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Sample records for aeromonas strains isolated

  1. Aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.

    PubMed

    Balotescu, Carmen; Israil, Anca; Radu, Roxana; Alexandru, Ionela; Dobre, Georgeta

    2003-01-01

    without a direct medical impact, however they could play an indirect one remaining permanent sources of R genes for bacterial strains with pathogenic abilities implicated in human pathology (i.e. Aeromonas infections in man related to different professional activities such as fishing, surfing, swimming, diving, etc.). The purpose of this work was to determine the aspects related to constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in 35 A. hydrophila strains isolated in aquatic environment of Danube Delta (10 salmaster waters, 5 aquatic plants, 5 fish intestinal content, 5 fish sapling, 5 snake and oyster shells). The strains were biochemically identified by using API20E and API20NE kits. The antibioresistance spectrum was determined by disk diffusion method following NCCLS 2000 recommendations. The choice and disposal of antibiotics on the Mueller Hinton plate was done to allow the interpretive reading and the phenotypic detection of different antibioresistance mechanisms, as follows: beta-lactamases (PEN, ME, AMX, AMC, CAZ) and carbapenemase (IMP) production; porin deficiency (FOX); efflux mechanism (C, TE, NOR). All tested strains exhibited high resistance to penicillin, aspect pleading for constitutive penicillinase production in Aeromonas strains. With reference to other penicillins (ME, AMX, AMC) and cephalosporins (CAZ, FOX) the tested strains exhibited 2 different antibioresistance patterns: AMX-R, AMC-S, CAZ-S (65%) indicating the presence of beta-lactamase sensitive to inhibitors and AMX-R, AMC-R, CAZ-S (22%) indicating the presence of beta-lactamase resistant to inhibitors. Resistance to FOX in 8% of strains signifies a phenotypical marker for the presence of porin deficiency. Only one Aeromonas strain (2.8%) was resistant to IMP. Three strains (8%) were simultaneous resistant to TE and TMP/SMX, NOR and CHL probably due to the presence of a resistance plasmid (codifying an efflux/ enzymatic mechanism). These aspects are pleading for the necessity to investigate the

  2. Potential pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex strains isolated from clinical, food, and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Palau, Montserrat; Miñana-Galbis, David; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the clinical isolates correspond to A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. Sobria, which are described as the causative agents of wound infections, septicaemia, and meningitis in immunocompromised people, and diarrhoea and dysenteric infections in the elderly and children. The pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are multifactorial and involve structural components, siderophores, quorum-sensing mechanisms, secretion systems, extracellular enzymes, and exotoxins. In this study, we analysed a representative number of clinical and environmental strains belonging to the A. hydrophila species complex to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. We thereby detected their enzymatic activities and antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the presence of virulence genes (aer, alt, ast, and ascV). The notably high prevalence of these virulence factors, even in environmental strains, indicated a potential pathogenic capacity. Additionally, we determined the adhesion capacity and cytopathic effects of this group of strains in Caco-2 cells. Most of the strains exhibited adherence and caused complete lysis. PMID:26889703

  3. Complete Genome Sequence and Methylome Analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain YL17, Isolated from a Compost Pile.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Roberts, Richard J; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we announce the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila strain YL17. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing was used to generate the complete genome sequence and the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of this environmental isolate. A total of five unique DNA methyltransferase recognition motifs were reported here. PMID:26941143

  4. Complete Genome Sequence and Methylome Analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain YL17, Isolated from a Compost Pile

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Roberts, Richard J.; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we announce the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila strain YL17. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing was used to generate the complete genome sequence and the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of this environmental isolate. A total of five unique DNA methyltransferase recognition motifs were reported here. PMID:26941143

  5. [The suicide phenomenon and fermentative metabolic activity in strains of the Aeromonas group isolated from feces].

    PubMed

    Reina, J; Serra, A; Borrell, N; Gómez, J

    1992-11-01

    We study the "suicide" phenomena as well as metabolic pathways of mixed acids (methyl red test, MR) and butylene glycol (Voges-Proskauer, VP), in 107 strains belonging to mesophilic Aeromonas group, isolated from stools. The strains have been identified as A. hydrophila, 28 cases (26.1%), A. sobria 26 cases (24.3%) and A. caviae 53 cases (49.6%). All A. caviae strains behave homogeneously as F+, RM+ and VP-, independently of temperature (30 or 37 degrees C). A. hydrophila strains only showed their trend to "suicide" at 37 degrees C, being this behavior linked to RM test positivity. At 30 degrees C all strains were NS and RM-, keeping always positive the VP test (both temperatures). In A. sobria we have recorded changes in their behavior related to the temperature of incubation. At 37 degrees C, 57.7% were NS, whereas at 30 degrees C, 69.2% showed the same phenotype. The metabolic activity had remained stable, therefore F+ strains were VP and RM+, and NS strains were VP+ and RM-. It seems that FS is a phenotypic behavior of this bacterial group species and temperature-dependent, and also is related to a fermentative metabolic activity modulation of each of them. PMID:1489794

  6. Distribution of Aeromonas phenospecies and genospecies among strains isolated from water, foods or from human clinical samples.

    PubMed Central

    Hänninen, M. L.; Siitonen, A.

    1995-01-01

    A total of 332 Aeromonas spp. originating from drinking water (n = 75), fresh water (n = 57), chicken and ground beef (107), human faecal samples in association with travelling (n = 49), human faecal samples not associated with travelling (n = 38), and six strains from human blood cultures were studied by phenotypic methods and by using analysis of ribopatterns as a molecular method for the identification of the 13 known hybridization groups (HGs). Also included were the reference strains of each HG. A. hydrophila HG 1, A. caviae HG 4 and A. veronii biotype sobria HG 8/10 were the most important genospecies identified in human faecal samples. A. hydrophila HG 2 and A. media HG 5B predominated in drinking water and A. hydrophila HG 2 and HG 3, A. media HG 5A and HG 5B predominated in fresh water. In drinking water only one isolate was A. hydrophila HG 1 and two isolates were A. caviae HG 4. Clinically important Aeromonas spp. HG 1 (A. hydrophila), HG 4 (A. caviae) and HG 8/10 (A. veronii biotype sobria) were common in chicken and ground beef. In contrast to the drinking water samples, HG 5A was common in chicken and ground beef samples. Atypical, unidentified isolates were most often found in fresh water samples (12/57 strains). Although water has been suspected of being an important source of human aeromonas infections, clinically important HGs were found to be in the minority among Aeromonas spp. identified in drinking water or fresh water. The distribution of Aeromonas spp. HGs among drinking water, chicken and ground beef samples was also different, suggesting that contamination of meat or chicken may not originate from water. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7641837

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  9. Identification of antibiotic resistance cassettes in class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fresh fish (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sarria-Guzmán, Yohanna; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Chávez-Romero, Yosef; Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Dendooven, Luc; Bello-López, Juan Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Forty-six Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated from fresh fish and investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of Class 1 integrons by PCR, and arrangement of gene cassettes. Selected isolates were further characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Twenty isolates were found to carry Class 1 integrons. Amplification of the variable regions of the integrons revealed diverse bands ranging in size from 150 to 1,958 pb. Sequence analysis of the variable regions revealed the presence of several gene cassettes, such as adenylyl transferases (aadA2 and aadA5), dihydrofolate reductases (dfrA17 and dfrA1), chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (catB3), β-lactamase (oxa2), lincosamide nucleotidil transferase (linF), aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (apha15), and oxacillinase (bla OXA-10). Two open reading frames with an unknown function were identified as orfC and orfD. The aadA2 cassette was the most common integron found in this study. Interestingly, five integrons were detected in the plasmids that might be involved in the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria. This is a first report of cassette encoding for lincosamides (linF) resistance in Aeromonas spp. Implications on the incidence of integrons in isolates of Aeromonas spp. from fresh fish for human consumption, and its possible consequences to human health are discussed. PMID:24370627

  10. Arsenic binding to iron(II) minerals produced by an iron(III)-reducing Aeromonas strain isolated from paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Jun; Chen, Xue-Ping; Kappler, Andreas; Sun, Guo-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-11-01

    An iron reducing bacterial strain was isolated from a paddy soil and identified as a member of the Aeromonas group by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. When the cells were growing with dissolved Fe(III) as electron acceptor in the presence of As(V), Fe(II) minerals (siderite and vivianite) were formed and dissolved As was removed efficiently from solution. When the cells were growing with the Fe(III) hydroxide mineral (ferrihydrite) as electron acceptor in the presence of As(V), ferrihydrite was reduced and dissolved As(V) concentrations decreased sharply. Our results demonstrated firstly that members of the Aeromonas group can reduce Fe(III) in paddy soils, and secondly that iron reduction does not necessarily lead to arsenic mobilization. However, As immobilization can occur in environments that contain significant concentrations of counter ions such as bicarbonate and phosphate. PMID:19572768

  11. Enumeration and characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas caviae isolated from grocery store produce.

    PubMed

    Callister, S M; Agger, W A

    1987-02-01

    Starch-ampicillin agar was used to quantitatively isolate Aeromonas sp. from retail grocery store produce. All produce sampled, including parsley, spinach, celery, alfalfa sprouts, broccoli, and lettuce, contained Aeromonas sp. In most instances, the count of Aeromonas sp. increased 10- to 1,000-fold during 2 weeks of storage at 5 degrees C. Eleven (92%) of 12 kinds of produce yielded cytotoxic Aeromonas sp. Identification as Aeromonas hydrophila was the strongest indicator of cytotoxicity, and all 29 (100%) A. hydrophila isolates and 1 (6%) of 16 A. caviae isolates were cytotoxic. Twenty-seven (90%) of 30 cytotoxic Aeromonas sp. strains produced hemolysins. Strong correlations were also noted between ability to produce cytotoxin and positive Voges-Proskauer, lysine decarboxylase, and sorbitol fermentation reactions. It appears that grocery store produce is a potentially significant source of cytotoxic Aeromonas sp. and should be considered in the epidemiology of A. hydrophila gastroenteritis. PMID:3566266

  12. Aeromonas aquariorum sp. nov., isolated from aquaria of ornamental fish.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Murcia, A J; Saavedra, M J; Mota, V R; Maier, T; Stackebrandt, E; Cousin, S

    2008-05-01

    During a survey to determine the prevalence of Aeromonas strains in water and skin of imported ornamental fish, 48 strains presumptively identified as Aeromonas were isolated but they could not be identified as members of any previously described Aeromonas species. These strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach including phylogenetic analysis derived from gyrB, rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, genotyping by RAPD and extensive biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests in order to determine their taxonomic position. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas aquariorum sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MDC47T (=DSM 18362T =CECT 7289T) as the type strain. This is the first Aeromonas species description based on isolations from ornamental fish. PMID:18450708

  13. Species identification of Aeromonas strains based on carbon substrate oxidation profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, A M; Joseph, S W; Janda, J M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty clinical strains each of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, and Aeromonas sobria were evaluated for their abilities to oxidize one or more of 95 carbon sources on a GN Microplate (BIOLOG, Hayward, Calif.). Nine substrates yielded good, discriminatory values for the three species tested. The panel appears to be useful for the species identification of Aeromonas isolates originating from human material. PMID:2778077

  14. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii Predominate among Potentially Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin- and Tetracycline-Resistant Aeromonas Isolates from Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Shinko, Jasmine; Augustyniak, Alexander; Gee, Christopher; Andraso, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in nature and have increasingly been implicated in numerous diseases of humans and other animal taxa. Although some species of aeromonads are human pathogens, their presence, density, and relative abundance are rarely considered in assessing water quality. The objectives of this study were to identify Aeromonas species within Lake Erie, determine their antibiotic resistance patterns, and assess their potential pathogenicity. Aeromonas strains were isolated from Lake Erie water by use of Aeromonas selective agar with and without tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were analyzed for hemolytic ability and cytotoxicity against human epithelial cells and were identified to the species level by using 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms and phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences. A molecular virulence profile was identified for each isolate, using multiplex PCR analysis of six virulence genes. We demonstrated that Aeromonas comprised 16% of all culturable bacteria from Lake Erie. Among 119 Aeromonas isolates, six species were identified, though only two species (Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii) predominated among tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Additionally, both of these species demonstrated pathogenic phenotypes in vitro. Virulence gene profiles demonstrated a high prevalence of aerolysin and serine protease genes among A. hydrophila and A. veronii isolates, a genetic profile which corresponded with pathogenic phenotypes. Together, our findings demonstrate increased antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonads, illustrating an emerging potential health concern. PMID:24242249

  15. Detection of the frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated tap water samples by cultivation and AP-PCR.

    PubMed

    Emekdas, Gurol; Aslan, Gonul; Tezcan, Seda; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Yildiz, Cilem; Ozturhan, Hakan; Durmaz, Riza

    2006-04-01

    The frequency, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated drinking tap water distribution systems were investigated in this study. We have analyzed 148 tap water samples collected from 8 different locations by bacterial cultivation and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Gram negative, hemolytic, oxidase (+) and catalase (+) bacterial colonies were applied to the study. Identification of bacterial colonies was done by conventional biochemical method and API ID 20E panel (BioMerieux-France). Molecular epidemiological discrimination of the isolates was done by AP-PCR. Aeromonas spp. was detected in 6 of 148 (4%) tap water samples from 8 different locations. Five isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and one isolate was identified as Vibrio fluvialis by conventional biochemical method. These data were also confirmed by API 20E panel. One of 6 isolates was resistant to gentamicin, 2 of 6 isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 4 of 6 isolates were resistant to ampicillin and ampicillin-sulbactam and all of 6 isolates were resistant to cephalothin. All isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin. All 6 strains of Aeromonas were discriminated by AP-PCR and were determined that all isolates were from different genotypic sources. Although the frequency of the isolates was under the standard limits, the results indicate that hemolytic A. hydrophila are present in municipally treated tap water samples in Mersin City. While all strains were genotypically distinct, all of them were resistant to first generation beta lactam antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:16427154

  16. Isolation of a pigment-producing strain of Aeromonas liquefaciens from silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1962-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, is distinctive in the field of fish diseases in that it may readily be recognized by the water-soluble reddish-brown pigment formed on culture media containing tyrosine. Additional tests for the identification of this organism include blackening of the colonial growth when flooded with an aqueous solution of p-phenylenediamine and a lack of motility (Griffin, Progressive Fish Culturist 14:74, 1952).

  17. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents. PMID:26396008

  18. Clinical significance of Aeromonas species isolated from patients with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, N P

    1987-01-01

    A total of 248 strains of Aeromonas spp. were isolated from 3,334 human fecal specimens submitted to a state public health laboratory over a 2-year period to be cultured for enteric pathogens. Cary-Blair transport medium, blood ampicillin agar, and alkaline peptone water enrichment provided optimal recovery of Aeromonas spp. A questionnaire requesting clinical and epidemiological information was sent to physicians, who submitted stool samples for testing, with each laboratory report for 107 consecutive stool isolates of Aeromonas spp. The 56 questionnaires which were completed and returned were analyzed to determine the seasonal distribution of illness and the age and sex distribution of patients; characteristic symptoms; and predisposing factors for gastrointestinal disease caused by Aeromonas spp. It was concluded that some A. hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. caviae strains are capable of causing diarrhea and that antibiotic therapy and the drinking of untreated water are significant risk factors for susceptible hosts. PMID:3693537

  19. Electrochemical Characterization of a Novel Exoelectrogenic Bacterium Strain SCS5, Isolated from a Mediator-Less Microbial Fuel Cell and Phylogenetically Related to Aeromonas jandaei

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Subed Chandra Dev; Feng, Cuijie; Li, Jiangwei; Hu, Anyi; Wang, Han; Qin, Dan; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacterium, designated as strain SCS5, was isolated from the anodic biofilm of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell using acetate as the electron donor and α-FeOOH as the electron acceptor. The isolate was Gram-negative, motile, and shaped as short rods (0.9–1.3 μm in length and 0.4–0.5 μm in width). A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoD genes suggested that strain SCS5 belonged to the Aeromonas genus in the Aeromonadaceae family and exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.45%) with Aeromonas jandaei ATCC 49568. However, phenotypic, cellular fatty acid profile, and DNA G+C content analyses revealed that there were some distinctions between strain SCS5 and the type strain A. jandaei ATCC 49568. The optimum growth temperature, pH, and NaCl (%) for strain SCS5 were 35°C, 7.0, and 0.5% respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain SCS5 was 59.18%. The isolate SCS5 was capable of reducing insoluble iron oxide (α-FeOOH) and transferring electrons to extracellular material (the carbon electrode). The electrochemical activity of strain SCS5 was corroborated by cyclic voltammetry and a Raman spectroscopic analysis. The cyclic voltammogram of strain SCS5 revealed two pairs of oxidation-reduction peaks under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. In contrast, no redox pair was observed for A. jandaei ATCC 49568. Thus, isolated strain SCS5 is a novel exoelectrogenic bacterium phylogenetically related to A. jandaei, but shows distinct electrochemical activity from its close relative A. jandaei ATCC 49568. PMID:27396922

  20. Interaction of Aeromonas Strains with Lactic Acid Bacteria via Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatje, E.; Neuman, C.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas includes some species that have now been identified as human pathogens of significant medical importance. We investigated the ability of 13 selected Aeromonas strains belonging to nine species isolated from clinical cases (n = 5), environmental waters (n = 5), and fish (n = 3) to adhere to and translocate Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB), i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve. Aeromonas isolates were also assessed for their cytotoxicity, the presence of virulence genes, and hemolysin production. Among the clinical isolates, one strain of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii and two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila carried cytotoxin (act), heat-labile toxin (alt), hemolysin (hlyA), and aerolysin (aerA) genes, were cytotoxic to Vero cells, produced hemolysin, and showed higher adherence to Caco-2 cells. In contrast, this was seen in only one environmental strain, a strain of A. veronii biovar sobria. When Aeromonas strains were coinoculated with LAB onto Caco-2 cells, their level of adhesion was reduced. However, their rate of translocation in the presence of LAB increased and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher among fish strains. We suggest that either the interaction between Aeromonas and LAB strains could have a detrimental effect on the Caco-2 cells, allowing the Aeromonas to translocate more readily, or the presence of the LAB stimulated the Aeromonas strains to produce more toxins and/or increase their translocation rate. PMID:24242240

  1. Tetrahymena: An Alternative Model Host for Evaluating Virulence of Aeromonas Strains

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Mao-Da; Lin, Xiao-Qin; Hu, Meng; Li, Jing; Lu, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Yong-Jie

    2012-01-01

    An easier assessment model would be helpful for high-throughput screening of Aeromonas virulence. The previous study indicated the potential of Tetrahymena as a permissive model to examine virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Here our aim was to assess virulence of Aeromonas spp. using two model hosts, a zebrafish assay and Tetrahymena-Aeromonas co-culture, and to examine whether data from the Tetrahymena thermophila model reflects infections in the well-established animal model. First, virulence of 39 Aeromonas strains was assessed by determining the 50% lethal dose (LD50) in zebrafish. LD50 values ranging from 1.3×102 to 3.0×107 indicated that these strains represent a high to moderate degree of virulence and could be useful to assess virulence in the Tetrahymena model. In Tetrahymena-Aeromonas co-culture, we evaluated the virulence of Aeromonas by detecting relative survival of Aeromonas and Tetrahymena. An Aeromonas isolate was considered virulent when its relative survival was greater than 60%, while the Aeromonas isolate was considered avirulent if its relative survival was below 40%. When relative survival of T. thermophila was lower than 40% after co-culture with an Aeromonas isolate, the bacterial strain was regarded as virulent. In contrast, the strain was classified as avirulent if relative survival of T. thermophila was greater than 50%. Encouragingly, data from the 39 Aeromonas strains showed good correlation in zebrafish and Tetrahymena-Aeromonas co-culture models. The results provide sufficient data to demonstrate that Tetrahymena can be a comparable alternative to zebrafish for determining the virulence of Aeromonas isolates. PMID:23145022

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas dhakensis Strain F2S2-1, Isolated from the Skin Surface of an Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps)

    PubMed Central

    Nadiga, Mohan; Vaidyanathan, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Draft genome sequencing of Aeromonas dhakensis strain F2S2-1, isolated from the skin surface of an Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), has been carried out. The draft genome was roughly 4.7 Mb in size with 61.7% G+C content. Annotation of the genome yielded 4,337 genes coding for proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Annotation also revealed the presence of 52 genes linked to resistance to antibiotics/toxic compounds. Pathway analysis revealed the presence of novobiocin biosynthetic genes and genes for biosynthesis of a siderophore group on nonsynthetic peptides. PMID:27540048

  3. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas from seafoods in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Yaun, S S; Lin, L P

    1993-05-01

    A total of 124 fresh seafoods and 158 processed seafoods collected from the retail markets and supermarkets in Taipei were tested for the contamination with motile Aeromonas spp. Of the fresh seafoods analyzed, 88% displayed the presence of Aeromonas. The isolation rates of various samples were as follows: 100%, freshwater fish; 95%, seawater fish; 78%, fish fillets; 84%, shrimp and crab of the crustacea group; 83%, bivalve shellfish and 84%, non-bivalve shellfish of the mollusca group, and 100%, seaweed. Of the 158 processed seafoods, 11% were contaminated by Aeromonas. The isolation rates were as follows: 0%, canned, dried, or frozen fresh seafood; 18%, salted seafood; 30%, fish cake; 7% vacuum-packaged fish cakes; 14%, frozen seafood dumplings; 8%, cooked seafoods. One hundred and eighty-three Aeromonas strains isolated in this survey were characterized to species level and tested for their ability to produce beta-hemolysin. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the A. hydrophila produced beta-hemolysin on 5% blood agar, 94% of the A. sobria and 33% of the A. caviae produced beta-hemolysin. Thus it is likely that fresh seafoods are potentially significant sources of the virulent Aeromonas species and may play an important role in the epidemiology of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. PMID:7995079

  4. Characterisation of Aeromonas spp. isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro-Escarpulli, G; Figueras, M J; Aguilera-Arreola, G; Soler, L; Fernández-Rendón, E; Aparicio, G O; Guarro, J; Chacón, M R

    2003-07-15

    A total of 82 strains of presumptive Aeromonas spp. were identified biochemically and genetically (16S rDNA-RFLP). The strains were isolated from 250 samples of frozen fish (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) purchased in local markets in Mexico City. In the present study, we detected the presence of several genes encoding for putative virulence factors and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in bacterial infection. In addition, we studied the antimicrobial patterns of those strains. Molecular identification demonstrated that the prevalent species in frozen fish were Aeromonas salmonicida (67.5%) and Aeromonas bestiarum (20.9%), accounting for 88.3% of the isolates, while the other strains belonged to the species Aeromonas veronii (5.2%), Aeromonas encheleia (3.9%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (2.6%). Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genes encoding putative virulence factors common in Aeromonas, such as aerolysin/hemolysin, lipases including the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT), serine protease and DNases, revealed that they were all common in these strains. Our results showed that first generation quinolones and second and third generation cephalosporins were the drugs with the best antimicrobial effect against Aeromonas spp. In Mexico, there have been few studies on Aeromonas and its putative virulence factors. The present work therefore highlights an important incidence of Aeromonas spp., with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance, isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico City. PMID:12781953

  5. Aeromonas lusitana sp. nov., Isolated from Untreated Water and Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Navarro, Aaron; Carvalho, M João; Aravena-Román, Max; Correia, Antonio; Figueras, M José; Saavedra, M José

    2016-06-01

    During previous studies to evaluate the phylogenetic diversity of Aeromonas from untreated waters and vegetables intended for human consumption, a group of isolates formed a unique gyrB phylogenetic cluster, separated from those of all other species described so far. A subsequent extensive phenotypic characterization, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence of seven housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX, and atpD; 4705 bp), and ERIC-PCR, were performed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy position of these isolates. This polyphasic approach confirmed that they belonged to a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas lusitana sp. nov. is proposed, with strain A.11/6(T) (=DSMZ 24095(T), =CECT 7828(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26868258

  6. Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from Food Products: Emerging Aeromonas Infections and Their Significance in Public Health.

    PubMed

    Alhazmi, Mohammad Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are opportunistic pathogens causing a broad spectrum of human illnesses like gastroenteritis, chronic diarrhea, wound infections, peritonitis, urinary tract infections, and septicemia. Their ability to grow in foods stored in a refrigerator poses a substantial threat for human consumption. We investigated the prevalence of Aeromonas from commercial food products across Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 250 samples were randomly collected and processed for the isolation and identification of Aeromonas by morphological and biochemical means and for their identification by PCR. A total of 102 strains of Aeromonas were isolated, including 47% from raw meat samples, 34% from raw fish samples, and 18.6% from milk and dairy products; 56.8% were identified as A. hydrophila and 43.1% as A. sobria. Antibiotic susceptibility tests done revealed 100% sensitivity to chloramphenicol, colistin, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. 16S rDNA PCR revealed the presence of the 953 bp fragment in all the strains. The present investigation suggested the occurrences of A. sobria and A. hydrophila in human consumable stored and refrigerated foods. PMID:26268974

  7. Detection of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene determinants and biofilm formation in Aeromonas species isolated from cattle.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibiogram of Aeromonas strains recovered from cattle faeces and the potential pathogenic status of the isolates. The antibiogram of the Aeromonas isolates demonstrated total resistance to clindamycin oxacillin, trimethoprim, novobiocin and ticarcillin. However, Aeromonas strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxytetracycline and tobramycin. The Aeromonas strains from Lovedale and Fort Cox farms were found to possess some virulence genes. The percentage distribution was aer 71.4%, ast 35.7%, fla 60.7%, lip 35.7% and hlyA 25% for Lovedale farm and aer 63.1%, alt 10.5%, ast 55.2%, fla 78.9%, lip 21% and hlyA 35.9% for Fort Cox farm. Class 1 integron was present in 27% of Aeromonas isolates; the bla TEM gene was present in 34.8%, while the blaP1 class A β-lactamase gene was detected in 12.1% of the isolates. Approximately 86% of the isolates formed a biofilm on microtitre plates. The presence of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Aeromonas isolates from cattle faeces reveals the pathogenic and infectious importance of these isolates and is of great significance to public health. The possession of a biofilm-forming capability by such isolates may lead to difficulty during the management of infection related to Aeromonas species. PMID:26143545

  8. Rapid detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas isolated from a trout farm by hexaplex-PCR.

    PubMed

    Nam, In-Young; Joh, Kiseong

    2007-08-01

    The detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas is a key component in determining potential pathogenicity because these factors act multifunctionally and multifactorially. In this study water samples were collected from a trout farm on a seasonal basis, and diseased fish and Aeromonas species were isolated and identified. For rapid detection of six virulence factors of isolated Aeromonas, a hexaplex-polymerase chain reaction (hexaplex-PCR) assay was used. The detected virulence factors include aerolysin (aer), GCAT (gcat), serine protease (ser), nuclease (nuc) lipase (lip) and lateral flagella (laf). The dominant strain found in our isolates was Aeromonas sobria, and the dominant virulence factors were aer and nuc for all seasons. We confirmed that A. sobria and two of the virulence genes (aer and nuc) are related. We proposed a method by which one can identify the major strains of Aeromonas: A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, and A. veronii, using hexaplex-PCR. PMID:17846582

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF′. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in food and clinical Aeromonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Palú, Angela Peres; Gomes, Luciana Martins; Miguel, Marco Antônio Lemos; Balassiano, Ilana Teruzkin; Queiroz, Mara Lucia Penna; Freitas-Almeida, Angela Corrêa; de Oliveira, Selma Soares

    2006-08-01

    This study highlights the incidence of resistance and the presence of plasmids in human and food isolates of Aeromonas in Brazil. A total of 83 Aeromonas spp. strains (28 isolated from human and 55 from fresh lettuce) were studied. Thirty-five were identified as A. hydrophila complex and 48 as A. caviae complex. All strains were shown to be susceptible to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin by the disk diffusion method. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was observed in strains of both food and clinical origin. The food strains were resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefoxitin and tetracycline, while the clinical strains presented resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were tested by agar dilution. Thirteen strains isolated from vegetables were resistant to tetracycline (MIC 16 microg ml-1). Two A. hydrophila strains and one A. caviae strain presented extracromosomal DNA (3 and 15 kb plasmids, respectively). The tetracycline resistance phenotype determinant was related to the 15 kb plasmid according to cure and transformation experiments. PMID:16943044

  11. Lectin-binding properties of Aeromonas caviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio M.; Hirata-Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Freitas-Almeida, Angela C.; Andrade, Arnaldo F. B.

    2008-01-01

    The cell surface carbohydrates of four strains of Aeromonas caviae were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays employing twenty highly purified lectins encompassing all sugar specificities. With the exception of L-fucose and sialic acid, the sugar residues were detected in A. caviae strains. A marked difference, however, in the pattern of cell surface carbohydrates in different A. caviae isolates was observed. Specific receptors for Tritricum vulgaris (WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum (STA) (D-GlcNAc-binding lectins) were found only in ATCC 15468 strain, whereas Euonymus europaeus (EEL, D-Gal-binding lectin) sites were present exclusively in AeQ32 strain, those for Helix pomatia (HPA, D-GalNAc-binding lectin) in AeC398 and AeV11 strains, and for Canavalia ensiformes (Con A, D-Man-binding lectin) in ATCC 15468, AeC398, AeQ32 and AeV11 strains, after bacterial growing at 37°C. On the other hand, specific receptors for WGA and EEL were completely abrogated growing the bacteria at 22°C. Binding studies with 125I- labeled lectins from WGA, EEL and Con A were performed. These assays essentially confirmed the selectivity, demonstrated in the agglutination assays of these lectins for the A. caviae strains. PMID:24031204

  12. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  13. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34)

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  14. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Aeromonas hydrophila Strain M023 from Freshwater.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chang, Chien-Yi; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a well-known waterborne pathogen that recently was found to infect humans. Here, we report the draft genome of a freshwater isolate from a Malaysian waterfall, A. hydrophila strain M023, which portrays N-acylhomoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing. PMID:25700404

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  17. AsaGEI2b: a new variant of a genomic island identified in the Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida JF3224 strain isolated from a wild fish in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Frey, Joachim; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causal agent of furunculosis in salmonids. We recently identified a group of genomic islands (AsaGEI) in this bacterium. AsaGEI2a, one of these genomic islands, has almost exclusively been identified in isolates from North America. To date, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida JF3224, a strain isolated from a wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) caught in Switzerland, was the only European isolate that appeared to bear AsaGEI2a. We analyzed the genome of JF3224 and showed that the genomic island in JF3224 is a new variant of AsaGEI, which we have called AsaGEI2b. While AsaGEI2b shares the same integrase gene and insertion site as AsaGEI2a, it is very different in terms of many other features. Additional genomic investigations combined with PCR genotyping revealed that JF3224 is sensitive to growth at 25°C, leading to insertion sequence-dependent rearrangement of the locus on the pAsa5 plasmid that encodes a type three secretion system, which is essential for the virulence of the bacterium. The analysis of the JF3224 genome confirmed that AsaGEIs are accurate indicators of the geographic origins of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates and is another example of the susceptibility of the pAsa5 plasmid to DNA rearrangements. PMID:26048417

  18. Aeromonas trota sp. nov., an ampicillin-susceptible species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, A M; Chakraborty, T; Fanning, G R; Verma, D; Ali, A; Janda, J M; Joseph, S W

    1991-06-01

    Previous DNA hybridization studies established 12 Aeromonas genospecies, from which nine phenotypic species have been proposed: Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. media, A. veronii, A. schubertii, A. salmonicida, A. eucrenophila, and A. jandaei. We have delineated a new Aeromonas genospecies, A. trota, on the basis of 13 strains isolated primarily from fecal specimens from southern and southeastern Asia. All strains were highly related to the proposed type strain, AH2 (ATCC 49657T): 51 to 100% (60 degrees C) and 49 to 99% (75 degrees C), with 0.2 to 2.2 divergence. AH2 was only 16 to 41% (60 degrees C) related to all other Aeromonas type strains and DNA group definition strains. The unique profile of A. trota includes negative reactions for esculin hydrolysis, arabinose fermentation, and the Voges-Proskauer test, positive reactions for cellobiose fermentation, lysine decarboxylation, and citrate utilization, and susceptibility to ampicillin, as determined by the broth microdilution MIC method and the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method (10 micrograms). Nine of the A. trota strains were from a single study of 165 geographically diverse aeromonads. This finding questions the efficacy of screening fecal specimens for Aeromonas spp. with ampicillin-containing media and suggests a previously unrecognized prevalence of this new species. PMID:1864939

  19. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  20. Molecular detection of enterotoxins in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre, L C; Dropa, M; Matté, G R; Matté, M H

    2009-12-01

    Aeromonas species are widely distributed in aquatic environments and recent studies include the genus in the emergent pathogens group because of its frequent association with local and systemic infections in immunocompetent humans. Aiming to search for virulence genes in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei, we designed specific primers to detect act/hlyA/aer complex and alt genes. Primers described elsewhere were used to detect ast. Eighty-seven strains previously identified using phenotypic and genotypic tests as A. hydrophila (41) and A. jandaei (46) were analysed for the presence of the virulence genes using PCR. DNA fragments of expected size were purified and directly sequenced. Among the 41 strains of A. hydrophila 70.7% (29), 97.6% (40) and 26.8% (11) possessed act/hlyA/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Among the 46 strains of A. jandaei, 4.4% (2), 0% (0) and 32.6% (15) were positive for act/hly A/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Sequencing allowed for the confirmation of amplified products using BLAST. The present work proposes a specific and rapid diagnostic method to detect the main virulence determinants of Aeromonas, a genus potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:19590136

  1. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas strains from various retail food products in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2011-09-01

    A total of 154 food samples (chicken, fish, and ready-to-eat sprouts) from various retail outlets in Mumbai, India, were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas spp. over a period of 2 y (January 2006 to March 2008). Twenty-two Aeromonas isolates belonging to 7 different species were isolated from 18 (11.7%) food samples. The highest percentages of isolation were from chicken (28.6%) followed by fish (20%) and sprout (2.5%) samples. Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii bv. sobria, and A. salmonicida were the most frequently isolated species from sprouts, chicken, and fish samples, respectively. The genes encoding for putative virulence factors, cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), hemolysin (hly), aerolysin (aer), elastase (ahyB), and lipase (lip) were detected using polymerase chain reaction method in 59.1%, 40.9%, 22.7%, 54.5%, and 31.8% of the strains, respectively. The isolated Aeromonas strains were found to be positive for virulence factors, that is, amylase, DNase, gelatinase, protease, and lipase production. More than 60% isolates were also positive for β-hemolytic activity. All these food isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin, and sensitive to gentamicin, 3rd-generation cephalosporins (ceftazidime, cephotaxime, ceftriaxone), and chloramphenicol. Seventeen (77.2%) isolates harbored single and/or multiple plasmids (approximately 5 to >16 kb). The XbaI digestion patterns of chromosomal DNA of these isolates, using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, showed high genetic diversity among these isolates. Our results demonstrate the presence of various Aeromonas spp. with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance in different food products marketed in Mumbai, India. The potential health risks posed by consumption of these raw or undercooked food products should not be underestimated. PMID:21824136

  2. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and plasmid carrying in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from two estuarine systems.

    PubMed

    Montoya, R; Dominguez, M; Gonzalez, C; Mondaca, M A; Zemelman, R

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and the presence of plasmids was investigated in eleven strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from samples of sea water and these strains isolated from Aulacomya ater. Transference of resistance to Escherichia coli was attempted by conjugation and transformation experiments. The strains showed multiple resistance toward beta-lactam antibiotics and susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents. Five strains harboured plasmids with molecular weights below 5.7 MD. It was not possible to relate the resistance of the strains with the presence of their plasmids. PMID:1593967

  3. Aeromonas Caviae Strain Induces Th1 Cytokine Response in Mouse Intestinal Tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small i...

  4. Isolation and characterization of motile Aeromonas from human, food and environmental specimens.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Y; Kishi, T

    1988-10-01

    From July 1985 to March 1987, the occurrence of motile Aeromonas sp. in stool, food and environmental specimens was investigated to assess their pathogenic significance and to determine sources and routes of infection. A total of 9366 stool specimens were examined; Aeromonas was isolated from 11.1% of diarrhoeal stools and 2.2% of normal stools (P less than 0.001). Aeromonas counts in food specimens, which included minced beef, pork and chicken, seafood and various vegetables and their products, were unexpectedly high suggesting that infection might be food-borne rather than water-borne. About 70% of the isolates from meat products were A. hydrophila and A. sobria, while A. caviae was the most common in sea-fish, vegetables and their products. Most A. hydrophila and A. sobria strains produced haemolysin, but haemagglutinin was found more frequently in A. sobria. PMID:3181307

  5. Differentiation of Aeromonas isolated from drinking water distribution systems using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Maura J; Best, Jennifer M; Smallwood, Anthony W; Kostich, Mitchell; Rodgers, Mark; Shoemaker, Jody A

    2007-03-01

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the whole cells of both reference strains and unknown Aeromonas isolates obtained from water distribution systems. A library of over 45 unique m/z signatures was created from 40 strains that are representative of the 17 recognized species of Aeromonas, as well as 3 reference strains from genus Vibrio and 2 reference strains from Plesiomonas shigelloides. The library was used to help speciate 52 isolates of Aeromonas. The environmental isolates were broken up into 2 blind studies. Group 1 contained isolates that had a recognizable phenotypic profile and group 2 contained isolates that had an atypical phenotypic profile. MALDI-MS analysis of the water isolates in group 1 matched the phenotypic identification in all cases. In group 2, the MALDI-MS-based determination confirmed the identity of 18 of the 27 isolates. These results demonstrate that MALDI-MS analysis can rapidly and accurately classify species of the genus Aeromonas, making it a powerful tool especially suited for environmental monitoring and detection of microbial hazards in drinking water. PMID:17269751

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas spp. isolates from food in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel

    2009-01-01

    A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food. PMID:19382665

  7. Evaluation of different assay systems for identification of environmental Aeromonas strains.

    PubMed

    Toranzo, A E; Santos, Y; Nieto, T P; Barja, J L

    1986-03-01

    Important biochemical reactions in conventional tests were compared with counterpart reactions in two multiple test systems, API-20E (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and Aeromonas hydrophila medium, to evaluate their accuracy for the identification of motile Aeromonas spp. isolated from fish. In a total of 49 Aeromonas spp. isolates and 10 A. hydrophila reference strains, false-negative or -positive reactions were detected in the Voges-Proskauer test, indole production, gelatinase activity, production of gas, fermentation of arabinose, and lysine decarboxylase reaction. A good correlation was found, among the three identification systems, for the fermentation of mannitol and inositol as well as for the arginine dihydrolase and ornithine decarboxylase tests. The failure of A. hydrophila medium in the detection of gas indicates that this medium is not entirely suitable for defining aerogenic or anaerogenic strains. From the results of the present study, we consider that of the identification method and taxonomic scheme to be adopted for environmental Aeromonas spp. must be standardized. PMID:16347025

  8. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov., isolated from septicaemic farmed frogs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Pearson, Marianne; Kämpfer, Peter; Denys, Rik; Cnockaert, Margo; Inglis, Valerie; Swings, Jean

    2003-05-01

    A group of seven sucrose-negative Aeromonas strains (referred to as group Au) isolated from the internal organs of septicaemic farmed frogs (Rana rugulosa) in Thailand was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study including fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and ERIC-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rDNA sequencing, microplate DNA-DNA hybridizations and extensive phenotypic characterization. Comparison of FAFLP and ERIC-PCR fingerprints indicated that the group Au isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila DNA hybridization group (HG) 1 in which they represent a genotypic subgroup closely affiliated to A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila and subsp. dhakensis. One representative of the Au group exhibited > or = 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with the type strains of the two A. hydrophila subspecies. DNA-DNA hybridization with type and reference strains of all known Aeromonas taxa revealed that the Au group represented a homogeneous taxon that exhibited the highest relatedness with members of the two A. hydrophila subspecies, ranging from 75 to 93%. Phenotypic characterization on the basis of 152 features further revealed that the Au group isolates differed from A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila or subsp. dhakensis in a total of 13 biochemical properties. Of these, assimilation of L-glycine and isobutyrate as sole carbon source, acid production from salicin and D-sucrose, and aesculin hydrolysis were of diagnostic value. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Aeromonas frog isolates of the Au group represent a new subspecies of A. hydrophila, for which the name Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov. is proposed. Its type strain is Au-1D12(T) (=LMG 19707(T) = CCUG 46211(T)). PMID:12807217

  9. Insight into the mobilome of Aeromonas strains

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Marta; Popowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The mobilome is a pool of genes located within mobile genetic elements (MGE), such as plasmids, IS elements, transposons, genomic/pathogenicity islands, and integron-associated gene cassettes. These genes are often referred to as “flexible” and may encode virulence factors, toxic compounds as well as resistance to antibiotics. The phenomenon of MGE transfer between bacteria, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), is well documented. The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. The process of acquiring and spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) is of particular significance, as it is important for the health of humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly study the mobilome of Aeromonas spp. that is widely distributed in various environments, causing many diseases in fishes and humans. This review discusses the recently published information on MGE prevalent in Aeromonas spp. with special emphasis on plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups, i.e., IncA/C, IncU, IncQ, IncF, IncI, and ColE-type. The vast majority of plasmids carry a number of different transposons (Tn3, Tn21, Tn1213, Tn1721, Tn4401), the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class of integrons, IS elements (e.g., IS26, ISPa12, ISPa13, ISKpn8, ISKpn6) and encode determinants such as antibiotic and mercury resistance genes, as well as virulence factors. Although the actual role of Aeromonas spp. as a human pathogen remains controversial, species of this genus may pose a serious risk to human health. This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes

  10. Virulence potential and genetic diversity of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii, and Aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolates from Mexico and Spain: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Figueras, María José; Garduño, Rafael A; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2007-07-01

    A comparative study of 109 Aeromonas clinical isolates belonging to the 3 species most frequently isolated from patients with diarrhea in Mexico and Spain was performed to investigate the distribution of 3 prominent toxin genes and the gene encoding flagellin of lateral flagella; 4 well-established virulence factors in the genus Aeromonas. The aerolysin-hemolysin toxin genes were the most prevalent, being present in 89% of the total isolates. The ast toxin gene was conspicuously absent from the Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas veronii groups but was present in 91% of the Aeromonas hydrophila isolates. Both the alt toxin gene and the lafA flagellin gene also had a low incidence in A. caviae and A. veronii. Differences in the prevalence of alt and lafA were observed between isolates from Mexico and Spain, confirming genus heterogeneity according to geographic location. Carriage of multiple toxin genes was primarily restricted to A. hydrophila isolates, suggesting that A. caviae and A. veronii isolates circulating in Mexico and Spain possess a limited array of virulence genes. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenetic consensus - polymerase chain reaction showed that the Aeromonas populations sampled lack dominant clones and were genetically heterogeneous, with A. caviae being the most diverse species. Further surveys of virulence determinants in genetically heterogeneous populations of Aeromonas isolates circulating worldwide are required to enhance the understanding of their capacity to cause disease. PMID:17898843

  11. Enterotoxin production in relation to taxonomic grouping and source of isolation of Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, P C; Lee, J V; Miliotis, M D; Van de Walle, S; Koornhof, H J; Jeffery, L; Bryant, T N

    1984-02-01

    A total of 19 of 20 (95%) strains of Aeromonas hydrophila biovar hydrophila and 16 of 17 (94%) strains of Aeromonas sobria isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental sources were found to be enterotoxin positive. Only 2 of 18 (11%) A. hydrophila biovar anaerogenes and 2 of 13 (15%) unidentified Aeromonas strains from a similar variety of sources produced enterotoxin. No association was apparent between the source of isolation, in particular diarrheal stools, and enterotoxigenicity; 41% of the isolates from diarrheal stools were enterotoxin negative. A strong correlation was noted between ability to produce enterotoxin and positive results in six characters: lysine decarboxylase and Voges-Proskauer reactions, production of gas from glucose, gluconate oxidation, xanthine hydrolysis, and hemolysis of human erythrocytes. In the majority of cases (35 of 39 strains), enterotoxigenicity was detected using cell-free filtrates of brain heart infusion broth cultures grown at 36 degrees C for 15; however, the other four positive isolates were detected after growth in the same broth at 30 degrees C or in Casamino Acids-yeast extract broth at 30 or 37 degrees C. It is recommended that for enterotoxin tests, strains should be grown in both media at both temperatures. The infant mouse test was found to be a simple and reliable method for detection of the enterotoxin. The toxin proved to be heat labile and not neutralized by cholera antitoxin. PMID:6699147

  12. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Typing of Clinical and Environmental Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramalivhana, J.N.; Obi, C.L.; Labuschagne, C.; Weldhagen, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relatedness of strains isolated from diarrhoeal stool and water specimens collected from water-storage containers from different geographical areas in the Limpopo province. In total, 32 Aeromonas strains isolated from stool specimens collected from HIV/AIDS patients suffering from gastroenteritis and their household drinking-water stored in 20-L and 25-L containers were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD). The RAPD fingerprints obtained proved reproducible when repeated on three different occasions using whole-cell DNA isolated from the Aeromonas strains. In total, 12 unique RAPD fingerprints were found. The results revealed a tendency of the isolates to cluster according to their origin of isolation (best-cut test 0.80 and bootstrap values >50%). However, a certain degree of similarity was also observed between isolates of water sources and clinical sources which indicated genetic relatedness. There were also genetic similarities between the clinical and the environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. isolated from different geographical areas. This study has demonstrated the genetic relatedness of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from household drinking-water and clinical sources in South Africa, which may be due to cross-contamination from water to patients or vice-versa. This observation is of public-health significance, particularly in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study points to the importance of monitoring and evaluating infection-control measures for improved hygiene and to prevent cross-contaminations. PMID:20214080

  13. Functional Characterization of Type IV Pili Expressed on Diarrhea-Associated Isolates of Aeromonas species

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Sylvia M.; O’Donovan, Lisa A.; Sanderson, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Our past work has shown that long, flexible type IV pili (single or in bundles) are the predominant pili expressed on fecal isolates of diarrhea-associated species of Aeromonas (Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and A. caviae). They represent a family of type IV pili which we have designated Bfp (for bundle-forming pili). Reports from Japan suggest that Bfp are intestinal colonization factors. This study presents compelling evidence to support this conclusion. Aeromonas bacteria and/or Bfp purified from a strain of A. veronii biovar sobria were shown to adhere to epithelial and intestinal cell lines, freshly isolated human enterocytes, and fresh and fixed human and rabbit intestinal tissues, as determined by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical detection. Removal of Bfp by mechanical means decreased adhesion to cell lines by up to 80%. Purified Bfp blocked adhesion of the test strain to intestinal cells in a dose-dependent manner. Adhesion was also blocked by the Fab fraction of anti-Bfp immunoglobulin G. Moreover, ultrastructural studies (ruthenium red staining and transmission and scanning electron microscopy) demonstrated for the first time that Aeromonas adhesion to human enterocytes is pilus mediated and suggested that Bfp may also promote colonization by forming bacterium-to-bacterium linkages. Bfp-positive isolates examined for type IV pilus-mediated twitching motility in agar and slide culture assays developed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not, however, exhibit this function. PMID:10496928

  14. Mutation in the S-ribosylhomocysteinase (luxS) gene involved in quorum sensing affects biofilm formation and virulence in a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    EPA Science Inventory

    A diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila produces a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. Our laboratory has characterized from the above Aeromonas strain, in addition to Act, the type 3- and T6-secretion systems and their effec...

