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Sample records for aeronautiche tecnam srl

  1. 77 FR 66417 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation... directive (AD) for Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Model P2006T airplanes. This proposed AD results...

  2. 76 FR 18964 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Model P2006T Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Model P2006T Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... the nose landing gear hydraulic actuator cap. The manufacturer has identified the root cause of...

  3. 77 FR 35304 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... the specified products, which was published in the Federal Register on August 8, 2011 (76 FR 48045... listed above. Since that NPRM (76 FR 48045, August 8, 2011) was issued, TECNAM found that the replacement... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3)...

  4. 77 FR 56991 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Register on June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35304). That SNPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the...: Are consistent with the intent that was proposed in the SNPRM (77 FR 35304, June 13, 2012) for... proposed in the SNPRM (77 FR 35304, June 13, 2012). Costs of Compliance We estimate that this proposed...

  5. 78 FR 63907 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send...

  6. 78 FR 14164 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2012 (77 FR... minor changes: Are consistent with the intent that was proposed in the NPRM (77 FR 66417, November 5... was already proposed in the NPRM (77 FR 66417, November 5, 2012). Costs of Compliance We estimate...

  7. 76 FR 48045 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Model P2006T Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... condition, if not detected and corrected, could impair the aeroplane structural integrity and jeopardize the... detected and corrected, could impair the aeroplane structural integrity and jeopardize the landing...

  8. 76 FR 35344 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Model P2006T Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the products listed above. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) issued by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition...

  9. Self-Regulated Learning (SRL): Emergence of the RSRLM Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This paper claims that the current theories of Self-regulated learning (SRL) are short-sighted. The author provides a comprehensive, but brief, overview of SRL which addresses such issues as (a) SRL processes, (b) SRL strategies, (c) compartments of SRL, (d) theories of SRL, (e) agency in SRL, and (f) models of SRL. He then presents a new model…

  10. Young Children's Awareness of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Young Suk; Gorrell, Jeffrey

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the process through which individuals direct and sustain their awareness, behaviors, and motivation to optimize their learning or to reach goals. Noting that very little research has been conducted on young children's SRL, this study examined 40 kindergarten children's SRL by investigating: their awareness while…

  11. 44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SRL program. 79.7 Section 79.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.7 Offers and appeals under the SRL program. (a) Consultation. States and communities... offer will also clearly state that the property owner's participation in the SRL program is...

  12. Colloid formation during the corrosion of SRL 200 glass

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.

    1994-05-01

    Nonradioactive SRL 200S glass and fully radioactive SRL 200R glass were reacted at glass surface areas to leachant volume (SA/V) ratios of 20,000, 2,000, and 340 m{sup {minus}1} for times varying from several days to a few years. The particles present in the leachates of these tests have been examined by analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The major colloidal clay phase was identified as a smectite clay from its characteristic electron diffraction pattern. The clay colloids eventually disappear from the solution and return to the glass; the time at which this occurs depends on the SA/V. Uranium silicate particles and calcium-bearing phases were also sometimes found in the leachates.

  13. Developing a TPCK-SRL Assessment Scheme for Conceptually Advancing Technology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Zehavit; Kramarski, Bracha

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to: (a) develop a conceptual TPCK-SRL scheme for assessing teachers' integration of self-regulated learning (SRL) considerations while infusing technology into a TPCK classroom context (blending K = knowledge about T = technology, P = pedagogy, and C = content), which reflects all three knowledge components' dynamic…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Regulated Learning and Their Developing Concepts of SRL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzza, Dawn; Allinotte, Trina

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learners manage their thoughts, emotions, and behaviours, and their social and contextual environments to reach their learning goals. Research shows that student teachers can learn to teach in ways that promote students' development of SRL. It has also been shown that there is a relationship between teachers' own SRL and their…

  15. Gamma ray spectrometry of LDEF samples at SRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, W. G.

    1991-07-01

    A total of 31 samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), including materials of aluminum, vanadium, and steel trunnions were analyzed by ultra-low-level gamma spectroscopy. The study quantified particle induced activations of Na-22, Sc-46, Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, Co-58, and Co-60. The samples of trunnion sections exhibited increasing activity toward the outer end of the trunnion and decreasing activity toward its radial center. The trunnion sections did not include end pieces, which have been reported to collect noticeable Be-7 on their leading surfaces. No significant Be-7 was detected in the samples analyzed. The Underground Counting Facility at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was used in this work. The facility is 50 ft. underground, constructed with low-background shielding materials, and operated as a clean room. The most sensitive analyses were performed with a 90 percent efficient HPGe gamma-ray detector, which is enclosed in a purged active/passive shield. Each sample was counted for one to six days in two orientations to yield more representative average activities for the sample. The non-standard geometries of the LDEF samples prompted the development of a novel calibration method, whereby the efficiency about the samples surfaces (measured with point sources) predicted the efficiency for the bulk sample.

