the other bacterial species analysed. Sensitivity assays were performed in fish tissues seeded with serial dilutions of pure cultures of A. salmonicida and mixed cultures of this bacterium with Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila. Detection limits obtained were of 60 and 450 bacterial cells 100 mg(-1) of tissue, respectively. Mucus and blood were evaluated in order to develop a non-destructive tool to detect the pathogen. The detection limits in seeded mucus and blood samples were 2.5 x 10(2) and 1 x 10(5) bacterial cells mL(-1), respectively. When the method was used to detect A. salmonicida in asymptomatic wild salmon, four samples of mucus and six of blood were positive, corresponding to 6 out of the 31 fish examined, whereas only one of the samples resulted positive by culture methods. It is concluded that the PCR protocol evaluated is fast, specific and sensitive to detect A. salmonicida in infected and asymptomatic fish, and will be helpful for the control of the disease through the prompt detection of carriers within fish populations. PMID:18035507

  13. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; López, Nancy I.; Levin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34melT belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34melT are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34melT is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34melT to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment. PMID:26025898

  14. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E; López, Nancy I; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M Julia

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel(T) can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34mel(T) belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34mel(T) are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34mel(T) is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34mel(T) to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment. PMID:26025898

  15. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E; López, Nancy I; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M Julia

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel(T) can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34mel(T) belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34mel(T) are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34mel(T) is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34mel(T) to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment.

  16. Transcription Factor T-Bet in Atlantic Salmon: Characterization and Gene Expression in Mucosal Tissues during Aeromonas Salmonicida Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Jaya; Zhang, Zuobing; Swain, Trilochan; Chi, Heng; Niu, Cuijuan; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy Ambli

    2015-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor T-bet is expressed in a number of hematopoietic cell types in mammals and plays an essential role in the lineage determination of Th1 T-helper cells and is considered as an essential feature for both innate and adaptive immune responses in higher vertebrates. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the full-length Atlantic salmon T-bet cDNA (3502 bp). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence contained 612 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. Phylogenetic study and gene synteny revealed it is as a homolog to mammalian T-bet. Quantitative PCR analysis of different tissues in healthy fish showed that salmon T-bet gene was highly expressed in spleen, followed by head kidney, and was expressed in intestine, skin, and liver at lower levels. Moreover, the time-dependent expression profile of T-bet, interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin-22 (IL-22), and natural killer enhancement factor in mucosal tissues during water-borne infection with live Aeromonas salmonicida, indicated the involvement of T-bet in mucosal immune response in Atlantic salmon. PMID:26217339

  17. Application of an immunoaffinity-based preconcentration method for mass spectrometric analysis of the O-chain polysaccharide of Aeromonas salmonicida from in vitro- and in vivo-grown cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan; Liu, Xin; Garduño, Elizabeth; Garduño, Rafael A; Li, Jianjun; Altman, Eleonora

    2009-06-01

    In this study, application of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) coated with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide-specific polyclonal antisera to MS-based characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides has been evaluated. The results showed that the affinity-based preconcentration strategy resulted in at least a 100-fold increase in the detection of sensitivity, affording direct capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS analysis of A. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide O-chain polysaccharide from in vitro-cultured cells. Subsequent CE-MS analysis of in vivo-grown cells of A. salmonicida confirmed significant changes in the structure of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain polysaccharide as a result of in vivo cultivation. PMID:19456871

  18. Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Ford, L.A.; Smith, D.R.; Schachte, J.H.; Petrie, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (the cause of furunculosis disease) in covertly infected salmonids is difficult and is a cause of concern for those involved in fish health inspection and resource management programs. In this study, we examined populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that previously sustained natural episodes of furunculosis. Consequently, the sampled fish were presumed to harbor latent infections. Mucus, gill, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine samples (N = 100 fish per group sampled) were processed and examined by (1) direct dilution counts and (2) quadrant streaking after a 48-h pre-enrichment in trypticase soy broth (TSB). Another subsample of fish from each group was then subjected to stress-inducible furunculosis tests. Stress tests detected A. salmonicida in three of four groups of fish that were examined whereas the pathogen was detected in only two of the groups analyzed with culture-based assays. Although pre-enrichment in TSB enhanced detection within internal sampling sites including the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney, enrichment did not enhance detection from mucus, gill, or intestinal samples.

  19. Cloning of the gene for the surface array protein of Aeromonas salmonicida and evidence linking loss of expression with genetic deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Belland, R J; Trust, T J

    1987-01-01

    A gene bank of DNA from the fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida was constructed in the bacteriophage lambda gt11. Phage lambda gt11/10G, a recombinant carrying a 4.0-kilobase fragment of A. salmonicida DNA, was found to express the surface array protein (A protein) in Escherichia coli. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the protein expressed from the cloned gene had a subunit molecular weight of 49,000, which was identical to that of subunits in the native assembled A layer. Genomic Southern analysis showed that the gene coding for this predominant cellular protein was in a single copy on the chromosome and was conserved among a wide range of A. salmonicida strains with different phenotypic characteristics and isolated from diverse geographic locations, fish species, and means of pathogenesis. Results of genomic blotting experiments also showed that loss of expression of the A layer resulting from growth at 30 degrees C was accompanied by genetic rearrangement in which N-terminal sequences of the gene for A protein were lost by deletion. Images PMID:3040676

  20. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection, but it must be investigated in order to mitigate diseases without harmful effects to the fish. These agents should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of ...

  1. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful effects to fish. These agents should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aq...

  2. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture. PAA contributes to sustainable aquaculture, because it releases no harmful residue in the environment. However, there is lack of guideline about the effective application of different PAA products against various pathogens in p...

  3. Effects of dietary linseed oil on innate immune system of Eurasian perch and disease resistance after exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida achromogen.

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Douxfils, J; Larondelle, Y; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designated to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO diet) replacement by linseed oil (LO diet) on regulation of immune response and disease resistance in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). A control diet containing fish oil (FO = cod liver oil) and characterized by high levels of n-3 high LC-PUFA (6% EPA, 7.5% of total fatty acids (FAs)) was compared to linseed oil diet (LO diet) composed of low LC-PUFA contents (1% EPA, 2.3% DHA of total FAs) but high C18 fatty acids levels. The experiment was conducted in quadruplicate groups of 80 fish each. After 10 weeks of feeding, the innate immune status was evaluated in various organs (liver, spleen, and head-kidney) (feeding condition). Two days later, a bacterial challenge was performed on fish from 2 rearing conditions: fish infected with Aeromonas salmonicida (bacteria condition) and fish injected with sterile medium but maintained in the same flow system that fish challenged with bacteria (sentinel condition). Three days after injection of bacteria, a significant decrease of lymphocyte, thrombocyte and basophil populations was observed while neutrophils were not affected. In addition, plasma lysozyme activity and reactive oxygen species production in kidney significantly increased in fish challenged with A. salmonicida while the plasma alternative complement pathway activity was not affected. Increase of plasma lysozyme activity as well as reactive oxygen species production in spleen and kidney of sentinel fish suggest that these immune defenses can also be activated, but at lower bacteria concentration than infected fish. No differences in leucocyte populations, plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activities were observed between dietary treatments. Similarly, expression of genes related to eicosanoid synthesis in liver were not affected by the dietary oil source but were strongly stimulated in fish challenged with A. salmonicida. These findings demonstrated that the use of

  4. Identification of a cyprinid fish, the tench Tinca tinca L., as a carrier of the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Bernoth, E M; Körting, W

    1992-10-01

    A typical, pigment-producing strain of Aeromonas salmonicida (A. sal.), the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish species, was isolated from a cyprinid species, the tench Tinca tinca L. with papilloma-like skin alterations. Histopathology of the papilloma-like skin alterations in tench revealed "round holes", distinctly lined by thick layers of epithelial cells, but no bacteria. The organism was isolated from skin, gills and fins, but not internal organs. The isolate proved highly virulent for both juvenile tench and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in experimental infection, but it did not reproduce the clinical picture. The causative role of A. sal. for the surface lesions remains questionable. However, there is a perceived risk of the organism's transmission between tench and other susceptible species of fish, especially farmed trout. PMID:1462724

  5. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  6. Modulation of host immune defenses by Aeromonas and Yersinia species: convergence on toxins secreted by various secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    Like other pathogenic bacteria, Yersinia and Aeromonas species have been continuously co-evolving with their respective hosts. Although the former is a bonafide human pathogen, the latter has gained notararity as an emerging disease-causing agent. In response to immune cell challenges, bacterial pathogens have developed diverse mechanism(s) enabling their survival, and, at times, dominance over various host immune defense systems. The bacterial type three secretion system (T3SS) is evolutionarily derived from flagellar subunits and serves as a vehicle by which microbes can directly inject/translocate anti-host factors/effector proteins into targeted host immune cells. A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens possess a T3SS empowering them to disrupt host cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton re-arrangements, and even to induce host-cell apoptotic and pyroptotic pathways. All pathogenic yersiniae and most Aeromonas species possess a T3SS, but they also possess T2- and T6-secreted toxins/effector proteins. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which the T3SS effectors Yersinia outer membrane protein J (YopJ) and an Aeromonas hydrophila AexU protein, isolated from the diarrheal isolate SSU, mollify host immune system defenses. Additionally, the mechanisms that are associated with host cell apoptosis/pyroptosis by Aeromonas T2SS secreted Act, a cytotoxic enterotoxin, and Hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp), an A. hydrophila T6SS effector, will also be discussed. PMID:24199174

  7. Functional Genomics of the Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen and A-Layer from Typical and Atypical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; de Mendoza, Elena; Canals, Rocío; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    The A. salmonicida A450 LPS O-antigen, encoded by the wbsalmo gene cluster, is exported through an ABC-2 transporter-dependent pathway. It represents the first example of an O-antigen LPS polysaccharide with three different monosaccharides in their repeating unit assembled by this pathway. Until now, only repeating units with one or two different monosaccharides have been described. Functional genomic analysis of this wbsalmo region is mostly in agreement with the LPS O-antigen structure of acetylated l-rhamnose (Rha), d-glucose (Glc), and 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-mannose (ManN). Between genes of the wbsalmo we found the genes responsible for the biosynthesis and assembly of the S-layer (named A-layer in these strains). Through comparative genomic analysis and in-frame deletions of some of the genes, we concluded that all the A. salmonicida typical and atypical strains, other than A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains, shared the same wbsalmo and presence of A-layer. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains lack wbsalmo and A-layer, two major virulence factors, and this could be the reason they are the only ones not found as fish pathogens. PMID:26082990

  8. Innate and adaptive immune responses of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus, L.) during infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the AsaP1 toxin.

    PubMed

    Schwenteit, Johanna M; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Koppang, Erling O; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Fischer, Uwe; Gudmundsdottir, Bjarnheidur K

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, the causative agent of atypical furunculosis in many fish species, secretes the toxic metalloendopeptidase AsaP1. This study aimed to analyze innate and adaptive immune parameters induced in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus, L.) infected with wild type (wt) A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and its isogenic asaP1 deletion mutant (AsaP1-deficient). Head-kidney, liver and spleen were obtained from i.p. infected charr (wt, AsaP1-deficient), during a time schedule of 7 d post infection. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was applied to study the expression of immune parameters: pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α; anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; chemokines CXCL-8 (IL-8) and CC-chemokine; the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4/13A as tracers for Th1 and Th2 immune responses, respectively; and the cell markers CD8α and CD83. In addition, lymphoid organs were histopathologically examined at days 3 and 7 post infection, including B (IgM) and T (CD3ε) cell staining. The detected immune responses were initially driven by innate mechanisms represented by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and later on by adaptive Th2 related responses cumulating in B-cell recruitment as shown by regulation of immune parameters in spleen and head-kidney, with significant differences between mutant and wt infected fish. Histological sections revealed IgM-positive cells around ellipsoid arterioles in spleen, while CD3ε positive cells were found in clusters scattered all over the section. However, histopathological differences were only detected between infected and non-infected fish, but not between AsaP1-deficient mutant and wt infected fish. This work represents the first study on innate and adaptive immune responses of Arctic charr induced by a bacterial infection. PMID:23811350

  9. Quantitative expression (Walbaum) of immunological factors in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), after infection with either Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida, or infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Overturf, K; LaPatra, S

    2006-04-01

    To further enhance our understanding of immunological gene expression in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, after infection with naturally occurring pathogens, a series of probes and primers were developed for the quantification of immune factors. Separate groups of specific-pathogen-free rainbow trout were infected with either Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida or infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Three different concentrations of each pathogen were used and samples from infected and mock-infected fish were taken at either 1 or 5 days after infection. Ten fish were sampled at each time point for individual sections of liver, spleen and head kidney. Organ specimens from five of the fish were used to re-isolate and quantify the pathogen at the time the samples were taken. Total RNA was extracted from the organs of the remaining five animals. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction with fluorescent-labelled probes, the RNA from these organs was examined for the level of expression of the following immunological factors; an interferon related protein (MX-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), the cytotoxic T-cell marker CD-8 and complement factor C3 (C3). They were also measured for the level of beta-actin, which was used as a standardization control for cellular RNA expression. Infection with IHNV produced the greatest change in expression level for all the immunological related factors examined in this study. IHNV elicited the best dose response profile, which was typically seen at 5-days post-infection for MX-1, C3, IL-8 and CD-8. Infection with A. salmonicida and F. psychrophilum showed elevated, but variable expression levels for several of the genes tested.

  10. Aeromonas salmonicida Infection Only Moderately Regulates Expression of Factors Contributing to Toll-Like Receptor Signaling but Massively Activates the Cellular and Humoral Branches of Innate Immunity in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Brietzke, Andreas; Korytář, Tomáš; Jaros, Joanna; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Rebl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to detect a defined spectrum of microbial structures. However, the knowledge about the specificity of teleost Tlr factors for distinct pathogens is limited so far. We measured baseline expression profiles of 18 tlr genes and associated signaling factors in four immune-relevant tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida induced highly increased levels of cytokine mRNAs during a 72-hour postinfection (hpi) period. In contrast, only the fish-specific tlr22a2 and the downstream factor irak1 featured clearly increased transcript levels, while the mRNA concentrations of many other tlr genes decreased. Flow cytometry quantified cell trafficking after infection indicating a dramatic influx of myeloid cells into the peritoneum and a belated low level immigration of lymphoid cells. T and B lymphocytes were differentiated with RT-qPCR revealing that B lymphocytes emigrated from and T lymphocytes immigrated into head kidney. In conclusion, no specific TLR can be singled out as a dominant receptor for A. salmonicida. The recruitment of cellular factors of innate immunity rather than induced expression of pathogen receptors is hence of key importance for mounting a first immune defense against invading A. salmonicida. PMID:26266270

  11. Aeromonas salmonicida Infection Only Moderately Regulates Expression of Factors Contributing to Toll-Like Receptor Signaling but Massively Activates the Cellular and Humoral Branches of Innate Immunity in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Brietzke, Andreas; Korytář, Tomáš; Jaros, Joanna; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Rebl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to detect a defined spectrum of microbial structures. However, the knowledge about the specificity of teleost Tlr factors for distinct pathogens is limited so far. We measured baseline expression profiles of 18 tlr genes and associated signaling factors in four immune-relevant tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida induced highly increased levels of cytokine mRNAs during a 72-hour postinfection (hpi) period. In contrast, only the fish-specific tlr22a2 and the downstream factor irak1 featured clearly increased transcript levels, while the mRNA concentrations of many other tlr genes decreased. Flow cytometry quantified cell trafficking after infection indicating a dramatic influx of myeloid cells into the peritoneum and a belated low level immigration of lymphoid cells. T and B lymphocytes were differentiated with RT-qPCR revealing that B lymphocytes emigrated from and T lymphocytes immigrated into head kidney. In conclusion, no specific TLR can be singled out as a dominant receptor for A. salmonicida. The recruitment of cellular factors of innate immunity rather than induced expression of pathogen receptors is hence of key importance for mounting a first immune defense against invading A. salmonicida. PMID:26266270

  12. Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss metabolic rate is affected by dietary Aloe vera inclusion but not by mounting an immune response against formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, F S; Urbinati, E C; Nash, G W; Gamperl, A K

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen consumption (MO2) of two groups of 10° C acclimated steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was measured for 72 h after they were given a 100 µl kg(-1) intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish from both groups prior to, and 1 and 3 h after, they were given a 30 s net stress. The first group was fed an unaltered commercial diet for 4 weeks, whereas the second group was fed the same diet but with 0·5% (5 g kg(-1) ) Aloe vera powder added; A. vera has potential as an immunostimulant for use in aquaculture, but its effects on basal and acute phase response (APR)-related metabolic expenditures and stress physiology, are unknown. Injection of ASAL v. PBS had no measurable effect on the MO2 of O. mykiss indicating that the APR in this species is not associated with any net increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, incorporating 0·5% A. vera powder into the feed decreased routine metabolic rate by c. 8% in both injection groups and standard metabolic rate in the ASAL-injected group (by c. 4 mg O2 kg(-1) h(-1) ; 5%). Aloe vera fed fish had resting cortisol levels that were approximately half of those in fish on the commercial diet (c. 2·5 v. 5·0 ng ml(-1) ), but neither this difference nor those post-stress reached statistical significance (P > 0·05).

  13. Inhibitory activity of monoacylglycerols on biofilm formation in Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus mutans, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Ham, Youngseok; Kim, Tae-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm provides a bacterial hiding place by forming a physical barrier and causing physiological changes in cells. The elimination of biofilm is the main goal of hygiene. Chemicals that are inhibitory to biofilm formation have been developed for use in food, personal hygiene products, and medical instruments. Monoacylglycerols are recognized as safe and are used in food as emulsifiers. In this study, the inhibitory activity of monoacylglycerols on bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated systematically with four bacterial strains, Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus mutans, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Monoacylglycerols with two specific lengths of fatty acid moiety, monolaurin and monobehenin, were found to have strong inhibitory activity toward bacterial biofilm formation of S. mutans, X. oryzae, and Y. enterocolitica in a strain specific manner. First, this result suggested that biofilm formation was not inhibited by the detergent characteristics of monoacylglycerols. This suggestion was supported by the inhibitory action of monolaurin on biofilm development but not on the initial cell attachment of Y. enterocolitica in flow cytometric observation. Second, it was also suggested that two distinct response mechanisms to monoacylglycerols existed in bacteria. The existence of these two inhibitory response mechanisms was bacterial strain specific. PMID:27652099

  14. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  15. Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Renibacterium salmoninarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, Lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. Burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by immersion and to Aeromonas salmonici...

  16. Inhibition by chestnut honey of N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactones and biofilm formation in Erwinia carotovora, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Allende, Ana

    2009-12-01

    Bacteria are able to communicate and coordinate certain processes using small secreted signaling molecules called autoinducers. This phenomenon, known as "quorum sensing" (QS), may be essential for the synchronization of virulence factors as well as biofilm development. The interruption of bacterial QS is acknowledged to attenuate virulence and considered to be a potential new therapy to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) have been identified as the main bacterial signaling molecules in Gram-negative bacteria. This study evaluates the capacity of chestnut honey and its aqueous and methanolic extracts to inhibit bacterial AHL-controlled processes in Erwinia carotovora , Yersinia enterocolitica , and Aeromonas hydrophila . This study is the first in applying liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to determine the QS inhibitory activity of honey against pathogenic bacteria. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants confirmed the presence of three main AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) in E. carotovora and Y. enterocolitica and N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) in A. hydrophila. The effect of chestnut honey and its aqueous and methanolic extracts (0.2 g/mL) on AHL concentration and biofilm formation in bacterial cultures was determined. The obtained results revealed their potential use as QS inhibitors or regulators of the degradation of QS signals, with the methanolic extract showing less inhibitory capacity. Thus, the QS inhibitory activity of chestnut honey seems to be related to the aqueous phase, suggesting that the carbohydrate fraction contains an antipathogenic substance responsible for the inhibitory activity.

  17. Enterotoxigenicity of aeromonas strains in suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Jánossy, G; Tarján, V

    1980-01-01

    The enterotoxigenicity of 170 Aeromonas strains isolated from different sources (food poisoning, random food sampling, water, faeces) was examined by the suckling mouse test. The strains were grown on Syncaye culture medium covered with sterilized membrane for Kiil-kidney. The culture supernatants were inoculated orally. Ileal loop dilatation was compared to that produced by the international standard enterotoxic Escherichia coli B7A (O148 : H28) and B2C (O6 : H16) strains. Of the 87 Aeromonas hydrophila strains 69, of the 76 Aeromonas punctate subsp. caviae strains 9, the 6 Aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata strains 5, and 1 Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes gave a positive reaction in the test.

  18. Molecular Basis of Sulfonamide and Trimethoprim Resistance in Fish-Pathogenic Aeromonas Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kadlec, Kristina; von Czapiewski, Ellen; Kaspar, Heike; Wallmann, Jürgen; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Steinacker, Ulrike; Schwarz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide-trimethoprim-resistant Aeromonas salmonicida and motile Aeromonas spp. from diseased fish of the GERM-Vet study carried the sul1 gene together with mostly cassette-borne trimethoprim resistance genes, including the novel gene dfrA28. The seven dfrA and dfrB genes identified were located mostly in class 1 integrons which commonly harbored other gene cassettes. PMID:21764945

  19. Characterisation of Aeromonas spp. isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro-Escarpulli, G; Figueras, M J; Aguilera-Arreola, G; Soler, L; Fernández-Rendón, E; Aparicio, G O; Guarro, J; Chacón, M R

    2003-07-15

    A total of 82 strains of presumptive Aeromonas spp. were identified biochemically and genetically (16S rDNA-RFLP). The strains were isolated from 250 samples of frozen fish (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) purchased in local markets in Mexico City. In the present study, we detected the presence of several genes encoding for putative virulence factors and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in bacterial infection. In addition, we studied the antimicrobial patterns of those strains. Molecular identification demonstrated that the prevalent species in frozen fish were Aeromonas salmonicida (67.5%) and Aeromonas bestiarum (20.9%), accounting for 88.3% of the isolates, while the other strains belonged to the species Aeromonas veronii (5.2%), Aeromonas encheleia (3.9%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (2.6%). Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genes encoding putative virulence factors common in Aeromonas, such as aerolysin/hemolysin, lipases including the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT), serine protease and DNases, revealed that they were all common in these strains. Our results showed that first generation quinolones and second and third generation cephalosporins were the drugs with the best antimicrobial effect against Aeromonas spp. In Mexico, there have been few studies on Aeromonas and its putative virulence factors. The present work therefore highlights an important incidence of Aeromonas spp., with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance, isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico City. PMID:12781953

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture shows the organism Yersinia enterocolitica . Yersinia organisms cause a wide range of disease but are most often associated with diarrhea or gastrointestinal symptoms. Yersinia infection ...

  1. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  2. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  3. Isolation of a pigment-producing strain of Aeromonas liquefaciens from silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1962-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, is distinctive in the field of fish diseases in that it may readily be recognized by the water-soluble reddish-brown pigment formed on culture media containing tyrosine. Additional tests for the identification of this organism include blackening of the colonial growth when flooded with an aqueous solution of p-phenylenediamine and a lack of motility (Griffin, Progressive Fish Culturist 14:74, 1952).

  4. Hydrogenosomes in the diplomonad Spironucleus salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Einarsson, Elin; Xu, Feifei; Hjort, Karin; Ek, Bo; Steinhauf, Daniel; Hultenby, Kjell; Bergquist, Jonas; Andersson, Jan O.; Svärd, Staffan G.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of the mitochondrion is a key event in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, but diversification of the organelle has occurred during eukaryotic evolution. One example of such mitochondria-related organelles (MROs) are hydrogenosomes, which produce ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation with hydrogen as a byproduct. The diplomonad parasite Giardia intestinalis harbours mitosomes, another type of MRO. Here we identify MROs in the salmon parasite Spironucleus salmonicida with similar protein import and Fe–S cluster assembly machineries as in Giardia mitosomes. We find that hydrogen production is prevalent in the diplomonad genus Spironucleus, and that S. salmonicida MROs contain enzymes characteristic of hydrogenosomes. Evolutionary analyses of known hydrogenosomal components indicate their presence in the diplomonad ancestor, and subsequent loss in Giardia. Our results suggest that hydrogenosomes are metabolic adaptations predating the split between parabasalids and diplomonads, which is deeper than the split between animals and fungi in the eukaryotic tree. PMID:24042146

  5. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  6. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish.

  7. The genus Yersinia

    SciTech Connect

    Prpic, J.K.; Davey, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International symposium on Yersinia. The topics covered include: Cloning and use of Vwa plasmid DNA as gene probes for virulent Yersiniae; Studies on the role of virulence determinants of Yersinia enterocolitica in gnotobiotic piglets; and significance of specific IgA antibodies in infections due to Yersinia enterocolitica and their complications.

  8. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  9. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  10. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  11. Temperate bacteriophage {phi}O18P from an Aeromonas media isolate: Characterization and complete genome sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Beilstein, Frauke

    2008-03-30

    A group of 74 Aeromonas isolates from surface water of three ponds in Bielefeld, Germany was screened for prophage induction after UV irradiation. The phage {phi}O18P was induced from the Aeromonas media isolate O18. {phi}O18P belongs to the Myoviridae phage family. The complete nucleotide sequence of the double stranded DNA genome of bacteriophage {phi}O18P consists of 33,985 bp. The genome has 5' protruding cohesive ends of 16 bases. On the {phi}O18P genome 46 open reading frames (orfs) were identified which are organized in the modules integration and regulation, replication, head, packaging, tail and lysis. Additionally the phage DNA includes a methylase gene. Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of Aeromonas from "alheira," a traditional Portuguese meat product.

    PubMed

    Fontes, M C; Martins, C; Martínez-Murcia, A J; Saavedra, M J

    2012-08-01

    "Alheira" is a traditional smoked meat sausage produced in the north of Portugal, representing an important economic resource for the region. This meat product has been subjected to research studies with the aim of detecting the presence of common foodborne pathogens, but, to our knowledge, isolation of emerging foodborne Aeromonas from alheira has never been previously described. Present work attempts to evaluate the Aeromonas species diversity of 84 isolates of Aeromonas spp. collected from 32 alheira samples. All presumptive Aeromonas isolates were subjected to genotyping by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The isolates presenting a different pattern were subjected to gyrB gene sequencing for species classification, and the species A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, A. caviae, A. media, and A. allosaccharophila were identified. The Aeromonas species diversity found has not been previously described in any other meat product evaluated in previous studies. It is also important to highlight the presence of A. hydrophila and A. caviae because they were previously associated with illness in humans, including gastroenteritis.

  13. Chironomids' Relationship with Aeromonas Species.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects' egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects' endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect's egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  14. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions—exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism. PMID:26710336

  15. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  16. Identification and epidemiological relationships of Aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea, drinking water and foods.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M; Huys, G; Cnockaert, M; Rodríguez-Calleja, J M; Otero, A; Santos, J A; García-López, M L

    2011-06-30

    A collection of Aeromonas isolates obtained over a three-year period in the same geographic area (León, NW of Spain) was characterized by (GTG)₅-PCR fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and gyrB gene sequence analysis. The isolates originated from human diarrheal stools (29 isolates), potable water (13 isolates), rabbit meat (13 isolates) and marine fish (5 isolates). The distribution of Aeromonas species varied with the strain source. Aeromonas caviae HG4 and Aeromonas media HG5 were predominant in clinical and water isolates, respectively, whereas motile Aeromonas salmonicida HG3 strains were most frequently found in fish and meat. Molecular typing revealed several genotypic relationships among specific isolate subsets: (i) two clones of A. media HG5 persisted in drinking water over the study period, (ii) different patients harbored identical or closely related clones during several months, and (iii) clonal relatedness was observed in two sets of water and human isolates. The first of these sets comprised nine water isolates and two human A. media HG5 isolates, whereas the other one included a water isolate and a human isolate of A. caviae HG4. The latter finding suggests that Aeromonas transmission in the studied region followed a waterborne route. Interestingly, the three human isolates closely related to water isolates were recovered in a period of four days in June 2006 from non-related patients without underlying medical conditions that tested negative for other enteric pathogens. The data imply the transmission through contaminated water of strains of the A. caviae group that can produce disease in humans.

  17. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  18. Chironomids’ Relationship with Aeromonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  19. Genetic and biochemical characterization of TRU-1, the endogenous class C beta-lactamase from Aeromonas enteropelogenes.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Filomena; Giraud-Morin, Chantal; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Fosse, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    Aeromonas enteropelogenes (formerly A. tructi) was described to be an ampicillin-susceptible and cephalothin-resistant Aeromonas species, which suggests the production of a cephalosporinase. Strain ATCC 49803 was susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem but resistant to cefazolin (MICs of 2, 0.032, 0.125, and >256 microg/ml, respectively) and produced an inducible beta-lactamase. Cefotaxime-resistant mutants (MIC, 32 microg/ml) that showed constitutive beta-lactamase production could be selected in vitro. The gene coding for the cephalosporinase of A. enteropelogenes ATCC 49803 was cloned, and its biochemical properties were investigated. Escherichia coli transformants showing resistance to various beta-lactams carried a 3.5-kb plasmid insert whose sequence revealed a 1,146-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a class C beta-lactamase, named TRU-1, showing the highest identity scores with A. punctata CAV-1 (75%), A. salmonicida AmpC (75%), and A. hydrophila CepH (71%). The bla(TRU-1) locus includes open reading frames (ORFs) showing significant homology with genes found in the genomes of other Aeromonas species, although it exhibits a different organization, as reflected by the presence of additional ORFs located downstream of the beta-lactamase gene in the A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida genomes. Specific PCR assays were negative for cphA-like and bla(OXA-12)-like genes in three A. enteropelogenes ATCC strains. Purified TRU-1 showed a broad substrate profile, efficiently hydrolyzing benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, and, although with significantly lower turnover rates, oxyiminocephalosporins. Cephaloridine and cefepime were poorly recognized by the enzyme, as reflected by the high K(m) values observed with these substrates. Thus far, A. enteropelogenes represents the only known example of an Aeromonas species that produces only one beta-lactamase belonging to molecular class C. PMID:20124004

  20. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas strains from various retail food products in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2011-09-01

    A total of 154 food samples (chicken, fish, and ready-to-eat sprouts) from various retail outlets in Mumbai, India, were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas spp. over a period of 2 y (January 2006 to March 2008). Twenty-two Aeromonas isolates belonging to 7 different species were isolated from 18 (11.7%) food samples. The highest percentages of isolation were from chicken (28.6%) followed by fish (20%) and sprout (2.5%) samples. Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii bv. sobria, and A. salmonicida were the most frequently isolated species from sprouts, chicken, and fish samples, respectively. The genes encoding for putative virulence factors, cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), hemolysin (hly), aerolysin (aer), elastase (ahyB), and lipase (lip) were detected using polymerase chain reaction method in 59.1%, 40.9%, 22.7%, 54.5%, and 31.8% of the strains, respectively. The isolated Aeromonas strains were found to be positive for virulence factors, that is, amylase, DNase, gelatinase, protease, and lipase production. More than 60% isolates were also positive for β-hemolytic activity. All these food isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin, and sensitive to gentamicin, 3rd-generation cephalosporins (ceftazidime, cephotaxime, ceftriaxone), and chloramphenicol. Seventeen (77.2%) isolates harbored single and/or multiple plasmids (approximately 5 to >16 kb). The XbaI digestion patterns of chromosomal DNA of these isolates, using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, showed high genetic diversity among these isolates. Our results demonstrate the presence of various Aeromonas spp. with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance in different food products marketed in Mumbai, India. The potential health risks posed by consumption of these raw or undercooked food products should not be underestimated.

  1. The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  2. Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila Magalhães; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes; Mendonça, Kamila Vieira; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana

    2014-12-15

    The main objective of this study was to quantify population and identify culturable species of Aeromonas in sediment and surface water collected along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Thirty sediment samples and 30 water samples were collected from 3 sampling locations (A, B and C) between October 2007 and April 2008. The Aeromonas count was 10-7050CFU/mL (A), 25-38,500CFU/mL (B) and<10CFU/mL (C) for water samples, and ∼100-37,500CFU/g (A), 1200-43,500CFU/g (B) and<10CFU/g (C) for sediment samples. Five species (Aeromonas caviae, A. sobria, A. trota, A. salmonicida and A. allosaccharophila) were identified among 41 isolates. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone, whereas 33 (80, 4%) strains were resistant to at least 2 of the 9 antibiotics tested. Resistance to erythromycin was mostly plasmidial. In conclusion, due to pollution, the Cocó River is contaminated by pathogenic strains of Aeromonas spp. with a high incidence of antibacterial resistance, posing a serious risk to human health.

  3. Yersinia aleksiciae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2005-03-01

    Yersinia kristensenii consists of phenotypically heterogeneous strains. This is reflected by the existence of strains with various multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequence types. Strains originally phenotyped as members of Y. kristensenii were studied using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, determination of the DNA base composition and various phenotypic tests. The results were compared to those of Yersinia type strains. Based on levels of DNA-DNA relatedness, a specific 16S rRNA gene sequence type and the presence of lysine decarboxylase activity, a novel species, Yersinia aleksiciae sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is Y159(T) (=WA758(T)=DSM 14987(T)=LMG 22254(T)).

  4. Characterization of Aeromonas strains isolated from Indian foods using rpoD gene sequencing and whole cell protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2013-04-01

    Aeromonas are responsible for causing gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Twenty-two Aeromonas strains isolated from different food sources were re-identified up to species level using rpoD gene sequence analysis. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were insufficient to identify Aeromonas till species level. However, incorporation of additional biochemical tests lead to correct identification of 95.5 % strains up to species level. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was useful to identify Aeromonas isolates at the genus level only. Sequences of the rpoD gene showed greater discriminatory power than 16S rRNA gene and provided conclusive discrimination of the strains for which the phenotypic species identification was uncertain. All these 22 strains were accurately identified up to species level by rpoD gene as A. salmonicida (6), A. veronii bv. veronii (4), A. caviae (3), A. hydrophila (2), A. veronii bv. sobria (2), A. jandaei (1), A. trota (1), A. sobria (1), A. allosaccharophila (1) and A. bivalvium (1). All these strains were also characterized using whole cell protein (WCP) analysis by gradient SDS-PAGE and showed different whole cell protein (WCP) profile [22-28 polypeptide bands (~10 to >97 kDa)], indicating high genetic diversity. The present work emphasizes the use of molecular methods such as rpoD gene sequencing along with comprehensive biochemical tests for the rapid and accurate identification of Aeromonas isolates till species level. The WCP profile can be subsequently used to characterize Aeromonas isolates below species level.

  5. [Detection of the first QnrS gene positivity in aquatic Aeromonas spp. isolates in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Tanrıverdi Çaycı, Yeliz; Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Çiftci, Alper; Balta, Fikri; Didinen, Behire Işıl; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Altun, Soner; Söğüt Ünlü, Mehtap; Deveci, Aydın

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are oxidase positive, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacilli that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. A.hydrophila, A.sobria and A.bestiarum may cause severe infections in both human and cold-blooded animals. Environmental persistance of quinolones that are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine plays an important role in the selection of resistant mutants. Plasmid-mediated resistance is one of the main mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance, and qnr, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB genes are identified as resistance determinants. Determination of various types of qnr gene in different bacteria mainly in Enterobacteriaceae, suggests that they are widely distributed in nature. Recently, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was defined among Aeromonas species isolated from water. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of qnr genes among aquatic Aeromonas spp. in Turkey. A total of 45 Aeromonas strains isolated from water and fishes collected from three different geographical regions (Aegean, Mediterranean and Blacksea) in Turkey, were included in the study. The isolates were identified at species level by the use of 16S rDNA-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR). Among the isolates, 20 were identified as A.sobria, 10 as A.hydrophila, nine as A.salmonicida, four as A.bestiarum and two as A.veronii. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrS genes, were investigated by M-PCR, and sequence analysis was performed for nine qnr-positive isolates. According to the sequence analysis of the genes, qnr genes were characterized in six A.sobria, in two A.bestiarum and in one A.hydrophila isolate (9/45; 20%). When the sequence was compared with GenBank database, this gene was found as qnrS2. All qnrS-positive Aeromonas spp. isolates were ciprofloxacin-susceptible, while five of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  6. The FlgT Protein Is Involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Polar Flagella Stability and Not Affects Anchorage of Lateral Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila sodium-driven polar flagellum has a complex stator-motor. Consist of two sets of redundant and non-exchangeable proteins (PomA/PomB and PomA2/PomB2), which are homologs to other sodium-conducting polar flagellum stator motors; and also two essential proteins (MotX and MotY), that they interact with one of those two redundant pairs of proteins and form the T-ring. In this work, we described an essential protein for polar flagellum stability and rotation which is orthologs to Vibrio spp. FlgT and it is encoded outside of the A. hydrophila polar flagellum regions. The flgT was present in all mesophilic Aeromonas strains tested and also in the non-motile Aeromonas salmonicida. The A. hydrophila ΔflgT mutant is able to assemble the polar flagellum but is more unstable and released into the culture supernatant from the cell upon completion assembly. Presence of FlgT in purified polar hook-basal bodies (HBB) of wild-type strain was confirmed by Western blotting and electron microscopy observations showed an outer ring of the T-ring (H-ring) which is not present in the ΔflgT mutant. Anchoring and motility of proton-driven lateral flagella was not affected in the ΔflgT mutant and specific antibodies did not detect FlgT in purified lateral HBB of wild type strain. PMID:27507965

  7. Aeromonas hydrophila septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Patrick J; Mueller, William P

    2011-12-01

    Septic arthritis is a serious, life and limb threatening infection. If suspected, empiric treatment must begin immediately and account for the most likely pathogens. Eight days following left knee arthroscopic surgery, a 51-year-old active duty male spent approximately 1 hour driving a personal watercraft on Okaloosa Bay near the Gulf of Mexico. Eight days later, he presented to the emergency room with septic arthritis of that knee. Fluid aspirated from the joint yielded Aeromonas hydrophila. The infection resolved with surgical drainage and 21 days of levofloxacin. A. hydrophila is a rare cause of septic arthritis, and reported cases have involved exposure to water after trauma to the affected joint. Many U.S. military bases are located in coastal areas and military members frequently participate in activities which compromise skin integrity and place them at increased risk for contracting waterborne infections. We present the ninth case of A. hydrophila septic arthritis described in the English language literature, highlight the importance of considering this pathogen in at-risk populations, and review the diagnosis and management of septic arthritis.

  8. Salmonella, Shigella, and yersinia.

    PubMed

    Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the United States each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent but also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classic methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction show great promise for routine clinical testing.

  9. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  10. Ribosomal multi-operon diversity: an original perspective on the genus Aeromonas.

    PubMed

    Roger, Frédéric; Lamy, Brigitte; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Kodjo, Angeli; Marchandin, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    16S rRNA gene (rrs) is considered of low taxonomic interest in the genus Aeromonas. Here, 195 Aeromonas strains belonging to populations structured by multilocus phylogeny were studied using an original approach that considered Ribosomal Multi-Operon Diversity. This approach associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess rrn operon number and distribution across the chromosome and PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) to assess rrs V3 region heterogeneity. Aeromonads harbored 8 to 11 rrn operons, 10 operons being observed in more than 92% of the strains. Intraspecific variability was low or nul except for A. salmonicida and A. aquariorum suggesting that large chromosomic rearrangements might occur in these two species while being extremely rarely encountered in the evolution of other taxa. rrn operon number at 8 as well as PFGE patterns were shown valuable for taxonomic purpose allowing resolution of species complexes. PCR-TTGE revealed a high rate of strains (41.5%) displaying intragenomic rrs heterogeneity. Strains isolated from human samples more frequently displayed intragenomic heterogeneity than strains recovered from non-human and environmental specimens. Intraspecific variability ranged from 0 to 76.5% of the strains. The observation of species-specific TTGE bands, the recovery of identical V3 regions in different species and the variability of intragenomic heterogeneity (1-13 divergent nucleotides) supported the occurrence of mutations and horizontal transfer in aeromonad rrs evolution. Altogether, the presence of a high number of rrn operon, the high proportion of strains harboring divergent rrs V3 region and the previously demonstrated high level of genetic diversity argued in favor of highly adaptative capabilities of aeromonads. Outstanding features observed for A. caviae supported the ongoing process of adaptation to a specialized niche represented by the gut, previously hypothesized. 16S rRNA gene is an informative marker

  11. Ribosomal Multi-Operon Diversity: An Original Perspective on the Genus Aeromonas

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Frédéric; Lamy, Brigitte; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Kodjo, Angeli; F., Carmagnol; E., Chachaty; C., Alba-Sauviat; C., Auvray; D., Barraud; Z., Benseddik; A., Bertrou; F., Bessis; H., Biessy; V., Blanc; Y., Boucaud-Maitre; P., Brunet; A., Michel; B., Cancet; J., Carrere; A., Cecille; G., Chambreuil; P., Chantelat; H., Chardon; C., Charrel; H., De Montclos; J.W., Decousser; J. M., Delarbre; A., Gravet; D., Deligne; C., Denoix; J., Deregnaucourt; F., Desroys du Roure; S., Dubourdieu; Z., El Harrif; C., Eloy; A., Evers; C., Febvre; D., Fevre; S., Gabriel; M. J., Galanti; E., Garnotel; M., Gavignet; F., Geffroy; G., Grise; I., Gros; I., Hermes; J., Heurte; E., Heusse; D., Jan; E., Jaouen; S., Laluque; R., Lamarca; Laurens, E.; A., Le Coustumier; E., Lecaillon; C., Lemble; M., Leneveu; S., Leotard; M. N., Letouzey; C., Malbrunot; O., Menouni; M., Morel; C., Olive; B., Pangon; J. G., Paul; J. M., Perez; P., Pouedras; D., Pressac; R., Sanchez; Y., Scat; A., Secher; J., Semon; D., Simeon; C., Simonin; J. P., Thellier; B., Tourand; A., Vachée; C., Varache; J., Vaucel; A. C., Vautrin; A., Verhaeghe; M., Villemain; L., Villeneuve; Marchandin, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    16S rRNA gene (rrs) is considered of low taxonomic interest in the genus Aeromonas. Here, 195 Aeromonas strains belonging to populations structured by multilocus phylogeny were studied using an original approach that considered Ribosomal Multi-Operon Diversity. This approach associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess rrn operon number and distribution across the chromosome and PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) to assess rrs V3 region heterogeneity. Aeromonads harbored 8 to 11 rrn operons, 10 operons being observed in more than 92% of the strains. Intraspecific variability was low or nul except for A. salmonicida and A. aquariorum suggesting that large chromosomic rearrangements might occur in these two species while being extremely rarely encountered in the evolution of other taxa. rrn operon number at 8 as well as PFGE patterns were shown valuable for taxonomic purpose allowing resolution of species complexes. PCR-TTGE revealed a high rate of strains (41.5%) displaying intragenomic rrs heterogeneity. Strains isolated from human samples more frequently displayed intragenomic heterogeneity than strains recovered from non-human and environmental specimens. Intraspecific variability ranged from 0 to 76.5% of the strains. The observation of species-specific TTGE bands, the recovery of identical V3 regions in different species and the variability of intragenomic heterogeneity (1–13 divergent nucleotides) supported the occurrence of mutations and horizontal transfer in aeromonad rrs evolution. Altogether, the presence of a high number of rrn operon, the high proportion of strains harboring divergent rrs V3 region and the previously demonstrated high level of genetic diversity argued in favor of highly adaptative capabilities of aeromonads. Outstanding features observed for A. caviae supported the ongoing process of adaptation to a specialized niche represented by the gut, previously hypothesized. 16S rRNA gene is an informative

  12. Evaluation of a Modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar for Isolation of Yersinia spp

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung; Carniel, Elisabeth; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (104 cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria. PMID:25170941

  13. Evaluation of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin agar for isolation of Yersinia spp.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung; Carniel, Elisabeth; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (10(4) cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria. PMID:25170941

  14. Aeromonas hydrophila bacteraemia and portal pyaemia.

    PubMed

    Tulsidas, H; Ong, Y Y; Chan, K C

    2008-04-01

    The Aeromonas species uncommonly cause disease in humans. We report portal pyaemia secondary to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteraemia occurring in a 71-year-old Chinese man with no history of hepatobiliary disease or malignancy. He presented with fever, rigors and abdominal bloating for four days and was subsequently found to have Aeromonas hydrophila bacteraemia, portal vein thrombosis and a psoas abscess. He was treated with ciprofloxacin and had a good recovery. Aeromonas hydrophila infection is an uncommon cause of intestinal and extraintestinal infection in man, but must be suspected in immunocompromised hosts and in those exposed to brackish or salt water. PMID:18418529

  15. Identification of Yersinia enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, H; Hensel, A; Aleksic, S; Meyer, H

    2000-04-01

    In this report we describe a PCR strategy for the unambigous identification of biochemically presumptive typed Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica. A total of 269 isolates belonging to ten species of the genus Yersinia were investigated. In a first PCR only isolates classified as Y. enterocolitica (n = 113) gave rise to a specific amplification resulting in a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. By sequencing the 269 amplicons of a second pan-Yersinia PCR spanning a distinct 16S rRNA gene region, 20 different sequence clusters could be identified within the genus. By this, Y. enterocolitica isolates of American and European origin could be distinguished safely and already described sequence clusters of the species Y. frederiksenii were confirmed. New 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters were detected for the species Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. aldovae, Y. kristensenii, and Y. rohdei.