  15. Multi-Drug Resistance Mediated by Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas Isolated from Farmed Freshwater Animals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuting; Wu, Yali; Jiang, Lan; Tan, Aiping; Zhang, Ruiquan; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in Chinese aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. These animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in Guangdong province of South China. One hundred and twelve Aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and the presence of class 1 integron sequences. Twenty-two (19.6%) of these isolates carried a class 1 integron comprising six different gene insertion cassettes including drfA12-orfF-aadA2, drfA12-orfF, aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3, catB3, arr-3, and dfrA17. Among these, drfA12-orfF-aadA2 was the dominant gene cassette array (63.6%, 14/22) and this is the first report of aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3 in an Aeromonas hydrophila isolate from a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). All the integron-positive strains were resistant to more than five agents and 22 contained other resistance genes including bla CTX-M-3, bla TEM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and tetA. All integron-positive isolates also contained mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR). Our investigation demonstrates that freshwater animals can serve as a reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas strains containing multiple drug-resistance integrons. This data suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin and a prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is necessary in these farms. PMID:27379065

  16. Multi-Drug Resistance Mediated by Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas Isolated from Farmed Freshwater Animals

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yuting; Wu, Yali; Jiang, Lan; Tan, Aiping; Zhang, Ruiquan; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in Chinese aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. These animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in Guangdong province of South China. One hundred and twelve Aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and the presence of class 1 integron sequences. Twenty-two (19.6%) of these isolates carried a class 1 integron comprising six different gene insertion cassettes including drfA12-orfF-aadA2, drfA12-orfF, aac(6′)-II-blaOXA-21-cat3, catB3, arr-3, and dfrA17. Among these, drfA12-orfF-aadA2 was the dominant gene cassette array (63.6%, 14/22) and this is the first report of aac(6′)-II-blaOXA-21-cat3 in an Aeromonas hydrophila isolate from a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). All the integron-positive strains were resistant to more than five agents and 22 contained other resistance genes including blaCTX-M-3, blaTEM-1, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and tetA. All integron-positive isolates also contained mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR). Our investigation demonstrates that freshwater animals can serve as a reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas strains containing multiple drug-resistance integrons. This data suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin and a prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is necessary in these farms. PMID:27379065

  17. Chironomids' Relationship with Aeromonas Species.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects' egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects' endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect's egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  18. Functional Genomic Characterization of Virulence Factors from Necrotizing Fasciitis-Causing Strains of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Christopher J.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C.; Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Tiner, Bethany L.; Erova, Tatiana E.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Read, Timothy D.; Shak, Joshua R.; Joseph, Sam W.; Singletary, Ed; Felland, Tracy; Baze, Wallace B.; Horneman, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The genomes of 10 Aeromonas isolates identified and designated Aeromonas hydrophila WI, Riv3, and NF1 to NF4; A. dhakensis SSU; A. jandaei Riv2; and A. caviae NM22 and NM33 were sequenced and annotated. Isolates NF1 to NF4 were from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Two environmental isolates (Riv2 and -3) were from the river water from which the NF patient acquired the infection. While isolates NF2 to NF4 were clonal, NF1 was genetically distinct. Outside the conserved core genomes of these 10 isolates, several unique genomic features were identified. The most virulent strains possessed one of the following four virulence factors or a combination of them: cytotoxic enterotoxin, exotoxin A, and type 3 and 6 secretion system effectors AexU and Hcp. In a septicemic-mouse model, SSU, NF1, and Riv2 were the most virulent, while NF2 was moderately virulent. These data correlated with high motility and biofilm formation by the former three isolates. Conversely, in a mouse model of intramuscular infection, NF2 was much more virulent than NF1. Isolates NF2, SSU, and Riv2 disseminated in high numbers from the muscular tissue to the visceral organs of mice, while NF1 reached the liver and spleen in relatively lower numbers on the basis of colony counting and tracking of bioluminescent strains in real time by in vivo imaging. Histopathologically, degeneration of myofibers with significant infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells due to the highly virulent strains was noted. Functional genomic analysis provided data that allowed us to correlate the highly infectious nature of Aeromonas pathotypes belonging to several different species with virulence signatures and their potential ability to cause NF. PMID:24795370

  19. [Detection of the first QnrS gene positivity in aquatic Aeromonas spp. isolates in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Tanrıverdi Çaycı, Yeliz; Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Çiftci, Alper; Balta, Fikri; Didinen, Behire Işıl; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Altun, Soner; Söğüt Ünlü, Mehtap; Deveci, Aydın

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are oxidase positive, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacilli that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. A.hydrophila, A.sobria and A.bestiarum may cause severe infections in both human and cold-blooded animals. Environmental persistance of quinolones that are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine plays an important role in the selection of resistant mutants. Plasmid-mediated resistance is one of the main mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance, and qnr, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB genes are identified as resistance determinants. Determination of various types of qnr gene in different bacteria mainly in Enterobacteriaceae, suggests that they are widely distributed in nature. Recently, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was defined among Aeromonas species isolated from water. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of qnr genes among aquatic Aeromonas spp. in Turkey. A total of 45 Aeromonas strains isolated from water and fishes collected from three different geographical regions (Aegean, Mediterranean and Blacksea) in Turkey, were included in the study. The isolates were identified at species level by the use of 16S rDNA-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR). Among the isolates, 20 were identified as A.sobria, 10 as A.hydrophila, nine as A.salmonicida, four as A.bestiarum and two as A.veronii. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrS genes, were investigated by M-PCR, and sequence analysis was performed for nine qnr-positive isolates. According to the sequence analysis of the genes, qnr genes were characterized in six A.sobria, in two A.bestiarum and in one A.hydrophila isolate (9/45; 20%). When the sequence was compared with GenBank database, this gene was found as qnrS2. All qnrS-positive Aeromonas spp. isolates were ciprofloxacin-susceptible, while five of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  20. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  1. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  2. Isolation of a lytic bacteriophage against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila from an organized equine farm.

    PubMed

    Anand, Taruna; Vaid, Rajesh Kumar; Bera, Bidhan Ch; Singh, Jitender; Barua, Sanjay; Virmani, Nitin; K, Rajukumar; Yadav, Neeraj Kumar; Nagar, Dinesh; Singh, Raj K; Tripathi, B N

    2016-04-01

    A bacteriophage (VTCCBPA6) against a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the sewage of an organized equine breeding farm. On the basis of TEM analysis, phage belonged to family Myoviridae. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of gp23 gene (encoding for major capsid protein) revealed phylogenetic resemblance to T4 like virus genus. Protein profiling by SDS-PAGE also indicated its resemblance to T4 like phage group. However, the comparison of its gp23 gene sequence with previously reported phages showed similarity with T4-like phages infecting Enterobacteriaceae instead of Aeromonas spp. Thus, to our knowledge, this report points toward the fact that a novel/evolved phage might exist in equine environment against A. hydrophila, which can be potentially used as a biocontrol agent. PMID:26748732

  3. Complete Type III Secretion System of a Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain

    PubMed Central

    Vilches, Silvia; Urgell, Cecilia; Merino, Susana; Chacón, Matilde R.; Soler, Lara; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Figueras, Maria Jose; Tomás, Juan M.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the existence and genetic organization of a functional type III secretion system (TTSS) in a mesophilic Aeromonas strain by initially using the Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3. We report for the first time the complete TTSS DNA sequence of an Aeromonas strain that comprises 35 genes organized in a similar disposition as that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using several gene probes, we also determined the presence of a TTSS in clinical or environmental strains of different Aeromonas species: A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae. By using one of the TTSS genes (ascV), we were able to obtain a defined insertion mutant in strain AH-3 (AH-3AscV), which showed reduced toxicity and virulence in comparison with the wild-type strain. Complementation of the mutant strain with a plasmid vector carrying ascV was fully able to restore the wild-type toxicity and virulence. PMID:15528564

  4. A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, A; Kumari, P Rathna; Kolanchinathan, P; Masilamani, V; John, George

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:24511738

  5. Antibiogram characterization and putative virulence genes in Aeromonas species isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas species are broadly distributed in nature and agricultural environments and have been isolated from feces, bedding, and drinking water of healthy pigs. We assessed the incidence, virulence properties, and antimicrobial resistance profile of Aeromonas spp., isolated from pig feces. Antibiogram was done using the disc diffusion methods, and polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of putative virulence genes. Identification of isolates revealed three phenotypic species with percentage distribution as follows: Aeromonas hydrophila 23 (45.1 %), Aeromonas caviae 16 (31.4 %), and Aeromonas sobria 12 (23.5 %). All Aeromonas isolates in the study were absolutely susceptible to cefotaxime and resistant to penicillin. A. cavaie and A. sobria demonstrated absolute susceptibility against ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. Aeromonas species showed varied susceptibility to cephalothin as follows: A. hydrophila 78.3 %, A. cavaie 93.7 %, and A. sobria 91.7 %. The percentage distribution of virulence genes among Aeromonas isolates were as follows: Aerolysin (aer) 74.5 %, flagellin gene (fla) 68.6 %, cytotoxin (hly A) 43.1 %, lipase (lip) 39.2 %, enterotoxic activities (ast) 31.3 %, and cytotonic gene (alt) 13.7 %. Reports from this study shows that Aeromonas species isolated from pig fecal samples are multi-drug resistant and possess virulence potential which may result to possible risk of human or animal infection and likely contamination of food and water from this sources. PMID:26971520

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  7. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  8. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  9. Accuracy of 6 commercial systems for identifying clinical Aeromonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Brigitte; Laurent, Frédéric; Verdier, Isabelle; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Lecaillon, Evelyne; Marchandin, Hélène; Roger, Frédéric; Tigaud, Sylvestre; de Montclos, Henri; Kodjo, Angeli

    2010-05-01

    We compared the accuracy of 6 commercial systems for Aeromonas identification by testing 87 clinical isolates in routine conditions, using partial rpoB gene sequencing as the reference standard. The systems were API-20E, API-32GN, the ID-GN card with the Vitek2 system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), the identification portion of the NFC47 panel (MicroScan Walk/Away system; Siemens Healthcare, Sacramento, CA), ID69 (Phoenix system; BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD), and GN2 microplates (Omnilog system; Biolog, Hayward, CA), for which 67 (77.1%), 80 (91.9%), 72 (82.7%), 70 (80.5%), 64 (73.5%), and 59 (67.8%) isolates, respectively, were correctly identified at the genus and species level. Confusion with Vibrio affected 6.9% and 16.1% of results obtained with NFC47 and API-20E, respectively. Overall, the accuracy of identification for aeromonads was hampered by outdated databases and taxonomy, weak algorithms, and impractical additional tests. Commercial identification systems should be redesigned to make Aeromonas identification algorithms more robust and to cover infrequent clinical species of this genus. PMID:20167449

  10. Adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival and cytotoxic activity of strains of Aeromonas spp. in HEp-2, Caco-2 and T-84 cell lines.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Paula Azevedo; Pereira, Ana Claudia Machado; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; de Mattos Alves, Maria Angélica; Rosa, Ana Cláudia Paula; Freitas-Almeida, Angela Corrêa

    2015-05-01

    The genus Aeromonas contains important pathogen for both humans and other animals, being responsible for the etiology of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The pathology caused by these bacteria involves several virulence factors, such as the ability to produce toxins, adhesion and invasion. The properties conferred by these factors have been extensively studied in experiments of interaction between bacterial strains and cell culture. We evaluate the interaction of eight Aeromonas spp. strains, previously isolated from human faeces, food and water with HEp-2, Caco-2 and T-84 cell lines. Cytotoxic effects, the pattern of adhesion, invasive capacity and intracellular survival were analyzed. The results showed that Aeromonas strains were adherent to three cells lines in 6 h of incubation, displaying the aggregative adherence pattern. Among eight strains studied, 50% produced cytotoxic effects on HEp-2 cells, while none of the strains produced cytotoxic effects on Caco-2 and T-84 cells at 48 h. This study demonstrated that subsets of Aeromonas isolated from different sources were able to invade intestinal (T-84, Caco-2) and epithelial (HEp-2) cell lines cultivated in vitro surviving in intracellular environments up to 72 h. Finally, our results support the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, especially those of food and clinical sources. PMID:25743539

  11. Molecular and Chemical Analysis of the Lipopolysaccharide from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Canals, Rocío; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    A group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. veronii biovar sobria strains isolated from humans and fish have been described; these strains classified to serotype O11 are serologically related by their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen (O-polysaccharide), and the presence of an S-layer consisting of multiple copies of a crystalline surface array protein with a molecular weight of 52 kDa in the form of a crystalline surface array which lies peripheral to the cell wall. A. hydrophila strain AH-1 is one of them. We isolated the LPS from this strain and determined the structure of the O-polysaccharide, which was similar to that previously described for another strain of serotype O11. The genetics of the O11-antigen showed the genes (wbO11 cluster) in two sections separated by genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the S-layer. The O11-antigen LPS is an example of an ABC-2-transporter-dependent pathway for O-antigen heteropolysaccharide (disaccharide) assembly. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of the LPS core (waaO11 cluster) were also identified in three different chromosome regions being nearly identical to the ones described for A. hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34). The genetic data and preliminary chemical analysis indicated that the LPS core for strain AH-1 is identical to the one for strain AH-3. PMID:25874921

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of Aeromonas species isolated from processed channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Silva, J L

    1999-01-01

    From August 1994 to May 1995, 238 channel catfish fillets collected from three processing plants in the Mississippi Delta at four time periods were tested for the presence of Aeromonas species. Identification of Aeromonas spp. was accomplished using an automated Vitek bioassay system with gram-negative and nonfermenter cards. Approximately 36.1% were positive for A. hydrophila, 35.7% for A. sobria, and 10.9% for A. caviae. All three Aeromonas spp. were found in all three processing plants, and the incidence of A. hydrophila contamination appeared to be higher in summer than other seasons. Eighty-six percent of the Aeromonas isolates were hemolytic on 5% sheep blood agar plates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin. Results suggest that Aeromonas spp. are prevalent in processed channel catfish, and most isolates are hemolytic and resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin. PMID:9921825

  13. Methods for the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides from faeces.

    PubMed Central

    Millership, S. E.; Chattopadhyay, B.

    1984-01-01

    Two solid selective media, xylose deoxycholate citrate agar (XDCA) and bile salts brilliant green agar (BBG) and an enrichment broth-alkaline peptone water, were evaluated for the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Alkaline peptone water and XDCA are useful for recovery of Aeromonas but not Plesiomonas, whereas BBG is satisfactory for both organisms. PMID:6368683

  14. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  15. Detection of hemolytic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and A . sobria along with other Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Hussain, I A; Jeyasekaran, G; Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, K T; Jeevithan, E

    2014-02-01

    Hemolytic strains of Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products were detected by multiplex PCR. The selected primers for the amplification of segments of ahh1, asa1 and 16S rRNA gene yielded products with the size of 130 bp, 249 bp and 356 bp, respectively. This assay was found to be highly sensitive, as it could detect 7 and 9 cells of Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria with a detection limit of 1 pg of pure genomic DNA. The assay, when screened for 73 commercial fish and fishery product samples consisting of freshwater, marine fish and shellfish, showed 56 % positive for Aeromonas spp., 16 % for Aeromonas hydrophila and 13 % for A. sobria. This assay provides specific and reliable results and can be a powerful tool for the simultaneous detection of hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila A. sobria and other Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products. PMID:24493904

  16. Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake.

    PubMed

    Dziga, Dariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Maksylewicz, Anna; Czaja-Prokop, Urszula; Barylski, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur. PMID:26927173

  17. Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake

    PubMed Central

    Dziga, Dariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Maksylewicz, Anna; Czaja-Prokop, Urszula; Barylski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur. PMID:26927173

  18. Chironomids’ Relationship with Aeromonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  19. Infection of sea lamprey with an unusual strain of Aeromonas salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, Arfang; Loch, Thomas P.; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Winters, Andrew D.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the fish-parasitic sea lamprey has led to catastrophic consequences, including the potential introduction of fish pathogens. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes devastating losses worldwide. Currently, there are five accepted subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida: A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, and pectinolytica. We discuss the discovery of an isolate of A. salmonicida that is pathogenic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and exhibits unique phenotypic and molecular characteristics. We examined 181 adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Humber River (Lake Ontario watershed) and 162 adult sea lamprey from Duffins Creek (Lake Ontario watershed) during the spring seasons of 2005–11. Among those, 4/343 (1.2%) sea lamprey were culture positive for A. salmonicida, whereby biochemical and molecular studies identified three of the isolates as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The remaining isolate (As-SL1) recovered from Humber River sea lamprey was phenotypically more similar to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida than to the four other A. salmonicida subspecies. However, unlike A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, As-SL1 was sucrose positive, produced an acid-over-acid reaction on triple-sugar iron medium and did not amplify with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial stretches of the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B genes further confirmed that the As-SL1 isolate was not A. salmonicida subsp. masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, or pectinolytica. Based on our analyses, the As-SL1 isolate is either an unusual strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or a novel A. salmonicida subspecies. The four A. salmonicida isolates that were recovered from sea lamprey were pathogenic to rainbow trout in experimental challenge studies. Our study also underscores the potential role of sea lamprey in the ecology of

  20. Aeromonas jandaei (formerly genospecies DNA group 9 A. sobria), a new sucrose-negative species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, A; Fanning, G R; Joseph, S W

    1991-01-01

    . The esculin-, sucrose-, and cellobiose-negative and colistin-resistant profile distinguished A. jandaei from other Aeromonas species. These A. jandaei strains were isolated from blood (two strains), wounds (two strains), diarrheal stools (four strains), and a prawn (one strain). The blood and wound isolates, in particular, suggest that there is a possible clinical significance for this species and justify identification of and further research on this group of motile aeromonads. PMID:2037673

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are commonly isolated from both fresh and salt waters worldwide and some are believed to cause infections in humans, including gastroenteritis and wound infections. Currently, aeromonads are on the United States Environmental Protection A...

  2. The incidence of virulence factors in mesophilic Aeromonas species isolated from farm animals and their environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, S. J.; Stickler, D. J.; Bryant, T. N.

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-one isolates of Aeromonas spp. from the faeces of pigs, cows and a variety of associated environmental sources were examined for the characteristics that are reputed to have roles in pathogenicity. Most isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila were cytotoxic (96.4%) and were capable of producing cell elongation factor (75%) and haemagglutinins (67.9%). In contrast few of the Aeromonas caviae isolates produced these three markers (13.6%, 27.3% and 36.4% respectively). In general, Aeromonas sobria occupied an intermediate position (36.4%, 27.3% and 54.5%), but they did produce the highest mean invasion index for HEp-2 cells. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations between the carriage of these factors and it was clear that many isolates of aeromonads from water and animals possessed the full battery of putative virulence factors. PMID:2209733

  3. Molecular characterization of tetracycline- and quinolone-resistant Aeromonas salmonicida isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Sun Young; Son, Jee Soo; Han, Jee Eun; Jun, Jin Woo; Shin, Sang Phil; Choresca, Casiano; Choi, Yun Jaie; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance of 16 Aeromonas (A.) salmonicida strains isolated from diseased fish and environmental samples in Korea from 2006 to 2009 were investigated in this study. Tetracycline or quinolone resistance was observed in eight and 16 of the isolates, respectively, based on the measured minimal inhibitory concentrations. Among the tetracycline-resistant strains, seven of the isolates harbored tetA gene and one isolate harbored tetE gene. Additionally, quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) consisting of the gyrA and parC genes were amplified and sequenced. Among the quinolone-resistant A. salmonicida strains, 15 harbored point mutations in the gyrA codon 83 which were responsible for the corresponding amino acid substitutions of Ser83→Arg83 or Ser83→Asn83. We detected no point mutations in other QRDRs, such as gyrA codons 87 and 92, and parC codons 80 and 84. Genetic similarity was assessed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the results indicated high clonality among the Korean antibiotic-resistant strains of A. salmonicida. PMID:21368562

  4. Variants of a genomic island in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida link isolates with their geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Brochu, Francis; Boyle, Brian; Tanaka, Katherine H; Attéré, Sabrina A; Jubinville, Éric; Loch, Thomas P; Winters, Andrew D; Faisal, Mohamed; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-01-30

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a fish pathogen. Analysis of its genomic characteristics is required to determine the worldwide distribution of the various populations of this bacterium. Genomic alignments between the 01-B526 pathogenic strain and the A449 reference strain have revealed a 51-kb chromosomal insertion in 01-B526. This insertion (AsaGEI1a) has been identified as a new genomic island (GEI) bearing prophage genes. PCR assays were used to detect this GEI in a collection of 139 A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. Three forms of this GEI (AsaGEI1a, AsaGEI1b, AsaGEI2a) are now known based on this analysis and the sequencing of the genomes of seven additional isolates. A new prophage (prophage 3) associated with AsaGEI2a was also discovered. Each GEI appeared to be strongly associated with a specific geographic region. AsaGEI1a and AsaGEI2a were exclusively found in North American isolates, except for one European isolate bearing AsaGEI2a. The majority of the isolates bearing AsaGEI1b or no GEI were from Europe. Prophage 3 has also a particular geographic distribution and was found only in North American isolates. We demonstrated that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida possesses unsuspected elements of genomic heterogeneity that could be used as indicators to determine the geographic origins of isolates of this bacterium. PMID:25480167

  5. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  6. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent.

    PubMed

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  7. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  8. The main Aeromonas pathogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Tomás, J M

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  9. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  10. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the Malaysian Sea against coral (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Hamid, Rahimi; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    2016-09-01

    A study was carried out to determine the pathogenicity (hemolytic activity) on corals (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer) of Aeromonas hydrophila from water, sediment, and coral. Samples were collected from coastal water and coral reef areas. One hundred and sixty-two isolates were successfully isolated. Out of 162, 95 were from seawater, 49 from sediment, and 18 from coral. Sixteen isolates were picked and identified. Isolates were identified using a conventional biochemical test, the API 20NE kit, and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences. Hemolytic activity was determined. Out of 16 isolates, 14 isolates were β-hemolytic and two isolates were non-hemolytic. Corals infected with A. hydrophila suffered bleaching. Similar effect was observed for both hemolytic and non-hemolytic isolates. Intramuscular injection of A. hydrophila into sea bass resulted in muscular bleeding and death. Higher infection rates were obtained from hemolytic compared to non-hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila isolates. PMID:27221587

  11. Molecular identification and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  12. Molecular identfication and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama (USA) in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  13. Characterization of Aeromonas spp. isolated from humans with diarrhea, from healthy controls, and from surface water in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, I; Albert, M J; Ansaruzzaman, M; Bhuiyan, N A; Alabi, S A; Islam, M S; Neogi, P K; Huys, G; Janssen, P; Kersters, K; Möllby, R

    1997-01-01

    Aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea in Bangladesh (n = 69), from healthy controls (n = 11), and from surface water (n = 40) were analyzed with respect to their hybridization groups (HGs) by the aid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) characterization and DNA fingerprinting by AFLP, biochemical phenotypes (Phe-nePlate [PhP] types), and the production of hemolysin and cytotoxin. The aim of the investigation was to find out whether certain strains carrying virulence factors predominated among patient isolates. According to FAME and/or AFLP analysis, most human isolates were allocated to DNA HGs 4 (Aeromonas caviae) and 1 (A. hydrophila). Most environmental strains were allocated to HG8 (A. veronii biogroup sobria) and HG4 (A. caviae), and only one was of HG1. According to PhP typing, the diversity among patient isolates was lower than that among other strains, and two dominating PhP types (types BD-1 and BD-2) were identified in 29 and 30% of the patient isolates, respectively. PhP type BD-1 was also common among the environmental isolates, whereas PhP type BD-2 was only identified in two of the other isolates. Twenty-five of 26 isolates belonging to HG1 were of the same PhP type (BD-2), whereas isolates of other common HGs were more diverse according to their PhP types. Hemolytic and cytotoxin-producing strains occurred more frequently among the environmental isolates than among patient isolates. However, the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities among human isolates was strongly correlated to the HG1/BD-2 type, which, in addition, showed high cytotoxin titers (median values, 1/512 compared to 1/128 for cytotoxin-positive isolates belonging to other types). Thus, the HG1/BD-2 type may represent a pathogenic A. hydrophila type that is able to produce diarrhea in humans. PMID:9003598

  14. Incidence of motile Aeromonas spp. in foods.

    PubMed

    Pin, C; Marín, M L; García, M L; Tormo, J; Selgas, M D; Casas, C

    1994-09-01

    A total of 80 food samples were purchased from local retail consumer shops and examined for the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. Of the food categories tested, poultry had the highest incidence, with 100% positive. This was followed by lamb samples, with 60% positive. Raw milk and cheese samples had very low incidence (20%). No motile Aeromonas spp. were found in pre-prepared salads. Shellfish, fish, pork and beef samples had incidences of 40%. Most of the strains isolated were Aeromonas hydrophila, and for most of the food categories, no Aeromonas caviae isolates were obtained. PMID:7873101

  15. Distribution of Virulence Factors and Molecular Fingerprinting of Aeromonas Species Isolates from Water and Clinical Samples: Suggestive Evidence of Water-to-Human Transmission ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Fadl, Amin A.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Berg, Richard L.; Horneman, Amy J.; Stemper, Mary E.; Joseph, Sam W.; Moyer, Nelson P.; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 227 isolates of Aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the United States and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. These isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the A. hydrophila group, the A. caviae-A. media group, and the A. veronii-A. sobria group, based on biochemical profiles, and they had various pulsotypes. When virulence factor activities were examined, Aeromonas isolates obtained from clinical sources had higher cytotoxic activities than isolates obtained from water sources for all three Aeromonas species groups. Likewise, the production of quorum-sensing signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactone, was greater in clinical isolates than in isolates from water for the A. caviae-A. media and A. hydrophila groups. Based on colony blot DNA hybridization, the heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin gene and the DNA adenosine methyltransferase gene were more prevalent in clinical isolates than in water isolates for all three Aeromonas groups. Using colony blot DNA hybridization and PFGE, we obtained three sets of water and clinical isolates that had the same virulence signature and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. In addition, all of these isolates belonged to the A. caviae-A. media group. The findings of the present study provide the first suggestive evidence of successful colonization and infection by particular strains of certain Aeromonas species after transmission from water to humans. PMID:20154106

  16. Isolation and Seroprevalence of Aeromonas spp. Among Common Food Animals Slaughtered in Nagpur, Central India.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Tanuja K G M; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Zade, Nandkishor N; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Khan, Waqar A; Shinde, Shilpa V; Patil, Archana R

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonads are ubiquitous foodborne pathogens with a global distribution. Animal-origin foods and contaminated animals are the main sources of Aeromonas infection to humans. So far little is known about the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in food-producing animals in India. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Aeromonas species from 50 each of meat, blood, and sera samples collected from cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs slaughtered in and around Nagpur, Central India. Alkaline peptone water and ampicillin dextrin agar were used to isolate Aeromonas spp. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized by use of whole-cell antigen (WC) and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646). Aeromonads were isolated from 44 (22%) of the meat samples, and 1 (0.5%) from the blood samples. Seroprevalence by indirect ELISA-based WC antigen was estimated as 68% in cattle, 44% in buffaloes, 60% in goats, and 30% in pigs. OMP-based ELISA yielded a seroprevalence of 56%, 48%, 52%, and 22% in cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs, respectively. The results revealed that OMP-based ELISA and WC-based ELISA were in agreement with one another. Isolation along with high seropositivity demonstrates the presence of foodborne Aeromonas spp. in the Nagpur city of Central India. PMID:25946095

  17. Class 1 integrons in Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica).

    PubMed

    Lukkana, Mintra; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from farmed Nile Tilapia. A total of 50 A. hydrophila isolates from clinical cases were screened for the presence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and all the strains resistant to enrofloxacin and/or ciprofloxacin (n=19) examined for mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC. The intI1 gene was detected in 23 A. hydrophila strains (46%) but no intl2 and intl3 were detected. Among these, 14 isolates (60.8%) carried gene cassettes inserted in variable regions i.e., partial aadA2, aadA2, dfrA1-orfC and dfrA12-aadA2, of which the most common gene cassette array was dfrA12-aadA2 (26.09%). Conjugal transfer of class 1 integrons with resistance gene array was detected. All the A. hydrophila strains resistant to enrofloxacin and/or ciprofloxacin possessed mutations in the QRDRs of gyrA and parC. Only a Ser-83-Ile substitution was identified in GyrA and only a Ser-80-Ile amino change was found in ParC. The data confirms that A. hydrophila from farm-raised Nile Telapia serve as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance determinants. PMID:22123307

  18. Surface phenotypic characteristics and virulence of Spanish isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida after passage through fish.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, A I; Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, L A; Nieto, T P

    1995-01-01

    Eleven strains of Aeromonas salmonicida were passaged twice by intraperitoneal injection through rainbow trout and reisolated from the kidney of moribund fish. The surface characteristics and virulence of the strains changed following passage through fish. None of the in vitro tests used could effectively predict the in vivo virulence. PMID:7646039

  19. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

  20. Detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Sung, Kidon; Tran, Quynhtien; Kerdahi, Khalil; Steele, Roger

    2010-05-01

    The presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of Aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were used to determine the presence of genes for cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), aerolysin (aerA), two cytotonic enterotoxins (ast, alt), lipase (lip), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), serine protease (ser), DNases (exu), elastase (ahyB) and the structural gene flagellin (fla) in the template DNA. Oligonucleotide primers amplified a 231-bp region of the act gene from the template DNA of 97.0% of the isolates. Primers specific for the amplification of the aerA gene amplified a 431-bp region of the aerA gene from the template DNA of 96.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained ast or alt genes. Oligonucleotide primers specific for the amplification of lip, gcaT, ser and fla genes, amplified their respective amplicons from 85.0, 78.0, 82.0 and 80.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained exu or the elastase genes. Several of the isolates (48.0%) contained class I integrons that confer resistance to multiple antibiotics; various sizes between 0.6 and 3.1 kb were found. None of the isolates contained Class II integrons. Our results indicate that farm-raised catfish may be a source of pathogenic A. veronii and that the potential health risks posed by virulent strains of A. veronii should not be underestimated. PMID:20227596

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment. PMID:22927788

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for bla(TEM) gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment. PMID:22927788

  3. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

  4. Exposure to pairs of Aeromonas strains enhances virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    PubMed Central

    Mosser, Thomas; Talagrand-Reboul, Emilie; Colston, Sophie M.; Graf, Joerg; Figueras, Maria J.; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Lamy, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonad virulence remains poorly understood, and is difficult to predict from strain characteristics. In addition, infections are often polymicrobial (i.e., are mixed infections), and 5–10% of such infections include two distinct aeromonads, which has an unknown impact on virulence. In this work, we studied the virulence of aeromonads recovered from human mixed infections. We tested them individually and in association with other strains with the aim of improving our understanding of aeromonosis. Twelve strains that were recovered in pairs from six mixed infections were tested in a virulence model of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Nine isolates were weak worm killers (median time to death, TD50, ≥7 days) when administered alone. Two pairs showed enhanced virulence, as indicated by a significantly shortened TD50 after co-infection vs. infection with a single strain. Enhanced virulence was also observed for five of the 14 additional experimental pairs, and each of these pairs included one strain from a natural synergistic pair. These experiments indicated that synergistic effects were frequent and were limited to pairs that were composed of strains belonging to different species. The genome content of virulence-associated genes failed to explain virulence synergy, although some virulence-associated genes that were present in some strains were absent from their companion strain (e.g., T3SS). The synergy observed in virulence when two Aeromonas isolates were co-infected stresses the idea that consideration should be given to the fact that infection does not depend only on single strain virulence but is instead the result of a more complex interaction between the microbes involved, the host and the environment. These results are of interest for other diseases in which mixed infections are likely and in particular for water-borne diseases (e.g., legionellosis, vibriosis), in which pathogens may display enhanced virulence in the presence of the right partner. This

  5. Exposure to pairs of Aeromonas strains enhances virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Thomas; Talagrand-Reboul, Emilie; Colston, Sophie M; Graf, Joerg; Figueras, Maria J; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Lamy, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonad virulence remains poorly understood, and is difficult to predict from strain characteristics. In addition, infections are often polymicrobial (i.e., are mixed infections), and 5-10% of such infections include two distinct aeromonads, which has an unknown impact on virulence. In this work, we studied the virulence of aeromonads recovered from human mixed infections. We tested them individually and in association with other strains with the aim of improving our understanding of aeromonosis. Twelve strains that were recovered in pairs from six mixed infections were tested in a virulence model of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Nine isolates were weak worm killers (median time to death, TD50, ≥7 days) when administered alone. Two pairs showed enhanced virulence, as indicated by a significantly shortened TD50 after co-infection vs. infection with a single strain. Enhanced virulence was also observed for five of the 14 additional experimental pairs, and each of these pairs included one strain from a natural synergistic pair. These experiments indicated that synergistic effects were frequent and were limited to pairs that were composed of strains belonging to different species. The genome content of virulence-associated genes failed to explain virulence synergy, although some virulence-associated genes that were present in some strains were absent from their companion strain (e.g., T3SS). The synergy observed in virulence when two Aeromonas isolates were co-infected stresses the idea that consideration should be given to the fact that infection does not depend only on single strain virulence but is instead the result of a more complex interaction between the microbes involved, the host and the environment. These results are of interest for other diseases in which mixed infections are likely and in particular for water-borne diseases (e.g., legionellosis, vibriosis), in which pathogens may display enhanced virulence in the presence of the right partner. This

  6. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  7. Molecular analysis of type II topoisomerases of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish and levofloxacin-induced resistant isolates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruixue; Du, Na; Chen, Nan; Lin, Li; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of resistance to levofloxacin for Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish and selected in vitro were examined in this study. Levofloxacin-resistant mutants were obtained by selection of A. hydrophila in vitro. The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrA and parC genes were sequenced in Lev(R) strains and reverse mutation strains. All Lev(R) strains carried a point mutation at codon 83 (Ser → Ile), and one strain (25 %) harbored a mutation at position 92 (Leu → Met) in the GyrA-QRDR. After being transferred in a levofloxacin-free medium, one strain of the mutants was successfully reversed and the reversion was related with mutations of GyrA-QRDR at positions 81 (Gly → Asp) and 83 (Ile → Ser). No amino acid alteration was found in the ParC-QRDR. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of levofloxacin for the mutants was lower in the presence of reserpine, and all mutants were also resistant to some of the other quinolones. It was found that the mechanism of levofloxacin resistance of A. hydrophila selected in vitro was related to gyrA of type II topoisomerase, and an efflux mechanism was involved in the resistance as well. PMID:26503714

  8. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  9. Optimisation of the protocol for detection of Aeromonas species in ready-to-eat salads, and its use to speciate isolates and establish their prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mattick, K L; Donovan, T J

    1998-12-01

    Aeromonas spp. are detected in more than 500 cases of gastrointestinal infection each year in England and Wales. This study aimed to identify their prevalence in ready-to-eat salads, which are a potential source of aeromonas infection. The protocol for isolation of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. from salads was optimised. Using the improved method, Aeromonas spp were isolated from 19 of 25 samples (25 g) of ready-to-eat salad products. Aeromonas organisms were counted, isolates were identified to species level, and the effect of pH on colonisation of salads was assessed. Aeromonas was present at high levels in six salads (> or = 100 cfu/g). The major species present in salads was Aeromonas caviae, but A.hydrophila and A.sobria, which have more pathogenic potential, were also isolated. It is hoped that this study will help to assess the risk to public health of aeromonas in salads. PMID:9854886

  10. The involvement of tetA and tetE tetracycline resistance genes in plasmid and chromosomal resistance of Aeromonas in Brazilian strains.

    PubMed

    Balassiano, Ilana Teruszkin; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire; Madureira, Danielle Jannuzzi; Silva, Iris Gripp da; Freitas-Almeida, Angela Corrêa de; Oliveira, Selma Soares de

    2007-11-01

    This study analyzed the involvement of tetA and tetE genes in the tetracycline resistance of 16 strains of genus Aeromonas, isolated from clinical and food sources. Polymerase chain reactions revealed that 37.5% of the samples were positive for tetA, and also 37.5% were tetE positive. One isolate was positive for both genes. Only the isolate A. caviae 5.2 had its resistance associated to the presence of a plasmid, pSS2. The molecular characterization of pSS2 involved the construction of its restriction map and the determination of its size. The digestion of pSS2 with HindIII originated two fragments (A and B) that were cloned separately into the pUC18 vector. The tetA gene was shown to be located on the HindIII-A fragment by PCR. After transforming a tetracycline-sensitive strain with pSS2, the transformants expressed the resistance phenotype and harbored a plasmid whose size was identical to that of pSS2. The results confirmed the association between pSS2 and the tetracycline resistance phenotype, and suggest a feasible dissemination of tetA and tetE among strains of Aeromonas. This study suggests the spreading tetA and tetE genes in Aeromonas in Brazil and describes a resistance plasmid that probably contributes to the dissemination of the resistance. PMID:18060315

  11. Flagellar apparatus gene sequences of Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flagellar apparatus genes of recent outbreak Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 isolate were sequenced and characterized. Total 28 flagellar genes were identified. The sizes of the genes range from 318 to 2001 nucleotides, which potentially encode different complex flagellar proteins. At nucleotide and...

  12. A Mouse Model for Characterization of Gastrointestinal Colonization Rates Among Environmental Aeromonas Isolates

    EPA Science Inventory

    The colonization rates of ten different environmental isolates of Aeromonas were determined using a novel mouse-streptomycin pre-treatment method. A novel streptomycin pre-treatment prepared animals with a transient alteration in colon flora that allowed colonization by Aeromon...

  13. VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS: A GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DRINKING WATER ISOLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of finished drinking water conducted by the US EPA during 2000-2001, revealed that 8 out of 18 water utilities encompassing several states (NY, KY, IA, OH) were contaminated with aeromonas species. Altogether 205 organisms were isolated by EPA method 1601. All of the ...