  16. Endeavour and its SRL-1 payload backdropped against the Southern Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Part of the Space Shuttle Endeavour and its Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1) payload are backdropped against a colorful display of the Southern Lights (aurora australis). The vehicle was firing a reaction control subsystem thruster (below center) when the 35mm image was exposed.

  17. SRL172 (killed Mycobacterium vaccae) may augment the efficacy of trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Kadri; Mohamed, Ali-Seyed; Altundag, Ozden; Silay, Yavuz Selim; Gunduz, Esra; Demircan, Kadir

    2005-01-01

    SRL172, non-specific immunological adjuvant downregulates interleukin-4, upregulates interleukin-2 production, switching towards a T-helper-1 response, induces an increase in natural killer cells and activates antigen presenting cells. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene amplification is frequently observed in a number of primary tumors, suggesting that the overexpression of this growth factor receptor may contribute to transformation and tumorigenesis. Gene amplification occurs in approximately 15-20% of human breast cancers Amplification is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and shortened survival. Trastuzumab, humanized anti-HER-2 antibody targets the HER-2 protein with high affinity. Trastuzumab when used alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy can induce reasonably durable remissions in a significant percentage of women with metastatic breast cancer whose tumors demonstrate Her-2/neu gene amplification. One of the proposed mechanisms of trastuzumab antitumor action is through antibody dependent cellular cytotoxocity. Pivotal study showed that Trastuzumab+IL-2 resulted in NK cell expansion with enhanced in vitro targeted killing of HER-2-expressing cells. SRL172 by increasing IL-2 production and number of natural killer cells may augment the efficacy of trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer patients. SRL 172 increases IL-2 production and the number of NK cells in vivo. Based on these data, a clinical trial can be performed to test whether SRL 172 added to trastuzumab is safe and more efficacious. PMID:15607548

  18. 44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers and appeals under the SRL program. 79.7 Section 79.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... increases due to refusal of offer. In any case in which the property owner refuses an offer of...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a PAMAM dendrimer nanocarrier functionalized by SRL peptide for targeted gene delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Zarebkohan, Amir; Najafi, Farhood; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Hemmati, Mohammad; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Kazemi, Bahram

    2015-10-12

    Blood-brain barrier inhibits most of drugs and genetic materials from reaching the brain. So, developing high efficiency carriers for gene and drug delivery to the brain, is the challenging area in pharmaceutical sciences. This investigation aimed to target DNA to brain using Serine-Arginine-Leucine (SRL) functionalized PAMAM dendrimers as a novel gene delivery system. The SRL peptide was linked on G4 PAMAM dendrimers using bifunctional PEG. DNA was then loaded in these functionalized nanoparticles and their physicochemical properties and cellular uptake/distribution evaluated by AFM, NMR, FTIR and fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Also, biodistribution and brain localization of nanoparticles were studied after IV injection of nanoparticles into rat tail. Unmodified nanoparticles were used as control in all evaluations. In vitro studies showed that SRL-modified nanoparticles have good transfection efficacy and low toxicity. Results also showed that SRL is a LRP ligand and SRL-modified nanoparticles internalized by clathrin/caveolin energy-dependent endocytosis to brain capillary endothelial cells. After intravenous administration, the SRL-modified nanoparticles were able to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain parenchyma. Our result showed that, SRL-modified nanoparticles provide a safe and effective nanocarrier for brain gene delivery. PMID:26118442

  20. Results from the long-term interaction and modeling of SRL-131 glass with aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Lokken, R.O.