  16. Homology analysis and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhuang; Duan, Ran; Li, Xu; Li, Kewei; Liang, Junrong; Liu, Chang; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the intra-species conserved proteins with immunogenicity widely found in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Here we first confirmed OmpA is conserved in the three pathogenic Yersinia: Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, with high homology at the nucleotide level and at the amino acid sequence level. The identity of ompA sequences for 262 Y. pestis strains, 134 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and 219 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains are 100%, 98.8% and 97.7% similar. The main pattern of OmpA of pathogenic Yersinia are 86.2% and 88.8% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. Immunological analysis showed the immunogenicity of each OmpA and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA for pathogenic Yersinia where OmpA may be a vaccine candidate for Y. pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia.

  17. Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated factors that predisposed catfish to motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). Our results revealed that wounding on fish body surface was a prerequisite for vAh infection and disease development. A reproducible waterborne challeng...

  18. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii Predominate among Potentially Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin- and Tetracycline-Resistant Aeromonas Isolates from Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Shinko, Jasmine; Augustyniak, Alexander; Gee, Christopher; Andraso, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in nature and have increasingly been implicated in numerous diseases of humans and other animal taxa. Although some species of aeromonads are human pathogens, their presence, density, and relative abundance are rarely considered in assessing water quality. The objectives of this study were to identify Aeromonas species within Lake Erie, determine their antibiotic resistance patterns, and assess their potential pathogenicity. Aeromonas strains were isolated from Lake Erie water by use of Aeromonas selective agar with and without tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were analyzed for hemolytic ability and cytotoxicity against human epithelial cells and were identified to the species level by using 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms and phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences. A molecular virulence profile was identified for each isolate, using multiplex PCR analysis of six virulence genes. We demonstrated that Aeromonas comprised 16% of all culturable bacteria from Lake Erie. Among 119 Aeromonas isolates, six species were identified, though only two species (Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii) predominated among tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Additionally, both of these species demonstrated pathogenic phenotypes in vitro. Virulence gene profiles demonstrated a high prevalence of aerolysin and serine protease genes among A. hydrophila and A. veronii isolates, a genetic profile which corresponded with pathogenic phenotypes. Together, our findings demonstrate increased antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonads, illustrating an emerging potential health concern. PMID:24242249

  19. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in Escherichia coli of a hemolytic toxin (aerolysin) gene from Aeromonas trota

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.A.; Kim, E.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1998-07-01

    Aeromonas trota AK2, which was derived from ATCC 49659 and produces the extracellular pore-forming hemolytic toxin aerolysin, was mutagenized with the transposon mini-Tn5Km1 to generate a hemolysin-deficient mutant, designated strain AK253. Southern blotting data indicated that an 8.7-kb NotI fragment of the genomic DNA of strain AK253 contained the kanamycin resistance gene of mini-Tn5Km1. The 8.7-kb NotI DNA fragment was cloned into the vector pGEM5Zf({minus}) by selecting for kanamycin resistance, and the resultant clone, pAK71, showed aerolysin activity in Escherichia coli JM109. The nucleotide sequence of the aerA gene, located on the 1.8-kb ApaI-EcoRI fragment, was determined to consist of 1,479 bp and to have an ATG initiation codon and a TAA termination codon. An in vitro coupled transcription-translation analysis of the 1.8-kb region suggested that the aerA gene codes for a 54-kDa protein, in agreement with nucleotide sequence data. The deduced amino acid sequence of the aerA gene product of A. trota exhibited 99% homology with the amino acid sequence of the aerA product of Aeromonas sobria AB3 and 57% homology with the amino acid sequences of the products of the aerA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida 17-2 and A. sobria 33.

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Simit; Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Chatterjee, Mitali; Bandyopadhyay, Manas K; Bandyopadhyay, Maitreyi; Ghosh, Tapashi; Samaddar, Debopriyo

    2012-10-01

    Aeromonads are rarely associated with human intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases and syndromes, ranging from relatively mild illnesses such as acute gastroenteritis to life-threatening conditions, including septicemia, necrotizing fasciitis, and myonecrosis. Among the aeromonas species known to cause human infection, Aeromonas caviae has been associated with septicemia and only one reported case of human soft tissue infection. Most of the infections due to aeromonas occur in immunocompromised patients. Herein we describe a successfully treated case of post-traumatic skin and soft-tissue infections due to A. caviae in an otherwise immunocompetent individual.

  1. Isolation of Aeromonas species from clinical sources

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, A. W.; Barkley, R.

    1972-01-01

    In a period of one year, in a general hospital, Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from 13 patients and Aeromonas shigelloides from one patient. Eight of the patients had superficial infections, two had urinary tract infections, and four had bacteriaemia. The association of Aeromonas bacteriaemia with cirrhosis of the liver and malignant disease, which has been previously reported, was observed in three of the four bacteriaemic patients. The key to laboratory diagnosis of this genus is the routine performance of the oxidase test in bacteriological procedures for the identification of Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:4567553

  2. Different clinical characteristics among Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and Aeromonas caviae monomicrobial bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Han-Chuan; Ho, Yu-Huai; Lay, Chorng-Jang; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Tsai, Yeong-Shu; Tsai, Chen-Chi

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical presentations of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. veronii biovar sobria and A. caviae monomicrobial bacteremia by a retrospective method at three hospitals in Taiwan during an 8-yr period. There were 87 patients with A. hydrophila bacteremia, 45 with A. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia and 22 with A. caviae bacteremia. Compared with A. hydrophila and A. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia, A. caviae bacteremia was more healthcare-associated (45 vs 30 and 16%; P = 0.031). The patients with A. caviae bacteremias were less likely to have liver cirrhosis (27 vs 62 and 64%; P = 0.007) and severe complications such as shock (9 vs 40 and 47%; P = 0.009) and thrombocytopenia (45 vs 67 and 87%; P = 0.002). The APACHE II score was the most important risk factor of Aeromonas bacteremia-associated mortalities. The APACHE II scores of A. caviae bacteremias were lower than A. hydrophila bacteremia and A. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia (7 vs 14 and 16 points; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the clinical presentation of A. caviae bacteremia was much different from A. hydrophila and A. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia. The severity and mortality of A. caviae bacteremia were lower than A. hydrophila or A. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia.

  3. [New serological variants of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia kristensenii].

    PubMed

    Gurleva, G G; Smolikova, L M; Varivoda, A G; Sanamiants, E M; Nevenchannaia, L V

    1997-01-01

    Seven Yersinia strains, selected from a number of cultures, not agglutinated by 32 typing sera, were found to have original antigenic features. These strains were given over to the Tarasevich State Research Institute for Standardization and Control of Medical Biological Preparations and registered under O-factor formulae and numbers: Y. kristensenii 165-036, Y. enterocolitica 170-037, Y. enterocolitica 168-038, Y.enterocolitica 167-039, Y. enterocolitica 166-040, Y. enterocolitica 169-041, Y. kristensenii 171-042. In our collection of strains antigenic analogs of new typing strains were found. The inclusion of sera to new serovars into the set of Yersinia diagnostic sera will widen the possibilities of epidemiological analysis.

  4. Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection: a regulatory RNA perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Chavarría, Luary C.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, responsible for causing fulminant plague, has evolved clonally from the enteric pathogen, Y. pseudotuberculosis, which in contrast, causes a relatively benign enteric illness. An ~97% nucleotide identity over 75% of their shared protein coding genes is maintained between these two pathogens, leaving much conjecture regarding the molecular determinants responsible for producing these vastly different disease etiologies, host preferences and transmission routes. One idea is that coordinated production of distinct factors required for host adaptation and virulence in response to specific environmental cues could contribute to the distinct pathogenicity distinguishing these two species. Small non-coding RNAs that direct posttranscriptional regulation have recently been identified as key molecules that may provide such timeous expression of appropriate disease enabling factors. Here the burgeoning field of small non-coding regulatory RNAs in Yersinia pathogenesis is reviewed from the viewpoint of adaptive colonization, virulence and divergent evolution of these pathogens. PMID:26441890

  5. Isolation of Yersinia spp. from bovine feces.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Saito, K; Tsubokura, M; Otsuki, K; Kawaoka, Y

    1983-10-01

    Yersinia spp. were sought in 618 fecal samples from cows. Four strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, serotype O:12,26 (one), O:13,7 (two), and O:18 (one); seven strains of Yersinia kristensenii, serotype O:11,24 (five) and O:12,26 (two); and one strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype IIB, were isolated. This is the first time that Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from cows in Japan, and the isolation of serotype IIB of this organism from cows seems to be the first in the world.

  6. Generalized transduction of small Yersinia enterocolitica plasmids.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, S; Popp, A; Freytag, B; Lurz, R; Appel, B

    1999-09-01

    To study phage-mediated gene transfer in Yersinia, the ability of Yersinia phages to transduce naturally occurring plasmids was investigated. The transduction experiments were performed with a temperate phage isolated from a pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strain and phage mixtures isolated from sewage. Small plasmids (4.3 and 5.8 kb) were transduced at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-7)/PFU. However, we could not detect the transduction of any indigenous virulence plasmid (ca. 72 kb) in pathogenic Yersinia strains. Transductants obtained by infection with the temperate phage were lysogenic and harbored the phage genome in their chromosomes.

  7. Aeromonas-associated infections in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ahmed, Salwa F; El-Khalek, Rania Abdel; Al-Gendy, Atef; Klena, John

    2008-01-01

    Although their role in gastroenteritis is controversial, Aeromonas species are recognized as etiological agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in man and animals. In developing countries, potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sp. are very common in drinking water and in different types of foods, particularly seafood. Several food-borne and water-borne outbreaks as well nosocomial outbreaks associated with aeromonads have been reported. Significant association of Aeromonas sp. with diarrhoea in children has been reported from several countries. These organisms are important causes of skin and soft-tissue infections and aspiration pneumonia following contact with water and after floods. High incidence of antimicrobial resistance, including to third-generation cephalosporins and the fluoroquinolones, is found among Aeromonas sp. isolated from clinical sources in some developing countries in Asia. Isolating and identifying Aeromonas sp. to genus level is simple and requires resources that are available in most microbiology laboratories for processing common enteric bacteria. The present review will cover the epidemiology, clinical syndromes, low-cost diagnostic methods, and antimicrobial resistance and treatment of Aeromonas infections in developing countries.

  8. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  9. Environmental Regulation of Yersinia Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiyun; Thompson, Karl M.; Francis, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Hallmarks of Yersinia pathogenesis include the ability to form biofilms on surfaces, the ability to establish close contact with eukaryotic target cells and the ability to hijack eukaryotic cell signaling and take over control of strategic cellular processes. Many of these virulence traits are already well-described. However, of equal importance is knowledge of both confined and global regulatory networks that collaborate together to dictate spatial and temporal control of virulence gene expression. This review has the purpose to incorporate historical observations with new discoveries to provide molecular insight into how some of these regulatory mechanisms respond rapidly to environmental flux to govern tight control of virulence gene expression by pathogenic Yersinia. PMID:26973818

  10. [The occurrence of Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Clostridium perfringens in the intestinal flora of gray herons (Ardea cinerea)].

    PubMed

    Glünder, G

    1989-05-01

    The flora of the large intestine of 92 grey herons was examined for the frequency of aerobic and microaerobic growing bacteria. Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides and E. coli were isolated from 55%, 48%, 14% and 35% of the birds, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the findings of these bacteria in the intestinal flora are depending on the age of the birds. The percentage of carriers of Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides was highest in nestlings younger than 18 days, less high in older nestlings and lowest in adult grey herons. Contrary to those bacteria, E. coli was found more often in the intestinal flora at increasing age of the birds. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 birds. Two birds yielded positive for Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp., respectively. Other aerobic and microaerobic bacteria play a less significant role as part of the intestinal flora.

  11. [The occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica in sewage].

    PubMed

    Ziegert, E; Diesterweg, I

    1990-01-01

    Using a modified cold enrichment procedure Yersinia spp. were detected in 90.6% out of 32 raw waste water samples obtained within one year from two municipal sewage treatment plants. Moreover Yersinia were isolated from 50% of 6 effluent samples. Altogether 118 Yersinia strains were isolated and typed biochemically and serologically. 69 out of these isolates belonged to Yersinia enterocolitica, 60 strains to biotype 1, and 9 to biotype 4, serotype 0:3, 8 strains Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:3, biotype 4, considered to be a causative agent in human enteritis, harboured an 48 MD plasmid. The remaining isolates were identified as Yersinia frederiksenii (24 strains), Yersinia intermedia (22 strains) and Yersinia kristensenii (3 strains). The frequency of the isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:3, biotype 4 from sewage showed the same seasonal dependence as known from strains of human origin. In contrast to this, such dependence could not be found among other serovars of Y. enterocolitica and related species.

  12. Biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. Patients with bile cultures positive for Aeromonas species during the period July 2004 to December 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a hospital in Taiwan. Patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract were further identified. During the study period, a total of 1,142 isolates of Aeromonas species were obtained from 750 patients. Of those patients, 91 (12.1 %) had Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. The annual incidence (episodes per 10,000 patient-days) of biliary tract infections caused by all Aeromonas species was 0.31 in 2007, 0.12 in 2010, and 0.27 in 2011. A. hydrophila was the most common species isolated (n = 41, 45.1 %), followed by A. caviae (n = 30, 33.0 %), A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 15, 16.5 %), and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 5, 5.5 %). The majority of patients (n = 77, 84.6 %) had polymicrobial infections. Hepatobiliary stones (n = 50, 54.9 %) and hepatobiliary cancer (n = 38, 41.8 %) were the most common underlying diseases, followed by diabetes mellitus (n = 29, 31.9 %) and liver cirrhosis (n = 7, 7.7 %). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8 %. Infection-related mortality was associated with underlying immunocompromised condition (p = 0.044) and use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), but was not associated with inappropriate antibiotic usage or concomitant bacteremia (n = 8, 8.8 %). In conclusion, biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species are not uncommon and can develop in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; however, patients with underlying hepatobiliary diseases are particularly susceptible to these infections.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  15. [The relationship of plasmids from environmental Yersinia isolates and the virulence plasmid of enteropathogenic Yersinia strains].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Strauch, E; Appel, B; Nattermann, H

    2002-01-01

    The human pathogenic strains of Yersinia harbour a conserved plasmid carrying the Yop virulon. The virulence plasmid of Yersinia enterocolitica strains belonging to the serogroups O:3 and O:9 were used as probes to detect homologous sequences in plasmids of "avirulent" Yersinia strains. "Avirulent" Yersinia strains (Y. enterocolitica biogroup 1A, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and Y. frederiksenii) lack the virulence plasmid. They are widely distributed in the environment and can frequently be isolated from clinical samples. Hybridisation experiments revealed a number of common genetic elements of the virulence plasmid and the plasmids of "avirulent" Yersinia strains. These elements were identified as genes involved in plasmid replication, as an endonuclease gene and as mobile genetic elements. However, none of the plasmid encoded virulence genes was present in the plasmids of "avirulent" Yersinia strains. The frequent occurrence and the possible etiological relevance of "avirulent" isolates will be discussed.

  16. The genus Aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon L

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Detection in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H.; Shimizu, S.; Inatsu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis which can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals are thought to be significant food-borne pathogens and be important as hygiene indicator in food safety. The pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotypes/biotypes are O:3/4 and 3 variant VP negative, O:5, 27/2, O:8/1b, and O:9/2, have been reported worldwide. Y. pseudotuberculosis is distributed less widely than Y. enterocolitica. Isolation methods usually involve selective and recovery enrichment of the food sample followed by plating onto selective media, confirmation of typical colonies and testing for virulence properties of isolated strains. Recently, DNA-based methods, such as PCR assays, have been developed to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods more rapidly, and sensitivity than can be achieved by conventional culture methods. This paper reviews commercially available conventional and PCR-based procedures for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia in food. These methods are effective as the isolation and detection methods to target pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods. PMID:22567341

  18. [Detection of virulence markers in clinical strains of Yersinia].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, I V; Tseneva, G Ia; Mitrikova, L A

    1991-03-01

    The dispersion of plasmid pYV associated virulence markers in 474 Yersinia strains isolated from people has been studied. The ability to autoagglutination, calcium dependence of growth and the specific antigens were identified in 157 strains of traditionally pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica serovars 03, 09, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serovar I. They were not found in 223 strains of other 12 serovars of Yersinia enterocolitica, in 40 strains of Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia intermedia. The proportion of virulent clones in the population of Yersinia is noted to depend on the conditions of its existence in vivo or in vitro. Identification of virulence markers is acknowledged to be expedient in epidemiological and ethiological estimation of the role of isolated Yersinia strains.

  19. Development of a gene transfer system for curing of plasmids in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida.

    PubMed Central

    Valla, S; Frydenlund, K; Coucheron, D H; Haugan, K; Johansen, B; Jørgensen, T; Knudsen, G; Strøm, A

    1992-01-01

    All reported natural isolates of the marine fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida contain plasmids, and in another marine fish pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum, it has been shown that a plasmid is important for expression of virulence by the organism. To study the function of the plasmids in V. salmonicida, we developed a gene transfer system based on the plasmid RSF1010 replicon. The gene transfer system was used to construct a plasmid-free strain, and this strain was found to behave similarly to the wild type in a fish pathogenicity test based on intraperitoneal injection of the bacteria. We were unable to detect any other phenotypic differences between the two strains. It could therefore be concluded that at least in the V. salmonicida strain tested, extrachromosomal DNA is not required for expression of virulence. Images PMID:1622274

  20. Re-identification of Aeromonas isolates from rainbow trout and incidence of class 1 integron and β-lactamase genes.

    PubMed

    Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, María José; Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2014-08-27

    Forty-eight Aeromonas isolates from rainbow trout previously identified by the 16S rDNA-RFLP technique were re-identified using 2 housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD). After sequencing the prevalences of the species were A. veronii (29.2%), A. bestiarum (20.8%), A. hydrophila (16.7%), A. sobria (10.4%), A. media (8.3%), A. popoffii (6.2%), A. allosaccharophila (2.1%), A. caviae (2.1%), A. salmonicida (2.1%) and one isolate (2.1%) belongs to a candidate new species "Aeromonas lusitana". Coincident identification results to the 16S rDNA-RFLP technique were only obtained for 68.8% of the isolates. PCR amplification of the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) indicated that the 48 isolates belonged to 33 different ERIC genotypes. Several genotypes were isolated from different farms and organs in the same fish, indicating a systemic dissemination of the bacteria. The presence of genes (blaIMP, blaCphA/IMIS, blaTEM, blaSHV and intI1) that encode extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) and class 1 integrons were studied by PCR. Only 39.6% (19/48) of the strains showed the presence of one or more resistance genes. The gene blaCphA/IMIS was detected in 29.2% of the isolates, followed by the intI1 (6.2%) and blaSHV (4.2%) genes. The variable region of class 1 integrons of the 3 positive isolates was sequenced revealing the presence of the gene cassette aadA1 (aminoglycoside transferase) that plays a role in streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance.

  1. Microgravity Effects on Yersinia Pestis Virulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawal, A.; Abogunde, O.; Jejelowo, O.; Rosenzweig, J.-A.

    2010-04-01

    Microgravity effects on Yersinia pestis proliferation, cold growth, and type three secretion system function were evaluated in macrophage cell infections, HeLa cell infections, and cold growth plate assays.

  2. Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica in wild animals.

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, K; Hashimoto, N

    1981-01-01

    Yersinia species were isolated from 16 of 495 small wild animals and from 1 of 38 foxes. The animals were trapped in seven regions of Hokkaido, Japan. Of the 17 strains isolated, 9 were Yersinia enterocolitica O6; 2 were Y. enterocolitica O5A; 1 was Y. enterocolitica, O4; 1 was Y. enterocolitica O9; 1 was Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IVB; and 3 were sucrose-negative strains. Yersinia pestis was not isolated. The O6 organism was most prevalent in large red-back mice (Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae) and showed significant differences in its mode of distribution according to region. Incidence of the O6 organism in the ileum of the animal was threefold that in the cecum, and the organism was recovered at approximately 10(5) cells per g of cecal contents per c. rufocanus bedfordiae animal. PMID:7224628

  3. Aeromonas chitinase degrades chironomid egg masses.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Sivan; Golan, Amnon; Shaked, Tamar; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Halpern, Malka; Pick, Elah

    2016-02-01

    Chironomids are freshwater insects that undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages. Chironomid egg masses can be degraded by Vibrio cholerae and some Aeromonas species. Egg mass degradation by V. cholerae requires haemagglutinin protease activity. Our aim was to identify the egg mass degrading (EMD) factor secreted by Aeromonas dhkanesis 3K1C15. Following the hypothesis that the EMD factor of A. dhkanesis is also a protease, secreted proteases were screened, but none of them proved to have the same properties as the EMD factor. Using conventional protein purification methods, we found that the active fraction included chitinases. We further confirmed chitin as a building block of the egg masses. Interestingly, by supplementing bacterial growth media with chitin, we observed unexpected EMD factor activity in Aeromonas isolates that initially were not able to degrade egg masses. Accordingly, we concluded that although strain 3K1C15 secretes chitinases constitutively, most Aeromonas strains secrete chitinases inductively. Induction of chitinases in nature presumably occurs when bacteria are attached to the egg mass habitat, in which chitin is abundant. Considering that chitinases are highly conserved across bacteria phyla, we assume that the role of this enzyme in the bacteria-insect interplay could be wider than is currently thought. PMID:26472256

  4. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp. PMID:27013806

  5. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations.

  6. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae. PMID:27075453

  7. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae.

  8. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp. PMID:27013806

  9. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp.

  10. [Enteritis caused by atypical Yersinia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Baier, R; Puppel, H

    1981-02-13

    For the first time in the Federal Republic of Germany Yersinia species "frederiksenii", "kristensenii", "serovar 0 : 6" (each once) and "serovar 0 : 5" (twice) were found in the stool of 5 patients with gastroenteritic complaints. Serum agglutinins against these species could not be demonstrated. Other enteropathogenic microorganisms were excluded microscopically, by culture and serologically. These Yersinia isolates were resistant against penicillin G, ampicillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and cefalotin.

  11. MONITORING FOR AEROMONAS SPECIES AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON DRINKING WATER DISINFECTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. To free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was determined. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Experiments using free chlorine indicated that the Aeromonas spp. ...

  12. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST42 (O:1) Strain Misidentified as Yersinia pestis by Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gérôme, Patrick; Le Flèche, Philippe; Blouin, Yann; Scholz, Holger C; Thibault, François M; Raynaud, Françoise; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-06-12

    We report here the draft sequence of strain CEB14_0017, alias HIAD_DUP, recovered from a human patient and initially identified as Yersinia pestis by mass spectrometry analysis. Genotyping based on tandem repeat polymorphism assigned the strain to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sequence type 42 (ST42). The total assembly length is 4,894,739 bp.

  13. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST42 (O:1) Strain Misidentified as Yersinia pestis by Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gérôme, Patrick; Le Flèche, Philippe; Blouin, Yann; Scholz, Holger C.; Thibault, François M.; Raynaud, Françoise; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    We report here the draft sequence of strain CEB14_0017, alias HIAD_DUP, recovered from a human patient and initially identified as Yersinia pestis by mass spectrometry analysis. Genotyping based on tandem repeat polymorphism assigned the strain to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sequence type 42 (ST42). The total assembly length is 4,894,739 bp. PMID:24926044

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia enterocolitica-like bacteria in drinking water and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Langeland, G

    1983-06-01

    Using an anaerobic enrichment technique Yersinia bacteria, (Y. enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria) were isolated from 54% of 41 samples of drinking water and 51% of 35 samples of sewage sludge. A total of 116 strains of Y. enterocolitica sensu stricto, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and other Yersinia bacteria were isolated. Y. frederiksenii was not detected in this study. The isolates belonged to 17 different serogroups, but 42% of the cultures were non-typable. The serogroups 0:3, 0:8 and 0:9, which are responsible for almost all registered cases of yersiniosis in man, were not detected. Yersinia bacteria were found in many samples of drinking water in which fecal coliforms could not be detected. Fecal coliforms were, however, found in all 5 samples from which Y. enterocolitica sensu stricto was isolated. Salmonella bacteria were found to be inadequate as indicators of the presence of Yersinia bacteria in sewage sludge. Salmonella bacteria were found only in raw sludge and sludge stored for up to one month, whereas Yersinia bacteria were found in sludge stored for up to 1 1/2 years. A comparison was made of three different selective agar media for isolation of Yersinia bacteria from the enrichment broth. The frequence of isolation with Desoxycholate Citrate Agar was significantly higher than with either Yersinia Mannitol Agar or Yersinia Peptone Agar.

  15. Yersinia pestis Lineages in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Daniel; Damdindorj, Tserennorov; Dashdavaa, Otgonbaatar; Khurelsukh, Tungalag; Zöller, Lothar; Wölfel, Roman; Le Flèche, Philippe; Scholz, Holger C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing allowed the development of a number of high resolution sequence based typing tools for Yersinia (Y.) pestis. The application of these methods on isolates from most known foci worldwide and in particular from China and the Former Soviet Union has dramatically improved our understanding of the population structure of this species. In the current view, Y. pestis including the non or moderate human pathogen Y. pestis subspecies microtus emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis about 2,600 to 28,600 years ago in central Asia. The majority of central Asia natural foci have been investigated. However these investigations included only few strains from Mongolia. Methodology/Principal Findings Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Prokaryotic Repeats (CRISPR) analysis and Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on 100 Y. pestis strains, isolated from 37 sampling areas in Mongolia. The resulting data were compared with previously published data from more than 500 plague strains, 130 of which had also been previously genotyped by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The comparison revealed six main clusters including the three microtus biovars Ulegeica, Altaica, and Xilingolensis. The largest cluster comprises 78 isolates, with unique and new genotypes seen so far in Mongolia only. Typing of selected isolates by key SNPs was used to robustly assign the corresponding clusters to previously defined SNP branches. Conclusions/Significance We show that Mongolia hosts the most recent microtus clade (Ulegeica). Interestingly no representatives of the ancestral Y. pestis subspecies pestis nodes previously identified in North-western China were identified in this study. This observation suggests that the subsequent evolution steps within Y. pestis pestis did not occur in Mongolia. Rather, Mongolia was most likely re-colonized by more recent clades coming back from China contemporary

  16. Rapid isolation of Yersinia spp. from feces.

    PubMed

    Weissfeld, A S; Sonnenwirth, A C

    1982-03-01

    Direct plating or cold enrichment or both have been used to isolate Yersinia spp. from feces. Freeze-shock double enrichment and KOH treatment have been recommended for recovery of Yersinia enterocolitica from surface waters and food, respectively. These techniques were evaluated as alternatives for rapid recovery of Yersinia spp. from feces. Stool samples were homogenized in buffered saline and autoclaved. Escherichia coli. Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were each added to the suspension at a final concentration of 1.5 x 10(6) colony-forming units per ml. Yersinia cells were then added to a final concentration of 1.5 x 10(3), 1.5 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), or 1.5 x 10(6) colony-forming units per ml. A total of 21 strains of Y. enterocolitica, 2 of Yersinia kristensenii, and 1 each of Yersinia intermedia and Yersinia fredriksenii were tested. For freeze-shock double enrichment, seeded stool samples were frozen overnight (-70 degrees C), transferred successively to m-tetrathionate broth (6 h. 37 degrees C) and selenite broth (2 h 37 degrees C), and plated on MacConkey, salmonella-shigella, and cellobiose-arginine-lysine agars for quantitation. For KOH treatment, seeded stool samples were mixed with 0.5% KOH at a ratio of 1:2 for 2 min and plated as described above. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were virtually eliminated after either method was used. All Yersinia strains were recovered after KOH treatment even at the lowest initial concentration (1.5 x 10(3) colony-forming units per ml). However, after freeze-shock double enrichment, not all strains were retrievable, and those isolates which were recovered were grown only from samples containing the highest number of Yersinia strains (1.5 x 10(6) colony-forming units per ml). KOH treatment of stool samples seems to be a viable substitute for more protracted methods of recovering Yersinia spp.

  17. Genomic characterization of the Yersinia genus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments. Results We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats. Conclusions Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. PMID:20047673

  18. Whole-Genome Yersinia sp. Assemblies from 10 Diverse Strains.

    PubMed

    Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Minogue, T D; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Lo, C-C; Munk, C; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Scholz, M B; Johnson, S L

    2014-10-23

    Yersinia spp. are animal pathogens, some of which cause human disease. We sequenced 10 Yersinia isolates (from six species: Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. fredericksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. ruckeri) to high-quality draft or complete status. The genomes range in size from 3.77 to 4.94 Mbp.

  19. Enteropathogenicity of Aeromonas species isolated from infants: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, G; Galeno, H; Soto, V; Troncoso, M; Hinrichsen, V; Yudelevich, A

    1988-11-01

    The significance of Aeromonas spp. as potential enteric pathogens was evaluated in a cohort of 187 infants aged 3-18 months during a 16-week summer period. Aeromonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 196 (7.1%) diarrhoeal episodes detected and from eight (5.2%) of 153 samples from paired asymptomatic infants. Carriage of bacterial enteropathogens excluding Aeromonas spp. was detected in a high proportion (23%) of the asymptomatic children. Almost all of the seven isolates of Aeromonas sobria were enterotoxigenic, invasive and beta-haemolytic. In contrast, none of the seven Aeromonas caviae strains had these virulence-associated characteristics. The only isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila produced cytotoxic enterotoxin and was invasive. Plasmid analysis of selected strains did not correlate with these two properties or with antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, the latter was found in an important proportion of the isolates. The diarrhoeal episodes, in which Aeromonas spp. were detected, lasted significantly longer, i.e. 17.2 days when the strains were invasive and/or toxigenic as compared with 4.3 days (P less than 0.001) in patients harbouring strains lacking both traits. These results reinforce the need to characterise virulence determinants before assigning any pathogenic role to Aeromonas spp. isolated from faecal specimens. Our findings also suggest the need for adequate antibiotic treatment in patients with confirmed Aeromonas spp. having enterotoxigenic and/or invasive properties.

  20. Reclassification of Aeromonas hydrophila subspecies anaerogenes.

    PubMed

    Miñana-Galbis, David; Farfán, Maribel; Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Lorén, J Gaspar; Fusté, M Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Technological advances together with the continuous description of new taxa have led to frequent reclassifications in bacterial taxonomy. In this study, an extensive bibliographic revision, as well as a sequence analysis of nine housekeeping genes (cpn60, dnaJ, dnaX, gyrA, gyrB, mdh, recA, rpoB and rpoD) and a phenotypic identification of Aeromonas hydrophila subspecies anaerogenes were performed. All data obtained from previous physiological, phylogenetic, and DNA-DNA hybridization studies together with those presented in this study suggested that A. hydrophila subspecies anaerogenes belonged to the species Aeromonas caviae rather than A. hydrophila. Therefore, the inclusion of A. hydrophila subsp. anaerogenes in the species A. caviae is proposed.

  1. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations. PMID:27303382

  2. Medicinal leech therapy and Aeromonas spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Verriere, B; Sabatier, B; Carbonnelle, E; Mainardi, J L; Prognon, P; Whitaker, I; Lantieri, L; Hivelin, M

    2016-06-01

    While the use of medicinal leech therapy (MLT) in reconstructive and orthopaedic surgery is widely described, post-operative complications related to leeches remain a major concern. Aeromonas spp. strains are involved in the majority of reported cases. As surgical success rate is directly impacted, an adapted antibiotic prophylaxis should be instituted in order to minimize these complications. We assessed pharmaceutical process, microbiological control and related infections in order to provide data and choose the appropriate antibiotherapy for patients requiring MLT. We report a clinical and microbiological study over a 24-month period. Clinical data were collected from patients' database, and microbiological analysis both on leeches' tank water and crushed leeches were performed to characterize isolated strains and their susceptibility to antibiotics. A total of 595 leeches were used to treat 28 patients (12 in plastic surgery and 16 in orthopaedic surgery), and three documented cases of post-operative infections were reported. Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 62 % of analyzed batches (75 % of Aeromonas veronii). Eighteen Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 23 water samples and three crushed leeches. Isolates were similar in tank and crushed leeches. Strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, aminosides, and third-generation cephalosporins but resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and second-generation cephalosporins. According to collected data, routine tank water microbiological analyses are mandatory in order to identify leeches' batches containing resistant strains and to discard them. In this context, the surgeon is able to select an appropriated antibiotic prophylaxis in order to avoid MLT associated serious post-operative complications.

  3. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries.

  4. The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers. PMID:20065325

  5. Virulence potential and genetic diversity of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii, and Aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolates from Mexico and Spain: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Figueras, María José; Garduño, Rafael A; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2007-07-01

    A comparative study of 109 Aeromonas clinical isolates belonging to the 3 species most frequently isolated from patients with diarrhea in Mexico and Spain was performed to investigate the distribution of 3 prominent toxin genes and the gene encoding flagellin of lateral flagella; 4 well-established virulence factors in the genus Aeromonas. The aerolysin-hemolysin toxin genes were the most prevalent, being present in 89% of the total isolates. The ast toxin gene was conspicuously absent from the Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas veronii groups but was present in 91% of the Aeromonas hydrophila isolates. Both the alt toxin gene and the lafA flagellin gene also had a low incidence in A. caviae and A. veronii. Differences in the prevalence of alt and lafA were observed between isolates from Mexico and Spain, confirming genus heterogeneity according to geographic location. Carriage of multiple toxin genes was primarily restricted to A. hydrophila isolates, suggesting that A. caviae and A. veronii isolates circulating in Mexico and Spain possess a limited array of virulence genes. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenetic consensus - polymerase chain reaction showed that the Aeromonas populations sampled lack dominant clones and were genetically heterogeneous, with A. caviae being the most diverse species. Further surveys of virulence determinants in genetically heterogeneous populations of Aeromonas isolates circulating worldwide are required to enhance the understanding of their capacity to cause disease.

  6. Virulence potential and genetic diversity of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii, and Aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolates from Mexico and Spain: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Figueras, María José; Garduño, Rafael A; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2007-07-01

    A comparative study of 109 Aeromonas clinical isolates belonging to the 3 species most frequently isolated from patients with diarrhea in Mexico and Spain was performed to investigate the distribution of 3 prominent toxin genes and the gene encoding flagellin of lateral flagella; 4 well-established virulence factors in the genus Aeromonas. The aerolysin-hemolysin toxin genes were the most prevalent, being present in 89% of the total isolates. The ast toxin gene was conspicuously absent from the Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas veronii groups but was present in 91% of the Aeromonas hydrophila isolates. Both the alt toxin gene and the lafA flagellin gene also had a low incidence in A. caviae and A. veronii. Differences in the prevalence of alt and lafA were observed between isolates from Mexico and Spain, confirming genus heterogeneity according to geographic location. Carriage of multiple toxin genes was primarily restricted to A. hydrophila isolates, suggesting that A. caviae and A. veronii isolates circulating in Mexico and Spain possess a limited array of virulence genes. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenetic consensus - polymerase chain reaction showed that the Aeromonas populations sampled lack dominant clones and were genetically heterogeneous, with A. caviae being the most diverse species. Further surveys of virulence determinants in genetically heterogeneous populations of Aeromonas isolates circulating worldwide are required to enhance the understanding of their capacity to cause disease. PMID:17898843

  7. Clinical features of patients with novel Yersinia species.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Conor G; Harewood, Gavin C; Cockerill, Franklin R; Murray, Joseph A

    2002-12-01

    Our purpose was to describe the clinical features of patients with novel Yersinia species. Between 1985 and 1999; 194 patients had yersinia species isolated from stool specimens, 38 (20%) had non-Yersinia enterocolitica species; 12 (32%) had Yersinia intermedia, 7 (18%) Yersinia fredericksenii, 3 (8%) Yersinia kristensenii, and the remaining 16 (42%) were unclassified non-Yersinia enterocolitica species. The most common presenting symptom was diarrhea alone in 10 (26.3%) patients. Symptoms persisted for >1 month in 54% of cases; 21% had symptoms for <1 week; 18 (47%) patients were taking corticosteroids, acid suppressants, and/or antibiotics when Yersinia was isolated. An immunocompromised state was present in 11 (29%) patients. An immunocompromised host and administration of acid suppressants predicted persistence of symptoms for >1 month. Most [27 (71%)] patients received no treatment; 5 (13%) received antibiotics. In conclusion, novel non-Yersinia enterocolitica species, including Yersinia intermedia, Y. fredericksenii, and Y. kristensenii may represent up to 20% of all Yersinia isolates. Diarrhea is the most common symptom.

  8. Draft genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic Gram-negative species causing disease in fish and mammals. The genus Aeromonas affects a variety of aquatic organisms and lives in diverse aquatic ecosystems (1). There are 39 A. hydrophila genomes currently available in GenBank. In the current study, we repo...

  9. Recurrent Aeromonas Bacteremia Due to Contaminated Well Water

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Morgan J.; Parrish, Nicole M.; Belani, Anusha; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Although they are ubiquitous to aquatic environments, Aeromonas species have traditionally been considered nonvirulent; however, in the past 30 years, they have emerged as important human pathogens that can cause a wide spectrum of disease. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent Aeromonas bacteremia in an immunocompetent patient, and this exposure was linked to the patient's home well water supply. PMID:26495324

  10. Complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila occurs in freshwater environments and infects fish and mammals. In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06, which was isolated from diseased goldfish and is being used for comparative genomic studies with A. hydrophila strains causing ba...

  11. OVERVIEW: DISINFECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND AEROMONAS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori and Aeromonas hydrophila are contaminants listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).The sensitivity of H. pylori to chlorine and of Aeromonas spp. to inactivation by free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) was examined. Selective and...

  12. Population dynamics of Aeromonas spp. in an urban river watershed.

    PubMed

    Pettibone, G W

    1998-10-01

    Density of Aeromonas spp. at one site in the Buffalo River and at four sites on its upstream tributaries was followed from June 1992-June 1993. Membrane filtration counts of Aeromonas during the summer ranged between 18 and 4000 ml-1, which were one to two logs higher than faecal coliform and faecal streptococci densities. Aeromonas spp. in the Buffalo River, and faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci, and the heterotrophic plate count throughout the watershed, increased by approximately one log during summer rainstorms. However, Aeromonas spp. increased only by a factor of two during rainstorms at the upstream sites. Aeromonas spp. showed a strong positive correlation with both indicator bacteria and total suspended solids at the upstream sites during the summer but not the winter. Correlations between Aeromonas and indicator bacteria remained strong in the Buffalo River during the winter, signifying that different conditions exist in the Buffalo River and its upstream tributaries. The strong correlation between Aeromonas spp. and indicator bacteria in the Buffalo River suggest that, in the absence of media capable of the quantitative recovery of potentially pathogenic aeromonads, standard faecal coliform analyses may adequately assess public health risks from Aeromonas spp. in an urban river used for recreational purposes.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  14. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  15. Characterization of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from India.

    PubMed

    Khushiramani, Rekha; Tuteja, Urmil; Shukla, Jyoti; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2004-05-01

    The majority of virulence factors including the 12 Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), 29 Yop secretion proteins (Ysc) and few specific Yop chaperone (Syc) are contributed by the 70 kb LCR middle plasmid of Yersinia pestis. Yersinia pestis isolates recovered during 1994 plague outbreak and rodent surveillance samples of Southern states of India were studied for the presence of important Yops by the conventional procedure of partially purifying outer membrane proteins (Omps) after cultivation in calcium deficient media. Prominent bands numbering 4-5 between 34-42 kDa region corresponding to important Yops were seen in all the isolates as well as in other Yersinia and non-Yersinia species by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting with the polyclonal antisera raised against these Omp preparations revealed few immuno-reactive bands that appeared to be shared among Y. pestis, Y. pseudotruberculosis, Y. enterocolitica, Y. fredrocksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and E. coli. Three recombinant Yop proteins namely, YopM, YopB and LcrV were produced and antisera to these proteins could reveal presence of these Yops in the Y. pestis Omp preparations. In order to further characterize the important Yops among Omps, attempts were made to generate monoclonal antibodies against Omp preparation. Three of the 4 stable reactive clones that were obtained, when tested, had extensive cross-reactions among pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates, other Yersinia species and the members of Enterobacteriaceae in dot-ELISA and Western blotting. One of the monoclonal antibodies, YP1, exhibited reaction to all the pathogenic Yersinia species and the isolates, with restricted cross-reactivity to Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, K. pneumoniae. None of the 4 monoclonal antibodies had reactions with the 3 recombinant Yop proteins. It appears that under low calcium response, the Y. pestis not only activates secretion of Yops but also a large number of other proteins

  16. Chironomid egg masses harbour the clinical species Aeromonas taiwanensis and Aeromonas sanarellii.

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Shakèd, Tamar; Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka; Figueras, María J

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are found worldwide in aquatic environments and may produce human infections. In 2010, two new clinical species, Aeromonas sanarellii and Aeromonas taiwanensis, were described on the basis of one strain recovered from wounds of hospitalized patients in Taiwan. So far, only four environmental isolates of A. sanarellii and one of A. taiwanensis have been recorded from waste water in Portugal and an additional clinical strain of A. taiwanensis from the faeces of a patient with diarrhoea in Israel. In the present study, strains belonging to these two species were identified from chironomid egg masses from the same area in Israel by sequencing the rpoD gene. This represents a new environmental habitat for these novel species. The first data on the virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility are provided. The isolates of these two new species possess multiple virulence genes and are sensitive to amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, cefoxatime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, tigecycline, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and imipenem. The key phenotypic tests for the differentiation of these new species from their closest relative Aeromonas caviae included the utilization of citrate, growth at 45 °C in sheep blood agar and acid production of cellobiose.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria.

    PubMed

    Arias, Antonina; Seral, Cristina; Gude, M José; Castillo, F Javier

    2010-09-01

    Mutations in quinolone targets were studied together with quinolone efflux pump activation and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in nalidixic-acid-resistant isolates of Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas veronii. Among 135 clinical Aeromonas spp. isolated from stools of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 40 nalidixic acid-resistant strains belonging to A. caviae and A. veronii were selected and their susceptibility to different quinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin) further evaluated. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin in the presence/absence of Phe- Arg-β-naphthylamide was also determined. The 16 nalidixic-acid-resistant strains identified as A. caviae were more resistant than the 24 A. veronii bv. sobria strains to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin. All strains showed a mutation (single or double) at position 83 of the QRDR sequence of gyrA, with Ser-83 → Ile as the most frequent substitution. By contrast, no mutations were found at position 87 of gyrA. Double substitutions (GyrA-ParC) were detected in 50% of A. veronii bv. sobria isolates and in 43.75% of A. caviae strains. Both species showed decreases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin. A qnrS gene was found in an A. caviae strain. Thus, in the two species of nalidixic-acid-resistant Aeromonas isolates examined, resistance mediated by efflux pumps contributed only slightly to ciprofloxacin resistance. While two isolates were positive for the aac(6')-Ib gene, no -cr variants were detected.