  14. Molecular characterization of a functional type VI secretion system from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  15. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophilia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  16. Virulence Diversity among Bacteremic Aeromonas Isolates: Ex Vivo, Animal, and Clinical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lee, Nan-Yao; Lee, Ching-Chi; Li, Chia-Wen; Li, Ming-Chi; Chen, Chi-Chung; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Ou, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chang-Shi; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections. Methodology/Principal Findings Nine of four species of Aeromonas blood isolates, including A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae were randomly selected for analysis. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD. Clinically, the patients with A. dhakensis bacteremia had a higher sepsis-related mortality rate than those with other species (37.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.028). Virulence of different Aeromonas species were tested in C. elegans, mouse fibroblast C2C12 cell line and BALB/c mice models. C. elegans fed with A. dhakensis and A. caviae had the lowest and highest survival rates compared with other species, respectively (all P values <0.0001). A. dhakensis isolates also exhibited more cytotoxicity in C2C12 cell line (all P values <0.0001). Fourteen-day survival rate of mice intramuscularly inoculated with A. dhakensis was lower than that of other species (all P values <0.0001). Hemolytic activity and several virulence factor genes were rarely detected in the A. caviae isolates. Conclusions/Significance Clinical data, ex vivo experiments, and animal studies suggest there is virulence variation among clinically important Aeromonas species. PMID:25375798

  17. Detection of toxigenic strains of Aeromonas species in foods by a multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, K; Murali, H S; Batra, H V

    2010-06-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads are ubiquitous organisms found in meat, vegetables, drinking water and various other food items. They cause diarrhea and extra-intestinal infections in normal and immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of virulence-associated genes of Aeromonas including hemolysin (hlyA), aerolysin (aerA), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyl transferase (GCAT) alongwith a 16S rRNA gene. Internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with aerA primers, was also included in this study. The results showed that all cultures of Aeromonas were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity. A. hydrophila could be detected at a range of 10-50 CFU ml(-1) from experimentally spiked fish, chicken and milk samples following overnight enrichment in alkaline peptone water supplemented with 10 μg/ml ampicillin (APW-A) by this multiplex PCR (mPCR). When evaluated on a total of 74 naturally occurring food samples, four samples were identified to contain Aeromonas by mPCR. All these results were compared to the conventional culture, isolation and biochemical identification procedures. The high throughput and cost-effective mPCR method developed in this study could provide a powerful tool for detection of pathogenic Aeromonas spp. from food and environmental samples and in addition, the method has advantages in terms of specificity, sensitivity and ease of use compared to other reported PCR methods and DNA hybridization assays. PMID:23100820

  18. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  19. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  20. Emerging pathogens: Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Merino, S; Rubires, X; Knochel, S; Tomas, J M

    1995-12-01

    Aeromonas spp. are Gram-negative rods of the family Vibrionaceae. They are normal water inhabitants and are part of the regular flora of poiquilotherm and homeotherm animals. They can be isolated from many foodstuffs (green vegetables, raw milk, ice cream, meat and seafood). Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. have been classified following the AeroKey II system (Altwegg et al., 1990; Carnahan et al., 1991). The major human diseases caused by Aeromonas spp. can be classified in two major groups: septicemia (mainly by strains of A. veronii subsp. sobria and A. hydrophila), and gastroenteritis (any mesophilic Aeromonas spp. but principally A. hydrophila and A. veronii). Most epidemiological studies have shown Aeromonas spp. in stools to be more often associated with diarrhea than with the carrier state; an association with the consumption of untreated water was also conspicuous. Acute self-limited diarrhea is more frequent in young children, in older patients chronic enterocolitis may also be observed. Fever, vomiting, and fecal leukocytes or erythrocytes (colitis) may be present (Janda, 1991). The main putative virulence factors are: exotoxins, endotoxin (LPS), presence of S-layers, fimbriae or adhesins and the capacity to form capsules. PMID:8750664

  1. Isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida from Human Blood Sample: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rachna; Dudeja, Mridu; Nandy, Shyamasree; Das, Ayan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida belonging to the genus Aeromonas, is a common pathogen that causes furunculosis and septicaemia in variety of fishes. It infects cold blooded vertebrates living at low temperatures mainly salmonid fish hence named salmonicida. Untill recently Aeromanas salmonicida is considered to be a fish pathogen. A. salmonicida is considered to be non-pathogenic for humans as it cannot grow at 37ºC. "However, In our laboratory culture plates and broths were incubated twice at 37ºC and each time same type of colonies were isolated which were identified as A. samonicida by Vitek 2 compact system bioMerieux, Inc. (Durham, N.C.)". By far no report has been received regarding its isolation from humans biological sample. Here we present the first report of A. salmonicida isolated from the human blood. PMID:24701507

  2. Complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila occurs in freshwater environments and infects fish and mammals. In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06, which was isolated from diseased goldfish and is being used for comparative genomic studies with A. hydrophila strains causing ba...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  4. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Vibrio, salmonella, and Aeromonas isolates from various uncooked seafoods in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woodring, Joseph; Srijan, Apichai; Puripunyakom, Paksathorn; Oransathid, Wilawan; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Mason, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Uncooked seafood samples were collected from open markets and supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand, and were examined for the presence of Vibrio, Salmonella, and Aeromonas species from January to February 2008. From 120 samples, 272 bacterial isolates were identified through biochemical testing. Of all sea bass, shrimp, oyster, and blood cockle samples (30 of each) that were processed for culture, 114 (95%) samples had at least one detectable isolate of Vibrio, Salmonella, or Aeromonas, leaving only 6 (5%) samples free of them. All oyster sample (100%) had at least one pathogen, followed by sea bass (97%), blood cockles (97%), and shrimp (90%). Overall, 111 (92%) of all samples had detectable Vibrio spp., 32 (27%) had detectable Aeromonas spp., and 25 (21%) had detectable Salmonella enterica. There was no overall difference between positive samples collected from fresh markets versus supermarkets (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05). Resistance to ampicillin among isolated pathogens was relatively high (56%), while resistance to 12 other antibiotics, including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was relatively low (0, 0, and 3%, respectively). Study results indicate that uncooked seafood in Bangkok, Thailand, commonly harbors enteric pathogens and that consumption of uncooked seafood should be avoided to reduce foodborne illnesses. PMID:22221354

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila JBN2301.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wuming; Li, Ningqiu; Li, Ming; Zhang, Defeng; An, Guannan

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most important fish pathogens in China. Here, we report complete genome sequence of a virulent strain, A. hydrophila JBN2301, which was isolated from diseased crucian carp. PMID:26823580

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila JBN2301

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wuming; Li, Ming; Zhang, Defeng; An, Guannan

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most important fish pathogens in China. Here, we report complete genome sequence of a virulent strain, A. hydrophila JBN2301, which was isolated from diseased crucian carp. PMID:26823580

  8. Persistence, Transmission, and Virulence Characteristics of Aeromonas Strains in a Duckweed Aquaculture-Based Hospital Sewage Water Recycling Plant in Bangladesh▿

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Rahman, Motiur; Albert, M. John; Kühn, Inger; Möllby, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The persistence and transmission of Aeromonas in a duckweed aquaculture-based hospital sewage water treatment plant in Bangladesh was studied. A total of 670 samples from different sites of the hospital sewage water treatment plant, from feces of hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea, from environmental control ponds, and from feces of healthy humans were collected over a period of three years. In total, 1,315 presumptive Aeromonas isolates were biochemically typed by the PhenePlate rapid screening system (PhP-AE). A selection of 90 representative isolates was further analyzed with PhenePlate (PhP) extended typing (PhP-48), fatty acid methyl ester analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. In addition, the prevalence of the putative virulence factors hemolysin and cytotoxin and the presence of the cytolytic enterotoxin gene (AHCYTOEN) were analyzed. Aeromonas was found at all sites of the treatment plant, in 40% of the samples from environmental control ponds, in 8.5% of the samples from hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea, and in 3.5% of samples from healthy humans. A significantly high number of Aeromonas bacteria was found in duckweed, which indicates that duckweed may serve as a reservoir for these bacteria. PhP-AE typing allowed identification of more than 192 distinct PhP types, of which 18 major PhP types (MTs) were found in multiple sites and during several occasions. AFLP fingerprinting revealed the prevalence of genotypically indistinguishable Aeromonas isolates among certain PhP MTs recovered from different sampling occasions and/or at multiple sites. Hemolytic and cytotoxic activities were observed in 43% of the tested strains, whereas 29% possessed the cytolytic enterotoxin gene AHCYTOEN. Collectively, two specific MTs associated with diarrhea were shown to exhibit high cytotoxicity. Furthermore, all tested isolates of these major types were positive for the cytolytic enterotoxin gene. In conclusion

  9. Characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Liezl; Chenia, Hafizah Y

    2007-03-20

    An increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst Aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. This can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 Aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. The plasmid content of each isolate was examined using the alkaline lysis protocol. Tet determinant type was determined by amplification using two degenerate primer sets and subsequent HaeIII restriction. The presence of integrons was determined by PCR amplification of three integrase genes, as well as gene cassettes, and the qacEDelta1-sulI region. Thirty-seven Aeromonas spp. isolates were differentiated into six species by aroA PCR-RFLP, i.e., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila, A. encheleia, A. ichtiosoma, A. salmonicida, and A. media. High levels of resistance to tetracycline (78.3%), amoxicillin (89.2%), and augmentin (86.5%) were observed. Decreased susceptibility to erythromycin was observed for 67.6% of isolates. Although 45.9% of isolates displayed nalidixic acid resistance, majority of isolates were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones. The MAR index ranged from 0.12 to 0.59, with majority of isolates indicating high-risk contamination originating from humans or animals where antibiotics are often used. Plasmids were detected in 21 isolates, with 14 of the isolates displaying multiple plasmid profiles. Single and multiple class A family Tet determinants were observed in 27% and 48.7% of isolates, respectively, with Tet A being the most prevalent Tet determinant type. Class 1 integron and related structures were amplified and carried different combinations of the antibiotic resistance gene cassettes ant(3'')Ia, aac(6')Ia, dhfr1, oxa2a and/or pse1. Class 2 integrons were also amplified, but the

  10. Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Chenia, Hafizah Yousuf

    2016-08-16

    An increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp., which are both fish and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. Quinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolates are increasingly being observed in clinical and environmental settings, and this has been attributed primarily to target gene alterations, efflux, and transferable quinolone resistance. Thirty-four Aeromonas spp., obtained from freshwater aquaculture systems, were screened for the presence of GyrA and ParC substitutions, efflux activity and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac-6'-Ib-cr. Although 44% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, the majority were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The predominant GyrA substitution was Ser-83→Val among Aeromonas veronii isolates whilst Aeromonas hydrophila isolates displayed a Ser-83→Ile substitution, and Ser-80→Ile substitutions were observed in ParC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluoro(quinolones) were determined in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Addition of PAβN had no effect on the levels of fluoro(quinolone) resistance observed for these isolates. Although no aac-6'-Ib-cr variant genes were identified, qnrB and qnrS were detected for 41% and 24% of isolates, respectively, by Southern hybridization and confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Quinolone resistance in these fish-associated Aeromonas isolates was related to mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions of GyrA and ParC and presence of qnrB and qnrS. The presence of qnr alleles in Aeromonas spp. isolates may facilitate high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and potentially serve as reservoirs for the dissemination of qnr genes to other aquatic microbes. PMID:27180024

  11. Antagonistic Activity of Cellular Components of Potential Probiotic Bacteria, Isolated from the Gut of Labeo rohita, Against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Sen, Shib Sankar; Vinumonia, J; Banu, B Nazeema; Jena, Prasant Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the antagonistic activity of cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from the gut of healthy rohu (Labeo rohita), a tropical freshwater fish, against the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Three potential probiotic strains (referred to as R1, R2, and R5) were screened using a well diffusion, and their antagonistic activity against A. hydrophila was determined. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed that R1, R2, and R5 were Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Bacillus subtilis VSG1, respectively. Four different fractions of cellular components (i.e. the whole-cell product, heat-killed whole-cell product [HKWCP], intracellular product [ICP], and extracellular product) of these selected strains were effective in an in vitro sensitivity test against 6 A. hydrophila strains. Among the cellular components, the ICP of R1, HKWCP of R2, and ICP of R5 exhibited the strongest antagonistic activities, as evidenced by their inhibition zones. The antimicrobial compounds from these selected cellular components were partially purified by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their properties were analysed. The ranges of pH stability of the purified compounds were wide (3.0-10.0), and compounds were thermally stable up to 90 °C. Considering these results, isolated probiotic strains may find potential applications in the prevention and treatment of aquatic aeromonosis. PMID:26781682

  12. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Goodwin, Andrew E; Merry, Gwenn E; Liles, Mark R; Williams, Malachi A; Ware, Cynthia; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2013-07-01

    A new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila has been implicated in significant losses in farm-raised catfish. Outbreaks attributable to this new strain began in Alabama in the summer of 2009 and have spread to Arkansas and Mississippi in subsequent years. These outbreaks mostly afflicted market-sized fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods of time. The present research was designed to develop an expeditious diagnostic procedure to detect the new strains of A. hydrophila due to the rapid onset and biosecurity concerns associated with this new disease. A discriminatory quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed using gene sequences unique to the virulent strains identified in a related comparative genomic study. Using this assay, suspect colonies on a culture plate can be positively identified as the new strain within 2 hr. The assay is repeatable and reproducible with a linear dynamic range covering 8 orders of magnitude and a sensitivity of approximately 7 copies of target DNA in a 15-µl reaction. In addition, the assay is able to detect and quantify the virulent strain from catfish tissues (0.025 g), pond water (40 ml), and sediments (0.25 g) with a sensitivity limit of approximately 100 bacteria in a sample. This assay provides rapid discrimination between the new virulent strain and more common A. hydrophila and is useful for epidemiological studies involving the detection and quantification of the virulent strain in environmental samples and fish tissues. PMID:23847227

  13. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from disease channel catfish from West Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 was cultured from infected channel catfish during the 2009 disease outbreak in West Alabama. The complete genome of this highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp in size. The genome has 4489 coding sequences, 11 cop...

  14. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  15. Insights into the Quorum-Sensing Activity in Aeromonas hydrophila Strain M013 as Revealed by Whole-Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila species can be found in warm climates and can survive in different environments. They possess the ability to communicate within their populations, which is known as quorum sensing. In this work, we present the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila M013, a bacterium isolated from a Malaysian tropical rainforest waterfall. PMID:25555739

  16. Distribution and phenotypic and genotypic detection of a metallo-β-lactamase, CphA, among bacteraemic Aeromonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Chin-Chi; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chiu, Yen-Cheng; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the distribution of cphA-related genes (cphA) encoding a CphA metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) among 51 consecutive Aeromonas blood isolates and to compare different phenotypic methods for detecting CphA. The presence of cphA was detected by PCR. Four phenotypic methods, the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test, imipenem-EDTA MBL Etest, agar dilution test and modified Hodge test (MHT), were used to detect imipenem susceptibility and MBL production. The results showed that 35 (69%) blood isolates had cphA. All (100%) of 16 Aeromonas aquariorum isolates and 12 Aeromonas veronii isolates, and 4 (80%) of 5 Aeromonas hydrophila isolates, carried cphA, but none of 15 Aeromonas caviae isolates did. With the standard inocula, irrespective of the presence or absence of cphA, all but one (50, 98%) isolates were susceptible to imipenem tested by disc diffusion, Etest and agar dilution (10(4) c.f.u. spot inocula), and did not exhibit MBL production by the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test and MBL Etest. By the agar dilution test using large inocula (10(7) c.f.u.), 34 (97%) of 35 cphA(+) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≥16 µg ml(-1), higher than the susceptible breakpoint (4 µg ml(-1)), and demonstrated positive results for the MHT, while one cphA(+) and all 17 cphA(-) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≤4 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, the distribution of cphA among aeromonads is species-specific, found in A. aquariorum, A. veronii and A. hydrophila, and the MHT may be a phenotypic screening test for CphA production. PMID:22322339

  17. Temperate bacteriophage {phi}O18P from an Aeromonas media isolate: Characterization and complete genome sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Beilstein, Frauke

    2008-03-30

    A group of 74 Aeromonas isolates from surface water of three ponds in Bielefeld, Germany was screened for prophage induction after UV irradiation. The phage {phi}O18P was induced from the Aeromonas media isolate O18. {phi}O18P belongs to the Myoviridae phage family. The complete nucleotide sequence of the double stranded DNA genome of bacteriophage {phi}O18P consists of 33,985 bp. The genome has 5' protruding cohesive ends of 16 bases. On the {phi}O18P genome 46 open reading frames (orfs) were identified which are organized in the modules integration and regulation, replication, head, packaging, tail and lysis. Additionally the phage DNA includes a methylase gene. Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from different food sources: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic aquatic pathogen. A. hydrophila produces virulence factors, such as hemolysins, aerolysins, adhesins, enterotoxins, phospholipase and lipase. In addition to isolation from aquatic sources, A. hydrophila has been isolated from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and vegetables. However, various studies showed that this opportunistic pathogen is resistant to commercial antibiotics. This is attributed to factors such as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in aquaculture, plasmids or horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we highlight the occurrence, prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila isolated from different food samples. The presence of antimicrobial-resistant A. hydrophila in food poses threats to public and aquatic animal health. PMID:26588876

  19. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Obi, Lawrence C.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2%) were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%), moderate producers (15.56%), and strong producers (28.9%). This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. PMID:24187658

  20. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  1. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  2. Congo red uptake by motile Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Statner, B; George, W L

    1987-05-01

    Virulence of several species of enteropathogenic bacteria has been correlated with the ability of isolates to take up the dye Congo red. To determine whether Congo red uptake might be a useful marker for virulence of motile Aeromonas species, we examined 50 strains of diverse clinical origin on a medium containing 50 micrograms of Congo red per ml. All of the strains took up the dye to various degrees. For most strains, uptake was greatest at 37 degrees C and least at 22 degrees C. Production of acetyl methyl carbinol (Voges-Proskauer test) or lysine decarboxylase has been reported by some investigators to be a virulence marker for Aeromonas species. Congo red uptake did not correlate with either acetyl methyl carbinol or lysine decarboxylase production in our study. These data suggest that Congo red uptake may not be a useful marker for virulence of motile Aeromonas species. PMID:3584422

  3. Incidence and identification of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. from retail foods.

    PubMed

    Neyts, K; Huys, G; Uyttendaele, M; Swings, J; Debevere, J

    2000-11-01

    Sixty-eight food samples were examined for the presence of mesophilic Aeromonas species both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aeromonads were isolated from 26% of the vegetable samples, 70% of the meat and poultry samples and 72% of the fish and shrimps. Numbers of motile aeromonads present in the food samples varied from <10(2) cfu g(-1) to >10(5) cfu g(-1). GLC analysis of FAMEs was used to identify a selection of presumptive Aeromonas colonies to fenospecies or genomic species level. Aeromonas strains belonging to the Aer. caviae complex, which also includes the potentially pathogenic genospecies HG4, were mostly isolated from vegetables but were also found in meat, poultry and fish. In addition, three strains of the virulent taxon Aer. veronii biovar sobria HG8 were isolated from poultry and minced meat. All members of the Aer. hydrophila complex, predominant in the fish, meat and poultry samples, were classified in the non-virulent taxon HG3. Although the significance of Aeromonas in foods remains undefined, the isolation of Aeromonas HG4 and HG8 strains from a variety of retail foods may indicate that these products can act as possible vehicles for the dissemination of food-borne Aeromonas gastroenteritis. PMID:11069637

  4. Comparative genomics of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from an epidemic in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Aeromonas hydrophila was identified as the etiologic agent infecting farmed channel catfish in 2009/2010, resulting in higher mortality rates than typical for motile Aeromonas septicemia with over 5 million pounds of catfish lost to this outbreak. The biochemistry, molecular phylogeny, an...

  5. [Prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in surface water].

    PubMed

    Hernández, P; Rodríguez de García, R

    1997-03-01

    Some Aeromonas strains are well recognized enteropathogens according to microbiological, clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence. The main source of infection seems to be untreated water, these microorganisms can be found in virtually all aquatic environments. Additionally, some Aeromonas, which include enterotoxigenic strains, are capable of rapid growth at 5 degrees C and even of producing toxins. Vegetable products irrigated with contaminated water may reach critical Aeromonas levels after being kept under refrigeration, this could represent a public health risk when they are consumed as uncooked salads. This study was pursued to evaluate such risk. Surface water samples were streaked on starch ampicillin and inositol-brilliant green-bile salts agar dishes. In addition, 100 ml of each sample were filtered through a 0.45 micron Millipore membrane filter. The filters were incubated on alkaline peptone water as enrichment media during 24 h at 35 degrees C. Enrichment broth was then streaked on the selective agars above mentioned. Isolates from both tests were identified using the API 20 E System. The prevalence of Aeromonas strains in the analyzed samples was 17.8%. A higher isolation rate was observed after the enrichment technique. Starch ampicillin agar showed a higher recuperation rate. A Veronii biotype sobria (formerly A. sobria) was isolated with higher frequency. Since this species has been associated with the greatest virulence, the use of contaminated water to irrigate vegetable products that are to be kept under refrigeration and consumed without ulterior cooking may represent a risk to the public health. PMID:9429640

  6. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C.; Sha, Jian; Wang, Shaofei; Erova, Tatiana E.; Fadl, Amin A.; Foltz, Sheri M.; Horneman, Amy J.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2008-01-01

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)- associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila infections was subsequently delineated in in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, we characterized the new type 6 secretion system (T6SS) from isolate SSU of A. hydrophila and demonstrated its role in bacterial virulence. Study of the role of T6SS in bacterial virulence is in its infancy, and there are, accordingly, only limited, recent reports directed toward a better understanding its role in bacterial pathogenesis. We have provided evidence that the virulence-associated secretion (vas) genes vasH (Sigma 54-dependent transcriptional regulator) and vasK (encoding protein of unknown function) are essential for expression of the genes encoding the T6SS and/or they constituted important components of the T6SS. Deletion of the vasH gene prevented expression of the potential translocon hemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) encoding gene from bacteria, while the vasK gene deletion prevented secretion but not translocation of Hcp into host cells. The secretion of Hcp was independent of the T3SS and the flagellar system. We demonstrated that secreted Hcp could bind to the murine RAW 264.7 macrophages from outside, in addition to its ability to be translocated into host cells. Further, the vasH and vasK mutants were less toxic to murine macrophages and human epithelial HeLa cells, and these mutants were more efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages. We also provided evidence that the expression of the hcp gene in the HeLa cell resulted in apoptosis of the host cells. Finally, the vasH and vasK mutants of A. hydrophila were less virulent in a septicemic mouse model of infection, and animals immunized with recombinant Hcp were protected from subsequent challenge with the wild-type (WT

  7. Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Valdespino, Abigail; Fernández-Rendón, Elizabeth; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo

    2009-12-01

    We determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in Aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. Species were identified as A. caviae, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. media using PCR-RFLP of the 16S rDNA. Selected isolates were further characterized by ERIC-PCR. Resistance to chloramphenicol, aztreonam, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, among others, was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method. Integrons were detected by PCR amplification of the 5' conserved, variable, and 3' conserved regions. Sequencing of the variable regions revealed class 1 integrons with cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA15, dfrB4), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA2, aadA1), oxacillin (oxa2) and chloramphenicol (catB3, cmlA4). Others had an open reading frame (orfD) or no insert at all. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of genes cmlA4 and dfrA15 in Aeromonas class 1 integrons. Not all the integron-linked cassettes conferred their associated resistances, which suggests the inactivity of some cassettes. Most integrons were chromosomally located. The presence of class 1 integrons similar to those found in a wide variety of bacterial genera from different origins, including environmental and fish-borne Aeromonas, confirms the stability and horizontal transfer of these genetic elements. PMID:19810047

  8. Aeromonas detection and characterization using genus-specific PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).

    PubMed

    Delamare, Ana Paula Longaray; Lucena, Roberto Francisco; Thomazi, Guilherme; Ferrarini, Shana; Zacaria, Jucimar; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Based on sequence alignment, oligonucleotide primers targeting the Aeromonas extracellular lipase gene were developed for PCR detection of member of the genus. A pair of primers designed for conserved regions of the gene amplified a 276 bp sequence in all Aeromonas species and tested strains, but did not have a positive result with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, showing high specificity and sensitivity. Selective enrichment in alkaline peptone water, followed by centrifugation, and direct usage of cells suspension as template, detected initial populations of 10 c.f.u. ml⁻¹. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the PCR products allowed the characterization of Aeromonas strains with a high discriminatory power (Simpson's index = 0.988). The method presented here provides a useful tool for the rapid detection of Aeromonas and the characterization of Aeromonas isolates. PMID:22806741

  9. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José

    2013-10-25

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed. PMID:23890674

  10. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods in Italy.

    PubMed

    Villari, P; Crispino, M; Montuori, P; Stanzione, S

    2000-12-01

    A survey was carried out in Italy to ascertain the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods (vegetables, cheeses, meat products, and ice creams) and the level of molecular heterogeneity of the isolates found by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 46 (14.4%) of the 320 food samples examined were found positive for Aeromonas spp. The highest percentages of isolation were discovered in vegetables, particularly lettuce (45.0%), endive (40.0%), and rucola (20.0%). Ricotta was the only cheese type analyzed that showed a high frequency of isolation (45.0%). Among meat products, salami and raw ham (25.0% of samples positive) and, to a lesser extent, baloney (5.0%) were found positive for Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most common isolate from foods of animal origin, whereas Aeromonas caviae was the dominant species in vegetables. No motile aeromonads were found in ice cream samples. Aeromonas isolates showed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, because 24 PFGE patterns were identified among 27 A. hydrophila strains and 20 PFGE patterns were found in 23 A. caviae isolates. In conclusion, consumers of ready-to-eat foods in Italy are regularly exposed to many genetically distinct strains of A. hydrophila and A. caviae without evident signs of malaise, and therefore, few of these strains, if any, are likely to be pathogenic. PMID:11131903

  12. Medicinal leech therapy and Aeromonas spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Verriere, B; Sabatier, B; Carbonnelle, E; Mainardi, J L; Prognon, P; Whitaker, I; Lantieri, L; Hivelin, M

    2016-06-01

    While the use of medicinal leech therapy (MLT) in reconstructive and orthopaedic surgery is widely described, post-operative complications related to leeches remain a major concern. Aeromonas spp. strains are involved in the majority of reported cases. As surgical success rate is directly impacted, an adapted antibiotic prophylaxis should be instituted in order to minimize these complications. We assessed pharmaceutical process, microbiological control and related infections in order to provide data and choose the appropriate antibiotherapy for patients requiring MLT. We report a clinical and microbiological study over a 24-month period. Clinical data were collected from patients' database, and microbiological analysis both on leeches' tank water and crushed leeches were performed to characterize isolated strains and their susceptibility to antibiotics. A total of 595 leeches were used to treat 28 patients (12 in plastic surgery and 16 in orthopaedic surgery), and three documented cases of post-operative infections were reported. Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 62 % of analyzed batches (75 % of Aeromonas veronii). Eighteen Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 23 water samples and three crushed leeches. Isolates were similar in tank and crushed leeches. Strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, aminosides, and third-generation cephalosporins but resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and second-generation cephalosporins. According to collected data, routine tank water microbiological analyses are mandatory in order to identify leeches' batches containing resistant strains and to discard them. In this context, the surgeon is able to select an appropriated antibiotic prophylaxis in order to avoid MLT associated serious post-operative complications. PMID:27039338

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen residing in freshwater environments that causes infection in fish and mammals. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila strain TN97-08 isolated from a diseased bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in 1997. PMID:27231367

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08.

    PubMed

    Tekedar, Hasan C; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Liles, Mark R; Griffin, Matt J; Lawrence, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen residing in freshwater environments that causes infection in fish and mammals. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila strain TN97-08 isolated from a diseased bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in 1997. PMID:27231367

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the novobiocin and rifampicin resistant Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine strain AL09-71 N+R compared to its virulent parent strain AL90-71

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the fitness cost of novobiocin- and rifampicin- resistance in an attenuated Aeromonas hydrophiila vaccine strain AL09-71 N+R compared to its virulent parent strain AL09-71, colony size, cell size, cell proliferation rate, chemotactic response, and the ability to invade catfish gill cel...

  16. Identification of gyrB and rpoB gene mutations and differentially expressed proteins between a novobiocin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila catfish vaccine strain and its virulent parent strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequence comparison between the full-length 2412 bp DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene of a novobiocin resistant Aeromonas hydrophila AH11NOVO vaccine strain and that of its virulent parent strain AH11P revealed 10 missense mutations. Similarly, sequence comparison between the full-length 4092 bp RNA ...

  17. Clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii harbor a nonfunctional gene similar to the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Pendru; Maiti, Biswajit; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2010-06-01

    Thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin encoded by the trh gene is considered a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. In this study, we report the presence of a trh homolog in three clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii. The presence of a trh homolog in these strains of A. veronii was confirmed by PCR, followed by cloning, sequencing and colony hybridization using a digoxigenin-labelled probe. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the A. veronii trh gene had an identity of 99% and 84% to the trh1 and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. However, the expression of a trh-like gene in A. veronii could not be detected by reverse transcription PCR. Hence, the role of the gene product in the virulence of A. veronii strains is not clear. Further, these A. veronii isolates were negative for the ure gene encoding urease and the transposase gene by PCR. These genes are part of the trh gene cluster in V. parahaemolyticus. However, the presence of a trh homolog in a pathogen other than V. parahaemolyticus points to the fact that detection of the trh gene in stool samples, seafood enrichments or environmental samples does not always imply that trh-carrying V. parahaemolyticus are present. PMID:20636974

  18. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?

    PubMed

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises ubiquitous bacteria that are known to play several roles in the environment. These bacteria were first described as fish pathogens, but their presence was documented in other reservoirs, such as animals and humans. Today, these bacteria are described as emerging pathogens, but their effective role in human pathogenicity is still controversial. In addition, their taxonomy is heavily debated, as species distinction is often difficult to achieve. To study the interspecies relationships and to investigate their connection with the environment, a multilocus sequence typing scheme previously developed for Aeromonas spp. was applied to 258 strains, and the genetic data were analysed by population software. Sampling was a fundamental step, including several of the main sources of Aeromonas: fish, food products and human cases of disease. The objective was to characterize the isolates and to find potential associations among them according to the following: species, sharing of virulence factors, source and adaptation to a specific habitat. The strains were characterized and demonstrated exceptionally high nucleotide variability in the Aeromonas genus. Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats. PMID:23919504

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila surveillance 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was associated with severly acute to chronic mortality in catfish ponds in Alabama. This strain of A. hydrophila had not been previously identified in AL catfish. The objectives of this presentation are to 1) present a summary of the biology of Aero...

  20. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:17136367

  1. Cross-talk among flesh-eating Aeromonas hydrophila strains in mixed infection leading to necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Azar, Sasha R; Fitts, Eric C; Kirtley, Michelle L; Tiner, Bethany L; Andersson, Jourdan A; Grim, Christopher J; Isom, Richard P; Hasan, Nur A; Colwell, Rita R; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-01-19

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by flesh-eating bacteria is associated with high case fatality. In an earlier study, we reported infection of an immunocompetent individual with multiple strains of Aeromonas hydrophila (NF1-NF4), the latter three constituted a clonal group whereas NF1 was phylogenetically distinct. To understand the complex interactions of these strains in NF pathophysiology, a mouse model was used, whereby either single or mixed A. hydrophila strains were injected intramuscularly. NF2, which harbors exotoxin A (exoA) gene, was highly virulent when injected alone, but its virulence was attenuated in the presence of NF1 (exoA-minus). NF1 alone, although not lethal to animals, became highly virulent when combined with NF2, its virulence augmented by cis-exoA expression when injected alone in mice. Based on metagenomics and microbiological analyses, it was found that, in mixed infection, NF1 selectively disseminated to mouse peripheral organs, whereas the other strains (NF2, NF3, and NF4) were confined to the injection site and eventually cleared. In vitro studies showed NF2 to be more effectively phagocytized and killed by macrophages than NF1. NF1 inhibited growth of NF2 on solid media, but ExoA of NF2 augmented virulence of NF1 and the presence of NF1 facilitated clearance of NF2 from animals either by enhanced priming of host immune system or direct killing via a contact-dependent mechanism. PMID:26733683

  2. Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Capdepuy, Michèle; Arpin, Corinne; Raymond, Nathalie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the Aeromonas strains (72%) and many of the Enterobacteriaceae (20%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. Singly nalidixic acid-resistant strains were frequent regardless of the sampling site for Aeromonas, whereas they were more common upstream from the discharge for enterobacteria. The most common resistances to antibiotics other than quinolones were to tetracycline (24.3%) and beta-lactams (20.5%) for Enterobacteriaceae and to tetracycline (27.5%) and co-trimoxazole (26.6%) for Aeromonas. The rates of these antibiotic resistances increased downstream from the discharge at similar degrees for the two bacterial groups; it remained at high levels for enterobacteria but decreased along the 30-km study zone for Aeromonas. Genetic analysis of representative strains demonstrated that these resistances were mostly (enterobacteria) or exclusively (Aeromonas) chromosomally mediated. Moreover, a reference strain of Aeromonas caviae (CIP 7616) could not be transformed with conjugative R plasmids of enterobacteria. Thus, the urban effluent resulted in an increase of the rates of resistance to antibiotics other than quinolones in the riverine bacterial populations, despite limited genetic exchanges between enterobacteria and Aeromonas. Quinolone resistance probably was selected by heavy antibiotic discharges of unknown origin upstream from the urban effluent. PMID:10618213

  3. Polar Glycosylated and Lateral Non-Glycosylated Flagella from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Kelly M; Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Twine, Susan M; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11) were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues) were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin. Complementation was achieved by reintroduction of the wild-type pseB and pseI. We compared two pathogenic features (adhesion to eukaryotic cells and biofilm production) between the wild-type strain and two kinds of mutants: mutants lacking polar flagella glycosylation and lacking the O11-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. Results suggest that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila AH-1 adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. In addition, we show the importance of the polar flagella glycosylation for immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll-"like" receptor 5 (TLR5). PMID:26633358

  4. Polar Glycosylated and Lateral Non-Glycosylated Flagella from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Kelly M.; Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Twine, Susan M.; Tomás, Juan M.; Merino, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11) were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues) were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin. Complementation was achieved by reintroduction of the wild-type pseB and pseI. We compared two pathogenic features (adhesion to eukaryotic cells and biofilm production) between the wild-type strain and two kinds of mutants: mutants lacking polar flagella glycosylation and lacking the O11-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. Results suggest that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila AH-1 adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. In addition, we show the importance of the polar flagella glycosylation for immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll-“like” receptor 5 (TLR5). PMID:26633358

  5. Multiplex PCR method for detection of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes.

    PubMed

    Kingombe, Cesar I Bin; D'Aoust, Jean-Yves; Huys, Geert; Hofmann, Lisa; Rao, Mary; Kwan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. This assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. A total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. The alt gene was detected with 34 reference strains (97%) and occurred singly in 14% of these strains. The frequency of occurrence of the act/alt, act/alt/ast, and alt/ast gene patterns in reference strains was 14 (40%), 2 (6%), and 2 (6%), respectively. An unpredicted amplicon was detected in 11 reference strains (31%). Characterization of this amplicon showed that its size was 148 bp, as generated by the AHLF and AHLR primers, and that it uniquely aligned with the Aeromonas salmonicida A449 genome sequence (GenBank accession number CP000644). This amplicon was named Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida hypothetical protein amplicon (AssHPA). In the 537 food-borne isolates, the act and alt genes were most dominant and were detected in 349 (65%) and 452 (84%) isolates, respectively, either alone or in combinations. The act and alt genes occurred singly in 30 (6%) and 128 (24%) of these strains, respectively. The act/alt gene pattern occurred in 315 isolates (59%), whereas the ast gene was always linked to strains exhibiting the act/alt/ast and alt/ast gene combinations in 4 (0.7%) and 5 (0.9%) isolates, respectively. The uniplex amplification of three enterotoxin genes separately confirms the specificity of the unique selected primers. This multiplex PCR is rapid and simple and can detect the presence of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes in a single assay. PMID:19933350

  6. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, J.S.G.; Trust, T.J.

    1988-02-01

    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase /sup 125/I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to /sup 125/I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein.

  7. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A recent epidemic outbreak of motile Aeromonas septicemia of catfish caused by highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila is a major threat to the catfish industry in the southeastern United States. The lack of a complete genome sequence for this newly emerged A. hydrophila genotype hampers ef...

  8. Characterization of Aeromonas caviae antigens which cross-react with Shigella boydii 5.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M J; Qadri, F; Ansaruzzaman, M; Kibriya, A K; Haider, K; Neogi, P K; Alam, K; Alam, A N

    1992-01-01

    Live and boiled cells of 16 strains of Aeromonas caviae, isolated from patients with diarrhea, agglutinated with Shigella boydii 5 antiserum in a slide test. Further studies with seven selected strains showed agglutination with boiled cells in a tube test. Lipopolysaccharide antigen extracted from one of these strains cross-reacted with S. boydii 5 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot studies. Either all or the majority of the seven strains possessed properties deemed to be diarrheagenic. Images PMID:1583145

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Aeromonas Upstream and Downstream of a Water Resource Recovery Facility

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Samantha K.; Askew, Maegan L.; Risenhoover, Hollie G.; McAndrews, Chrystle R.; Kennedy, S. Dawn; Paine, C. Sue

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas strains isolated from sediments upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) over a two-year time period were tested for susceptibility to thirteen antibiotics. Incidence of resistance to antibiotics, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and diversity (based on resistance phenotypes) were compared in the two populations. At the beginning of the study, the upstream and downstream Aeromonas populations were different for incidence of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.01), resistance phenotypes (p < 0.005), and diversity. However, these differences declined over time and were not significant at the end of the study. These results (1) indicate that antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in stream sediments fluctuates considerably over time and (2) suggest that WRRF effluent does not, when examined over the long term, affect antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in downstream sediment. PMID:25327024

  10. Strain Variation in Mycobacterium marinum Fish Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ucko, M.; Colorni, A.; Kvitt, H.; Diamant, A.; Zlotkin, A.; Knibb, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    A molecular characterization of two Mycobacterium marinum genes, 16S rRNA and hsp65, was carried out with a total of 21 isolates from various species of fish from both marine and freshwater environments of Israel, Europe, and the Far East. The nucleotide sequences of both genes revealed that all M. marinum isolates from fish in Israel belonged to two different strains, one infecting marine (cultured and wild) fish and the other infecting freshwater (cultured) fish. A restriction enzyme map based on the nucleotide sequences of both genes confirmed the divergence of the Israeli marine isolates from the freshwater isolates and differentiated the Israeli isolates from the foreign isolates, with the exception of one of three Greek isolates from marine fish which was identical to the Israeli marine isolates. The second isolate from Greece exhibited a single base alteration in the 16S rRNA sequence, whereas the third isolate was most likely a new Mycobacterium species. Isolates from Denmark and Thailand shared high sequence homology to complete identity with reference strain ATCC 927. Combined analysis of the two gene sequences increased the detection of intraspecific variations and was thus of importance in studying the taxonomy and epidemiology of this aquatic pathogen. Whether the Israeli M. marinum strain infecting marine fish is endemic to the Red Sea and found extremely susceptible hosts in the exotic species imported for aquaculture or rather was accidentally introduced with occasional imports of fingerlings from the Mediterranean Sea could not be determined. PMID:12406715

  11. Isolation of potential probiotic Bacillus spp. and assessment of their subcellular components to induce immune responses in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Vinothkanna, Annadurai; Rai, Amit Kumar; Vignesh, Venkada Subramanian

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus species isolated from the gut of healthy Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were screened for antibacterial activity against selected fish pathogens. Among the isolates, KADR5 and KADR6 showed antibacterial activity, tolerated low pH and high bile concentrations and were susceptibility to various antibiotics. Based on morphological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis the probiotic strains KADR5 and KADR6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, respectively. The immune stimulatory effect of subcellular components of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis KADR5 and Bacillus pumilus KADR6 in L. rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was studied. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally in case of subcellular components [cell wall proteins (CWPs), extracellular proteins (ECPs), whole cell proteins (WCPs)] and orally in case of live cells (10(8) CFU/g of feed). After 14th day of administration, fishes from each group were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of A. hydrophila cell suspension in PBS (10(5) cells ml(-1)). Groups immunized with subcellular components and live cells had significantly lower mortalities of 20-40% and 23-33%, respectively in comparison to control (80% mortality). The non specific immune factors in the cellular components and viable cells of the probiotics increased the expression of lysozyme and respiratory burst. Use of WCPs and CWPs resulted in better protection against A. hydrophila in L. rohita. Our results clearly reflect the potential of cellular components of the probiotics Bacillus species for the protection of fish against A. hydrophila infection by enhancing the immune response. PMID:25917974

  12. Molecular characterization of a novobiocin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila catfish vaccine strain compared to its virulent parent strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 10 and 13 missense mutations were found in the deduced gyrB and rpoB proteins, respectively, between avirulent AH11NOVO vaccine strain and its virulent parent strain AH11P. SDS-PAGE revealed that six proteins bands were significantly over-expressed in AH11NOVO whereas five bands were sign...

  13. Molecular characterization of a novobiocin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila catfish vaccine strain compared to its virulent parent strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 10 and 13 missense mutations were found in the deduced GyrB and RpoB proteins, respectively, between avirulent AH11NOVO vaccine strain and its virulent parent strain AH11P. SDS-PAGE revealed that six proteins bands were significantly over-expressed in AH11NOVO whereas five bands were sign...

  14. Exposure to pairs of Aeromonas strains enhances virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonad virulence remains poorly understood, and is difficult to predict from strain characteristics. In addition, infections are often polymicrobial (i.e., are mixed infections), and 5 -10% of such infections include two distinct aeromonads, which has an unknown impact on virulence. In this work,...

  15. Production of Shiga-like toxin among Escherichia coli strains and other bacteria isolated from diarrhea in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldi, R; Guth, B E; Trabulsi, L R

    1990-01-01

    An elevated level of Shiga-like toxin I (SLT-I) production was found in 1 of 466 Escherichia coli strains studied. Among the 34 sonic lysates obtained from classical enteropathogenic E. coli, 5 produced SLT-I. The Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, Yersinia, and Vibrio strains also studied were not SLT producers, except for a Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strain. Although SLT-I-producing E. coli strains were isolated from diarrhea, they seem to be an uncommon cause of disease in children less than 1 year old in our community. PMID:2199511

  16. Chemotaxis towards, adhesion to, and growth in carp gut mucus of two Aeromonas hydrophila strains with different pathogenicity for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, M; Schroers, V; Neuhaus, H; Steinhagen, D

    2008-05-01

    Characteristics that promote bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosal surface were examined in two strains of the common fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, with different pathogenicity. The characteristics examined were chemotactic activity towards mucus, bacterial adherence to mucus and growth in mucus. Intestinal gut mucus of healthy common carp was used. The results indicate that chemotaxis is not necessary for a bacterium to become pathogenic, but it may be a necessary parameter for a bacterium to be an obligate pathogen. Adhesion also seems to be a factor influencing pathogenicity. The results suggest that higher adhesion to mucus and subsequent growth is associated with differences in pathogenicity. PMID:18355183

  17. An in-house multiplex pcr method to detect of putative virulence factors in aeromonas species

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Arreola, Ma. Guadalupe; Martínez, Alma Aidee Carmona; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    A pentaplex PCR was developed and optimised to detect the genes that encode the five most important putative virulence factors in Aeromonas isolates. It seems to be more efficient than previously reported techniques and promises to be a powerful tool for more accurate risk assessments and for monitoring pathogenic strains. PMID:24031758

  18. The usefulness of molecular techniques to assess the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in foods.

    PubMed

    Bin Kingombe, César I; Huys, Geert; Howald, Denise; Luthi, Elisabeth; Swings, Jean; Jemmi, Thomas

    2004-07-15

    A total of 78 raw and 123 processed and ready-to-eat retail food samples were used to assess the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence genes (cytotoxic enterotoxin and hemolysin genes) using a recently described PCR method in comparison with the conventional cultivation method based on the use of Ampicillin-Dextrin Agar (ADA) medium. With the ADA-based method, 65/201 (32.3%) samples showed presumptive Aeromonas spp. colonies whereas the PCR method revealed the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring the targeted virulence genes in 51/201 (25.4%) of the tested samples. The rate of contaminated samples and the presence of pathogenic Aeromonas were significantly lower with both methods for processed than in case of raw samples. A polyphasic identification approach including biochemical and molecular techniques was applied to a selection of 34 PCR-positive presumptive Aeromonas isolates. Following fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, a total of 33 isolates (97%) could be identified to the DNA hybridization group (HG) level. The majority of these isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila HG3 (50%) and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (HG8/10) (38%). Molecular characterization of PCR amplicons obtained from these strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) fingerprinting and PCR-Amplicon Sequence Analysis (PCR-ASA) allowed classification of all strains in a known PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA type. In conclusion, the current findings demonstrate that the combined use of PCR-based virulence marker detection, PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA offers a rapid, sensitive, and specific system to assess the presence and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in food samples. PMID:15193799

  19. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    PubMed

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH. PMID:25984772

  20. Identification of unique DNA sequences present in highly virulent 2009 Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, a disease outbreak caused by A. hydrophila occurred in 48 catfish farms in West Alabama, causing an estimated loss of more than 3 million pounds of food size channel catfish. Virulence studies have revealed that the 2009 isolates of A. hydrophila are at least 200-fold more virulent than a 1...

  1. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  2. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF SIX VIRULENCE FACTORS IN AEROMONAS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM US DRINKING WATER UTILITIES: A PCR IDENTIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of finished drinking water conducted by the U.S. EPA during 2000-2001, revealed 7 out of 16 water utilities encompassing four states, were contaminated with Aeromonas species. A Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) based genetic characterization determined the presence of six...

  4. Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as food- and waterborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wadström, T; Ljungh, A

    1991-04-01

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas have become increasingly recognized as human enteropathogens. Plesiomonas shigelloides has mainly been recovered from various sea foods, whereas Aeromonas sp. have also been cultured from pigs, broilers, eggs, milk and vegetables. Aeromonas sp. also multiply rapidly at +4 degrees C which is a significant risk in food storage. Aeromonas sp. have furthermore been recovered from fresh water sources, and some isolates are resistant to chlorination which makes it a further risk factor. No large food- or waterborne outbreaks have been reported so far with Aeromonas sp. Various virulence factors involved in intestinal infections are described such as enterotoxins, cytotoxins, and adhesins. PMID:1854599

  5. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  6. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  7. Aeromonas schubertii, a new mannitol-negative species found in human clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Fanning, G R; Arduino, M J; Brenner, D J; Farmer, J J

    1988-08-01

    In 1983 the vernacular name Enteric Group 501 was coined for a group of strains that had been referred to our laboratory as "possible Vibrio damsela that does not require NaCl for growth." By DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method, 32P, 60 and 75 degrees C), six strains of Enteric Group 501 were closely related to the labeled strain 2446-81 (70 to 95% at 60 degrees C and 71 to 93% at 75 degrees C; 0 to 1% divergence). Type strains of all Aeromonas species and reference strains of six other Aeromonas DNA hybridization groups were 26 to 42% related (60 degrees C) to strain 2446-81, but type strains of 27 Vibrio and Photobacterium species, including V. damsela, were 0 to 1% (75 degrees C) related. We propose the name Aeromonas schubertii for the highly related group of seven strains formerly known as Enteric Group 501. The type strain is designated as ATCC 43700 (CDC 2446-81). Strains of A. schubertii grew well at 36 degrees C and had positive reactions at this temperature for methyl red, Voges-Proskauer (1% NaCl, Coblentz method), lysine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase, motility, lipase, DNase, nitrate reduction to nitrite, oxidase, and growth in nutrient broth with 0 and 1% NaCl. There was no growth in 6% NaCl or on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. The following sugars were fermented: D-glucose, D-galactose, maltose, D-mannose, and trehalose. The following sugars were not fermented: adonitol, L-arabinose, D-arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol, erythritol, myo-inositol, lactose, D-mannitol, melibiose, alpha-CH3-D-glucoside, raffinose, L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose, and D-xylose. Esculin was not hydrolyzed, and the string test was negative. The mannitol-negative reaction differtiates A. schubertii from other Aeromonas species. The antibiogram of this organism is typical of other Aeromonas strains (resistance to ampicillin and carbenicillin and susceptibility to most other agents). A. schubertii strains have been isolated from abscesses (two

  8. [Resistance to antimicrobial agents, hemolytic activity and plasmids in Aeromonas species].