    1985-11-01

    Leaching studies on SRL-131 simulated defense waste glass have been carried out for a duration of two years. This glass contained nonradioactive elements and depleted uranium to simulate the waste content. The leachants used in this study were deionized water, a sodium bicarbonate/silicic acid solution (silicate water), a synthetic groundwater, and a high ionic strength K-Mg-Na-Cl brine. Two temperatures were used: 40/sup 0/C and 90/sup 0/C. The long-term results were in fair agreement with modeling calculations performed using the PHREEQE geochemical code. The leachability of SRL-131 glass from results up to two years followed the trend: deionized water > silicate water > synthetic groundwater > salt brine at 40/sup 0/C and deionized water approx. = synthetic groundwater > silicate water > salt brine at 90/sup 0/C. Solid state analyses are reported along with an Appendix containing a complete data set.

  1. Extending the Applicable Range of the SRL Ballistic Limit Equation to Oblique Hypervelocity Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Martin; Welty, Nathan; Putzar, Robin; Schafer, Frank; Koebel, David; Scheper, Marc; Janovsky, Rolf; Apeldoorn, Jeffrey; Lambert, Michel

    2012-07-01

    A standard method to assess the risk posed upon space assets from the micrometeoroid and space debris (MM/SD) environment is to evaluate the probability of no penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft outer hull. It implies catastrophic spacecraft failure upon a single particle penetration through the spacecraft structure wall. The method is justified by its conservative approach, however may result in overly protected structure walls. A more accurate approach is possible with the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) ballistic limit equation (BLE). It takes into consideration the components’ individual capability to defeat particles without functional effect. The initial equation [1] is calibrated with some 90 hypervelocity impact tests on fuel and heat pipes, pressure vessels, electronic boxes, harness and batteries. The paper at hand publishes results obtained from another 40 impact tests on three vulnerable components, namely the harness, electronics boxes and fuel pipes, with focus on oblique impacts at 45° and 60°. The obtained data complements the initial data base and a recalibration and validation of the SRL equation for oblique impacts is achieved. Applications for the SRL equation in the domain of spacecraft MM/SD risk assessment as well as in the domain of survivability enhancement are discussed.

  2. Structure and stability of variants of the sarcin-ricin loop of 28S rRNA: NMR studies of the prokaryotic SRL and a functional mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Seggerson, K; Moore, P B

    1998-01-01

    NMR has been used to examine the conformational properties of two variants of the sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) from eukaryotic 28S rRNA, which is essential for elongation factor interactions with the ribosome: (1) its bacterial homologue, which lacks two of the bases that flank the conserved 12-nt sequence in the middle of the SRL, but which is functionally equivalent, and (2) a functionally active variant of the eukaryotic SRL in which the bulged G within the conserved sequence is replaced by an A. The data indicate that, although the bacterial SRL is less stable than the eukaryotic SRL, its conformation is closely similar. Furthermore, even though replacement of the bulged G in the SRL with an A seriously destabilizes the center of the loop, its effect on the overall conformation of the SRL appears to be modest. In the course of this work, it was serendipitously discovered that at neutral pH, the C8 proton of the bulged G, in both PRO-SRL and E73, exchanges about 10 times faster than it does in GMP. PMID:9769095

  3. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for [sup 90]Sr, [sup 60]Co, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239,240]Pu, [sup 242,244]Cm, [sup 241]Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for [sup 90]Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  4. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 242,244}Cm, {sup 241}Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for {sup 90}Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  5. AEM analyses of SRL 131 glass altered as a function of SA/V

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Biwer, B.M.; Bradley, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to consider the effects of SVT (svt=surface area-to-volume ratio multiplied by reaction time) scaling on glass/water reactions, particularly with respect to characterizing the alteration layer formed at different values of SVT. Preliminary testing indicated that a Na-rich borosilicate glass, SRL 131, would achieve significant reaction in a relatively short period of time. While 131 glass is not expected to be produced at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) its composition falls in the range for consideration. The results presented here include a comparison of the solution concentrations and detailed descriptions of the alteration layers that formed, analyzed using Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM). The examination of solution concentrations and solids changes simultaneously allows a more complete assessment of the effects of surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) on glass reaction. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Short- and long-term effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide (SR-L) on metastatic gastrinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaztambide, S; Vazquez, J A