  18. Reassessment of the Enteropathogenicity of Mesophilic Aeromonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Teunis, Peter; Figueras, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch’s postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study. In the present study we reassess the enteropathogenicity of Aeromonas using dose response models for microbial infection and acute illness. The analysis uses the data from the human challenge study and additional data from selected outbreak investigations where the numbers exposed and the dose were reported, allowing their inclusion as “natural experiments”. In the challenge study several cases of asymptomatic shedding were found (26.3%, 15/57), however, only 3.5% (2/57) of those challenged with Aeromonas developed acute enteric symptoms (i.e., diarrhea). The “natural experiments” showed a much higher risk of illness associated with exposure to Aeromonas, even at moderate to low doses. The median dose required for 1% illness risk, was ~1.4 × 104 times higher in the challenge study (1.24 × 104 cfu) compared to natural exposure events (0.9 cfu). The dose response assessment presented in this study shows that the combined challenge and outbreak data are consistent with high infectivity of Aeromonas, and a wide range of susceptibility to acute enteric illness. To illustrate the outcomes, we simulate the risk associated with concentrations of Aeromonas found in different water and food matrices, indicating the disease burden potentially associated with these bacteria. In conclusion this study showed that Aeromonas is highly infectious, and that human susceptibility to illness may be high, similar to

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica: the charisma continues.

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, E J

    1997-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, comprises a heterogeneous group of bacterial strains recovered from animal and environmental reservoirs. The majority of human pathogenic strains are found among distinct serogroups (e.g. O:3, O:5,27, O:8, O:9) and contain both chromosome- and plasmid (60 to 75 kb)-mediated virulence factors that are absent in "avirulent" strains. While Y. enterocolitica is primarily a gastrointestinal tract pathogen, it may produce extraintestinal infections in hosts with underlying predisposing factors. Postinfection sequelae include arthritis and erythema nodosum, which are seen mainly in Europe among patients with serogroups O:3 and O:9 infection and HLA-B27 antigen. Y. enterocolitica is acquired through the oral route and is epidemiologically linked to porcine sources. Bacteremia is prominent in the setting of immunosuppression or in patients with iron overload or those being treated with desferrioxamine. metastatic foci following bacteremia are common and often involve the liver and spleen. Of particular concern is blood transfusion-related bacteremia. Evidence has accumulated substantiating the role of Y. enterocolitica as a food-borne pathogen that has caused six major outbreaks in the United States. The diagnosis of Y. enterocolitica gastroenteritis is best achieved through isolation of the bacterium on routine or selective bacteriologic media. When necessary, serogrouping, biogrouping, and assessment for plasmid-encoded virulence traits may aid in distinguishing virulent from "avirulent" strains. Epidemiologically, outside of identified food-borne outbreaks, the source (reservoir) of Y. enterocolitica in sporadic cases is speculative. Therefore, prevention and control measures are difficult to institute. PMID:9105754

  20. Flagellar regulation in Yersinia ruckeri during infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gram-negative Enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), a septicemia affecting primarily farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the prevalence of non-motile variants of Y. ruckeri a...

  1. YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA: AN IMPORTANT HUMAN FOODBORNE PATHOGEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative microbe of public health importance and is under national FoodNet surveillance in the United States. The majority of human yersiniosis cases are foodborne. Consumption of dairy products (milk, ice cream), water, vegetables (tofu), and pork have been linke...

  2. Insight into the mobilome of Aeromonas strains

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Marta; Popowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The mobilome is a pool of genes located within mobile genetic elements (MGE), such as plasmids, IS elements, transposons, genomic/pathogenicity islands, and integron-associated gene cassettes. These genes are often referred to as “flexible” and may encode virulence factors, toxic compounds as well as resistance to antibiotics. The phenomenon of MGE transfer between bacteria, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), is well documented. The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. The process of acquiring and spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) is of particular significance, as it is important for the health of humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly study the mobilome of Aeromonas spp. that is widely distributed in various environments, causing many diseases in fishes and humans. This review discusses the recently published information on MGE prevalent in Aeromonas spp. with special emphasis on plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups, i.e., IncA/C, IncU, IncQ, IncF, IncI, and ColE-type. The vast majority of plasmids carry a number of different transposons (Tn3, Tn21, Tn1213, Tn1721, Tn4401), the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class of integrons, IS elements (e.g., IS26, ISPa12, ISPa13, ISKpn8, ISKpn6) and encode determinants such as antibiotic and mercury resistance genes, as well as virulence factors. Although the actual role of Aeromonas spp. as a human pathogen remains controversial, species of this genus may pose a serious risk to human health. This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes

  3. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a cold-adapted catalase from Vibrio salmonicida

    SciTech Connect

    Riise, Ellen Kristin; Lorentzen, Marit Sjo; Helland, Ronny; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2006-01-01

    Monoclinic (P2{sub 1}) crystals of a His-tagged form of V. salmonicida catalase without cofactor diffract X-rays to 1.96 Å. Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. Recombinant Vibrio salmonicida catalase (VSC) possesses typical cold-adapted features, with higher catalytic efficiency, lower thermal stability and a lower temperature optimum than its mesophilic counterpart from Proteus mirabilis. Crystals of VSC were produced by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.15, b = 217.76, c = 99.28 Å, β = 110.48°. Data were collected to 1.96 Å and a molecular-replacement solution was found with eight molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  5. Yersinia spp. in surface water in Matsue, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Saito, K; Tsubokura, M; Otsuki, K

    1984-06-01

    Yersinia spp. (741 strains) were recovered from 81% of 48 surface water samples collected over a 12-month period from four rivers in Matsue, Japan. The precipitation methods with FeCl3 or Kaolin and the cold enrichment method with Peptone-Mannitol-Phosphate buffer solution were used for recovery. Isolates belonged to Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) (133 strains), Yersinia intermedia (511 strains), Yersinia frederiksenii (57 strains), Yersinia kristensenii (10 strains) and X2-like organisms (30 strains). Thirty colonies of Ye O3 biotype 3 per ml surface water may relate to the drainage containing 2 X 10(4) Ye O3 biotype 3 per ml, from the piggery that raised Ye O3 biotype 3-positive pigs. There was the negative interrelation between the incidence of isolation of Yersinia spp. and the environmental- and water temperatures. This may be the first documentation of isolation of Ye O3 from surface water.

  6. Differential media for quantitative recovery of waterborne Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed Central

    Handfield, M; Simard, P; Letarte, R

    1996-01-01

    Because of the ubiquity of Aeromonas spp., their prevalence in drinking water, and the increasing number of reports on Aeromonas sp.-related infections, a standard method for routine and quantitative recovery had to be defined. On the basis of a survey of 10 media for recovery analysis and subsequent differentiation assays in mixed cultures, we conclude that ampicillin-dextrin agar performed the best for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. in drinking water and the differentiation by simple criteria of that genus from other common waterborne bacteria. PMID:8795251

  7. Identification of Yersinia Species by the Vitek GNI Card

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Hans-Jörg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Meyer, Hermann; Aleksic, Stojanca; Lehn, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The Vitek GNI card was used to identify 212 isolates of 10 Yersinia species. Identification was correct for 96.3% of the isolates (156 of 162) to the genus level and for 57.4% of the isolates (93 of 162) to the species level for Yersinia spp. listed in the Vitek database. We recommend additional identification methods for isolates assigned to the genus Yersinia by the Vitek system. PMID:9854094

  8. Whole-Genome Yersinia sp. Assemblies from 10 Diverse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C.-C.; Munk, C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia spp. are animal pathogens, some of which cause human disease. We sequenced 10 Yersinia isolates (from six species: Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. fredericksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. ruckeri) to high-quality draft or complete status. The genomes range in size from 3.77 to 4.94 Mbp. PMID:25342679

  9. Dynamics of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Martone-Rocha, S; Piveli, R P; Matté, G R; Dória, M C; Dropa, M; Morita, M; Peternella, F A; Matté, M H

    2010-12-01

    Aeromonas are widely distributed in the aquatic environment, and are considered to be emerging organisms that can produce a series of virulence factors. The present study was carried out in a sanitary sewage stabilization pond treatment system, located in Lins, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Most probable number was applied for estimation of the genus Aeromonas. Colony isolation was carried out on blood agar ampicillin and confirmed by biochemical characterization. Aeromonas species were isolated in 72.4% of influent samples, and in 55.2 and 48.3% of effluent from anaerobic and facultative lagoons, respectively. Thirteen Aeromonas species were isolated, representing most of the recognized species of these organisms. Even though it was possible to observe a tendency of decrease, total elimination of these organisms from the studied system was not achieved. Understanding of the pathogenic organism's dynamics in wastewater treatment systems with a reuse potential is especially important because of the risk it represents. PMID:20705981

  10. ANALYSIS OF AEROMONAS BY MASS SPECTROMETRY: SPECIATION AND VIRULENCE FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction:

    A number of bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, are listed on the Environmental Protection Agency's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) as research needs. One research priority designated by the CCL is the identification of virulence activity facto...

  11. Pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species in Taiwan, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tsai, H Y; Wu, C J; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species. Patients with pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2004 to 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 84 patients with pneumonia due to Aeromonas species, possible Aeromonas pneumonia was diagnosed in 58 patients, probable Aeromonas pneumonia was diagnosed in 18 patients, and pneumonia due to Aeromonas was conclusively diagnosed in 8 patients. Most of the cases of Aeromonas pneumonia developed in men and in patients of advanced age. A. hydrophila (n = 50, 59.5 %) was the most common pathogen, followed by A. caviae (n = 24, 28.6 %), A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 7, 8.3 %), and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 3, 3.6 %). Cancer (n = 37, 44.0 %) was the most common underlying disease, followed by diabetes mellitus (n = 27, 32.1 %). Drowning-associated pneumonia developed in 6 (7.1 %) patients. Of 47 patients who were admitted to the intensive care ward, 42 patients developed acute respiratory failure and 24 of those patients died. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was significantly associated with liver cirrhosis, cancer, initial presentation of shock, and usage of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, Aeromonas species should be considered as one of the causative pathogens of severe pneumonia, especially in immunocompromised patients, and should be recognized as a cause of drowning-associated pneumonia. Cirrhosis, cancer, and shock as the initial presenting symptom are associated with poor outcome.

  12. Vibrio cholerae and Aeromonas: do they share a mutual host?

    PubMed

    Senderovich, Yigal; Gershtein, Yana; Halewa, Etti; Halpern, Malka

    2008-03-01

    Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered as an emergent human pathogen. It is estimated that aeromonads cause up to 13% of reported gastroenteritis cases in the United States. Although the autochthonous existence of Aeromonas in the aquatic environment has been established, its natural reservoir is as yet unknown. Chironomids are closely related to mosquitoes except they do not bite and they are the most widely distributed insects in freshwater. They infest drinking water systems in Israel and all over the world. Vibrio cholerae inhabit chironomids and are able to degrade their egg masses. The degradation of the egg masses is followed by failure of the eggs to hatch. In the current study, egg masses from a waste stabilization pond and a river in northern Israel were collected and cultured during a five-month period. Bacterial colonies were randomly chosen and checked for their egg mass degradation abilities. In addition to V. cholerae, most of the other isolates that had the ability to degrade the egg masses were identified as Aeromonas species, thus, demonstrating that Aeromonas species are natural inhabitants of chironomid egg masses. The following virulence-associated genes were detected in Aeromonas species that were isolated from chironomid egg masses: alt (78%); ahpB (76%); act/aerA/hlyA (65%); fla (59%); pla/lipH3/apl-1/lip (43%); and ast (2%). These findings indicate that the Aeromonas species inhabiting chironomid egg masses pose a potential health risk. Understanding the natural reservoir of Aeromonas will help to develop methods to monitor and control the bacteria in fresh and drinking water reservoirs and to better understand the relationships between chironomids, V. cholerae and Aeromonas populations.

  13. Pathogenicity of Yersinia kristensenii for mice.

    PubMed

    Robins-Browne, R M; Cianciosi, S; Bordun, A M; Wauters, G

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven strains of Yersinia kristensenii from widely differing sources, representing all known O serogroups of this species, were investigated for virulence with a variety of animal and in vitro assays. Twenty-four (51%) of the isolates were lethal for mice pretreated with iron dextran. Mouse-lethal strains occurred predominantly within O serogroups O:11, O:12,25, and O:16. Virulent Y. kristensenii strains generally did not express the virulence-associated phenotype (Ca2+ dependence and binding of Congo red and crystal violet) which characterizes virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica, nor did they carry the Yersinia virulence plasmid. Although all strains hybridized with a DNA probe derived from the inv (invasin) gene of Y. enterocolitica, none was able to invade HEp-2 epithelial cell culture. Y. kristensenii strains were virulent only when inoculated parenterally into iron-loaded mice. Animals infected in this way succumbed rapidly to infection, generally within 24 h. This finding suggested that the pathogenicity of these bacteria may be attributable to a secreted toxin, but a search for such a substance and for other in vitro correlates of pathogenicity was unsuccessful. These observations indicate that some strains of Y. kristensenii kill mice by a mechanism not previously recognized in yersiniae.

  14. Pathogenicity of Yersinia kristensenii for mice.

    PubMed Central

    Robins-Browne, R M; Cianciosi, S; Bordun, A M; Wauters, G

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven strains of Yersinia kristensenii from widely differing sources, representing all known O serogroups of this species, were investigated for virulence with a variety of animal and in vitro assays. Twenty-four (51%) of the isolates were lethal for mice pretreated with iron dextran. Mouse-lethal strains occurred predominantly within O serogroups O:11, O:12,25, and O:16. Virulent Y. kristensenii strains generally did not express the virulence-associated phenotype (Ca2+ dependence and binding of Congo red and crystal violet) which characterizes virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica, nor did they carry the Yersinia virulence plasmid. Although all strains hybridized with a DNA probe derived from the inv (invasin) gene of Y. enterocolitica, none was able to invade HEp-2 epithelial cell culture. Y. kristensenii strains were virulent only when inoculated parenterally into iron-loaded mice. Animals infected in this way succumbed rapidly to infection, generally within 24 h. This finding suggested that the pathogenicity of these bacteria may be attributable to a secreted toxin, but a search for such a substance and for other in vitro correlates of pathogenicity was unsuccessful. These observations indicate that some strains of Y. kristensenii kill mice by a mechanism not previously recognized in yersiniae. PMID:1987029

  15. Regulatory principles governing Salmonella and Yersinia virulence

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Marc; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Yersinia evolved numerous strategies to survive and proliferate in different environmental reservoirs and mammalian hosts. Deciphering common and pathogen-specific principles for how these bacteria adjust and coordinate spatiotemporal expression of virulence determinants, stress adaptation, and metabolic functions is fundamental to understand microbial pathogenesis. In order to manage sudden environmental changes, attacks by the host immune systems and microbial competition, the pathogens employ a plethora of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control elements, including transcription factors, sensory and regulatory RNAs, RNAses, and proteases, to fine-tune and control complex gene regulatory networks. Many of the contributing global regulators and the molecular mechanisms of regulation are frequently conserved between Yersinia and Salmonella. However, the interplay, arrangement, and composition of the control elements vary between these closely related enteric pathogens, which generate phenotypic differences leading to distinct pathogenic properties. In this overview we present common and different regulatory networks used by Salmonella and Yersinia to coordinate the expression of crucial motility, cell adhesion and invasion determinants, immune defense strategies, and metabolic adaptation processes. We highlight evolutionary changes of the gene regulatory circuits that result in different properties of the regulatory elements and how this influences the overall outcome of the infection process. PMID:26441883

  16. Three outbreaks of yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Nakashima, H; Ishida, T; Tsubokura, M

    1988-08-01

    Three outbreaks of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection during 1982 to 1984 in Okayama Prefecture, Japan are described. In outbreak A, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis a causal organism was detected in 16 patients (serotype 5A). The latent period of the infection was 2 to 20 days estimating, from time of ingesting food suspected of being contaminated and onset of the illness. Outbreak B and C occurred in remote mountain areas. In outbreak B, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis bacilli were detected in the feces of 35 out of 276 people (serotype 4B in 34 stools, 2C and 4B in one stool). In outbreak C, 12 children became sick; one of the 4 patients whose stools were examined, showed an organism belonging to serotype 4B. The inhabitants in the area of outbreak B and C took unchlorinated mountain stream and well water for drinking. After the outbreak B and C, we examined water and wild animals fecea in these areas for the bacilli. As a result, they were detected in 3 out of 51 water samples (serotype 4A in one, 6 in 2 samples) and 2 out of 57 wild animal fecal samples (serotype 2C in 2 samples) in B area, and 4 out of 33 water samples (serotype 4A in 2, 4B in 2 samples) in C area.

  17. Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Aeromonas species. Patients with SSTIs caused by Aeromonas species during the period from January 2009 to December 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 129 patients with SSTIs due to Aeromonas species were identified. A. hydrophila (n = 77, 59.7 %) was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 22, 17.1 %), A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 20, 15.5 %), A. caviae (n = 9, 7.0 %), and A. schubertii (n = 1, 0.8 %). The most common isolates obtained from patients with polymicrobial infections were Klebsiella species (n = 33), followed by Enterococcus spp. (n = 24), Enterobacter spp. (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 17), Staphylococcus spp. (n = 17), Streptococcus spp. (n = 17), and Acinetobacter spp. (n = 15). Liver cirrhosis and concomitant bacteremia were more common among patients with monomicrobial Aeromonas SSTIs than among patients with polymicrobial SSTIs. Nine (7 %) patients required limb amputations. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.6 %. In conclusion, Aeromonas species should be considered as important causative pathogens of SSTIs, and most infections are polymicrobial. In addition, the clinical presentation differs markedly between patients with monomicrobial and those with polymicrobial Aeromonas SSTIs.

  18. CHROMagar Yersinia, a New Chromogenic Agar for Screening of Potentially Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates in Stools

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Nicolas; Lecci, Laetitia; Courcol, René J.; Simonet, Michel

    2013-01-01

    CHROMagar Yersinia (CAY) is a new chromogenic medium for the presumptive detection of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in stools. Based on a comparative analysis of 1,494 consecutive stools from hospitalized patients, CAY was found to be just as sensitive as the reference medium (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar) but was significantly more specific and had a very low false-positive rate. CAY reduces the workload (and thus costs) for stool analysis and can therefore be recommended for routine laboratory use. PMID:23363840

  19. Characterisation of haemolytic activity from Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, T; Devi, B G

    1994-04-01

    Aeromonas caviae, an enteropathogen associated with gastroenteritis, displays several virulence characteristics. Studies on the kinetics of growth of A. caviae and expression of beta-haemolytic toxin revealed that A. caviae produced maximum haemolytic activity extracellularly during the stationary phase. Preliminary studies on the properties of A. caviae haemolysin suggested that divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and thiol compounds, dithiothreitol and mercaptoethanol enhanced the haemolytic activity. Addition of L-cysteine, glutathione and EDTA reduced the haemolytic activity. The iron chelator, 2-2' bipyridyl, significantly inhibited the growth of A. caviae possibly by iron limitation, with parallel enhancement of haemolysin production compared to A. caviae grown in excess of iron. These results suggest that A. caviae produces only beta-haemolysin, which resembles the haemolysins reported for several other bacteria and the activity might be regulated by environmental factors especially iron.

  20. Aeromonas hydrophilia infections after penetrating foot trauma.

    PubMed

    Larka, Ulla-Britt; Ulett, Dane; Garrison, Thomas; Rockett, Matthew S

    2003-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus commonly found in natural bodies of water and can cause infection in patients who suffer water-associated trauma or in immunocompromised hosts. The authors present 5 cases of penetrating wound trauma that did not involve any aquatic environment and developed rapidly forming infections. All patients presented with severe pain, cellulitis, ascending lymphangitis, fever, and pain on range of motion of the joint near the traumatic site. Presentation of clinical symptoms mimicked that of a septic joint or of severe streptococcal infection. All patients required surgical incision and drainage, intravenous and oral antibiotics using levofloxacin or bactrim, and local wound care. Results from cultures taken intraoperatively showed only A hydrophilia in every case. Resolution of symptoms occurred rapidly after surgery, and clinical resolution was seen within 72 hours. Each patient healed uneventfully and returned to preinjury status.

  1. Occurrence of Aeromonas hydrophila in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Glunder, G; Siegmann, O

    1989-10-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from 135 of a total of 1226 wild birds. It was the only bacterial species in eight birds, while other bacteria, mainly enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and/or streptococci were identified in all other birds. The rate of isolation from aquatic birds (18.5%) was higher (P<0.001) than from birds of terrestrial habitats (3.4%). Infection may also depend on dietary habits: 7.0% of the granivorous and herbivorous species, 8.4% of the omnivores and 12.0% of carnivorous and insectivorous birds were infected. A. hydrophila was isolated more frequently during the summer (12.9%) than the winter (8.9%).

  2. Partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Yersinia kristensenii.

    PubMed

    Toora, S

    1995-03-01

    A raw milk bacterial isolate, identified as Yersinia kristensenii was found to produce a bacteriocin which was inhibitory to Yersinia enterocolitica but not to other selected species of Yersinia or Gram-negative bacteria. Maximum production of bacteriocin was obtained when the organism was grown in shake culture at 28 degrees C. Mitomycin C at a concentration of 0.5 micrograms ml-1 induced bacteriocin production. The bacteriocin was partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulphate fractionation and gel filtration. The bacteriocin was completely inactivated when treated with proteolytic enzymes (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Bacteriocin activity was heat-resistant and it retained some of its activity after 5 min at boiling temperature. A total of 15 bacteriocin sensitive-suspected food isolates were further identified biochemically as Yersinia enterocolitica and a non-sensitive isolate was identified as Yersinia intermedia.

  3. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species from river water.

    PubMed

    Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G; Trovatelli, L D

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and twenty samples of river water collected from sampling sites in the period between December 1986 and December 1987 were examined for the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species. Among a total of 26 Yersinia strains isolated the following species were recognized: Y. enterocolitica, 12 strains, Y. intermedia, 5 strains, Y. frederiksenii, 2 strains, Y. kristensenii and Y. aldovae, 1 strain each; 5 were atypical Yersinia strains (rhamnose+, citrate+, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside+). Although the Yersinia isolates belong to the so-called "environmental" serotypes, which are usually considered as non-pathogenic for humans, Y. enterocolitica biotype 1, serotype 0:7.8, lysotype X0, which has previously been associated with gastro-intestinal infection in Italy, was found to be present. Statistical evaluation of our data showed that the presence of Yersinia spp. and the presence of total or fecal coliforms are unrelated.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas molluscorum Strain 848TT, Isolated from Bivalve Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Nino; Farfán, Maribel; Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Lorén, J Gaspar; Fusté, M Carmen; Bosch, Elena

    2013-06-20

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas molluscorum 848T, the type strain of this Aeromonas species, which was isolated from wedge shells (Donax trunculus) obtained from a retail market in Barcelona, Spain, in 1997.

  5. Aeromonas Caviae Strain Induces Th1 Cytokine Response in Mouse Intestinal Tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small i...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae Strain 429865 INP, Isolated from a Mexican Patient

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Juan Carlos A.; Bustos, Patricia; Sánchez-Varela, Alejandro; Palma-Martinez, Ingrid; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia; García-Pérez, Carlos A.; López-López, María de Jesús; González, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae is an emerging human pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae strain 429865 INP which shows the presence of various putative virulence-related genes. PMID:26494682

  7. Nucleotide sequences specific to Yersinia pestis and methods for the detection of Yersinia pestis

    DOEpatents

    McCready, Paula M.; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Kuczmarski, Thomas A.; Motin, Vladinir L.

    2009-02-24

    Nucleotide sequences specific to Yersinia pestis that serve as markers or signatures for identification of this bacterium were identified. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  8. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  9. Quorum sensing signal molecules (acylated homoserine lactones) in gram-negative fish pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jesper B; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nielsen, Kristian F; Buchholtz, Christiane; Larsen, Jens L; Gram, Lone

    2005-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the production of quorum sensing signals (specifically acylated homoserine lactones, AHLs) among a selection of strains of Gram-negative fish bacterial pathogens. These signals are involved in the regulation of virulence factors in some human and plant-pathogenic bacteria. A total of 59 strains, representing 9 different fish pathogenic species, were tested against 2 AHL monitor bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 [pZLR4] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026) in a well diffusion assay and by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Representative samples were further characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-MS). AHLs were produced by all strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio salmonicida, and Vibrio vulnificus. Some strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida and Vibrio splendidus were also positive. Aeromonas species produced N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (BHL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (HHL) and 1 additional product, whereas N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (OHHL) and HHL were detected in Vibrio salmonicida. N-3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine lactone (OOHL) and N-3-octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) were detected in Y. ruckeri. AHLs were not detected from strains of Photobacterium damselae, Flavobacterium psychrophilum or Moritella viscosa. AHLs were extracted from fish infected with Y. ruckeri but not from fish infected with A. salmonicida. In conclusion, the production of quorum sensing signals, AHLs, is common among the strains that we examined. If the AHL molecules regulate the expression of the virulence phenotype in these bacteria, as shown to occur in some bacterial pathogens, novel disease control measures may be developed by blocking AHL-mediated communication and suppressing virulence.

  10. Population genetics of human, animal, and environmental Yersinia strains.

    PubMed

    Dolina, M; Peduzzi, R

    1993-02-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to analyze 244 strains of nine Yersinia species isolated from the environment, animals, and humans at 18 genes encoding metabolic enzymes. All 18 enzymes were polymorphic. Among the 137 electrophoretic types (ETs) distinguished, the mean allelic diversity per locus was 0.531. Yersinia frederiksenii ETs were divided into three major clusters that were separated by a large genetic distance, and one ET was more closely related to Yersinia enterocolitica. Thus, strains classically identified as Y. frederiksenii may represent more than one species. Furthermore, two strains identified as Yersinia kristensenii proved to be more closely related to Yersinia mollaretii. Environmental strains formed independent groups. A very interesting ET consisting of as many as 61 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica was detected, and the epidemiologic relevance of this ET is discussed. Human strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 4 and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were recognized as being closely related to animal strains of the same species. Therefore, animal strains of these two species may be considered potential human pathogens.

  11. Occurrence of Yersinia spp. in raw beef, pork and chicken.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Hoshina, K; Nakamura, R; Ito, Y

    1987-04-01

    One hundred and twenty raw ground beef, pork and chicken samples from ten local grocery stores during a one year period were assayed for the presence of Yersinia spp., using direct and postenrichment KOH treatment. Seven thousand and fifty-five different isolates were recovered from 119 (99%) samples of beef and pork and 118 (98%) samples of chicken, including 27 Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 03 biotype 3B phage type 2 (4 pork samples), 4 Y. enterocolitica serotype 03 biotype 4 phage type 8 (3 pork samples), 4,066 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1, 2,194 Yersinia intermedia, 509 Yersinia frederiksenii, and 251 Yersinia kristensenii. Y. enterocolitica serotype 03 was isolated from 6 pork samples, including simultaneously isolation of both biotypes 3B and 4 from one sample. There was the negative correlation between the incidence of isolation of serotype 03 and the environmental temperature, but other environmental Yersinia spp. were frequently isolated through the year. Y. enterocolitica serotype 03 isolates were counted by alkali direct treatment at less than 10(3) cells per g of pork samples, and environmental Yersinia spp. at less than 10(5) cells per g of beef, pork and chicken samples. This may be the first evidence that some pork is contaminated with at least 10(3) Y. enterocolitica serotype 03 cells per g.

  12. Population genetics of human, animal, and environmental Yersinia strains.

    PubMed Central

    Dolina, M; Peduzzi, R

    1993-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to analyze 244 strains of nine Yersinia species isolated from the environment, animals, and humans at 18 genes encoding metabolic enzymes. All 18 enzymes were polymorphic. Among the 137 electrophoretic types (ETs) distinguished, the mean allelic diversity per locus was 0.531. Yersinia frederiksenii ETs were divided into three major clusters that were separated by a large genetic distance, and one ET was more closely related to Yersinia enterocolitica. Thus, strains classically identified as Y. frederiksenii may represent more than one species. Furthermore, two strains identified as Yersinia kristensenii proved to be more closely related to Yersinia mollaretii. Environmental strains formed independent groups. A very interesting ET consisting of as many as 61 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica was detected, and the epidemiologic relevance of this ET is discussed. Human strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 4 and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were recognized as being closely related to animal strains of the same species. Therefore, animal strains of these two species may be considered potential human pathogens. PMID:8434911

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  14. Aeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D R; Manders, E K; Saggers, G C; Banducci, D R; Prinsloo, J; Klugman, K

    1999-03-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila infections are a recognized complication of the use of medicinal leeches. The authors performed an experiment designed to find a safe and practical way to sterilize the leech gut of pathogenic organisms. Leeches were incubated for a 12-hour period in solutions of antibiotic effective against A. hydrophila. The incubations in the antibiotic solutions failed to eradicate pathogenic bacteria from the gut of the leeches. The authors examined cultures of bacteria isolated from the guts of the commonly used Hirudo medicinalis (European leech) and found a wide variety of pathogenic organisms. A. hydrophila is widely believed to be the most common enteric pathogen, but the authors found A. sobria more frequently in their experiment. They also cultured the guts of the leech H. michaelseni recently used clinically in South Africa. A. caviae was the most common pathogen encountered in these leeches. A. caviae and A. sobria cause a spectra of disease similar to A. hydrophila. The authors endorse the current recommendation that all patients who have leech therapy for congested flaps or replants receive broad-spectrum prophylactic antibiotics. This appears to be the safest and simplest way to prevent leech-related infections.

  15. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex: characterization and delineation of a new species, Yersinia wautersii.

    PubMed

    Savin, Cyril; Martin, Liliane; Bouchier, Christiane; Filali, Sofia; Chenau, Jérôme; Zhou, Zhemin; Becher, François; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Thomson, Nicholas R; Scholz, Holger C; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2014-05-01

    The genus Yersinia contains three species pathogenic for humans, one of which is the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. A recent analysis by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of the 'Y. pseudotuberculosis complex' revealed that this complex comprises three distinct populations: the Y. pestis/Y. pseudotuberculosis group, the recently described species Yersinia similis, and a third not yet characterized population designated 'Korean Group', because most strains were isolated in Korea. The aim of this study was to perform an in depth phenotypic and genetic characterization of the three populations composing the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex (excluding Y. pestis, which belonged to the Y. pseudotuberculosis cluster in the MLST analysis). Using a set of strains representative of each group, we found that the three populations had close metabolic properties, but were nonetheless distinguishable based on D-raffinose and D-melibiose fermentation, and on pyrazinamidase activity. Moreover, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry highlighted protein peaks characteristic of each population. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences shared high identity (≥99.5%), but specific nucleotide signatures for each group were identified. Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis also identified three genetically closely related but distinct populations. Finally, an Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) analysis performed after sequencing the genomes of a subset of strains of each group also showed that intragroup identity (average for each group ≥99%) was higher than intergroup diversity (94.6-97.4%). Therefore, all phenotypic and genotypic traits studied concurred with the initial MLST data indicating that the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex comprises a third and clearly distinct population of strains forming a novel Yersinia species that we propose to designate Yersinia wautersii sp. nov. The isolation of some strains from humans, the detection of virulence genes (on the pYV and pVM82 plasmids

  16. Antigenic relationship and functional properties of Yersinia porins.

    PubMed

    Vostrikova, P; Likhatskaya, G N; Novikova, D; Solovyeva, T F

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the molecular structure and functional properties of major pore-forming proteins isolated as peptidoglycan (PG)-protein complexes from four Yersinia species (Y. intermedia, Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii and Y. frederiksenii) cultured as various temperatures. Despite the close antigenic relationship, Yersinia porins revealed different functional properties. When reconstituted in model membranes, the PG-protein complexes induced conductance which was different for the "cold" (grown at 6-8 degrees C) and "warm" (grown at 37 degrees C) variants of microbial cultures. We conclude that the functional state of Yersinia porins in the outer membrane depends on the cultivation temperature.

  17. New bacteriophage typing system for Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia frederiksenii, and Yersinia intermedia: correlation with serotyping, biotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Baker, P M; Farmer, J J

    1982-03-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is listed as a single species in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, but has recently been split into "true" Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. frederiksenii. From 48 bacteriophages isolated from raw sewage, 24 were chosen as being the most useful for differentiating strains within the four Yersinia species. The composite set of 24 phages typed 92% of 236 Y. enterocolitica strains, 100% of 16 Y. kristensenii strains, 97% of 29 Y. frederiksenii strains, and 90% of 20 Y. intermedia strains. The most common phage type in any of the groups contained 22% of the strains tested, but most of the phage types contained greater than 5% of the strains. The new typing schema was tested in three outbreaks of Y. enterocolitica, and the results agreed well with serotyping and epidemiological findings. In the same outbreaks, biotyping (API 20E profiles; Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and antibiograms were less reliable markers and probably should be used only in conjunction with serotyping or phage typing or both. Caution should be used in identifying cultures of Y. frederiksenii and Y. intermedia with the API 20E system, since the tests at 37 degrees C for L-rhamnose and melibiose fermentation are often delayed past 24 h, which is the cut-off point for the final reading in the API system. There were distinct differences in the susceptibilities of Y. enterocolitica and Y. kristensenii to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephalothin, which adds further support for classifying the latter as a separate species.

  18. Haemagglutinating, adhesive and physico-chemical surface properties of different Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia enterocolitica-like bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kihlström, E; Magnusson, K E

    1983-04-01

    Fourteen strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, two strains of Yersinia kristensenii and one strain of Yersinia frederiksenii were investigated for haemagglutination, association with cultured cells, motility and physico-chemical surface properties. Three of the Y. enterocolitica strains, both Y. kristensenii and the Y. frederiksenii strain caused haemagglutination. Y. enterocolitica O-serotype 3 had the greatest tendency to associate with cultured cells. No correlation was seen between association and haemagglutination or motility. Bacterial cytotoxicity towards cultured cells was lost and haemagglutination acquired after repeated subcultivation. haemagglutinating strains were more hydrophobic than non-haemagglutinating strains. These results indicate that the bacterial surface structures, probably fimbriae, conferring bacterial haemagglutinating properties, are hydrophobic.

  19. Occurrence of Yersinia spp. in foods in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falcão, D P

    1991-11-01

    Over the past 9 years, 468 bacterial strains isolated from raw and pasteurized milk, beef and pork, bovine and chicken liver, chicken heart, gizzards and lung sausage, hamburger, cheese and lettuce in different regions of the State of São Paulo and in the city of Rio de Janeiro were received by the Reference Laboratory for Yersinia in Brazil. All were confirmed to be Yersinia spp. The 468 Yersinia isolates were grouped as 184 strains because some of the bacteria isolated from the same food sample belonged to the same species, and were considered to be a single strain. The Yersinia food strains were classified as Y. enterocolitica (46), Y. intermedia (67), Y. frederiksenii (20), Y. kristensenii (8) and 43 of them were biochemically atypical. Pathogenic types were not detected.

  20. [A diagnostic serum with antibodies to virulent Yersinia].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, I V; Gorokhov, V I

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic agglutinating adsorbed rabbit serum with antibodies to Yersinia strains containing virulence plasmid with molecular mass of 40-50 mD was prepared. Trials of this serum in agglutination test on the glass with 69 Yersinia strains (Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. pseudotuberculosis) and with 42 other Enterobacteriaceae strains have confirmed the specificity and sufficiently high activity of the agent in respect of virulent Yersinia strains. Experiments have demonstrated the possibility of using this serum in tests for the detection of yersiniasis agents and for rapid assessment of individual Yersinia clones in respect of the presence of plasmid with a molecular mass of 40-50 mD.

  1. Enumeration and confirmation of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, and Aeromonas sobria isolated from raw milk and other milk products in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Melas, D S; Papageorgiou, D K; Mantis, A I

    1999-05-01

    A total of 138 raw cow's and 57 raw ewe's milk samples; 80 pasteurized cow's milk samples; 39 Anthotyros cheese, 36 Manouri cheese, and 23 Feta cheese samples; and 15 rice pudding samples were examined for the presence and any countable population of Aeromonas species. Twenty-two (15.9%) of the 138 cow's milk samples analyzed were contaminated with A. hydrophila. In 13 of these samples, populations of 3.0x10(2) to 5.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in starch ampicillin agar (SAA). Eighteen cow's milk samples (13.0%) were contaminated with A. caviae, and in eight of these samples, populations of 2.0x10(2) to 3.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in SAA. Five cow's milk samples (3.6%) were contaminated with A. sobria, and in two of these samples, populations of 2.5x10(3) and 5.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in SAA. Eleven cow's milk samples (7.9%) were contaminated with other Aeromonas spp. not classified. Eight (14.0%) of the 57 ewe's milk samples analyzed were contaminated with A. hydrophila. In these samples, populations of 5.0x10(2) to 5.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in SAA. Six ewe's milk samples (10.5%) were contaminated with A. caviae, and populations of 1.5x10(2) to 1.0x10(3) CFU/ ml were counted in SAA. Two ewe's milk samples (3.5%) were contaminated with A. sobria, and populations counted in SAA were 5.0x10(2) and 1.0x10(3) CFU/ml. Four samples (7.0%) were contaminated with other Aeromonas spp. not classified. A. hydrophila was recovered in 4 (10.2%) and 3 (8.3%) of the Anthotyros and Manouri cheese samples analyzed, respectively, but no countable populations were noted in SAA. None of the pasteurized milk, Feta cheese, and rice pudding samples yielded Aeromonas spp. The results of this work indicate that motile Aeromonas are common in raw milk in Greece. Also, the presence of A. hydrophila in the whey cheeses Anthotyros and Manouri indicates that postprocessing contaminations of these products with motile Aeromonas may occur during production.

  2. Studies on the serology of flagellar antigens of Yersinia enterocolitica and related Yersinia species.

    PubMed

    Aleksić, S; Bockemühl, J; Lange, F

    1986-05-01

    A total of 1242 strains of Y. enterocolitica, 104 strains of Y. frederiksenii, 95 strains of Y. kristensenii and 85 strains of Y. intermedia were serotyped with antisera against 56 O antigens and 19 H antigens according to the extended antigenic scheme of Wauters, and with additional antisera against 4 somatic and 19 flagellar antigens not previously described. H antigens of Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. intermedia turned out to be rather homogeneous without distinct subfactors. In these species the scope of identified serovars was narrow. Flagellar antigens of Y. enterocolitica were mostly composed of several subfactors, leading to a total of 117 serovars identified in the species. A number of cross-reactions between Yersinia H antigens were observed which could be avoided by absorption without significant lowering of the titre. Flagellar antigens of Yersinia were monophasic, and species specific. The antigens remained stable after storage in agar stabs and repeated subcultures. The epidemiological value of serotyping is demonstrated by strains from three different sources. It is suggested serotyping of Yersinia strains should be performed in three steps: O typing of the prevailing enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica serogroups in the medical routine laboratory; O and H typing of Y. enterocolitica by National Reference Centres applying a typing scheme reduced to this species; and O and H typing of Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. intermedia by specialized International Centres using an extended typing scheme. The need for international standards comparable to those established for Salmonella is emphasized.

  3. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chain, Patrick S. G.; Carniel, E.; Larimer, Frank W; Lamerdin, Jane; Vergez, Lisa; Land, Miriam L; Motin, V. L.; Brubaker, R. R.; Fowler, J.; Hinnebusch, J.; Marceau, M.; Medigue, Claudine; Chenal-Francisque, V.; Souza, B.; Dacheux, D.; Elliott, J. M.; Derbise, A.; Hauser, Loren John; Garcia, Emilio

    2004-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons with available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveal 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, to our knowledge, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 other pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive insertion sequence-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of preexisting gene expression pathways, appear to be more important than acquisition of genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

  4. Insights into the genome evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, B; Stoutland, P; Derbise, A; Georgescu, A; Elliott, J; Land, M; Marceau, M; Motin, V; Hinnebusch, J; Simonet, M; Medigue, C; Dacheux, D; Chenal-Francisque, V; Regala, W; Brubaker, R R; Carniel, E; Chain, P; Verguez, L; Fowler, J; Garcia, E; Lamerdin, J; Hauser, L; Larimer, F

    2004-01-24

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons to available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveals 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 new pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive IS-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of pre-existing gene expression pathways appear to be more important than acquisition of new genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

  5. Current activities of the Yersinia effector protein YopM.

    PubMed

    Höfling, Sabrina; Grabowski, Benjamin; Norkowski, Stefanie; Schmidt, M Alexander; Rüter, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Yersinia outer protein M (YopM) belongs to the group of Yop effector proteins, which are highly conserved among pathogenic Yersinia species. During infection, the effectors are delivered into the host cell cytoplasm via the type 3 secretion system to subvert the host immune response and support the survival of Yersinia. In contrast to the other Yop effectors, YopM does not possess a known enzymatic activity and its molecular mechanism(s) of action remain(s) poorly understood. However, YopM was shown to promote colonization and dissemination of Yersinia, thus being crucial for the pathogen's virulence in vivo. Moreover, YopM interacts with several host cell proteins and might utilize them to execute its anti-inflammatory activities. The results obtained so far indicate that YopM is a multifunctional protein that counteracts the host immune defense by multiple activities, which are at least partially independent of each other. Finally, its functions seem to be also influenced by differences between the specific YopM isoforms expressed by Yersinia subspecies. In this review, we focus on the global as well as more specific contribution of YopM to virulence of Yersinia during infection and point out the various extra- and intracellular molecular functions of YopM. In addition, the novel cell-penetrating ability of recombinant YopM and its potential applications as a self-delivering immunomodulatory therapeutic will be discussed.

  6. Multilocus Sequence Typing for Studying Genetic Relationships among Yersinia Species

    PubMed Central

    Kotetishvili, Mamuka; Kreger, Arnold; Wauters, Georges; Morris, J. Glenn; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Stine, O. Colin

    2005-01-01

    The intra- and interspecies genetic relationships of 58 strains representing all currently known species of the genus Yersinia were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), using sequence data from 16S RNA, glnA, gyrB, recA, and Y-HSP60 loci. Yersinia aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. intermedia, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri were genetically more homogeneous than were Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. mollaretii. The MLST data concerning the genetic relatedness within and among various species of Yersinia support the idea that Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis are two lineages within the same species rather than two distinct species. Y. ruckeri is the genetically most distant species within the genus. There was evidence of O-antigen switching and genetic recombination within and among various species of Yersinia. The genetic relatedness data obtained by MLST of the four housekeeping genes and 16S RNA agreed in most, but not all, instances. MLST was better suited for determining genetic relatedness among yersiniae than was 16S RNA analysis. Some strains of Y. frederiksenii and Y. kristensenii are genetically less related to other strains within those species, compared to strains of all other species within the genus. The taxonomic standing of these strains should be further examined because they may represent currently unrecognized Yersinia species. PMID:15956383

  7. Comparison of enrichment and plating media for isolation of Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Cox, N A; Bailey, J S; Del Corral, F; Shotts, E B

    1990-04-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Serotypes 0:3 or 0:8), Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia kristensenii, or Yersinia intermedia along with 10(8) cells of each of three extraneous organisms (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas fragi), all commonly found on market poultry, were inoculated into five enrichment media followed by streaking onto 11 plating media to determine the most-efficacious combinations for future surveys or assessment studies. For Yersinia enterocolitica (0:8), infrequent recoveries were made using yeast extract-rosebengal-bile oxalate sorbose broth and phosphate-buffered saline (4 C) followed by plating onto pectin, DNase-Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate)-sorbitol, MacConkey-Tween 80, or cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agars. With Y. enterocolitica (0:3), recoveries were most frequently made using phosphate-buffered saline, sorbitol bile (incubated for 17 days) and yeast extract-rosebengal-bile oxalate sorbose broth followed by plating onto pectin, CIN, bismuth sulfite (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI), or modified Rimler-Shotts agar. For Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. intermedia, incubation in sorbitol bile for 17 days or in yeast extract-rosebengal-bile oxalate sorbose broth, followed by plating onto CIN, pectin, DNase-Tween/80-sorbitol, cellobiose-arginine-lysine agar, or MacConkey-Tween 80 agar yielded the most-frequent recoveries. Overall, the CIN and pectin agars performed best for the recovery of the Yersinia bacterium; the modified selenite broth and the bismuth-sulfite plating agars were unsatisfactory in the present study.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing for studying genetic relationships among Yersinia species.