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Watanabe, N; Kanamori, M

    1990-06-01

    A total of 174 Aeromonas isolates consisting of 100 strains from patients with diarrhea being mainly overseas travellers nd healthy subjects, and 74 strains from environmental sources including foods, fish, fresh water, sea water and river soil collected in the area of Tokyo Metropolis and Kanagawa Prefecture was examined for the antimicrobial resistance, presence of plasmids and hemolytic activity. Almost all the isolates (99.4%) were resistant to aminobenzyl penicillin. The isolation frequency of chloramphenicol- or tetracycline-resistant strain was low. Most environmental isolates of A. hydrophila were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. Thirty-seven percent of environmental isolates and 39% of human fecal ones carried plasmids. In environmental isolates, seven A. hydrophila and three A. sobria strains carried 63- to 150-kilobase pair (kb) conjugative R plasmids. Two A. hydrophila strains from both the healthy subject and domestic case with diarrhea carried 58- to 90-kb conjugative R plasmids, respectively. None of the isolates from the feces of overseas traveller's diarrhea carried the plasmid. Irrespective of the sources. A. hydrophila showed the highest hemolytic activity among three Aeromonas species. Eighty percent or more of A. hydrophila isolates were of hemolysin positive. The hemolytic titer of A. hydrophila strains from human feces was higher than that of the strains from environmental sources. PMID:2401817

  9. Evaluation of the MALDI-TOF MS profiling for identification of newly described Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Vávrová, Andrea; Balážová, Tereza; Sedláček, Ivo; Tvrzová, Ludmila; Šedo, Ondrej

    2015-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises primarily aquatic bacteria and also serious human and animal pathogens with the occurrence in clinical material, drinking water, and food. Aeromonads are typical for their complex taxonomy and nomenclature and for limited possibilities of identification to the species level. According to studies describing the use of MALDI-TOF MS in diagnostics of aeromonads, this modern chemotaxonomical approach reveals quite high percentage of correctly identified isolates. We analyzed 64 Aeromonas reference strains from the set of 27 species. After extending the range of analyzed Aeromonas species by newly described ones, we proved that MALDI-TOF MS procedure accompanied by Biotyper tool is not a reliable diagnostic technique for aeromonads. We obtained quite high percentage of false-positive, incorrect, and uncertain results. The identification of newly described species is accompanied with misidentifications that were observed also in the case of pathogenic aeromonads. PMID:25520239

  10. N-Acylhomoserine lactones involved in quorum sensing control the type VI secretion system, biofilm formation, protease production, and in vivo virulence in a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Sha, Jian; Kozlova, Elena V.; Erova, Tatiana E.; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Horneman, Amy J.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we delineated the role of N-acylhomoserine lactone(s) (AHLs)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) in the virulence of diarrhoeal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila by generating a double knockout ΔahyRI mutant. Protease production was substantially reduced in the ΔahyRI mutant when compared with that in the wild-type (WT) strain. Importantly, based on Western blot analysis, the ΔahyRI mutant was unable to secrete type VI secretion system (T6SS)-associated effectors, namely haemolysin coregulated protein and the valine-glycine repeat family of proteins, while significant levels of these effectors were detected in the culture supernatant of the WT A. hydrophila. In contrast, the production and translocation of the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector AexU in human colonic epithelial cells were not affected when the ahyRI genes were deleted. Solid surface-associated biofilm formation was significantly reduced in the ΔahyRI mutant when compared with that in the WT strain, as determined by a crystal violet staining assay. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the ΔahyRI mutant was also defective in the formation of structured biofilm, as it was less filamentous and produced a distinct exopolysaccharide on its surface when compared with the structured biofilm produced by the WT strain. These effects of AhyRI could be complemented either by expressing the ahyRI genes in trans or by the exogeneous addition of AHLs to the ΔahyRI/ahyR+ complemented strain. In a mouse lethality experiment, 50 % attenuation was observed when we deleted the ahyRI genes from the parental strain of A. hydrophila. Together, our data suggest that AHL-mediated QS modulates the virulence of A. hydrophila SSU by regulating the T6SS, metalloprotease production and biofilm formation. PMID:19729404

  11. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Aeromonas recovered from the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain): diseases spectrum and prevalence in the environment.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Alcaide, E; Giménez, M J

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas infections are rare in Europe and often related to traveller's diarrhoea. A total of 185 Aeromonas isolates from river water, fish and clinical sources, recovered during a 1-year period, were used to investigate the disease spectrum and impact of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. They were all identified by biochemical tests and 25% of them were also identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 21 antimicrobials were determined for all isolates by broth microdilution/E-strips methods, and susceptibility was assessed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Strains pathogenicity was determined by using Swiss Webster mice as the animal model. Aeromonas diseases had an incidence of around 20 cases/million inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Acute gastroenteritis in children with no history of travel abroad was the main pathology. These cases were related to A. caviae, A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. dhakensis. A significant incidence of A. caviae in humans was found, while the other species were equally present in clinical and environmental origins. A. jandaei, A. bestiarum and A. media had mainly an environmental distribution. The prevalence of MDR Aeromonas was maximal in clinical samples, and resistance phenotypes were significantly related to this source. 7.2% of environmental Aeromonas was resistant to at least five drugs; most of them were moderately virulent for mice and, in addition, belonged to clinically significant species. The present study demonstrates a diseases spectrum similar to that reported in tropical countries, and also that pathogenic and heavily MDR Aeromonas are present in environmental reservoirs. MDR Aeromonas from any source analysed were susceptible to aztreonam, netilmicin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime and fluoroquinolones. PMID:25082185

  12. Aeromonas jandaei and Aeromonas veronii dual infection of a human wound following aquatic exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, S W; Carnahan, A M; Brayton, P R; Fanning, G R; Almazan, R; Drabick, C; Trudo, E W; Colwell, R R

    1991-01-01

    Exudate removed from an infection that developed below the left eye of a 10-year-old male following a previously inflicted wound after aquatic exposure was cultured and revealed two different Aeromonas spp. Further characterization showed that one strain was phenotypically identical to Aeromonas veronii, while the other strain was confirmed by DNA hybridization analysis to be Aeromonas jandaei sp. nov. This is the first report of these more recently described aeromonads, thus far rarely reported from clinical disease, occurring simultaneously in a human infection. PMID:2037674

  13. Genomic characterization of pseudorabies virus strains isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sozzi, E; Moreno, A; Lelli, D; Cinotti, S; Alborali, G L; Nigrelli, A; Luppi, A; Bresaola, M; Catella, A; Cordioli, P

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we undertook the genomic characterization of 54 pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains isolated in Italy during 1984-2010. The characterization was based on partial sequencing of the UL44 (gC) and US8 (gE) genes; 44 strains (38 for gene gE and 36 for gC) were isolated on pig farms; 9 originated from dogs and 1 from cattle. These porcine PRV strains, which were closely related to those isolated in Europe and America in the last 20 years, and the bovine strain bovine/It/2441/1992 belong to cluster B in both phylogenetic trees. Six porcine strains that do not belong to cluster B are related in both gE and gC phylogenetic trees to the 'old' porcine PRV strains isolated in the 1970s and 1980s. In the last two decades, the presence of these strains in domestic pig populations has been reduced drastically, whereas they are prevalent in wild boar. The two remaining strains have an interesting genomic profile, characterized by the gC gene being closely related to the old porcine PRV strains, and the gE gene being similar to that of recently isolated strains. Three strains originating from working dogs on pig farms are located in cluster B in both phylogenetic trees. Five strains isolated from hunting dogs have a high degree of correlation with PRV strains circulating in wild boar. The last isolate has a gC gene similar to that in the two porcine strains mentioned previously, and the gE gene is correlated with the strains isolated from hunting dogs. These results provide interesting insight into the genomic characterization of PRV strains and reveal a clear differentiation between the strains isolated from hunting dogs that are related to the wild boar strains and those originating from domestic pigs. PMID:23331342

  14. First record of the rare species Aeromonas schubertii from mussels: phenotypic and genetic reevaluation of the species and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, María José

    2016-05-01

    In a study where the prevalence of Aeromonas in shellfish was analysed, three isolates of Aeromonas schubertii were identified, representing this the first report of this species from mussels. This species was originally described in 1988 from strains isolated from extra-intestinal human infections and since then has been cited in only 18 occasions. For many years, A. schubertii was the only mannitol-negative species of the genus. However, three additional mannitol-negative species (Aeromonas simiae, Aeromonas diversa and Aeromonas australiensis) have been described. This, together with the fact that A. schubertii is a rare human pathogenic species, motivated the present study to characterize its biochemical behaviour and differentiation from the other mannitol-negative species. The molecular similarity (16S rRNA, rpoD and gyrB genes) of the strains, presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance were determined. All A. schubertii strains showed the same phenotypic behaviour, i.e. they use citrate, are positive for lysine decarboxylase and DL-lactate, but negative for production of mannitol, indole and acid from sucrose and could be easily differentiated from other mannitol-negative species. All strains carried the aerA and lafA virulence genes and showed susceptibility to all antibiotics tested. Seafood could be a transmission route of this bacterium to humans. PMID:26825089

  15. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout. PMID:26130859

  16. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout. PMID:26130859

  17. [Aeromonas hydrophila pneumonia associated with a traffic accident. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Piloto, A; González Ramírez, A N; Cruz Robaina, J C; Monté Boada, R J; Bravo Fariñas, L; Alvarez Medina, A M

    1996-01-01

    The case of a patient who was driving a car after getting drunk is presented. His car turned over and he fell into an irrigation canal, and, as a result, he suffered from an incomplete drowning syndrome. He was admitted in the Intensive Care Unit with acute inflammatory pneumonia and a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated in blood. The patient's evolution was favorable. It is the first report on a case like this in our country. PMID:9768270

  18. Attenuation of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila with novobiocin and pathogenic characterization of the novobiocin-resistant strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novobiocin-resistant strain AH11NOVO was obtained from a virulent A. hydrophila strain AH11P through selection of resistance to novobiocin. AH11NOVO was found to be avirulent to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) whereas AH11P was virulent. When AH11NOVO vaccinated channel catfish were challeng...

  19. Attenuation of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila with novobiocin and pathogenic characterization of the novobiocin-resistant strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novobiocin-resistant strain AH11NOVO was obtained from a virulent A. hydrophila strain AH11P through selection of resistance to novobiocin. AH11NOVO was found to be avirulent to channel catfish whereas AH11P was virulent. When AH11NOVO vaccinated channel catfish were challenged with AH11P at 14 da...

  20. Comparison of chromogenic Biolog Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of Shigella spp. from foods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Lampel, Keith A

    2010-08-01

    Shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. However, it remains a challenge to isolate Shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas (Rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of Shigella spp. in foods. All four Shigella species, S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, were studied. Rainbow agar was compared with tryptic soy agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar (XLD), and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) for enumeration of Shigella spp. in pure culture. This chromogenic agar and XLD were also used to isolate Shigella spp. in artificially contaminated foods (4.8 log CFU/g of food), including lettuce, parsley, cilantro, spinach, potato salad, and shrimp. The inhibitory effect on Shigella growth by Rainbow agar was between that of XLD and SSA. All vegetables studied showed a moderately high background microflora on XLD and Rainbow agar. With artificially inoculated produce, Rainbow agar recovered about 1 to 2 log CFU more S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii per g of food than did XLD. For potato salad and shrimp, which had low background microflora on Rainbow agar, Rainbow agar was slightly better in recovering Shigella spp. than XLD was in most cases. However, we found that the addition of streptomycin (6.25 mg/liter) to Rainbow agar could facilitate the isolation of Shigella in vegetables tested. In conclusion, Rainbow agar was a much more effective medium than was XLD for the isolation of Shigella spp. from foods. PMID:20819355

  1. Aeromonas salmonicida binds differentially to mucins isolated from skin and intestinal regions of Atlantic salmon in an N-acetylneuraminic acid-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Padra, János T; Sundh, Henrik; Jin, Chunsheng; Karlsson, Niclas G; Sundell, Kristina; Lindén, Sara K

    2014-12-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection, also known as furunculosis disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in salmonid aquaculture. The first line of defense the pathogen encounters is the mucus layer, which is predominantly comprised of secreted mucins. Here we isolated and characterized mucins from the skin and intestinal tract of healthy Atlantic salmon and studied how A. salmonicida bound to them. The mucins from the skin, pyloric ceca, and proximal and distal intestine mainly consisted of mucins soluble in chaotropic agents. The mucin density and mucin glycan chain length from the skin were lower than were seen with mucin from the intestinal tract. A. salmonicida bound to the mucins isolated from the intestinal tract to a greater extent than to the skin mucins. The mucins from the intestinal regions had higher levels of sialylation than the skin mucins. Desialylating intestinal mucins decreased A. salmonicida binding, whereas desialylation of skin mucins resulted in complete loss of binding. In line with this, A. salmonicida also bound better to mammalian mucins with high levels of sialylation, and N-acetylneuraminic acid appeared to be the sialic acid whose presence was imperative for binding. Thus, sialylated structures are important for A. salmonicida binding, suggesting a pivotal role for sialylation in mucosal defense. The marked differences in sialylation as well as A. salmonicida binding between the skin and intestinal tract suggest interorgan differences in the host-pathogen interaction and in the mucin defense against A. salmonicida. PMID:25287918

  2. Two novel temperate bacteriophages co-existing in Aeromonas sp. ARM81 - characterization of their genomes, proteomes and DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas species are causative agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in animals and humans. Although these bacteria are commonly found in various environments, little is known about their phages. Thus far, only one temperate Aeromonas phage has been characterized. Whole-genome sequencing of an Aeromonas sp. strain ARM81 revealed the presence of two prophage clusters. One of them is integrated into the chromosome and the other was maintained as an extrachromosomal, linear plasmid-like prophage encoding a protelomerase. Both prophages were artificially and spontaneously inducible. We separately isolated both phages and compared their genomes with other known viruses. The novel phages show no similarity to the previously characterized Aeromonas phages and might represent new evolutionary lineages of viruses infecting Aeromonadaceae. Apart from the comparative genomic analyses of these phages, complemented with their structural and molecular characterization, a functional analysis of four DNA methyltransferases encoded by these viruses was conducted. One of the investigated N6-adenine-modifying enzymes shares sequence specificity with a Dam-like methyltransferase of its bacterial host, while another one is non-specific, as it catalyzes adenine methylation in various sequence contexts. The presented results shed new light on the diversity of Aeromonas temperate phages. PMID:27184451

  3. Polyphasic study of Chryseobacterium strains isolated from diseased aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Bernardet, J F; Vancanneyt, M; Matte-Tailliez, O; Grisez, L; Tailliez, P; Bizet, C; Nowakowski, M; Kerouault, B; Swings, J

    2005-09-01

    Members of most Chryseobacterium species occur in aquatic environments or food products, while strains of some other species are pathogenic to humans and animals. A collection of 52 Chryseobacterium sp. strains isolated from diseased fish, one frog isolate and 22 reference strains were included in a polyphasic taxonomy study. Fourteen clusters of strains were delineated following the comparison of whole-cell protein profiles. Most of these clusters were confirmed when the phenotypic and RAPD profiles and the 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared. Fatty acid composition helped differentiate the Chryseobacterium strains from members of related genera. None of the fish isolates could be allocated to the two species previously reported from fish but two isolates belonged to C. joostei, while the frog isolate was identified as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, a human pathogen previously included in the genus Chryseobacterium. Three clusters grouping from 3 to 13 isolates will probably constitute the core of new Chryseobacterium species but all other isolates occupied separate or uncertain positions in the genus. This study further demonstrated the overall high similarity displayed by most Chryseobacterium strains whatever the technique used and the resulting difficulty in delineating new species in the genus. Members of this bacterial group should be considered potential emergent pathogens in various fish and frog species, farming conditions and geographical areas. PMID:16156122

  4. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  5. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    PubMed Central

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  6. Functional Genomics of the Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen and A-Layer from Typical and Atypical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; de Mendoza, Elena; Canals, Rocío; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    The A. salmonicida A450 LPS O-antigen, encoded by the wbsalmo gene cluster, is exported through an ABC-2 transporter-dependent pathway. It represents the first example of an O-antigen LPS polysaccharide with three different monosaccharides in their repeating unit assembled by this pathway. Until now, only repeating units with one or two different monosaccharides have been described. Functional genomic analysis of this wbsalmo region is mostly in agreement with the LPS O-antigen structure of acetylated l-rhamnose (Rha), d-glucose (Glc), and 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-mannose (ManN). Between genes of the wbsalmo we found the genes responsible for the biosynthesis and assembly of the S-layer (named A-layer in these strains). Through comparative genomic analysis and in-frame deletions of some of the genes, we concluded that all the A. salmonicida typical and atypical strains, other than A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains, shared the same wbsalmo and presence of A-layer. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains lack wbsalmo and A-layer, two major virulence factors, and this could be the reason they are the only ones not found as fish pathogens. PMID:26082990

  7. Natural transformation as a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer among environmental Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Jennifer R; Brokaw, Joshua M; Zak, John C; Jeter, Randall M

    2013-06-01

    Aeromonas species are common inhabitants of aquatic environments and relevant as human pathogens. Their potential as pathogens may be related in part to lateral transfer of genes associated with toxin production, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and other virulence determinants. Natural transformation has not been characterized in aeromonads. DNA from wild-type, prototrophic strains that had been isolated from environmental sources was used as donor DNA in transformation assays with auxotrophs as the recipients. Competence was induced in 20% nutrient broth during the stationary phase of growth. Optimal transformation assay conditions for one chosen isolate were in Tris buffer with magnesium or calcium, pH 5-8, and a saturating concentration of 0.5 μg of DNA per assay (3.3 ng of DNA μl⁻¹) at 30°C. Sodium was also required and could not be replaced with ammonium, potassium, or lithium. The maximal transformation frequency observed was 1.95 × 10⁻³ transformants (recipient cell)⁻¹. A survey of environmental Aeromonas auxotrophic recipients (n=37), assayed with donor DNA from other wild-type environmental aeromonads under optimal assay conditions, demonstrated that 73% were able to act as recipients, and 100% were able to act as donors to at least some other aeromonads. Three different transformation groups were identified based on each isolates' ability to transform other strains with its DNA. The transformation groups roughly corresponded to phylogenetic groups. These results demonstrate that natural transformation is a general property of Aeromonas environmental isolates with implications for the genetic structures of coincident Aeromonas populations. PMID:23541366

  8. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Cunha, Mauro A; Ziech, Rosangela E; Krewer, Carina C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Gressler, Leticia T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2015-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen) (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm) with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10): untreated fish (negative control), 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1) was greater than 90%. PMID:25789790

  9. Modification of the bile salts-Irgasan-brilliant green agar for enumeration of Aeromonas species from food.

    PubMed

    Neyts, K; Notebaert, E; Uyttendaele, M; Debevere, J

    2000-06-15

    The present study evaluated the productivity of BIBG medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp. from food and describes a modification of the BIBG medium (mBIBG) (increased pH (8.7), replacement of xylose by soluble starch as a carbon source, decreased concentration of bile salts) to increase its selectivity and electivity. Using the mBIBG medium, growth of the majority of the Enterobacteriaceae (9/10) was suppressed except for Citrobacter freundii. The mBIBG medium supported growth of Pseudomonas species but a clear distinction between Aeromonas and Pseudomonas colonies could be made. Interpretation of the mBIBG medium should be performed after 24 h of incubation. It was noted that three of the 27 Aeromonas strains tested did not develop on the mBIBG medium. The ability or inability to grow on a selective medium is strain-dependent. Enumeration of Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila LMG 3771, A. caviae LMG 3775, A. veronii biovar veronii LMG 9075, A. veronii biovar sobria LMG 13071) from artificially contaminated foods (shrimp, minced meat (beef/pork), precut leek, and shredded carrots) confirmed that the mBIBG medium is suitable for quantitative recovery of aeromonads (ca. 10(2)-10(7) cfu/g) in the presence of a high background flora (10(5)-10(6) cfu/g). Screening of naturally contaminated foods (vegetables, seafood, meat) for the presence of Aeromonas resulted in three out of 14 food samples showing presumptive Aeromonas colonies on mBIBG. PMID:10868682

  10. Aminoglycoside-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as Part of a Polymicrobial Infection following a Traumatic Fall into Freshwater▿

    PubMed Central

    Shak, Joshua R.; Whitaker, Jennifer A.; Ribner, Bruce S.; Burd, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Amikacin is a first-line treatment for Aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. There are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant Aeromonas spp. We report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins. PMID:21209173

  11. PCR detection, characterization, and distribution of virulence genes in Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Kingombe, C I; Huys, G; Tonolla, M; Albert, M J; Swings, J; Peduzzi, R; Jemmi, T

    1999-12-01

    We found 73.1 to 96.9% similarity by aligning the cytolytic enterotoxin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila SSU (AHCYTOEN; GenBank accession no. M84709) against aerolysin genes of Aeromonas spp., suggesting the possibility of selecting common primers. Identities of 90 to 100% were found among the eight selected primers from those genes. Amplicons obtained from Aeromonas sp. reference strains by using specific primers for each gene or a cocktail of primers were 232 bp long. Of hybridization group 4/5A/5B (HG4/5A/5B), HG9, and HG12 or non-Aeromonas reference strains, none were positive. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with HpaII yielded three types of patterns. PCR-RFLP 1 contained two fragments (66 and 166 bp) found in HG6, HG7, HG8, HG10, and HG11. PCR-RFLP 2 contained three fragments (18, 66, and 148 bp) found in HG1, HG2, HG3, and HG11. PCR-RFLP 3, with four fragments (7, 20, 66, and 139 bp), was observed only in HG13. PCR-amplicon sequence analysis (PCR-ASA) revealed three main types. PCR-ASA 1 had 76 to 78% homology with AHCYTOEN and included strains in HG6, HG7, HG8, HG10, and HG11. PCR-ASA 2, with 82% homology, was found only in HG13. PCR-ASA 3, with 91 to 99% homology, contained the strains in HG1, HG2, HG3, and HG11. This method indicated that 37 (61%) of the 61 reference strains were positive with the primer cocktail master mixture, and 34 (58%) of 59 environmental isolates, 93 (66%) of 141 food isolates, and 100 (67%) of 150 clinical isolates from around the world carried a virulence factor when primers AHCF1 and AHCR1 were used. In conclusion, this PCR-based method is rapid, sensitive, and specific for the detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. It overcomes the handicap of time-consuming biochemical and other DNA-based methods. PMID:10583979

  12. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  13. Detection and Whole-Genome Sequencing of Carbapenemase-Producing Aeromonas hydrophila Isolates from Routine Perirectal Surveillance Culture.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Heather Y; Conlan, Sean P; Lau, Anna F; Dekker, John P; Michelin, Angela V; Youn, Jung-Ho; Henderson, David K; Frank, Karen M; Segre, Julia A; Palmore, Tara N

    2016-04-01

    Perirectal surveillance cultures and a stool culture grewAeromonasspecies from three patients over a 6-week period and were without epidemiological links. Detection of theblaKPC-2gene in one isolate prompted inclusion of non-Enterobacteriaceaein our surveillance culture workup. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed that the isolates were unrelated and provided data forAeromonasreference genomes. PMID:26888898

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Silva, R O S; Salvarani, F M; Assis, R A; Martins, N R S; Pires, P S; Lobato, F C F

    2009-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  16. Enterotoxigenic and nontoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strains isolated in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karla R; Dias, Mariana F; Guimarães, Priscilla L S; Boente, Renata F; Pauer, Heidi; Ramos, Priscila Z; Falcão, Laís S; Ferreira, Eliane de O; Balassiano, Ilana T; Ferreira, Livia Q; Santos-Filho, Joaquim dos; Paula, Geraldo R de; Antunes, Eduardo N F; Avelar, Katia E S; Domingues, Regina M C P

    2008-11-01

    The presence of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and nontoxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) among 109 strains isolated from 1980-2008 in Brazil were investigated by PCR. One strain, representing 0.9% of the total analyzed strains, harbored the bft gene which was identified as bft-1 isoform based on PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Forty-nine strains (44.9%) exhibited the NTBF pattern III which possesses the flanking region required for pathogenicity island acquisition in which the bft gene is codified. These data reinforce the potential of B. fragilis as an emerging enteropathogen in our country. PMID:19057827

  17. The Occurrence of Aeromonas in Drinking Water, Tap Water and the Porsuk River

    PubMed Central

    Kivanc, Merih; Yilmaz, Meral; Demir, Filiz

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey) was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux) and then selected isolates from different phenotypes (VITEK types) were identified using the DuPont Qualicon RiboPrinter® system. Aeromonas spp. was detected only in the samples from the Porsuk River. According to the results obtained with the VITEK system, our isolates were 13% Aeromonas hydrophila, 37% Aeromonas caviae, 35% Pseudomonas putida, and 15% Pseudomonas acidovorans. In addition Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas maltophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aeromonas media species were determined using the RiboPrinter® system. The samples taken from the Porsuk River were found to contain very diverse Aeromonas populations that can pose a risk for the residents of the city. On the other hand, drinking water and tap water of the City are free from Aeromonas pathogens and seem to be reliable water sources for the community. PMID:24031613

  18. [Isolation and characterazation of a carbazole-degrading bacterial strain].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Fan; He, Yi-Liang

    2010-09-01

    A bacterial strain was isolated from soil samples using plate screening techniques. Results indicated this isolated were able to use carbazole as sole source of carbon and energy, simultaneously, including N-Methylcarbazole, 4-Hydroxycarbazole and 2,2'-Biphenol. It was identified as Flavobacterium sp. according to its morphology, and biochemical properties, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Utilization of carbazole by the isolates was confirmed by the increase in bacterial biomass and the decrease in substrate concentration in liquid cultures. The optimal pH and temperature for cell growth and carbazole degradation were 7.5 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Resting cells grown in Luria broth also showed activity for decomposing other heterocyclic compounds. In addition, biodegradation of carbazole was carried out with carbazole degrading strain KH-6. The results indicated that 90% of the carbazole could be degraded in the sterilized soil. And strain KH-6 could enhance the degradations of carbazole significantly. PMID:21072941

  19. Ribotyping of Lactobacillus casei group strains isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Svec, P; Dráb, V; Sedlácek, I

    2005-01-01

    A series of lactobacilli isolated from dairy products were characterized using biotyping and ribotyping with EcoRI and HindIII restriction enzymes. Biotyping assigned 14 strains as Lactobacillus casei, 6 strains as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and 12 as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The obtained ribotype patterns separated all analyzed strains into two clearly distinguished groups corresponding to L. rhamnosus and L. casei/L. paracasei subsp. paracasei. The HindIII ribotypes of individual strains representing these two groups were visually very similar. In contrast, EcoRI ribotyping revealed high intraspecies variability. All ribotypes of L. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei dairy strains were very close and some strains even shared identical ribotype profiles. The type strains L. casei CCM 7088T (= ATCC 393T) and Lactobacillus zeae CCM 7069T revealing similar ribopatterns formed a separate subcluster using both restriction enzymes. In contrast, the ribotype profile of L. casei CCM 7089 (= ATCC 334) was very close to ribopatterns obtained from the dairy strains. These results support synonymy of L. casei and L. paracasei species revealed by other studies as well as reclassification of the type strain L. casei CCM 7088T as L. zeae and designation of L. casei CCM 7089 as the neotype strain. PMID:16295661

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Mariprofundus ferrooxydans Strain JV-1, Isolated from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Mariprofundus ferrooxydans strain JV-1 was isolated in 1998 from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Here, we present the draft genome of strain JV-1, which shows similarity to other sequenced Mariprofundus isolates, strains PV-1 and M34. PMID:26450720

  1. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus sciuri Strains Isolated from Humans

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Isabel; Sanches, Ilda Santos; Sá-Leão, Raquel; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2000-01-01

    We previously characterized over 100 Staphylococcus sciuri isolates, mainly of animal origin, and found that they all carried a genetic element (S. sciuri mecA) closely related to the mecA gene of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. We also found a few isolates that carried a second copy of the gene, identical to MRSA mecA. In this work, we analyzed a collection of 28 S. sciuri strains isolated from both healthy and hospitalized individuals. This was a relatively heterogeneous group, as inferred from the different sources, places, and dates of isolation and as confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. All strains carried the S. sciuri mecA copy, sustaining our previous proposal that this element belongs to the genetic background of S. sciuri. Moreover, 46% of the strains also carried the MRSA mecA copy. Only these strains showed significant levels of resistance to beta-lactams. Strikingly, the majority of the strains carrying the additional MRSA mecA copy were obtained from healthy individuals in an antibiotic-free environment. Most of the 28 strains were resistant to penicillin, intermediately resistant to clindamycin, and susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Resistance to these last three antibiotics was found in some strains only. The findings reported in this work confirmed the role of S. sciuri in the evolution of the mechanism of resistance to methicillin in staphylococci and suggested that this species (like the pathogenic staphylococci) may accumulate resistance markers for several classes of antibiotics. PMID:10699009

  2. Molecular characterization of Prototheca strains isolated from Italian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, M; Goretti, M; Branda, E; Cammi, G; Garbarino, C A; Turchetti, B; Moroni, P; Arrigoni, N; Buzzini, P

    2010-10-01

    One hundred sixty-one Prototheca spp. strains isolated from composite milk and barn-surrounding environmental samples (bedding, feces, drinking, or washing water, surface swabs) of 24 Italian dairy herds were characterized by genotype-specific PCR analysis. Overall, 97.2% of strains isolated from composite milk samples were characterized as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2, confirming its role as the main mastitis pathogen, whereas Prototheca blaschkeae was only sporadically isolated (2.8%). Regarding environmental sampling, 84.9% of isolates belonged to P. zopfii genotype 2, 13.2% to P. blaschkeae, and 1.9% to P. zopfii genotype 1. The data herein contradict previous hypotheses about the supposed exclusive role of P. zopfii genotype 2 as the causative agent of protothecal mastitis and, on the contrary, confirm the hypothesis that such pathology could be caused by P. blaschkeae in a few instances. PMID:20854996

  3. Isolation of five Rubrobacter strains from biodeteriorated monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, L.; Miller, A. Z.; Jurado, V.; Akatova, E.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Dionísio, A.; Macedo, M. F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the microbial colonisation of mural paintings in ancient monuments has been attracting the attention of microbiologists and conservators. The genus Rubrobacter is commonly found in biodeteriorated monuments, where it has been reported to cause rosy discolouration. However, to date, only three species of this genus have been isolated, all from thermophilic environments. In this paper, we studied three monuments: the Servilia and Postumio tombs in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Spain), and Vilar de Frades church (Portugal), in search of Rubrobacter strains. In all cases, biodeterioration and the formation of efflorescences were observed, and five Rubrobacter strains were isolated. These isolates showed different physiology and migration in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, suggesting they might represent new species within this genus. The isolates reproduced some biodeterioration processes in the laboratory and revealed their biomediation in crystal formation.

  4. Ribosomal Multi-Operon Diversity: An Original Perspective on the Genus Aeromonas

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Frédéric; Lamy, Brigitte; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Kodjo, Angeli; F., Carmagnol; E., Chachaty; C., Alba-Sauviat; C., Auvray; D., Barraud; Z., Benseddik; A., Bertrou; F., Bessis; H., Biessy; V., Blanc; Y., Boucaud-Maitre; P., Brunet; A., Michel; B., Cancet; J., Carrere; A., Cecille; G., Chambreuil; P., Chantelat; H., Chardon; C., Charrel; H., De Montclos; J.W., Decousser; J. M., Delarbre; A., Gravet; D., Deligne; C., Denoix; J., Deregnaucourt; F., Desroys du Roure; S., Dubourdieu; Z., El Harrif; C., Eloy; A., Evers; C., Febvre; D., Fevre; S., Gabriel; M. J., Galanti; E., Garnotel; M., Gavignet; F., Geffroy; G., Grise; I., Gros; I., Hermes; J., Heurte; E., Heusse; D., Jan; E., Jaouen; S., Laluque; R., Lamarca; Laurens, E.; A., Le Coustumier; E., Lecaillon; C., Lemble; M., Leneveu; S., Leotard; M. N., Letouzey; C., Malbrunot; O., Menouni; M., Morel; C., Olive; B., Pangon; J. G., Paul; J. M., Perez; P., Pouedras; D., Pressac; R., Sanchez; Y., Scat; A., Secher; J., Semon; D., Simeon; C., Simonin; J. P., Thellier; B., Tourand; A., Vachée; C., Varache; J., Vaucel; A. C., Vautrin; A., Verhaeghe; M., Villemain; L., Villeneuve; Marchandin, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    16S rRNA gene (rrs) is considered of low taxonomic interest in the genus Aeromonas. Here, 195 Aeromonas strains belonging to populations structured by multilocus phylogeny were studied using an original approach that considered Ribosomal Multi-Operon Diversity. This approach associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess rrn operon number and distribution across the chromosome and PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) to assess rrs V3 region heterogeneity. Aeromonads harbored 8 to 11 rrn operons, 10 operons being observed in more than 92% of the strains. Intraspecific variability was low or nul except for A. salmonicida and A. aquariorum suggesting that large chromosomic rearrangements might occur in these two species while being extremely rarely encountered in the evolution of other taxa. rrn operon number at 8 as well as PFGE patterns were shown valuable for taxonomic purpose allowing resolution of species complexes. PCR-TTGE revealed a high rate of strains (41.5%) displaying intragenomic rrs heterogeneity. Strains isolated from human samples more frequently displayed intragenomic heterogeneity than strains recovered from non-human and environmental specimens. Intraspecific variability ranged from 0 to 76.5% of the strains. The observation of species-specific TTGE bands, the recovery of identical V3 regions in different species and the variability of intragenomic heterogeneity (1–13 divergent nucleotides) supported the occurrence of mutations and horizontal transfer in aeromonad rrs evolution. Altogether, the presence of a high number of rrn operon, the high proportion of strains harboring divergent rrs V3 region and the previously demonstrated high level of genetic diversity argued in favor of highly adaptative capabilities of aeromonads. Outstanding features observed for A. caviae supported the ongoing process of adaptation to a specialized niche represented by the gut, previously hypothesized. 16S rRNA gene is an informative

  5. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid mucus and its potential for other bacterial fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert A; Stevenson, Roselynn M W

    2012-05-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA was used to nonlethally detect Aeromonas salmonicida and other bacteria in salmonid skin mucus. Mucus samples from wild spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with endemic A. salmonicida and from cultured lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were tested by PCR-DGGE and were compared with mucus culture on Coomassie brilliant blue agar and internal organ culture. PCR-DGGE gave a highly reproducible 4-band pattern for 9 strains of typical A. salmonicida, which was different from other Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas salmonicida presence in mucus was evident as a band that comigrated with the bottom band of the A. salmonicida 4-band pattern and was verified by sequencing. PCR-DGGE found 36 of 52 coho salmon positive for A. salmonicida, compared with 31 positive by mucus culture and 16 by organ culture. Numerous other bacteria were detected in salmonid mucus, including Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads. However, Yersinia ruckeri was not detected in mucus from 27 lake trout, but 1 fish had a sorbitol-positive Y. ruckeri isolated from organ culture. Yersinia ruckeri seeded into a mucus sample suggested that PCR-DGGE detection of this bacterium from mucus was possible. PCR-DGGE allows nonlethal detection of A. salmonicida in mucus and differentiation of some Aeromonas spp. and has the potential to allow simultaneous detection of other pathogens present in fish mucus. PMID:22506865

  6. Molecular characterisation of Xanthomonas strains isolated from aroids in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Khoodoo, M H R; Sahin, F; Donmez, M F; Fakim, Y Jaufeerally

    2005-06-01

    Mauritius is one of the largest world producers of Anthurium cut flowers but outbreaks of bacterial blight have never been reported on the island. This work was about the characterisation and identification of bacterial strains isolated from Anthurium andreanum, Dieffenbachia maculata and Aglaonema simplex in Mauritius. Fifteen strains, that showed the morphological properties of Xanthomonas on conventional media, were tested on two semi-selective media (Esculin-trehalose and cellobiose-starch). ELISA tests using a panel of monoclonal antibodies were carried out and three out of 15 strains reacted with a Xanthomonas-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb XII). Analysis using four sets of ribosomal primers revealed that the same three Mauritius strains shared conserved PCR products with reference xanthomonads including virulent strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (Xad). BIOLOG tests and the Sherlock Microbial Identification system (MIDI) identified these three new strains at the species level as X. axonopodis. The complementary tests that were carried out clearly confirmed that the three strains are xanthomonads and, moreover, a DNA probe which showed specificity to Xad strains suggested that the three Mauritius strains are non-virulent forms of the pathogen causing Anthurium blight. PMID:15997710

  7. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  8. THE USE OF MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has long been established as a tool by which microorganisms can be characterized and identified. EPA is investigating the potential of using this technology as a way to rapidly identify Aeromonas species fo...

  9. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  10. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  11. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractons of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  12. Genome Sequences of Two Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Meat

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Chiara; Borgo, Francesca; Eraclio, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae is an important fish pathogen and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen, as well as a component of natural microbiota in dairy and meat products. We present the first report of genome sequences of L. garvieae I113 and Tac2 strains isolated from a meat source. PMID:23405320

  13. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudorabies Virus Strains Isolated in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Konstantinos V.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Filioussis, George; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Nauwynck, Hans J.; Kritas, Spyridon K.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (species Suid herpesvirus 1) belongs to the genus Varicellovirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, family Herpesviridae, and is the causative agent of an acute and frequently fatal disease that affects mainly pigs. Here, we report the genome sequences of two strains of this virus isolated in Greece in 2010. PMID:26798112

  14. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  15. Mycotoxin production by Alternaria strains isolated from Argentinean wheat.

    PubMed

    Patriarca, A; Azcarate, M P; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V

    2007-11-01

    The toxigenic potential of Alternaria strains isolated from Argentinean wheat was investigated. A total of 123 strains were assayed for the production of tenuazonic acid (TA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). All but one of the isolates were able to produce at least one of the three mycotoxins. TA was produced by 72% of the strains (1-14782 mg/kg), AOH by 87% (4-622 mg/kg) and AME by 91% (7-2625 mg/kg). The average level of TA detected for all strains (1757 mg/kg) was higher than the average level of both alternariols (162 mg/kg for AOH and 620 mg/kg for AME). TA was the toxin produced at the highest concentration but in lower frequency. Most of the strains were able to synthesize more than one toxin: 74 isolates (60%) were positive for all three toxins, 30 (24%) for both AOH and AME, 5 (4%) for both TA and AME, and 2 (2%) for TA and AOH. The widespread occurrence of Alternaria in wheat and its ability to produce mycotoxins suggests the possible occurrence of its toxins in wheat naturally infected with this fungus. PMID:17804107

  16. Tannic acid degradation by Klebsiella strains isolated from goat feces

    PubMed Central

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Tabatabaee, Nooroldin; Khalkhali, Hossein; Amini, Imane

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pistachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD). Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed. Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization. Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds. PMID:27092220

  17. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS ISOLATED FROM INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Mihaela; Patriche, David Sebastian; Străuţ, Monica; Antohe, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the heart endothelium and valves and is frequently a consequence of a sanguine flow turbulence and injury of endocardium. Recent studies revealed an increase of Staphylococcus aureus strains involved in IE, but no evident correlations between the genetic background of this bacterium and IE involvement of certain strains have been found yet. In this study we analyzed the virulence profile, including adhesins, exotoxins, superantigens and biofilm determinants, along with agr type detection, for S. aureus strains isolated from IE, versus non-IE originating strains. We performed also bacterial typing (SCCmec typing, spa-typing and MLST typing), in order to compare our strains with international databases repositories. Although the study was carried out on a reduced number of isolates, our observations confirm the previous works, showing that no major differences were observed between the genetic backgrounds of the two groups of strains analyzed. Notably, the added value of this study was optimization of two new multiplex PCR protocols, and the enrichment of international databases with three new spa-types, three new MLST alleles and four new MLST sequence types. PMID:26201122

  18. Isolation of two Pseudomonas strains producing pseudomonic acid A.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Eva; Fekete, Agnes; Lintelmann, Jutta; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philipe; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-02-01

    Two novel Pseudomonas strains were isolated from groundwater sediment samples. The strains showed resistance against the antibiotics tetracycline, cephalothin, nisin, vancomycin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, lincomycin, and penicillin and grew at temperatures between 15 and 37 degrees C and pH values from 4 to 10 with a maximum at pH 7 to 10. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences and the substrate spectrum of the isolates revealed that the two strains belonged to the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The supernatants of both strains had an antibiotic effect against Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative strain. The effective substance was produced under standard cultivation conditions without special inducer molecules or special medium composition. The antibiotically active compound was identified as pseudomonic acid A by off-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). The measurement on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, UV-vis detection) confirmed the determination of pseudomonic acid A which was produced by both strains at 1.7-3.5mg/l. Our findings indicate that the ability to produce the antibiotic pseudomonic acid A (Mupirocin) is more spread among the pseudomonads then anticipated from the only producer known so far. PMID:19070447

  19. EVALUATING VIRULENCE OF WATERBORNE AND CLINCIAL AEROMONAS ISOLATES USING GENE EXPRESSION AND MORTALITY IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWED BY ASSESSING CELL CULTURE'S ABILITY TO PREDICT VIRULENCE BASED ON TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The virulence of multiple Aeromonas spp. were assessed using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Transcriptional responses to both infection models were assessed using microarrays. After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., ...

  20. Pathogenic potential of Saccharomyces strains isolated from dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Llopis, Silvia; Hernández-Haro, Carolina; Monteoliva, Lucía; Querol, Amparo; Molina, María; Fernández-Espinar, María T

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a beneficial role in health because of its intrinsic nutritional value and bio-functional properties, which is why it is also used as a dietary supplement. However, the perception that S. cerevisiae is harmless has changed due to an increasing number of infections caused by this yeast. Given this scenario, we have tested whether viable strains contained in dietary supplements displayed virulence-associated phenotypic traits that could contribute to virulence in humans. We have also performed an in vivo study of the pathogenic potential of these strains using a murine model of systemic infection by intravenous inoculation. A total of 5 strains were isolated from 22 commercial products and tested. Results highlight one strain (D14) in terms of burden levels in brains and kidneys and ability to cause death, whereas the other two strains (D2 and D4) were considered of low virulence. Our results suggest a strong relationship between some of the virulence-associated phenotypic traits (ability to grow at 39°C and pseudohyphal growth) and the in vivo virulence in a mouse model of intravenous inoculation for isolates under study. The isolate displaying greatest virulence (D14) was evaluated in an experimental murine model of gastrointestinal infection with immunosuppression and disruption of mucosal integrity, which are common risk factors for developing infection in humans, and results were compared with an avirulent strain (D23). We showed that D14 was able to spread to mesenteric nodes and distant organs under these conditions. Given the widespread consumption of dietary supplements, we recommend only safe strains be used. PMID:24879417

  1. Pathogenic Potential of Saccharomyces Strains Isolated from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Monteoliva, Lucía; Querol, Amparo; Molina, María; Fernández-Espinar, María T.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a beneficial role in health because of its intrinsic nutritional value and bio-functional properties, which is why it is also used as a dietary supplement. However, the perception that S. cerevisiae is harmless has changed due to an increasing number of infections caused by this yeast. Given this scenario, we have tested whether viable strains contained in dietary supplements displayed virulence-associated phenotypic traits that could contribute to virulence in humans. We have also performed an in vivo study of the pathogenic potential of these strains using a murine model of systemic infection by intravenous inoculation. A total of 5 strains were isolated from 22 commercial products and tested. Results highlight one strain (D14) in terms of burden levels in brains and kidneys and ability to cause death, whereas the other two strains (D2 and D4) were considered of low virulence. Our results suggest a strong relationship between some of the virulence-associated phenotypic traits (ability to grow at 39°C and pseudohyphal growth) and the in vivo virulence in a mouse model of intravenous inoculation for isolates under study. The isolate displaying greatest virulence (D14) was evaluated in an experimental murine model of gastrointestinal infection with immunosuppression and disruption of mucosal integrity, which are common risk factors for developing infection in humans, and results were compared with an avirulent strain (D23). We showed that D14 was able to spread to mesenteric nodes and distant organs under these conditions. Given the widespread consumption of dietary supplements, we recommend only safe strains be used. PMID:24879417

  2. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  3. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly similar genomes. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that U.S. catfish isolates emerged from A. hydrophila populations of Asian origin. Furthermore, we identified an A. hydrophila strain isolated in 2004 from a diseased catfish in Mississippi, prior to the onset of the major epidemic outbreaks in Alabama starting in 2009, with genomic characteristics that are intermediate between those of the Asian and Alabama fish isolates. Investigation of A. hydrophila strain virulence demonstrated that the isolate from the U.S. catfish epidemic is significantly more virulent to both channel catfish and grass carp than is the Chinese carp isolate. This study implicates the importation of fish or fishery products into the United States as the source of highly virulent A. hydrophila that has caused severe epidemic outbreaks in United States-farmed catfish and further demonstrates the potential for invasive animal species to disseminate bacterial pathogens worldwide. PMID:24895303

  4. Mannanoligosaccharide agglutination by Salmonella enterica strains isolated from carrier pigs

    PubMed Central

    Borowsky, Luciane; Corção, Gertrudes; Cardoso, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are associated with most Salmonella enterica serovars and are an essential factor for host colonization. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), a prebiotic that is agglutinated by type-1 fimbriae, are proposed for the control of enterobacteria colonization and may be an alternative to Salmonella control in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of porcine Salmonella strains to adhere to MOS in vitro. A total of 108 strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from carrier pigs were evaluated for the amplification of fimA and fimH genes, agglutination of MOS and hemagglutination. In all tested strains, amplicons of expected size were detected for both fimA and fimH gene. In the hemagglutination assays, 31 (28.7%) strains presented mannose–sensitive agglutination of erythrocytes, indicating that the strains were expressing type-1 fimbriae. Considering only strains expressing the type-1 fimbriae, 23 (74.2%) presented a strong agglutination of MOS, 3 (9.6%) a weak reaction and 5 (16.2%) none. The results indicate that Salmonella enterica strains expressing type-1 fimbriae can agglutinate effectively in vitro to MOS. PMID:24031388

  5. A novel strain D5 isolated from Acacia confusa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baoling; Lv, Chengqun; Zhao, Yili; Huang, Rong

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain D5 from nodules of Acacia confusa. Under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate Acacia confusa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g(-1)·min(-1). In the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, the sequence of strain D5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus Pseudomonas. The 685 bp nodA fragment amplified from strain D5 shared 95% homology with the nodA sequence of 9 species of genus Bradyrhizobium, with a genetic distance of 0.01682. The 740 bp nifH gene fragment was amplified from strain D5. This strain D5 nifH gene and Bradyrhizobium spp. formed a branch, showing 98% homology and a genetic distance of 0. The homology between this branch and the Bradyrhizobium spp. DG in another branch was 99%, with a genetic distance of 0.007906. These results indicate that this strain D5 is a new type of nitrogen-fixing bacterium. PMID:23166618

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila in livestock: incidence, biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Faecal samples from 110 horses, 115 pigs, 111 sheep and 123 cows were examined for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila, which was also sought in the available drinking water. The overall faecal rate was 11.8%, but significantly more bovine than other samples were found to be positive. There was significant association between the isolation of A. hydrophila from all animal faeces and its presence in drinking water, but this was not found when individual animal groups were analysed separately. An enrichment technique increased the total number of isolates by 77.1%. Strains of differing origins could not be differentiated by biotyping, although fermentation of sorbitol was associated with bovine isolates. There was a strong positive correlation between positive reactions for V--P, gluconate oxidase and haemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes, tests which had previously been shown to correlate with production of enterotoxin and cytotoxin. Biotypes giving positive reactions for these tests were most frequently isolated from cows, sheep and untreated water, and less frequently from pigs and horses. Most strains of A. hydrophila were resistant to amoxycillin, carbenicillin and cephradine, and sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol and neomycin. PMID:6736644

  7. Faecal contamination indicators, Salmonella, Vibrio and Aeromonas in water used for the irrigation of agricultural products.

    PubMed Central

    Pianietti, A.; Sabatini, L.; Bruscolini, F.; Chiaverini, F.; Cecchetti, G.