    1999-02-01

    Medical treatment is the elective therapy for patients with gastrinoma when the tumor is not found at surgery or is unresectable or when there is a metastatic disease. H2-blockers and omeprazol are able to control gastric acid secretion and, in addition, somatostatin analogues decrease gastrin levels. A new long-acting and slow release formulation of a somatostatin analogue (lanreotide, SR-L) has been developed. We treated two patients suffering from gastrinoma, total gastrectomy and hepatic metastases with 30 mg intramuscular injections of SR-L every 15 and 10 days, respectively, for a seven-month period. After the treatment, gastrin levels decreased from 35,494 and 15,086 ng/l to 3,211 and 167 ng/l (92 and 98% below pre-treatment levels) in case 1 and 2 respectively, with a relief of symptoms and no side effects. PMID:10195383

  7. Effects of radiation exposure on SRL 131 composition glass in a steam environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bradley, C.R.; Bates, J.K.; Wang, L.M.

    1993-11-01

    Monoliths of SRL 131 borosilicate glass were irradiated in a saturated air-steam environment, at temperatures of 150{degree}C, to examine the effects of radiation on nuclear waste glass behavior. Half of the tests used actinide and Tc-99 doped glass and were exposed to an external ionizing gamma source, while the remaining glass samples were doped only with uranium and were reacted without any external radiation exposure. The effects of radiation exposure on glass alteration and secondary phase formation were determined by comparing the reaction rates and mineral paragenesis of the two sets of samples. All glass samples readily reacted with the water that condensed on their surfaces, producing a smectite clay layer within the first three days of testing. Additional crystalline phases precipitated on the altered glass surface with increasing reaction times, including zeolites, smectite, calcium and sodium silicates, phosphates, evaporitic salts, and uranyl silicates. Similar phases were produced on both the nonirradiated and irradiated samples; however, the quantity of precipitates was increased and the rate of paragenetic sequence development was accelerated in the latter. After 56 days of testing, the smectite layer developed at an average rate of {approximately}0.16 and 0.63 {mu}m/day for the nonirradiated and irradiated samples, respectively. These comparisons indicate that layer development is accelerated approximately four-fold due to the radiation exposure at high glass surface area/liquid volume (SA/V) conditions. This increase apparently occurs in response to the rapid concentration of radiolytic products, including nitric acid, in the thin films of water contacting the sample monoliths.

  8. Cloning, sequencing and partial characterisation of sorbitol transporter (srlT) gene encoding phosphotransferase system, glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998.

    PubMed

    Qazi, P H; Johri, S; Verma, V; Khan, L; Qazi, G N

    2004-09-01

    A DNA fragment of approximately 1500 bp, harbouring the sorbitol transport gene (srlT), was amplified from the chromosomal DNA of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998 by PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli JM109. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers used were designed based on the conserved regions in the gene sequences within the gut operon of E. coli (Gene Bank accession no. J02708) and the srl operon of Erwinia amylovora (Gene Bank accession no. Y14603). The cloned DNA fragment was sequenced and found to contain an open reading frame of 1473 nucleotides coding for a protein of 491 amino acids, corresponding to a mass of 52410 Da. The nucleotide sequence of this ORF was highly homologous to that of the gutA gene of Escherichia coli gut operon, the srlE gene of Shigella flexrni and the sorbitol transporter gene sequence of Escherichia coli K12 (Gene Bank accession nos. J02708, AE016987 and D90892 respectively). The protein sequence showed significant homology to that of the phosphotransferase system i.e. the glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Escherichia coli and Erwinia amylovora (P56580, O32522). The cloned DNA fragment was introduced into a pRA90 vector and the recombinant was used for developing srlT mutants of Erwinia herbicola, by homologous recombination. Mutants obtained were unable to grow on minimal medium with sorbitol. The insertion of the pRA90 vector inside the srlT gene sequence of the mutants was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridisation. PMID:15560368

  9. Observation by SEM/EDXS of leached layers on SRL-165 glass from 5-year MIIT test

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, P.B.; Buechele, A.C.