    PubMed

    Kotetishvili, Mamuka; Kreger, Arnold; Wauters, Georges; Morris, J Glenn; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Stine, O Colin

    2005-06-01

    The intra- and interspecies genetic relationships of 58 strains representing all currently known species of the genus Yersinia were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), using sequence data from 16S RNA, glnA, gyrB, recA, and Y-HSP60 loci. Yersinia aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. intermedia, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri were genetically more homogeneous than were Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. mollaretii. The MLST data concerning the genetic relatedness within and among various species of Yersinia support the idea that Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis are two lineages within the same species rather than two distinct species. Y. ruckeri is the genetically most distant species within the genus. There was evidence of O-antigen switching and genetic recombination within and among various species of Yersinia. The genetic relatedness data obtained by MLST of the four housekeeping genes and 16S RNA agreed in most, but not all, instances. MLST was better suited for determining genetic relatedness among yersiniae than was 16S RNA analysis. Some strains of Y. frederiksenii and Y. kristensenii are genetically less related to other strains within those species, compared to strains of all other species within the genus. The taxonomic standing of these strains should be further examined because they may represent currently unrecognized Yersinia species.

  9. [Occurrence of bacteria of the Yersinia genus in surface water].

    PubMed

    Krogulska, B; Maleszewska, J

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was determination of the frequency of occurrence of Yersinia genus bacteria in surface waters polluted to various degrees with bacteria of the coliform and of fecal coli. For detection of Yersinia rods the previously elaborated medium Endo MLCe and the membrane filter method were applied. Samples of 42 surface waters were examined, including 26 from rivers and 16 from lakes, ponds and clay-pits. On the basis of sanitary bacteriological analysis 16 surface waters were classified to class I purity, 10 to class II, the remaining ones to class III or beyond classification. Yersinia rods were detected in 15 water bodies that is 35.7% of the examined waters. A total of 27 Yersinia strains were identified with dominance of Y. intermedia (14 strains) and Y. enterocolitica (10 strains). Three strains represented by the species Yersinia frederiksenii. Most of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotype 1, the particular strains being represented by various serotypes. Hence their different origin may be concluded. The pathogenic serotypes 0:3 and 0:9 of Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected. PMID:1308748

  10. Genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Beatson, Scott A; das Graças de Luna, Maria; Bachmann, Nathan L; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Hanks, Kirstin R; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Wee, Bryan A; Freitas-Almeida, Angela C; Dos Santos, Paula A; de Melo, Janyne T B; Squire, Derrick J P; Cunningham, Adam F; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Henderson, Ian R

    2011-03-01

    Aeromonas caviae is a Gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrhea in children. Here we present the first genome sequence of an A. caviae strain that was isolated as the sole pathogen from a child with profuse diarrhea.

  11. Aeromonas hydrophila in 2010: Characteristics of Alabama outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a second year, epidemics associated with a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size Alabama (AL) catfish. During this period, the Alabama Fish Farming Center diagnosed outbreaks of this strain of A. hydrophila on 25% (28/113) o...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Aeromonas diversa Type Strain.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Maribel; Spataro, Nino; Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Lorén, J Gaspar; Bosch, Elena; Fusté, M Carmen

    2013-06-27

    We present here the first genome sequence of the Aeromonas diversa type strain (CECT 4254(T)). This strain was isolated from the leg wound of a patient in New Orleans (Louisiana) and was originally described as enteric group 501 and distinguished from A. schubertii by DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypical characterization.

  13. Malate dehydrogenase: a useful phylogenetic marker for the genus Aeromonas.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Maribel; Miñana-Galbis, David; Garreta, Albert; Lorén, J Gaspar; Fusté, M Carmen

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of correct genealogies among biological entities, the estimation of the divergence time between organisms or the study of the different events that occur along evolutionary lineages are not always based on suitable genes. For reliable results, it is necessary to look at full-length sequences of genes under stabilizing selection (neutral or purifying) and behaving as good molecular clocks. In bacteria it has been proved that the malate dehydrogenase gene (mdh) can be used to determine the inter- and intraspecies divergence, and hence this gene constitutes a potential marker for phylogeny and bacterial population genetics. We have sequenced the full-length mdh gene in 36 type and reference strains of Aeromonas. The species grouping obtained in the phylogenetic tree derived from mdh sequences was in agreement with that currently accepted for the genus Aeromonas. The maximum likelihood models applied to our sequences indicated that the mdh gene is highly conserved among the Aeromonas species and the main evolutionary force acting on it is purifying selection. Only two sites under potential diversifying selection were identified (T 108 and S 193). In order to determine if these two residues could have an influence on the MDH structure, we mapped them in a three-dimensional model constructed from the sequence of A. hydrophila using the human mitochondrial MDH as a template. The presence of purifying selection together with the linear relationship between substitutions and gene divergence makes the mdh an excellent candidate gene for a phylogeny of Aeromonas and probably for other bacterial groups.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen residing in freshwater environments that causes infection in fish and mammals. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila strain TN97-08 isolated from a diseased bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in 1997. PMID:27231367

  15. Prospective Nationwide Study of Aeromonas Infections in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Brigitte; Kodjo, Angeli; Laurent, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical Aeromonas infections in France. During 6 months (May to October 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. They included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections. PMID:19244464

  16. SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT AEROMONAS SPECIES TO COPPER AND SILVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas bacteria are common flora in surface and ground waters and are considered to be human pathogens. They can also be found in municipally treated drinking water, likely as a component of biofilms, as found in distribution system pipes and point of use water filters. It ...

  17. Aeromonas hydrophila: Observations of the Alabama industry in 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, the Alabama catfish industry experienced widespread mortality from infection by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. As soon as pond water temperatures warmed above 26 degrees centigrade (80 degrees fahrenheit) in 2010, epidemics have again occurred across the industry. This talk, which is a...

  18. Mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Wojskowicz, Piotr; Kiśluk, Joanna; Fil, Dawid; Kemona, Andrzej; Dadan, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Yersiniosis is an acute or chronic, zoonotic disease caused by infection of Gram-negative rods Yersinia enterocolitica. It can be transmitted by the consumption of originally contaminated food products (pork, unpasteurized milk) or secondarily contaminated with animal or vegetable products. The clinical picture of infection may have a variable course is related to the age and physical condition of the patient, or pathogenic properties of microorganisms. Infection caused by Y. enterocolitica can occur in different clinical forms: food poisoning, colitis, mesentric lymphadenitis, erythema nodosum, arthritis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis. The aim of this study was to present a rare case of infection with Y. enterocolitica mesenteric lymph nodes coexistent with appendicitis. PMID:26557944

  19. Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, R D; Fetherston, J D

    1997-01-01

    Plague is a widespread zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and has had devastating effects on the human population throughout history. Disappearance of the disease is unlikely due to the wide range of mammalian hosts and their attendant fleas. The flea/rodent life cycle of Y. pestis, a gram-negative obligate pathogen, exposes it to very different environmental conditions and has resulted in some novel traits facilitating transmission and infection. Studies characterizing virulence determinants of Y. pestis have identified novel mechanisms for overcoming host defenses. Regulatory systems controlling the expression of some of these virulence factors have proven quite complex. These areas of research have provide new insights into the host-parasite relationship. This review will update our present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague. PMID:8993858

  20. New bacteriophage typing system for Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia frederiksenii, and Yersinia intermedia: correlation with serotyping, biotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, P M; Farmer, J J

    1982-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is listed as a single species in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, but has recently been split into "true" Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. frederiksenii. From 48 bacteriophages isolated from raw sewage, 24 were chosen as being the most useful for differentiating strains within the four Yersinia species. The composite set of 24 phages typed 92% of 236 Y. enterocolitica strains, 100% of 16 Y. kristensenii strains, 97% of 29 Y. frederiksenii strains, and 90% of 20 Y. intermedia strains. The most common phage type in any of the groups contained 22% of the strains tested, but most of the phage types contained greater than 5% of the strains. The new typing schema was tested in three outbreaks of Y. enterocolitica, and the results agreed well with serotyping and epidemiological findings. In the same outbreaks, biotyping (API 20E profiles; Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and antibiograms were less reliable markers and probably should be used only in conjunction with serotyping or phage typing or both. Caution should be used in identifying cultures of Y. frederiksenii and Y. intermedia with the API 20E system, since the tests at 37 degrees C for L-rhamnose and melibiose fermentation are often delayed past 24 h, which is the cut-off point for the final reading in the API system. There were distinct differences in the susceptibilities of Y. enterocolitica and Y. kristensenii to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephalothin, which adds further support for classifying the latter as a separate species. Images PMID:7076822

  1. Clinical Implications of Species Identification in Monomicrobial Aeromonas Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chang, Ming-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Shih, Hsin-I; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004–2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%), A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%), A. caviae (43, 28.1%), and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5%) were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes was species-specific: blaAQU-1, blaMOX, or blaCepH was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and blaCphA was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively). A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048). Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 was an independent mortality risk factor. Conclusions/Significance Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen. PMID:25679227

  2. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  3. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-02-26

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Virulent Yersinia enterocolitica Strains Unable To Ferment Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Guiyoule, Annie; Guinet, Françoise; Martin, Liliane; Benoit, Catherine; Desplaces, Nicole; Carniel, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Several atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia strains, isolated from clinical samples and sometimes associated with symptoms, proved to have full virulence potential in in vitro and in vivo testings. DNA-relatedness studies revealed that they were authentic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. Therefore, atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia isolates should be analyzed for their virulence potential. PMID:9705424

  5. Faecal contamination indicators, Salmonella, Vibrio and Aeromonas in water used for the irrigation of agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Pianietti, A; Sabatini, L; Bruscolini, F; Chiaverini, F; Cecchetti, G

    2004-04-01

    The faecal contamination indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the genera Salmonella, Vibrio, Aeromonas were investigated in water samples used for irrigation. During 4 months, 52 samples were taken. The methods used were: multiple tube fermentation method for faecal contamination indicators and membrane filtration techniques for salmonella, aeromonas and vibrio. Two samples were positive for Salmonella spp., fourteen for Aeromonas spp. and no samples for Vibrio spp. No correlation was found between aeromonas and the indicators of faecal contamination. Regarding Aeromonas spp., 21.6% of the strains were adhesive and 12.6% cytotoxic: this confirms the possible role of aeromonas in human pathologies. These results are important to determine the quality of irrigation water in relation to human health. In fact, the spray or sprinkler irrigation produces bioaerosol, which can contaminate the crops that are likely to be eaten uncooked. In addition, the flood or furrow irrigation represents a risk to field workers.

  6. Faecal contamination indicators, Salmonella, Vibrio and Aeromonas in water used for the irrigation of agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Pianietti, A; Sabatini, L; Bruscolini, F; Chiaverini, F; Cecchetti, G

    2004-04-01

    The faecal contamination indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the genera Salmonella, Vibrio, Aeromonas were investigated in water samples used for irrigation. During 4 months, 52 samples were taken. The methods used were: multiple tube fermentation method for faecal contamination indicators and membrane filtration techniques for salmonella, aeromonas and vibrio. Two samples were positive for Salmonella spp., fourteen for Aeromonas spp. and no samples for Vibrio spp. No correlation was found between aeromonas and the indicators of faecal contamination. Regarding Aeromonas spp., 21.6% of the strains were adhesive and 12.6% cytotoxic: this confirms the possible role of aeromonas in human pathologies. These results are important to determine the quality of irrigation water in relation to human health. In fact, the spray or sprinkler irrigation produces bioaerosol, which can contaminate the crops that are likely to be eaten uncooked. In addition, the flood or furrow irrigation represents a risk to field workers. PMID:15061497

  7. Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. Results When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. Conclusion These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates. PMID:21073689

  8. Production of Enterotoxin by Yersinia bercovieri, a Recently Identified Yersinia enterocolitica-Like Species

    PubMed Central

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Kreger, Arnold; Joseph, Aaron; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Fasano, Alessio; Wauters, Georges; Harnett, Norma; DeTolla, Louis; Morris, J. Glenn

    1999-01-01

    Yersinia bercovieri, a recently identified Y. enterocolitica-like species, produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (designated YbST) which has biologic activity in infant mice and increases short circuit current in Ussing chambers. Although YbST has some properties in common with the heat-stable enterotoxins of Y. enterocolitica (YST I and YST II), it appears to be a novel toxin because (i) it was not neutralized by anti-YST I antiserum, (ii) YbST-neutralizing antiserum did not neutralize YST I, and (iii) Y. bercovieri strains did not hybridize with genetic probes for yst I, yst II, and other known enterotoxins. PMID:9916117

  9. The Functions of Effector Proteins in Yersinia Virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linglin; Mei, Meng; Yu, Chan; Shen, Wenwen; Ma, Lixin; He, Jiewang; Yi, Li

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia species are bacterial pathogens that can cause plague and intestinal diseases after invading into human cells through the Three Secretion System (TTSS). The effect of pathogenesis is mediated by Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) and manifested as down-regulation of the cytokine genes expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, its pathogenesis can also manipulate the disorder of host innate immune system and cell death such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Among the Yersinia effector proteins, YopB and YopD assist the injection of other virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm, while YopE, YopH, YopJ, YopO, and YopT target on disrupting host cell signaling pathways in the host cytosols. Many efforts have been applied to reveal that intracellular proteins such as Rho-GTPase, and transmembrane receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) both play critical roles in Yersinia pathogenesis, establishing a connection between the pathogenic process and the signaling response. This review will mainly focus on how the effector proteins of Yersinia modulate the intrinsic signals in host cells and disturb the innate immunity of hosts through TTSS. PMID:27281989

  10. Cell death programs in Yersinia immunity and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Naomi H.; Brodsky, Igor E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell death plays a central role in host-pathogen interactions, as it can eliminate the pathogen's replicative niche and provide pro-inflammatory signals necessary for an effective immune response; conversely, cell death can allow pathogens to eliminate immune cells and evade anti-microbial effector mechanisms. In response to developmental signals or cell-intrinsic stresses, the executioner caspases-3 and -7 mediate apoptotic cell death, which is generally viewed as immunologically silent or immunosuppressive. A proinflammatory form of cell death that requires caspase-1, termed pyroptosis, is activated in response to microbial products within the host cytosol or disruption of cellular membranes by microbial pathogens. Infection by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia has features of both apoptosis and pyroptosis. Cell death and caspase-1 processing in Yersinia-infected cells occur in response to inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling by the Yersinia virulence factor YopJ. However, the molecular basis of YopJ-induced cell death, and the role of different death pathways in anti-Yersinia immune responses remain enigmatic. Here, we discuss the role that cell death may play in inducing specific pro-inflammatory signals that shape innate and adaptive immune responses against Yersinia infection. PMID:23226685

  11. The Functions of Effector Proteins in Yersinia Virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linglin; Mei, Meng; Yu, Chan; Shen, Wenwen; Ma, Lixin; He, Jiewang; Yi, Li

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia species are bacterial pathogens that can cause plague and intestinal diseases after invading into human cells through the Three Secretion System (TTSS). The effect of pathogenesis is mediated by Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) and manifested as down-regulation of the cytokine genes expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, its pathogenesis can also manipulate the disorder of host innate immune system and cell death such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Among the Yersinia effector proteins, YopB and YopD assist the injection of other virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm, while YopE, YopH, YopJ, YopO, and YopT target on disrupting host cell signaling pathways in the host cytosols. Many efforts have been applied to reveal that intracellular proteins such as Rho-GTPase, and transmembrane receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) both play critical roles in Yersinia pathogenesis, establishing a connection between the pathogenic process and the signaling response. This review will mainly focus on how the effector proteins of Yersinia modulate the intrinsic signals in host cells and disturb the innate immunity of hosts through TTSS.

  12. Yersiniae and iron. A study in host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed

    Robins-Browne, R M; Prpic, J K; Stuart, S J

    1987-01-01

    Most enterobacteria obtain the iron they require for growth by producing low-molecular-weight high-affinity iron ligands known as siderophores. These substances chelate and solubilize iron making it available to bacteria. The pathogenic Yersiniae produce no detectable siderophores; thus, they proliferate poorly or not at all under conditions of iron limitation. Most systemic infections with Yersinia enterocolitica occur in patients who are overloaded with iron. This may be due to the presence of excess iron in the tissues of such patients, but the adverse effects of excess iron on immune responsiveness may also be partly responsible. Many patients with iron overload receive treatment with desferrioxamine B, a bacterial siderophore which promotes growth of Y. enterocolitica in vitro and in vivo. Thus, desferrioxamine B may add to the risk of systemic yersiniosis developing in patients with siderosis. Some strains of Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia intermedia and Yersinia kristensenii produce the hydroxamate siderophore aerobactin, but, paradoxically, they appear to be unable to proliferate in tissues.

  13. Clonal diversity and relationships among strains of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Caugant, D A; Aleksic, S; Mollaret, H H; Selander, R K; Kapperud, G

    1989-12-01

    Allelic variation in the chromosomal genome of 81 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica and single isolates of Yersinia intermedia, Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia mollaretii, and Yersinia kristensenii was assessed by analysis of electrophoretically demonstrable polymorphism in 21 genes encoding metabolic enzymes. Eighteen distinctive multilocus genotypes (electrophoretic types [ETs]) were identified. Clustering of the ETs from a matrix of pairwise genetic distances, based on the 21 enzyme loci, confirmed the genetic distinctness of serogroup 3 isolates of Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii, Y. mollaretii, and Y. kristensenii and identified another serogroup 3 isolate that was also not a member of Y. enterocolitica. The 13 ETs of Y. enterocolitica clustered into two groups: cluster A, which included eight ETs represented by isolates of serogroups 1; 2; 3; 5,27; and 9, and cluster B, which included four ETs represented by isolates of serogroups 8, 13, and 21. Clones of cluster A were found to be distributed worldwide, but those of cluster B were largely restricted to North America. Isolates of genotypes belonging to cluster B were lethal to mice, whereas those of cluster A were not, suggesting an influence of the chromosomal background on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica.

  14. Ferric Enterochelin Transport in Yersinia enterocolitica: Molecular and Evolutionary Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, S.; Fischer, D.; Heesemann, J.

    1999-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is well equipped for siderophore piracy, encompassing the utilization of siderophores such as ferrioxamine, ferrichrome, and ferrienterochelin. In this study, we report on the molecular and functional characterization of the Yersinia fep-fes gene cluster orthologous to the Escherichia coli ferrienterochelin transport genes (fepA, fepDGC, and fepB) and the esterase gene fes. In vitro transcription-translation analysis identified polypeptides of 30 and 35 kDa encoded by fepC and fes, respectively. A frameshift mutation within the fepA gene led to expression of a truncated polypeptide of 40 kDa. The fepD, fepG, and fes genes of Y. enterocolitica were shown to complement corresponding E. coli mutants. Insertional mutagenesis of fepD or fes genes abrogates enterochelin-supported growth of Y. enterocolitica on iron-chelated media. In contrast to E. coli, the fep-fes gene cluster in Y. enterocolitica consists solely of genes required for uptake and utilization of enterochelin (fep) and not of enterochelin synthesis genes such as entF. By Southern hybridization, fepDGC and fes sequences could be detected in Y. enterocolitica biotypes IB, IA, and II but not in biotype IV strains, Yersinia pestis, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains. According to sequence alignment data and the coherent structure of the Yersinia fep-fes gene cluster, we suggest early genetic divergence of ferrienterochelin uptake determinants among species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:10515929

  15. Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov., the redmouth (RM) bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, W.H.; Ross, A.J.; Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of the redmouth (RM) bacterium, one of the etiological agents of redmouth disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and certain other fishes, were characterized by means of their biochemical reactions, by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, and by determination of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratios in DNA. The DNA relatedness studies confirmed the fact that the RM bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and that they comprise a single species that is not closely related to any other species of Enterobacteriaceae. They are about 30% related to species of both Serratia and Yersinia. A comparison of the biochemical reactions of RM bacteria and serratiae indicated that there are many differences between these organisms and that biochemically the RM bacteria are most closely related to yersiniae. The G+C ratios of RM bacteria were approximated to be between 47.5 and 48.5% These values are similar to those of yersiniae but markedly different from those of serratiae. On the basis of their biochemical reactions and their G+C ratios, the RM bacteria are considered to be a new species of Yersinia, for which the name Yersinia ruckeri is proposed. Strain 2396-61 (= ATCC 29473) is designated the type strain of the species.

  16. Antibiogram characterization and putative virulence genes in Aeromonas species isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas species are broadly distributed in nature and agricultural environments and have been isolated from feces, bedding, and drinking water of healthy pigs. We assessed the incidence, virulence properties, and antimicrobial resistance profile of Aeromonas spp., isolated from pig feces. Antibiogram was done using the disc diffusion methods, and polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of putative virulence genes. Identification of isolates revealed three phenotypic species with percentage distribution as follows: Aeromonas hydrophila 23 (45.1 %), Aeromonas caviae 16 (31.4 %), and Aeromonas sobria 12 (23.5 %). All Aeromonas isolates in the study were absolutely susceptible to cefotaxime and resistant to penicillin. A. cavaie and A. sobria demonstrated absolute susceptibility against ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. Aeromonas species showed varied susceptibility to cephalothin as follows: A. hydrophila 78.3 %, A. cavaie 93.7 %, and A. sobria 91.7 %. The percentage distribution of virulence genes among Aeromonas isolates were as follows: Aerolysin (aer) 74.5 %, flagellin gene (fla) 68.6 %, cytotoxin (hly A) 43.1 %, lipase (lip) 39.2 %, enterotoxic activities (ast) 31.3 %, and cytotonic gene (alt) 13.7 %. Reports from this study shows that Aeromonas species isolated from pig fecal samples are multi-drug resistant and possess virulence potential which may result to possible risk of human or animal infection and likely contamination of food and water from this sources.

  17. LitR Is a Repressor of syp Genes and Has a Temperature-Sensitive Regulatory Effect on Biofilm Formation and Colony Morphology in Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Bjelland, Ane Mohn; Ronessen, Maria; Robertsen, Espen; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida is the etiological agent of cold water vibriosis, a disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is kept under control due to an effective vaccine. A seawater temperature below 12°C is normally required for disease development. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-regulated communication system that bacteria use to coordinate activities involved in colonization and pathogenesis, and we have previously shown that inactivation of the QS master regulator LitR attenuates the V. salmonicida strain LFI1238 in a fish model. We show here that strain LFI1238 and a panel of naturally occurring V. salmonicida strains are poor biofilm producers. Inactivation of litR in the LFI1238 strain enhances medium- and temperature-dependent adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Chemical treatment and electron microscopy of the biofilm identified an extracellular matrix consisting mainly of a fibrous network, proteins, and polysaccharides. Further, by microarray analysis of planktonic and biofilm cells, we identified a number of genes regulated by LitR and, among these, were homologues of the Vibrio fischeri symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) genes. The syp genes were regulated by LitR in both planktonic and biofilm lifestyle analyses. Disruption of syp genes in the V. salmonicida ΔlitR mutant alleviated adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Hence, LitR is a repressor of syp transcription that is necessary for expression of the phenotypes examined. The regulatory effect of LitR on colony morphology and biofilm formation is temperature sensitive and weak or absent at temperatures above the bacterium's upper threshold for pathogenicity. PMID:24973072

  18. The importance of the magnesium transporter MgtB for virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Donna C; Joshua, George W P; Wren, Brendan W; Oyston, Petra C F

    2014-12-01

    Mg(2+) has been shown to be an important signal controlling gene regulation via the PhoPQ two-component regulatory system for a range of Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The magnesium ion transporter MgtB is part of the complex PhoPQ regulon, being upregulated in response to low Mg(2+). Despite the presence of other Mg(2+) transport systems in Yersinia, inactivation of mgtB had a significant effect on the ability of the bacteria to scavenge this crucial ion. Whereas inactivation of PhoPQ is reported to adversely affect intracellular survival, we show that Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔmgtB mutants survived equally as well as the respective parent strain within macrophages, although they were more sensitive to killing in the Galleria model of infection. Surprisingly, despite MgtB being only one member of the Mg(2+) stimulon and PhoPQ controlling the expression levels of a range of genes including mgtB, the Yersinia ΔmgtB mutants were more highly attenuated than the equivalent Yersinia ΔphoP mutants in mouse models of infection. MgtB may be a suitable target for development of novel antimicrobials, and investigation of its role may help elucidate the contribution of this component of the PhoPQ regulon to pathogenesis.

  19. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Identifies Genetic Traits to Elucidate Their Different Ecologies

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Kaisa; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir. PMID:26605338

  20. virF-Positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Migratory Birds in Sweden†

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Taina; Waldenström, Jonas; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Olsen, Björn; Korkeala, Hannu

    2003-01-01

    During spring and autumn migrations, 468 fecal samples from 57 different species of migratory birds were collected in Sweden. In total, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 12.8% of collected samples. The most commonly found species was Yersinia enterocolitica, which was isolated from 5.6% of all collected samples, followed by Y. intermedia (3.8%), Y. frederiksenii (3.0%), Y. kristensenii (0.9%), Y. pseudotuberculosis (0.6%), and Y. rohdei (0.4%). The pathogenic, virF-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered from three thrushes. These strains belonged to the same bioserotype, 1/O:2, but had two different profiles as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with NotI and SpeI enzymes. In addition, 10 Y. enterocolitica strains, all from barnacle geese, belonged to bioserotype 3/O:3, which is associated with human disease. Two of the strains were pathogenic, carrying the virF gene on their plasmids. All pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica strains were recovered during the spring, and as the birds were caught during active migration they likely became infected at an earlier stage of the migration, thus potentially transporting these bacterial pathogens over long geographical distances. PMID:12902256

  1. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development.

  2. Genetically manipulated virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed Central

    Heesemann, J; Algermissen, B; Laufs, R

    1984-01-01

    Mobilizable virulence plasmids of Yersinia enterocolitica of serotypes O:3 and O:9 were constructed by cointegration of a mobilizable vector into the virulence plasmids. The obtained cointegrates were mobilized into plasmidless Y. enterocolitica strains of serotypes O:3, O:5, O:8, and O:9. The transfer experiments revealed the existence of two different subgroups of plasmid-associated traits. (i) Animal virulence functions (mouse lethality and conjuctivitis provocation) were only transferable to plasmid-cured derivatives of virulent parent strains (serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9), but they were not transferable to Y. enterocolitica antigen reference strains (serotypes O:3 and O:8) or to a plasmidless clinical isolate of serotype O:5. A further striking result was that a serotype O:8 strain regained the mouse lethality trait after receipt of a plasmid from a strain not lethal to mice. These results demonstrate that plasmid-mediated animal virulence functions are not uniformly expressed within Y. enterocolitica. (ii) The second subgroup of plasmid-mediated traits (calcium dependency, surface agglutinogens, HEp-2 cell adherence, and protein release) were transferable to all Y. enterocolitica recipient strains tested (serotypes O:3, O:5, O:8, and O:9 of different origin). For the first time HEp-2 cell adherence and temperature-induced release of five major protein species are described as transferable traits. Images PMID:6480101

  3. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are crucial in Bifidobacterium adolescentis-mediated inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Alexandra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries bacterial intestinal infections are commonly caused by enteropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. The interaction of the microbiota with the host immune system determines the adequacy of an appropriate response against pathogens. In this study we addressed whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis is protective during intestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed with B. adolescentis, infected with Yersinia enterocolitica, or B. adolescentis fed and subsequently infected with Yersinia enterocolitica. B. adolescentis fed and Yersinia infected mice were protected from Yersinia infection as indicated by a significantly reduced weight loss and splenic Yersinia load when compared to Yersinia infected mice. Moreover, protection from infection was associated with increased intestinal plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell function was investigated using depletion experiments by injecting B. adolescentis fed, Yersinia infected C57BL/6 mice with anti-mouse PDCA-1 antibody, to deplete plasmacytoid dendritic cells, or respective isotype control. The B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia dissemination to the spleen was abrogated after plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion indicating a crucial function for pDC in control of intestinal Yersinia infection. We suggest that feeding of B. adolescentis modulates the intestinal immune system in terms of increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies, which might account for the B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

  4. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Gomyoda, M; Kaneko, S

    1990-11-01

    A total of 1,835 Yersinia spp. were isolated from 925 (60.5%) of 1,530 wild mice and from 139 (79.9%) of 174 moles living in mountainous areas of eastern Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Yersinia spp. included 1,106 Yersinia enterocolitica, 26 Y. enterocolitica-like, 176 Yersinia mollaretii, 149 Yersinia frederiksenii, 70 Yersinia intermedia, 231 Yersinia kristensenii, 5 Yersinia aldovae, and 72 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was not isolated. Y. pseudotuberculosis was divided into 10 virulent 40- to 50-MDa plasmid-positive (P+) strains (serotypes 1b, 4b, and untypeable) and 62 plasmid-negative (P-) strains (serotypes 1b, 2b, 2c, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7, and untypeable). P+ strains of serotypes 1b (two strains), 4b (seven strains), and untypeable (one strain) were isolated from nine Apodemus specious and one Apodemus argenteus. The isolates of Yersinia spp. were more frequently detected in newborn mice and during the breeding season. The P+ Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered at less than 10(4) cells per g of the cecal contents. Thus, the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in small wild animals depends on the newborn animals born during the cold months, and wild mice in mountainous areas are important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  5. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H; Gomyoda, M; Kaneko, S

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1,835 Yersinia spp. were isolated from 925 (60.5%) of 1,530 wild mice and from 139 (79.9%) of 174 moles living in mountainous areas of eastern Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Yersinia spp. included 1,106 Yersinia enterocolitica, 26 Y. enterocolitica-like, 176 Yersinia mollaretii, 149 Yersinia frederiksenii, 70 Yersinia intermedia, 231 Yersinia kristensenii, 5 Yersinia aldovae, and 72 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was not isolated. Y. pseudotuberculosis was divided into 10 virulent 40- to 50-MDa plasmid-positive (P+) strains (serotypes 1b, 4b, and untypeable) and 62 plasmid-negative (P-) strains (serotypes 1b, 2b, 2c, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7, and untypeable). P+ strains of serotypes 1b (two strains), 4b (seven strains), and untypeable (one strain) were isolated from nine Apodemus specious and one Apodemus argenteus. The isolates of Yersinia spp. were more frequently detected in newborn mice and during the breeding season. The P+ Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered at less than 10(4) cells per g of the cecal contents. Thus, the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in small wild animals depends on the newborn animals born during the cold months, and wild mice in mountainous areas are important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Images PMID:2254420

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF′. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

  7. [Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Bacteriophage PhiYe-F10 Lysis Spectrum and Analysis of the Relationship between Lysis Ability and Virulence Gene of Yersinia Enterocolitica].

    PubMed

    Zha, Tao; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the lysis spectrum of Yersinia enterocolitica bacteriophage phiYe-F10 and to analyze the relationship between the lysis ability of phiYe-F10 and the virulence gene of Yersinia enterocolitica. To observe the lysis ability of the phage phiYe-F10 to the different Yersinia strains with the double-layer technique. The strains used in this study including 213 of Yersinia enterocolitica and 36 of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and 1 of Yersinia pestis. The virulence genes of these Yersinia enterocolitica (attachment invasion locus (ail) and enterotoxin (ystA, ystB) and yersinia adhesin A (yadA), virulence factor (virF), specific gene for lipopolysaccharide O-side chain of serotype O : 3 (rfbc) were all detected. Among the 213 Yersinia enterocolitica, 84 strains were O : 3 serotype (78 strains with rfbc gene), 10 were serotype O : 5, 13 were serotype O : 8, 34 were serotype O : 9 and 72 were other serotypes. Of these, 77 were typical pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica harboring with virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA+, virF+), and 15 were pathogenic bacterial strains deficiency virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA-, virF-) and the rest 121 were non pathogenic genotype strains. PhiYe-F10 lysed the 71 serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitica strains which were all carried with rfbc+, including 52 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, 19 nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed serotype O : 5, O : 9 and other serotype Y. enterocolitica, the lysis rate of serotype O : 3 was as high as 84.5%. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. Yersinia phage phiYe-F10 is highly specific for serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitic at 25 degrees C, which showed a typical narrow lysis spectrum. Phage phiYe-F10 can lysed much more pathogenic Y. enterocolitica than nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  8. [Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Bacteriophage PhiYe-F10 Lysis Spectrum and Analysis of the Relationship between Lysis Ability and Virulence Gene of Yersinia Enterocolitica].

    PubMed

    Zha, Tao; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the lysis spectrum of Yersinia enterocolitica bacteriophage phiYe-F10 and to analyze the relationship between the lysis ability of phiYe-F10 and the virulence gene of Yersinia enterocolitica. To observe the lysis ability of the phage phiYe-F10 to the different Yersinia strains with the double-layer technique. The strains used in this study including 213 of Yersinia enterocolitica and 36 of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and 1 of Yersinia pestis. The virulence genes of these Yersinia enterocolitica (attachment invasion locus (ail) and enterotoxin (ystA, ystB) and yersinia adhesin A (yadA), virulence factor (virF), specific gene for lipopolysaccharide O-side chain of serotype O : 3 (rfbc) were all detected. Among the 213 Yersinia enterocolitica, 84 strains were O : 3 serotype (78 strains with rfbc gene), 10 were serotype O : 5, 13 were serotype O : 8, 34 were serotype O : 9 and 72 were other serotypes. Of these, 77 were typical pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica harboring with virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA+, virF+), and 15 were pathogenic bacterial strains deficiency virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA-, virF-) and the rest 121 were non pathogenic genotype strains. PhiYe-F10 lysed the 71 serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitica strains which were all carried with rfbc+, including 52 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, 19 nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed serotype O : 5, O : 9 and other serotype Y. enterocolitica, the lysis rate of serotype O : 3 was as high as 84.5%. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. Yersinia phage phiYe-F10 is highly specific for serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitic at 25 degrees C, which showed a typical narrow lysis spectrum. Phage phiYe-F10 can lysed much more pathogenic Y. enterocolitica than nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica. PMID:27396162

  9. Detection of a Yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples.

    PubMed

    Giles, Timothy A; Greenwood, Alex D; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Giles, Tom C; Barrow, Paul A; Hannant, Duncan; Abu-Median, Abu-Bakr; Yon, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) and of mice (Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Liverpool) and Canada (Vancouver). The results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of Yersinia pestis, so caution should be taken when using this gene as a diagnostic marker. PMID:27602258

  10. Detection of a Yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Alex D.; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Giles, Tom C.; Barrow, Paul A.; Hannant, Duncan; Abu-Median, Abu-Bakr; Yon, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) and of mice (Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Liverpool) and Canada (Vancouver). The results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of Yersinia pestis, so caution should be taken when using this gene as a diagnostic marker. PMID:27602258

  11. Detection of a Yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Alex D.; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Giles, Tom C.; Barrow, Paul A.; Hannant, Duncan; Abu-Median, Abu-Bakr; Yon, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) and of mice (Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Liverpool) and Canada (Vancouver). The results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of Yersinia pestis, so caution should be taken when using this gene as a diagnostic marker.

  12. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia species and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in farm bulk tanks.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk.

  13. Application of Yersinia kristensenii bacteriocin as a specific marker for the rapid identification of suspected isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Toora, S

    1995-03-01

    Out of 143 suspected foods and clinical isolates of the genus Yersinia, 77 isolates were bacteriocin-sensitive and 66 bacteriocin non-sensitive. Of the 77 bacteriocin-sensitive isolates, 72 (93.5%) were identified as Y. enterocolitica and 5 (6.49%) as Y. frederiksenii. Out of 66 bacteriocin non-sensitive suspected isolates, 22 (33.3%) were identified as Yersinia spp. other than Y. enterocolitica and 43 (65.1%) were other Gram-negative bacteria with the exception of one (1.5%) isolate identified as Y. enterocolitica.

  14. Protective efficacy of recombinant Yersinia outer proteins against bubonic plague caused by encapsulated and nonencapsulated Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, G P; Strachan, S T; Benner, G E; Sample, A K; Anderson, G W; Adamovicz, J J; Welkos, S L; Pullen, J K; Friedlander, A M

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the role of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) in conferring protective immunity against plague, six yop loci from Yersinia pestis were individually amplified by PCR, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified and injected into mice. Most Yop-vaccinated animals succumbed to infection with either wild-type encapsulated Y. pestis or a virulent, nonencapsulated isogenic variant. Vaccination with YpkA significantly prolonged mean survival time but did not increase overall survival of mice infected with the nonencapsulated strain. The only significant protection against death was observed in YopD-vaccinated mice challenged with the nonencapsulated strain. PMID:10024607

  15. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  16. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  17. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  18. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the P...

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced.

  20. Production of Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS)- Dependent Siderophore by Aeromonas Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Amsaveni, Ramasamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy; Aravinth, Arthanari; Mary, Joseph Reshma; Vivekanandhan, Govindasami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas species are Gram-negative ubiquitous bacteria, facultative anaerobic rods that infect both invertebrates and vertebrates. Various fish species develop hemorrhagic disease and furunculosis due to Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas strains generate certain active compounds such as siderophores, which are the final products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) activity. The present study attempted to investigate the prevalence of Aeromonas isolates in marketed fish sources. We also examined the siderophore production ability of these isolates. Methods: Among the molecular tools, 16S rRNA analysis was used to identify Aeromonas species and their epidemiological distributions. The hemolytic activity of the strains and biochemical assays were used to confirm the identity of the isolates. We also determined the chemical nature of siderophores in these strains. Results: A total of seven Aeromonas isolates obtained from fish were included to determine the siderophore production. Of 7 isolates, 4 produced siderophore, and their chemical nature was also determined. The siderophore produced by Aeromonas was invariably found to be of hydroxamate. Four Aeromonas isolates were selected for PCR identification of NRPS-encoding gene. The conserved sequence was present in all four selected isolates. Furthermore, siderophores were qualitatively tested for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and a significant level of inhibitory activity was observed in siderophores from the four isolates. Conclusion: Our results showed the ability of the isolated strains in production of siderophores with a high level of activity against Salmonella paratyphi. These siderophores could find applications in biomedical industries. PMID:27155016

  1. Novel role for Aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the North American medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Worthen, Paul L; Johnson, Matthew; Graf, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The gut bacteria of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, were characterized. Biochemical tests and DNA sequences indicated that Aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. In this work we identified a new habitat for A. jandaei, and here we suggest that there is unexpected specificity between leeches and Aeromonas species.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  3. Aeromonas detection and their toxins from drinking water from reservoirs and drinking fountains.

    PubMed

    Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Di Bari, Marisa; Sanchez, Petra Sanchez; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli

    2008-03-01

    Aeromonads are inhabitants of aquatic ecosystems and are described as being involved in intestinal disturbances and other infections. A total of 200 drinking water samples from domestic and public reservoirs and drinking fountains located in São Paulo (Brazil), were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Samples were concentrated by membrane filtration and enriched in APW. ADA medium was used for Aeromonas isolation and colonies were confirmed by biochemical characterization. Strains isolated were tested for hemolysin and toxin production. Aeromonas was detected in 12 samples (6.0%). Aeromonas strains (96) were isolated and identified as: A. caviae (41.7%), A. hydrophila (15.7%), A.allosacharophila (10.4%), A. schubertii (1.0%) and Aeromonas spp. (31.2%). The results revealed that 70% of A. caviae, 66.7% of A. hydrophila, 80% of A. allosacharophila and 46.6% of Aeromonas spp. were hemolytic. The assay for checking production of toxins showed that 17.5% of A. caviae, 73.3% of A. hydrophila, 60% of A. allosacharophila, 100% of A. schubertii, and 33.3% of Aeromonas spp. were able to produce toxins. The results demonstrated the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, indicating that the presence of this emerging pathogen in water systems is a public health concern.

  4. Proteomic Characterization of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chromy, B; Murphy, G; Gonzales, A; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2005-01-05

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, functions via the Type III secretion mechanism whereby virulence factors are induced upon interactions with a mammalian host. Here, the Y. pestis proteome was studied by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) under physiologically relevant growth conditions mimicking the calcium concentrations and temperatures that the pathogen would encounter in the flea vector and upon interaction with the mammalian host. Over 4100 individual protein spots were detected of which hundreds were differentially expressed in the entire comparative experiment. A total of 43 proteins that were differentially expressed between the vector and host growth conditions were identified by mass spectrometry. Expected differences in expression were observed for several known virulence factors including catalase-peroxidase (KatY), murine toxin (Ymt), plasminogen activator (Pla), and F1 capsule antigen (Caf1), as well as putative virulence factors. Chaperone proteins and signaling molecules hypothesized to be involved in virulence due to their role in Type III secretion were also identified. Other differentially expressed proteins not previously reported to contribute to virulence are candidates for more detailed mechanistic studies, representing potential new virulence determinants. For example, several sugar metabolism proteins were differentially regulated in response to lower calcium and higher temperature, suggesting these proteins, while not directly connected to virulence, either represent a metabolic switch for survival in the host environment or may facilitate production of virulence factors. Results presented here contribute to a more thorough understanding of the virulence mechanism of Y. pestis through proteomic characterization of the pathogen under induced virulence.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of Aeromonas species isolated from processed channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Silva, J L

    1999-01-01

    From August 1994 to May 1995, 238 channel catfish fillets collected from three processing plants in the Mississippi Delta at four time periods were tested for the presence of Aeromonas species. Identification of Aeromonas spp. was accomplished using an automated Vitek bioassay system with gram-negative and nonfermenter cards. Approximately 36.1% were positive for A. hydrophila, 35.7% for A. sobria, and 10.9% for A. caviae. All three Aeromonas spp. were found in all three processing plants, and the incidence of A. hydrophila contamination appeared to be higher in summer than other seasons. Eighty-six percent of the Aeromonas isolates were hemolytic on 5% sheep blood agar plates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin. Results suggest that Aeromonas spp. are prevalent in processed channel catfish, and most isolates are hemolytic and resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin. PMID:9921825

  6. Diagnostic importance of H-antigens in Yersinia enterocolitica and other Yersinia species.

    PubMed

    Aleksić, S; Bockemühl, J

    1987-01-01

    H-antigens of 1,622 strains of Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. intermedia were examined according to the antigenic scheme of Wauters in order to evaluate the importance of their antigens for the species diagnosis and epidemiological purposes. Yersinia are monophasic bacteria with species-specific H-antigens. Flagellar antigens of Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. intermedia turned out to be rather homogeneous without distinct subfactors. The scope of identified serovars was narrow in these species. On the other hand, flagellar antigens of Y. enterocolitica were mostly composed of several subfactors, and 117 serovars were differentiated. The epidemiological value of complete serotyping was demonstrated by strains from different sources. Four new O- and 22 new H-antigens were identified in these studies.