    2004-01-01

    The faecal contamination indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the genera Salmonella, Vibrio, Aeromonas were investigated in water samples used for irrigation. During 4 months, 52 samples were taken. The methods used were: multiple tube fermentation method for faecal contamination indicators and membrane filtration techniques for salmonella, aeromonas and vibrio. Two samples were positive for Salmonella spp., fourteen for Aeromonas spp. and no samples for Vibrio spp. No correlation was found between aeromonas and the indicators of faecal contamination. Regarding Aeromonas spp., 21.6% of the strains were adhesive and 12.6% cytotoxic: this confirms the possible role of aeromonas in human pathologies. These results are important to determine the quality of irrigation water in relation to human health. In fact, the spray or sprinkler irrigation produces bioaerosol, which can contaminate the crops that are likely to be eaten uncooked. In addition, the flood or furrow irrigation represents a risk to field workers. PMID:15061497

  8. Aeromonas spp.-mediated cell-contact cytotoxicity is associated with the presence of type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Krzymińska, Sylwia; Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Cwiertnia, Anna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-02-01

    In the study we examined the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and the presence of a type III secretion system (TTSS) in 64 Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fecal specimens of patients with gastroenteritis. We observed that contact of the bacteria with host epithelial cells is a prerequisite for their cytotoxicity at 3 h incubation. Cell-contact cytotoxic activity of the strains was strongly associated with the presence of the TTSS. Culture supernatants of the strains induced low cytotoxicity effects at the same time of incubation. Cell-free supernatants of 61 (95%) isolates expressed cytotoxic activity which caused the destruction of HEp-2 cells at 24 h. Moreover, 44% strains were cytotonic towards CHO cells and 46% of strains invaded epithelial cells. PMID:21809027

  9. Antibacterial sensitivity of Acinetobacter strains isolated from nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Karsligil, T; Balci, I; Zer, Y

    2004-01-01

    Acinetobacter species can cause many types of hospital-acquired infection and play an important role in nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care units, skin and wound infections, and meningitis. They are of increasing importance because of their ability to rapidly develop resistance to the major groups of antibiotics. We aimed to determine the antibiotic sensitivity of Acinetobacter strains isolated from, and determined to be the cause of, hospital-acquired infections. A total of 156 cultures of Acinetobacter (strains of A. baumannii [136; 87.2%] and A. iwoffii [20; 12.8%]), were isolated from clinical samples taken from patients in different units of our hospital. Conventional bacterial identification methods and the Sceptor system were used. In the antibiotic sensitivity tests, A. baumannii was susceptible to imipenem (90.4%), norfloxacin (84.5%) and ciprofloxacin (65.4%), and A. iwoffii to amikacin (80.0%), ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (70.0%) and imipenem (60.0%). PMID:15303777

  10. Effect of copper sulfate on Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motile Aeromonad Septicemia (MAS) results from primary or secondary infection with bacteria from Gram(-) Aeromonas spp., including Aeromonas hydrophila. Since 2009, an emerging strain of A. hydrophila has been associated, as a primary pathogen, with significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. c...

  11. Effect of strain isolator pad modulus on inplane strain in Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal protection system used on the Space Shuttle orbiter to determine strains in the reusable surface insulation tiles under simulated flight loads was investigated. The effects of changes in the strain isolator pad (SIP) moduli on the strains in the tile were evaluated. To analyze the SIP/tile system, it was necessary to conduct tests to determine inplane tension and compression modulus and inplane failure strain for the densified layer of the tiles. It is shown that densification of the LI-900 tile material increases the modulus by a factor of 6 to 10 and reduces the failure strain by about 50%. It is indicated that the inplane strain levels in the Shuttle tiles in the highly loaded regions are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than the failure strain of the material. It is concluded that most of the LI-900 tiles on the Shuttle could be mounted on a SIP with tensile and shear stiffnesses 10 times those of the present SIP without inplane strain failure in the tile.

  12. Fabrication of strain-isolated ceramic coated combustor components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutter, S.

    1985-01-01

    The use of strain-isolated ceramic coated material to produce an AGT1500 combustor scroll-shaped transition duct which requires no air for film cooling is investigated. The scroll receives the exhaust of the can-style combustor liner and turns it into the annular inlet of the high pressure gas producer turbine nozzle. Strain-isolation of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating is achieved by placing a compliant pad between the structural base metal and the ceramic coating. The compliant pad is brazed to the metal structure. In order to achieve a good braze bond, the strain-isolating compliant pad and base metal must be closely matched in shape and tightly fixtured for joining. The complex geometry of the AGT1500 scroll makes it impractical to attack pads to the supporting structure in its finished shape. Instead the pads are brazed to flat stock and post-formed into scroll sections. While test samples were successfully post-formed, plasma sprayed, and subjected to cyclic heating, the forming of full scale parts by normal methods resulted in tearing of the Hastelloy-X base metal because of embrittlement by the braze material. Several solutions were explored which finally resulted in the successful forming of full scale scroll parts.

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila in 2010: Characteristics of Alabama outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a second year, epidemics associated with a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size Alabama (AL) catfish. During this period, the Alabama Fish Farming Center diagnosed outbreaks of this strain of A. hydrophila on 25% (28/113) o...

  14. Vibrio cholerae and Aeromonas: do they share a mutual host?

    PubMed

    Senderovich, Yigal; Gershtein, Yana; Halewa, Etti; Halpern, Malka

    2008-03-01

    Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered as an emergent human pathogen. It is estimated that aeromonads cause up to 13% of reported gastroenteritis cases in the United States. Although the autochthonous existence of Aeromonas in the aquatic environment has been established, its natural reservoir is as yet unknown. Chironomids are closely related to mosquitoes except they do not bite and they are the most widely distributed insects in freshwater. They infest drinking water systems in Israel and all over the world. Vibrio cholerae inhabit chironomids and are able to degrade their egg masses. The degradation of the egg masses is followed by failure of the eggs to hatch. In the current study, egg masses from a waste stabilization pond and a river in northern Israel were collected and cultured during a five-month period. Bacterial colonies were randomly chosen and checked for their egg mass degradation abilities. In addition to V. cholerae, most of the other isolates that had the ability to degrade the egg masses were identified as Aeromonas species, thus, demonstrating that Aeromonas species are natural inhabitants of chironomid egg masses. The following virulence-associated genes were detected in Aeromonas species that were isolated from chironomid egg masses: alt (78%); ahpB (76%); act/aerA/hlyA (65%); fla (59%); pla/lipH3/apl-1/lip (43%); and ast (2%). These findings indicate that the Aeromonas species inhabiting chironomid egg masses pose a potential health risk. Understanding the natural reservoir of Aeromonas will help to develop methods to monitor and control the bacteria in fresh and drinking water reservoirs and to better understand the relationships between chironomids, V. cholerae and Aeromonas populations. PMID:18317460

  15. Isolation of Two Apsa Suppressor Strains in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, M.; Fischer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually with single nucleated conidia. In apsA (anucleate primary sterigmata) strains, nuclear positioning is affected and conidiation is greatly reduced. To get further insights into the cellular functions of apsA, aconidial apsA strains were mutagenized and conidiating suppressor strains were isolated. The suppressors fell into two complementation groups, samA and samB (suppressor of anucleate metulae). samA mapped on linkage group I close to pyrG. The mutant allele was dominant in diploids homozygous for apsA. Viability of conidia of samA suppressor strains (samA(-); apsA(-)) was reduced to 50% in comparison to wild-type conidia. Eighty percent of viable spores produced small size colonies that were temperature- and benomyl-sensitive. samB mapped to chromosome VIII and was recessive. Viability of conidia from samB suppressor strains (apsA(-); samB(-)) was also affected but no small size colonies were observed. Both suppressors produced partial defects in sexual reproduction and both suppressed an apsA deletion mutation. In wild-type background the mutant loci affected hyphal growth rate (samA) or changed the colony morphology (samB) and inhibited sexual spore formation (samA and samB). Only subtle effects on conidiation were found. We conclude that both suppressor genes bypass the apsA function and are involved in microtubule-dependent processes. PMID:8889518

  16. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  17. Aeromonas flagella and colonisation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Rebecca; Balboa, Sabela; Parker, Jennifer L; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas species are inhabitants of aquatic environments and are able to cause disease in humans and fish among other animals. In aquaculture, they are responsible for the economically important diseases of furunculosis and motile Aeromonas septicaemia (MAS). Whereas gastroenteritis and wound infections are the major human diseases associated with the genus. As they inhabit and survive in diverse environments, aeromonads possess a wide range of colonisation factors. The motile species are able to swim in liquid environments through the action of a single polar flagellum, the flagellin subunits of which are glycosylated; although essential for function the biological role of glycan addition is yet to be determined. Approximately 60% of aeromonads possess a second lateral flagella system that is expressed in viscous environments for swarming over surfaces; both flagellar systems have been shown to be important in the initial colonisation of surfaces. Subsequently, other non-flagellar colonisation factors are employed; these can be both filamentous and non-filamentous. The aeromonads possess a number of fimbrial systems with the bundle-forming MSHA type IV pilus system, having a major role in human cell adherence. Furthermore, a series of outer-membrane proteins have also been implicated in the aeromonad adhesion process. A number of strains are also capable of cell invasion and that maybe linked with the more invasive diseases of bacteraemia or wound infections. These strains employ cell surface factors that allow the colonisation of these niches that protect them from the host's immune system such as S-layers, capsules or particular lipopolysaccharides. PMID:25476767

  18. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables.

    PubMed

    McMahon, M A; Wilson, I G

    2001-10-22

    A range of commercially available organic vegetables (n = 86) was examined for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, E. coli O 157. Listeria and Aeromonas spp., to provide information on the occurrence of such organisms in organic vegetables in Northern Ireland. The study was not designed to quantify such organisms or to compare occurrence with conventionally farmed vegetables. Standard enrichment techniques were used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species. No Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli. E. coli O 157, Listeria were found in any of the samples examined. Aeromonas species were isolated from 34% of the total number of organic vegetables examined. Many (64%) of the organic vegetables examined were "ready-to-eat" after minimal processing, i.e., washing. Aeromonas spp. was isolated from 41% of these vegetables. Aeromonas spp. was not recovered from certain vegetable types. The most commonly isolated species of Aeromonas was Aeromonas schubertii with 21.0% of all samples contaminated with this species; 5.8% of samples contained A. hydrophila, 5.8% A. trota, 3.5% A. caviae and 2.3% contained A. veronii biovar veronii. Although Aeromonas species are frequently detected in organic vegetables, the absence of accepted enteric pathogens was encouraging, and does not support the allegation of organic foods being of high risk due to the farming methods used. PMID:11759753

  19. Drug resistance analysis of bacterial strains isolated from burn patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, L F; Li, J L; Ma, W H; Li, J Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the spectrum and drug resistance of bacteria isolated from burn patients to provide a reference for rational clinical use of antibiotics. Up to 1914 bacterial strain specimens isolated from burn patients admitted to hospital between 2001 and 2010 were subjected to resistance monitoring by using the K-B paper disk method. Retrospective analysis was performed on drug resistance analysis of burn patients. The top eight bacterium strains according to detection rate. A total of 1355 strains of Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria and 559 strains of Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria were detected. The top eight bacterium strains, according to detection rate, were Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus. Drug resistance rates were higher than 90% in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus, which accounted for 52.2, 21.7, 27.8, and 33.3%, respectively, of the entire sample. Those with drug resistance rates lower than 30% accounted for 4.3, 30.4, 16.7, and 16.7%, respectively. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) accounted for 49.2 and 76.4% of the S. epidermis and S. aureus resistance, respectively. Antibacterial drugs that had drug resistance rates to MRSE and MRSA higher than 90% accounted for 38.9 and 72.2%, respectively, whereas those with lower than 30% drug resistance rates accounted for 11.1 and 16.7%, respectively. The burn patients enrolled in the study were mainly infected with G(-) bacteria. These results strongly suggest that clinicians should practice rational use of antibiotics based on drug susceptibility test results. PMID:24535909

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Dec, M; Wernicki, A; Puchalski, A; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 93 Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese raised on Polish farms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial substances was determined by the broth microdilution method. All strains were sensitive to the cell wall inhibitors ampicillin and amoxicillin (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml). Resistance to inhibitors of protein synthesis and to fluoroquinolone inhibitors of replication was found in 44.1% and 60.2% of isolates, respectively; 26.9% strains were resistant to neomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 23.6% to tetracycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 15% to lincomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 18.3% to doxycycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 9.7% to tylosin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 56% to flumequine (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml) and 22.6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml). Bimodal distribution of MICs indicative of acquired resistance and unimodal distribution of the high MIC values indicative of intrinsic resistance were correlated with Lactobacillus species. Eleven (11.8%) strains displayed multiple resistance for at least three classes of antibiotics. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing current microbiological breakpoints for categorisation of susceptible and resistant strains of Lactobacillus genus and help to assess the hazards associated with the occurrence of drug resistance among natural intestinal microflora. PMID:26105622

  1. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    PubMed

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:26841300

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic identification of Aeromonas species and CphA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Holly A; Heney, Claire; Sidjabat, Hanna E; George, Narelle M; Bergh, Haakon; Anuj, Snehal N; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2016-05-01

    Infection caused by Aeromonas spp. ranges from superficial wound infection to life-threatening septicemia. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-beta-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, is a significant problem. This study defines Aeromonas spp. causing clinical disease in Queensland, Australia. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase detection were assessed. One hundred Aeromonas isolates from blood (22), wound (46), sterile sites (11), stool (18), eye (2), and sputum (1) were characterized by rpoB and gyrB sequencing. Meropenem susceptibility by VITEK2, disk diffusion, and E-test MIC were determined. Carbapenemase production was assessed by Carba NP test and cphA by PCR. Gene sequencing identified isolates as Aeromonas dhakensis (39), Aeromonas veronii (21), Aeromonas hydrophila (20), Aeromonas caviae (14), Aeromonas jandaei (4), Aeromonas bestiarum (1), and Aeromonas sanarellii (1). Disk diffusion and E-test failed to detect resistance in isolates with presence of cphA. Carba NP was performed with 97.4% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity. Carbapenem resistance gene cphA was detected in A. veronii (21; 100%), A. hydrophila (18; 90%), A. dhakensis (34; 87.2%), A. jandaei (3; 75%), and A. bestiarum (1; 100%) but not A. caviae. We found that A. dhakensis was the predominant species, a previously unrecognized pathogen in this region. PMID:26971634

  3. DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Influences the Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Pillai, Lakshmi; Fadl, Amin A.; Sha, Jian; Wang, Shaofei; Galindo, Cristi L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various virulence factors produced by Aeromonas hydrophila, a type II secretion system (T2SS)-secreted cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS are crucial in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas-associated infections. Our laboratory molecularly characterized both Act and the T3SS from a diarrheal isolate, SSU of A. hydrophila, and defined the role of some regulatory genes in modulating the biological effects of Act. In this study, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed the DNA adenine methyltransferase gene of A. hydrophila SSU (damAhSSU) in a T7 promoter-based vector system using Escherichia coli ER2566 as a host strain, which could alter the virulence potential of A. hydrophila. Recombinant Dam, designated as M.AhySSUDam, was produced as a histidine-tagged fusion protein and purified from an E. coli cell lysate using nickel affinity chromatography. The purified Dam had methyltransferase activity, based on its ability to transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to N6-methyladenine-free lambda DNA and to protect methylated lambda DNA from digestion with DpnII but not against the DpnI restriction enzyme. The dam gene was essential for the viability of the bacterium, and overproduction of Dam in A. hydrophila SSU, using an arabinose-inducible, PBAD promoter-based system, reduced the virulence of this pathogen. Specifically, overproduction of M.AhySSUDam decreased the motility of the bacterium by 58%. Likewise, the T3SS-associated cytotoxicity, as measured by the release of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in murine macrophages infected with the Dam-overproducing strain, was diminished by 55% compared to that of a control A. hydrophila SSU strain harboring the pBAD vector alone. On the contrary, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities associated with Act as well as the protease activity in the culture supernatant of a Dam-overproducing strain were increased by 10-, 3-, and 2.4-fold, respectively, compared to those of the control A. hydrophila SSU strain. The Dam

  4. Biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila on green-leafy vegetables: cabbage and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Elhariry, Hesham M

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most well known of the six species of Aeromonas, which has been linked to two groups of human diseases: septicemia and gastroenteritis. Reference strain ATCC 7966 and biofilm strains TUB19, TUB20, and TUB21 were investigated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro (after 48 h on polystyrene surface) and on the surface of two green-leafy vegetables, cabbage and lettuce (after 1, 2, 4, and 24 h). Attachment strength (S(R)) of these strains to the vegetable surface was also measured in the same time intervals. The ATCC 7966 and TUB19 had high ability to form biofilm in vitro compared with TUB20 and TUB21 in full strength tryptone soy broth or under starvation conditions in diluted tryptone soy broth (1:20, v/v). Cell surface hydrophobicity of the biofilm strains was lower than that of the reference strain. The biofilm of all tested strains on polystyrene surfaces differed from that on the vegetable surfaces. All strains studied rapidly attached to both green leafy vegetables (after 1 h). S(R) and cell populations (loosely and strongly attached cells) significantly (p < 0.05) increased with contact time; however, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in cell populations were recorded after 4 and 24 h. The highest S(R) and cell population (log CFU cm⁻²) were recorded by TUB19. In conclusion, the use of A. hydrophila strains isolated from environmental biofilm samples may be more useful for understanding biofilm formation on green-leafy vegetables than the reference or laboratory strains. The attachment of A. hydrophila was significantly affected by the surfaces of green-leafy vegetables. Further studies are required to improve our understanding of the interaction between human microbial pathogens and surfaces of raw vegetables. PMID:21034267

  5. Cyclic tensile strain upregulates collagen synthesis in isolated tendon fascicles

    SciTech Connect

    Screen, Hazel R.C. . E-mail: H.R.C.Screen@qmul.ac.uk; Shelton, Julia C.; Bader, Dan L.; Lee, David A.

    2005-10-21

    Mechanical stimulation has been implicated as an important regulatory factor in tendon homeostasis. In this study, a custom-designed tensile loading system was used to apply controlled mechanical stimulation to isolated tendon fascicles, in order to examine the effects of 5% cyclic tensile strain at 1 Hz on cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. Sample viability and gross structural composition were maintained over a 24 h loading period. Data demonstrated no statistically significant differences in cell proliferation or glycosaminoglycan production, however, collagen synthesis was upregulated with the application of cyclic tensile strain over the 24 h period. Moreover, a greater proportion of the newly synthesised matrix was retained within the sample after loading. These data provide evidence of altered anabolic activity within tendon in response to mechanical stimuli, and suggest the importance of cyclic tensile loading for the maintenance of the collagen hierarchy within tendon.

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from beavers (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Platt-Samoraj, A; Syczyło, K; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Giżejewska, A; Szweda, W

    2015-01-01

    Pseudocloacal swabs and palatine tonsils from beavers have been examined for the Yersinia enterocolitica presence. Thirty-six samples from 24 beavers were collected and subjected to bacteriological examinations including sero- and biotypisation. Amplicons confirmed by PCR as Y. enterocolitica were sequenced. Positive samples originated from 4 out of the 24 beavers (16.7 %) and all the strains belonged to biotype 1A. The study suggested that Y. enterocolitica could be isolated from beavers, which may therefore be treated as a reservoir, a significant factor of water contamination and a vector of the Y. enterocolitica. PMID:26172198

  7. Development and validation of glycoprotein-based native-subunit vaccine for fish against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Çiftci, A; Onuk, E E; Çiftci, G; Fındık, A; Söğüt, M Ü; Didinen, B I; Aksoy, A; Üstünakın, K; Gülhan, T; Balta, F; Altun, S

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is known to be causative agent of an infection named as Bacterial haemorrhagic septicaemia or red pest in freshwater fish. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the glycoprotein-based fish vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila. For this aim, after identification and characterization of A. hydrophila isolates from fish farms, one A. hydrophila isolate was selected as vaccine strain. Antigenic glycoproteins of this vaccine strain were determined by Western blotting and glycan detection kit. The connection types of these glycoproteins were examined by glycoprotein differentiation kit. Two glycoproteins, molecular weights of 19 and 38 kDa, with SNA connection type were selected for use in vaccination trials. After their purification by SNA-specific lectin and size-exclusion chromatography, protection studies with purified proteins were performed. For challenge trials, four experimental fish groups were designated: Group I (with montanide), Group II (with montanide and ginseng), Group III [with Al(OH)3 ] and Group IV [with Al(OH)3 and ginseng]. The survival ratings of fish were determined, and protection was calculated as 21.56%, 29.41%, 69.83% and 78.88% in groups I, II, III and IV, respectively. In conclusion, A. hydrophila glycoproteins with Al(OH)3 and ginseng could be used as a safe and effective vaccine for fish. PMID:27144782

  8. Isolation of a Bacterial Strain Able To Degrade Branched Nonylphenol

    PubMed Central

    Tanghe, Tom; Dhooge, Willem; Verstraete, Willy

    1999-01-01

    Conventional enrichment of microorganisms on branched nonylphenol (NP) as only carbon and energy source yielded mixed cultures able to grow on the organic compound. However, plating yielded no single colonies capable, alone or in combination with other isolates, of degrading the NP in liquid culture. Therefore, a special approach was used, referred to as “serial dilution-plate resuspension,” to reduce culture complexity. In this way, one isolate, TTNP3, tentatively identified as a Sphingomonas sp., was found to be able to grow on NP in liquid culture. Remarkably, this isolate was able to be filtered through a 0.45-μm-pore-diameter filter. Moreover, isolate TTNP3 did not form visible colonies on mineral medium with NP, and it formed visible colonies on R2A agar only after a prolonged incubation of 1 week. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the culture media indicated that the strain starts the degradation of NP with a fission of the phenol ring and preferably uses the para isomer of NP and not the ortho isomer. No distinct accumulation of an intermediary product could be observed. PMID:9925611

  9. Clustering subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida using IS630 typing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The insertion element IS630 found in Aeromonas salmonicida belongs to the IS630-Tc1-mariner superfamily of transposons. It is present in multiple copies and represents approximately half of the IS present in the genome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449. Results By using High Copy Number IS630 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (HCN-IS630-RFLP), strains of various subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida showed conserved or clustering patterns, thus allowing their differentiation from each other. Fingerprints of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida showed the highest homogeneity while ‘atypical’ A. salmonicida strains were more heterogeneous. IS630 typing also differentiated A. salmonicida from other Aeromonas species. The copy number of IS630 in Aeromonas salmonicida ranges from 8 to 35 and is much lower in other Aeromonas species. Conclusions HCN-IS630-RFLP is a powerful tool for subtyping of A. salmonicida. The high stability of IS630 insertions in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida indicates that it might have played a role in pathoadaptation of A. salmonicida which has reached an optimal configuration in the highly virulent and specific fish pathogen A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:23406017

  10. [Antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L

    2014-01-01

    The antagonistic activity of 109 lactobacillus strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine, has been investigated and it has been shown that the significant part of strains show different levels of inhibition of opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms. It has been shown that the antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms was dependent on the sources of Lactobacillus strains isolation. L. plantarum strains show a higher level of inhibition against phytopathogenic microorganisms than opportunistic test-strains. Eleven strains of L. plantarum demonstrated antagonistic activity for all used test-strains. PMID:25007440

  11. Gentamicin resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics. PMID:24246520

  12. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Aspergillus fumigatus Strains, Isolated from the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Blachowicz, Adriana; Checinska, Aleksandra; Wang, Clay; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Draft genome sequences of Aspergillus fumigatus strains (ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4), opportunistic pathogens isolated from the International Space Station (ISS), were assembled to facilitate investigations of the nature of the virulence characteristics of the ISS strains to other clinical strains isolated on Earth. PMID:27417828

  14. R-PLASMID TRANSFER TO AND FROM 'ESCHERICHIA COLI' STRAINS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Escherichia coli recently isolated from human feces were examined for the frequency with which they accept and R factor (Ri) from a derepressed fi+ strain of E. coli K-12 and transfer it to fecal and laboratory strains. Colicins produced by some of the isolates rapidly...

  15. Genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated from the Western Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Vergin, Kevin L; Lee, Kiyoung; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2011-01-01

    The genus Oceanicaulis represents dimorphic rods that were originally isolated from a marine dinoflagellate. Here, we announce the genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated by dilution-to-extinction culturing from the Sargasso Sea. The genome information of strain HTCC2633 indicates a chemoorganotrophic way of life of this strain. PMID:21036991

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Aspergillus fumigatus Strains, Isolated from the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Blachowicz, Adriana; Checinska, Aleksandra; Wang, Clay

    2016-01-01

    Draft genome sequences of Aspergillus fumigatus strains (ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4), opportunistic pathogens isolated from the International Space Station (ISS), were assembled to facilitate investigations of the nature of the virulence characteristics of the ISS strains to other clinical strains isolated on Earth. PMID:27417828

  17. Isolation and genetic characterization of a tembusu virus strain isolated from mosquitoes in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Chen, H; Ou, Q; Liu, X; Gao, X; Yu, C; Wang, L

    2015-04-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a flavivirus, presumed to be a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus subgroup. To date, however, there have been no reports indicating that mosquitoes are involved in the spread of TMUV. In this study, we report the first isolation of TMUV from Culex mosquitoes. We describe the isolation and characterization of a field strain of TMUV from mosquitoes collected in Shandong Province, China. The virus isolate, named TMUV-SDMS, grows well in mosquito cell line C6/36, in Vero and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cell lines, and causes significant cytopathic effects in these cell cultures. The TMUV-SDMS genome is a single-stranded RNA, 10 989 nt in length, consisting of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3410 amino acids, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 142 and 617 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 genes revealed that the TMUV-SDMS is closely related to the TMUV YY5 and BYD strains which cause severe egg-drop in ducks. The 3'NTR of TMUV-SDMS contains two pairs of tandem repeat CS and one non-duplicate CS, which have sequence similarities to the same repeats in the YY5 and BYD strains. Our findings indicate that mosquitoes carrying the TMUV may play an important role in the spread of this virus and in disease outbreak. PMID:23711093

  18. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

  19. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water. PMID:26757724

  20. Use of Aeromonas as a process indicator during swine carcass dressing and cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Yu, Linda S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Using starch ampicillin agar, qualitative and quantitative determinations of Aeromonas spp. were made at several sites during swine carcass dressing and cutting. Aeromonas spp. were observed at all sites surveyed. Levels increased during shackling and passage through the first and middle polisher/washers, and significantly decreased during the singeing steps. Passage through the final polisher/washer caused a small increase in levels in Aeromonas spp. and these levels then remained constant during the rest of the carcass dressing operation. Aeromonas spp. were also isolated from the room where the carcasses were cut into wholesale cuts and cuts for further processing. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. cultures isolated from the different sites were confirmed as belonging to the genus Aeromonas and then speciated using the biochemical scheme of Joseph and Carnahan; 81% of the cultures were identified at A. hydrophila. Since most isolates were A. hydrophila, determination of the origin of isolates from different sites in the processing plant must await utilizing molecular biotyping techniques on the cultures. These results indicate the Aeromonas spp. occurs extensively in the swine dressing environment and thus represents a possible public health hazard and potential spoilage concern. Changes in cleaning and sanitizing of equipment may be necessary during swine carcass dressing and cutting to guard against this pathogen.

  1. The First Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Patients in Thailand▿

    PubMed Central

    Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Engchanil, Chulapan; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Vorachit, Malai; Ito, Teruyo; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    We screened 533 and 361 methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in a university hospital in 2002 and 2003 and in 2006 and 2007, respectively, and identified 4 (0.8%) of the strains in the first group and 8 (2.2%) of the strains in second group as heterogeneous vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (heterogeneous VISA) strains and 3 (0.8%) of the strains in the second group as VISA strains. This is the first report of VISA strains isolated from patients in Thailand. PMID:19403764

  2. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations. PMID:27303382

  3. Advanced Strain-Isolation-Pad Material with Bonded Fibrous Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibold, R. W.; Saito, C. A.; Buller, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing air lay and liquid lay felt deposition techniques to fabricate strain isolation pad (SIP) materials for the Space Shuttle Orbiter was demonstrated. These materials were developed as candidate replacements for the present needled felt SIP used between the ceramic tiles and the aluminum skin on the undersurface of the Orbiter. The SIP materials that were developed consisted of high temperature aramid fibers deposited by controlled fluid (air or liquid) carriers to form low density unbonded felts. The deposited felts were then bonded at the fiber intersections with a small amount of high temperature polyimide resin. This type of bonded felt construction can potentially eliminate two of the problems associated with the present SIP, viz., transmittal of localized stresses into the tiles and load history dependent mechanical response. However, further work is needed to achieve adequate through thickness tensile strength in the bonded felts.

  4. Complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus N strain isolated from guangxi, china.

    PubMed

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety. PMID:25573932

  5. Aeromonas species in foods.

    PubMed

    Isonhood, Jamie H; Drake, Maryanne

    2002-03-01

    Aeromonas species have been recognized as potential or emerging foodborne pathogens for more than 20 years. Aeromonads are estuarine bacteria and are ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables. Actual sourced foodborne outbreaks are few, but epidemiological evidence suggests that the bacterium can cause self-limiting diarrhea, with children being the most susceptible population. Most aeromonads are psychrotrophic and can grow in foods during cold storage. Aeromonads are not resistant to food processing regimes and are readily killed by heat treatment. A host of virulence factors are present, but the exact role of each in human disease has not been fully elucidated. PMID:11899061

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vagococcus fluvialis, including strains isolated from human sources.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, L M; Carvalho, M G; Merquior, V L; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Facklam, R R

    1997-01-01

    This study presents phenotypic and genotypic data for seven isolates of Vagococcus fluvialis, including four strains recovered from human clinical sources, one strain isolated from an environmental source, and two strains isolated from pigs. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, most isolates were initially classified as "unidentified enterococci," because they resembled atypical arginine-negative enterococcal species. All seven strains as well as the type strain of V. fluvialis reacted with the AccuProbe Enterococcus genetic probe. The seven isolates had virtually indistinguishable whole-cell protein profiles that were similar to that of the V. fluvialis type strain and distinct from those of Enterococcus and Lactococcus species. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments confirmed that the strains were V. fluvialis. They were 71% or more related to the V. fluvialis type strain under optimum and stringent conditions, with 2.5% or less divergence within related sequences. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin and were resistant to clindamycin, lomefloxacin, and ofloxacin. Strain-to-strain variation was observed in relation to susceptibilities to 18 other antimicrobial agents. Chromosomal DNA was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with SmaI. Distinctive PFGE patterns were generated, suggesting the nonclonal nature of V. fluvialis strains. Although the number of strains was small, this report provides molecular characterization of V. fluvialis and the first evidence of a possible connection of this species with human infections. PMID:9350732

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Helicobacter cinaedi and Helicobacter fennelliae strains isolated from humans and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Kiehlbauch, J A; Brenner, D J; Cameron, D N; Steigerwalt, A G; Makowski, J M; Baker, C N; Patton, C M; Wachsmuth, I K

    1995-01-01

    By DNA-DNA hybridization, we classified 26 human strains, 4 dog and cat strains, and 4 hamster strains putatively identified as Helicobacter cinaedi as well as 2 human strains and 2 animal strains of Helicobacter fennelliae. All but one human strain belonged to the same hybridization group as the type strain of H. cinaedi. The animal strains also appeared to belong to this hybridization group. Both human strains of H. fennelliae were shown to be H. fennelliae by DNA-DNA hybridization, but both animal strains were less than 15% related to the type strain. All strains were also characterized by plasmid profiles and ribotyping. Plasmids were found in 23% of the human strains, 100% of the hamster strains, and 33% of the dog and cat strains. Human strains were essentially identical by ribotyping, but were clearly differentiated from the hamster and dog and cat strains. Some strains may be difficult to culture on primary isolation; we found that our strains grew well on anaerobic CDC agar, brucella agar, and tryptic soy agar II. Our H. cinaedi and H. fennelliae strains differed from those previously described because some were resistant to cephalothin: some H. cinaedi strains were also resistant to nalidixic acid. All isolates were also characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We found that human strains of H. cinaedi were more resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin than were animal isolates; 19% of the human strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Therefore, we recommend that antimicrobial susceptibility results be obtained before initiating therapy for H. cinaedi and H. fennelliae infections. PMID:8576350

  8. [The appearance of ciprofloxacin resistance in the microbial strains isolated from gynecologic patients].

    PubMed

    Shopova, E

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of 415 microbial strains isolated from clinically taken samples from gynecologically diseased women was determined. The urine strains showed sensitivity up to 93.3%, but 7 Gram/-/ strains isolated in the last 3 months of the study were resistant to Ciprofloxacin. The cervical secretion strains, those of CD aspirates, of IUP and wound secretions were found sensitive up to 81.2%. The 50 Enterococcus strains isolated in gynecological infections were found in 28% resistant to Ciprofloxacin, with 7 of the 19 resistant strains were isolated in the last 3 months of the study. The appearance of resistant strains in some microbial species, pointed out in the literature as markedly sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, as well as the data of a fast developed resistance Ciprofloxacin in the course of treatment, allowed us to recommend their application in the infections caused by microorganisms resistant to the habitual antibiotics. PMID:9289951

  9. Molecular Mechanism of Nicotine Degradation by a Newly Isolated Strain, Ochrobactrum sp. Strain SJY1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Zhu, Xiongyu; Li, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    A newly isolated strain, SJY1, identified as Ochrobactrum sp., utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Strain SJY1 could efficiently degrade nicotine via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway), which highlights bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation. A 97-kbp DNA fragment containing six nicotine degradation-related genes was obtained by gap closing from the genome sequence of strain SJY1. Three genes, designated vppB, vppD, and vppE, in the VPP pathway were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the related proteins were characterized. The vppB gene encodes a flavin-containing amine oxidase converting 6-hydroxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine. Although VppB specifically catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 6-hydroxynicotine rather than nicotine, it shares higher amino acid sequence identity with nicotine oxidase (38%) from the pyrrolidine pathway than with its isoenzyme (6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase, 24%) from the pyridine pathway. The vppD gene encodes an NADH-dependent flavin-containing monooxygenase, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. VppD shows 62% amino acid sequence identity with the hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida strain S16, whereas the specific activity of VppD is ∼10-fold higher than that of HspB. VppE is responsible for the transformation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the VPP pathway, which evolved independently from nicotinic acid degradation, might have a closer relationship with the pyrrolidine pathway. The proteins and functional pathway identified here provide a sound basis for future studies aimed at a better understanding of molecular principles of nicotine degradation. PMID:25344232

  10. Molecular mechanism of nicotine degradation by a newly isolated strain, Ochrobactrum sp. strain SJY1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Tang, Hongzhi; Zhu, Xiongyu; Li, Yangyang; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A newly isolated strain, SJY1, identified as Ochrobactrum sp., utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Strain SJY1 could efficiently degrade nicotine via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway), which highlights bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation. A 97-kbp DNA fragment containing six nicotine degradation-related genes was obtained by gap closing from the genome sequence of strain SJY1. Three genes, designated vppB, vppD, and vppE, in the VPP pathway were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the related proteins were characterized. The vppB gene encodes a flavin-containing amine oxidase converting 6-hydroxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine. Although VppB specifically catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 6-hydroxynicotine rather than nicotine, it shares higher amino acid sequence identity with nicotine oxidase (38%) from the pyrrolidine pathway than with its isoenzyme (6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase, 24%) from the pyridine pathway. The vppD gene encodes an NADH-dependent flavin-containing monooxygenase, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. VppD shows 62% amino acid sequence identity with the hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida strain S16, whereas the specific activity of VppD is ∼10-fold higher than that of HspB. VppE is responsible for the transformation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the VPP pathway, which evolved independently from nicotinic acid degradation, might have a closer relationship with the pyrrolidine pathway. The proteins and functional pathway identified here provide a sound basis for future studies aimed at a better understanding of molecular principles of nicotine degradation. PMID:25344232

  11. Selective Enrichment Media Bias the Types of Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Mixed Strain Cultures and Complex Enrichment Broths

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella. PMID:22496847

  12. Lipopolysaccharides isolated from Aeromonas salmonicida and Vibrio anguillarum show quantitative but not qualitative differences in inflammatory outcome in Sparus aurata (Gilthead seabream).

    PubMed

    Boltaña, S; Tridico, R; Teles, M; Mackenzie, S; Tort, L

    2014-08-01

    In fish, the defence system recognises pathogenic microorganisms via pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense particular structures of the pathogens; the so-called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). The result of the PAMP-PRR interactions leads to complex and orchestrated immune responses. In this study, Sparus aurata (Gilthead seabream) were intraperitoneally injected with purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Aeromonas salmonicida (As)- and Vibrio anguillarum (Va) (1 mg*Kgfish(-1)), both Gram negative bacteria responsible for vibriosis and furunculosis respectively, therefore causing an impact upon marine fish cultures. Head-kidney, intestine, spleen, liver and blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-injection. Plasma levels of cortisol, prostaglandins and lactate were measured and were significantly increased after As-LPS and Va-LPS treatment. Furthermore, tissue-specific differences of the gene regulatory patterns were evident for each LPS. When monocyte/macrophage cell cultures were challenged with As-LPS and Va-LPS, the pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA abundances present a similar pattern of response. However, As-LPS always triggered a stronger response concerning TNFα, IL1β and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNA abundance as well as PGE2 levels in the supernatant. Overall, the results indicate that specific LPSs do not activate different pro-inflammatory responses and that the observed gene expression pattern is tissue and concentration dependent. PMID:24954838

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila produces conductive nanowires.

    PubMed

    Castro, Laura; Vera, Mario; Muñoz, Jesús Ángel; Blázquez, María Luisa; González, Felisa; Sand, Wolfgang; Ballester, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a facultative anaerobe which, under conditions of oxygen depletion, uses Fe(III) as electron acceptor. A. hydrophila produces pili during growth with Fe(III). The study was focused on the characterization of the morphology, the electrical properties and the nature of the bacterial pili. Scanning electron microscopy and conductive-probe atomic force microscopy revealed the presence of filaments between cells and substrate and their conductive nature. Our results indicate that pili of A. hydrophila strain A might serve as biological nanowires, transferring electrons from the cell surface to the surface of Fe(III) oxides and, in addition, the possibility of playing a role in inter/intra species signaling. Quorum sensing (QS) is recognized as one of the main regulatory ways for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production and biofilm formation. We present evidence that nanowire formation can be regulated by addition of synthetic acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL). These conductive pili may be involved in various interactions, and their protein components might be usable in the future for biotechnological approaches in materials science. PMID:25283724

  14. Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Homogentisate Pathway Responsible for Pyomelanin Production, the Major Melanin Constituents in Aeromonas media WS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Qiao, Yunqian; Chai, Baozhong; Qiu, Chenxi; Chen, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate). Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase), tyrB and aspC (both encode aromatic amino acid aminotransferase), and hppD (encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) constitute a linear pathway of converting phenylalanine to HGA and disruption of any one of these genes impairs or blocks pigmentation of A. media strain WS. This HGA biosynthesis pathway is widely distributed in Aeromonas, but HGA is only detectable in the cultures of pigmented Aeromonas species. Heterologous expression of HppD from both pigmented and non-pigmented Aeromonas species in E. coli leads to the production of pyomelanin and thus pigmentation, suggesting that most Aeromonas species have the critical enzymes to produce pyomelanin through HGA. Taken together, we have identified a widely conserved biosynthesis pathway of HGA based pyomelanin in Aeromonas that may be responsible for pigmentation of many Aeromonas species. PMID:25793756

  15. Molecular characterization of the Israeli B. bigemina vaccine strain and field isolates.

    PubMed

    Molad, T; Erster, O; Fleiderovitz, L; Roth, A; Leibovitz, B; Wolkomirsky, R; Mazuz, M L; Behar, A; Markovics, A

    2015-09-15

    The present study demonstrated the genetic character of the Israeli Babesia bigemina vaccine strain and field isolates, based on rap-1a and rap-1c gene sequences. The RAP-1a of blood-derived Israeli B. bigemina field isolates shared 100% amino acid sequence identity. However, comparison of RAP-1c from various Israeli B. bigemina field isolates revealed that the total sequence identity among the field isolates ranged from 98.2 to 100%. High identity was observed when RAP-1a sequences from the Israeli vaccine strain and field isolates were compared with RAP-1a from Egypt, Syria, Mexico and South Africa, while, the Israeli RAP-1c sequences showed the highest identity to the Mexican isolate JG-29 and to the PR isolate from Puerto-Rico. Based on sequence variations between the rap-1a of the vaccine strain and that of the field isolate, and between the rap-1c of the vaccine strain and that of the field isolates, nPCR-RFLP procedures were developed that enable, for the first time differentiation between the Israeli B. bigemina vaccine strain and field-infection isolates. These assays could serve as fast and sensitive methods for detection and differentiation between Israeli B. bigemina vaccine strains and field isolates, as well as for epidemiological investigations. PMID:26154404

  16. Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

  17. A polyphasic taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from equine placentas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actinomycete strains isolated from lesions on equine placentas were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic identification. All of the strains were isolated from placentas from horses in Kentucky. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, morphological observations, and the presence o...

  18. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found. PMID:27342087

  19. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  20. Strain relaxation of strained-Si layers on SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) structures after mesa isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Koji; Mizuno, Tomohisa; Tezuka, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Naoharu; Moriyama, Yoshihiko; Nakaharai, Shu; Takagi, Shin-ichi

    2004-03-01

    Strained-Si-on-insulator (strained-SOI) MOSFETs are one of the most promising device structures for high-speed and/or low-power CMOS. In realizing strained-Si MOS LSI, fabrication of strained-Si MOSFETs with small active area is indispensable, and thus the strain relaxation of strained-SOI mesa islands was investigated in this study. Thin strained-Si films were grown on thin relaxed SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) structures. The isolation process was carried out by using chemical-dry-etching (CDE) to fabricate samples with small active areas. Using Raman spectroscopy, strained-Si islands on SGOI substrates were investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the strained-Si layers grown on relaxed SiGe ( x=0.28) before and after mesa isolation, down to 5 μm in size, had almost no relaxation after rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA) at 1000 °C. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the nano-beam electron diffraction (NBD) measurement showed a similar tendency regarding the strain relaxation.