    1993-12-31

    Long-term tests on the durability of nuclear waste glasses, both under laboratory conditions and in actual burial environments, have shown that after periods of several months or years the rates of glass corrosion can show unexpected increases. In burial tests in brine environments the growth of the thickness of the surface layer during years 3 to 5 as revealed by SIMS and SEM measurements was found to be faster than expected on the basis of findings during the first 2 years. In this paper we report on our SEM-EDXS observations of a 5 year burial sample of SRL-165 glass from the MIIT test, and compare our findings to those of other studies, especially SIMS measurements. Our average thickness measurement for the leached layer at the glass-metal interface is 3.70 {mu}m, but wide variation is observed, as well as evidence of partial loss of the leached layer in some areas. A thicker, better retained layer is observed on the glass-brine interface near the core heater averaging 8 to 12 {mu}m in thickness with occasional local attack producing leached layers of greater depth, in one case nearly 40 {mu}m. These findings show that it is important to extend durability tests to long periods in order to establish a reliable basis for predictive modeling of long-term glass durability.

  10. SRL in-situ tests in the United Kingdom: Part 2, Surface analyses of SRS waste glass buried for one and two years in limestone at Ballidon, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Namboodri, C.G. Jr.; Wicks, G.G.

    1991-02-26

    A multiphase experimental program to assess and understand waste glass behavior under a wide range of conditions has been in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for over a decade. An important part of this experimental effort is to assess the effects of repository relevant conditions on performance of SRS waste glass, in both controlled laboratory tests, as well as in actual field experiments. In laboratory test, SRS waste glass, simulated and in many cases also fully radioactive, has been tested in environments of salt, basalt, shale, granite, clay and tuff. In field experiments, there are four joint international programs being conducted in four different countries, involving burial of SRS simulated waste glass in granite, limestone, clay and salt geologies. This report discusses the SRS waste glass studies in limestone at Ballidon, UK..

  11. Gamma ray spectrometry of LDEF samples at SRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, Willard G.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 31 samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), including materials of aluminum, vanadium, and steel trunnions were analyzed by ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry. The study quantified particle induced activations of Na-22, Sc-46, Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, Co-58, and Co-60. The samples of trunnion sections exhibited increasing activity toward the outer end of the trunnion and decreasing activity toward its radial center. The trunnion sections did not include end pieces, which were reported to collect noticeable Be-7 on their leading surfaces. No significant Be-7 was detected in the samples analyzed.

  12. Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Pence, D T; Kirstein, B E

    1981-07-01

    Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m/sup 3//h (15-ft/sup 3//min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed.

  13. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  14. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  15. Redox calcination study of Synroc D powder containing simulated SRL waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.

    1982-07-27

    According to Ringwood (A.E. Ringwood, W. Sinclair, and G.M. McLaughlin, Nuclear Waste Immobilization, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-15147 (1979)), the iron oxidation state is important in controlling, the spinel mineralogy and composition if the amount of titania (TiO/sub 2/) consumed in spinel formation is to be minimized in favor of the formation of the Synroc phases, zirconolite, perovskite, and nepheline. In our redox calcination studies we observed that the iron oxidation state of FeO/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ can be controlled by the redoxcalcining atmosphere. In a CO atmosphere, the oxidation state was reduced to less than 7 wt % Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. With appropriate CO/sub 2//CO gas mixtures the resultant iron oxidation states were in the range of 45 to 59 wt % Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Direct rotary redox calcination of spray dried powder at 600/sup 0/C, without prior air calcination, showed increased redox efficiency when compared to powder that had been previously air calcined at 650/sup 0/C. We believe this is caused by a reduction in particle size. Rotary calcination at 800/sup 0/C in argon has no measurable reduction affect on the iron oxidation state of Synroc D powder.

  16. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline -- The SRl`95 Workshop 2 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Warwick, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI`95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI`95 Workshop 2 was ``Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline``. The workshop was attended well with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry`s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffrationtechnik, Oxford Instruments, and Kohzu Seiko Ltd. on goniometers/diffractometers, advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons, respectively. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation (``BM contamination``) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  17. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    SciTech Connect

    Covington, J.A.; Wicks, G.G.; Molecke, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of `pineapple slices`, polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90{degrees}C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants.

  18. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    SciTech Connect

    Covington, J.A. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Molecke, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of pineapple slices', polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90{degrees}C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants.