  7. Evaluation of the pathogenicity and virulence of Yersinia species isolated in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Ogbimi, A O; Agbonlahor, D E; Obi, C L

    1993-12-01

    Sixteen isolates of four species of Yersinia comprising five of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia fredricksenii, four of Yersinia intermedia and two of Yersinia kristensenii isolated from domestic and wild animals in villages in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria, were evaluated for their pathogenicity using laboratory animal models and virulence characteristics tests which included autoagglutinability, calcium dependency for growth, heat-stable enterotoxin production and conjunctivities in guinea pig eye. Results obtained revealed that Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were enteropathogenic as demonstrated by the production of diarrhoea and eventual recovery from faeces, spleen and liver of the infected animals. Three (60%) (2 serotypes 0:3 and 1 serotype 0:8) of the five Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were lethal to the animals. Other Yersinia isolates (Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia fredricksenii and Yersinia intermedia) were uniformly non pathogenic to the animals. However, a strain of Yersinia intermedia isolate produced diarrhoea in the inoculated animals and caused lethality in guinea pigs and mice, but was negative for autoagglutination test, calcium dependency, conjunctivities, and positive for heat-stable enterotoxin production. We are of the view that this strain may be another Yersinia intermedia--like bacterium, previously isolated in Nigeria. Results therefore, suggest an emergence of a pathogenic Yersinia intermedia species in this environment.

  8. Regulation of flagellum biosynthesis within the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia ruckeri, a Gram negative Enterobacterium, is the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) within farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). There has been an increase of ERM outbreaks in previously vaccinated trout caused by a recently emerged, non-motile variant of Y. r...

  9. De Novo Genome Sequence of Yersinia aleksiciae Y159T

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We report here on the genome sequence of Yersinia aleksiciae Y159T, isolated in Finland in 1981. The genome has a size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 49%, and is predicted to contain 3,423 coding sequences. PMID:26383649

  10. Multiple Outbreaks of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Jalava, Katri; Hallanvuo, S.; Nakari, U.-M.; Ruutu, P.; Kela, E.; Heinäsmäki, T.; Siitonen, A.; Nuorti, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001, 89 culture-confirmed cases of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were reported in Finland; 55 (62%) were serotype O:1, and 34 (38%) were serotype O:3. Four major pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified. A case-control study of 25 case patients and 71 healthy controls identified eating outside the home as a risk factor for infection. PMID:15184472

  11. Molecular cloning of cecropin B responsive endonucleases in Yersinia ruckeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that Yersinia ruckeri resists cecropin B in an inducible manner. In this study, we sought to identify the molecular changes responsible for the inducible cecropin B resistance of Y. ruckeri. Differences in gene expression associated with the inducible resistance were ...

  12. Serological crossreactivity between Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica 0:9 II the use of Yersinia outer proteins for the specific detection of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, R; Hilbink, F; Hansen, M F; Ross, G P; Joyce, M A; Fenwick, S; Heesemann, J; Wolf-Watz, H; Nielsen, K

    1995-12-01

    Yersinia outer protein (YOP) preparations from Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were used as antigens in immunoblots for the detection of Yersinia infections in experimentally and naturally infected ruminants. Sera from 9 groups of animals were used: (1) 51 sera from cattle which were false-positive in the standard brucellosis serological tests, (2) 52 sera from brucellosis-negative cattle, (3) 51 sera from a deer herd in which 16 animals were positive in the brucellosis tests and Yersina species were isolated from 5 animals, (4) 50 sera from a deer herd in which sera from all animals were negative in the brucellosis tests, (5) 107 sera from brucellosis-negative cattle which were received from throughout New Zealand, (6) 30 sera from cattle naturally infected with B. abortus and from which B. abortus was isolated, (7) 55 sera from cattle naturally infected with B. abortus, (8) 26 sera from cattle experimentally infected with B. abortus, with mostly high titres in the conventional brucellosis tests, and (9) sera taken weekly from 3 cattle experimentally infected with Y. enterocolitica 0:9. In all 3 Y. enterocolitica 0:9 experimentally infected animals the antibody reactivity against major YOPs in the Y. enterocolitica and in the Y. pseudotuberculosis YOP preparation correlated well with the strength in the classical brucellosis tests and with the staining of smooth lipopolysaccharides (SLPS) in blots, thus confirming the usefulness of YOPs for the detection of Yersinia infections. Sera from naturally infected cattle and deer herds, regardless of whether they were false positive or negative in the brucellosis tests, showed high frequencies of staining in YOP blots (53-58% in cattle and 80-100% in deer), indicating a high prevalence of field infections with Yersinia species in New Zealand. In two of the three sera groups from B. abortus infected animals, antibodies against YOPs were detected with high frequency, showing that dual infections may be common

  13. Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp.

  14. Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic Yersinia by immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces.

  15. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Enteropathogenic Yersinia by Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 103 CFU/ml to 8.8 × 104 CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 105 CFU/ml to 106 CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  16. Indirect hemagglutination employing enterobacterial common antigen and Yersinia somatic antigen: a technique to differentiate brucellosis from infections involving cross-reacting Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, K R; Ricciardi, I D; Tizard, I R

    1980-01-01

    The existence of enterobacterial common antigen in Yersinia enterocolitica and its absence in Brucella abortus were utilized in an attempt to provide a method to distinguish Brucella infections from infections with cross-reacting Yersinia. The indirect hemagglutination test was employed for this purpose. In experimental laboratory animals, the presence of anti-enterobacterial common antigen was found to be indicative of prior exposure to Y. enterocolitica rather than B. abortus. In cattle, however, low titers of anti-enterobacterial common antigen were present in all animals. It was observed that anti-enterobacterial common antigen titers either equaled or exceeded anti-Yersinia O titers in Yersinia-exposed animals, whereas in animals infected with B. abortus the anti-Yersinia O titer generally exceeded the anti-enterobacterial common antigen titer. PMID:6766951

  17. Global Expression Studies of Yersinia Pestis Pathogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E; Motin, V; Brubaker, R; Fitch, P

    2002-10-15

    The aim of these studies continues to be the investigation into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the virulence process in Yersinia pestis. In particular, the focus of this work centers on the identification of novel genes and pathways responsible for the pathogenic properties of this organism. In spite of more than four decades of intense investigation in this field, the dilemma as to what makes Y. pestis such a virulent and lethal pathogen remains unanswered. The method being employed makes use microarray technology (DNA chip) that enables the examination of the global activities of the whole complement of genes in this pathogen. Two primary resources available to the investigators (one directly obtained from a separate CBNP-funded project) make these studies possible: (1) Whole genome comparisons of the genes in Y. pestis and its near neighbors with attenuated or non pathogenic characteristics, and (2) the ability to duplicate in vitro, conditions that mimic the infection process of this pathogen. This year we have extended our studies from the original work of characterizing the global transcriptional regulation in Y. pestis triggered during temperature transition from 26 C to 37 C (roughly conditions found in the flea vector and the mammalian host, respectively) to studies of regulation encountered during shift between growth from conditions of neutral pH to acidic pH (the latter conditions, those mimic the environment found inside macrophages, a likely environment found by these cells during infection.). For this work, DNA arrays containing some 5,000 genes (the entire genome of Y. pestis plus those genes found uniquely in the enteropathogen, and near neighbor, Y. pseudotuberculosis) are used to monitor the simultaneous expression levels of each gene of known and unknown function in Y. pestis. Those genes that are up-regulate under the experimental conditions represent genes potentially involved in the pathogenic process. The ultimate role in

  18. Genome sequencing and annotation of Aeromonas sp. HZM

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Patric; Har, Zi Mei; Austin, Christopher M.; Yule, Catherine M.; Dykes, Gary A.; Lee, Sui Mae

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain HZM, isolated from tropical peat swamp forest soil. The draft genome size is 4,451,364 bp with a G + C content of 61.7% and contains 10 rRNA sequences (eight copies of 5S rRNA genes, single copy of 16S and 23S rRNA each). The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. JEMQ00000000. PMID:26484220

  19. Effect of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes of Aeromonas proteolytica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica was selected for studying the effects of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes because it produces an endopeptidase that is capable of degrading proteins and a hemolysin that is active in lysing human erythrocytes. Possible alterations in the rate of enzyme production in response to the test conditions are currently underway and are not available for this preliminary report. Completed viability studies are indicative that little difference exists among the survival curves derived for cells exposed to various components of ultraviolet irradiation in space.

  20. Aeromonas hydrophila infection associated with the use of medicinal leeches.

    PubMed Central

    Snower, D P; Ruef, C; Kuritza, A P; Edberg, S C

    1989-01-01

    The use of medicinal leeches (Hiruda medicinalis) is becoming more common after plastic surgery to control venous congestion of skin grafts. We describe a patient with Aeromonas hydrophila infection whose graft was treated with medicinal leeches. The infection required systemic antibiotic therapy. A. hydrophila is the predominant bacterial flora in the gut of the leech, where it plays an essential role for the animal in the digestion of blood. The potential for A. hydrophila wound infection, and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis of the leech or patient, should be considered when medicinal leeches are used. Images PMID:2666448

  1. Use of Aeromonas as a process indicator during swine carcass dressing and cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Yu, Linda S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Using starch ampicillin agar, qualitative and quantitative determinations of Aeromonas spp. were made at several sites during swine carcass dressing and cutting. Aeromonas spp. were observed at all sites surveyed. Levels increased during shackling and passage through the first and middle polisher/washers, and significantly decreased during the singeing steps. Passage through the final polisher/washer caused a small increase in levels in Aeromonas spp. and these levels then remained constant during the rest of the carcass dressing operation. Aeromonas spp. were also isolated from the room where the carcasses were cut into wholesale cuts and cuts for further processing. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. cultures isolated from the different sites were confirmed as belonging to the genus Aeromonas and then speciated using the biochemical scheme of Joseph and Carnahan; 81% of the cultures were identified at A. hydrophila. Since most isolates were A. hydrophila, determination of the origin of isolates from different sites in the processing plant must await utilizing molecular biotyping techniques on the cultures. These results indicate the Aeromonas spp. occurs extensively in the swine dressing environment and thus represents a possible public health hazard and potential spoilage concern. Changes in cleaning and sanitizing of equipment may be necessary during swine carcass dressing and cutting to guard against this pathogen.

  2. [Quantitative and qualitative studies of Yersinia species in the waste water of a purification plant].

    PubMed

    Ruhle, C; Höller, C; Gundermann, K O

    1990-02-01

    During a long term investigation (October 1986 October 1987) Yersinia spp. were isolated from sewage in 5 different stages of a sewage treatment plant in Kiel (Bülk), Schleswig-Holstein, FRG. Methods applied were MPN-procedure, cold enrichment in CIN-broth and finally incubation on CIN-agar (Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin). Yersinia enterocolitica were specified according to their serotypes (O:3/O:9) and biotypes. Results (median/100 ml): sewage influent 90,000 KbE (log 4.95), aerated grit removal tank effluent 14.285 KbE (log 4.15), primary sedimentation tank effluent 20.000 KbE (log 4.30), activated sludge tank effluent 6.000 KbE (log 3.77) and final clarification effluent 260 KbE (log 2.41). After the final clarification a reduction of 99.72% was achieved. A general influence of the outward conditions (water temperature, proportion of oxygen, fecal and total coliforms, water flow, pH) on the behaviour on the Yersinia spp. could not be confirmed. The specification of the 644 germs isolated during the year showed an average proportion of 48.44% Yersinia frederiksenii, 29.5% Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1, 18.94% Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2, 2.8% Yersinia intermedia and 0.32% Yersinia kristensenii. Only once a pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica could be isolated (serotype O:9/biotype 2).

  3. Aeromonas hydrophila Sepsis Associated with Consumption of Raw Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, John; Cheriyath, Pramil; Nookala, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative bacillus that is native to aquatic environments that is increasingly reported in humans. This case is remarkable for A. hydrophila with an initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old male presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain for two days. His past medical history was significant for alcohol abuse. Initial laboratory examination showed an elevated white blood cell count, elevated lipase, and elevated liver function tests (LFT). Computer tomography (CT) showed peripancreatic inflammatory changes and retroperitoneal free fluid, suggestive of acute pancreatitis. The patient was treated with intravenous (IV) fluids and IV meropenem. After two days, the patient developed sepsis and respiratory failure and was intubated. Blood cultures were positive for Aeromonas hydrophila sensitive to ciprofloxacin which was added to his treatment. Additionally, it was discovered that this patient had recently vacationed in Florida where he consumed raw oysters. He was discharged home on the eighth day of the hospital admission. Conclusion. This is a rare case of A. hydrophila sepsis in an elderly patient with acute pancreatitis and a history of consumption of raw oysters. This case suggests that A. hydrophila can cause disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:25506003

  4. Aeromonas hydrophila Sepsis Associated with Consumption of Raw Oysters.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Ivan; Goldman, John; Cheriyath, Pramil; Vyas, Anix; Nookala, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative bacillus that is native to aquatic environments that is increasingly reported in humans. This case is remarkable for A. hydrophila with an initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old male presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain for two days. His past medical history was significant for alcohol abuse. Initial laboratory examination showed an elevated white blood cell count, elevated lipase, and elevated liver function tests (LFT). Computer tomography (CT) showed peripancreatic inflammatory changes and retroperitoneal free fluid, suggestive of acute pancreatitis. The patient was treated with intravenous (IV) fluids and IV meropenem. After two days, the patient developed sepsis and respiratory failure and was intubated. Blood cultures were positive for Aeromonas hydrophila sensitive to ciprofloxacin which was added to his treatment. Additionally, it was discovered that this patient had recently vacationed in Florida where he consumed raw oysters. He was discharged home on the eighth day of the hospital admission. Conclusion. This is a rare case of A. hydrophila sepsis in an elderly patient with acute pancreatitis and a history of consumption of raw oysters. This case suggests that A. hydrophila can cause disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:25506003

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic identification of Aeromonas species and CphA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Holly A; Heney, Claire; Sidjabat, Hanna E; George, Narelle M; Bergh, Haakon; Anuj, Snehal N; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2016-05-01

    Infection caused by Aeromonas spp. ranges from superficial wound infection to life-threatening septicemia. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-beta-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, is a significant problem. This study defines Aeromonas spp. causing clinical disease in Queensland, Australia. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase detection were assessed. One hundred Aeromonas isolates from blood (22), wound (46), sterile sites (11), stool (18), eye (2), and sputum (1) were characterized by rpoB and gyrB sequencing. Meropenem susceptibility by VITEK2, disk diffusion, and E-test MIC were determined. Carbapenemase production was assessed by Carba NP test and cphA by PCR. Gene sequencing identified isolates as Aeromonas dhakensis (39), Aeromonas veronii (21), Aeromonas hydrophila (20), Aeromonas caviae (14), Aeromonas jandaei (4), Aeromonas bestiarum (1), and Aeromonas sanarellii (1). Disk diffusion and E-test failed to detect resistance in isolates with presence of cphA. Carba NP was performed with 97.4% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity. Carbapenem resistance gene cphA was detected in A. veronii (21; 100%), A. hydrophila (18; 90%), A. dhakensis (34; 87.2%), A. jandaei (3; 75%), and A. bestiarum (1; 100%) but not A. caviae. We found that A. dhakensis was the predominant species, a previously unrecognized pathogen in this region.

  6. [Determination of the phenomenon of autoagglutination of virulent Yersinia].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, I V

    1989-01-01

    The agglutination test in wells of polystyrene plates has been tried for the detection of virulent Yersinia. Glucose-peptone medium has been employed in the test; the results have been recorded in standard periods from the type of the precipitate. The method has been employed to detect the virulence plasmids in 138 strains of Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and to assess the heterogeneity of various populations of Yersinia in respect of this plasmid presence. Positive results of autoagglutination in the plates (with Y. pseudotuberculosis serovariants 03 and 09) as a rule correlated with Ca-dependence of the strains. The suggested method is not inferior to the tube method in its sensitivity and may be used in screening examinations.

  7. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF

    PubMed Central

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  8. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  9. Proteomic Characterization of Host Response to Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Chromy, B; Perkins, J; Heidbrink, J; Gonzales, A; Murhpy, G; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S

    2004-05-11

    Host-pathogen interactions result in protein expression changes within both the host and the pathogen. Here, results from proteomic characterization of host response following exposure to Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, and to two near neighbors, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica, are reported. Human monocyte-like cells were chosen as a model for macrophage immune response to pathogen exposure. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry was used to identify host proteins with differential expression following exposure to these three closely related Yersinia species. This comparative proteomic characterization of host response clearly shows that host protein expression patterns are distinct for the different pathogen exposures, and contributes to further understanding of Y. pestis virulence and host defense mechanisms. This work also lays the foundation for future studies aimed at defining biomarkers for presymptomatic detection of plague.

  10. Survey on the reservoirs of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia enterocolitica-like bacteria in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Kapperud, G

    1981-02-01

    Data pertaining to 330 Yersinia strains isolated from wild-living mammals, birds, fish, water, and soil in Scandinavia are summarized. The strains represent a broad spectrum of antigenic and biochemical variants interconnecting the species Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. A total of 136 strains were Y. enterocolitica sensu stricto; 55 strains produced acid rhamnose (Y. frederiksenii); 49 strains did not produce acid from sucrose (Y. kristensenii); 21 strains produced acid from rhamnose and melibiose (Y. intermedia); three strains were classified as Y. pseudotuberculosis. The remaining 66 strains could not be ascribed by any presently defined species. Seven strains were antigenically related to serogroup 3. Ecologically, Y. frederiksenii and Y. intermedia were more confined to aquatic ecosystems (fish and water) than Y. enterocolitica sensu stricto which was prevalent in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Y. kristensenii was ecologically comparable to Y. enterocolitica biotype 1, with their highest prevalence among terrestrial vertebrates. Y. frederiksenii and Y. intermedia seemed antigenically and biochemically more similar to Y. enterocolitica sensu stricto than Y. kristensenii.

  11. Presence of a virulence-associated plasmid in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gemski, P; Lazere, J R; Casey, T; Wohlhieter, J A

    1980-01-01

    We have shown that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can possess plasmids which are similar in size and function to the previously described Vwa plasmids of Y. enterocolitica. These plasmids are associated with the production of V and W antigens (calcium dependency) and pathogenicity of the organism. Further investigation of these plasmids from Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica with restriction endonucleases revealed significant differences in their fragmentation pattern. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6249747

  12. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pigs Slaughtered in Chinese Abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Yuchun; Cui, Zhigang; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Luo, Longze; Wang, Shukun; Li, Kewei; Yang, Haoshu; Gu, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Kan, Biao

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs in China was studied. A total of 8,773 samples were collected and examined from different pig abattoirs in 11 provinces from 2009 to 2011. Of these, 4,495 were oral-pharyngeal swab (tonsils) samples from pigs, 1,239 were from intestinal contents, and 3,039 were feces samples from abattoirs or local pigpens. The data showed that 1,132 strains were obtained, from which the isolation rate for Yersinia enterocolitica was 19.53% (878/4,495) from the tonsil samples, 7.51% (93/1,239) from intestinal contents, and 5.30% (161/3,039) from feces. Of the 850 pathogenic Yersinia strains, except for three of bioserotype 2/O:9 and three of bioserotype 4/O:3, most (844/850) were of bioserotype 3/O:3. Interestingly, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica accounted for the majority of the isolated strains from most provinces (85.17% to 100%), whereas from Heilongjiang, 96.52% (111/115) were classified as nonpathogenic biotype 1A with various serotypes, and only 3.48% of the strains (4/115) were pathogenic 3/O:3. All of the pathogenic strains were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and 49 patterns were obtained for the O:3 pathogenic strains; most of them were K6GN11C30021 (53.13%: 450/847) and K6GN11C30012 (21.37%: 181/847). Several strains from diarrhea patient samples revealed PFGE patterns identical to that from samples of local pigs, suggesting a possible link between porcine isolates and human infection. The results above suggested that Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs from Chinese abattoirs was characterized by region-specific PFGE patterns and confirmed that strains isolated from pigs are closely related to those from human infections. PMID:22327599

  13. Physiological basis of the low calcium response in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J M; Brubaker, R R

    1994-01-01

    It is established that duplication in vitro of that amount of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) and Mg2+ (1.5 mM) present in blood permits vegetative growth of Yersinia pestis with repression of virulence factors encoded by the Lcr plasmid (Lcr+); similar simulation of intracellular fluid (no Ca2+ and 20 mM Mg2+) promotes bacteriostasis with induction of these virulence determinants. However, proliferation of yersiniae in mice occurs primarily within necrotic focal lesions (supplied by Ca(2+)-deficient host cell cytoplasm) within visceral organs rather than in Ca(2+)-sufficient blood. The present study addressed this enigma by defining conditions necessary for achieving vegetative growth of Lcr+ yersiniae at 37 degrees C in simulated intracellular fluid. Maximum optical densities were increased by substitution of K+ for Na+ and elimination of Cl-; the combination of Na+ plus L-glutamate was selectively toxic to Lcr+ cells. This phenomenon was attributed in part to the absence of aspartase in Y. pestis (a lesion known to facilitate massive accumulation of L-aspartate via transamination of the oxalacetate pool by L-glutamate). Replacement of L-glutamate by exogenous L-aspartate or alpha-ketoglutarate reversed this toxicity by favoring retention of oxalacetate. Proliferation of Lcr+ cells in a medium containing K+ and L-aspartate but lacking added Ca2+ and Na+ was markedly enhanced by increasing the concentration of fermentable carbohydrate. Accordingly, in the worst-case scenario (i.e., added Na+, Cl-, and L-glutamate), Lcr+ yersiniae underwent restriction of growth after one doubling, and in the best-case scenario (i.e., added K+ and L-aspartate), the organisms completed more than five doublings, thereby achieving full-scale growth. Both of these Ca(2+)-deficient media promoted maximum induction of Mg(2+)-induced V antigen, a virulence factor encoded by the Lcr plasmid. PMID:7960099

  14. Yersinia pestis Ail: multiple roles of a single protein

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Anna M.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Minnich, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of the most virulent bacteria identified. It is the causative agent of plague—a systemic disease that has claimed millions of human lives throughout history. Y. pestis survival in insect and mammalian host species requires fine-tuning to sense and respond to varying environmental cues. Multiple Y. pestis attributes participate in this process and contribute to its pathogenicity and highly efficient transmission between hosts. These include factors inherited from its enteric predecessors; Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, as well as phenotypes acquired or lost during Y. pestis speciation. Representatives of a large Enterobacteriaceae Ail/OmpX/PagC/Lom family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are found in the genomes of all pathogenic Yersiniae. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the role of Ail in Y. pestis pathogenesis and virulence. The pronounced role of Ail in the following areas are discussed (1) inhibition of the bactericidal properties of complement, (2) attachment and Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) delivery to host tissue, (3) prevention of PMNL recruitment to the lymph nodes, and (4) inhibition of the inflammatory response. Finally, Ail homologs in Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are compared to illustrate differences that may have contributed to the drastic bacterial lifestyle change that shifted Y. pestis from an enteric to a vector-born systemic pathogen. PMID:22919692

  15. Genome Wide Search for Biomarkers to Diagnose Yersinia Infections.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kumar, Prasun

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial identification on the basis of the highly conserved 16S rRNA (rrs) gene is limited by its presence in multiple copies and a very high level of similarity among them. The need is to look for other genes with unique characteristics to be used as biomarkers. Fifty-one sequenced genomes belonging to 10 different Yersinia species were used for searching genes common to all the genomes. Out of 304 common genes, 34 genes of sizes varying from 0.11 to 4.42 kb, were selected and subjected to in silico digestion with 10 different Restriction endonucleases (RE) (4-6 base cutters). Yersinia species have 6-7 copies of rrs per genome, which are difficult to distinguish by multiple sequence alignments or their RE digestion patterns. However, certain unique combinations of other common gene sequences-carB, fadJ, gluM, gltX, ileS, malE, nusA, ribD, and rlmL and their RE digestion patterns can be used as markers for identifying 21 strains belonging to 10 Yersinia species: Y. aldovae, Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. rohdei, Y. ruckeri, and Y. similis. This approach can be applied for rapid diagnostic applications.

  16. [Ecological interactions among Yersinia in their common reservoir, the rodent].

    PubMed

    Alonso, J M

    1999-12-01

    Plague, due to Yersinia pestis, is still active in various foci in the Americas, in Africa and Asia, whereas it has been absent from Europe since the end of the 18th century, after having killed the two-thirds of the continent's inhabitants within four centuries. Various hypothesis have been proposed to attempt to explain the spontaneous "eradication" of plague from Europe, including the improvement of hygiene and habitat, changes in the rat population and cross-immunity induced by other infections, such as salmonellosis, leprosy and other yersiniosis. The only Yersinia currently isolated in Europe are the species genetically related to Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica, which are less virulent and mostly enteropathogenic. Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis have a DNA relatedness of 90%, whereas it is of only 60% with Y. enterocolitica. Y. pseudotuberculosis has been used as efficient vaccine against plague. Present world epidemiological data show that Y. enterocolitica is progressively replacing Y. pseudotuberculosis. Experimental infection by Y. enterocolitica, inducing a transitory and spontaneously cured infection in the immunocompetent host, only inducing opportunistic infections in the immunodeficient host, promotes efficient immunity against plague. Thus, it seems likely that the emergence of some variants of Yersinia, less virulent than Y. pestis, but able to induce a long-lasting protective immunity against plague, have contributed to its eradication by a silent enzootic infection among the wild reservoirs of rodents.

  17. Genome Wide Search for Biomarkers to Diagnose Yersinia Infections.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kumar, Prasun

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial identification on the basis of the highly conserved 16S rRNA (rrs) gene is limited by its presence in multiple copies and a very high level of similarity among them. The need is to look for other genes with unique characteristics to be used as biomarkers. Fifty-one sequenced genomes belonging to 10 different Yersinia species were used for searching genes common to all the genomes. Out of 304 common genes, 34 genes of sizes varying from 0.11 to 4.42 kb, were selected and subjected to in silico digestion with 10 different Restriction endonucleases (RE) (4-6 base cutters). Yersinia species have 6-7 copies of rrs per genome, which are difficult to distinguish by multiple sequence alignments or their RE digestion patterns. However, certain unique combinations of other common gene sequences-carB, fadJ, gluM, gltX, ileS, malE, nusA, ribD, and rlmL and their RE digestion patterns can be used as markers for identifying 21 strains belonging to 10 Yersinia species: Y. aldovae, Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. rohdei, Y. ruckeri, and Y. similis. This approach can be applied for rapid diagnostic applications. PMID:26543261

  18. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression in Yersinia Species

    PubMed Central

    Schiano, Chelsea A.; Lathem, Wyndham W.

    2012-01-01

    Proper regulation of gene expression is required by bacterial pathogens to respond to continually changing environmental conditions and the host response during the infectious process. While transcriptional regulation is perhaps the most well understood form of controlling gene expression, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation that allow for more refined management of the bacterial response to host conditions. Yersinia species of bacteria are known to use various forms of post-transcriptional regulation for control of many virulence-associated genes. These include regulation by cis- and trans-acting small non-coding RNAs, RNA-binding proteins, RNases, and thermoswitches. The effects of these and other regulatory mechanisms on Yersinia physiology can be profound and have been shown to influence type III secretion, motility, biofilm formation, host cell invasion, intracellular survival and replication, and more. In this review, we discuss these and other post-transcriptional mechanisms and their influence on virulence gene regulation, with a particular emphasis on how these processes influence the virulence of Yersinia in the host. PMID:23162797

  19. Antibiotic Resistance in Aeromonas Upstream and Downstream of a Water Resource Recovery Facility

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Samantha K.; Askew, Maegan L.; Risenhoover, Hollie G.; McAndrews, Chrystle R.; Kennedy, S. Dawn; Paine, C. Sue

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas strains isolated from sediments upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) over a two-year time period were tested for susceptibility to thirteen antibiotics. Incidence of resistance to antibiotics, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and diversity (based on resistance phenotypes) were compared in the two populations. At the beginning of the study, the upstream and downstream Aeromonas populations were different for incidence of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.01), resistance phenotypes (p < 0.005), and diversity. However, these differences declined over time and were not significant at the end of the study. These results (1) indicate that antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in stream sediments fluctuates considerably over time and (2) suggest that WRRF effluent does not, when examined over the long term, affect antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in downstream sediment. PMID:25327024

  20. Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in a drinking-water distribution system: a field and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chauret, C; Volk, C; Creason, R; Jarosh, J; Robinson, J; Warnes, C

    2001-08-01

    A 16-month study was conducted on the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in drinking water in Indiana, U.S.A. Enumeration was conducted in source water, in various sites within a water treatment plant, and in the distribution system in both bulk water and biofilm, as well as in a simulated (annular reactors) drinking-water distribution system. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. counts on source waters regularly approached 10(3)-10(4) CFU/100 mL, during summer months and granular activated carbon - filtered water counts ranged from <1 to 490 CFU/100 mL. In source water, presumptive Aeromonas levels were related to water temperature. Aeromonas hydrophila was never detected in the treatment plant effluent or distributed bulk water, showing disinfectant efficiency on suspended bacteria; however, isolates of A. hydrophila were identified in 7.7% of the biofilm samples, indicating a potential for regrowth and contamination of drinking-water distribution systems.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are commonly isolated from both fresh and salt waters worldwide and some are believed to cause infections in humans, including gastroenteritis and wound infections. Currently, aeromonads are on the United States Environmental Protection A...

  2. Antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Cisar, Cindy R; Henderson, Samantha K; Askew, Maegan L; Risenhoover, Hollie G; McAndrews, Chrystle R; Kennedy, S Dawn; Paine, C Sue

    2014-09-01

    Aeromonas strains isolated from sediments upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) over a two-year time period were tested for susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Incidence of resistance to antibiotics, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and diversity (based on resistance phenotypes) were compared in the two populations. At the beginning of the study, the upstream and downstream Aeromonas populations were different for incidence of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.01), resistance phenotypes (p < 0.005), and diversity. However, these differences declined over time and were not significant at the end of the study. These results (1) indicate that antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in stream sediments fluctuates considerably over time and (2) suggest that WRRF effluent does not, when examined over the long- term, affect antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in downstream sediment.

  3. The incidence of virulence factors in mesophilic Aeromonas species isolated from farm animals and their environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, S. J.; Stickler, D. J.; Bryant, T. N.

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-one isolates of Aeromonas spp. from the faeces of pigs, cows and a variety of associated environmental sources were examined for the characteristics that are reputed to have roles in pathogenicity. Most isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila were cytotoxic (96.4%) and were capable of producing cell elongation factor (75%) and haemagglutinins (67.9%). In contrast few of the Aeromonas caviae isolates produced these three markers (13.6%, 27.3% and 36.4% respectively). In general, Aeromonas sobria occupied an intermediate position (36.4%, 27.3% and 54.5%), but they did produce the highest mean invasion index for HEp-2 cells. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations between the carriage of these factors and it was clear that many isolates of aeromonads from water and animals possessed the full battery of putative virulence factors. PMID:2209733

  4. Temperature-inducible outer membrane protein of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the virulence plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Bölin, I; Norlander, L; Wolf-Watz, H

    1982-01-01

    A strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis which harbors a 63-kilobase plasmid was found to cause a lethal infection in Swiss albino mice. The rate of infection paralleled the ability of the pathogenic organism to attach to a monolayer of HeLa cells. One novel outer membrane protein (protein 1) with a molecular weight of 140,000 was found to be associated with the possession of the 63-kilobase plasmid not at 26 degrees C, and expression was moderately affected by the concentration of calcium in the growth medium. Moreover, it was found that synthesis of protein 1 associated outer membrane protein showing similar properties was also found to be expressed in plasmid-containing strains of Yersinia enterocolitica. The properties of protein 1 indicate that it could be identical to the previously described virulence W antigen. Images PMID:6749681

  5. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  6. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water.

  7. Evidence for two evolutionary lineages of highly pathogenic Yersinia species.

    PubMed Central

    Rakin, A; Urbitsch, P; Heesemann, J

    1995-01-01

    Sensitivity to Yersinia pestis bacteriocin pesticin correlates with the existence of two groups of human pathogenic yersiniae, mouse lethal and mouse nonlethal. The presence of the outer membrane pesticin receptor (FyuA) in mouse-lethal yersiniae is a prerequisite for pesticin sensitivity. Genes that code for FyuA (fyuA) were identified and sequenced from pesticin-sensitive bacteria, including Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B (serotypes O8; O13, O20, and O21), Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O1, Y. pestis, two known pesticin-sensitive Escherichia coli isolates (E. coli Phi and E. coli CA42), and two newly discovered pesticin-sensitive isolates, E. coli K49 and K235. A 2,318-bp fyuA sequence was shown to be highly conserved in all pesticin-sensitive bacteria, including E. coli strains (DNA sequence homology was 98.5 to 99.9%). The same degree of DNA homology (97.8 to 100%) was established for the sequenced 276-bp fragment of the irp2 gene that encodes high-molecular-weight protein 2, which is also thought to be involved in the expression of virulence by Yersinia species. Highly conserved irp2 was also found in all pesticin-sensitive E. coli strains. On the basis of the fyuA and irp2 sequence homologies, two evolutionary groups of highly pathogenic Yersinia species can be established. One group includes Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B strains, while the second includes Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O1, and irp2-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O3 strains. E. coli Phi, CA42, K49, and K235 belong to the second group. The possible proximity of these two iron-regulated genes (fyuA and irp2), as well as their high levels of sequence conservation and similar G+C contents (56.2 and 59.8 mol%), leads to the assumption that these two genes may represent part of an unstable pathogenicity island that has been acquired by pesticin-sensitive bacteria as a result of a horizontal transfer. PMID:7730256

  8. Rapid and efficient differentiation of Yersinia species using high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Roberto A; Frazão, Miliane R; Almeida, Alzira M P; Falcão, Juliana P

    2015-08-01

    The primary goal of clinical microbiology is the accurate identification of the causative agent of the disease. Here, we describe a method for differentiation between Yersinia species using PCR-HRMA. The results revealed species-specific melting profiles. The herein developed assay can be used as an effective method to differentiate Yersinia species.

  9. Divergence among Genes Encoding the Elongation Factor Tu of Yersinia Species▿

    PubMed Central

    Isabel, Sandra; Leblanc, Éric; Boissinot, Maurice; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Grondin, Myrian; Picard, François J.; Martel, Eric A.; Parham, Nicholas J.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Bader, Douglas E.; Mulvey, Michael R.; Bryden, Louis; Roy, Paul H.; Ouellette, Marc; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2008-01-01

    Elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), encoded by tuf genes, carries aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Duplicated tuf genes (tufA and tufB), which are commonly found in enterobacterial species, usually coevolve via gene conversion and are very similar to one another. However, sequence analysis of tuf genes in our laboratory has revealed highly divergent copies in 72 strains spanning the genus Yersinia (representing 12 Yersinia species). The levels of intragenomic divergence between tufA and tufB sequences ranged from 8.3 to 16.2% for the genus Yersinia, which is significantly greater than the 0.0 to 3.6% divergence observed for other enterobacterial genera. We further explored tuf gene evolution in Yersinia and other Enterobacteriaceae by performing directed sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated tufA and tufB sequences revealed a monophyletic genus Yersinia in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, Yersinia strains form clades within the genus that mostly correlate with their phenotypic and genetic classifications. These genetic analyses revealed an unusual divergence between Yersinia tufA and tufB sequences, a feature unique among sequenced Enterobacteriaceae and indicative of a genus-wide loss of gene conversion. Furthermore, they provided valuable phylogenetic information for possible reclassification and identification of Yersinia species. PMID:18790860

  10. Comparison of Systems for Identification and Differentiation of Species within the Genus Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Heinrich; Sauer, Thomas; Becker, Heinz; Aleksic, Stojanca; Meyer, Hermann

    1998-01-01

    Of four tested identification systems (API 20E, API Rapid 32 IDE, Micronaut E, and the PCR-based Yersinia enterocolitica Amplification Set), API 20E is still the system of choice for identifying pathogenic Yersinia isolates. It provides the highest sensitivity both at the genus and at the species level and has the best cost-effectiveness correlation. PMID:9774596

  11. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. frederiksenii from forest soil, Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Botzler, R G

    1987-04-01

    This is the first report of Yersinia frederiksenii from soil in Europe and of Yersinia enterocolitica sensu stricto from soil in the Federal Republic of Germany. These organisms were isolated from deciduous forest soil, but were not found in grassland soils.

  12. Behavior of Avirulent Yersinia pestis in Liquid Whole Egg as Affected by Antimicrobials and Thermal Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia spp. is a psychrotrophic bacterium that can grow at temperatures as low as minus two degrees Celsius, and is known to contaminate shell eggs in the United States and shell eggs and liquid egg in South America. A study was performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of avirulent Yersinia...

  13. High frequency of coinfecting enteropathogens in Aeromonas-associated diarrhea of hospitalized Peruvian infants.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, G; Sack, R B; Salazar, E; Yi, A; Chea, E; Leon-Barua, R; Guerrero, C E; Palomino, J

    1991-06-01

    Rectal swabs from 391 infants less than 18 months of age who were hospitalized with acute diarrhea and from 138 similarly aged healthy infants were examined for the etiologic agents of diarrhea. Aeromonas spp. were recovered from 205 of 391 (52.4%) diarrheic patients, whereas they were recovered from 12 of 138 (8.7%) controls (P less than 10(-11). Among the 205 Aeromonas-positive diarrheic patients, 118 (57.6%) were found to be coinfected with other common enteropathogens. Of the 164 Aeromonas-positive initial diarrheic specimens, 82 (50.0%) had one or more other enteropathogens present; 30 patients were coinfected with rotavirus, 20 with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 16 with Campylobacter spp., 14 with Shigella spp., 13 with enteropathogenic E. coli, 4 with Vibrio spp., 1 with Salmonella spp., and 1 with Plesiomonas spp. of Aeromonas strains from cases compared with that from controls supports an etiologic role for this organism. However, frequent concomitant infections with other well-recognized enteropathogens and a lack of disease correlation with common Aeromonas phenotypes suggest that only a subset of Aeromonas strains may be diarrhea causing and that such strains may be common to several of the existing species.

  14. Isolation and Seroprevalence of Aeromonas spp. Among Common Food Animals Slaughtered in Nagpur, Central India.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Tanuja K G M; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Zade, Nandkishor N; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Khan, Waqar A; Shinde, Shilpa V; Patil, Archana R

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonads are ubiquitous foodborne pathogens with a global distribution. Animal-origin foods and contaminated animals are the main sources of Aeromonas infection to humans. So far little is known about the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in food-producing animals in India. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Aeromonas species from 50 each of meat, blood, and sera samples collected from cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs slaughtered in and around Nagpur, Central India. Alkaline peptone water and ampicillin dextrin agar were used to isolate Aeromonas spp. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized by use of whole-cell antigen (WC) and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646). Aeromonads were isolated from 44 (22%) of the meat samples, and 1 (0.5%) from the blood samples. Seroprevalence by indirect ELISA-based WC antigen was estimated as 68% in cattle, 44% in buffaloes, 60% in goats, and 30% in pigs. OMP-based ELISA yielded a seroprevalence of 56%, 48%, 52%, and 22% in cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs, respectively. The results revealed that OMP-based ELISA and WC-based ELISA were in agreement with one another. Isolation along with high seropositivity demonstrates the presence of foodborne Aeromonas spp. in the Nagpur city of Central India.

  15. [Differentiation of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas from other representatives of the Vibrionaceae family on the basis of their DNA].

    PubMed

    Levanova, G F; Lavrovskaia, V M; Shvetsov, Iu P

    1980-08-01

    By comparing the data on the nucleotide composition of DNA, and the phenotypic characteristics, most of the representatives of the genus Aeromonas were clearly differentiated from NAG vibrios isolated in the process of sanitary control of the environment. At the same time some microorganisms with the Aeromonas phenotype, but having a different DNA structure were detected. The use of the method of molecular DNA hybridization indicated that these bacteria were the taxons analogous to the genus Aeromonas.

  16. Agglutinating antibody to Aeromonas hydrophila in wild largemouth bass

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Esch, G.W.; Raker, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    Among largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in Par Pond, South Carolina, a significantly large percentage of those with red-sore disease were positive for anti-Aeromonas hydrophila agglutinin than of uninfected fish. Highest titers occurred during summer and fall, when the prevalence of the disease was declining. Most agglutinin activity was associated with a single serum fraction; the agglutinin has an apparent molecular weight of > 340,000 daltons, suggesting it may be a macroglobulin-like antibody. Homologous agglutinin reacted better with A. hydrophila than heterologous agglutinin. Differences in severity and duration of red-sore epizootics in the southeastern United States may be due to differing virulence among strains of A. hydrophila.

  17. Mortality of therapeutic fish Garra rufa caused by Aeromonas sobria

    PubMed Central

    Majtán, Juraj; Černy, Jaroslav; Ofúkaná, Alena; Takáč, Peter; Kozánek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate a case of mass mortality of Garra rufa (G. rufa) from a fish hatchery farm in Slovakia. Methods Causative bacterial agent was swabbing out of affected fish skin area and subsequently identified using commercial test system. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results Infected G. rufa was characterized by abnormal swimming behaviour, bleeding of skin lesions and local haemorrhages. Despite of using recommended aquatic antibiotic treatment no improvement was achieved and Aeromonas sobria (A. sobria) was identified as a causative agent of fish mortality. Due to massive fish mortality, antibiotic susceptibility of pure isolated culture of A. sobria was evaluated employing eight antibiotics against human infections. A. sobria was resistant only against one antibiotic, namely ampicilin. Conclusions These results indicate that A. sobria can act as a primary pathogen of G. rufa and may be a potential risk factor for immunodeficient or immunoincompetent patients during the ichthyotherapy. PMID:23569873

  18. The characteristics of chitinase expression in Aeromonas schubertii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeen-Kuan; Shen, Chia-Rui; Liu, Chao-Lin

    2014-04-01

    In this study, chitinase activity in an incubation broth of Aeromonas schubertii was measured using colloidal chitin azure as the substrate. More specifically, the induction of chitinases due to amendment with various carbon sources was examined. The highest chitinase activity was found following amendment with 0.5-1.0 % chitin powder, whereas the activity increased negligibly due to amendment with other carbon sources, such as glucose, GlcNAc, GlcN, sorbitol, sucrose, cellulose, or starch. The chitinase activity induced by the chitin powder was suppressed when the glucose, GlcNAc, GlcN, or starch was added simultaneously to the medium but was not suppressed by the addition of sorbitol, sucrose, or cellulose. The activity of chitinase in the crude extract was also not directly inhibited by glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that the induction of chitinase activity depends on the acquisition of suitable carbon sources from the environment and that induction occurs at a regulatory level.

  19. Recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila associated with bacteraemia in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Orozova, Petya; Sirakov, Ivo; Petkov, Iosko; Crumlish, Mags; Austin, Brian

    2012-09-01

    Captive snakes, that is, a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus) a yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus guttatus), died with signs of bacteraemia including the presence of petechial haemorrhages in the mouth and gums and haemorrhages in the lung, spleen and intestines. The abdomen and anus were swollen with bloody-tinged mucus in the colon. Aeromonas hydrophila was recovered in dense virtually pure culture growth from the internal organs. Characterization of the isolates was by phenotyping and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (sequence homology of 99% with A. hydrophila) with outputs confirming the identity as A. hydrophila. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed virulence to frogs (Rana esculenta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  20. 'Add, stir and reduce': Yersinia spp. as model bacteria for pathogen evolution.

    PubMed

    McNally, Alan; Thomson, Nicholas R; Reuter, Sandra; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic species in the Yersinia genus have historically been targets for research aimed at understanding how bacteria evolve into mammalian pathogens. The advent of large-scale population genomic studies has greatly accelerated the progress in this field, and Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica have once again acted as model organisms to help shape our understanding of the evolutionary processes involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we highlight the gene gain, gene loss and genome rearrangement events that have been identified by genomic studies in pathogenic Yersinia species, and we discuss how these findings are changing our understanding of pathogen evolution. Finally, as these traits are also found in the genomes of other species in the Enterobacteriaceae, we suggest that they provide a blueprint for the evolution of enteropathogenic bacteria.