  1. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Pediococcus Strains Isolated from Human Clinical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Rosana R.; Carvalho, Maria Da Glória S.; Peralta, José Mauro; Facklam, Richard R.; Teixeira, Lúcia M.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-two strains of pediococci isolated from human clinical sources were characterized by conventional physiological tests, chromogenic enzymatic tests, analysis of whole-cell protein profiles (WCPP) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of chromosomal DNA restriction profiles by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Conventional tests allowed identification of 67 isolates: 52 strains were identified as Pediococcus acidilactici, 15 strains were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, and 5 strains were not identified because of atypical reactions. Analysis of WCPP identified all isolates since each species had a unique WCPP. By the WCPP method, the atypical strains were identified as P. acidilactici (two strains) and P. pentosaceus (three strains). The chromogenic substrate test with o-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside differentiated all 54 strains of P. acidilactici (negative reactions) and 13 (72%) of 18 strains of P. pentosaceus (positive reactions). Isolates of both species were shown to be nonclonal as revealed by the genetic diversity when chromosomal DNA was analyzed by PFGE. Using WCPP as the definitive identification procedure, P. acidilactici (28 of 54 strains; 51.8%) was more likely than P. pentosaceus (4 of 18 strains; 22.3%) to be isolated from blood cultures. PMID:11283035

  2. Isolation of a Variant Strain of Pleurotus eryngii and the Development of Specific DNA Markers to Identify the Variant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Jae-San; Lee, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    A degenerated strain of Pleurotus eryngii KNR2312 was isolated from a commercial farm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis performed on the genomic DNA of the normal and degenerated strains of this species revealed differences in the DNA banding pattern. A unique DNA fragment (1.7 kbp), which appeared only in the degenerated strain, was isolated and sequenced. Comparing this sequence with the KNR2312 genomic sequence showed that the sequence of the degenerated strain comprised three DNA regions that originated from nine distinct scaffolds of the genomic sequence, suggesting that chromosome-level changes had occurred in the degenerated strain. Using the unique sequence, three sets of PCR primers were designed that targeted the full length, the 5' half, and the 3' half of the DNA. The primer sets P2-1 and P2-2 yielded 1.76 and 0.97 kbp PCR products, respectively, only in the case of the degenerated strain, whereas P2-3 generated a 0.8 kbp product in both the normal and the degenerated strains because its target region was intact in the normal strain as well. In the case of the P2-1 and P2-2 sets, the priming regions of the forward and reverse primers were located at distinct genomic scaffolds in the normal strain. These two primer sets specifically detected the degenerate strain of KNR2312 isolated from various mushrooms including 10 different strains of P. eryngii, four strains of P. ostreatus, and 11 other wild mushrooms. PMID:24808734

  3. Isolation of a Variant Strain of Pleurotus eryngii and the Development of Specific DNA Markers to Identify the Variant Strain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Jae-San; Lee, Chang-Yun; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2014-03-01

    A degenerated strain of Pleurotus eryngii KNR2312 was isolated from a commercial farm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis performed on the genomic DNA of the normal and degenerated strains of this species revealed differences in the DNA banding pattern. A unique DNA fragment (1.7 kbp), which appeared only in the degenerated strain, was isolated and sequenced. Comparing this sequence with the KNR2312 genomic sequence showed that the sequence of the degenerated strain comprised three DNA regions that originated from nine distinct scaffolds of the genomic sequence, suggesting that chromosome-level changes had occurred in the degenerated strain. Using the unique sequence, three sets of PCR primers were designed that targeted the full length, the 5' half, and the 3' half of the DNA. The primer sets P2-1 and P2-2 yielded 1.76 and 0.97 kbp PCR products, respectively, only in the case of the degenerated strain, whereas P2-3 generated a 0.8 kbp product in both the normal and the degenerated strains because its target region was intact in the normal strain as well. In the case of the P2-1 and P2-2 sets, the priming regions of the forward and reverse primers were located at distinct genomic scaffolds in the normal strain. These two primer sets specifically detected the degenerate strain of KNR2312 isolated from various mushrooms including 10 different strains of P. eryngii, four strains of P. ostreatus, and 11 other wild mushrooms. PMID:24808734

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Vancomycin-Heteroresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain UC7032, Isolated from Food

    PubMed Central

    Pietta, Ester; Bassi, Daniela; Fontana, Cecilia; Puglisi, Edoardo; Cappa, Fabrizio; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis strain UC7032 was isolated from ready-to-eat cured meat and is heteroresistant to glycopeptide antibiotics. The draft whole-genome analysis revealed that this strain shows common characteristics typical of strains that are involved in nosocomial infections. PMID:24072859

  5. Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Strain HUK15, Isolated from Hexachlorocyclohexane-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Richard, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain HUK15 has been isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-long-term-contaminated soil. The genome of strain HUK15 was sequenced to investigate its adaptation toward HCH and its potential capability to degrade the pesticide. Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequence (~4.3 Mbp) of this strain. PMID:27081138

  6. Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain HUK16, Isolated from Hexachlorocyclohexane-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Richard, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strain HUK16 has been isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-long-term contaminated soil. The genome of strain HUK16 was sequenced to understand the genetic basis of its adaptation to HCH and to find the potential metabolic pathways allowing it to degrade the pesticide. Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequence (~2.7 Mbp) of this strain. PMID:27081139

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Aurantimicrobium minutum Type Strain KNCT, a Planktonic Ultramicrobacterium Isolated from River Water.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Ryosuke; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Baba, Tomoya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Naganuma, Takeshi; Niki, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Aurantimicrobium minutum type strain KNC(T) is a planktonic ultramicrobacterium isolated from river water in western Japan. Strain KNC(T) has an extremely small, streamlined genome of 1,622,386 bp comprising 1,575 protein-coding sequences. The genome annotation suggests that strain KNC(T) has an actinorhodopsin-based photometabolism. PMID:27365350

  8. Biofilm production and resistance to disinfectants in Salmonella strains isolated from prickly pear, water, and soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to: i) determine the capacity of Salmonella isolated from prickly pear (10 strains), water samples (2 strains), and soil (3 strains) to form biofilms, and ii) evaluate the bactericidal effect of citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium hypochlorite on biofilm-forming st...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. Strain SA_1 Isolated from Iron Backwash Sludge in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Josephin; Liere, Karsten; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Rheinheimera sp. strain SA_1 is an iron-depositing bacterium for which we report a draft genome sequence. Strain SA_1 was isolated from iron backwash sludge of a waterworks in Germany. The Illumina MiSeq technique was used to sequence the genome of the strain. PMID:27540074

  10. Genome Sequences of Brucella abortus and Brucella suis Strains Isolated from Bovine in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Ledwaba, Betty; Mafofo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of whole-genome sequences of a Brucella abortus strain and two Brucella suis strains isolated from bovine in Zimbabwe. These strains were selected based on their origin and data obtained when using multiplex PCR assays, then sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:25342680

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Aurantimicrobium minutum Type Strain KNCT, a Planktonic Ultramicrobacterium Isolated from River Water

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Takatomo; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Baba, Tomoya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Naganuma, Takeshi; Niki, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Aurantimicrobium minutum type strain KNCT is a planktonic ultramicrobacterium isolated from river water in western Japan. Strain KNCT has an extremely small, streamlined genome of 1,622,386 bp comprising 1,575 protein-coding sequences. The genome annotation suggests that strain KNCT has an actinorhodopsin-based photometabolism. PMID:27365350

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. Strain SA_1 Isolated from Iron Backwash Sludge in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Josephin; Braun, Burga; Liere, Karsten; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Rheinheimera sp. strain SA_1 is an iron-depositing bacterium for which we report a draft genome sequence. Strain SA_1 was isolated from iron backwash sludge of a waterworks in Germany. The Illumina MiSeq technique was used to sequence the genome of the strain. PMID:27540074

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc gelidum Strain JB7, Isolated from Kimchi

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee

    2012-01-01

    A strain of Leuconostoc gelidum, designated strain JB7, was isolated from kimchi, the representative Korean traditional fermented food. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of L. gelidum strain JB7, consisting of a 1,893,499-bp circular chromosome with a G+C content of 36.68%, and provide a description of its annotation. PMID:23144409

  14. Genetic transformation of Bacillus strains close to bacillus subtilis and isolated from the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Van, C.K.; Kuzin, Yu.Yu.; Kozlovskii, Yu.E.; Prozorov, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    Chromosomal and plasmid transformation was found in five out of 118 Bacillus strains, close or identical to Bacillus subtilis, and isolated from soil in Moscow or in the Moscow district. The efficiency of transformation in these strains was lower than that in derivatives of Bac. subtilis strain 168. In these strains the ability to undergo transformation was dependent on the rate of sporulation and the presence of restrictases. As in the case of Bac. subtilis 168 the strains isolated may be used as models in genetic transformation studies on Bac. subtilis.

  15. Anaerobic survival of clinical isolates and laboratory strains of Neisseria gonorrhoea: use in transfer and storage.

    PubMed Central

    Short, H B; Clark, V L; Kellogg, D S; Young, F E

    1982-01-01

    Eleven laboratory strains and 67 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were tested for the ability to survive during anaerobic incubation. The survival of the laboratory strains was dependent on auxotype, temperature, and cell density on agar plates. For both the laboratory strains and the clinical isolates, anaerobic survival was better at lower temperatures. We concluded that anaerobic incubation, for as long as 7 days, is useful when transporting or storing N. gonorrhoeae. Images PMID:6808019

  16. Pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Pohl, P; Okerman, L; Devriese, L A

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two different strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits showing intestinal attachment of bacilli were studied. None of the strains produced thermostable or thermolabile enterotoxins, and none was invasive. Strains isolated from suckling rabbits attached in vitro to the brush borders of intestinal villi, whereas strains from weanling rabbits did not. After experimental infection of 5-week-old rabbits, the 26 strains isolated from weaned diarrheic rabbits attached to the epithelium of ileum, cecum, and colon, whereas only slight attachment was found after infection with the six strains isolated from suckling diarrheic rabbits. The former strains induced diarrhea in 87% of the rabbits, whereas the latter induced diarrhea in only 9% of inoculated rabbits. E. coli isolated from healthy rabbits did not cause diarrhea. Strains isolated from diarrheic suckling rabbits all belonged to serotype O109:K-:H2, whereas strains from diarrheic weaned rabbits belonged to at least eight different serogroups. It is suggested that two different mechanisms of E. coli enteropathy might exist in rabbits. PMID:6378965

  17. Identification and biochemical characterization of Leishmania strains isolated in Peru, Mexico, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Marín, Clotilde; Vargas, Franklin; Córdova, Ofelia; Barrera, Mario; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Alunda, Jose María; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Eight Leishmania promastigotes were isolated from different geographical areas: three (LP1, LP2, and LP3) from the provincial department La Libertad and the fourth (LP4) from the department of Cajamarca (northern Peru); another three (LM1, LM2, and LM3) in the province of Campeche (Mexico); and the last (LS1) from a clinical case of a dog in Madrid (Spain). The isolates were characterized by carbohydrate cell-surface residues using agglutinations with four purified lectins, by isoenzyme analysis using different isoenzymes, by analysis of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism using four different restriction endonucleases and by the final metabolite patterns after in vitro culture. These isolates were compared with four reference strains and typified as: Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, two strains of L. (L.) infantum, and one species of L. (Viania) peruviana. According to our results and the statistical study, the Peruvian isolates represent three different strains: one would be L. (V.) peruviana, another the strain isolated in Cajamarca (LP4) and the third would include the three strains from the department of La Libertad (LP1, LP2, and LP3), these latter three isolates being phylogenetically closer to the reference strain L. (L.) donovani. Meanwhile, the three isolates from Mexico form a group with close phylogenetic relationships to each other. The isolate from Spain belongs to the species L. (L.) infantum. Thus, a close correlation was drawn between the identity of each strain and its geographical origin. PMID:16289175

  18. Analysis on the sequence of the whole genome of an isolated enterovirus 71 strain

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Enjin; Li, Qing; Li, Xiangxue; Gu, Shengli; Han, Yun; Tang, Zhengzhen; Li, Ying; Huang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    An enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain Query was isolated from a patient specimen in 2015. In order to known about its genetic evolution, this study amplified gene fragment of the isolated stain by RT-PCT and carried out sequencing of the total genome. The homology and genetic evolution of the gene sequence of the virus strain in the study were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated EV71 strain in this study had higher homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence with other virus strains, which was 80%-97% and 88% to 92%, respectively, but it had lower homology with Cox.A16 (homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of Cox.A16 was 81% and 79%, respectively). Compare of homologous sequence at the encoding region VP1 demonstrated that the experimental isolated strain EV71 had higher homology of amino acid sequence at VP1 region with other virus strains. Genetic evolution of nucleotide sequence at VP1 region of the identified strain and other EV71 strains was analyzed, and the results demonstrated gene sequence at VP1 region and 5’UTR region of the isolated strain and SDLY017 strain was at the same branch, both of which belonged to C4a, a subtype of type C4. PMID:26884986

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 and Sediminibacterium sp. Strain C3, a Novel Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Ayarza, Joaquín M.; Figuerola, Eva L. M.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Sediminibacterium comprises species present in diverse natural and engineered environments. Here, we report for the first time the genome sequences of the type strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 (NBRC 103935) and Sediminibacterium sp. strain C3 (BNM541), isolated from activated sludge, a valuable model for the study of substrate-dependent autoaggregation. PMID:24435857

  20. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  1. Functional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk products in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Kutima, Phillip M; Mbugua, Samuel K; Guigas, Claudia; Franz, Charles; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2008-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya. Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells at 0.3% oxgal varied from 30% to 80%. In vitro adhesion to the mucus-secreting cell line HT 29 MTX and binding capacity to extracellular protein matrices was demonstrated for several strains. The four strains tested in a simulated stomach duodenum passage survived with recovery rates ranging from 17% to 100%. Strains were intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics tested. From these in vitro studies, a number of Lb. plantarum strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk showed probiotic potential. The strains are good candidates for multifunctional starter culture development. PMID:18175177

  2. Complete genome sequence of a porcine parvovirus strain isolated in central china.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Qing; Wang, Yan; Chen, Long-Biao; Fu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Bao-An

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) strain J-PPV, isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data for PPV isolates from other regions of China, will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of PPV field isolates in China. PMID:24482519

  3. Full-Genome Sequences of Seven Fatal Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated in Shenzhen, China, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    He, Ya-Qing; Meng, Jun; Xiong, Ling-Hong; Wang, Chao; Yao, Xiang-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequences of seven fatal enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains, isolated in southern China, in 2014, were determined. The complete genome sequences of these strains displayed close relationships to native EV71 strains and showed 94.2% to 99.8% identity to each other. All of these strains were assigned to subgenotype C4a based on phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene. PMID:27125487

  4. Full-Genome Sequences of Seven Fatal Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated in Shenzhen, China, in 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; He, Ya-Qing; Meng, Jun; Xiong, Ling-Hong; Wang, Chao; Yao, Xiang-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Ren-Li; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequences of seven fatal enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains, isolated in southern China, in 2014, were determined. The complete genome sequences of these strains displayed close relationships to native EV71 strains and showed 94.2% to 99.8% identity to each other. All of these strains were assigned to subgenotype C4a based on phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene. PMID:27125487

  5. Isolation of a Wickerhamomyces anomalus yeast strain from the sandfly Phlebotomus perniciosus, displaying the killer phenotype.

    PubMed

    Martin, E; Bongiorno, G; Giovati, L; Montagna, M; Crotti, E; Damiani, C; Gradoni, L; Polonelli, L; Ricci, I; Favia, G; Epis, S

    2016-03-01

    The yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus has been studied for its wide biotechnological potential, mainly for applications in the food industry. Different strains of W. anomalus have been isolated from diverse habitats and recently from insects, including mosquitoes of medical importance. This paper reports the isolation and phylogenetic characterization of W. anomalus from laboratory-reared adults and larvae of Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae), a main phlebotomine vector of human and canine leishmaniasis. Of 65 yeast strains isolated from P. perniciosus, 15 strains were identified as W. anomalus; one of these was tested for the killer phenotype and demonstrated inhibitory activity against four yeast sensitive strains, as reported for mosquito-isolated strains. The association between P. perniciosus and W. anomalus deserves further investigation in order to explore the possibility that this yeast may exert inhibitory/killing activity against Leishmania spp. PMID:26542209

  6. Thiamethoxam degradation by Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains isolated from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shivnam; Jindal, Vikas; Mandal, Kousik; Kaur, Gurpreet; Gupta, V K

    2015-05-01

    Twelve bacterial species were evaluated to know the degradation pattern of thiamethoxam in liquid medium. All the bacterial species could actively degrade phorate in a mineral salt medium containing phorate (50 μg ml(-1)) as sole carbon source. As these species have ability to degrade, we used these for the degradation of thiamethoxam--a neonicoitinoids. Screening of 12 active phorate-metabolizing bacterial species resulted in selection of Bacillus aeromonas strain IMBL 4.1 and Pseudomonas putida strain IMBL 5.2 causing 45.28 and 38.23 % thiamethoxam (50 μg ml(-1)) reduction, respectively, in 15 days as potential thiamethoxam degrading species. These two bacterial species grew optimally at 37 °C under shake culture conditions in MSMT medium raised with initial pH of 6.0-6.5 and use of these optimum cultural conditions resulted in improved thiamethoxam degradation by these bacterial species. These species caused maximum thiamethoxam degradation only in the presence of thiamethoxam as sole source of carbon and energy and the same was reduced in the presence of easily metabolize able carbon (C₀ and C₁) and nitrogen ((N₀, N₁ and N₂) sources. This could be attributed to involvement of repressible metabolic pathways, reactions of which are inhibited by the presence of easily available nutrients for growth. Besides above, qualitative analysis of thiamethoxam residues by gas liquid chromatography revealed complete metabolization of thiamethoxam without detectable accumulation of any known thiamethoxam metabolites. PMID:25917187

  7. [Susceptibility to antibiotics and biochemical activity of strains of Acinetobacter sp. isolated from various sources].

    PubMed

    Gospodarek, E

    1993-01-01

    The study was performed on 576 Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical material, objects from hospital, environment, soil, water and from animals. Applying API 20NE system identification was following: A. baumanii (61.1%), A. junii (19.4%), A. haemolyticus (4.3%), A. lwoffii (3.3%), A. johnsonii (0.52%) and not belonging to above genus strains (11.3%). Over 47% strains of Acinetobacter were isolated from clinical material as the only bacteria (mainly from samples received from intensive care units and surgical and urological wards). Out of 23 antibiotics and antimicrobials used for investigation of 535 strains of Acinetobacter, most active were imipenem (99%) of susceptible strains, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (95%) and netilmicin (88%). Multiple resistant strains were isolated more frequently from hospital environment than from other sources--these were mostly A. baumanii and A. junii. PMID:8189806

  8. Biochemical characterization of new strains of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from Peru and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Marín, Clotilde; Hitos, Ana Belén; Rosales, María Jose; Gutierrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2004-10-01

    Seven trypanosome stocks isolated have been characterized by lectin agglutination, isoenzyme analysis, and the end products excreted. The stocks were isolated from different geographic areas-one from Mexico (TM5), and six from Peru, four of these isolated from different species of triatoma (TP504, TP702, TP704 and TP706), the other two isolated from the salivary glands of Rhodnius ecuadorensis (TRa605 and TRa606). Additionally, one strain of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from a human case (strain TC-Maracay) and one strain of T. rangeli (TRa, Cajamarca-Peru strain), characterized and maintained in our laboratory, were used as reference strains. According to statistical study, the stocks were grouped into three clusters: (1) cluster I included the reference strain of T. cruzi (TC-Maracay); (2) cluster II was subdivided into two groups-subcluster IIA for the Mexican isolate (TM5) and subcluster IIB for the Peruvian ones, isolated from the salivary glands of Rhodnius ecuadorensis (TRa 605 and TRa 606) and the reference strain T. rangeli (TRa); these two new isolates were classified as T. rangeli; and (3) cluster III for the rest of the Peruvian isolates, which should be considered at least as a different strain from the T. cruzi strain Maracay. We show that the identification of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in mixed infections is readily achieved by biochemical methods. These findings identified three clusters of Mexican and Peruvian stocks that correlate with geographic origin, although assignment to a T. cruzi linage was not possible. PMID:15368126

  9. Role of flm Locus in Mesophilic Aeromonas Species Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Gryllos, Ioannis; Shaw, Jonathan G.; Gavín, Rosalina; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    The adherence mechanism of Aeromonas caviae Sch3N to HEp-2 cells was initially investigated through four mini-Tn5 mutants that showed a 10-fold decrease in adherence. These mutants lost motility, flagella, and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigen (O-Ag). Three genes, flmB-neuA-flmD, were found to be interrupted by the transposon insertions; additionally, two other genes, one lying upstream (flmA) and one downstream (neuB), were found to be clustered in the same operon. While the flmA and flmB genes were present in all mesophilic Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii bv. veronii, and A. veronii bv. sobria) tested, this was not the case for the neuA-flmD-neuB genes. Construction and characterization of flmB insertion mutants in five other mesophilic Aeromonas strains revealed the loss of motility, flagella, and adherence but did not alter the LPS composition of these strains. Taking the above findings into consideration, we conclude (i) that flagella and possibly the LPS O-Ag are involved in the adherence of the mesophilic Aeromonas to human epithelial cells; (ii) flmA and flmB are genes widely distributed in the mesophilic Aeromonas and are involved in flagella assembly, and thus adherence; and (iii) in A. caviae Sch3N the flmA and flmB genes are found in a putative operon together with neuA, flmD, and neuB and are involved in LPS O-Ag biosynthesis and probably have a role in flagellum assembly. PMID:11119490

  10. Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996-2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Obszańska, Katarzyna; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabella; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Machura, Katarzyna; Stefaniuk, Elzbieta; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus form a group of related streptococcal species, namely the Streptococcus Anginosus Group (SAG). The group, previously called "milleri" had been rarely described until 1980/1990 as source of infections. Nowadays SAG bacteria are often described as pathogens causing predominantly purulent infections. The number of infections is highly underestimated, as SAG strains are often classified in the microbiology laboratory as less virulent "viridans streptococci" Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by PFGE and MLVF analyses. All analyzed strains are sensitive to penicillin, a substantial group of strains is resistant to macrolides and the majority of strains are resistant to tetracycline. PMID:27281992

  11. Molecular and virulence characteristics of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Kim, Ji Hee; Park, Jong Ho; Lee, Young-Ju; Lee, John Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Forty-six Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) strains were isolated from chicken meat, faeces, and eggshells collected from hatcheries throughout Korea. The strains were examined for the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. All 46 isolates were resistant to at least one of 21 antibiotics used in this study, 30 (65.2%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, and a single remarkable isolate was resistant to 15 antimicrobials. The isolates were primarily resistant to penicillins, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and quinolones. The high rate of resistance in S. Enteritidis strains, sometimes to multiple drugs, may complicate future options for treating human infections. Nineteen of the 21 penicillin resistant isolates carried the bla(TEM) gene, while one strain, resistant both to penicillins and ceftriaxone, carried the bla(CTX-M) gene. Thirty-seven of the 45 sulfisoxazole resistant isolates carried sul2, and 23/24 streptomycin resistant isolates carried both strA and strB. All 10 tetracycline resistant isolates carried the tet(A) gene. Most isolates harboured both SPI-1 and SPI-2-associated genes, and the spv operon, which are known to be associated with human infections. The presence of these genes suggests that these strains could give rise to public health problems if dispersed in the general human population. PMID:20822940

  12. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; López, Nancy I.; Levin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34melT belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34melT are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34melT is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34melT to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment. PMID:26025898

  13. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E; López, Nancy I; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M Julia

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel(T) can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34mel(T) belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34mel(T) are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34mel(T) is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34mel(T) to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment. PMID:26025898

  14. Occurrence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. in marine species of shrimps cultured at inland low salinity ponds.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yutaka; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Aue-Umneoy, Dusit; Ban, Masatoshi; Satomi, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to document the risk of Aeromonas spp. in marine shrimp species cultured in inland low salinity ponds in Thailand. In 14 of 18 shrimp samples retrieved from inland grow-up ponds, Aeromonas spp. were detected at ranges from 4667 to 1,500,000 CFU/g body weight. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the gyrB and cpn60 concatenated sequences indicated that the 87 isolates consisted of Aeromonas veronii (70%), Aeromonas aquariorum (18%), Aeromonas caviae (7%), Aeromonas jandaei (2%), and Aeromonas schubertii (2%). The potential virulence of the isolates was examined by phenotypic and PCR assays. Hemolytic activity and the extracellular activity of lipase, DNase, and gelatinase were observed in most isolates (94-99%). PCR revealed the presence of 9 genes related to virulence in the 87 isolates: act (75%), aer (74%), alt (30%), ast (1%), ascV (34%), aexT (24%), fla (92%), ela (34%), and lip (24%). The susceptibility profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents of isolates were typical for the genus, but resistance to cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, and imipenem were found in two A. aquariorum and in three A. veronii isolates, respectively. These resistances were confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our results indicate that the microbiological risk posed by Aeromonas should be considered for marine shrimp species that are cultured in low-salinity ponds. These shrimps may also be a vehicle for the transfer of different genotypes of Aeromonas and antibiotic-resistant determinants to regions worldwide through trade. PMID:25583334

  15. [Study on 190 strains of "staphylococcus aureus" isolated in a department of ophthalmology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rossolini, A; Bianchini, A M; Partini, N; Frezzotti, R; Guerra, R

    1978-01-01

    Biochemical features and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents of 190 strains of Staphylococcus isolated from pharinx and conjunctiva of ophtalmological patients and staff were studied. Each strain was investigated for: pigment, coagulase, hemolysis (alpha-toxin), phosphatase and penicillinase production and mannite fermentation. Twentyfour chemotherapeutic angents were used for sensitivity tests. The Authors emphasize that a positive coagulase test is the best laboratory evidence for pathogenicity of a given strain of Staphylococcus, and that the site of isolation of the examined strains is not related with their biochemical features and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:755453

  16. PCR screening and sequence analysis of iol clusters in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Sun, Z; Sun, T; Zhang, H

    2010-11-01

    The iol cluster (consisting of genes involved in myo-inositol utilization) was investigated in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss. Ten strains were tested for the presence of iol cluster by PCR screening; three strains encoded this cluster. Full-sequencing procedure was conducted; the iol cluster was identical to that of L. casei BL23 (GenBank access. no. FM177140) except for an upstream transposase. The iol cluster is not a common feature for L. casei strains isolated from koumiss. PMID:21253906

  17. EVALUATION OF THERMOTOLERANT ACETOBACTER PASTEURIANUS STRAINS ISOLATED FROM MOROCCAN FRUITS CATALYZING OXIDATIVE FERMENTATION AT HIGH TEMPERATURE.

    PubMed

    Mounir, M; Shafiei, R; Zarmehrkhorshid, R; Hamouda, A; Alaoui, M Ismaili; Thonart, P

    2015-01-01

    Six strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from Moroccan local products and their potential as industrial strains was evaluated in lab-bioreactor. Three of them, namely TAV01, AF01 and CV01, isolated from traditional apple vinegar, apple and cactus fruit, respectively were selected and their responses to high temperature were assessed. Morphological and biochemical identification confirmed that these strains belong to Acetobacter species. Their growth and acetic acid production were compared with the thermoresistant reference strain, Acetobacter senegalensis and mesophilic strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus. The two strains AF01 and CV01 showed abundant growth and noticeable acetic acid production ability at high temperatures (38 to 41°C). A thermophilic character was observed for AF01 strain. Indeed, this bacterium grew better at 38 than 30°C. PMID:26630753

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus CPV-2 strains and its variants isolated in Poland.

    PubMed

    Majer-Dziedzic, B; Jakubczak, A; Zietek, J

    2011-01-01

    Canine parvovirus disease appeared in the world and in Europe during the second half of the 1970s. Over the course of 40 years the original CPV-2 strains mutated and variants 2a, 2b and 2c appeared. Their appearance is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. Strains isolated by the authors were adapted for in vitro cell culture. Phylogenetic analysis revealed differences between strains isolated in Poland in 1982-1985 and in 1995-2009. Strains from the 1980s were shown to belong to variant CPV-2a (11 strains) and variant 2b (2 strains), while no fundamental differences were found among the genetic profiles of the strains from 1995-2009, which were classified as belonging to variant 2c. PMID:21957731

  19. Identification of Different Agrobacterium Strains Isolated from the Same Forest Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Marie-France; Brasileiro, Ana Cristina Miranda; Depierreux, Christiane; Otten, Leon; Delmotte, Francis; Jouanin, Lise

    1990-01-01

    Several Agrobacterium strains isolated from the same forest nursery from 1982 to 1988 were compared by serological, biochemical, and DNA-DNA hybridization methods. Similarities among strains belonging to biovar 2 were observed by indirect immunofluorescence, whereas biovar 1 strains showed serological heterogeneity. Electrophoretic analysis of bacterial envelope-associated proteins showed that few bands appeared in the strains belonging to biovar 1, whereas many proteins appeared in the case of biovar 2 strains. Chromosomal DNA was analyzed with six random C58 chromosomal fragments. None of the six probes hybridized to the DNA of the two biovar 2 strains. One of the probes gave the same hybridization pattern with all biovar 1 strains, whereas the other probes yielded different patterns. The vir regions were closely related in the different pathogenic strains. The T-DNA and replication regions were less conserved and showed some variations among the strains. Images PMID:16348358

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Multiply Antibiotic-Resistant Clostridium perfringens Strains from Porcine Feces

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Julian I.; Maher, Eileen A.; Somers, Eileen B.; Campos, Elena; Duncan, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine feces. Strains that were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, and lincomycin were isolated, but no penicillin- or chloramphenicol-resistant strains were obtained. Typical minimal inhibitory concentrations for resistant strains were 16 to 64 μg of tetracycline per ml, 64 to >128 μg of erythromycin per ml, ≥128 μg of lincomycin per ml, and 16 to 128 μg of clindamycin per ml. Resistance to erythromycin was always associated with resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for 258 strains from six farms that used antibiotics in their feeds and 240 strains from five farms that did not use antibiotics. The results show that 77.9 and 22.7% of the strains from the former farms were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin-clindamycin-lincomycin, respectively. The comparable data from the latter farms were 25.0 and 0.8%, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis failed to reveal a plasmid band that was common to the resistant strains but absent in the susceptible strains. Attempts to transfer tetracycline, erythromycin, and clindamycin resistance from one strain, CW459, were not successful. Antibiotic-susceptible mutants were not isolated from this strain, despite the use of a variety of curing agents. Images PMID:208463

  1. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  2. Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from animals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krutkiewicz, A; Sałamaszyńska-Guz, A; Rzewuska, M; Klimuszko, D; Binek, M

    2009-01-01

    A total of 69 Campylobacter jejuni and 16 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from chicken, dog and pig stool samples were characterized based on their resistance to five antimicrobial agents and on plasmid pTet profiles. Antimicrobials used in this study were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Among the isolates studied, 91.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent. The highest level of resistance for the whole test group was to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (44.2%) and tetracycline (20%). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Strains isolated from chickens were susceptible to erythromycin. Few erythromycin-resistant strains were isolated from dogs and pigs (5.8%). C. coli strains exhibited a higher antibiotic resistance than C. jejuni strains, excluding resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The pTet plasmid harboring the tet(O) gene was detected in 14 Campylobacter spp. strains. Our studies demonstrate that the majority (71.4%) of tetracycline-resistant isolates carry a plasmid-borne tet(O) gene, particularly strains for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) are > or = 256 microg/ml. In conclusion, we have found high-level trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance in Polish strains isolated from different sources. This study has demonstrated that resistance of Campylobacter species differs depending on both the bacterial species and animal origins. All strains that displayed resistance to four antimicrobial agents were isolated from pigs. Localization of the tet(O) gene on either plasmid or chromosome was not found to be correlated with tetracycline resistance. PMID:20169919

  3. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Cronobacter Strains Isolated from Retail Foods and Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Killer, Jiří; Skřivanová, Eva; Hochel, Igor; Marounek, Milan

    2015-06-01

    Cronobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens that affect children and immunocompromised adults. In this study, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine sequence types (STs) in 11 Cronobacter spp. strains isolated from retail foods, 29 strains from dust samples obtained from vacuum cleaners, and 4 clinical isolates. Using biochemical tests, species-specific polymerase chain reaction, and MLST analysis, 36 strains were identified as Cronobacter sakazakii, and 6 were identified as Cronobacter malonaticus. In addition, one strain that originated from retail food and one from a dust sample from a vacuum cleaner were identified on the basis of MLST analysis as Cronobacter dublinensis and Cronobacter turicensis, respectively. Cronobacter spp. strains isolated from the retail foods were assigned to eight different MLST sequence types, seven of which were newly identified. The strains isolated from the dust samples were assigned to 7 known STs and 14 unknown STs. Three clinical isolates and one household dust isolate were assigned to ST4, which is the predominant ST associated with neonatal meningitis. One clinical isolate was classified based on MLST analysis as Cronobacter malonaticus and belonged to an as-yet-unknown ST. Three strains isolated from the household dust samples were assigned to ST1, which is another clinically significant ST. It can be concluded that Cronobacter spp. strains of different origin are genetically quite variable. The recovery of C. sakazakii strains belonging to ST1 and ST4 from the dust samples suggests the possibility that contamination could occur during food preparation. All of the novel STs and alleles for C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. dublinensis, and C. turicensis determined in this study were deposited in the Cronobacter MLST database available online ( http://pubmlst.org/cronobacter/). PMID:25974656

  4. Clinical Implications of Species Identification in Monomicrobial Aeromonas Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chang, Ming-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Shih, Hsin-I; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004–2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%), A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%), A. caviae (43, 28.1%), and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5%) were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes was species-specific: blaAQU-1, blaMOX, or blaCepH was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and blaCphA was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively). A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048). Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 was an independent mortality risk factor. Conclusions/Significance Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen. PMID:25679227

  5. The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

  6. Genotypic diversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains isolated from French organic sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Chuat, Victoria; Durand, Karine; Orain, Servane; Valence, Florence; Dousset, Xavier; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2016-06-01

    Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the predominant key lactic acid bacterium in traditionally fermented sourdoughs. Despite its prevalence, sourdough and their related breads could be different regarding their physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The intraspecific diversity of L. sanfranciscensis might explain these observations. Fifty-nine strains isolated from French sourdoughs were typed by a polyphasic approach including Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), in order to study their genotypic diversity. MLST scheme can be reduced from six to four gene fragments (gdh, gyrA, nox and pta) without a major loss of discrimination between strains. The genes mapA and pgmA are not good candidates for inclusion in an MLST scheme to type L. sanfranciscensis strains, as they could not be amplified for a set of 18 strains among the 59 studied. This method revealed 20 sequence types (STs). Of these, 19 STs were grouped in one clonal complex, showing a strong relatedness between these strains. PFGE using SmaI discriminated 41 pulsotypes and so distinguished isolates better than the MLST scheme. Both genotypic methods indicate a low diversity between strains isolated from the same sourdough and a higher diversity between strains isolated from different sourdoughs, suggesting an influence of baker practices and/or environmental conditions on the selection of strains. The use of these two methods targeting genetic variations gives an optimal genotypic characterization of L.sanfranciscensis strains. PMID:27015297

  7. Isolation and in vitro selection of actinomycetes strains as potential probiotics for aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Milagro García; Campa-Córdova, Ángel Isidro; Saucedo, Pedro Enrique; González, Marlen Casanova; Marrero, Ricardo Medina; Mazón-Suástegui, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Tolerance to different pH values and salt concentrations was also determined, followed by hydrophobicity analysis and genetic identification of the most promising strains. Results: Five out of 31 isolated strains showed antimicrobial activity against three Vibrio species. Three non-hemolytic strains (N7, RL8 and V4) among these active isolates yielded positive results in hydrophobicity tests and exhibited good growth at salt concentrations ranging from 0% to 10%, except strain RL8, which required a salt concentration >0.6%. Although these strains did not grow at pH<3, they showed different enzymatic activities. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains N7 and V4 have more than 99% identity with several Streptomyces species, whereas the closest matches to strain RL8 are Streptomyces panacagri and Streptomyces flocculus, with 98% and 98.2% similarity, respectively. Conclusion: Three actinomycetes strains showing probiotic-like properties were discovered using several in vitro tests that can be easily implemented in different institutions around the world. PMID:27047067

  8. Properties of Hemolysin and Protease Produced by Aeromonas trota

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Eizo; Ozaki, Haruka; Fujii, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined the properties of exotoxins produced by Aeromonas trota (A. enteropelogenes), one of the diarrheagenic species of Aeromonadaceae. Nine of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing erythrocytes showed hemolytic activity. However, the hemolytic activities of the culture supernatants of these hemolytic strains of A. trota were markedly lower than those of A. sobria when cultured in liquid medium, and the amount of hemolysin detected by immunoblotting using antiserum against the hemolysin produced by A. sobria was also low. A mouse intestine loop assay using living bacterial cells showed that A. trota 701 caused the significant accumulation of fluid, and antiserum against the hemolysin produced suppressed the enterotoxic action of A. trota 701. These results indicated that A. trota 701 was diarrheagenic and the hemolysin produced was the causative agent of the enterotoxic activity of A. trota. The hemolysin in A. sobria was previously shown to be secreted in a preform (inactive form) and be activated when the carboxy-terminal domain was cleaved off by proteases in the culture supernatant. Since mature hemolysin was detected in the culture supernatants of A. trota, we analyzed the extracellular protease produced by A. trota. Fifteen of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing skim milk showed proteolytic activity. We subsequently found that most A. trota isolates possessed the serine protease gene, but not the metalloprotease gene. Therefore, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene and its chaperone A. trota gene. The results obtained revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of serine protease and the chaperone were homologous to those of A. sobria with identities of 83.0% and 75.8%, respectively. PMID:24633045

  9. Bacterial strains isolated from river water having the ability to split alcohol ethoxylates by central fission.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Irena; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a major component of the surfactant stream discharged into surface water. The "central fission" of AE with the formation of poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) is considered to be the dominant biodegradation pathway. However, information as to which bacterial strains are able to perform this reaction is very limited. The aim of this work was to establish whether such an ability is unique or common, and which bacterial strains are able to split AE used as a sole source of organic carbon. Four bacterial strains were isolated from river water and were identified on the basis of phylogenetic trees as Enterobacter strain Z2, Enterobacter strain Z3, Citrobacter freundii strain Z4, and Stenotrophomonas strain Z5. Sterilized river water and "artificial sewage" were used for augmentation of the isolated bacteria. The test was performed in bottles filled with a mineral salt medium spiked with surfactant C12E10 (10 mg L(-1)) and an inoculating suspension of the investigated bacterial strain. Sequential extraction of the tested samples by ethyl acetate and chloroform was used for separation of PEG from the water matrix. LC-MS was used for PEG determination on the basis of single-ion chromatograms. All four selected and investigated bacterial strains exhibit the ability to split fatty alcohol ethoxylates with the production of PEG, which is evidence that this property is a common one rather than specific to certain bacterial strains. However, this ability increases in the sequence: Stenotrophomonas strain Z5 < Enterobacter strain Z2 < Enterobacter strain Z3 = Citrobacter freundii strain Z4. Graphical Abstract Biodegradation by central fission of alcohol ethoxylates by bacterial strains isolated from river water. PMID:27053052

  10. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis strain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225

  11. Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter antarcticus Strain W2, Isolated from a Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    Herschend, Jakob; Raghupathi, Prem K.; Røder, Henriette L.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter antarcticus strain W2, which was isolated from a wall of a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The 4.43-Mb genome sequence was assembled into 170 contigs. PMID:27034477

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Brazilian Leptospira noguchii Serogroup Panama Strain U73, Isolated from Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Z.; Loureiro, Ana P.; Miraglia, Fabiana; Matajira, Carlos E. C.; Kremer, Frederico S.; Eslabao, Marcos R.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira noguchii is a current zoonotic pathogen in Brazil. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brazilian L. noguchii serogroup Panama strain U73, isolated from asymptomatic cattle urine. PMID:26472831

  13. Next-Generation Whole-Genome Sequencing of Eight Strains of Bacillus cereus, Isolated from Food

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Antonina O.; de Jong, Anne; Eijlander, Robyn T.; Berendsen, Erwin M.; Holsappel, Siger; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can contaminate food and cause emetic and diarrheal foodborne illness. Here, we report whole-genome sequences of eight strains of B. cereus, isolated from different food sources. PMID:26679589

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Dengue Virus Serotype 4 Strain Isolated in Roraima, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Victor C.; Silva, George A. V.; Maito, Rodrigo M.; Granja, Fabiana; Siqueira, Thalita; Acosta, Pablo O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide. We report the complete genome sequence of a dengue virus serotype 4, genotype II strain isolated in 2010 from a patient with classical dengue fever in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. PMID:22247521

  15. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus johnsonii Strain W1, Isolated from Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Chunyan; Guo, Zhonghe; Hao, Yuchong; Li, Jinghua; Shi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus johnsonii, a member of the gut lactobacilli, plays an important role in normal gut functioning. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of L. johnsonii strain W1 isolated from ICR mice. PMID:27313302

  16. Drug resistance and R plasmids in Escherichia coli strains isolated from imported pet birds.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Fukazawa, M; Yoshimura, H; Koeda, T

    1980-01-01

    Drug resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pet birds (mynahs, macaws, finches, common bengals, parrots, and flamingos) imported into Japan from 10 foreign countries in 1977 and 1978 was investigated. Of the 309 strains isolated from 127 pet birds in the Animal Quarantine Service, 232 (75.1%) were drug resistant. Furthermore, strains resistant to oxytetracycline hydrochloride, dihydrostreptomycin, and sulfadimethoxine were relatively common. Resistance patterns varied from single to sextuple resistance, and 148 (63.8%) of the resistant strains had conjugative R plasmids. These results suggest that the high incidence of drug resistance and R plasmids in E. coli strains isolated from these pet birds may be a reflection of the prophylactic use of antibiotics for the prevention of diseases which increasingly occur with importation of the birds. Furthermore, the results suggest that the birds may be potential reservoirs of drug-resistant E. coli for families who raise and have intimate contact with such birds. PMID:6163947

  17. Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strains Demonstrate Increased Competitive Fitness Compared to Nonepidemic Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Catherine D.; Auchtung, Jennifer M.; Collins, James

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is the most common cause of severe cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant health burden. Recent increases in the rate of C. difficile infection have paralleled the emergence of a specific phylogenetic clade of C. difficile strains (ribotype 027; North American pulsed-field electrophoresis 1 [NAP1]; restriction endonuclease analysis [REA] group BI). Initial reports indicated that ribotype 027 strains were associated with increased morbidity and mortality and might be hypervirulent. Although subsequent work has raised some doubt as to whether ribotype 027 strains are hypervirulent, the strains are considered epidemic isolates that have caused severe outbreaks across the globe. We hypothesized that one factor that could lead to the increased prevalence of ribotype 027 strains would be if these strains had increased competitive fitness compared to strains of other ribotypes. We developed a moderate-throughput in vitro model of C. difficile infection and used it to test competition between four ribotype 027 clinical isolates and clinical isolates of four other ribotypes (001, 002, 014, and 053). We found that ribotype 027 strains outcompeted the strains of other ribotypes. A similar competitive advantage was observed when two ribotype pairs were competed in a mouse model of C. difficile infection. Based upon these results, we conclude that one possible mechanism through which ribotype 027 strains have caused outbreaks worldwide is their increased ability to compete in the presence of a complex microbiota. PMID:24733099

  18. Antigenic and molecular characterization of Vibrio ordalii strains isolated from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile.

    PubMed

    Silva-Rubio, Andrés; Acevedo, Claudia; Magariños, Beatriz; Jaureguiberry, Beltrán; Toranzo, Alicia E; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2008-03-01

    Biochemical, serological and molecular properties of a group of 14 Vibrio ordalii strains isolated from cultured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile in recent years were studied. The characteristics of isolates were compared with the type strain V. ordalii ATCC 33509T. The Chilean V. ordalii represented a biochemically homogenous group; however, some minor differences with the type strain were observed. The serological relationships among isolates, as well as the study of their antigenic determinant (LPS) revealed a strong reaction with antisera raised against Atlantic salmon strains and the antiserum raised against Listonella anguillarum serotype O2. However, LPS electrophoretic patterns were completely different from the V. ordalii type strain, regardless of the serum employed, suggesting the possibility that the Chilean strains constitute a new serological subgroup within this bacterial species. Genetic analyses by PFGE, RAPD, REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR demonstrated that all V. ordalii strains were genetically homogenous, displaying similar DNA patterns, regardless of the techniques used. Moreover, the analysis of DNA banding patterns generated by ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR also clearly separated the type strain from the Chilean strains. This is the first report of characterization of V. ordalii strains from the Southeastern Pacific area, the results of which should facilitate the development of vaccines for protecting cultured Atlantic salmon against vibriosis in this area. PMID:18429439

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Waterfowl-Origin Tembusu Virus Strains Isolated in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Xin; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Ti, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuhui

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two tembusu virus strains, ZC-1 and LQ-1, isolated from ducks and geese, respectively, in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the two strains are closely related to those of the TMUV isolates around Shandong province. The full-length genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin TMUVs provided herein will help to understand the molecular epidemiology of tembusu virus in China, which deserves further investigation. PMID:24356821

  20. [Antibiotic sensitivity of strains of Klebsiella isolated in Geneva and Algiers].

    PubMed

    Sekfali, K; Rahal, K; Ducel, G

    1989-01-01

    573 strains of Klebsiella were isolated in Geneva (239 strains) and in Algiers (334 strains). The complete work with bacteriologic features (culture, biochemistry and antigenicity) will be published later. Two investigations took place in surgical cardio-vascular service in Geneva cantonal hospital and in Algiers hospitals: Pediatric (Beni-Messous) and intensive care service (Mustapha). High resistance percentages are found with Penicillins (greater than 60% by C.M.I.) in Geneva and Algiers. The strains are susceptible to aminoglycosides: in Algiers, 8.68% strains are resistant to Gentamicin and 5.99% to Tobramycin. In Geneva, all the strains are susceptible to Aminoglycosides. All the strains are susceptible to Trimethoprim and the Furans resistant strains are rare. The C.M.I. test is more precise than disc diffusion technique, especially for Penicillin and Furans. Cephalosporins and aminoglycosides are the best choice for treatment of Klebsiella infections. PMID:2489399

  1. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains. PMID:25478575

  2. Synthesis of siderophores by strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from various environments.

    PubMed

    Szarapińska-Kwaszewska, Jadwiga; Farkas, Lukasz I

    2003-01-01

    Siderophore activity as the feature of microorganisms enabling colonization of human body and the survival in inanimate environment was investigated in 108 strains of Staphylococcus cohnii; S. cohnii ssp. cohnii (50 strains) and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus (58 strains). Strains were isolated from people, hospital and non-hospital environment. Highest siderophore activity was noted in strains S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus particularly from the inanimate environments origin. In 86% analyzed strains siderophores of hydroxamate class were detected. Larger amounts of these compounds were synthesized in strains S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Strains belonging to both subspecies from human origin showed lower activity of siderophores (total pool) and did not produce hydroxamate class chelators or produced very small amounts of these compounds. PMID:14743978

  3. Isolation of a mutant strain of Pseudomonas sp ATCC 31461 exhibiting elevated polysaccharide production.

    PubMed

    West, T P

    2002-10-01

    A mutant strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31461 that exhibited elevated production of the polysaccharide gellan on glucose or corn syrup as a carbon source was isolated. Gellan production by the mutant strain was about twofold higher than its parent strain on glucose or corn syrup after 48 h of growth, and about 1.4-fold higher after 72 h. An increase in biomass production was not correlated with enhanced gellan synthesis by the mutant strain. The increased gellan production by the mutant strain on either carbon source resulted in an increase in its culture medium viscosity and the viscosity of the isolated polysaccharide produced by glucose-grown cells. No differences in the glucuronic acid content of the polysaccharides produced by the mutant and parent strains were observed. PMID:12355317

  4. IS6110 fingerprinting of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Germany during 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, S; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Richter, E

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological relatedness of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Germany in 1995 was evaluated by the standardized IS6110 fingerprinting method. Altogether, 196 M. tuberculosis isolates from 167 patients were analyzed. A large degree of IS6110 polymorphism was found, ranging from 1 to 20 copies. Multiple isolates from one patient generally remained stable over a period of up to 1 year. However, one strain showed an additional fragment 7 months after the first isolate was obtained. Isolates from 55 patients (33%) showed identical fingerprint patterns or fingerprint patterns that differed only in one band, and thus they were clustered in 22 fingerprint groups. Specific transmission links could be established between members of four groups, e.g., transmission by family contacts. In one case, transmission of a multidrug-resistant strain to a patient initially infected with a drug-susceptible strain could be shown. Besides these fingerprint groups, 30 of the 167 isolates (approximately 18%) could be grouped in two fingerprint clusters with a similarity of at least 78%. Approximately 60% of the patients of these two clusters were known to be immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and one patient is still living in Belarus. In conclusion, our results indicate that (i) transmission of drug-resistant strains contributes substantially to the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Germany and (ii) drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains were presumably carried over from the former Soviet Union to Germany by immigrants. PMID:9399486

  5. Variable Characteristics of Bacteriocin-Producing Streptococcus salivarius Strains Isolated from Malaysian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Abdelahhad; Philip, Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Background Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina’s MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS). A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10) and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10) from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. Conclusion The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for pharmaceuticals

  6. 2010 Surveillance for Aeromonas hydrophila outbreaks in the Alabama catfish industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was associated with severely acute to chronic mortality in catfish ponds in Alabama. This strain of A. hydrophila had not been previously identified in AL catfish. In a joint effort between the USDA ARS and Auburn University, a combination of appr...