  19. Comparison of the layer structure of vapor phase and leached SRL glass by use of AEM

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Bates, J.K.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bradley, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Test samples of 131 type glass that have been reacted for extended time periods in water vapor atmospheres of different relative humidities and in static leaching solution have been examined to characterize the reaction products. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) was used to characterize the leached samples, and a complicated layer structure was revealed, consisting of phases that precipitate from solution and also form within the residual glass layer. The precipitated phases include birnes-site, saponite, and an iron species, while the intralayer phases include the U-Ti containing phase brannerite distributed within a matrix consisting of bands of an Fe rich montmorillonite clay. Comparison is made between samples leached at 40C for 4 years with those leached at 90C for 3-1/2 years. The samples reacted in water vapor were examined with scanning electron microscopy and show increasing reaction as both the relative humidity and time of reaction increases. These samples also contain a layered structure with reaction products on the glass surface.

  20. Bridging Literacy Acquisition and Self-Regulated Learning: Using a SRL Framework to Support Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzheuser, Sierra; McNamara, John

    2014-01-01

    Reading is conceptualized as a hierarchy of component skills where lower order emergent literacy skills set the foundation for higher order reading skills such as fluency and comprehension. Approximately 20% of readers struggle within this hierarchical process (Fielding, Kerr, & Rosier, 2007). Struggling readers are susceptible to the Matthew…

  1. Improving the Significance of MM/SD Risk Analysis by Application of the SRL Ballistic Limit Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Frank; Putzar, Robin; Ryan, Shannon; Lambert, Michel

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a new ballistic limit equation (BLE) for satellite equipment placed behind satellite structure walls is presented. Application of this equation in micrometeoroid and space debris (MM/SD) risk analysis (RA) tools for satellites can lead to a more realistic quantitative assessment of the actual failure risk of satellite equipment from hypervelocity impacts (HVI) and hence, of the failure risk of a satellite. This is because in contrast to the BLEs that are currently in use in RA tools, in the new equation the intrinsic shielding capabilities of the satellite equipment are considered explicitly.The BLE has been developed for application to configurations consisting of a Whipple shield or a honeycomb sandwich panel placed in front of a backwall. It considers explicitly the thickness, material and spacing of each of the three involved plates. The backwall represents the cover plate or the external wall of spacecraft equipment that is placed behind the spacecraft's structure wall. The BLE has been experimentally calibrated to the most common spacecraft equipment: fuel and heat pipes, pressure vessels, electronics boxes, harness, and batteries. Further, suitable failure criteria have been defined for each equipment type. The critical projectile masses calculated with the new BLE for satellite equipment placed behind satellite structure walls are considerably larger than the critical projectile masses calculated for the standalone structure wall of the satellite.

  2. Proceedings of the first SRL model validation workshop. [Comparison and evaluation of atmospheric dispersion models using data for Kr-85

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    1981-10-01

    The Clean Air Act and its amendments have added importance to knowing the accuracy of mathematical models used to assess transport and diffusion of environmental pollutants. These models are the link between air quality standards and emissions. To test the accuracy of a number of these models, a Model Validation Workshop was held. The meteorological, source-term, and Kr-85 concentration data bases for emissions from the separations areas of the Savannah River Plant during 1975 through 1977 were used to compare calculations from various atmospheric dispersion models. The results of statistical evaluation of the models show a degradation in the ability to predict pollutant concentrations as the time span over which the calculations are made is reduced. Forecasts for annual time periods were reasonably accurate. Weighted-average squared correlation coefficients (R/sup 2/) were 0.74 for annual, 0.28 for monthly, 0.21 for weekly, and 0.18 for twice-daily predictions. Model performance varied within each of these four categories; however, the results indicate that the more complex, three-dimensional models provide only marginal increases in accuracy. The increased costs of running these codes is not warranted for long-term releases or for conditions of relatively simple terrain and meteorology. The overriding factor in the calculational accuracy is the accurate description of the wind field. Further improvements of the numerical accuracy of the complex models is not nearly as important as accurate calculations of the meteorological transport conditions.

  3. Analytical electron microscopy examination of solid reaction products in long-term test of SRL 200 waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.; Dietz, N.L.; Bradley, C.R.; Tani, B.S.

    1993-12-31

    Alteration phases, found on the leached surfaces and present as colloids in the leachates of 200-based frit (fully active and simulated) nuclear waste glass, reacted under static test conditions, at a surface area to leachate volume ratio of 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} for 15 days to 728 days, have been examined by analytical electron microscopy. The compositions of the secondary phases were determined using x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and structural analysis was accomplished by electron diffraction. Long-term samples of simulated glass, which had undergone an acceleration of reaction after 182 days, possessed a number of silicate secondary phases, including; smectite (iron silicate and potassium iron alumina-silicate, weeksite (uranium silicate), zeolite (calcium potassium alumino-silicate), tobermorite (calcium silicate), and a pure silica phase. However, uranium silicates and smectite have also been observed in tests, which have not undergone the acceleration of reaction, in both the leachate and leached layer, suggesting that these phases are not responsible for the acceleration of reaction.