  1. 'Add, stir and reduce': Yersinia spp. as model bacteria for pathogen evolution.

    PubMed

    McNally, Alan; Thomson, Nicholas R; Reuter, Sandra; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic species in the Yersinia genus have historically been targets for research aimed at understanding how bacteria evolve into mammalian pathogens. The advent of large-scale population genomic studies has greatly accelerated the progress in this field, and Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica have once again acted as model organisms to help shape our understanding of the evolutionary processes involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we highlight the gene gain, gene loss and genome rearrangement events that have been identified by genomic studies in pathogenic Yersinia species, and we discuss how these findings are changing our understanding of pathogen evolution. Finally, as these traits are also found in the genomes of other species in the Enterobacteriaceae, we suggest that they provide a blueprint for the evolution of enteropathogenic bacteria. PMID:26876035

  2. Bundle-Forming Pilus Locus of Aeromonas veronii bv. Sobria

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Nahal; Yang, Qin; Barnett, Timothy C.; Tabei, S. Mohammed B.; Kirov, Sylvia M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the colonization mechanisms of Aeromonas spp. Previous work has suggested that the type IV bundle-forming pilus (Bfp) is an aeromonad intestinal colonization factor. This study provides the first genetic characterization of this structure. To define the role of Bfp in Aeromonas veronii bv. Sobria adherence, a 22-kb locus encoding the bundle-forming pilus was isolated; this contained 17 pilus-related genes similar to the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of Vibrio cholerae. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated that the locus had two major transcriptional units, mshI to mshF and mshB to mshQ. Transcriptional fusion experiments demonstrated the presence of two strong promoters upstream of mshI and mshB. The locus encoded four putative prepilin proteins, one of which (MshA) corresponded to the N-terminal sequence of the previously isolated major pilin protein. All the pilin genes were inactivated, mutation of each minor or major pilin gene greatly reduced the bacterium's ability to adhere and form biofilms, and complementation of each mutant in trans rescued this phenotype. Mutation of the major pilin MshA and MshB, a minor pilin, resulted in their loss. The position of the mshH gene is conserved within a number of bacteria, and we have shown it is not transcriptionally linked to the other msh genes; moreover, its mutation did not have a dramatic effect on either adhesion or biofilm formation. We conclude that the bundle-forming pilus is required for A. veronii bv. Sobria adherence and biofilm formation; furthermore, both the major and minor pilin proteins are essential for this process. PMID:22311923

  3. Impact of stress on Aeromonas diversity in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and lectin level change towards a bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Marques, Diego S C; Ferreira, Dijaci A; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Napoleão, Thiago H; Araújo, Janete M; Maciel Carvalho, Elba V M; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2016-12-01

    Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is among the most cultivated fish species in tropical countries. Stress is the main cause of disease in fish farms. The genus Aeromonas is a common causative agent of fish diseases. This work reports the identification of Aeromonas species colonizing gills of C. macropomum submitted or not to a confinement stress. We also evaluated changes in serum levels of lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins that are components of fish immune system) in tambaqui submitted to a challenge using two isolated Aeromonas strains. Gill tissues from stressed and unstressed fishes were used to isolate Aeromonas. Then 72 Aeromonas strains were isolated, 97% being from stressed fishes. Among these, 63 were identified at species level and 6 were classified as atypical Aeromonas strains. The most prevalent species were Aeromonas bestiarum and Aeromonas caviae and their strains were used in bacterial challenges. The lectin serum levels significantly increased after 24 h of infection with A. bestiarum; however, no significant increase was found for infection with A. caviae. In conclusion, C. macropomum gills are susceptible to colonization by different Aeromonas species, mainly at confinement stressful conditions, and serum lectins may have a role in the acute immunological response towards infection by A. bestiarum.

  4. Clinical significance of virulence-related assay of Yersinia species.

    PubMed

    Noble, M A; Barteluk, R L; Freeman, H J; Subramaniam, R; Hudson, J B

    1987-05-01

    During the 42-month period from June 1982 through December 1985, 215 fecal specimens from 171 patients were found to be positive for yersiniae by using a combination of CIN agar and cold enrichment. Isolates were tested for markers of virulence including carriage of a plasmid 42 megadaltons in size, calcium dependence, autoagglutination, Congo red uptake, pyrazinamidase activity, fermentation of salicin, and hydrolysis of esculin. The results were correlated to symptoms in patients. A total of 80 Yersinia enterocolitica and 52 Y. enterocolitica-like strains (42 Y. frederiksenii, 8 Y. intermedia, and 2 Y. kristensenii) were examined. Positive virulence-related tests were as follows (for Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. kristensenii, respectively): pyrazinamidase negativity, 12.5, 0, 0, and 50%; Congo red positivity, 5, 7.1, 87.5 and 0%; calcium dependence, 3.8, 0, 0, and 0%; autoagglutination positivity, 8.8, 0, 0, and 0%; carriage of the 42-megadalton plasmid, 28.6, 73.2, 5.7, and 0; salicin and esculin negativity, 12.5, 0, 0, and 50%. The isolates recovered from symptomatic patients were characterized in relation to the presenting symptoms. Isolates from 12 of 32 (37.5%) patients with acute-onset diarrhea and 9 of 30 (30.0%) patients with chronic symptoms expressed at least one virulence feature. No individual test or group of tests was consistently associated with onset or either type of symptoms. Routine testing of plasmid carriage, uptake of Congo red, calcium dependence, autoagglutination, and pyrazinamidase activity did not appear to provide information that would link the presence of symptoms with the virulence potential of fecal isolates of yersiniae.

  5. Analysing the lag-growth rate relationship of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Pin, Carmen; García, de Fernando Gonzalo D; Ordóñez, Juan A; Baranyi, József

    2002-03-01

    A generalised z-value concept has been applied to analyse the relationship between the lag and the growth rate of Yersinia enterocolitica at a range of temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen percentages. The product of the specific growth rate and the lag (the "work to be done" during the lag phase) is found to be independent of temperature. However, it does depend on the CO2 and O2 concentrations, though the effect of oxygen was less noticeable than the effect of carbon dioxide.

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein permeability. Y. enterocolitica was present within the murine mucosa of both ileum and colon. Here, the bacterial insult was of focal nature and led to changes in tight junction protein expression and architecture. These findings are in concordance with observations from former cell culture studies and suggest a leak flux mechanism of diarrhea.

  7. Struvite crystal precipitation by different phenotypes of Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, M A; Perez Garcia, I; Calvo, C; Ramos-Cormenzana, A

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular formation of struvite crystals by Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y intermedia strains was investigated. Precipitation of crystalline structures was found with 19 of the 187 strains tested, its formation being more frequently observed at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Production of struvite was greater in Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to biotype 1, serogroup 0:7,8 and lysotype Xz, than observed in other phenotypes. Quantitative assay in a liquid medium showed that struvite formation began after 3 d of incubation; production of these crystals increased up to 15 d. Crystalline structures were examined using electron microscopy and their extracellular formation was observed.

  8. DNA-DNA reassociation and phenotypic data indicate synonymy between Aeromonas enteropelogenes Schubert et al. 1990 and Aeromonas trota Carnahan et al. 1991.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Denys, Rik; Swings, Jean

    2002-11-01

    Mainly on the basis of phylogenetic and genotypic evidence, it has been suggested previously that the species Aeromonas enteropelogenes Schubert et al. 1990 is identical to the species Aeromonas trota Carnahan et al. 1991. Probably because the description of A. enteropelogenes preceded the proposal of A. trota by only a few months, DNA-DNA hybridizations were never performed between representative strains of these two taxa. In the present study, new DNA-DNA hybridizations between the type strain of A. enteropelogenes, LMG 12646(T) (= DSM 6394(T)), and reference strains of A. trota, including its type strain LMG 12223(T)(= ATCC 49657(T)), showed a genomic relatedness of 81-99%. In addition, phenotypic characterization revealed that the two type strains exhibited identical API 20E and API 50CHE biochemical profiles and were both susceptible to ampicillin and carbenicillin. Collectively, our new DNA reassociation and phenotypic data confirm previous taxonomic data that indicate that the taxa A. enteropelogenes and A. trota are synonymous members of the same Aeromonas species. Although the species name A. enteropelogenes has nomenclatural priority, the authors would like to discourage the use of this name because the name A. trota has been cited much more frequently. The preferential use of A. trota in future publications may be the best option to avoid ambiguity in the description of ampicillinsusceptible aeromonads and to secure nomenclatural continuity in Aeromonas literature.

  9. Identification of clinical aeromonas species by rpoB and gyrB sequencing and development of a multiplex PCR method for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. media.

    PubMed

    Persson, Søren; Al-Shuweli, Suzan; Yapici, Seval; Jensen, Joan N; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2015-02-01

    Conventional identification of Aeromonas species based on biochemical methods is challenged by the heterogeneous nature of the species. Here, we present a new multiplex PCR method directed toward the gyrB and rpoB genes that identifies four Aeromonas species, A. hydrophila, A. media, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and we describe the application of this method on a Danish strain collection.

  10. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  11. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huijing; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  12. Prevalence of Yersinia Species in Traditional and Commercial Dairy Products in Isfahan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Sepehri, Sara; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Shaygan, Shima; Momtaz, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Yersinia species, especially Yersinia enterocolitica, are considered as the most prevalent milk-borne pathogens. Several serological and molecular techniques have been developed for rapid and safe diagnosis of yersiniosis. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the prevalence rate of Yersinia species, especially Y. enterocolitica, in milk and dairy products in Isfahan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 285 commercial and traditional dairy products as well as 267 pasteurized and raw milk samples were collected during one year. The samples were studied by culturing and the positive-culture samples were investigated using PCR techniques. Results: The results of culture showed that 52 (9.42%) and 28 (5.07%) of the total 552 milk and dairy samples were positive for presences of Yersinia species and Y. enterocolitica, respectively. Totally, 24 of 28 Y. enterocolitica isolates by culture were positive in PCR test (4.59%). Raw cow milk and traditional cheese had the highest prevalence of Yersinia species and Y. enterocolitica, respectively. There were no positive results for pasteurized cow milk, raw camel milk, commercial ice cream, commercial cheese, yoghurt, Doogh, butter and curd. Yersinia species and Y. enterocolitica had the highest prevalence in autumn (15.15% and 10.6%, respectively). Significant differences regarding P < 0.05 were observed between the presences of Yersinia species and Y. enterocolitica in various samples and seasons. Conclusions: Sanitation and pasteurization are the best ways to increase the microbial quality and particularly decrease the load of Yersinia species. The ability of Yersinia species to growth in Doogh, yoghurt, curd and butter is very low. PMID:25147698

  13. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huijing; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method.

  14. PCR Detection of Virulence Genes in Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Investigation of Virulence Gene Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Thoerner, P.; Bin Kingombe, C. I.; Bögli-Stuber, K.; Bissig-Choisat, B.; Wassenaar, T. M.; Frey, J.; Jemmi, T.

    2003-01-01

    PCR-based assays were developed for the detection of plasmid- and chromosome-borne virulence genes in Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, to investigate the distribution of these genes in isolates from various sources. The results of PCR genotyping, based on 5 virulence-associated genes of 140 strains of Y. enterocolitica, were compared to phenotypic tests, such as biotyping and serotyping, and to virulence plasmid-associated properties such as calcium-dependent growth at 37°C and Congo red uptake. The specificity of the PCR results was validated by hybridization. Genotyping data correlated well with biotype data, and most biotypes resulted in (nearly) homogeneous genotypes for the chromosomal virulence genes (ystA, ystB, and ail); however, plasmid-borne genes (yadA and virF) were detected with variable efficiency, due to heterogeneity within the bacterial population for the presence of the virulence plasmid. Of the virulence genes, only ystB was present in biotype 1A; however, within this biotype, pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could not be distinguished based on the detection of virulence genes. Forty Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates were tested by PCR for the presence of inv, yadA, and lcrF. All isolates were inv positive, and 88% of the isolates contained the virulence plasmid genes yadA and lcrF. In conclusion, this study shows that genotyping of Yersinia spp., based on both chromosome- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, is feasible and informative and can provide a rapid and reliable genotypic characterization of field isolates. PMID:12620874

  15. A comparative study of clinical Aeromonas dhakensis and Aeromonas hydrophila isolates in southern Taiwan: A. dhakensis is more predominant and virulent.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-L; Wu, C-J; Chen, C-S; Tsai, P-J; Tang, H-J; Ko, W-C

    2014-07-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis, often phenotypically identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, is an important human pathogen. The present study aimed to compare the clinical and biological features of A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila isolates from human wounds. A total of 80 Aeromonas wound isolates collected between January 2004 and April 2011 were analysed. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD and gyrB (or rpoB if necessary). Most of the Aeromonas isolates were identified as A. dhakensis (37, 46.3%), and 13 (16.3%) as A. hydrophila. Both species alone can cause severe skin and soft-tissue infections. More A. dhakensis isolates were found in wounds exposed to environmental water (32.4% vs 0%, p 0.042). More biofilm formation was noted among A. dhakensis isolates (mean optical density at 570 nm, 1.23 ± 0.09 vs 0.78 ± 0.21, p 0.03). The MICs of ceftriaxone, imipenem and gentamicin for A. dhakensis isolates were higher (p <0.0001, <0.04, and <0.01, respectively). The survival rates of Caenorhabditis elegans co-incubated with A. dhakensis from day 1 to day 3 were lower than those of worms infected with A. hydrophila in liquid toxicity assays (all p values <0.01). Isolates of A. dhakensis exhibited more cytotoxicity, as measured by the released leucocyte lactate dehydrogenase levels in human normal skin fibroblast cell lines (29.6 ± 1.2% vs 20.6 ± 0.6%, p <0.0001). The cytotoxin gene ast was primarily present in A. hydrophila isolates (100% vs 2.7%, p <0.0001). In summary, A. dhakensis is the predominant species among Aeromonas wound isolates, and more virulent than A. hydrophila.

  16. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria☆

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2012-01-01

    Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0) for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp.), other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp.) and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h) cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four) Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli. PMID:25685439

  17. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2013-01-01

    Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0) for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp.), other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp.) and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h) cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four) Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  18. The occurrence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. in river and lake waters.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Stathopoulos, G A; Constantinidis, T C; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1995-05-01

    In order to assess Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. occurrence in surface waters and to compare it with the standard faecal indicator bacteria, 86 river and lake samples, from eight sampling sites in Northern Greece were examined for the presence of these pathogens in parallel to total and faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. A total of 17 Salmonellae, 14 Campylobacters and 9 Yersiniae were isolated. Only in Salmonella positive samples the geometric means of total and faecal coliforms were found significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in the negative samples, whereas the presence of Campylobacters and Yersiniae may not be predicted by the standard indicator bacteria.

  19. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica serovar O8 from free-living small rodents in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Iinuma, Y; Hayashidani, H; Kaneko, K; Ogawa, M; Hamasaki, S

    1992-01-01

    Yersinia species were isolated from 65 of 223 free-living small mammals trapped in 10 regions on Honshu Island in Japan. Of the 65 strains isolated, 1 was Yersinia enterocolitica serovar O3, 8 were Y. enterocolitica O5, 6 were Y. enterocolitica O8, 3 were Y. enterocolitica O9, and 1 was Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 4b. Of the six Y. enterocolitica O8 strains, five were positive for autoagglutination, Ca2+ dependence, and the 45-MDa virulence plasmid and showed high pathogenicity for mice. PMID:1734061

  20. Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Aeromonas spp. at a medical center in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lee, Mei-Feng; Lee, Chin-Chi; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Po-Lin; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Yan, Jing-Jou; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2011-12-01

    Although extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing aeromonads have been increasingly reported in recent years, most of them were isolates from case reports or environmental isolates. To investigate the prevalence of ESBL producers among Aeromonas blood isolates and the genes encoding ESBLs, consecutive nonduplicate Aeromonas blood isolates collected at a medical center in southern Taiwan from March 2004 to December 2008 were studied. The ESBL phenotypes were examined by clavulanate combination disk test and the cefepime-clavulanate ESBL Etest. The presence of ESBL-encoding genes, including bla(TEM), bla(PER), bla(CTX-M), and bla(SHV) genes, was evaluated by PCR and sequence analysis. The results showed that 4 (2.6%) of 156 Aeromonas blood isolates, 1 Aeromonas hydrophila isolate and 3 Aeromonas caviae isolates, expressed an ESBL-producing phenotype. The ESBL gene in two A. caviae isolates was bla(PER-3), which was located in both chromosomes and plasmids, as demonstrated by Southern hybridization. Of four patients with ESBL-producing Aeromonas bacteremia, two presented with catheter-related phlebitis and the other two with primary bacteremia. Three patients had been treated with initial noncarbapenem β-lactams for 5 to 10 days, and all survived. In conclusion, ESBL producers exist among Aeromonas blood isolates, and clinical suspicion of ESBL production should be raised in treating infections due to cefotaxime-resistant Aeromonas isolates.

  1. Detection and Whole-Genome Sequencing of Carbapenemase-Producing Aeromonas hydrophila Isolates from Routine Perirectal Surveillance Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Heather Y.; Lau, Anna F.; Dekker, John P.; Michelin, Angela V.; Youn, Jung-Ho; Henderson, David K.; Frank, Karen M.; Segre, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Perirectal surveillance cultures and a stool culture grew Aeromonas species from three patients over a 6-week period and were without epidemiological links. Detection of the blaKPC-2 gene in one isolate prompted inclusion of non-Enterobacteriaceae in our surveillance culture workup. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed that the isolates were unrelated and provided data for Aeromonas reference genomes. PMID:26888898

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae 8LM, Isolated from Stool Culture of a Child with Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Moriel, Bárbara; Cruz, Leonardo M; Dallagassa, Cibelle B; Faoro, Helisson; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Rego, Fabiane G M; Picheth, Geraldo; Fadel-Picheth, Cyntia M T

    2015-05-21

    Aeromonas spp. are Gram-negative rods ubiquitous in aquatic environments; however, some species are able to cause a variety of infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae 8LM isolated from stool culture from a child with diarrhea in southern Brazil.

  3. AQU-1, a chromosomal class C β-lactamase, among clinical Aeromonas dhakensis isolates: distribution and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Chen, Po-Lin; Chang, Ming-Chung; Sunny Sun, H; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2013-11-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis, a recently described Aeromonas sp. formerly called Aeromonas aquariorum, is associated with human infections. In this study, a chromosomal gene, blaAQU-1, was identified in A. dhakensis AAK1 that constitutes a 1143-bp open reading frame and is 87% identical to the gene encoding CepH in Aeromonas hydrophila. An Escherichia coli TOP10 cell transformant harbouring blaAQU-1 was resistant to cefotaxime but not to cefepime. mRNA expression of blaAQU-1 in the cefotaxime-resistant mutant strain AAK1m was 70-fold higher than in the wild strain AAK1. In all 16 A. dhakensis isolates (the major species of 51 consecutive Aeromonas blood isolates collected from June 1999 to June 2001) as well as in A. aquariorum MDC47(T) and A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis LMG 19562(T), but not in the reference strains or clinical isolates of other A. hydrophila subspecies, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii or Aeromonas enteropelogenes, blaAQU-1-related genes were detected by PCR. Overall, 13 (81%) of the 16 A. dhakensis blood isolates exhibited either cefotaxime resistance or the in vitro emergence of derepressed cefotaxime-resistant mutants. In vivo selection of an A. dhakensis resistant mutant was noted in a burn patient undergoing cefotaxime monotherapy. These observations suggest that AQU-1 is a chromosomal cephalosporinase in A. dhakensis. Cefotaxime monotherapy for severe A. dhakensis infections should be used cautiously.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae 8LM, Isolated from Stool Culture of a Child with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Moriel, Bárbara; Dallagassa, Cibelle B.; Faoro, Helisson; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Rego, Fabiane G. M.; Picheth, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are Gram-negative rods ubiquitous in aquatic environments; however, some species are able to cause a variety of infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae 8LM isolated from stool culture from a child with diarrhea in southern Brazil. PMID:25999559

  5. Bacteremia Due to Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Aeromonas spp. at a Medical Center in Southern Taiwan▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lee, Mei-Feng; Lee, Chin-Chi; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Po-Lin; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Yan, Jing-Jou; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Although extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing aeromonads have been increasingly reported in recent years, most of them were isolates from case reports or environmental isolates. To investigate the prevalence of ESBL producers among Aeromonas blood isolates and the genes encoding ESBLs, consecutive nonduplicate Aeromonas blood isolates collected at a medical center in southern Taiwan from March 2004 to December 2008 were studied. The ESBL phenotypes were examined by clavulanate combination disk test and the cefepime-clavulanate ESBL Etest. The presence of ESBL-encoding genes, including blaTEM, blaPER, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes, was evaluated by PCR and sequence analysis. The results showed that 4 (2.6%) of 156 Aeromonas blood isolates, 1 Aeromonas hydrophila isolate and 3 Aeromonas caviae isolates, expressed an ESBL-producing phenotype. The ESBL gene in two A. caviae isolates was blaPER-3, which was located in both chromosomes and plasmids, as demonstrated by Southern hybridization. Of four patients with ESBL-producing Aeromonas bacteremia, two presented with catheter-related phlebitis and the other two with primary bacteremia. Three patients had been treated with initial noncarbapenem β-lactams for 5 to 10 days, and all survived. In conclusion, ESBL producers exist among Aeromonas blood isolates, and clinical suspicion of ESBL production should be raised in treating infections due to cefotaxime-resistant Aeromonas isolates. PMID:21968366

  6. [Aeromonas spp asociated to acute diarrheic disease in Cuba: case-control study].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Núñez, Fidel Á; Rivero, Luis A; Ramírez, Margarita; Aguila, Adalberto; Ledo, Yudith; Cruz, Yanaika; Hernández, Jenny

    2012-02-01

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are currently considered important gastrointestinal pathogens in different geographical areas. From February 1985 to January 2005 several case-control studies were coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for Diarrheal Diseases from the Pedro Kouri Institute. The study purpose was to analyze a possible pathogenic role for Aeromonas spp in Cuban children with acute diarrhea. In that period 2,322 children less than 5 years old with acute diarrhea were studied for diarhoeal pathogens and another group of 2,072 non hospitalized children without diarrhea during the similar time from the same geographical areas and matched by ages were recruited. In the group of children with diarrheas (cases), Aeromonas spp. was isolated in 166 (7.15%) and in the control group the microorganism was found in only 35 (1.76%). When Aeromonas isolation rates were compared between both groups, we found that probability to isolate this specie was significantly higher in cases than in controls (OR = 4.48, 95% IC: 3.05-6.60; P < 0.001). The Aeromonas species more frequently isolated were A. caviae, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii bv sobria. Other enteric pathogens detected in children with diarrhea were: Shigella spp in 418 (18%) (P < 0.0001), Salmonella spp in 53 (2.3%) (P < 0.01), and enteropathogenic E. coli in 58 (2.49%) (P < 0.05).

  7. Isolation of Yersinia from raw meat (pork and chicken) and precooked meat (porcine tongues and sausages) collected from commercial establishments in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C; Rodas-Suárez, O R; Pedroche, F F

    2000-04-01

    A total of 160 meat product samples were collected from commercial outlets in Mexico City to investigate the presence of different species of Yersinia by the 4 degrees C enrichment method after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation using alkaline treatment and isolating in cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin and MacConkey agars with Tween 80. Overall, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 27% of the samples analyzed, whereas 40% of the raw and only 13% of the precooked samples were contaminated. Although 2,970 colonies showed Yersinia characteristics, only 706 (24%) actually corresponded to this genus: 49% were Yersinia enterocolitica, 25% Yersinia kristensenii, 15% Yersinia intermedia, 9% Yersinia frederiksenii, and 2% Yersinia aldovae; 10% corresponded to biotype 2, 2% to biotype 3, and 4% to biotype 4. The presence of Yersinia in raw and cooked meat products represents a health risk for consumers in Mexico, where further clinical studies are needed to assess the epidemiological importance of this pathogen.

  8. In situ structural analysis of the Yersinia enterocolitica injectisome.

    PubMed

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Stenta, Marco; Schmelz, Stefan; Amstutz, Marlise; Wiesand, Ulrich; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Münnich, Stefan; Bleck, Christopher Ke; Kowal, Julia; Diepold, Andreas; Heinz, Dirk W; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Cornelis, Guy R; Stahlberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Injectisomes are multi-protein transmembrane machines allowing pathogenic bacteria to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells, a process called type III secretion. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella flexneri injectisomes in situ and the first structural analysis of the Yersinia injectisome. Unexpectedly, basal bodies of injectisomes inside the bacterial cells showed length variations of 20%. The in situ structures of the Y. enterocolitica and S. flexneri injectisomes had similar dimensions and were significantly longer than the isolated structures of related injectisomes. The crystal structure of the inner membrane injectisome component YscD appeared elongated compared to a homologous protein, and molecular dynamics simulations documented its elongation elasticity. The ring-shaped secretin YscC at the outer membrane was stretched by 30-40% in situ, compared to its isolated liposome-embedded conformation. We suggest that elasticity is critical for some two-membrane spanning protein complexes to cope with variations in the intermembrane distance. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00792.001. PMID:23908767

  9. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection intractable by antibiotics: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Jiro; Sasaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection is usually cured spontaneously or with administration of antibiotics. Presentation of case The patient is a twelve-year-old boy with right lower quadrant pain who had enterocolitis one month previously. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed a distended and edematous ileum and an intra-abdominal abscess adjacent to the mesentery with a normal appendix. The patient’s general condition did not improve with antibiotics, so an ileocecectomy was performed. Discussion Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection requiring an operation is rare. In our case, antibiotics were not effective in treating the abscess therefore surgery was required. An early diagnosis using serological studies, ultrasound of the abdomen, and fecal culture, with appropriate administration of antibiotics, may have avoided the need for surgery. Considering YP infection as a differential diagnosis is therefore important when encountering patients with enterocolitis, especially with right lower quadrant pain. Early diagnosis may assist in avoiding unnecessary operations. Conclusion Diagnosis of YP infection may be missed or delayed because it is rare and difficult to detect, and must be distinguished from appendicitis. Although most YP infections are self-limiting, some rare cases will require surgery, therefore early diagnosis is essential. PMID:27002288

  10. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  11. In situ structural analysis of the Yersinia enterocolitica injectisome

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Stenta, Marco; Schmelz, Stefan; Amstutz, Marlise; Wiesand, Ulrich; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Münnich, Stefan; Bleck, Christopher KE; Kowal, Julia; Diepold, Andreas; Heinz, Dirk W; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Cornelis, Guy R; Stahlberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Injectisomes are multi-protein transmembrane machines allowing pathogenic bacteria to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells, a process called type III secretion. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella flexneri injectisomes in situ and the first structural analysis of the Yersinia injectisome. Unexpectedly, basal bodies of injectisomes inside the bacterial cells showed length variations of 20%. The in situ structures of the Y. enterocolitica and S. flexneri injectisomes had similar dimensions and were significantly longer than the isolated structures of related injectisomes. The crystal structure of the inner membrane injectisome component YscD appeared elongated compared to a homologous protein, and molecular dynamics simulations documented its elongation elasticity. The ring-shaped secretin YscC at the outer membrane was stretched by 30–40% in situ, compared to its isolated liposome-embedded conformation. We suggest that elasticity is critical for some two-membrane spanning protein complexes to cope with variations in the intermembrane distance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00792.001 PMID:23908767

  12. Microevolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Achtman, Mark; Morelli, Giovanna; Zhu, Peixuan; Wirth, Thierry; Diehl, Ines; Kusecek, Barica; Vogler, Amy J.; Wagner, David M.; Allender, Christopher J.; Easterday, W. Ryan; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Worsham, Patricia; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Parkhill, Julian; Lindler, Luther E.; Carniel, Elisabeth; Keim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The association of historical plague pandemics with Yersinia pestis remains controversial, partly because the evolutionary history of this largely monomorphic bacterium was unknown. The microevolution of Y. pestis was therefore investigated by three different multilocus molecular methods, targeting genomewide synonymous SNPs, variation in number of tandem repeats, and insertion of IS100 insertion elements. Eight populations were recognized by the three methods, and we propose an evolutionary tree for these populations, rooted on Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The tree invokes microevolution over millennia, during which enzootic pestoides isolates evolved. This initial phase was followed by a binary split 6,500 years ago, which led to populations that are more frequently associated with human disease. These populations do not correspond directly to classical biovars that are based on phenotypic properties. Thus, we recommend that henceforth groupings should be based on molecular signatures. The age of Y. pestis inferred here is compatible with the dates of historical pandemic plague. However, it is premature to infer an association between any modern molecular grouping and a particular pandemic wave that occurred before the 20th century. PMID:15598742

  13. Vector potential of houseflies for the bacterium Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Nayduch, D; Noblet, G Pittman; Stutzenberger, F J

    2002-06-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae), have been implicated as vectors or transporters of numerous gastrointestinal pathogens encountered during feeding and ovipositing on faeces. The putative enteropathogen Aeromonas caviae (Proteobacteria: Aeromonadaceae) may be present in faeces of humans and livestock. Recently A. caviae was detected in houseflies by PCR and isolated by culture methods. In this study, we assessed the vector potential of houseflies for A. caviae relative to multiplication and persistence of the bacterium in the fly and to contamination of other flies and food materials. In experimentally fed houseflies, the number of bacteria increased up to 2 days post-ingestion (d PI) and then decreased significantly 3 d PI. A large number of bacteria was detected in the vomitus and faeces of infected flies at 2-3 d PI. The bacteria persisted in flies for up to 8 d PI, but numbers were low. Experimentally infected flies transmitted A. caviae to chicken meat, and transmissibility was directly correlated with exposure time. Flies contaminated the meat for up to 7 d PI; however, a significant decrease in contamination was observed 2-3 d PI. In the fly-to-fly transmission experiments, the transmission of A. caviae was observed and was apparently mediated by flies sharing food. These results support houseflies as potential vectors for A. caviae because the bacterium multiplied, persisted in flies for up to 8 d PI, and could be transmitted to human food items.

  14. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: In the Wake of Reclassification

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R.; Figueras, Maria J.; McGarey, Donald; Liles, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous “jack-of-all-trades,” Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed.

  15. Lectin-binding properties of Aeromonas caviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio M.; Hirata-Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Freitas-Almeida, Angela C.; Andrade, Arnaldo F. B.

    2008-01-01

    The cell surface carbohydrates of four strains of Aeromonas caviae were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays employing twenty highly purified lectins encompassing all sugar specificities. With the exception of L-fucose and sialic acid, the sugar residues were detected in A. caviae strains. A marked difference, however, in the pattern of cell surface carbohydrates in different A. caviae isolates was observed. Specific receptors for Tritricum vulgaris (WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum (STA) (D-GlcNAc-binding lectins) were found only in ATCC 15468 strain, whereas Euonymus europaeus (EEL, D-Gal-binding lectin) sites were present exclusively in AeQ32 strain, those for Helix pomatia (HPA, D-GalNAc-binding lectin) in AeC398 and AeV11 strains, and for Canavalia ensiformes (Con A, D-Man-binding lectin) in ATCC 15468, AeC398, AeQ32 and AeV11 strains, after bacterial growing at 37°C. On the other hand, specific receptors for WGA and EEL were completely abrogated growing the bacteria at 22°C. Binding studies with 125I- labeled lectins from WGA, EEL and Con A were performed. These assays essentially confirmed the selectivity, demonstrated in the agglutination assays of these lectins for the A. caviae strains. PMID:24031204

  16. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: In the Wake of Reclassification.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R; Figueras, Maria J; McGarey, Donald; Liles, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous "jack-of-all-trades," Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed. PMID:27610107

  17. Genomic study of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Jian, Jia; Li, Wen-Jie; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Shen, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-10-01

    The complete genome of Gram-negative Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4 that has been used for industrial production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) was sequenced and annotated. Its chromosome is 4,527,993 bp in size encoding 4,272 genes, including 28 rRNA genes and 104 tRNA genes. Comparative analysis indicated that genome of A. hydrophila 4AK4 was similar to that of the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966(T), an intensively studied aeromonad for its pathogenicity related to its genomic information. Genes possibly coming from other species or even other genus were identified in A. hydrophila 4AK4. A large number of putative virulent genes were predicted. However, a cytotonic enterotoxin (Ast) is absent in A. hydrophila 4AK4, allowing the industrial strain to be different from other A. hydrophila strains, indicating possible reduced virulence of strain 4AK4, which is very important for industrial fermentation. Genes involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) metabolism were predicted and analyzed. The resulting genomic information is useful for improved production of PHA via metabolic engineering of A. hydrophila 4AK4.

  18. Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from imported shrimp.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Zakiya; Khan, Saeed; Sung, Kidon; Khare, Sangeeta; Khan, Ashraf; Steele, Roger; Nawaz, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Sixty-three nalidixic acid-resistant Aeromonas sp. isolates were obtained from imported shrimp. Phylogenetic analysis of gyrB sequences indicated that 18 were A. enteropelogenes, 26 were A. caviae, and 19 were A. sobria. Double missense mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA at codon 83 (Ser→Val/Ile) and codon 92 (Leu→Met) coupled with a point mutation of parC at codon 80 (Ser→Ile/Phe) conferred high levels of quinolone resistance in the isolates. A majority of A. enteropelogenes and A. caviae strains harbored toxin genes, whereas only a few A. sobria strains harbored these genes. The fluoroquinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. exhibited higher cytotoxicity than fluoroquinolone-sensitive, virulent Aeromonas spp. to rat epithelial cells.

  19. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Samuel L; Lye, Dennis J; McKinstry, Craig A; Vesper, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 h after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) transcripts. Aeromonas caviae has always been considered an opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  20. Detection of Aeromonas caviae in the common housefly Musca domestica by culture and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayduch, D; Honko, A; Noblet, G P; Stutzenberger, F

    2001-12-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been implicated in diarrhoeal disease of livestock and humans. The potential role of houseflies in the epidemiology of this pathogen was investigated by examining the prevalence of A. caviae in houseflies collected from two South Carolina farms and one restaurant. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific PCR using novel primers (APW-PCR). All isolates cultured from houseflies were identified as A. caviae by biochemical characteristics and direct sequencing approximately 800 bp of the 16S rRNA gene. Aeromonas caviae was detected in 78% (272/349) dairy farm flies, 55% (54/99) pig farm flies and 39% (77/200) restaurant flies. Faeces from cows and pigs at the farms also were positive for A. caviae (58% and 100%, respectively). The APW PCR method provided a rapid, convenient way to identify A. caviae from faeces and houseflies that contained hundreds of bacterial species.

  1. Prevalence and resistance to antibiotics for Aeromonas species from retail fish in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Radu, Son; Ahmad, Noorlis; Ling, Foo Hooi; Reezal, Abdul

    2003-03-25

    A total of 87 market fish samples representing five types of fish were evaluated for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Of the samples examined, 69%, 55%, 11.5% and 2.3% harbored Aeromonas spp., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. caviae, respectively. The 60 isolated Aeromonas spp. strains were further examined for hemolytic activity, resistance to antimicrobial agents and presence of plasmids. Hemolytic activity varied widely among the isolated strains. Though all the isolates demonstrated resistance to three or more of the antibiotics tested, all were susceptible to ceptazidime. Thirty-four (56.7%) of the sixty isolates harbored plasmids, with sizes ranging from 2.3 to 15.7 kb. These results indicate that hemolytic, multiple antibiotic resistant and genetically diverse aeromonads are easily recovered from fish in this region. PMID:12485753

  2. Prevalence and resistance to antibiotics for Aeromonas species from retail fish in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Radu, Son; Ahmad, Noorlis; Ling, Foo Hooi; Reezal, Abdul

    2003-03-25

    A total of 87 market fish samples representing five types of fish were evaluated for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Of the samples examined, 69%, 55%, 11.5% and 2.3% harbored Aeromonas spp., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. caviae, respectively. The 60 isolated Aeromonas spp. strains were further examined for hemolytic activity, resistance to antimicrobial agents and presence of plasmids. Hemolytic activity varied widely among the isolated strains. Though all the isolates demonstrated resistance to three or more of the antibiotics tested, all were susceptible to ceptazidime. Thirty-four (56.7%) of the sixty isolates harbored plasmids, with sizes ranging from 2.3 to 15.7 kb. These results indicate that hemolytic, multiple antibiotic resistant and genetically diverse aeromonads are easily recovered from fish in this region.

  3. The occurrence of cytotoxic Aeromonas hydrophila strains in Italian mineral and thermal waters.

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; Castaldo, A; Gualillo, O; de Fusco, R

    2002-06-26

    Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including mineral drinking and thermal waters. Motile species are related to different diseases, mostly gastrointestinal disorders. Criteria for Aeromonas pathogenicity in humans and animals are still unclear and neither is the relationship between production virulence and pathogenicity factors. In the present study, strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, from 61 samples of bottled mineral waters and 23 thermal Italian sources have been isolated and identified by biochemical tests, for toxicity and detection of the aerolysin gene by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Six strains were isolated from the mineral waters and were found to be cytotoxic and in possession of the aerolysin gene. For the twelve strains isolated from thermal waters, seven were cytotoxic and eleven contained the aerolysin gene.

  4. Bacteremia Caused by Aeromonas hydrophila Complex in the Caribbean Islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe

    PubMed Central

    Hochedez, Patrick; Hope-Rapp, Emilie; Olive, Claude; Nicolas, Muriel; Beaucaire, Gilles; Cabié, André

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas species are Gram-negative bacilli of the water environment whose survival appears facilitated by warm climates. There have been no reports on Aeromonas hydrophila complex (A. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii) in the Caribbean to date. Our aim was to describe clinical and bacteriological features in patients presenting with such bacteremia in Martinique and Guadeloupe. During a 14-year period, we retrospectively identified 37 patients. The mean age was 55 years and in 89% of cases underlying disease such as digestive diseases, cutaneous wounds, and malignancy were identified. One case was related to severe strongyloidiasis and one with snake bite. Polymicrobial bacteremia was identified in 38%, essentially with Enterobacteriaceae. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to amoxicillin but extended-spectrum beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone were active against more than 95%. During hospitalization 10 patients died (27%). Older age, occurrence of multiorgan failure, and impaired renal function were associated with in-hospital mortality. PMID:21036850

  5. [Aeromonas hydrophila in waters of Lake San Roque and its tributaries].

    PubMed

    Fracchia de Salvay, Y

    1986-01-01

    The presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in 72 samples of water of Lake San Roque and two rivers that flow into it, situated in Punilla Valley, Córdoba was investigated. Water-peptone Alkaline (enrichment medium) and Rippey Cabelli Agar without ampicillin (selective and differential medium for Aeromonas hydrophila) were used for isolation. The colonies obtained were assayed by oxidase test and subsequent oxidation-fermentation of Hugh Leifson, motility, urease, mannitol and trehalose fermentation, ornithine and lysine decarboxylation. Voges Proskauer and gas production from glucose and glycerol. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated in 13% of water samples obtained in days with high temperature. Although this finding is not alarming, its presence should be taken into account because of its potential pathogenesis.

  6. Analysis of the interaction of Aeromonas caviae, A. hydrophila and A. sobria with mucins.

    PubMed

    Ascencio, F; Martinez-Arias, W; Romero, M J; Wadström, T

    1998-03-01

    Aeromonas species are known to be involved in human gastrointestinal diseases. These organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. sobria have been demonstrated microscopically to adhere to animal cell lines that express mucous receptors, but quantitative studies of adherence to mucosal components such as mucin have not been published to date. Purified bovine submaxillary gland, hog gastric mucin, and fish skin mucin were used as a model to study mucin-binding activity among A. caviae, A. hydrophila, and A. sobria strains. Our findings revealed that binding of radiolabeled and enzyme-conjugated mucins to Aeromonas cells varied depending on the labeling procedure. The highest binding was observed when the three mucin preparations were labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Binding of the various horseradish peroxidase-labeled mucins by A. caviae, A. hydrophila, and A. sobria cells is a common property among Aeromonas species isolated from human infections, diseased fish, and from environmental sources. The proportion of Aeromonas strains which bind the various horseradish peroxidase-labeled mucins was significantly higher for A. hydrophila than for A. caviae and A. sobria. Bacterial cell-surface extracts containing active mucin-binding components recognized the horseradish peroxidase-labeled mucins. The molecular masses of the mucin-binding proteins were estimated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot as follows: A. caviae strain A4812 (95 and 44 kDa); A. hydrophila strain 48748 (97, 45, 33 and 22 kDa); and A. sobria strain 48739 (95 and 43 kDa). Mucin interaction with Aeromonas cells was also studied in terms of growth in mucin-rich media. The culture conditions greatly influence the expression of A. hydrophila mucin-binding activity.

  7. Unique Activity Spectrum of Colicin FY: All 110 Characterized Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates Were Colicin FY Susceptible

    PubMed Central

    Bosák, Juraj; Micenková, Lenka; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Dědičová, Daniela; Garzetti, Debora; Šmajs, David

    2013-01-01

    Colicin FY is a plasmid encoded toxin that recognizes a yersinia-specific outer membrane protein (YiuR) as a receptor molecule. We have previously shown that the activity spectrum of colicin FY comprises strains of the genus Yersinia. In this study, we analyzed the activity of colicin FY against 110 Yersinia enterocolitica isolates differing in geographical origin and source. All isolates were characterized through analysis of 16S rRNA genes, serotyping, biotyping, restriction profiling of genomic DNA, detection of virulence markers and susceptibility to antibiotics. This confirmed the broad variability of the collection, in which all 110 Y. enterocolitica isolates, representing 77 various strains, were inhibited by colicin FY. Although isolates showed variable levels of susceptibility to colicin FY, it was not associated with any strain characteristic. The universal susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica strains to colicin FY together with the absence of activity towards strains outside the Yersinia genus suggests potential therapeutic applications for colicin FY. PMID:24339971

  8. Early divergent strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper; Orlando, Ludovic; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Schubert, Mikkel; Van Dam, Alex; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Avetisyan, Pavel; Epimakhov, Andrey; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich; Gnuni, Artak; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Metspalu, Mait; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Gromov, Andrei; Pokutta, Dalia; Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-10-22

    The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics.

  9. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper; Orlando, Ludovic; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Schubert, Mikkel; Van Dam, Alex; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Avetisyan, Pavel; Epimakhov, Andrey; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich; Gnuni, Artak; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Metspalu, Mait; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Gromov, Andrei; Pokutta, Dalia; Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    Summary The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics. PMID:26496604

  10. Proteomic characterization of host response to Yersinia pestis and near neighbors.

    PubMed

    Chromy, Brett A; Perkins, Julie; Heidbrink, Jenny L; Gonzales, Arlene D; Murphy, Gloria A; Fitch, J Patrick; McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L

    2004-07-23

    Host-pathogen interactions result in protein expression changes within both the host and the pathogen. Here, results from proteomic characterization of host response following exposure to Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, and to two near neighbors, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica, are reported. Human monocyte-like cells were chosen as a model for macrophage immune response to pathogen exposure. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry was used to identify host proteins with differential expression following exposure to these three closely related Yersinia species. This comparative proteomic characterization of host response clearly shows that host protein expression patterns are distinct for the different pathogen exposures, and contributes to further understanding of Y. pestis virulence and host defense mechanisms. This work also lays the foundation for future studies aimed at defining biomarkers for presymptomatic detection of plague.

  11. [Phenotypic characteristics and virulence factors in Aeromonas strains isolated from patients with diarrheic disease in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ledo, Judith; Ramírez, Margarita; Aguila, Adalberto; Núñez, Fidel A; Cabrera, Luis E; Cruz, Yanaika

    2011-04-01

    Fifty four strains of Aeromonas spp were isolated from patients with acute diarrheic episodes by using Aerokey II and Aeroesquema methods. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors were analyzed. The most frequently isolated specie was Aeromonas caviae. Over 75% of strains exhibited resistance to penicillins and ce-phalosporins; for the other antibiotic groups resistance was under 20%. Twenty six strains (48.1 %) were multiresist-ant. At least one virulence factor among those evaluated in the study was present in 53 (98.1%) of the 54 strains. PMID:21720696

  12. Study of submicroscopic forms of Yersinia organism with the morphodensitometrical estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putina, Tatiana G.; Lenchenko, Ekaterina M.