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Rhamnolipid-Producing Bacterial Strains from a Biodiesel Facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, E. hormaecheii, Pantoea stewartii and Pseudomona...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain Hv1, an Isolate from Medicinal Leech Mucosal Castings

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Beka, Lidia; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    The Pedobacter sp. Hv1 strain was isolated from the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, mucosal castings. These mucosal sheds have been demonstrated to play a role in horizontal symbiont transmission. Here, we report the draft 4.9 Mbp genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. strain Hv1. PMID:26679583

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JMM, a Sediment-Hosted Environmental Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Simmi; Vakhlu, Jyoti; Gupta, Vipin; Sangwan, Naseer; Kohli, Puneet; Nayyar, Namita; Rani, Pooja; Sance, Shivani Singh

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain JMM was isolated from the sediments of a natural water reservoir (pH, 6 to 7) located at Chambyal village in Samba district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Here we report the annotated draft genome sequence of strain JMM having 52 contigs with 5,884 genes and an average G+C content of 66.5%. PMID:25189587

  10. Meroparamycin production by newly isolated Streptomyces sp. strain MAR01: taxonomy, fermentation, purification and structural elucidation.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Moustafa Y; El-Assar, Samy A; Abdul-Gawad, Sahar M

    2006-08-01

    Twelve actinomycete strains were isolated from Egyptian soil. The isolated actinomycete strains were then screened with regard to their potential to generate antibiotics. The most potent of the producer strains was selected and identified. The cultural and physiological characteristics of the strain identified the strain as a member of the genus Streptomyces. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene (1.5 kb) of the most potent strain evidenced a 99% similarity with Streptomyces spp. and S. aureofaciens 16S rRNA genes, and the isolated strain was ultimately identified as Streptomyces sp. MAR01. The extraction of the fermentation broth of this strain resulted in the isolation of one major compound, which was active in vitro against gram-positive, gram-negative representatives and Candida albicans. The chemical structure of this bioactive compound was elucidated based on the spectroscopic data obtained from the application of MS, IR, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis techniques. Via comparison to the reference data in the relevant literature and in the database search, this antibiotic, which had a molecular formula of C19H29NO2 and a molecular weight of 303.44, was determined to differ from those produced by this genus as well as the available known antibiotics. Therefore, this antibiotic was designated Meroparamycin. PMID:16953179

  11. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Whitman, William B; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%. PMID:27609918

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JMM, a Sediment-Hosted Environmental Isolate.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Simmi; Vakhlu, Jyoti; Gupta, Vipin; Sangwan, Naseer; Kohli, Puneet; Nayyar, Namita; Rani, Pooja; Sance, Shivani Singh; Lal, Rup

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain JMM was isolated from the sediments of a natural water reservoir (pH, 6 to 7) located at Chambyal village in Samba district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Here we report the annotated draft genome sequence of strain JMM having 52 contigs with 5,884 genes and an average G+C content of 66.5%. PMID:25189587

  13. Genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PAMC 25724, isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Shin, Seung Chul; Hong, Soon Gyu; Lee, Yung Mi; Lee, Hyoungseok; Lee, Jungeun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    The draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PAMC 25724, which is a violacein-producing psychrotolerant bacterium, was determined. The strain was isolated from glacier cryoconite of the Alps mountain permafrost region. The sequence will allow identification and characterization of the genetic determination of its cold-adaptive properties. PMID:22461541

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Micromonospora sp. Strain HK10, Isolated from Kaziranga National Park, India

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Madhumita; Das, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Chiranjeeta; Deka Boruah, Hari Prasanna; Bora, Tarun Chandra

    2016-01-01

    We report the 6.92-Mbp genome sequence of Micromonospora sp. HK10, isolated from soil samples collected from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. The full genome of strain Micromonospora sp. strain HK10 consists of 6,911,179 bp with 73.39% GC content, 6,196 protein-coding genes, and 86 RNAs. PMID:27516496

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius PS4, a Strain Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Virginia; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Fernández, Leónides

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oropharyngeal tract. Some strains of this species have been developed for use as oral probiotics, while others have been associated with a variety of opportunistic human infections. Here, we report the complete sequence of strain PS4, which was isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman. PMID:22843595

  16. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius PS4, a strain isolated from human milk.

    PubMed

    Martín, Virginia; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oropharyngeal tract. Some strains of this species have been developed for use as oral probiotics, while others have been associated with a variety of opportunistic human infections. Here, we report the complete sequence of strain PS4, which was isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman. PMID:22843595

  17. Genome assemblies for 11 Yersinia pestis strains isolated in the Caucasus region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhgenti, Ekaterine; Johnson, Shannon L.; Davenport, Karen W.; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Chain, Patrick S.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2015-09-17

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to the Caucasus region but few reference strain genome sequences from that region are available. We present the improved draft or finished assembled genomes from 11 strains isolated in the nation of Georgia and surrounding countries.

  18. Genome assemblies for 11 Yersinia pestis strains isolated in the Caucasus region

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhgenti, Ekaterine; Johnson, Shannon L.; Davenport, Karen W.; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Chain, Patrick S.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2015-09-17

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to the Caucasus region but few reference strain genome sequences from that region are available. We present the improved draft or finished assembled genomes from 11 strains isolated in the nation of Georgia and surrounding countries.

  19. Finished Annotated Genome Sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Bp1651, a Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Sue, David; Hakovirta, Janetta; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Knipe, Kristen; Sammons, Scott A.; Ranganathan-Ganakammal, Satishkumar; Changayil, Shankar; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Weil, Michael R.; Tatusov, Roman L.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy G.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Weigel, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei strain Bp1651, a human isolate, is resistant to all clinically relevant antibiotics. We report here on the finished genome sequence assembly and annotation of the two chromosomes of this strain. This genome sequence may assist in understanding the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance for this pathogenic species. PMID:26634765

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Photobacterium sp. Strain J15, Isolated from Seawater of Southwestern Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Roslan, Noordiyanah Nadhirah; Sabri, Suriana; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Leow, Thean Chor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequences of Photobacterium sp. strain J15, isolated from seawater in Johor, Malaysia, with the ability to produce lipase and asparaginase. The PacBio genome sequence analysis of Photobacterium sp. strain J15 generated revealed its potential in producing enzymes with different catalytic functions. PMID:27469962

  1. Lack of virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains of enteropathogenic serogroups isolated from water.

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, S R; Gomes, T A; Falcão, D P

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-eight Escherichia coli strains belonging to 14 human enteropathogenic serogroups were isolated from 33 of 208 water samples studied. No virulence factor or virulence-related gene sequences were found in any of the 38 strains analyzed. The results point out the importance of detecting specific virulence factors before incriminating water as a source of human diarrhea. PMID:1539989

  2. Genome Assemblies for 11 Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated in the Caucasus Region.

    PubMed

    Zhgenti, Ekaterine; Johnson, Shannon L; Davenport, Karen W; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Daligault, Hajnalka E; Chain, Patrick S; Nikolich, Mikeljon P

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to the Caucasus region but few reference strain genome sequences from that region are available. Here, we present the improved draft or finished assembled genomes from 11 strains isolated in the nation of Georgia and surrounding countries. PMID:26383663

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Milk Powder Manufacturing Plant.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sara A; Cox, Murray P; Flint, Steve H; Lindsay, Denise; Biggs, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus (designated A1, P3, and D1) were isolated from a New Zealand milk powder manufacturing plant. Here, we describe their draft genome sequences. This information provided the first genomic insights into the nature of G. stearothermophilus strains present in the milk powder manufacturing environment. PMID:26472822

  4. Draft genome sequences of five new strains of methylophilaceae isolated from lake washington sediment.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Tami L; Benuska, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of five new Methylophilaceae strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. We used the new sequences to sort these new strains into specific Methylophilaceae ecotypes, including one novel ecotype. The new genomes expand the known diversity of Methylophilaceae and provide new models for studying the ecology of methylotrophy. PMID:25657279

  5. Draft Genomes of Two Strains of Flavobacterium Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    We report sequencing the genomes of two new Flavobacterium strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. From genomic contents, versatile lifestyles were predicted but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of their genomic sequences, the new Flavobacterium strains present prospective models for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700420

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Five New Strains of Methylophilaceae Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Benuska, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of five new Methylophilaceae strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. We used the new sequences to sort these new strains into specific Methylophilaceae ecotypes, including one novel ecotype. The new genomes expand the known diversity of Methylophilaceae and provide new models for studying the ecology of methylotrophy. PMID:25657279

  7. Draft genomes of two strains of flavobacterium isolated from lake washington sediment.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Tami L; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We report sequencing the genomes of two new Flavobacterium strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. From genomic contents, versatile lifestyles were predicted but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of their genomic sequences, the new Flavobacterium strains present prospective models for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700420

  8. Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Surface Waters of Kabeltonne, Offshore Helgoland, North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wichels, Antje; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Draft genomes are presented for 6 Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from surface waters at Kabeltonne, Helgoland, a long-term ecological research station in the North Sea. These strains contribute knowledge of the genomic underpinnings of a developing model system to study phage-host dynamics of a particle-associated ocean copiotroph. PMID:26868390

  9. Draft genome sequences of 26 porphyromonas strains isolated from the canine oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Coil, David A; Alexiev, Alexandra; Wallis, Corrin; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Davis, Ian; Horsfall, Alexander; Kirkwood, Nicola; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A; Harris, Stephen; Darling, Aaron E

    2015-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequences for 26 strains of Porphyromonas (P. canoris, P. gulae, P. cangingavalis, P. macacae, and 7 unidentified) and an unidentified member of the Porphyromonadaceae family. All of these strains were isolated from the canine oral cavity, from dogs with and without early periodontal disease. PMID:25858832

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Sulfurospirillum Strains UCH001 and UCH003 Isolated from Groundwater in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takamasa; Uchino, Yoshihito; Tsuchikane, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Ohji, Shoko; Hosoyama, Akira; Ito, Masako; Takahata, Yoh; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Sulfurospirillum strains UCH001 and UCH003 were isolated from anaerobic cis-1,2-dichloroethene-dechlorinating microbial consortia derived from groundwater in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of strains UCH001 and UCH003. PMID:25814615

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of an Oceanobacillus sp. Strain Isolated from Soil in a Burial Crypt

    PubMed Central

    Arizaga, Ylenia; Bikandi, Joseba; Garaizar, Javier; Ganau, Giulia; Paglietti, Bianca; Deligios, Massimo; Rubino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of an Oceanobacillus sp. strain isolated from spores found in soil samples from a burial crypt of the Cathedral of Sant'Antonio Abate in Castelsardo, Italy. The data obtained indicated the closest relation of the strain with Oceanobacillus caeni. PMID:27469952

  12. Genome Sequence of Lawsonia intracellularis Strain N343, Isolated from a Sow with Hemorrhagic Proliferative Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Wheelhouse, Nick; Wilson, Kim; Lainson, F Alex; Longbottom, David; Smith, David G E

    2013-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), causing mild or acute hemorrhagic diarrhea in infected animals. Here we report the genome sequence of strain N343, isolated from a sow that died of hemorrhagic PE. N343 contains 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 90 indels compared to the reference strain PHE/MN1-00. PMID:23472224

  13. Genome Sequence of Lawsonia intracellularis Strain N343, Isolated from a Sow with Hemorrhagic Proliferative Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Wheelhouse, Nick; Wilson, Kim; Lainson, F. Alex; Longbottom, David

    2013-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), causing mild or acute hemorrhagic diarrhea in infected animals. Here we report the genome sequence of strain N343, isolated from a sow that died of hemorrhagic PE. N343 contains 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 90 indels compared to the reference strain PHE/MN1-00. PMID:23472224

  14. Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Surface Waters of Kabeltonne, Offshore Helgoland, North Sea.

    PubMed

    Duhaime, Melissa B; Wichels, Antje; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Draft genomes are presented for 6 Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from surface waters at Kabeltonne, Helgoland, a long-term ecological research station in the North Sea. These strains contribute knowledge of the genomic underpinnings of a developing model system to study phage-host dynamics of a particle-associated ocean copiotroph. PMID:26868390

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Photobacterium sp. Strain J15, Isolated from Seawater of Southwestern Johor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Roslan, Noordiyanah Nadhirah; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Leow, Thean Chor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequences of Photobacterium sp. strain J15, isolated from seawater in Johor, Malaysia, with the ability to produce lipase and asparaginase. The PacBio genome sequence analysis of Photobacterium sp. strain J15 generated revealed its potential in producing enzymes with different catalytic functions. PMID:27469962

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Milk Powder Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Sara A.; Cox, Murray P.; Flint, Steve H.; Lindsay, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus (designated A1, P3, and D1) were isolated from a New Zealand milk powder manufacturing plant. Here, we describe their draft genome sequences. This information provided the first genomic insights into the nature of G. stearothermophilus strains present in the milk powder manufacturing environment. PMID:26472822

  17. [Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Morganella morganii strains isolated from clinical samples].

    PubMed

    Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Wróblewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of M morganii rods isolated from clinical samples. This study included 201 strains isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Department of Dr. A. Jurasz University Hospital in 2008-2010. Identification to species was carried out on the basis of the results of biochemical reactions included in the tests ID 32E and VITEK2 GN. Antimicrobial susceptibility of M. morganii rods was determined by the disk-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton II Agar. Strains of M morganii most commonly isolated from skin and soft tissue, and material taken from the urinary tract, mainly from patients of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, Department of General and Vascular Surgery and Department of General Surgery and Endocrinology. All of M morganii strains isolated during the three years were susceptible to carbapenems. We reported decrease of strains susceptible to piperacillin and chloramphenicol. In 2010 we showed a higher percentage of strains intermediate to tigecycline, compared with 2009. We observed increase in the percentage of strains resistant to cefoperazone with sulbactam and reported decrease in the percentage of strains resistant and intermediate to aminoglycosides. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases were produced by 13 (6,5%) of M morganii strains. PMID:22708292

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc carnosum Strain JB16, Isolated from Kimchi

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc carnosum strain JB16 was isolated from kimchi, the traditional Korean fermented food. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. carnosum strain JB16, consisting of a 1,645,096-bp circular chromosome with a G+C content of 37.24% and four plasmids. PMID:23144413

  19. Large scale analysis of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Avalon Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Hadi, Asbah Z; Griffith, John F; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Contamination of recreational waters with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. is a widespread problem resulting in beach closures and loss of recreational activity. While E. coli is frequently used as an indicator of fecal contamination, and has been extensively measured in waterways, few studies have examined the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in beach waters. In this study, a combination of high-throughput, robot-assisted colony hybridization and PCR-based analyses were used to determine the genomic composition and frequency of virulence genes present in E. coli isolated from beach water in Avalon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, CA. A total of 24,493 E. coli isolates were collected from two sites at a popular swimming beach between August through September 2007 and from July through August 2008. All isolates were examined for the presence of shiga-like toxins (stx1/stx2), intimin (eaeA), and enterotoxins (ST/LT). Of the 24,493 isolates examined, 3.6% contained the eaeA gene, indicating that these isolates were potential EPEC strains. On five dates, however, greater than 10% of the strains were potential EPEC, suggesting that incidence of virulence genes at this beach has a strong temporal component. No STEC or ETEC isolates were detected, and only eight (<1.0%) of the potential EPEC isolates were found to carry the EAF plasmid. The potential EPEC isolates mainly belonged to E. coli phylogenetic groups B1 or B2, and carried the β intimin subtype. DNA fingerprint analyses of the potential EPEC strains indicated that the isolates belonged to several genetically diverse groups, although clonal isolates were frequently detected. While the presence of virulence genes alone cannot be used to determine the pathogenicity of strains, results from this study show that potential EPEC strains can be found in marine beach water and their presence needs to be considered as one of the factors used in decisions concerning beach closures. PMID:20643468

  20. Phenotypic characterization of Clostridium botulinum strains isolated from infant botulism cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sagua, M D; Lúquez, C; Barzola, C P; Bianco, M I; Fernández, R A

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism; however, its transmission has not been completely explained yet. Some of the most recognized potential sources of Clostridium botulinum spores are the soil, dust, honey and medicinal herbs. In Argentina, 456 cases of infant botulism were reported between 1982 and 2007. C. botulinum type A was identified in 455 of these cases whereas type B was identified in just one case. However, in Argentina, types A, B, E, F, G, and Af have been isolated from environmental sources. It is not clearly known if strains isolated from infant botulism cases have different characteristics from strains isolated from other sources. During this study, 46 C. botulinum strains isolated from infant botulism cases and from environmental sources were typified according to phenotypic characteristics. Biochemical tests, antimicrobial activity, and haemagglutinin-negative botulinum neurotoxin production showed uniformity among all these strains. Despite the variability observed in the botulinum neurotoxin's binding to cellular receptors, no correlation was found between these patterns and the source of the botulinum neurotoxin. However, an apparent geographical clustering was observed, since strains isolated from Argentina had similar characteristics to those isolated from Italy and Japan, but different to those isolated from the United States. PMID:19831311

  1. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis BL-09, a probiotic strain isolated from naturally fermented congee.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; Yao, Guoqiang; Bao, Weichen; Li, Jing; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2015-07-20

    Bacillus licheniformis BL-09 is a probiotic strain isolated from naturally fermented congee in Inner Mongolia of China. The genome of this strain contains a 4.39 Mb circular chromosome with an average GC content of 45.9%. The analysis of the genome revealed two gene clusters that are related to the peptide biosynthesis. The available genetic information of these peptides makes it possible to construct an improved strain for the industrial production of antimicrobial agents. PMID:25913174

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  4. [Staphylococcus strains isolated from cases of osteomyelitic patients qualifying for autovaccine therapy].

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz, A; Miedzobrodzki, J; Białecka, A; Bołoczko, S

    1994-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from osteomyelitic were analysed biochemically and phage-typed. All examined strains were classified to the following biochemical groups: biotype I 6,332,153, biotype II 6,732,151, biotype III 6,732,151, biotype IV 6,732,150. Among the strains the following types were frequent: 3A, 3C, 55, 71 and 96. PMID:7967945

  5. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    PubMed

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests. PMID:26485327

  6. Rhodococcus baikonurensis BTM4c, a boron-tolerant actinobacterial strain isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Miwa, Hiroki; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Yokota, Akira; Fujiwara, Toru

    2010-01-01

    By screening a bacterial population from the soil in Tokyo, Japan, we isolated a boron-tolerant bacterium, strain BTM4c. Strain BTM4c grew under the boron excess conditions with 100 mM boric acid, which is generally toxic to bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and physiological data showed that the strain belongs to the genus Rhodococcus, and is to be identified as Rhodococcus baikonurensis. PMID:20057133

  7. Isolation and characterization of recombinants between attenuated and virulent aphthovirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, A T; Sagedahl, A; Bergmann, I E; La Torre, J L; Scodeller, E A

    1987-01-01

    A guanidine-resistant mutant of the attenuated strain of aphthovirus type 01 strain Campos and the original wild-type strain were crossed to generate recombinant viruses. Two independently derived recombinant viruses were isolated. One isolate (RI) contained the P1 (structural proteins) gene region of attenuated strain and P3 (polymerase precursor) gene region of the wild-type strain. The other isolate (RII) had a genomic structure complementary to that of RI, this is, P1 of the wild-type strain and P3 of the attenuated virus. Recombinant RII inherited some in vitro phenotypic markers that were characteristic of the attenuated strain, whereas the RI recombinant had in vitro behavior that was similar to that of the wild-type strain. The data obtained suggest that the polymerase precursor (P3) of the attenuated strain (01 Campos) could be involved in the determination of the attenuated phenotype for fetal bovine kidney cells and, eventually, for cattle. Images PMID:3027372

  8. Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains isolated from common bean seeds: phylogeny, physiology, and genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Mora, Yolanda; Díaz, Rafael; Vargas-Lagunas, Carmen; Peralta, Humberto; Guerrero, Gabriela; Aguilar, Alejandro; Encarnación, Sergio; Girard, Lourdes; Mora, Jaime

    2014-09-01

    Rhizobial bacteria are commonly found in soil but also establish symbiotic relationships with legumes, inhabiting the root nodules, where they fix nitrogen. Endophytic rhizobia have also been reported in the roots and stems of legumes and other plants. We isolated several rhizobial strains from the nodules of noninoculated bean plants and looked for their provenance in the interiors of the seeds. Nine isolates were obtained, covering most known bean symbiont species, which belong to the Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium groups. The strains showed several large plasmids, except for a Sinorhizobium americanum isolate. Two strains, one Rhizobium phaseoli and one S. americanum strain, were thoroughly characterized. Optimal symbiotic performance was observed for both of these strains. The S. americanum strain showed biotin prototrophy when subcultured, as well as high pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, both of which are key factors in maintaining optimal growth. The R. phaseoli strain was a biotin auxotroph, did not grow when subcultured, accumulated a large amount of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, and exhibited low PDH activity. The physiology and genomes of these strains showed features that may have resulted from their lifestyle inside the seeds: stress sensitivity, a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) complex, a homocitrate synthase (usually present only in free-living diazotrophs), a hydrogenase uptake cluster, and the presence of prophages. We propose that colonization by rhizobia and their presence in Phaseolus seeds may be part of a persistence mechanism that helps to retain and disperse rhizobial strains. PMID:25002426

  9. Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobial Strains Isolated from Common Bean Seeds: Phylogeny, Physiology, and Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Yolanda; Díaz, Rafael; Vargas-Lagunas, Carmen; Peralta, Humberto; Guerrero, Gabriela; Aguilar, Alejandro; Encarnación, Sergio; Girard, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobial bacteria are commonly found in soil but also establish symbiotic relationships with legumes, inhabiting the root nodules, where they fix nitrogen. Endophytic rhizobia have also been reported in the roots and stems of legumes and other plants. We isolated several rhizobial strains from the nodules of noninoculated bean plants and looked for their provenance in the interiors of the seeds. Nine isolates were obtained, covering most known bean symbiont species, which belong to the Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium groups. The strains showed several large plasmids, except for a Sinorhizobium americanum isolate. Two strains, one Rhizobium phaseoli and one S. americanum strain, were thoroughly characterized. Optimal symbiotic performance was observed for both of these strains. The S. americanum strain showed biotin prototrophy when subcultured, as well as high pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, both of which are key factors in maintaining optimal growth. The R. phaseoli strain was a biotin auxotroph, did not grow when subcultured, accumulated a large amount of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, and exhibited low PDH activity. The physiology and genomes of these strains showed features that may have resulted from their lifestyle inside the seeds: stress sensitivity, a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) complex, a homocitrate synthase (usually present only in free-living diazotrophs), a hydrogenase uptake cluster, and the presence of prophages. We propose that colonization by rhizobia and their presence in Phaseolus seeds may be part of a persistence mechanism that helps to retain and disperse rhizobial strains. PMID:25002426

  10. Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

    2014-10-01

    Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. PMID:24888497

  11. Detection of type III secretion system genes in Aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with virulence in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Castro, G A; Lopes, C O; Leal, C A G; Cardoso, P G; Leite, R C; Figueiredo, H C P

    2010-08-26

    The goals of this study were to develop a PCR technique to detect ascV and aopB genes from the type III secretion system (T3SS), to evaluate the frequency of these genes in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from diseased fish and from aquaculture environments, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of A. hydrophila in Nile tilapia. The PCR assay developed here successfully detected the target genes, showing three different profiles for the strains ascV+/aopB+, ascV+/aopB-, and ascV-/aopB-. A higher frequency of ascV+/aopB+ was verified in isolates from diseased fish compared to those from aquaculture environments (P<0.05). Among 64 isolates from diseased fish, ascV+/aopB+ (62.5%) was the most frequent profile (P<0.05) and caused more intensive mortality rates. Environmental strains containing the ascV+/aopB+ profile were less virulent than isolates from clinical cases. These results suggest that the presence of a functional T3SS probably increases the virulence of A. hydrophila. The PCR technique was shown to be a specific and efficient tool for detection of T3SS, and this technique can be used for virulence typing of A. hydrophila isolates. PMID:20185253

  12. Genome Sequence of Riemerella anatipestifer Strain RCAD0122, a Multidrug-Resistant Isolate from Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Heng; Zhou, Wang-Shu; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Liu, Ma-Feng; Wang, Ming-Shu; Cheng, An-Chun; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogenic bacterium in waterfowl and other avian species. We present here the genome sequence of R. anatipestifer RCAD0122, a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from infected ducks. The isolate contains at least nine types of antibiotic resistance-associated genes. PMID:27151800

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    PubMed

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  14. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  15. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Iberian Brucella suis Biovar 2 Strains Isolated from Wild Boars

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; Corrêa de Sá, Maria Inácia

    2014-01-01

    Brucella suis biovar 2 is the most common biovar isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) associated with transmission to outdoor-reared pigs in Europe. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequences of three strains isolated from wild boars in Portugal and Spain and belonging to the Iberian clone (haplotypes 2d and 2e). PMID:24994794

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM SWINE FECES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, 219 strains) isolated from swine feces belonging to different serogroups were characterized to determine their virulence gene and antibiotic resistance profiles, as well as acid tolerance. Twenty-nine out of 219 (13 percent) of the isolates harbored the stx1 gen...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of an Environmental trh+ Vibrio parahaemolyticus K23 Strain Isolated from Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Divya Meparambu; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a trh+ strain, V. parahaemolyticus K23, isolated from seafood. The sequence will be useful for comparative analysis between environmental and clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:27081143

  20. Activities of Telithromycin, Erythromycin, Fluoroquinolones, and Doxycycline against Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Finnish Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg-Norio, Daniela; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Koskela, Markku; Eerola, Erkki; Uksila, Jaakko; Pajarre, Sini; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 478 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from Finnish subjects during 2002 to 2004 were determined. Susceptibility to erythromycin remained high, and telithromycin did not offer any advantage over erythromycin. Reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones and doxycycline were detected almost exclusively among isolates of foreign origin. PMID:16495275

  1. Multi-locus DNA sequencing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from Brazilian pigs identifies genetically divergent strains

    PubMed Central

    Frazão-Teixeira, E.; Sundar, N.; Dubey, J. P.; Grigg, M. E.; de Oliveira, F. C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Five Toxoplasma gondii isolates (TgPgBr1–5) were isolated from hearts and brains of pigs freshly purchased at the market of Campos dos Goytacazes, Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Four of the five isolates were highly pathogenic in mice. Four genotypes were identified. Multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing showed that each strain possessed a unique combination of archetypal and novel alleles not previously described in South America. The data suggest that different strains circulate in pigs destined for human consumption from those previously isolated from cats and chickens in Brazil. Further, multi-locus PCR-RFLP analyses failed to accurately genotype the Brazilian isolates due to the high presence of atypical alleles. This is the first report of multi-locus DNA sequencing of T. gondii isolates in pigs from Brazil. PMID:21051148

  2. Screening for probiotic properties of strains isolated from feces of various human groups.

    PubMed

    Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Bruntha Devi, Palanisamy; Ranjith Kumar, Manohar; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha

    2012-08-01

    The present study searched for potential probiotic strains from various human fecal samples. A total of 67 aerobic and 38 anaerobic strains were isolated from 5 different categories of human feces. Systematic procedures were used to evaluate the probiotic properties of the isolated strains. These showed about 75-97% survivability in acidic and bile salt environments. Adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2 was also high. The isolates exhibited hydrophobic properties in hexadecane. The culture supernatants of these strains showed antagonistic effects against pathogens. The isolates were resistant to a simulated gastrointestinal environment in vitro. Of the 4 best isolates, MAbB4 (Staphylococcus succinus) and FIdM3 (Enterococcus fecium), were promising candidates for a potential probiotic. S. succinus was found to be a probiotic strain, which is the second such species reported to date in this particular genus. A substantial zone of inhibition was found against Salmonella spp., which adds further support to the suggestion that the probiotic strain could help prevent intestinal infection. This study suggested that the human flora itself is a potential source of probiotics. PMID:22923108

  3. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668) and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669). Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains. PMID:26413062

  4. Extra-slow-growing Tardiphaga strains isolated from nodules of Vavilovia formosa (Stev.) Fed.

    PubMed

    Safronova, Vera I; Kuznetsova, Irina G; Sazanova, Anna L; Kimeklis, Anastasiia K; Belimov, Andrey A; Andronov, Evgeny E; Pinaev, Alexander G; Pukhaev, Andrey R; Popov, Konstantin P; Akopian, Janna A; Willems, Anne; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-09-01

    Eleven extra-slow-growing strains were isolated from nodules of the relict legume Vavilovia formosa growing in North Ossetia (Caucasus) and Armenia. All isolates formed a single rrs cluster together with the type strain Tardiphaga robiniae LMG 26467(T), while the sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic region (ITS) and housekeeping genes glnII, atpD, dnaK, gyrB, recA and rpoB divided them into three groups. North Ossetian isolates (in contrast to the Armenian ones) were clustered separately from the type strain LMG 26467(T). However, all isolates were classified as T. robiniae because the DNA-DNA relatedness between them and the type strain LMG 26467(T) was 69.6% minimum. Two symbiosis-related genes (nodM and nodT) were amplified in all isolated Tardiphaga strains. It was shown that the nodM gene phylogeny is similar to that of ITS and housekeeping genes. The presence of the other symbiosis-related genes in described Tardiphaga strains, which is recently described genus of rhizobia, as well as their ability to form nodules on any plants are under investigation. PMID:26013968

  5. Mating Type Gene (MAT) and Itraconazole Susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans Strains Isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Okubo, Miki; Kano, Rui; Kumagawa, Mai; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Infection by Trichophyton tonsurans is an emerging fungal epidemic in Japan. Itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine have been used for the treatment of this infection for 15 years. However, patients with T. tonsurans infections have been shown to remain uncured or to become reinfected, suggesting that subclinical infection or polyphyletic strains and/or antifungal drug-resistant strains might be occurring in Japan. In this study, PCR analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the mating type locus MAT in genomic DNA from 60 Japanese clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, and to assess the previously postulated clonal origin of clinical isolates of this species. Antifungal susceptibility testing on isolates also was performed to confirm the absence of strains resistant to ITZ. PCR analysis proved that all 60 strains contained the MAT1-1 allele, while none contained the MAT1-2 allele. As determined by E-test, the mean MIC of ITZ in the 60 strains was 0.023 mg/L (range 0.002-0.125 mg/L). All strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan were clonal and were not resistant to ITZ. Therefore, dermatophytosis due to T. tonsurans is expected to respond to ITZ, since clinical isolates of T. tonsurans tested to date have been susceptible to this antifungal. This infection is proliferating as a subclinical infection in Japan. PMID:26762628

  6. Beta-lactamase-free penicillin amidase from Alcaligenes sp.: isolation strategy, strain characteristics, and enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Pal, A; Samanta, T B

    1999-11-01

    Isolation and characterization of a beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6)-free, penicillin amidase (penicillin amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1. 11)-producing organism is reported. The test strain was isolated by an enrichment technique with a substrate other than penicillins. The isolated strain belongs to the genus Alcaligenes. Phenylacetic acid was found to be the inducer of penicillin amidase. The amidase has a broad substrate spectrum. It is very active against penicillin G and semisynthetic cephalosporins, whereas penicillin V and semisynthetic penicillins acted moderately as a substrate. Immobilized cells of Alcaligenes sp. were shown to act as a reversible enzyme. PMID:10489431

  7. Characterization of Edwardsiella tarda strains isolated from turbot, Psetta maxima (L.).

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L; Núñez, S; Magariños, B

    2006-09-01

    The biochemical, serological and molecular characteristics of a group of 21 Edwardsiella tarda strains isolated from turbot, Psetta maxima, in two different areas of Europe were analysed and compared with a total of 13 strains of this bacterial species with different geographical and host origins. All the turbot isolates were biochemically identical to the E. tarda strains included as reference. The use of different techniques including microagglutination, dot blot and Western blot of lipopolysaccharides allowed us to determine that all the turbot isolates constitute an homogeneous and distinctive serological group. Genetic analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis demonstrated that although the E. tarda strains from turbot were compiled in a unique group using the primers P3 and P6, two clonal lineages could be detected when oligonucleotides P4 and P5 were employed. PMID:16948704

  8. Diversity of Geotrichum candidum Strains Isolated from Traditional Cheesemaking Fabrications in France

    PubMed Central

    Marcellino, N.; Beuvier, E.; Grappin, R.; Guéguen, M.; Benson, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of French fungus-ripened cheeses is due partly to the succession of fungi that colonize the cheese during ripening. Geotrichum candidum appears in the early stages of ripening on soft cheeses such as Camembert and semihard cheeses such as St. Nectaire and Reblochon. Its lipases and proteases promote flavor development, and its aminopeptidases reduce bitterness imparted by low-molecular-weight peptides in cheese. We assessed the genetic diversity of G. candidum strains by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR correlated with phenotypic tests for carbon assimilation and salt tolerance. Strains were isolated from milk, curd, and cheese collected in seven major cheesemaking regions of France. Sixty-four isolates were characterized. We found high genetic diversity of G. candidum even within the same cheesemaking regions. Strains did not group according to region. All of the strains from the Haute-Savoie were able to assimilate lactate as the sole source of carbon, while lactate assimilation varied among strains from the Auvergne. Strains varied in d-mannitol assimilation, and none used citrate as the sole source of carbon. Yeast-like colony morphology predominated in Reblochon, while all of the strains isolated from St. Nectaire were filamentous. The RAPD-PCR technique readily differentiated Geotrichum fragrans isolated from milk and curd in a St. Nectaire cheesemaking facility. This study reveals an enormous diversity of G. candidum that has been empirically selected through the centuries by the cheesemakers of France. PMID:11571181

  9. Diversity of Geotrichum candidum strains isolated from traditional cheesemaking fabrications in France.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, N; Beuvier, E; Grappin, R; Guéguen, M; Benson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The diversity of French fungus-ripened cheeses is due partly to the succession of fungi that colonize the cheese during ripening. Geotrichum candidum appears in the early stages of ripening on soft cheeses such as Camembert and semihard cheeses such as St. Nectaire and Reblochon. Its lipases and proteases promote flavor development, and its aminopeptidases reduce bitterness imparted by low-molecular-weight peptides in cheese. We assessed the genetic diversity of G. candidum strains by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR correlated with phenotypic tests for carbon assimilation and salt tolerance. Strains were isolated from milk, curd, and cheese collected in seven major cheesemaking regions of France. Sixty-four isolates were characterized. We found high genetic diversity of G. candidum even within the same cheesemaking regions. Strains did not group according to region. All of the strains from the Haute-Savoie were able to assimilate lactate as the sole source of carbon, while lactate assimilation varied among strains from the Auvergne. Strains varied in D-mannitol assimilation, and none used citrate as the sole source of carbon. Yeast-like colony morphology predominated in Reblochon, while all of the strains isolated from St. Nectaire were filamentous. The RAPD-PCR technique readily differentiated Geotrichum fragrans isolated from milk and curd in a St. Nectaire cheesemaking facility. This study reveals an enormous diversity of G. candidum that has been empirically selected through the centuries by the cheesemakers of France. PMID:11571181

  10. Characterization of some potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from Iranian native chickens.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Nazila; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Khodaei, Zohreh; Meimandipour, Amir; Safari, Mohammad; Goudarzvand, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterize new LAB strains with high probiotic potentials from Iranian (Isfahan) indigenous chickens. From 90 isolated LABs, 11 isolates had high growth rate under different stress conditions, including acid (pH 2.5), bile (0.5% oxgall), salt (6-15%) and temperatures 15 and 45°C, and their aggregation time was less than 120 min. Based on the molecular identification using 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates belonged to two Lactobacillus salivarius and L. reuteri species. The isolates showed different tolerance to 16 clinically and veterinary relevant antibiotics, and most of them were resistant to or semi-tolerant of 7-15 different studied antibiotics. The Es11, Es12, Es3 and Es13 strains with resistance to or semi-tolerance of 15, 14 and 13 different antibiotics, respectively, were the most tolerant strains. The selected isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against 7 different pathogenic strains. All the isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against E. coli, Enterococcus hirae, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolates Es6 and Es11 with high antagonistic activity and resistance against 6 of the studied pathogens were the most powerful antagonistic isolates. The values and types of adhesion to the Caco-2 cell cultures were significantly different (0-40 bacteria/Caco-2 cell), and the maximum adhesion was observed for the isolates Es6 and Es13 with 35 and 40 bacteria adhesion/cell, respectively. Finally, based on all the experiments, 7 strains, including Es1, Es6, Es7, Es11, Es12 and Es13, were selected for the further in vivo assays and possible use in the poultry industry. PMID:25742971

  11. Molecular characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella strains isolated in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Behnood, Vahid; Memariani, Hamed; Najafi, Ali; Moghbeli, Majid; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, the number of Shigella strains resistant to nalidixic acid has increased and has made the selection of effective antimicrobial therapy more difficult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of quinolone resistance in Shigella strains. Shigella strains isolated from 1100 diarrhoeal patients in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for their susceptibility to nalidixic acid prior to PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of their quinolone resistance genes. Among 73 Shigella strains isolated, 23 (31.5%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. The most common Shigella spp. was Shigella sonnei (54; 74.0%). Of the 23 quinolone-resistant isolates, 4 (17.4%) (including 2 Shigella flexneri, 1 S. sonnei and 1 Shigella boydii) contained the qnrS gene. However, none of the isolates harboured qnrA or qnrB genes. PCR-RFLP analysis of gyrA showed a mutation profile in two nalidixic acid-resistant strains, including one S. sonnei and one S. flexneri. Sequencing of mutant gyrA genes revealed a point mutation at position 83, resulting in the replacement of serine by leucine. In conclusion, molecular mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were identified in 6 of 23 Shigella isolates. Other possible mechanisms of resistance should also be investigated for better characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella isolates. PMID:27436462

  12. The risk to public health of aeromonas in ready-to-eat salad products.

    PubMed

    Mattick, K L; Donovan, T J

    1998-12-01

    Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. are isolated regularly from cases of gastrointestinal infection and have markers indicative of enteropathogenicity. Is aeromonas, which is present in a large proportion of ready-to-eat salads, actually a gastrointestinal pathogen? Isolates of mesophilic aeromonas from salads were characterised in terms of their ability to grow at refrigeration temperatures over the given shelf life and by the presence of markers of potential virulence. The major phenospecies present in salads, A.caviae, showed little enteropathogenic potential. Thirty-five per cent of aeromonas salad isolates are A.hydrophila or A.sobria, however, and all isolates tested had at least one marker of enteropathogenicity, including cytotoxin and haemolysin production, adherence to epithelial cells, and resistance to certain antibiotics Despite the presence of markers of enteropathogencity, the lack of epidemiological evidence of a link between infectious intestinal disease and the consumption of salads suggests that their contamination with aeromonas does not pose a significant risk to health in immunocompetent adults. PMID:9854887

  13. Multiplex PCR detection of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. from suspect food samples in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chang; Wang, Jan-Yi; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kao, Shu-Chen; Yang, Shang-Shyng; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih

    2008-10-01

    Aeromonads possess an array of virulence factors and are causative agents of a number of human infections. Among them, genes of one cytotoxic (Act) and two cytotonic (Alt, Ast) enterotoxins are implicated in a human diarrheal disease. A rapid, specific, simultaneous detection of these enterotoxin genes in suspected food poisoning samples is not yet reported. Hence, a multiplex PCR assay was designed to amplify the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile cytotonic (alt), and heat-stable cytotonic (ast) enterotoxin genes of aeromonads. The PCR assay was tested with 133 Aeromonas spp. isolated from suspect food poisoning samples and retail samples of poultry and fish from wet markets in and around Taipei, Northern Taiwan. The Aeromonas spp. isolates were divided into six genotypes based on absence or presence of one or more enterotoxin genes. Of these 133 isolates, Aeromonas caviae (52.5%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (43.4%) were the most frequently isolated species from food poisoning samples and retail samples, respectively. Among the species, A. hydrophila had a significantly higher proportion for harboring three enterotoxin genes than had the others, whereas Aeromonas encheleia, considered a nonpathogen, was found harboring three enterotoxin genes. The multiplex PCR assays are rapid and specific, and provide a useful tool for the detection and genotyping of enterotoxin genes of aeromonads. PMID:18939759

  14. Studies of resistance to anticoccidials in Eimeria field isolates and pure Eimeria strains.

    PubMed

    Stephen, B; Rommel, M; Daugschies, A; Haberkorn, A

    1997-04-01

    Ten Eimeria field isolates from North Germany were studied in battery tests for sensitivity to selected anticoccidials. A high percentage of the Eimeria field isolates (9 out of 10) showed resistance to anticoccidials, mostly multiple resistance. Partial or complete resistance to maduramicin was found in 7 field isolates, to monensin in 6, to salinomycin in 5, to nicarbazin in 8, to halofuginone in 7, to robenidine and toltrazuril in 1, and to diclazuril in 2 field isolates. Multiple resistance had developed in 7 of the 10 isolates. Cross-resistance between maduramicin, monensin, and salinomycin occurred in 5 Eimeria isolates. One isolate showed cross-resistance between diclazuril and toltrazuril. From the resistant isolates 15 pure E. acerculina and 5 pure E. brunetti strains were obtained by single oocyst infections. Seven of the E. acerculina and 4 of the E. brunetti strains showed resistance or partial resistance that was also present in the original isolate. Ten of 11 resistant strains were multiply resistant. PMID:9187026

  15. [Isolation and characteristics of Panax ginseng autotoxin-degrading bacterial strains].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Yue; Li, Yong; Ding, Wan-Long

    2013-06-01

    In this study, traditional plate culturing method was used to isolate autotoxin-degrading microbial strains, and which were then identified by 16S rDNA homological analysis and morphological characteristics. Furthermore, the growth and autotoxin-degrading efficiency of them were analyzed by liquid culturing method and GC-MS to illustrate their autotoxin-degradation characteristics. As a result, five bacterial strains having autotoxin-degrading activity were isolated from 6-years ginseng nonrhizospheric soil successfully, and which can growth successfully by taking autotoxins added artificially as carbon source in liquid culturing condition. Results indicated that it was feasible to isolate autotoxin-degrading bacteria from ginseng nonrhizospheric soil, and the isolated bacterial strains can be used to degrade autotoxins in soils once planted Panax ginseng. PMID:24010281

  16. Two novel EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains isolated from human infections.

    PubMed

    Prager, Rita; Lang, Christina; Aurass, Philipp; Fruth, Angelika; Tietze, Erhard; Flieger, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The so far highest number of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome was associated with a food-borne outbreak in 2011 in Germany which was caused by an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of the rare serotype O104:H4. Most importantly, the outbreak strain harbored genes characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Such strains have been described seldom but due to the combination of virulence genes show a high pathogenicity potential. To evaluate the importance of EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains in human disease, we analyzed the EHEC strain collection of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens (NRC). After exclusion of O104:H4 EHEC/EAEC strains, out of about 2400 EHEC strains sent to NRC between 2008 and 2012, two strains exhibited both EHEC and EAEC marker genes, specifically were stx2 and aatA positive. Like the 2011 outbreak strain, one of the novel EHEC/EAEC harbored the Shiga toxin gene type stx2a. The strain was isolated from a patient with bloody diarrhea in 2010, was serotyped as O59:H-, belonged to MLST ST1136, and exhibited genes for type IV aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF). The second strain was isolated from a patient with diarrhea in 2012, harbored stx2b, was typed as Orough:H-, and belonged to MLST ST26. Although the strain conferred the aggregative adherence phenotype, no known AAF genes corresponding to fimbrial types I to V were detected. In summary, EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains are currently rarely isolated from human disease cases in Germany and two novel EHEC/EAEC of rare serovars/MLST sequence types were characterized. PMID:24752200

  17. Two Novel EHEC/EAEC Hybrid Strains Isolated from Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Aurass, Philipp; Fruth, Angelika; Tietze, Erhard; Flieger, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The so far highest number of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome was associated with a food-borne outbreak in 2011 in Germany which was caused by an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of the rare serotype O104:H4. Most importantly, the outbreak strain harbored genes characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Such strains have been described seldom but due to the combination of virulence genes show a high pathogenicity potential. To evaluate the importance of EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains in human disease, we analyzed the EHEC strain collection of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens (NRC). After exclusion of O104:H4 EHEC/EAEC strains, out of about 2400 EHEC strains sent to NRC between 2008 and 2012, two strains exhibited both EHEC and EAEC marker genes, specifically were stx2 and aatA positive. Like the 2011 outbreak strain, one of the novel EHEC/EAEC harbored the Shiga toxin gene type stx2a. The strain was isolated from a patient with bloody diarrhea in 2010, was serotyped as O59:H−, belonged to MLST ST1136, and exhibited genes for type IV aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF). The second strain was isolated from a patient with diarrhea in 2012, harbored stx2b, was typed as Orough:H−, and belonged to MLST ST26. Although the strain conferred the aggregative adherence phenotype, no known AAF genes corresponding to fimbrial types I to V were detected. In summary, EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains are currently rarely isolated from human disease cases in Germany and two novel EHEC/EAEC of rare serovars/MLST sequence types were characterized. PMID:24752200

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  20. [Production of a vaccine against enterotoxemia from Clostridium perfringens strains isolated in the field].

    PubMed

    Cherfaoui, S; Kadra, B

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated eight strains of C. perfringens from cases of enterotoxaemia. Five of these strains have revealed themselves toxic with respective types (type "A":2, type "C":2, type "D":1). In order to produce anti-enterotoxaemia vaccine, we have proceeded at the cultivation in fermenter of isolated strains and reference strains CWA 35, CWC and CWD AF. At the end of fermentation, we have evaluated the two following parameters: obtained biomass, and toxin titers. With the two classes of strains we reached an important biomass but toxins titers relatively weak comparatively to that which is usually required. It will be necessary then, to demonstrate the immunogen value of the produced vaccines by testing their efficacity. PMID:1309137

  1. Genomic, pathogenic, and antigenic comparisons of Getah virus strains isolated in 1978 and 2014 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    A Getah virus strain isolated during an outbreak in racehorses in Japan in 2014 (14-I-605) was compared with the vaccine strain isolated in 1978 (MI-110). A comparison of the genome sequences of these strains revealed seven amino acid substitutions in non-structural protein 3, and one or two substitutions in each of other non-structural proteins. In contrast, the structural proteins were highly conserved (99.8-99.9 % amino acid sequence identity). Horse antisera raised against the MI-110 strain showed similar virus-neutralization titers against both MI-110 and 14-I-605 strains (512 and 256, respectively). Therefore, antigenic mutation was probably not a direct cause of the outbreak that occurred in 2014. PMID:27016932

  2. Isolation a new strain of Kocuria rosea capable of tolerating extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Gholami, M; Etemadifar, Z; Bouzari, M

    2015-06-01

    A new actinobacterial strain was isolated from Ab-e-Siah spring (dark water) taken from the Ramsar city in Iran, and subjected to several stress conditions investigation. The isolate, named MG2 strain, was Gram-positive, aerobic, diplococci or tetrad shaped, non-spore forming and non-motile. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolate using 16S rDNA sequence indicated that the organism matched best with the genus Kocuria and the highest sequence similarities (98.55%) being found with Kocuria rosea. The 16S rDNA sequence determined in this study has been deposited in the NCBI database with the accession no. JX534199, K. rosea strain MG2. The isolated strain was an alkaliphilic-mesophilic bacterium because the optimal growth was observed at pH 9.2 and temperature of 28 °C under aerobic condition. MG2 was a halotolerant strain and tolerated maximally to 15% NaCl concentraion. Viability analysis by flow cytometry indicated that this strain had highly resistance to UV-C radiation and moderately resistance to desiccation after 28 days. The viability of K. rosea strains MG2 and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 were determined D87 and D98 according to D index, respectively, by a dose radiation 25 J/cm (Appukuttan et al., 2006). Thus the UV resistance of strain MG2 was comparable with representative radiation resistant Deinococcus. Also MG2 was grown at 1-4% of H2O2 as an oxidant agent. This research is the first study on multiple extreme resistance of Kocuria rosea new strain (MG2) isolated in Iran. PMID:25839781

  3. Lateral flagella are required for increased cell adherence, invasion and biofilm formation by Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Gavín, Rosalina; Merino, Susana; Altarriba, Maria; Canals, Rocío; Shaw, Jonathan G; Tomás, Juan M

    2003-07-15

    Two types of flagella are responsible for motility in mesophilic Aeromonas strains. A polar unsheathed flagellum is expressed constitutively that allows the bacterium to swim in liquid environments and, in media where the polar flagellum is unable to propel the cell, Aeromonas express peritrichous lateral flagella. Recently, Southern blot analysis using a DNA probe based on the Aeromonas caviae Sch3N lateral flagellin gene sequence showed a good correlation between strains positive for the DNA probe, swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella by microscopy. Here, we conclude that the easiest method for the detection of the lateral flagellin gene(s) is by PCR (polymerase chain reaction); this showed good correlation with swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella. This was despite the high degree of DNA heterogeneity found in Aeromonas gene sequences. Furthermore, by reintroducing the laf (lateral flagella) genes into several mesophilic lateral-flagella-negative Aeromonas wild-type strains, we demonstrate that this surface structure enhances the adhesion to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and the capacity for biofilm formation in vitro. These results, together with previous data obtained using Laf- mutants, demonstrate that lateral flagella production is a pathogenic feature due to its enhancement of the interaction with eukaryotic cell surfaces. PMID:12855171

  4. Inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa by the extracellular substances from an Aeromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Ming-Jun; Wang, Meng-Hui; Jia, Rui-Bao; Li, Li

    2013-09-28

    Growth of Microcystis aeruginosa could be inhibited significantly within 24 h by the extracellular substances prepared from Aeromonas sp. strain FM. During the treatment, the concentration of extracellular soluble carbohydrates increased significantly in algal culture. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in M. aeruginosa cells, including breakage of the cell surface, secretion of mucilage, and intracellular disorganization of thylakoids, were observed. HPLC-MS analysis showed that the extracellular substances of Aeromonas sp. strain FM were a mixture of free amino acids, tripeptides, and clavulanate. Among these, the algae-lysis effects of lysine and clavulanate were confirmed. PMID:23727796

  5. Phenotypic characterization of food waste degrading Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Teresa Saraiva Lopes da; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pereira, Pablo Tavares; Roseiro, José Carlos Pereira

    2006-01-01

    A phenotypic characterization of seventeen Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic thermophilic bioreactors of a food waste processing company was carried out, using fatty acid and enzymatic activity profiles. It was observed that each species possessed a typical fatty acid and enzymatic production profile. Bacillus licheniformis strains exhibited the most significant enzyme production. Numerical analyses (principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses) revealed that Bacillus licheniformis strains were homogeneous regarding their fatty acid profiles whilst B. subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains showed some phenotypic differences. However, enzymatic activities numerical analyses indicated that these three Bacillus species were more homogeneous regarding this phenotypic characteristic. PMID:16463317

  6. Isolation and characterization of a new strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from rodents in southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Yama, Ines N; Cazaux, Benoite; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Moureau, Grégory; Thirion, Laurence; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dobigny, Gauthier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2012-10-01

    A total of 821 tissue samples from rodents trapped during field campaigns organized in Europe and Africa were screened for the presence of arenaviruses by molecular methods and cell culture inoculation when feasible. Two Mus musculus domesticus trapped in the southwestern part of France were infected with a potentially new strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), here referred to as LCMV strain HP65-2009, which was isolated and genetically characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses comparing LCMV HP65-2009 with 26 other LCMV strains showed that it represents a novel highly-divergent strain within the group of Mus musculus-associated LCMV. PMID:22651393

  7. Characterization of Micrococcus strains isolated from indoor air

    PubMed Central

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of microbes, such as of opportunists and pathogens (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]), in indoor air is important for understanding disease transmission from person-to-person. Common genera found in the human skin microbiome include Micrococcus and Staphylococcus, but there only a limited number of tests to differentiate these genera and/or species. Both genera are believed to be released into indoor air from the shedding of human skin and are morphologically difficult to distinguish. In the current work, after the extraction of proteins from micrococci and the separation of these proteins on one dimensional electrophoretic gels, tryptic peptides were analyzed by MALDI TOF MS and the mass profiles compared with those of a reference strain (ATCC 4698). The results confirmed that all strains were consistent in identity with Micrococcus luteus. PMID:21963944

  8. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15-17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85-90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  9. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15–17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85–90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  10. Molecular Typing of Environmental and Clinical Strains of Vibrio vulnificus Isolated in the Northeastern USA

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Yann; Pitchford, Steven; De Decker, Sophie; Wikfors, Gary H.; Brown, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a ubiquitous marine bacterium that is responsible for infections and some seafood-related illnesses and deaths in the United States, mainly in individuals with compromised health status in the Gulf of Mexico region. Most phylogenetic studies focus on V. vulnificus strains isolated in the southern United States, but almost no genetic data are available on northeastern bacterial isolates of clinical or environmental origin. Our goal in this study was to examine the genetic diversity of environmental strains isolated from commercially-produced oysters and in clinical strains of known pathogenicity in northeastern United States. We conducted analyses of a total of eighty-three strains of V. vulnificus, including 18 clinical strains known to be pathogenic. A polyphasic, molecular-typing approach was carried out, based upon established biotypes, vcg, CPS, 16S rRNA types and three other genes possibly associated with virulence (arylsulfatase A, mtlABC, and nanA). An established Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) method was also performed. Phylogenetic analyses of these markers and MLST results produced similar patterns of clustering of strains into two main lineages (we categorized as ‘LI’ and ‘LII’), with clinical and environmental strains clustering together in both lineages. Lineage LII was comprised primarily but not entirely of clinical bacterial isolates. Putative virulence markers were present in both clinical and environmental strains. These results suggest that some northeastern environmental strains of V. vulnificus are phylogenetically close to clinical strains and probably are capable of virulence. Further studies are necessary to assess the risk of human illness from consuming raw oysters harvested in the northeastern US. PMID:24386187

  11. Detection of the causative agent of furunculusis, Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonids of the Krka River.

    PubMed

    Kapetanović, D; Vardić, I; Kurtović, B; Valić, D; Teskeredzić, E

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we describe the bacterial community associated with salmonids from the Krka River. Diversity analysis demonstrated that majority of the recovered bacteria were related to Aeromonadaceae group. Bacterial analysis also revealed the presence of Shigella spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida from trout, presents first isolation of this bacteria Croatian rivers. PMID:17624808

  12. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R (VacB) is Involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Pathogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  13. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R(VacB) is involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Virulence

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  14. Identification of clinical aeromonas species by rpoB and gyrB sequencing and development of a multiplex PCR method for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. media.

    PubMed

    Persson, Søren; Al-Shuweli, Suzan; Yapici, Seval; Jensen, Joan N; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2015-02-01

    Conventional identification of Aeromonas species based on biochemical methods is challenged by the heterogeneous nature of the species. Here, we present a new multiplex PCR method directed toward the gyrB and rpoB genes that identifies four Aeromonas species, A. hydrophila, A. media, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and we describe the application of this method on a Danish strain collection. PMID:25411168

  15. Whole-Genome Sequences of Streptococcus thermophilus Strains TH1435 and TH1436, Isolated from Raw Goat Milk.

    PubMed

    Treu, Laura; Vendramin, Veronica; Bovo, Barbara; Campanaro, Stefano; Corich, Viviana; Giacomini, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two Streptococcus thermophilus strains, TH1435 and TH1436, isolated from raw goat milk devoted to the production of artisanal cheese in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region in Italy. The genome sequences of these two quickly acidifying strains are the first available genome sequences of S. thermophilus strains isolated in Italy. PMID:24435859

  16. Draft Genome Assembly of Two Pseudoclavibacter helvolus Strains, G8 and W3, Isolated from Slaughterhouse Environments

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Prem K.; Herschend, Jakob; Røder, Henriette L.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Pseudoclavibacter helvolus strains. Strain G8 was isolated from a meat chopper and strain W3 isolated from the wall of a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The two annotated genomes are 3.91 Mb and 4.00 Mb in size, respectively. PMID:27034481

  17. Characterization of rumen bacterial strains isolated from enrichments of rumen content in the presence of propolis.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Sílvia Cristina; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Forano, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Propolis presents many biological properties, including antibacterial activities, and has been proposed as an additive in ruminant nutrition. Twenty bacterial strains, previously isolated from enrichments of Brazilian cow rumen contents in the presence of different propolis extracts (LLOS), were characterized using phenotyping and 16S rRNA identification. Seven strains were assigned to Streptococcus sp., most likely S. bovis, and were all degrading starch. One amylolytic lactate-utilizing strain of Selenomonas ruminantium was also found. Two strains of Clostridium bifermentans were identified and showed proteolytic activity. Two strains were assigned to Mitsuokella jalaludinii and were saccharolytic. One strain belonged to a Bacillus species and seven strains were affiliated with Escherichia coli. All of the 20 strains were able to use many sugars, but none of them were able to degrade the polysaccharides carboxymethylcellulose and xylans. The effect of three propolis extracts (LLOS B1, C1 and C3) was tested on the in vitro growth of four representative isolates of S. bovis, E. coli, M. jalaludinii and C. bifermentans. The growth of S. bovis, E. coli and M. jalaludinii was not affected by the three propolis extracts at 1 mg ml(-1). C. bifermentans growth was completely inhibited at this LLOS concentration, but this bacterium was partially resistant at lower concentrations. LLOS C3, with the lower concentration of phenolic compounds, was a little less inhibitory than B1 and C1 on this strain. PMID:25172217

  18. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

  19. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses.

    PubMed

    Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L

    2015-09-01

    In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations. PMID

  20. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from Chinese children with pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hesheng; Shen, Xuzhuang; Huang, Guoying; Fu, Zhou; Zheng, Yuejie; Wang, Libo; Li, Chengrong; Liu, Lan; Shen, Ying; Liu, Xiaorong; Yang, Yonghong

    2011-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes various human diseases, of which streptococcal pharyngitis is the most common. In this work, a total of 185 S. pyogenes isolated from Chinese children with pharyngitis was analyzed by superantigen (SAg) genes, emm genotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-eight (31.4%) isolates were also typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results indicate that most of the emm1 isolates possessed speA (88.5%) and speJ (83.6%), and few isolates possessed speI gene (13.1%). In contrast, none of the emm12-type isolates possessed speJ; few isolates possessed speA (5.2%); and most of the isolates possessed speI (91.7%). PFGE analysis revealed 25 different clusters, and MLST was performed for 2 predominant emm-type isolates; emm12 isolates belonged to ST36 while emm1 isolates belonged to ST28. As far as this collection is concerned, emm1 and emm12 are the prevalent genotypes among S. pyogenes strains associated with children's pharyngitis in China. Most of the pharyngitis strains can be covered by a 26-valent vaccine. A strong correspondence is found only in the direction of emm type for both SAg profiles and PFGE types but not in the reverse direction. PMID:21251553

  1. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25841972

  2. Molecular characterization of an apoptotic strain of Newcastle disease virus isolated from an outbreak in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, U; Kumar, S

    2015-08-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry. The ND virus (NDV) encodes an error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which can cause high mutation rate leading to the emergence of its new antigenic variants. Antigenic difference of NDV strains may result in massive outbreak in vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry flocks around the globe. Apart from its pathogenic potential NDV has been explored as an oncolytic agent for a broad range of human cancers. In the present study, we isolated a novel NDV strain from an outbreak in chicken flock from the eastern part of India. Molecular characterization showed the NDV strain to be virulent in nature. The complete genome sequence analysis of the newly isolated strains belongs to genotype XIII. Moreover, the newly isolated strain of NDV showed positive results in various apoptotic assays in human breast cancer cells, MCF-7. The study will be useful to explore the possibility of using a newly isolated strain of NDV for virotherapy. PMID:26251032

  3. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory probiotic strains isolated from pulque.

    PubMed

    Torres-Maravilla, Edgar; Lenoir, Marion; Mayorga-Reyes, Lino; Allain, Thibault; Sokol, Harry; Langella, Philippe; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Their use is more and more widespread for both prevention and treatment of diseases, including traveler’s diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In this work, we isolated and characterized novel candidate probiotic strains from pulque (xaxtle), a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage. A total of 14 strains were obtained from xaxtle samples isolated from three different Mexican regions. Species identification was performed by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene targeted PCR. The isolates belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus composti phylogenetic groups, with L. brevis being the most dominant group. Bacteria were tested for lysozyme, low pH, and bile acid resistance. Moreover, the strains were tested for adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells and screened for their immunomodulatory properties using a cellular model. Selected bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory properties were then tested in vivo in a dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model, and weight loss, gut permeability, and cytokine profiles were measured as readouts of inflammation. One of the selected strains, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LBH1068, improved mice health as observed by a reduction of weight loss, significant decreases in gut permeability, and cytokine modulation. Altogether, our results highlighted the potential of lactobacilli isolated from pulque and in particular the strain L. sanfranciscensis LBH1068 as a novel probiotic to treat IBD. PMID:26476654

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  5. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Palmira; Tristezza, Mariana; Haidukowski, Miriam; Fanelli, Francesca; Sisto, Angelo; Mulè, Giuseppina; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles). The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s) for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system. PMID:26633497

  6. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    PubMed

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  7. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Palmira; Tristezza, Mariana; Haidukowski, Miriam; Fanelli, Francesca; Sisto, Angelo; Mulè, Giuseppina; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles). The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s) for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system. PMID:26633497

  8. Genetic Background and Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated in the Republic of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Revazishvili, Tamara; Bakanidze, Lela; Gomelauri, Tsaro; Zhgenti, Ekaterine; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Kekelidze, Merab; Rajanna, Chythanya; Kreger, Arnold; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The genetic composition and antibiotic sensitivities of 50 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinics in the Republic of Georgia were characterized. S. aureus strains ATCC 700699 and ATCC 29737 were included as reference standards in all analyses. All 52 strains had identical 16S rRNA profiles. In contrast, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 20 distinct PFGE types among the 52 strains examined, which indicates that PFGE is more discriminating than is 16S rRNA sequence analysis for differentiating S. aureus strains. The results of our PFGE typing also suggest that multiple genetic subpopulations (related at the ca. 85% similarity level, based on their SmaI PFGE patterns) exist among the Georgian S. aureus strains. Twenty-two of the 50 Georgian strains were methicillin resistant and PCR positive for mecA, and 5 strains were methicillin sensitive even though they possessed mecA. None of the strains were vancomycin resistant or contained vanA. The nucleotide sequences of mecA fragments obtained from all mecA-containing strains were identical. Our data indicate that the population of S. aureus strains in Georgia is fairly homogeneous and that the prevalence of methicillin-resistant, mecA-positive strains is relatively high in that country. PMID:17021070

  9. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population. PMID:25444128

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:27602088

  11. Permissiveness of freshly isolated environmental strains of amoebae for growth of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Mathieu; Binet, Marie; Bouteleux, Celine; Herbelin, Pascaline; Soreau, Sylvie; Héchard, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a pathogenic bacterium commonly found in water and responsible for severe pneumonia. Free-living amoebae are protozoa also found in water, which feed on bacteria by phagocytosis. Under favorable conditions, some L. pneumophila are able to resist phagocytic digestion and even multiply within amoebae. However, it is not clear whether L. pneumophila could infect at a same rate a large range of amoebae or if there is some selectivity towards specific amoebal genera or strains. Also, most studies have been performed using collection strains and not with freshly isolated strains. In our study, we assess the permissiveness of freshly isolated environmental strains of amoebae, belonging to three common genera (i.e. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba), for growth of L. pneumophila at three different temperatures. Our results indicated that all the tested strains of amoebae were permissive to L. pneumophila Lens and that there was no significant difference between the strains. Intracellular proliferation was more efficient at a temperature of 40°C. In conclusion, our work suggests that, under favorable conditions, virulent strains of L. pneumophila could equally infect a large number of isolates of common freshwater amoeba genera. PMID:26832643

  12. Molecular characterization of two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains isolated from children with coughs.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, P; Mastrantonio, P; Hausman, S Z; Giuliano, M; Burns, D L

    1997-01-01

    During a surveillance program associated with the Italian clinical trial for the evaluation of new acellular pertussis vaccines, two bacterial isolates were obtained in cultures of samples from immunocompetent infants who had episodes of cough. Both clinical isolates were identified as Bordetella bronchiseptica by biochemical criteria, although both strains agglutinated with antisera specific for Bordetella parapertussis, suggesting that the strains exhibited some characteristics of both B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis. Both children from whom these strains were isolated exhibited an increase in serum antibody titer to pertussis toxin (PT), a protein that is produced by Bordetella pertussis but that is not thought to be produced by B. bronchiseptica. We therefore examined whether the clinical isolates were capable of producing PT. Neither strain produced PT under laboratory conditions, although both strains appeared to contain a portion of the ptx region that encodes the structural subunits of PT. In order to determine whether the ptx genes may encode functional proteins, we inserted an active promoter directly upstream of the ptx region of one of these strains. Biologically active PT was produced, suggesting that this strain contains the genetic information necessary to encode an active PT molecule. Sequence analysis of the ptx promoter region of both strains indicated that, while they shared homology with the B. bronchiseptica ATCC 4617 sequence, they contained certain sequence motifs that are characteristic of B. parapertussis and certain motifs that are characteristic of B. pertussis. Taken together, these findings suggest that variant strains of B. bronchiseptica exist and might be capable of causing significant illness in humans. PMID:9163480

  13. Assessment of potentially probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from chickens.

    PubMed

    Kizerwetter-Świda, M; Binek, M

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to isolate lactobacilli from chicken droppings and to select strains with the most promising probiotic properties. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from a flock of healthy laying hens. The first selection criterion was the ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. Then the tolerance to low pH and bile salt, the ability to coaggregate with pathogenic bacteria and hydrogen peroxide production were evaluated. Four isolates showing the best antagonistic activity against Salmonella Enetritidis were selected for further research. All isolates tested tolerated low pH and bile salt, likewise all produced hydrogen peroxide. They efficiently coaggregated with C. perfringens and relatively less with E. coli. Isolate 03'04 displayed above-average results in all criteria, thus it is considered as a potential probiotic for chickens, and will be further evaluated for health promoting effect in animals. The results presented in this study confirm the strain specific probiotic properties and prove the probiotic potential of isolate 03'04. Strong antagonistic properties against C. perfringens exhibited by certain Lactobacillus strains indicate the possibility to use them as a component of probiotic supplement in necrotic enteritis of poultry. PMID:27096783

  14. [Antibiotypes of bacterial strains isolated from patients at the intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Vega, S; Atencio, M P; Quintero, A; Sinclair, J; Toala, P

    1999-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in intensive care units has permitted the selection of multiple resistant bacterial strains in the hospital setting. Antibiograms present the sensitivity or resistance of these strains to drugs in current use. In this study, 100 bacterial strains were isolated from patients on medical and surgical ICU wards. The strains were identified by API-20E and sensitivity testing was performed by the E-test procedure. MIC were further analyzed with the WHONET software wich permits the identification of antibiotypes. Acinetobacter anitratus, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae were the most resistant strains. Nine antibiotypes were determinated for A. Anitratus. Predominant strain presented antibiotypes with multiple resistance to ten antibiotics. P. aeruginosa presented 10 antibiotypes, the predominant one being CTX, CRO, CTX. Antibiotype determination allows phenotypic identification or resistance patterns in particular species as well as facilitates follow up and recognition of its epidemiological distribution. PMID:12442733

  15. Antibiotic sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae strains including three recent chloramphenicol-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Zackrisson, G; Brorson, J E

    1980-08-01

    The antibiotic sensitivity of 100 recent isolates of Haemophilus influenzae was determined. Three strains were resistant to chloramphenicol with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 16 microgram/ml. Of these three resistant strains, one produced betalactamase and one was resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The remaining strains were inhibited by 0.25-2.0 microgram/ml of chloramphenicol. Ampicillin and benzylpenicillin were found to inhibit all but the betalactamase-producing strains at low concentrations. Regarding sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 96% had minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.5-0.12 microgram/ml or less, while two strains were resistant. The invitro efficacy of erythromycin against H. influenzae was low. The majority of the strains was inhibited by low concentrations of doxycycline and cefuroxime while cefoxitin exhibited minimal inhibitory concentrations values usually exceeding 1 microgram/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations registered are compared to the concentrations of the different antibiotics attainable in certain body fluids. PMID:6968146

  16. QUANTIFICATION OF SIDEROPHORE AND HEMOLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM STRAINS, INCLUDING A STRAIN ISOLATED FROM THE LUNG OF A CHILD WITH PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AND HEMOSIDEROSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strain of Stachybotrys chartarum was recently isolated from the lung of a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis (PH) patient in Texas (designated the Houston strain). This is the first time that S. chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a PH patient. In this study, the ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant Gluconobacter strains catalyzing oxidative fermentation at higher temperatures.

    PubMed

    Moonmangmee, D; Adachi, O; Ano, Y; Shinagawa, E; Toyama, H; Theeragool, G; Lotong, N; Matsushita, K

    2000-11-01

    Thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Gluconobacter were isolated from various kinds of fruits and flowers from Thailand and Japan. The screening strategy was built up to exclude Acetobacter strains by adding gluconic acid to a culture medium in the presence of 1% D-sorbitol or 1% D-mannitol. Eight strains of thermotolerant Gluconobacter were isolated and screened for D-fructose and L-sorbose production. They grew at wide range of temperatures from 10 degrees C to 37 degrees C and had average optimum growth temperature between 30-33 degrees C. All strains were able to produce L-sorbose and D-fructose at higher temperatures such as 37 degrees C. The 16S rRNA sequences analysis showed that the isolated strains were almost identical to G. frateurii with scores of 99.36-99.79%. Among these eight strains, especially strains CHM16 and CHM54 had high oxidase activity for D-mannitol and D-sorbitol, converting it to D-fructose and L-sorbose at 37 degrees C, respectively. Sugar alcohols oxidation proceeded without a lag time, but Gluconobacter frateurii IFO 3264T was unable to do such fermentation at 37 degrees C. Fermentation efficiency and fermentation rate of the strains CHM16 and CHM54 were quite high and they rapidly oxidized D-mannitol and D-sorbitol to D-fructose and L-sorbose at almost 100% within 24 h at 30 degrees C. Even oxidative fermentation of D-fructose done at 37 degrees C, the strain CHM16 still accumulated D-fructose at 80% within 24 h. The efficiency of L-sorbose fermentation by the strain CHM54 at 37 degrees C was superior to that observed at 30 degrees C. Thus, the eight strains were finally classified as thermotolerant members of G. frateurii. PMID:11193396

  18. Differentiation of field isolates and vaccine strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Jorge Luis; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2009-11-12

    Two different regions of the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were amplified and sequenced for characterization of field isolates and tissue culture-origin (TCO) and chicken embryo-origin (CEO) vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the two regions showed differences in nucleotide and amino acid sequences between field isolates and attenuated vaccines. The PCR-RFLP results were identical to those obtained by DNA sequencing and validated their use to differentiate ILTV strains. The approach using the sequencing of the two fragments of the ICP4 gene showed to be an efficient and practical procedure to differentiate between field isolates and vaccine strains of ILTV. PMID:19747995

  19. Genetic and antigenic analysis of Chlamydia pecorum strains isolated from calves with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    OHTANI, Akifumi; KUBO, Masahito; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; OHYA, Kenji; IRIBE, Tadashi; OHISHI, Daiki; ENDOH, Daiji; OMATSU, Tsutomu; MIZUTANI, Tetsuya; FUKUSHI, Hideto; MAEDA, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum (designated 22–58) was isolated in 2010 in HmLu-1 cells from the jejunum of a calf which died of necrotizing enterocolitis in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Immunohistochemical staining identified C. pecorum positive reactions in the jejunal villi. C. pecorum, designated 24–100, was isolated from the feces of a calf with diarrhea in another farm in Yamaguchi Prefecture in 2012. A significant increase in neutralizing antibody titers against C. pecorum was confirmed in paired sera. Nucleotide sequence identities of omp1 genes of the 2 isolates were 100%. The isolates were genetically and antigenically more closely related to C. pecorum Bo/Yokohama strain isolated from cattle with enteritis in Japan than to the other prototype strains, Bo/Maeda isolated from cattle with pneumonia and Ov/IPA isolated from sheep with polyarthritis. These results indicate that C. pecorum strains similar to 22–58 and 24–100 might be endemic in Yamaguchi Prefecture and cause enteric disease in cattle. PMID:25728336

  20. Molecular features of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bacteremic patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) bacteremia is an emerging infection. Our objective was to determine the molecular features of hVISA strains isolated from bacteremic patients and to compare them to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) blood isolates. Results We assessed phenotypic and genomic changes of hVISA (n = 24), MRSA (n = 16) and MSSA (n = 17) isolates by PCR to determine staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCCmec) types, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and the accessory gene regulator (agr) loci. Biofilm formation was quantified. Genetic relatedness was assessed by PFGE. PFGE analysis of isolates was diverse suggesting multiple sources of infection. 50% of hVISA isolates carried SCCmec type I, 21% type II; 25% type V; in 4% the SCCmec type could not be identified. Among MRSA isolates, 44% were SCCmec type I, 12.5% type II, 25% type V, 12.5% were non-typable, and 6% were SCCmec type IVd. Only one hVISA isolate and two MSSA isolates carried the PVL. Biofilm formation and agr patterns were diverse. Conclusion hVISA isolates were diverse in all parameters tested. A considerable number of hVISA and MRSA strains carried the SCCmec type V cassette, which was not related to community acquisition. PMID:19732456

  1. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Five Marine Cyanophages Propagated on Synechococcus sp. Strain WH7803

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, William H.; Joint, Ian R.; Carr, Noel G.; Mann, Nicholas H.

    1993-01-01

    Five marine cyanophages propagated on Synechococcus sp. strain WH7803 were isolated from three different oceanographic provinces during the months of August and September 1992: coastal water from the Sargasso Sea, Bermuda; Woods Hole harbor, Woods Hole, Mass.; and coastal water from the English Channel, off Plymouth Sound, United Kingdom. The five cyanophage isolates were found to belong to two families, Myoviridae and Styloviridae, on the basis of their morphology observed in the transmission electron microscope. DNA purified from each of the cyanophage isolates was restricted with a selection of restriction endonucleases, and three distinguishably different patterns were observed. DNA isolated from Myoviridae isolates from Bermuda and the English Channel had highly related restriction patterns, as did DNA isolated from Styloviridae isolates from Bermuda and the English Channel. DNA isolated from the Myoviridae isolate from Woods Hole had a unique restriction pattern. The genome size for each of the Myoviridae isolates was ca. 80 to 85 kb, and it was ca. 90 to 100 kb for each of the Styloviridae isolates. Southern blotting analysis revealed that there was a limited degree of homology among all cyanophage DNAs probed, but clear differences were observed between cyanophage DNA from the Myoviridae and that from the Styloviridae isolates. Polypeptide analysis revealed a clear difference between Myoviridae and Styloviridae polypeptide profiles, although the major, presumably structural, protein in each case was ca. 53 to 54 kDa. Images PMID:16349088

  2. Genetic Similarity among One Aspergillus flavus Strain Isolated from a Patient Who Underwent Heart Surgery and Two Environmental Strains Obtained from the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gaztelurrutia, Lourdes; Navarro, Jose Ignacio Villate; Tudela, Juan L. Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    We report the simultaneous isolation of one Aspergillus flavus strain from the aortic prosthesis of a heart surgery patient and another two isolates recovered from a dual-reservoir cooler-heater used in the operating room where this patient was operated on. Genetic typing of these three isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed identical genotypes. Eight unrelated control strains of A. flavus had eight different genotypes. These results clearly indicated the nosocomial origin of the A. flavus strain isolated from the patient. We suggest that the RAPD technique is a rapid and reliable tool to ascertain the epidemiology of infections caused by A. flavus. PMID:10835021

  3. Draft genome sequence of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 isolated from a Sebkha in Thamelaht, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bezuidt, Oliver K I; Gomri, Mohamed A; Pierneef, Rian; Van Goethem, Marc W; Kharroub, Karima; Cowan, Don A; Makhalanyane, Thulani P

    2016-01-01

    The members of the genus Thermoactinomyces are known for their protein degradative capacities. Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium, isolated from moderately saline water in the Thamelaht region of Algeria. This isolate is a thermophilic aerobic bacterium with the capacity to produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes. This strain exhibits up to 99 % similarity with members of the genus Thermoactinomyces, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Here we report on the phenotypic features of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 together with the draft genome sequence and its annotation. The genome of this strain is 2,558,690 bp in length (one chromosome, but no plasmid) with an average G + C content of 47.95 %, and contains 2550 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes together with 64 ORFs annotated as proteases. PMID:27617058

  4. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel enzymes for waste lignin valorization. Results Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization, the organisms were identified as Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001, Pseudomonas sp LD002 and Bacillus sp LD003. The ligninolytic capability of each of these isolates was assessed by growth on high-molecular weight and low-molecular weight lignin fractions, utilization of lignin-associated aromatic monomers and degradation of ligninolytic indicator dyes. Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001 and Pseudomonas sp. LD002 exhibited best growth on lignin fractions, but limited dye-decolourizing capacity. Bacillus sp. LD003, however, showed least efficient growth on lignin fractions but extensive dye-decolourizing capacity, with a particular preference for the recalcitrant phenothiazine dye class (Azure B, Methylene Blue and Toluidene Blue O). Conclusions Bacillus sp. LD003 was selected as a promising source of novel types of ligninolytic enzymes. Our observations suggested that lignin mineralization and depolymerization are separate events which place additional challenges on the screening of ligninolytic microorganisms for specific ligninolytic enzymes. PMID:21995752

  5. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Peruvian Children ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, F. P.; Ochoa, T. J.; Maves, R. C.; Bernal, M.; Medina, A. M.; Meza, R.; Barletta, F.; Mercado, E.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Hall, E. R.; Huicho, L.; Lanata, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea. The present study sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of toxin types, colonization factors (CFs), and antimicrobial susceptibility of ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. We analyzed ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children between 2 and 24 months of age in a passive surveillance study. Five E. coli colonies per patient were studied by multiplex real-time PCR to identify ETEC virulence factors. ETEC-associated toxins were confirmed using a GM1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed strains were tested for CFs by dot blot assay using 21 monoclonal antibodies. We analyzed 1,129 samples from children with diarrhea and 744 control children and found ETEC in 5.3% and 4.3%, respectively. ETEC was more frequently isolated from children >12 months of age than from children <12 months of age (P < 0.001). Fifty-two percent of ETEC isolates from children with diarrhea and 72% of isolates from controls were heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) positive and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) negative; 25% and 19%, respectively, were LT negative and ST positive; and 23% and 9%, respectively, were LT positive and ST positive. CFs were identified in 64% of diarrheal samples and 37% of control samples (P < 0.05). The most common CFs were CS6 (14% and 7%, respectively), CS12 (12% and 4%, respectively), and CS1 (9% and 4%, respectively). ST-producing ETEC strains caused more severe diarrhea than non-ST-producing ETEC strains. The strains were most frequently resistant to ampicillin (71%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). ETEC was thus found to be more prevalent in older infants. LT was the most common toxin type; 64% of strains had an identified CF. These data are relevant in estimating the burden of disease due to ETEC and the potential coverage of children in Peru by investigational vaccines. PMID:20631096

  6. Draft Genome Sequences for Two Metal-Reducing Pelosinus fermentans Strains Isolated from a Cr(VI) Contaminated Site and for Type Strain R7

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Podar, Mircea; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Johnson, Courtney M; Yang, Zamin Koo; Utturkar, Sagar M; Land, Miriam L; Mosher, Jennifer J; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry C; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Pelosinus fermentans 16S rRNA gene sequences have been reported from diverse geographical sites since the recent isolation of the type strain. We present the genome sequence of the P. fermentans type strain R7 (DSM 17108) and genome sequences for two new strains with different abilities to reduce iron, chromate, and uranium.

  7. Identification and characterization of lactococcal and Acetobacter strains isolated from traditional Caucasusian fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tatsuya; Yokota, Akira; Umezawa, Yuka; Toda, Toshiya; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    2005-06-01

    The fermented milk, so-called "Caspian Sea Yogurt" in Japan, consists of two bacterial strains isolated from traditional Caucasusian fermented milk. In the present study, those strains were identified and characterized. Strain FC was Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci and strain FA was Gram-negative, aerobic rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that strain FC formed a cluster with Lactococcus lactis strains and was most closely related to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Strain FA was included in the genus Acetobacter cluster and was most closely related to A. orientalis. The DNA G+C contents of strain FC and strain FA were 39.2 and 51.6 mol%, respectively. Biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridization clarified that strain FC belongs to L. lactis subsp. cremoris and strain FA belongs to A. orientalis. The culture supernatant of lactococcal strain FC inhibited the growth of L. lactis subsp. cremoris DSM 20069T and L. lactis subsp. hordniae JCM 1180T. The inhibitory activity was detected after incubation at 70 degrees C for 60 min or 100 degrees C for 30 min and was stable when the supernatant was adjusted to a pH ranging from 4.9 to 7.5. The antimicrobial activity was lost on treatment with proteolytic enzymes such as proteinase K, trypsin, pronase, and pepsin, although it was not affected by catalase. The gene of lactococcin B (lcnB) homolog was found in the strain FC. From the above results, the strain FC was thought to produce a bacteriocin-like substance. PMID:16161770

  8. WHO collaborative studies on poliovirus type 3 strains isolated during the 1968 poliomyelitis epidemic in Poland.

    PubMed

    Melnick, J L; Berencsi, G; Biberi-Moroeanu, S; Combiescu, A A; Furesz, J; Kantoch, M; Kostrzewski, J; Magrath, D I; Perkins, F T; Vonka, V; Cockburn, W C; Dömök, I; Assaad, F A

    1972-01-01

    In 1968 in Poland an extensive outbreak of poliomyelitis, caused by type 3 poliovirus, began about four months after small vaccine trials with the Leon 12a(1)b (Sabin) and USOL-D bac vaccine strains had been carried out. Because of the temporal association, and because the first cases appeared in the province in which the USOL-D vaccine trial was carried out, a detailed investigation of the strains isolated from cases in the epidemic was made in four laboratories in an attempt to determine whether they were related to the two vaccine strains or to a "wild" strain. All the studies were made under code. The rct marker was of no help in determining the relationship of the epidemic strains to the vaccine strains. The McBride test and the elution marker test clearly separated the Leon 12a(1)b strains from those from the cases, but were incapable of detecting whether the epidemic strains were related to the USOL-D bac strain or to wild type 3 strains. Thus the studies did not provide valid information on the origin of the epidemic. PMID:4346582

  9. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity among Pseudomonas citronellolis Strains Isolated from Oily Sludge-Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Krishnan, S.; Mishra, Sanjeet; Lal, Banwari

    2003-01-01

    The diversity among a set of bacterial strains that have the capacity to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil contaminated with oily sludge (hazardous hydrocarbon waste from oil refineries) was determined. TPH is composed of alkane, aromatics, nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compound, and asphaltene fractions of crude oil. The 150 bacterial isolates which could degrade TPH were isolated from soil samples obtained from diverse geoclimatic regions of India. All the isolates were biochemically characterized and identified with a Biolog microbial identification system and by 16S rDNA sequencing. Pseudomonas citronellolis predominated among the 150 isolates obtained from six different geographically diverse samplings. Of the isolates, 29 strains of P. citronellolis were selected for evaluating their genetic diversity. This was performed by molecular typing with repetitive sequence (Rep)-based PCR with primer sets ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus), REP (repetitive extragenic palindromes), and BOXAIR and PCR-based ribotyping. Strain-specific and unique genotypic fingerprints were distinguished by these molecular typing strategies. The 29 strains of P. citronellolis were separated into 12 distinguishable genotypic groups by Rep-PCR and into seven genomic patterns by PCR-based ribotyping. The genetic diversity of the strains was related to the different geoclimatic isolation sites, type of oily sludge, and age of contamination of the sites. These results indicate that a combination of Rep-PCR fingerprinting and PCR-based ribotyping can be used as a high-resolution genomic fingerprinting method for elucidating intraspecies diversity among strains of P. citronellolis. PMID:12620826

  10. Determination of antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from different foods in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from animal derived foods. With disc diffusion assay, all fourteen L. monocytogenes strains were susceptible to the antibiotics, including penicillin G, vancomycin, ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. sciuri Strain Z8, Isolated from Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xinjun; Zheng, Beiwen; Jiang, Haiyin; Kang, Yi; Cao, Qing; Ning, Huibin

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. sciuri strain Z8 was isolated from a skin wound infection of a patient with infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, the genome sequence of the species S. sciuri has not been previously studied. The complete genome sequence of strain Z8 includes a genome of 2,620,868 bp (32.43% GC content) without any plasmids. PMID:26205872

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Brucella abortus Strains Isolated from Cattle and Pig

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Narinder Singh; Sunita, Thakhur; Arora, A K; Mudit, Chandra; Kaur, Paviter; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Brucella abortus strains LMN1 and LMN2 isolated from cattle and pig. The LMN1 and LMN2 have the genome size of 3,395,952 bp and 3,334,792 bp, respectively. In addition to the conserved genes of Brucella, few novel regions showing similarity to the phages were identified in both strains. PMID:26816552

  13. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda

    2016-01-01

    The autochthonous Lactobacillus brevis strain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. PMID:27056237

  14. High prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains isolated from surgical site infections in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo za Balega

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). In low income countries, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) surgical site infections are particularly associated with high treatment cost and remain a source of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the sensitivity to antibiotics of MRSA and MR-CNS isolated from SSIs. Methods Wound swabs were collected from 130 hospitalized surgical patients in two major hospitals of Kinshasa. S. aureus and CNS strains were identified by standard microbiological methods and latex agglutination test (Pastorex Staph-Plus). The antibiotic susceptibility of all staphylococcal strains was carried out using disk-diffusion method. Results Eighty nine staphylococcal strains were isolated. Out of 74 S. aureus and 15 CNS isolated, 47 (63.5%) and 9 (60%) were identified as MRSA and MR-CNS respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 47 strains (100%) were sensitive to imipenem, 39 strains (89%) to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and 38 strains (81%) to vancomycin. All MR-CNS were sensitive to imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin. The isolated MRSA and MR-CNS strains showed multidrug resistance. They were both resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Conclusion The results of the present study showed a high prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS. Imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin were the most active antibiotics. This study suggests that antibiotic surveillance policy should become national priority as MRSA and MR-CNS were found to be multidrug resistant. PMID:25478043

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia sp. Strain CCA53, Isolated from Leaf Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Yusoff, Mohd Zulkhairi Mohd; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain CCA53 was isolated from leaf soil collected in Higashi-Hiroshima City in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 4 contigs containing 6,647,893 bp, with a G+C content of 67.0% and comprising 9,329 predicted coding sequences. PMID:27389268

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia sp. Strain CCA53, Isolated from Leaf Soil.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hironaga; Kimura, Zen-Ichiro; Yusoff, Mohd Zulkhairi Mohd; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain CCA53 was isolated from leaf soil collected in Higashi-Hiroshima City in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 4 contigs containing 6,647,893 bp, with a G+C content of 67.0% and comprising 9,329 predicted coding sequences. PMID:27389268

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Kocuria rhizophila strain TPW45, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Freshwater

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Tan, Pui-Wan; Chen, Jian-Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Kocuria rhizophila is a ubiquitous bacterium which is well known for its industrial value. Here, we present the draft genome of Kocuria rhizophila strain TPW45 which was isolated from Sungai Gabai, Selangor, Malaysia. The assembled genome comprised of 46 contigs and the estimated genome size is 2.7 Mb. Based on the RAST annotation, a gene cluster responsible for aromatic compound degradation was identified in this strain. PMID:27326264

  18. H2, N2, and O2 metabolism by isolated heterocysts from Anabaena sp. strain CA.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R L; Kumar, D; Zhang, X K; Tabita, F R; Van Baalen, C

    1985-01-01

    Metabolically active heterocysts isolated from wild-type Anabaena sp. strain CA showed high rates of light-dependent acetylene reduction and hydrogen evolution. These rates were similar to those previously reported in heterocysts isolated from the mutant Anabaena sp. strain CA-V possessing fragile vegetative cell walls. Hydrogen production was observed with isolated heterocysts. The ratio of C2H4 to H2 produced ranged from 0.9 to 1.2, and H2 production exhibited unique biphasic kinetics consisting of a 1 to 2-min burst of hydrogen evolution followed by a lower, steady-state rate of hydrogen production. This burst was found to be dependent upon the length of the dark period immediately preceding illumination and may be related to dark-to-light ATP transients. The presence of 100 nM NiCl2 in the growth medium exerted an effect on both acetylene reduction and hydrogen evolution in the isolated heterocysts from strain CA. H2-stimulated acetylene reduction was increased from 2.0 to 3.2 mumol of C2H4 per mg (dry weight) per h, and net hydrogen production was abolished. A phenotypic Hup- mutant (N9AR) of Anabaena sp. strain CA was isolated which did not respond to nickel. In isolated heterocysts from N9AR, ethylene production rates were the same under both 10% C2H2-90% Ar and 10% C2H2-90% H2 with or without added nickel, and net hydrogen evolution was not affected by the presence of 100 nM Ni2+. Isolated heterocysts from strain CA were shown to have a persistent oxygen uptake of 0.7 mumol of O2 per mg (dry weight) per h, 35% of the rate of whole filaments, at air saturating O2 levels, indicating that O2 impermeability is not a requirement for active heterocysts. PMID:3921524

  19. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic Bacillus strains capable to degrade ethylenethiourea.

    PubMed

    Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Sajben-Nagy, Enikő; Bóka, Bettina; Vörös, Mónika; Berki, Adrienn; Palágyi, Andrea; Krisch, Judit; Skrbić, Biljana; Durišić-Mladenović, N; Manczinger, László

    2013-03-01

    In this study, more than 150 bacteria showing antagonistic properties against bacterial and fungal pathogens of the tomato plant were isolated and characterized. The most efficient agents against these phytopathogenic microorganisms belong to the genus Bacillus: the best biocontrol isolates were representatives of Bacillus subtilis, B. mojavensis and B. amyloliquefaciens species. They intensively produced fengycin or/and surfactin depsipeptide antibiotics and also proved to be excellent protease secretors. It was proved, that the selected strains were able to use ethylenethiourea (ETU) as sole nitrogen source. These antagonistic and ETU-degrading Bacillus strains can be applied as biocontrol and also as bioremediation agents. PMID:23143288

  20. Azole resistance in oropharyngeal Candida albicans strains isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    He, X; Tiballi, R N; Zarins, L T; Bradley, S F; Sangeorzan, J A; Kauffman, C A

    1994-01-01

    For 212 oropharyngeal isolates of Candida albicans, the fluconazole MICs for 50 and 90% of strains tested were 0.5 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively, and those of itraconazole were 0.05 and 0.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Of 16 isolates for which fluconazole MICs were > 64 micrograms/ml, itraconazole MICs for 14 were < or = 0.8 micrograms/ml and for 2 were > 6.4 micrograms/ml. Most fluconazole-resistant strains remained susceptible to itraconazole; whether itraconazole will prove effective for refractory thrush remains to be shown. PMID:7840596