    1997-05-01

    The fine structure of the various morphological stages of development in vitro and in vivo of Yersinia spp. culture has been studied with the aid of light and electron microscopy and computerized television morphodensitometry. An analysis is made of the ultrastructural location of cell wall elements with regard to the cell covers and other forms of exogenous material. The results of cytochemical investigation and then morphodensitometrical estimation on various forms of Yersinia L-transforming are discussed.

  13. Detection of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica by a Rapid and Sensitive Duplex PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wannet, Wim J. B.; Reessink, Michiel; Brunings, Henk A.; Maas, Henny M. E.

    2001-01-01

    A duplex PCR assay targeting the ail and 16S rRNA genes of Yersinia enterocolitica was developed to specifically identify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pure culture. Validation of the assay was performed with 215 clinical Yersinia strains and 40 strains of other bacterial species. Within an assay time of 4 h, this assay offers a very specific, reliable, and inexpensive alternative to the conventional phenotypic assays used in clinical laboratories to identify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. PMID:11724866

  14. [A personal view of the history of the genus Yersinia].

    PubMed

    Mollaret, H H

    1987-01-01

    The first recorded experience Australia had of the genus Yersinia was the arrival in 1889 of a French expedition led by Pasteur's nephew, Dr. Adrien Loir. At that time Australia was in the grips of an epidemic of rabbits, and Loir's purpose was to eradicate the rabbits by means of fowl plague (Pasteurella multocida). Sadly, bureaucratic and political obstacles prevailed, and Loir was never granted permission to release his biological control agent. Alexander Yersin had been tempted to join Loir's expedition, but elected in the end to travel to Hong Kong, where he discovered the plague bacillus. Had he gone to Australia, we might not now be speaking of the genus Yersinia... Historically, Yersinia pestis has affected not only world history but literature as well. In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, the tragic denouement can be attributed directly to the consequences of the Great Plague. In times of plague, cities closed their gates to travellers, and houses their doors and windows. Thus Laurence's explanatory letter was prevented from reaching Romeo, who returned to take his life beside the drugged (but living) body of his beloved. Not only was the contemporary literature from which Shakespeare drew inspiration full of references to the plague, but he himself had experienced the social effects of the plague at first hand. The recent rejection of the name Y. pseudotuberculosis var. pestis in favour of Y. pestis is fitting, not simply on the grounds of preventing confusion - after all, Y. pseudotuberculosis can be an equally lethal pathogen. However, a review of the epidemiology for Y. pestis since the First Pandemic in the 6th Century AD lends support to Devignat's hypothesis that Y. pseudotuberculosis evolved from Y. pestis, rather than vice versa. This probably occurred in Europe shortly before the Second Pandemic, and the new mutant spread slowly through the European rodent population, immunising the carriers against plague. In other parts of the world which

  15. The pathogenic potential of Yersinia enterocolitica 1A.

    PubMed

    Batzilla, Julia; Heesemann, Juergen; Rakin, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica 1A strains are generally considered apathogenic. However, besides environmental sources, foods and animals, they are repeatedly isolated from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms typical to those evoked by Yersinia of the virulent 1B and 2-4 biotypes. Also, at least 2 gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with 1A strains have been reported. There is a general controversy concerning the pathogenic potential of 1A isolates of clinical and non-clinical origin. To address the 1A puzzle, we have determined the genome sequences of 2 1A strains, a nosocomial O:5 and environmental O:36 isolates, and compared them to each other and to O:8/1B and O:3/4 representatives of the virulent serobiotypes. 1A isolates have mosaic genomes and share genes both with serobiotypes O:8/1B and O:3/4 that implies their common descent. Besides the pYV virulence plasmid, 1A strains lack the classical virulence markers, like the Ail adhesin, the YstA enterotoxin, and the virulence-associated protein C. However, they still possess genes encoding such known and suspect virulence-associated determinants like the YstB enterotoxin, the InvA invasin, the mucoid Yersinia factor MyfA, and the enterochelin utilisation fepBDGC/fepA/fes gene cluster. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that the strains of the 1A group possess the MyfA antigen although with limited similarity to the highly conserved MyfA in the virulent serobiotypes. In turn, the MyfB chaperone coevolved with the MyfA fibrillae, while the MyfC usher retains 90% identity to its MyfC counterparts in O:3/O:8 group. The only notable difference between clinical and non-clinical 1A strains was the presence of a truncated Rtx toxin-like gene cluster and remnants of a P2-like prophage in the hospital O:5 isolate. Taken together, Y. enterocolitica BT 1A group represents opportunistic pathogens whose opportunity to establish infection seems to rely mainly on the state of the host defence system. However

  16. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae.

    PubMed

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g., soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g., rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and interbacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets. PMID:25368845

  17. Canis lupus familiaris involved in the transmission of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Junrong; Xi, Jinxiao; Yang, Jinchuan; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Li, Jicheng; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Duan, Ran; Yang, Haoshu; Li, Kewei; Cui, Zhigang; Qi, Meiying; Jing, Huaiqi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate canines carrying pathogens associated with human illness, we studied their roles in transmitting and maintaining pathogenic Yersinia spp. We examined different ecological landscapes in China for the distribution of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in Canis lupus familiaris, the domestic dog. The highest number of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was shown from the tonsils (6.30%), followed by rectal swabs (3.63%) and feces (1.23%). Strains isolated from plague free areas for C. lupus familiaris, local pig and diarrhea patients shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, indicating they may be from the same clone and the close transmission source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica infections in these areas. Among 226 dogs serum samples collected from natural plague areas of Yersinia pestis in Gansu and Qinghai Provinces, 49 were positive for F1 antibody, while the serum samples collected from plague free areas were all negative, suggested a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs. No Y. enterocolitica or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from canine rectal swabs in natural plague areas. Therefore, pathogenic Yersinia spp. may be regionally distributed in China.

  18. Trends of the major porin gene (ompF) evolution: insight from the genus Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Stenkova, Anna M; Isaeva, Marina P; Shubin, Felix N; Rasskazov, Valeri A; Rakin, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    OmpF is one of the major general porins of Enterobacteriaceae that belongs to the first line of bacterial defense and interactions with the biotic as well as abiotic environments. Porins are surface exposed and their structures strongly reflect the history of multiple interactions with the environmental challenges. Unfortunately, little is known on diversity of porin genes of Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Yersinia especially. We analyzed the sequences of the ompF gene from 73 Yersinia strains covering 14 known species. The phylogenetic analysis placed most of the Yersinia strains in the same line assigned by 16S rDNA-gyrB tree. Very high congruence in the tree topologies was observed for Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii, Y. ruckeri, indicating that intragenic recombination in these species had no effect on the ompF gene. A significant level of intra- and interspecies recombination was found for Y. aleksiciae, Y. intermedia and Y. mollaretii. Our analysis shows that the ompF gene of Yersinia has evolved with nonrandom mutational rate under purifying selection. However, several surface loops in the OmpF porin contain positively selected sites, which very likely reflect adaptive diversification Yersinia to their ecological niches. To our knowledge, this is a first investigation of diversity of the porin gene covering the whole genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This study demonstrates that recombination and positive selection both contribute to evolution of ompF, but the relative contribution of these evolutionary forces are different among Yersinia species.

  19. Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica in wild-living birds and Japanese serows.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Ito, K; Kubokura, Y; Maruyama, T; Kaneko, K; Ogawa, M

    1985-01-01

    Yersinia spp. were isolated from 34 of 500 birds representing nine species. The highest isolation rate, 5 of 21 (23.8%), was found in blue magpies (Cyanopia cyanus), followed by pheasants (Phasianus colchicus tohkaidi), 5 of 33 (15.2%); gray starlings (Sturnus cineraceus), 6 of 57 (10.5%); tree sparrows (Passer montanus), 1 of 14 (7.1%); bulbuls (Hypsipetes amaurotis), 4 of 57 (7.0%); crows (Corvus levailantii or Corvus corone), 7 of 117 (6.0%); eastern turtledoves (Streptopelia orientalis), 4 of 118 (3.4%); Chinese bamboo pheasants (Bumbusicola thoracica thoracica), 1 of 36 (2.8%); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), 1 of 47 (2.1%). The isolates were identified as Yersinia enterocolitica O:3, O:4, O:4,32, O:5A, O:6,30, O:7,8, and O:14, Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia intermedia, and Yersinia kristensenii. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 35 of 157 wild-living Japanese serows (Capricornis cripus). The isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica O:4, O:4,32, O:5A, O:7, O:7,8, O:9, O:14, O:18, and O:34, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. kristensenii.

  20. Trends of the Major Porin Gene (ompF) Evolution: Insight from the Genus Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Stenkova, Anna M.; Isaeva, Marina P.; Shubin, Felix N.; Rasskazov, Valeri A.; Rakin, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    OmpF is one of the major general porins of Enterobacteriaceae that belongs to the first line of bacterial defense and interactions with the biotic as well as abiotic environments. Porins are surface exposed and their structures strongly reflect the history of multiple interactions with the environmental challenges. Unfortunately, little is known on diversity of porin genes of Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Yersinia especially. We analyzed the sequences of the ompF gene from 73 Yersinia strains covering 14 known species. The phylogenetic analysis placed most of the Yersinia strains in the same line assigned by 16S rDNA-gyrB tree. Very high congruence in the tree topologies was observed for Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii, Y. ruckeri, indicating that intragenic recombination in these species had no effect on the ompF gene. A significant level of intra- and interspecies recombination was found for Y. aleksiciae, Y. intermedia and Y. mollaretii. Our analysis shows that the ompF gene of Yersinia has evolved with nonrandom mutational rate under purifying selection. However, several surface loops in the OmpF porin contain positively selected sites, which very likely reflect adaptive diversification Yersinia to their ecological niches. To our knowledge, this is a first investigation of diversity of the porin gene covering the whole genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This study demonstrates that recombination and positive selection both contribute to evolution of ompF, but the relative contribution of these evolutionary forces are different among Yersinia species. PMID:21655186

  1. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor-Y Boosts Yersinia Effector Translocation by Activating Rac Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Manuel; Boyle, Erin C.; Lardong, Kerstin; Trülzsch, Konrad; Steffen, Anika; Rottner, Klemens; Ruckdeschel, Klaus; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia spp. translocate the effectors YopT, YopE, and YopO/YpkA into target cells to inactivate Rho family GTP-binding proteins and block immune responses. Some Yersinia spp. also secrete the Rho protein activator cytotoxic necrotizing factor-Y (CNF-Y), but it has been unclear how the bacteria may benefit from Rho protein activation. We show here that CNF-Y increases Yop translocation in Yersinia enterocolitica-infected cells up to 5-fold. CNF-Y strongly activated RhoA and also delayed in time Rac1 and Cdc42, but when individually expressed, constitutively active mutants of Rac1, but not of RhoA, increased Yop translocation. Consistently, knock-out or knockdown of Rac1 but not of RhoA, -B, or -C inhibited Yersinia effector translocation in CNF-Y-treated and control cells. Activation or knockdown of Cdc42 also affected Yop translocation but much less efficiently than Rac. The increase in Yop translocation induced by CNF-Y was essentially independent of the presence of YopE, YopT, or YopO in the infecting Yersinia strain, indicating that none of the Yops reported to inhibit translocation could reverse the CNF-Y effect. In summary, the CNF-Y activity of Yersinia strongly enhances Yop translocation through activation of Rac. PMID:23803609

  2. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    PubMed Central

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g., soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g., rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and interbacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets. PMID:25368845

  3. Enzymatic degradation of polygalacturonic acid by Yersinia and Klebsiella species in relation to clinical laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Starr, M P; Chatterjee, A K; Starr, P B; Buchanan, G E

    1977-10-01

    As scored by several specified plating procedures, clinical and environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae "Oxytocum" showed detectable, albeit generally weak, ability to digest polygalacturonic (pectic) acid. None of these bacterial strains had the vigorous and rapid pectolytic activity on these polygalacturonic acid-containing media that is typical of soft-rot Erwinia species, although some of the Oxytocum strains came fairly close. Analyses of the pectolytic enzyme contents of the cells and culture supernatants of the Yersinia and Klebsiella species revealed that readily detectable quantities of cell-bound polygalacturonic acid trans-eliminase and hydrolytic polygalacturonase were formed by the Yersinia and Klebsiella species; however, the total units of enzyme activity produced by these bacteria were, in general, lower than were produced by soft-rot Erwinia species. Furthermore, unlike the situation in soft-rot Erwinia cultures, these pectolytic enzymes of Yersinia and Klebsiella species were not excreted rapidly and massively into the growth medium. Cultures of other enterobacteria (Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species, Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia herbicola, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Salmonella typhimurium, and Serratia marcescens) showed no pectolytic ability whatsoever by any of the plating procedures used and (to the extent they were so examined) produced no pectolytic enzymes detectable either in their cells or culture supernatants. This slow or weak release of pectolytic enzymes by Yersinia and Klebsiella species has a bearing on clinical laboratory procedures suitable for detecting their pectolytic activity; methods adequate for this purpose are detailed.

  4. Enzymatic Degradation of Polygalacturonic Acid by Yersinia and Klebsiella Species in Relation to Clinical Laboratory Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mortimer P.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Starr, Phoebe B.; Buchanan, Gordon E.

    1977-01-01

    As scored by several specified plating procedures, clinical and environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae “Oxytocum” showed detectable, albeit generally weak, ability to digest polygalacturonic (pectic) acid. None of these bacterial strains had the vigorous and rapid pectolytic activity on these polygalacturonic acid-containing media that is typical of soft-rot Erwinia species, although some of the Oxytocum strains came fairly close. Analyses of the pectolytic enzyme contents of the cells and culture supernatants of the Yersinia and Klebsiella species revealed that readily detectable quantities of cell-bound polygalacturonic acid trans-eliminase and hydrolytic polygalacturonase were formed by the Yersinia and Klebsiella species; however, the total units of enzyme activity produced by these bacteria were, in general, lower than were produced by soft-rot Erwinia species. Furthermore, unlike the situation in soft-rot Erwinia cultures, these pectolytic enzymes of Yersinia and Klebsiella species were not excreted rapidly and massively into the growth medium. Cultures of other enterobacteria (Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species, Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia herbicola, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Salmonella typhimurium, and Serratia marcescens) showed no pectolytic ability whatsoever by any of the plating procedures used and (to the extent they were so examined) produced no pectolytic enzymes detectable either in their cells or culture supernatants. This slow or weak release of pectolytic enzymes by Yersinia and Klebsiella species has a bearing on clinical laboratory procedures suitable for detecting their pectolytic activity; methods adequate for this purpose are detailed. PMID:334794

  5. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis show increased outer membrane permeability to hydrophobic agents which correlates with lipopolysaccharide acyl-chain fluidity.

    PubMed

    Bengoechea, J A; Brandenburg, K; Seydel, U; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-06-01

    The hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine accumulated less in non-pathogenic Yersinia spp. and non-pathogenic and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica than in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis or Yersinia pestis. This was largely due to differences in the activity of efflux systems, but also to differences in outer membrane permeability because uptake of the probe in KCN/arsenate-poisoned cells was slower in the former group than in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. The probe accumulation rate was higher in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis grown at 37 degrees C than at 26 degrees C and was always highest in Y. pestis. These yersiniae had LPSs with shorter polysaccharides than Y. enterocolitica, particularly when grown at 37 degrees C. Gel<-->liquid-crystalline phase transitions (Tc 28-31 degrees C) were observed in LPS aggregates of Y. enterocolitica grown at 26 and 37 degrees C, with no differences between non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains. Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis LPSs showed no phase transitions and, although the fluidity of LPSs of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica grown at 26 degrees C were close below the Tc of the latter, they were always in a more fluid state than Y. enterocolitica LPS. Comparison with previous studies of Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serotype minnesota rough LPS showed that the increased fluidity and absence of transition of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis LPSs cannot be explained by their shorter polysaccharides and suggested differences at the lipid A/core level. It is proposed that differences in LPS-LPS interactions and efflux activity explain the above observations and reflect the adaptation of Yersinia spp. to different habitats.

  6. [Evaluation of the usefulness of the latex test for detection and identification of O-antigens of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Jagielski, M; Kochman, M; Szych, J; Kałuzewski, S; Rastawicki, W

    1996-01-01

    In the study latex reagents of own production were used, in which latex of 0.9 microns particle diameter was coated with globulins salted out from rabbit sera against Y. enterocolitica groups 03, 05, 06, 08 and 09, and Y. pseudotuberculosis groups I and III. The study was carried out with five standard strains of Y. enterocolitica representing groups 03, 05, 06, 08 and 09, two standard strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis representing group antigens I and III, and 110 strains identified as Yersinia organisms, including 83 strains of Y. enterocolitica, 12 - Y. pseudotuberculosis, 7 - Y. frederiksenii, 4 - Y. intermedia, 2 - Y. kristensenii, and 2 strain of unknown species. Besides that, 54 laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae not belonging to Yersinia genus were studied. Latex test was done with bacterial suspensions of 6 x 10(8) cell/ml density of standard Yersinia strains and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and with 110 Yersinia strains cultured in broth and peptone water media with tryptophan 0.1%. It was found that the prepared latex reagents reacted in the agglutination test on slide only with the suspensions of homologus. Yersinia organisms but not with suspensions of other Enterobacteriaceae. Among 83 strains identified as Y. enterocolitica 24 belonged to group 03, 19 to 05, 10 to 06, 2 to 08, 2 to 09. In the 12 strains identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis 9 belonged to group I and 2 to group III. The study showed that the latex reagents prepared by us can be used for identification of O-antigen of Yersinia organism immediately in liquid media.

  7. Flagellar motility is necessary for Aeromonas hydrophila adhesion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yingxue; Lin, Guifang; Chen, Wenbo; Xu, Xiaojin; Yan, Qingpi

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion to host surface or cells is the initial step in bacterial pathogenesis, and the adhesion mechanisms of the fish pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. First, a mutagenesis library of A. hydrophila that contained 332 random insertion mutants was constructed via mini-Tn10 Km mutagenesis. Four mutants displayed the most attenuated adhesion. Sequence analysis revealed that the mini-Tn10 insertion sites in the four mutant strains were flgC(GenBank accession numbers KX261880), cytb4(GenBank accession numbers JN133621), rbsR(GenBank accession numbers KX261881) and flgE(GenBank accession numbers JQ974982). To further study the roles of flgC and flgE in the adhesion of A. hydrophila, some biological characteristics of the wild-type strain B11, the mutants M121 and M240, and the complemented strains C121 and C240 were investigated. The results showed that the mutation in flgC or flgE led to the flagellar motility of A. hydrophila significant reduction or abolishment. flgC was not necessary for flagellar biosynthesis but was necessary for the full motility of A. hydrophila, flgE was involved in both flagellar biosynthesis and motility. The flagellar motility is necessary for A. hydrophila to adhere to the host mucus, which suggests flagellar motility plays crucial roles in the early infection process of this bacterium. PMID:27432325

  8. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: In the Wake of Reclassification

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R.; Figueras, Maria J.; McGarey, Donald; Liles, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous “jack-of-all-trades,” Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed. PMID:27610107

  9. Immunomodulating effect of inositol hexaphosphate against Aeromonas hydrophila-endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Abu-El-Saad, Abdel-Aziz S A

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) administration on endotoxemia as an example of the systemic inflammatory response. Mice were divided into three groups as follows: First group, remained as a naive group injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with PBS (pH 7.4; 0.2 ml/mice) at intervals parallel to the treated groups. The second group was injected i.p. with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Aeromonas hydrophila once a week for four weeks at a dose of LPS suspension: 20 mg/kg mice/week. The third group was injected with the same LPS dose and synergistically intubated with IP6 three times a week for four weeks at a total dose of 4 0mg/kg. At different experimental periods (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks), six animals from each group were sacrificed under mild diethyl ether anesthesia. Blood and sera were taken for the estimation of phagocytic activity, electrophoretic pattern of proteins and immunoglobulin levels. Also, a slice of liver was homogenized to estimate the respiratory burst enzymes activities and nitric acid synthesis. Histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were investigated. In the LPS-treated group, marked increase in the phagocytic activities and nitric oxide synthesis, and a decrease in hepatocyte catalase, total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were observed. The histopathological features revealed a degeneration and highly mitotic division within the hepatic nuclei in addition to some karyomegaly and nuclear pyknosis. During the treatment period, liver sections of the LPS+IP6 group showed somewhat regenerative features. Reduction in the toxicity of free radicals by IP6 was observed and the IP6 effect seemed to be responsible for the observed ameliorative influence.

  10. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid.

  11. [Lysogeny among "Yersinia frederiksenii", "Y. kristensenii" and "Y. intermedia"].

    PubMed

    Calvo, C; Brault, J

    1983-01-01

    We described the lysogeny among new species of Yersinia: Y. frederiksenii (47 strains), Y. kristensenii (57 strains) and Y. intermedia (133 strains). We found that 6.3% of the strains of Y. frederiksenii, 3.5% of Y. kristensenii and 2.2% of Y. intermedia were lysogenic for bacteriophages active on Y. enterocolitica (mainly the phenotypes incriminated in human pathology) and less frequently lysogenic for some strains of Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. intermedia. One bacteriophage, isolated from the strain Y. frederiksenii 7291, should allow to discriminate between Y. enterocolitica phagovar IXa (susceptible) and IXb (resistant), and between the strains of Y. enterocolitica belonging to phagovar Xz and serovar 5 either biovar 1 (sometimes susceptible) or biovar 3 (always resistant).

  12. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen.

    PubMed

    Zimbler, Daniel L; Schroeder, Jay A; Eddy, Justin L; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-06-30

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals.

  13. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zimbler, Daniel L.; Schroeder, Jay A.; Eddy, Justin L.; Lathem, Wyndham W.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals. PMID:26123398

  14. Pneumonic Plague: The Darker Side of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Pechous, Roger D; Sivaraman, Vijay; Stasulli, Nikolas M; Goldman, William E

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of the bacterium Yersinia pestis results in primary pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is the most severe manifestation of plague, with mortality rates approaching 100% in the absence of treatment. Its rapid disease progression, lethality, and ability to be transmitted via aerosol have compounded fears of the intentional release of Y. pestis as a biological weapon. Importantly, recent epidemics of plague have highlighted a significant role for pneumonic plague during outbreaks of Y. pestis infections. In this review we describe the characteristics of pneumonic plague, focusing on its disease progression and pathogenesis. The rapid time-course, severity, and difficulty of treating pneumonic plague highlight how differences in the route of disease transmission can enhance the lethality of an already deadly pathogen.

  15. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, R C; Lund, V; Carlson, D A

    1987-01-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid. PMID:3551844

  16. Reannotation of Yersinia pestis Strain 91001 Based on Omics Data.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiqing; Yang, Xianwei; Liu, Yang; Yan, Yanfeng; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Lei; Cui, Yujun; Yang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Yersinia pestis is among the most dangerous human pathogens, and systematic research of this pathogen is important in bacterial pathogenomics research. To fully interpret the biological functions, physiological characteristics, and pathogenesis of Y. pestis, a comprehensive annotation of its entire genome is necessary. The emergence of omics-based research has brought new opportunities to better annotate the genome of this pathogen. Here, the complete genome of Y. pestis strain 91001 was reannotated using genomics and proteogenomics data. One hundred and thirty-seven unreliable coding sequences were removed, and 41 homologous genes were relocated with their translational initiation sites, while the functions of seven pseudogenes and 392 hypothetical genes were revised. Moreover, annotations of noncoding RNAs, repeat sequences, and transposable elements have also been incorporated. The reannotated results are freely available at http://tody.bmi.ac.cn. PMID:27382076

  17. Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia; Aly, Magdy; Kheader, Afaf; Mabrok, Khaled

    2012-05-01

    Meat commonly contain the same Aeromonas spp. which occur in human diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal faecal samples. Motile Aeromonas were isolated from 5.6% of total 302 samples. The distribution of the isolates were 5.9 and 5.2% in fresh and frozen samples, respectively. Of the 302 samples taken of the four animal meat species investigated, the genus Aeromonas were isolated in 12.3% of the fresh samples collected from buffalo meat, in 6.5% of the samples collected from sheep meat and 14.0% from the samples collected from the cattle frozen meat samples. The camel meat did not reveal any Aeromonas isolates. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated as the most prevalent species with 6.8%, followed by Aeromonas caviae with 2.7% and Aeromonas sobria with 2.1% from the total meat samples. Aerolysin toxin gene (aerA) was detected in 3/17 isolates of A. hydrophila isolated from contaminated meat. Infection due to bacterial pathogen with such virulent factor through contact with contaminated meat while handling them, poses health hazards to humans.

  18. A bibliography of literature pertaining to plague (Yersinia pestis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.; Frank, Megan K. Eberhardt

    2011-01-01

    Plague is an acute and often fatal zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mainly cycles between small mammals and their fleas; however, it has the potential to infect humans and frequently causes fatalities if left untreated. It is often considered a disease of the past; however, since the late 1800s, plagueis geographic range has expanded greatly, posing new threats in previously unaffected regions of the world, including the Western United States. A literature search was conducted using Internet resources and databases. The keywords chosen for the searches included plague, Yersinia pestis, management, control, wildlife, prairie dogs, fleas, North America, and mammals. Keywords were used alone or in combination with the other terms. Although this search pertains mostly to North America, citations were included from the international research community, as well. Databases and search engines used included Google (http://www.google.com), Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com), SciVerse Scopus (http://www.scopus.com), ISI Web of Knowledge (http://apps.isiknowledge.com), and the USGS Library's Digital Desktop (http://library.usgs.gov). The literature-cited sections of manuscripts obtained from keyword searches were cross-referenced to identify additional citations or gray literature that was missed by the Internet search engines. This Open-File Report, published as an Internet-accessible bibliography, is intended to be periodically updated with new citations or older references that may have been missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the audience (users) think need to be included.

  19. Contribution of YopB to virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Hartland, E L; Bordun, A M; Robins-Browne, R M

    1996-06-01

    The 70-kb virulence plasmid, pYV, of Yersinia enterocolitica encodes a number of secreted proteins (Yops) which are essential for virulence. YopD, the 33-kDa product of the lcrGVHyopBD operon, appears to be involved in delivering YopE and YopH (the Yersinia protein tyrosine phosphatase) into target cells. These proteins then act in concert to cause cytotoxicity in host cells. Previously, we reported that bacteria carrying transposon insertions in yopD are not cytotoxic for macrophages, show impaired tyrosine phosphatase activity in host cells, and are avirulent for mice (E. L. Hartland, S. P. Green, W. A. Phillips, and R. M. Robins-Browne, Infect. Immun. 62:4445-4453, 1994). trans complementation of yopD mutants of Y. enterocolitica with the yopD gene restores all these properties. In this study, we show that polar mutations in proximal genes of the lcrGVHyopBD operon also abrogated bacterial virulence and the capacity to induce cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and HEp-2 epithelial cells. Moreover, trans complementation of a yopBD mutant with the yopD gene alone was not sufficient to restore the ability of the bacteria to cause cytotoxicity. Further work showed that YopB was required for cytotoxicity, dephosphorylation of host proteins, and virulence for mice. These findings indicate that YopB and YopD may serve a related function in Y. enterocolitica and that they may act together to deliver intracellularly acting Yops to their respective targets in host cells.

  20. Contribution of YopB to virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed Central

    Hartland, E L; Bordun, A M; Robins-Browne, R M

    1996-01-01

    The 70-kb virulence plasmid, pYV, of Yersinia enterocolitica encodes a number of secreted proteins (Yops) which are essential for virulence. YopD, the 33-kDa product of the lcrGVHyopBD operon, appears to be involved in delivering YopE and YopH (the Yersinia protein tyrosine phosphatase) into target cells. These proteins then act in concert to cause cytotoxicity in host cells. Previously, we reported that bacteria carrying transposon insertions in yopD are not cytotoxic for macrophages, show impaired tyrosine phosphatase activity in host cells, and are avirulent for mice (E. L. Hartland, S. P. Green, W. A. Phillips, and R. M. Robins-Browne, Infect. Immun. 62:4445-4453, 1994). trans complementation of yopD mutants of Y. enterocolitica with the yopD gene restores all these properties. In this study, we show that polar mutations in proximal genes of the lcrGVHyopBD operon also abrogated bacterial virulence and the capacity to induce cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and HEp-2 epithelial cells. Moreover, trans complementation of a yopBD mutant with the yopD gene alone was not sufficient to restore the ability of the bacteria to cause cytotoxicity. Further work showed that YopB was required for cytotoxicity, dephosphorylation of host proteins, and virulence for mice. These findings indicate that YopB and YopD may serve a related function in Y. enterocolitica and that they may act together to deliver intracellularly acting Yops to their respective targets in host cells. PMID:8675342

  1. Investigating the ?Trojan Horse? Mechanism of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Fitch, J P

    2005-02-08

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is a Gram-negative, highly communicable, enteric bacterium that has been responsible for three historic plague pandemics. Currently, several thousand cases of plague are reported worldwide annually, and Y. pestis remains a considerable threat from a biodefense perspective. Y. pestis infection can manifest in three forms: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Of these three forms, pneumonic plague has the highest fatality rate ({approx}100% if left untreated), the shortest intervention time ({approx}24 hours), and is highly contagious. Currently, there are no rapid, widely available vaccines for plague and though plague may be treated with antibiotics, the emergence of both naturally occurring and potentially engineered antibiotic resistant strains makes the search for more effective therapies and vaccines for plague of pressing concern. The virulence mechanism of this deadly bacterium involves induction of a Type III secretion system, a syringe-like apparatus that facilitates the injection of virulence factors, termed Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), into the host cell. These virulence factors inhibit phagocytosis and cytokine secretion, and trigger apoptosis of the host cell. Y. pestis virulence factors and the Type III secretion system are induced thermally, when the bacterium enters the mammalian host from the flea vector, and through host cell contact (or conditions of low Ca{sup 2+} in vitro). Apart from the temperature increase from 26 C to 37 C and host cell contact (or low Ca{sup 2+} conditions), other molecular mechanisms that influence virulence induction in Y. pestis are largely uncharacterized. This project focused on characterizing two novel mechanisms that regulate virulence factor induction in Y. pestis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding and quorum sensing, using a real-time reporter system to monitor induction of virulence. Incorporating a better understanding of the mechanisms of virulence

  2. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level.

    PubMed

    Skjerve, E; Lium, B; Nielsen, B; Nesbakken, T

    1998-12-22

    A higher herd prevalence of antibodies (ELISA) to Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 was found in conventional slaughter production (86.0% seropositive herds) than in conventional farrow-to-finish herds (53.1% seropositive herds). The herd prevalence of antibodies to Y. enterocolitica in multiplying herds (56.1%) was similar to the level in the conventional farrow-to-finish herds. An epidemiological study in conventional pig herds demonstrated that farrow-to-finish production (odds ratio, OR = 0.15) was an important protective factor. Using under-pressure ventilation (OR = 0.33) and manual feeding of slaughter pigs (OR = 0.44) also lowered the herd prevalence. The most expressed risk factor was using an own farm vehicle for transport of slaughter pigs to abattoirs (OR = 12.92). Separation between clean and unclean section in herds (OR = 2.67), daily observations of a cat with kittens on the farm (OR = 2.41) and using straw bedding for slaughter pigs (OR = 2.25) were other factors that increased the risk. In conclusion, the epidemiological data suggest that it is possible to reduce the herd prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 by minimising contact between infected herds and non-infected herds. Further, attempts to reduce the prevalence at the top levels of the breeding pyramids may be beneficial for the industry as a whole. The meat industry may use serological tests as a tool to lower the prevalence in the pig population by limiting the contact between seropositive and seronegative herds. However, because of the high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in pig herds, a strict slaughter hygiene will remain an important means to reduce carcass contamination with Y. enterocolitica O:3 as well as other pathogenic micro-organisms. PMID:9926996

  3. Occurrence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. in marine species of shrimps cultured at inland low salinity ponds.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yutaka; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Aue-Umneoy, Dusit; Ban, Masatoshi; Satomi, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to document the risk of Aeromonas spp. in marine shrimp species cultured in inland low salinity ponds in Thailand. In 14 of 18 shrimp samples retrieved from inland grow-up ponds, Aeromonas spp. were detected at ranges from 4667 to 1,500,000 CFU/g body weight. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the gyrB and cpn60 concatenated sequences indicated that the 87 isolates consisted of Aeromonas veronii (70%), Aeromonas aquariorum (18%), Aeromonas caviae (7%), Aeromonas jandaei (2%), and Aeromonas schubertii (2%). The potential virulence of the isolates was examined by phenotypic and PCR assays. Hemolytic activity and the extracellular activity of lipase, DNase, and gelatinase were observed in most isolates (94-99%). PCR revealed the presence of 9 genes related to virulence in the 87 isolates: act (75%), aer (74%), alt (30%), ast (1%), ascV (34%), aexT (24%), fla (92%), ela (34%), and lip (24%). The susceptibility profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents of isolates were typical for the genus, but resistance to cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, and imipenem were found in two A. aquariorum and in three A. veronii isolates, respectively. These resistances were confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our results indicate that the microbiological risk posed by Aeromonas should be considered for marine shrimp species that are cultured in low-salinity ponds. These shrimps may also be a vehicle for the transfer of different genotypes of Aeromonas and antibiotic-resistant determinants to regions worldwide through trade.

  4. Occurrence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. in marine species of shrimps cultured at inland low salinity ponds.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yutaka; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Aue-Umneoy, Dusit; Ban, Masatoshi; Satomi, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to document the risk of Aeromonas spp. in marine shrimp species cultured in inland low salinity ponds in Thailand. In 14 of 18 shrimp samples retrieved from inland grow-up ponds, Aeromonas spp. were detected at ranges from 4667 to 1,500,000 CFU/g body weight. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the gyrB and cpn60 concatenated sequences indicated that the 87 isolates consisted of Aeromonas veronii (70%), Aeromonas aquariorum (18%), Aeromonas caviae (7%), Aeromonas jandaei (2%), and Aeromonas schubertii (2%). The potential virulence of the isolates was examined by phenotypic and PCR assays. Hemolytic activity and the extracellular activity of lipase, DNase, and gelatinase were observed in most isolates (94-99%). PCR revealed the presence of 9 genes related to virulence in the 87 isolates: act (75%), aer (74%), alt (30%), ast (1%), ascV (34%), aexT (24%), fla (92%), ela (34%), and lip (24%). The susceptibility profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents of isolates were typical for the genus, but resistance to cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, and imipenem were found in two A. aquariorum and in three A. veronii isolates, respectively. These resistances were confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our results indicate that the microbiological risk posed by Aeromonas should be considered for marine shrimp species that are cultured in low-salinity ponds. These shrimps may also be a vehicle for the transfer of different genotypes of Aeromonas and antibiotic-resistant determinants to regions worldwide through trade. PMID:25583334

  5. Aeromonas presence in drinking water from collective reservoirs and wells in peri-urban area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepe Razzolini, Maria Tereza; Risso Günther, Wanda Maria; Martone-Rocha, Solange; Duarte de Luca, Heloísa; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina

    2010-07-01

    Aeromonas genus is considered an emerging pathogen and its presence in drinking water supplies is a reason to public health concern. This study investigated the occurrence of Aeromonas in samples from collective reservoirs and wells used as drinking water sources in a peri-urban area. A total of 35 water samples were collected from collective reservoirs and 32 from wells bimonthly, from September 2007 to September 2008. Aeromonas spp determination was carried out using a Multiple-Tube Technique. Samples were inoculated into alkaline peptone water and the superficial film formed was transferred to blood agar plates amended with ampicillin. Typical Aeromonas colonies were submitted to a biochemical screening and then to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Aeromonas was detected in 13 (19%) of the 69 samples examined (6 from collective reservoirs and 7 from wells). Concentrations of Aeromonas in collective reservoirs ranged from <0.3 to 1.2 x10(2)MPN/100mL and, in wells, from <0.3 to 2.4 x10(2)MPN/100mL. The most frequent specie in the collective reservoir samples was Aeromonas spp (68%), followed by A. encheleia (14%) and A. allosaccharophila (8%) and A. hydrophila (8%). Aeromonas spp (87%) was the most frequent specie isolated from well samples, followed by A. allosacchariphila (8%), A. encheleia (2%) and A. jandaei (5%). These data show the presence and diversity of Aeromonas genus in the samples analyzed and highlight that its presence in drinking water poses a significant public health concern.

  6. Virulence Diversity among Bacteremic Aeromonas Isolates: Ex Vivo, Animal, and Clinical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lee, Nan-Yao; Lee, Ching-Chi; Li, Chia-Wen; Li, Ming-Chi; Chen, Chi-Chung; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Ou, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chang-Shi; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections. Methodology/Principal Findings Nine of four species of Aeromonas blood isolates, including A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae were randomly selected for analysis. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD. Clinically, the patients with A. dhakensis bacteremia had a higher sepsis-related mortality rate than those with other species (37.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.028). Virulence of different Aeromonas species were tested in C. elegans, mouse fibroblast C2C12 cell line and BALB/c mice models. C. elegans fed with A. dhakensis and A. caviae had the lowest and highest survival rates compared with other species, respectively (all P values <0.0001). A. dhakensis isolates also exhibited more cytotoxicity in C2C12 cell line (all P values <0.0001). Fourteen-day survival rate of mice intramuscularly inoculated with A. dhakensis was lower than that of other species (all P values <0.0001). Hemolytic activity and several virulence factor genes were rarely detected in the A. caviae isolates. Conclusions/Significance Clinical data, ex vivo experiments, and animal studies suggest there is virulence variation among clinically important Aeromonas species. PMID:25375798

  7. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  8. An in-house multiplex pcr method to detect of putative virulence factors in aeromonas species

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Arreola, Ma. Guadalupe; Martínez, Alma Aidee Carmona; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    A pentaplex PCR was developed and optimised to detect the genes that encode the five most important putative virulence factors in Aeromonas isolates. It seems to be more efficient than previously reported techniques and promises to be a powerful tool for more accurate risk assessments and for monitoring pathogenic strains. PMID:24031758

  9. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel.

  10. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated during a diarrhea outbreak.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Marques, Carina Lucena; Nascimento, Larissa Mélo do; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Melo Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio de; Leal, Nilma Cintra

    2012-12-01

    This work aimed to assess pathogenic potential and clonal relatedness of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered during a diarrhea outbreak in Brazil. Clinical and environmental isolates were investigated for the presence of known pathogenic genes and clonal relatedness was assessed by intergenic spacer region (ISR) 16S-23S amplification. Four Aeromonas genes (lip, exu, gcat, flaA/B) were found at high overall frequency in both clinical and environmental isolates although the lip gene was specifically absent from selected species. A fifth gene, aerA, was rarely found in A. caviae, the most abundant species. The ISR profile revealed high heterogeneity among the Aeromonas isolates and no correlation with species identification. In contrast, in all the V. cholerae isolates the four genes investigated (ctxA, tcpA, zot and ace) were amplified and revealed homogeneous ISR and RAPD profiles. Although Aeromonas isolates were the major enteric pathogen recovered, their ISR profiles are not compatible with a unique cause for the diarrhea events, while the clonal relationship clearly implicates V. cholerae in those cases from which it was isolated. These results reinforce the need for a better definition of the role of aeromonads in diarrhea and whether they benefit from co-infection with V. cholerae.

  11. VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS: A GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DRINKING WATER ISOLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of finished drinking water conducted by the US EPA during 2000-2001, revealed that 8 out of 18 water utilities encompassing several states (NY, KY, IA, OH) were contaminated with aeromonas species. Altogether 205 organisms were isolated by EPA method 1601. All of the ...

  12. VIRULENCE RELATIONSHIPS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AS DETERMINED BY EXPOSURES TO IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory is currently determining the virulence of opportunistic pathogens reported in treated drinking water and drinking water sources. Aeromonas hydrophila is currently on the EPA's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and is an example of those types of bacteria that conta...

  13. Active Shiga-Like Toxin Produced by Some Aeromonas spp., Isolated in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Martínez, Ingrid; Guerrero-Mandujano, Andrea; Ruiz-Ruiz, Manuel J.; Hernández-Cortez, Cecilia; Molina-López, José; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures. The capacity to express active Stx1 and Stx2 toxins was determined in Vero cell cultures and the concentration of Stx was evaluated by 50% lethal dose (LD50) assays, observing inhibition of damaged cells by specific monoclonal antibodies. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the stx gene is another putative virulence factor of Aeromonas, and since this gene can be transferred horizontally through OMVs this genus should be included as a possible causal agents of gastroenteritis and it should be reported as part of standard health surveillance procedures. Furthermore, these results indicate that the Aeromonas genus might be a potential causative agent of HUS. PMID:27725813

  14. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34)

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tekedar, Hasan C; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Liles, Mark R; Griffin, Matt J; Lawrence, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group.

  16. Direct evidence of recombination in the recA gene of Aeromonas bestiarum.

    PubMed

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J Gaspar; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Two hundred and twenty-one strains representative of all Aeromonas species were characterized using the recA gene sequence, assessing its potential as a molecular marker for the genus Aeromonas. The inter-species distance values obtained demonstrated that recA has a high discriminatory power. Phylogenetic analysis, based on full-length gene nucleotide sequences, revealed a robust topology with clearly separated clusters for each species. The maximum likelihood tree showed the Aeromonas bestiarum strains in a well-defined cluster, containing a subset of four strains of different geographical origins in a deep internal branch. Data analysis provided strong evidence of recombination at the end of the recA sequences in these four strains. Intergenomic recombination corresponding to partial regions of the two adjacent genes recA and recX (248 bp) was identified between A. bestiarum (major parent) and Aeromonas eucrenophila (minor parent). The low number of recombinant strains detected (1.8%) suggests that horizontal flow between recA sequences is relatively uncommon in this genus. Moreover, only a few nucleotide differences were detected among these fragments, indicating that recombination has occurred recently. Finally, we also determined if the recombinant fragment could have influenced the structure and basic functions of the RecA protein, comparing models reconstructed from the translated amino acid sequences of our A. bestiarum strains with known Escherichia coli RecA structures.

  17. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Cunha, Mauro A; Ziech, Rosangela E; Krewer, Carina C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Gressler, Leticia T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2015-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen) (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm) with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10): untreated fish (negative control), 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1) was greater than 90%. PMID:25789790

  18. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed.

  19. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R(VacB) is involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Virulence

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  20. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R (VacB) is Involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Pathogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  1. HOST GENE CELL RESEARCH FOR DETERMINING VIRULENCE OF AEROMONAS SPP. COLLECTED FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is interested in assessing health risks associated with emerging or potential waterborne pathogens. To this end, the Agency has established a Candidate Contaminant List (CCL) that includes Aeromonas hydrophila an...

  2. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophilia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  3. Molecular characterization of a functional type VI secretion system from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  4. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern.

  5. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using waterborne challenge method and the distribution of vAh in catfish tissue...

  6. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment. PMID:22927788

  7. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  8. Virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Paiva, Manoel de Araújo Neto; Vasconcelos, David Caldas; de Menezes, Isis Sousa Bezerra; de Ponte, Yago Brito; Sampaio, Célia Maria de Souza; Monteiro, André Jalles; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to isolate and identify clinical and environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. by means of biochemical tests and the automated method VITEK 2 and to investigate the presence of the virulence genes cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), hemolysin (asa-1), and type III secretion system (ascV), and also the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains. From the clinical isolates, 19 Aeromonas hydrophila, 3 Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria, and 1 Aeromonas caviae were identified, while from the environmental strains, 11 A. hydrophila, 22 A. veronii bv. sobria, 1 A. veronii bv. veronii, and 1 A. caviae were recovered. The gene act was detected in 69.5% of clinical isolates, asa-1 in 8.6%, and ascV in 34.7%. In the environmental strains, the detection rates were 51.4%, 45.7%, and 54.2% for the genes act, asa-1, and ascV, respectively. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam was observed in 15 and 3 clinical strains, respectively, and resistance to ceftazidime, meropenem, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was observed in 1 strain for each drug. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam was detected in 17 and 1 environmental strain, respectively. Higher resistance percentages were observed in clinical strains, but environmental strains also showed this phenomenon and presented a higher detection rate of virulence genes. Thus, it is important to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenic potential of the environmental isolates.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Type Strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Fu, Xiaozhe; Shi, Cunbin; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700. The full genome sequence of A. schubertii ATCC 43700 is 4,356,858 bp, which encodes 3,842 proteins and contains 110 predicted RNA genes. PMID:26893413

  10. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  11. A Mouse Model for Characterization of Gastrointestinal Colonization Rates Among Environmental Aeromonas Isolates

    EPA Science Inventory

    The colonization rates of ten different environmental isolates of Aeromonas were determined using a novel mouse-streptomycin pre-treatment method. A novel streptomycin pre-treatment prepared animals with a transient alteration in colon flora that allowed colonization by Aeromon...

  12. [Aeromonas hydrophila in the drinking water in Djibouti: commensal germ or diarrhea-causing agent?].

    PubMed

    Fox, E; Mikhail, I A; Haberberger, R L; Abbatte, E A; Ahmed, M H

    1990-04-01

    To investigate the bacteriological quality of drinking water used by inhabitants of the Republic of Djibouti who were not supplied with piped running water, we analysed 16 fresh-water samples from various sources. Only 3 samples were sterile; they were taken from village pumps and from a water-truck. Eleven samples yielded colonies of Aeromonas hydrophila too numerous to be counted; they were taken from water tanks, metal barrels, or wells dug in either dry river beds or along the seashore. We speculate that this high isolation frequency of Aeromonas hydrophila in fresh water samples may be related to conditions that are exceptionally favourable for the growth of the bacterium (e.g. high temperature and elevated concentrations of certain salts and minerals in the fresh water of Djibouti). We wonder nevertheless whether the infected water supplies were a source of diarrhoea for humans. Indeed, antibiotic resistance patterns were dissimilar when the 11 environmental strains were compared to 7 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diarrhoeal patients in Djibouti during the same period. More studies are needed to determine if Aeromonas hydrophila is always a commensal inhabitant of fresh water in Djibouti, or if it can be a cause of infectious diarrhoea. Accordingly, Public Health authorities in Djibouti will be able to decide if water from wells and tanks is safe for drinking, or if it needs disinfection before consumption.

  13. Distribution of Aeromonas hydrophila in natural and man-made thermal effluents.

    PubMed

    Hazen, T C; Fliermans, C B

    1979-07-01

    Densities of Aeromonas hydrophila showed distinct thermal optima (25 to 35 degrees C) and thermal maxima (45 degrees C) when measured along thermal gradients created by geothermal and nuclear reactor effluents. Survival of A. hydrophila never exceeded 48 h at temperatures of greater than 45 degrees C. Thermophilic strains could not be isolated at any site.

  14. Evaluation of different assay systems for identification of environmental Aeromonas strains.

    PubMed

    Toranzo, A E; Santos, Y; Nieto, T P; Barja, J L

    1986-03-01

    Important biochemical reactions in conventional tests were compared with counterpart reactions in two multiple test systems, API-20E (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and Aeromonas hydrophila medium, to evaluate their accuracy for the identification of motile Aeromonas spp. isolated from fish. In a total of 49 Aeromonas spp. isolates and 10 A. hydrophila reference strains, false-negative or -positive reactions were detected in the Voges-Proskauer test, indole production, gelatinase activity, production of gas, fermentation of arabinose, and lysine decarboxylase reaction. A good correlation was found, among the three identification systems, for the fermentation of mannitol and inositol as well as for the arginine dihydrolase and ornithine decarboxylase tests. The failure of A. hydrophila medium in the detection of gas indicates that this medium is not entirely suitable for defining aerogenic or anaerogenic strains. From the results of the present study, we consider that of the identification method and taxonomic scheme to be adopted for environmental Aeromonas spp. must be standardized.

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Aeromonas hydrophila Strain M023 from Freshwater.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chang, Chien-Yi; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a well-known waterborne pathogen that recently was found to infect humans. Here, we report the draft genome of a freshwater isolate from a Malaysian waterfall, A. hydrophila strain M023, which portrays N-acylhomoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing. PMID:25700404

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  17. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Aeromonas caviae in a patient with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Deyu; Zhao, Ying; Jiang, Yueping; Li, Zhongbin; Yang, Wucai; Chen, Guofeng

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of cirrhosis. Based on our current understanding of SBP, the most common etiologies for SBP in cirrhosis are Enterobacter and Streptococcal species. Th e Aeromonas species are ubiquitous in fresh or sea water. Aeromonas caviae is never identified as etiology in cases of SBP. A patient, who had a history of liver cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 1 year, presented with diarrhea. He had diarrhea 1 week later returned from coastal city. He was hospitalized and treated with norfloxacin after 7 days of severe symptoms, including fever, abdominal distention, and diarrhea. Analysis of the ascitic specimen revealed a white-cell count of 4.42 × 109 cells/L with 88% neutrophils. Analysis of stool specimen showed a white-cell count of 60 cells per high-power field. Th e patient started the injection of cefriaxone at a dose of 4 g/d. However, the situation was not improved. Th ree days later, stool and ascitic fluid culture showed positive for Aeromonas caviae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, and cefoperazone-sulbactam were highly sensitive to the Aeromonas caviae. However, the bacilli resisted to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ampicillin-sulbactam, levofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole. Ceftriaxone was then switched to imipenem. The patient was fully recovered 14 days later. Aeromonas caviae is a rare pathogen of SBP in cirrhosis. It resists to third-generation of cephalosporin and fluroquinolone, which are of frequently used dependent on clinical experience. It needs a special attention.

  18. Multi-Drug Resistance Mediated by Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas Isolated from Farmed Freshwater Animals

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yuting; Wu, Yali; Jiang, Lan; Tan, Aiping; Zhang, Ruiquan; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in Chinese aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. These animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in Guangdong province of South China. One hundred and twelve Aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and the presence of class 1 integron sequences. Twenty-two (19.6%) of these isolates carried a class 1 integron comprising six different gene insertion cassettes including drfA12-orfF-aadA2, drfA12-orfF, aac(6′)-II-blaOXA-21-cat3, catB3, arr-3, and dfrA17. Among these, drfA12-orfF-aadA2 was the dominant gene cassette array (63.6%, 14/22) and this is the first report of aac(6′)-II-blaOXA-21-cat3 in an Aeromonas hydrophila isolate from a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). All the integron-positive strains were resistant to more than five agents and 22 contained other resistance genes including blaCTX-M-3, blaTEM-1, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and tetA. All integron-positive isolates also contained mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR). Our investigation demonstrates that freshwater animals can serve as a reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas strains containing multiple drug-resistance integrons. This data suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin and a prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is necessary in these farms. PMID:27379065

  19. Multi-Drug Resistance Mediated by Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas Isolated from Farmed Freshwater Animals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuting; Wu, Yali; Jiang, Lan; Tan, Aiping; Zhang, Ruiquan; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in Chinese aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. These animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in Guangdong province of South China. One hundred and twelve Aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and the presence of class 1 integron sequences. Twenty-two (19.6%) of these isolates carried a class 1 integron comprising six different gene insertion cassettes including drfA12-orfF-aadA2, drfA12-orfF, aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3, catB3, arr-3, and dfrA17. Among these, drfA12-orfF-aadA2 was the dominant gene cassette array (63.6%, 14/22) and this is the first report of aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3 in an Aeromonas hydrophila isolate from a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). All the integron-positive strains were resistant to more than five agents and 22 contained other resistance genes including bla CTX-M-3, bla TEM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and tetA. All integron-positive isolates also contained mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR). Our investigation demonstrates that freshwater animals can serve as a reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas strains containing multiple drug-resistance integrons. This data suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin and a prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is necessary in these farms. PMID:27379065

  20. Thirty-Two Complete Genome Assemblies of Nine Yersinia Species, Including Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James; Frey, Kenneth G.; Ladner, Jason T.; Broomall, Stacey M.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Bruce, David C.; Coyne, Susan R.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Munk, A. Christine; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Koroleva, Galina I.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Redden, Cassie L.; Xu, Yan; Minogue, Timothy D.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-04-30

    The genus Yersinia includes three human pathogens, of which Yersinia pestis is responsible for >2,000 illnesses each year. To aid in the development of detection assays as well as aid further phylogenetic elucidation, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of 32 strains (across 9 Yersinia species).

  1. Thirty-Two Complete Genome Assemblies of Nine Yersinia Species, Including Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica

    PubMed Central

    Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James; Frey, Kenneth G.; Ladner, Jason T.; Broomall, Stacey M.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Bruce, David C.; Coyne, Susan R.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Munk, A. Christine; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Koroleva, Galina I.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Redden, Cassie L.; Xu, Yan; Minogue, Timothy D.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Yersinia includes three human pathogens, of which Yersinia pestis is responsible for >2,000 illnesses each year. To aid in the development of detection assays and aid further phylogenetic elucidation, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of 32 strains (across 9 Yersinia species). PMID:25931590

  2. The Animal Model Determines the Results of Aeromonas Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Alejandro; Saraceni, Paolo R.; Merino, Susana; Figueras, Antonio; Tomás, Juan M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analyzed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1ΔvapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild-type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1ΔrmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the AH-1ΔwahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim) and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella). They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study demonstrates

  3. A comparison of media and methods for the recovery of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia enterocolitica-like bacteria from milk containing simulated raw milk microfloras.

    PubMed

    Walker, S J; Gilmour, A

    1986-03-01

    A number of plating and enrichment media proposed for the isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica from foodstuffs were examined for their ability to recover the type strains of Y. enterocolitica sensu stricto, Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii and Y. kristensenii. Nine selective plating media were evaluated for the quantitative recovery of the type strains in pure culture, and their inhibition of other organisms typical of both milk and enteric microfloras. Cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar, incubated for 48 h at 25 degrees C, allowed a high recovery of all the Yersinia spp. and was the most selective medium. The same four type strains were added to UHT milk that had been previously inoculated with bacteria to simulate either freshly drawn or cold stored milk microfloras. Twenty-six enrichment procedures (including cold enrichment, selective enrichment at higher temperatures, two-step procedures and a post-enrichment alkali treatment) were assessed for the efficiency of recovery of the Yersinia spp. Pre-enrichment in trypticase-soy broth (TSB) for 24 h at 22 degrees C followed by selective enrichment in bile-oxalate-sorbose (BOS) medium for 5 d at 22 degrees C and plating on CIN agar (48 h at 25 degrees C) allowed the greatest increase in the numbers of Yersinia spp. and maximum inhibition of the competing microflora.

  4. The first structure of a cold-adapted superoxide dismutase (SOD): biochemical and structural characterization of iron SOD from Aliivibrio salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Hege Lynum; Willassen, Nils Peder; Leiros, Ingar

    2009-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloenzymes that catalyse the dismutation of the superoxide radical anion into O2 and H2O2 in a two-step reaction. The crystal structure of the iron superoxide dismutase from the cold-adapted and fish-pathogenic bacterium Aliivibrio salmonicida (asFeSOD) has been determined and refined to 1.7 Å resolution. The protein has been characterized and compared with the closely related homologous iron superoxide dismutase from the mesophilic Escherichia coli (ecFeSOD) in an attempt to rationalize its environmental adaptation. ecFeSOD shares 75% identity with asFeSOD. Compared with the mesophilic FeSOD, the psychrophilic FeSOD has distinct temperature differences in residual activity and thermostability that do not seem to be related to structural differences such as intramolecular or intermolecular ion bonds, hydrogen bonds or cavity sizes. However, an increased net negative charge on the surface of asFeSOD may explain its lower thermostability com­­pared with ecFeSOD. Activity measurements and differential scanning calori­metry measurements revealed that the psychrophilic asFeSOD had a thermostability that was significantly higher than the optimal growth temperature of the host organism. PMID:19193992

  5. Nucleotide sequence of yst, the Yersinia enterocolitica gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin, and prevalence of the gene among pathogenic and nonpathogenic yersiniae.

    PubMed

    Delor, I; Kaeckenbeeck, A; Wauters, G; Cornelis, G R

    1990-09-01

    The gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin (yst) was cloned from the chromosome of Yersinia enterocolitica W1024 (serotype O:9), and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The yst gene encodes a 71-amino-acid polypeptide. The C-terminal 30 amino acids of the predicted protein exactly correspond to the amino acid sequence of the toxin extracted from culture supernatants (T. Takao, N. Tominaga, and Y. Shimonishi, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 125:845-851, 1984). The N-terminal 18 amino acids have the properties of a signal sequence. The central 22 residues are removed during or after the secretion process. This organization in three domains (Pre, Pro, and mature Yst) resembles that of the enterotoxin STa of Escherichia coli. The degree of conservation between the E. coli and Y. enterocolitica toxins is much lower in the Pre and the Pro domains than in the mature proteins. The mature toxin of Y. enterocolitica is much larger than that of E. coli, but the active domain appears to be highly conserved. The yst gene of Y. enterocolitica introduced in E. coli K-12 directed the secretion of an active toxin. The cloned yst gene was used as an epidemiological probe among a collection of 174 strains representative of all Yersinia species except Yersinia pestis and numerous Y. enterocolitica subgroups. In Y. enterocolitica, there was a clear-cut difference between pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains: 89 of 89 pathogenic and none of 51 nonpathogenic strains contained yst-homologous DNA, suggesting that Yst is involved in pathogenesis. Among the other Yersinia species, only four strains of Yersinia kristensenii had DNA homologous to yst.

  6. Nucleotide sequence of yst, the Yersinia enterocolitica gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin, and prevalence of the gene among pathogenic and nonpathogenic yersiniae.

    PubMed Central

    Delor, I; Kaeckenbeeck, A; Wauters, G; Cornelis, G R

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin (yst) was cloned from the chromosome of Yersinia enterocolitica W1024 (serotype O:9), and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The yst gene encodes a 71-amino-acid polypeptide. The C-terminal 30 amino acids of the predicted protein exactly correspond to the amino acid sequence of the toxin extracted from culture supernatants (T. Takao, N. Tominaga, and Y. Shimonishi, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 125:845-851, 1984). The N-terminal 18 amino acids have the properties of a signal sequence. The central 22 residues are removed during or after the secretion process. This organization in three domains (Pre, Pro, and mature Yst) resembles that of the enterotoxin STa of Escherichia coli. The degree of conservation between the E. coli and Y. enterocolitica toxins is much lower in the Pre and the Pro domains than in the mature proteins. The mature toxin of Y. enterocolitica is much larger than that of E. coli, but the active domain appears to be highly conserved. The yst gene of Y. enterocolitica introduced in E. coli K-12 directed the secretion of an active toxin. The cloned yst gene was used as an epidemiological probe among a collection of 174 strains representative of all Yersinia species except Yersinia pestis and numerous Y. enterocolitica subgroups. In Y. enterocolitica, there was a clear-cut difference between pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains: 89 of 89 pathogenic and none of 51 nonpathogenic strains contained yst-homologous DNA, suggesting that Yst is involved in pathogenesis. Among the other Yersinia species, only four strains of Yersinia kristensenii had DNA homologous to yst. Images PMID:2201642

  7. Behavior of Yersinia enterocolitica in the presence of the bacterivorous Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, E; Baré, J; Van Damme, I; Bert, W; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2013-10-01

    Free-living protozoa play an important role in the ecology and epidemiology of human-pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the interaction between Yersinia enterocolitica, an important food-borne pathogen, and the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was studied. Several cocultivation assays were set up to assess the resistance of Y. enterocolitica to A. castellanii predation and the impact of environmental factors and bacterial strain-specific characteristics. Results showed that all Y. enterocolitica strains persist in association with A. castellanii for at least 14 days, and associations with A. castellanii enhanced survival of Yersinia under nutrient-rich conditions at 25°C and under nutrient-poor conditions at 37°C. Amoebae cultivated in the supernatant of one Yersinia strain showed temperature- and time-dependent permeabilization. Intraprotozoan survival of Y. enterocolitica depended on nutrient availability and temperature, with up to 2.8 log CFU/ml bacteria displaying intracellular survival at 7°C for at least 4 days in nutrient-rich medium. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to locate the Yersinia cells inside the amoebae. As Yersinia and Acanthamoeba share similar ecological niches, this interaction identifies a role of free-living protozoa in the ecology and epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica. PMID:23934496

  8. Association between microbiological and serological prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and the microbiological and serological prevalence of this pathogen differs between pig farms. The infection status of pig batches at moment of slaughter is unknown while it is a possibility to classify batches. A relation between the presence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. and the presence of antibodies could help to predict the infection of the pigs prior to slaughter. Pigs from 100 different batches were sampled. Tonsils and pieces of diaphragm were collected from 7047 pigs (on average 70 pigs per batch). The tonsils were analyzed using a direct plating method and the meat juice collected from the pieces of diaphragm was analyzed by Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. The microbiological and serological results were compared using a mixed-effects logistic regression at pig and batch level. Yersinia spp. were found in 2031 (28.8%) pigs, antibodies were present in 4692 (66.6%) pigs. According to the logistic regression, there was no relation at pig level between the presence of Yersinia spp. in tonsils and the presence of antibodies. Contrarily, at batch level, a mean activity value of 37 Optical Density (OD)% indicated a Yersinia spp. positive farm and the microbiological prevalence in pig batches could be estimated before shipment to the slaughterhouse. This offers the opportunity to classify batches based on their potential risk to contaminate carcasses with human pathogenic Yersinia spp.

  9. Cold Shock Proteins: A Minireview with Special Emphasis on Csp-family of Enteropathogenic Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Hietala, Nina; Palonen, Eveliina; Hakakorpi, Anna; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms for coping with stress and adapting to changing environmental conditions. Many bacteria produce small cold shock proteins (Csp) as a response to rapid temperature downshift (cold shock). During cold shock, the cell membrane fluidity and enzyme activity decrease, and the efficiency of transcription and translation is reduced due to stabilization of nucleic acid secondary structures. Moreover, protein folding is inefficient and ribosome function is hampered. Csps are thought to counteract these harmful effects by serving as nucleic acid chaperons that may prevent the formation of secondary structures in mRNA at low temperature and thus facilitate the initiation of translation. However, some Csps are non-cold inducible and they are reported to be involved in various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Csps have been shown to contribute to osmotic, oxidative, starvation, pH and ethanol stress tolerance as well as to host cell invasion. Therefore, Csps seem to have a wider role in stress tolerance of bacteria than previously assumed. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are enteropathogens that can spread through foodstuffs and cause an enteric infection called yersiniosis. Enteropathogenic Yersinia are psychrotrophs that are able to grow at temperatures close to 0°C and thus they set great challenges for the modern food industry. To be able to efficiently control psychrotrophic Yersinia during food production and storage, it is essential to understand the functions and roles of Csps in stress response of enteropathogenic Yersinia. PMID:27499753

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  11. Evolutionary study of Yersinia genomes deciphers emergence of human pathogenic species

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shi Yang; Tan, Irene Kit Ping; Tan, Mui Fern; Dutta, Avirup; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    On record, there are 17 species in the Yersinia genus, of which three are known to be pathogenic to human. While the chromosomal and pYV (or pCD1) plasmid-borne virulence genes as well as pathogenesis of these three species are well studied, their genomic evolution is poorly understood. Our study aims to predict the key evolutionary events that led to the emergence of pathogenic Yersinia species by analyzing gene gain-and-loss, virulence genes, and “Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats”. Our results suggest that the most recent ancestor shared by the human pathogenic Yersinia was most probably an environmental species that had adapted to the human body. This might have led to ecological specialization that diverged Yersinia into ecotypes and distinct lineages based on differential gene gain-and-loss in different niches. Our data also suggest that Y. pseudotuberculosis group might be the donor of the ail virulence gene to Y. enterocolitica. Hence, we postulate that evolution of human pathogenic Yersinia might not be totally in parallel, but instead, there were lateral gene transfer events. Furthermore, the presence of virulence genes seems to be important for the positive selection of virulence plasmid. Our studies provide better insights into the evolutionary biology of these bacteria. PMID:27796355

  12. The source of Yersinia spp. in pasteurized milk: an investigation at a dairy.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M H; Hooper, W L; Rodhouse, J C

    1990-06-01

    Pasteurized bottled milk supplied by a single dairy was frequently found to be contaminated with Yersinia spp. Investigations were carried out at the dairy in an effort to pinpoint the source of these organisms. Viable counts obtained from milk bottle rinses indicated that bottle washing was often unsatisfactory, and on one occasion Y. frederiksenii was isolated from the pooled rinse water of six bottles. Samples of milk were taken on arrival at the dairy and at various stages following pasteurization. Heat resistance tests carried out on strains of yersinia isolated from pasteurized milk indicated that they would not survive the pasteurization process. However two strains of yersinia were isolated from a sample of milk taken immediately after pasteurization but before bottling. The thermograph indicated that the time/temperature conditions applied during pasteurization were adequate. The presence of yersinia strains in the milk at this stage therefore suggests that undetectable levels of raw milk were being allowed to contaminate the pasteurized milk. The absence of yersinia in cartoned samples produced on the same day as contaminated bottled samples indicated that environmental contamination of the bottle filler valve also may have occurred at times. Results of this investigation indicate that increased vigilance is required to ensure proper operation of pasteurizers and bottle washers.

  13. Molecular Evolution of the Yersinia Major Outer Membrane Protein C (OmpC)

    PubMed Central

    Stenkova, Anna M.; Bystritskaya, Evgeniya P.; Guzev, Konstantin V.; Rakin, Alexander V.; Isaeva, Marina P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Yersinia includes species with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts (from fish, insects, and plants to mammals and humans). One of the major outer membrane proteins, the porin OmpC, is preferentially expressed in the host gut, where osmotic pressure, temperature, and the concentrations of nutrients and toxic products are relatively high. We consider here the molecular evolution and phylogeny of Yersinia ompC. The maximum likelihood gene tree reflects the macroevolution processes occurring within the genus Yersinia. Positive selection and horizontal gene transfer are the key factors of ompC diversification, and intraspecies recombination was revealed in two Yersinia species. The impact of recombination on ompC evolution was different from that of another major porin gene, ompF, possibly due to the emergence of additional functions and conservation of the basic transport function. The predicted antigenic determinants of OmpC were located in rapidly evolving regions, which may indicate the evolutionary mechanisms of Yersinia adaptation to the host immune system. PMID:27578962

  14. Cold Shock Proteins: A Minireview with Special Emphasis on Csp-family of Enteropathogenic Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Hietala, Nina; Palonen, Eveliina; Hakakorpi, Anna; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms for coping with stress and adapting to changing environmental conditions. Many bacteria produce small cold shock proteins (Csp) as a response to rapid temperature downshift (cold shock). During cold shock, the cell membrane fluidity and enzyme activity decrease, and the efficiency of transcription and translation is reduced due to stabilization of nucleic acid secondary structures. Moreover, protein folding is inefficient and ribosome function is hampered. Csps are thought to counteract these harmful effects by serving as nucleic acid chaperons that may prevent the formation of secondary structures in mRNA at low temperature and thus facilitate the initiation of translation. However, some Csps are non-cold inducible and they are reported to be involved in various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Csps have been shown to contribute to osmotic, oxidative, starvation, pH and ethanol stress tolerance as well as to host cell invasion. Therefore, Csps seem to have a wider role in stress tolerance of bacteria than previously assumed. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are enteropathogens that can spread through foodstuffs and cause an enteric infection called yersiniosis. Enteropathogenic Yersinia are psychrotrophs that are able to grow at temperatures close to 0°C and thus they set great challenges for the modern food industry. To be able to efficiently control psychrotrophic Yersinia during food production and storage, it is essential to understand the functions and roles of Csps in stress response of enteropathogenic Yersinia. PMID:27499753

  15. Molecular Evolution of the Yersinia Major Outer Membrane Protein C (OmpC).

    PubMed

    Stenkova, Anna M; Bystritskaya, Evgeniya P; Guzev, Konstantin V; Rakin, Alexander V; Isaeva, Marina P

    2016-01-01

    The genus Yersinia includes species with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts (from fish, insects, and plants to mammals and humans). One of the major outer membrane proteins, the porin OmpC, is preferentially expressed in the host gut, where osmotic pressure, temperature, and the concentrations of nutrients and toxic products are relatively high. We consider here the molecular evolution and phylogeny of Yersinia ompC. The maximum likelihood gene tree reflects the macroevolution processes occurring within the genus Yersinia. Positive selection and horizontal gene transfer are the key factors of ompC diversification, and intraspecies recombination was revealed in two Yersinia species. The impact of recombination on ompC evolution was different from that of another major porin gene, ompF, possibly due to the emergence of additional functions and conservation of the basic transport function. The predicted antigenic determinants of OmpC were located in rapidly evolving regions, which may indicate the evolutionary mechanisms of Yersinia adaptation to the host immune system. PMID:27578962

  16. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  17. Phenotypical characteristics, genetic identification, and antimicrobial sensitivity of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Acosta-Dibarrat, Jorge; Vega-Castillo, Fernando; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, Aeromonas isolates from diseased and healthy farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mexico, were characterized phenotypically and identified to species level by using 16S rDNA RFLP-PCR. A total of 50 isolates were included in the study and 10 Aeromonas species identified. The species A. veronii biovar sobria (22%), A. hydrophila (20%) and A. bestiarum (20%) were the most predominant. All isolates (100%) were resistant to cephalothin.

  18. Comparative Omics-Driven Genome Annotation Refinement: Application across Yersiniae

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Jones, Marcus B.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Purvine, Samuel O.; Sanford, James; Monroe, Matthew E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Ansong, Charles; Frank, Bryan C.; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott; Motin, Vladimir L.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2012-03-27

    Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. To date, the perceived value of manual curation for genome annotations is not offset by the real cost and time associated with the process. In order to balance the large number of sequences generated, the annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion for most genome sequencing projects. One possible way to reduce errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from 'omics' measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic) to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. This approach does require additional experimental and bioinformatics methods to include omics technologies; however, the approach is readily automatable and can benefit from rapid developments occurring in those research domains as well. The annotation process can be improved by experimental validation of transcription and translation and aid in the discovery of annotation errors. Here the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species, as is becoming common in sequencing efforts. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from three highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+) was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 previously incorrect protein-coding sequences (e.g., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes) within the three current Yersinia genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent pathogen, thus

  19. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii

    PubMed Central

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial. PMID:26635240

  20. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii.

    PubMed

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-12-04

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial.

  1. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    PubMed Central

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  2. Yersinia effector YopO uses actin as bait to phosphorylate proteins that regulate actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei Lin; Grimes, Jonathan M; Robinson, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species evade host immune systems through the injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into phagocytic cells. One Yop, YopO, also known as YpkA, induces actin-filament disruption, impairing phagocytosis. Here we describe the X-ray structure of Yersinia enterocolitica YopO in complex with actin, which reveals that YopO binds to an actin monomer in a manner that blocks polymerization yet allows the bound actin to interact with host actin-regulating proteins. SILAC-MS and biochemical analyses confirm that actin-polymerization regulators such as VASP, EVL, WASP, gelsolin and the formin diaphanous 1 are directly sequestered and phosphorylated by YopO through formation of ternary complexes with actin. This leads to a model in which YopO at the membrane sequesters actin from polymerization while using the bound actin as bait to recruit, phosphorylate and misregulate host actin-regulating proteins to disrupt phagocytosis. PMID:25664724

  3. An ironic case of liver infections: Yersinia enterocolitis in the setting of thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Selsky, Nathan; Forouhar, Faripour; Wu, George Y

    2013-10-01

    A 49 years old Vietnamese male with a history of thalassemia, presented with gastrointestinal symptoms and signs of hemolysis. He was diagnosed with yersinia enterocolitis. Yersinia is a gram-negative rod that most frequently occurs in children especially during the winter months. In the current case, the bone marrow biopsy showed hemophagocytosis along with positive cultures for Yersinia. The microorganism likely triggered hemophagocytosis. This syndrome, also known as, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, is defined by fever for more than 7 d, cytopenia of two or more cell lines, hemophagocytosis, hepatitis, serum ferritin greater than 500, jaundice, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. This disorder can be either familial or secondary to a strong immunologic activation. Both have an overwhelming activation of T-cells and macrophages.

  4. Yersinia effector YopO uses actin as bait to phosphorylate proteins that regulate actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei Lin; Grimes, Jonathan M; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species evade host immune systems through the injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into phagocytic cells. One Yop, YopO, also known as YpkA, induces actin-filament disruption, impairing phagocytosis. Here we describe the X-ray structure of Yersinia enterocolitica YopO in complex with actin, which reveals that YopO binds to an actin monomer in a manner that blocks polymerization yet allows the bound actin to interact with host actin-regulating proteins. SILAC-MS and biochemical analyses confirm that actin-polymerization regulators such as VASP, EVL, WASP, gelsolin and the formin diaphanous 1 are directly sequestered and phosphorylated by YopO through formation of ternary complexes with actin. This leads to a model in which YopO at the membrane sequesters actin from polymerization while using the bound actin as bait to recruit, phosphorylate and misregulate host actin-regulating proteins to disrupt phagocytosis.

  5. [Ecological regularities of the existence of pathogenic Yersinia in soil ecosystems].

    PubMed

    Breneva, N V; Maramovich, A S; Klimov, V T

    2005-01-01

    In this review the data on the ecology of pathogenic Yersinia in soil ecosystems, based on prolonged observations, were analyzed and summarized. In contrast to saprophytic species, ubiquitously spread in nature, pathogenic representatives of the genus Yersinia occurred only in the soil of natural foci and of these, Y. pestis were found only in the soil of burrows of the main carriers. The complex of abiotic and biotic factors (temperature, humidity, chemical composition, interactions in biocenosis) which determined the possibility of the existence of Yersinia in the soil environment and the preservation of their pathogenic properties was considered. Special attention was paid to their geno-phenotypic variability as the main factor of the adaptation of the causative agents of plague, pseudotuberculosis and intestinal yersiniosis in the environment. PMID:16438385

  6. The Twin Arginine Translocation System Is Essential for Virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lavander, Moa; Ericsson, Solveig K.; Bröms, Jeanette E.; Forsberg, Åke

    2006-01-01

    Yersinia species pathogenic to humans have been extensively characterized with respect to type III secretion and its essential role in virulence. This study concerns the twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway utilized by gram-negative bacteria to secrete folded proteins across the bacterial inner membrane into the periplasmic compartment. We have shown that the Yersinia Tat system is functional and required for motility and contributes to acid resistance. A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strain with a disrupted Tat system (tatC) was, however, not affected in in vitro growth or more susceptible to high osmolarity, oxidative stress, or high temperature, nor was it impaired in type III secretion. Interestingly, the tatC mutant was severely attenuated via both the oral and intraperitoneal routes in the systemic mouse infection model and highly impaired in colonization of lymphoid organs like Peyer's patches and the spleen. Our work highlights that Tat secretion plays a key role in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:16495550

  7. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, J; Wren, B W; Thomson, N R; Titball, R W; Holden, M T; Prentice, M B; Sebaihia, M; James, K D; Churcher, C; Mungall, K L; Baker, S; Basham, D; Bentley, S D; Brooks, K; Cerdeño-Tárraga, A M; Chillingworth, T; Cronin, A; Davies, R M; Davis, P; Dougan, G; Feltwell, T; Hamlin, N; Holroyd, S; Jagels, K; Karlyshev, A V; Leather, S; Moule, S; Oyston, P C; Quail, M; Rutherford, K; Simmonds, M; Skelton, J; Stevens, K; Whitehead, S; Barrell, B G

    2001-10-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.

  8. Functional characterization of Yersinia pestis aerobic glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Willias, Stephan P; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-11-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Orientalis isolates have lost the capacity to ferment glycerol. Herein we provide experimental validation that a 93 bp in-frame deletion within the glpD gene encoding the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase present in all biovar Orientalis strains is sufficient to disrupt aerobic glycerol fermentation. Furthermore, the inability to ferment glycerol is often insured by a variety of additional mutations within the glpFKX operon which prevents glycerol internalization and conversion to glycerol-3-phosphate. The physiological impact of functional glpFKX in the presence of dysfunctional glpD was assessed. Results demonstrate no change in growth kinetics at 26 °C and 37 °C. Mutants deficient in glpD displayed decreased intracellular accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate, a characterized inhibitor of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activation. Since CRP is rigorously involved in global regulation Y. pestis virulence, we tested a possible influence of a single glpD mutation on virulence. Nonetheless, subcutaneous and intranasal murine challenge was not impacted by glycerol metabolism. As quantified by crystal violet assay, biofilm formation of the glpD-deficient KIM6+ mutant was mildly repressed; whereas, chromosomal restoration of glpD in CO92 resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation. PMID:25220241

  9. Pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis Synthesis of 1-Dephosphorylated Lipid A

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Six, David A.; Reynolds, C. Michael; Chung, Hak Suk; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of Escherichia coli LpxL, which transfers a secondary laurate chain to the 2′ position of lipid A, in Yersinia pestis produced bisphosphoryl hexa-acylated lipid A at 37°C, leading to significant attenuation of virulence. Our previous observations also indicated that strain χ10015(pCD1Ap) (ΔlpxP32::PlpxL lpxL) stimulated a strong inflammatory reaction but sickened mice before recovery and retained virulence via intranasal (i.n.) infection. The development of live, attenuated Y. pestis vaccines may be facilitated by detoxification of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Heterologous expression of the lipid A 1-phosphatase, LpxE, from Francisella tularensis in Y. pestis yields predominantly 1-dephosphorylated lipid A, as confirmed by mass spectrometry. Results indicated that expression of LpxE on top of LpxL provided no significant reduction in virulence of Y. pestis in mice when it was administered i.n. but actually reduced the 50% lethal dose (LD50) by 3 orders of magnitude when the strain was administered subcutaneously (s.c.). Additionally, LpxE synthesis in wild-type Y. pestis KIM6+(pCD1Ap) led to slight attenuation by s.c. inoculation but no virulence change by i.n. inoculation in mice. In contrast to Salmonella enterica, expression of LpxE does not attenuate the virulence of Y. pestis. PMID:23357387

  10. Crystallization of the class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Natasha; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Reddy, Prasad T.; Gallagher, D. Travis

    2006-03-01

    The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Y. pestis has been crystallized in an orthorhombic form suitable for structure determination. The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been cloned and crystallized in both a triclinic and an orthorhombic form. An amino-terminal His-tagged construct, from which the tag was removed by thrombin, crystallized in a triclinic form diffracting to 1.9 Å, with one dimer per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 35.5, c = 71.8 Å, α = 88.7, β = 82.5, γ = 65.5°. Several mutants of this construct crystallized but diffracted poorly. A non-His-tagged native construct (179 amino acids, MW = 20.5 kDa) was purified by conventional chromatography and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. These crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 56.8, b = 118.6, c = 144.5 Å, diffract to 3 Å and probably have two dimers per asymmetric unit and V{sub M} = 3.0 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Both crystal forms appear to require pH below 5, complicating attempts to incorporate nucleotide ligands into the structure. The native construct has been produced as a selenomethionine derivative and crystallized for phasing and structure determination.

  11. Acute encephalopathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kaito, Hiroshi; Kamei, Koichi; Ogura, Masao; Kikuchi, Eriko; Hoshino, Hideki; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Abe, Jun; Ito, Shuichi

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a 28-month-old boy with encephalopathy and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis possibly associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yp) infection. He was transferred to our center because of impairment of renal function and altered consciousness. He had fever for 5 days after recurrent vomiting and diarrhea. Computed tomography scan was normal, but electroencephalogram (EEG) analyses showed generalized slow wave patterns. Continuous hemodialysis was undergone and then his renal function was improved, but altered consciousness persisted. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed abnormally low signals at entire field, which suggested that he was suffered from encephalopathy. Phenobarbital administration and post-encephalopathy rehabilitation were started, and he recovered in fully premorbid state with normal EEG and SPECT findings on the 33rd hospital day. Various bacterial cultures were negative, but both Yp antibody and Yp-derived mitogen (YPM) antibody, the antibody of a specific Yp exotoxin, had an extremely high titer. This is the first report of encephalopathy potentially caused by Yp, indicated by the presence of a high Yp and YPM antibody titer.

  12. Temperature-responsive in vitro RNA structurome of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Francesco; Nuss, Aaron M; Twittenhoff, Christian; Beele, Sascha; Urban, Kristina; Will, Sebastian; Bernhart, Stephan H; Stadler, Peter F; Dersch, Petra; Narberhaus, Franz

    2016-06-28

    RNA structures are fundamentally important for RNA function. Dynamic, condition-dependent structural changes are able to modulate gene expression as shown for riboswitches and RNA thermometers. By parallel analysis of RNA structures, we mapped the RNA structurome of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at three different temperatures. This human pathogen is exquisitely responsive to host body temperature (37 °C), which induces a major metabolic transition. Our analysis profiles the structure of more than 1,750 RNAs at 25 °C, 37 °C, and 42 °C. Average mRNAs tend to be unstructured around the ribosome binding site. We searched for 5'-UTRs that are folded at low temperature and identified novel thermoresponsive RNA structures from diverse gene categories. The regulatory potential of 16 candidates was validated. In summary, we present a dynamic bacterial RNA structurome and find that the expression of virulence-relevant functions in Y. pseudotuberculosis and reprogramming of its metabolism in response to temperature is associated with a restructuring of numerous mRNAs. PMID:27298343

  13. [Yersinia enterolitica infections: 2. Impact on human health].

    PubMed

    Neubauer, H; Sprague, L D; Scholz, H; Hensel, A

    2001-01-01

    The clinical picture of yersiniosis in humans and its prevalence in the human population is described in detail. Mass production of animals, development of meat factories based on sophisticated chains of cold storage units and international trade of meat products and animals are believed to be the reasons for the increasing prevalence of yersiniosis in humans. In Germany, anti-Yersinia antibodies are found in up to 40% of the average population. The financial losses for the national economy cannot be judged. Of special interest for industrial medicine are sequelae-like reactive arthritis in exposed occupational groups such as veterinarians or butchers. However, the lack of national and international data makes the assessment of the potential of yersiniosis as a zoonosis difficult. Therefore, intensive and interdisciplinary research is needed to close the gaps described. Already proven and proposed countermeasures at the different stages of mass production of animals and reglementations for international trade of meat products and animals are introduced. The need for development not only of cheap and rapid diagnostic tools but also for countermeasures and treatment strategies is discussed. PMID:11314588

  14. Expression profiling of Yersinia pestis during mouse pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Jonathan N; Lyons, C Rick; Johnston, Stephen Albert

    2006-11-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, can be transmitted by infected flea bite or inhaled aerosol. Both routes of infection have a high mortality rate, and pneumonic infections of Y. pestis represent a significant concern as a tool of bioterrorism. Understanding the transcriptional program of this pathogen during pulmonary infection should be valuable in understanding plague pathogenesis, as well as potentially offering insights into new vaccines and therapeutics. Toward this goal we developed a long oligonucleotide microarray to the plague bacillus and evaluated the expression profiles of Y. pestis in vitro and in the mouse pulmonary infection model in vivo. The in vitro analysis compared expression patterns at 27 versus 37 degrees C, as a surrogate of the transition from the flea to the mammalian host. The in vivo analysis used intranasal challenge to the mouse lung. By amplifying the Y. pestis RNA from individual mouse lungs we were able to map the transcriptional profile of plague at postinfection days 1 to 3. Our data present a very different transcriptional profile between in vivo and in vitro expression, suggesting Y. pestis responds to a variety of host signals during infection. Of note was the number of genes found in genomic regions with altered %GC content that are upregulated within the mouse lung environment. These data suggest these regions may provide particularly promising targets for both vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:17132091

  15. Long-Term Persistence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Gengler, Samuel; Laudisoit, Anne; Batoko, Henri; Wattiau, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are small worms whose ecological behaviour consists to invade, kill insects and feed on their cadavers thanks to a species-specific symbiotic bacterium belonging to any of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus hosted in the gastro-intestinal tract of EPNs. The symbiont provides a number of biological functions that are essential for its EPN host including the production of entomotoxins, of enzymes able to degrade the insect constitutive macromolecules and of antimicrobial compounds able to prevent the growth of competitors in the insect cadaver. The question addressed in this study was to investigate whether a mammalian pathogen taxonomically related to Xenorhabdus was able to substitute for or “hijack” the symbiotic relationship associating Xenorhabdus and Steinernema EPNs. To deal with this question, a laboratory experimental model was developed consisting in Galleria mellonella insect larvae, Steinernema EPNs with or without their natural Xenorhabdus symbiont and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis brought artificially either in the gut of EPNs or in the haemocoel of the insect larva prior to infection. The developed model demonstrated the capacity of EPNs to act as an efficient reservoir ensuring exponential multiplication, maintenance and dissemination of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:25635766

  16. Elimination of Yersinia enterocolitica by chlorine on fresh tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M E; Velázquez, L; DiGenaro, M S; de Cortínez, Y M; de Guzmán, A M

    1999-02-01

    The effect of temperature throughout 18 day-storage and the efficacy of different free chlorine concentrations in washing solutions upon the survival of Yersinia enterocolitica on surface of inoculated fresh tomatoes were studied. Two virulence plasmid-bearing strains. A. Y. enterocolitica W1024 0:9--a reference strain--and B. Y. enterocolitica B1 0:5 Lis Xz--a strain isolated from food in San Luis, Argentina, were assayed. Counts of both strains at 6 degrees C did not present significant changes during the first 4 days, but increased until day 15. Both strains were able to grow on tomatoes stored at 22 degrees C and 35 degrees C. At 22 degrees C maximum values were obtained on days 3 and 4, with a subsequent significant decrease. Highest counts were obtained at 37 degrees C. No detectable levels of viable cells were observed by using 500 ppm free chlorine washing solution. Non-inoculated tomatoes were analyzed for Y. enterocolitica with negative results. Zero tolerance for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains has been recommended for ready-to-use vegetables. Therefore, sanitary measures should be taken in the manipulation and storage of fresh tomatoes.

  17. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  18. Yersiniae other than Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis: the ignored species.

    PubMed

    Sulakvelidze, A

    2000-04-01

    The genus Yersinia is composed of 11 species, of which three (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica) have been exhaustively characterized. The remaining eight species (Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. bercovieri, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, Y. ruckeri, and Y. aldovae) have not been studied extensively and, because of the absence of classical Yersinia virulence markers, are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. However, recent data suggest that some of these eight species may cause disease by virtue of their having virulence factors distinct from those of Y. enterocolitica. These data raise intriguing questions about the mechanisms by which these species interact with their host cells and elicit human disease.

  19. Expression of iron-regulated proteins in Yersinia species and their relation to virulence.

    PubMed

    Carniel, E; Mazigh, D; Mollaret, H H

    1987-01-01

    Under iron-starvation conditions, the different Yersinia species expressed various iron-regulated proteins. Among them, two high-molecular-weight outer membrane proteins were synthesized in high-virulence-phenotype Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica serovars O:8 and O:Tacoma but were present neither in low-virulence phenotype Y. enterocolitica serovars O:3 and O:9 nor in avirulent Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. enterocolitica serovar O:39. Thus, the degree of virulence correlates with the presence of the two high-molecular-weight proteins in Yersinia species.

  20. Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III secretion protein YscE

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Jason; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.

    2010-12-06

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence factors from the bacterial cytosol directly into the interior of mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. The type III secretion apparatus is composed of 20-25 different Yersinia secretion (Ysc) proteins. We report here the structure of YscE, the smallest Ysc protein, which is a dimer in solution. The probable mode of oligomerization is discussed.