  4. Comparison of the layer structure of vapor phase and leached SRL glass by use of AEM [analytical electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Bates, J.K.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bradley, J.P.

    1989-12-31

    Test samples of 131 type glass that have been reacted for extended time periods in water vapor atmospheres of different relative humidities and in static leaching solution have been examined to characterize the reaction products. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) was used to characterize the leached samples, and a complicated layer structure was revealed, consisting of phases that precipitate from solution and also form within the residual glass layer. The precipitated phases include birnes-site, saponite, and an iron species, while the intralayer phases include the U-Ti containing phase brannerite distributed within a matrix consisting of bands of an Fe rich montmorillonite clay. Comparison is made between samples leached at 40{degrees}C for 4 years with those leached at 90{degrees}C for 3-1/2 years. The samples reacted in water vapor were examined with scanning electron microscopy and show increasing reaction as both the relative humidity and time of reaction increases. These samples also contain a layered structure with reaction products on the glass surface. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Catalogues of positions and orbital elements of geosynchronous space objects observed in 1983--2003 at MAO NASU and SRL UNU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizyun, L. M.; Klimyk, V. U.

    2005-06-01

    We present a short survey of the nine catalogues of positions and orbital elements of the geosynchronous space objects obtained by photographic method at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Space Research Laboratory of the Uzhhorod National University in 1983--2003. The information about seven of these catalogues you can read in detail on [http://www.mao.kiev.ua]. The GOCK-2003 catalogue will be presented in our web-site in the near time. The data of these catalogues can be used to update the catalogues of orbits of geostationary satellites, to identify objects more precisely by combining our observations with those obtained at other stations.

  6. Impact failure of MHW fuel sphere MHFT 65: report on interagency task force investigation and SRL evaluation of failure, November 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Following a safety verification impact test failure of a Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) fuel sphere made at Savannah River Plant, from which 2.1 g of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ escaped containment, the Department of Energy organized a task force to investigate the cause of the test failure and to assess the failure probability of MHW fuel made at SRP. The task force described a two-part failure mechanism: embrittlement of the iridium containment shell by phosphorus which may have been picked up from the fuel; and large shear strains in the iridium caused by shearing or push-through of large chunks of fuel. Because the likelihood of push-through in this failure model depends on preexisting cracks in the fuel and their orientation to the impact face, the probability of further impact failures could not be easily assessed. From independent analysis of the available data at the Savannah River Laboratory, we concluded that the impact failure was caused by phosphorus embrittlement of the iridium, and breaching during impact of the graphite impact shell surrounding and cushioning the iridium-clad fuel. Excessive strain in the iridium is caused by extrusion of the iridium into the breach. This model predicts that impact failure is essentially independent of pre-existing cracks in the fuel and that SRP fuel, upon impact, should have no more failures than previously used fuel made at Mound Facility. Impact data to date indicate that SRP fuel clad in DOP-26 iridium cladding actually has fewer impact failures than earlier fuel clad in undoped iridium at MF.

  7. MIIT: International in-situ testing of simulated HLW forms--preliminary analyses of SRL 165/TDS waste glass and metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.; Lodding, A.R.; Macedo, P.B.; Clark, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.

    1989-12-31

    The first in-situ tests involving burial of simulated high-level waste (HLW) forms conducted in the United States were started on July 22, 1986. This effort, called the Materials Interface Interactions Tests (MIIT), comprises the largest, most cooperative field testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by seven countries. Also included are almost 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples of 11 different metals along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are a total of 1926 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which is being conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  8. MIIT: International in-situ testing of simulated HLW forms--preliminary analyses of SRL 165/TDS waste glass and metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G. ); Lodding, A.R. ); Macedo, P.B. . Vitreous State Lab.); Clark, D.E. ); Molecke, M.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The first in-situ tests involving burial of simulated high-level waste (HLW) forms conducted in the United States were started on July 22, 1986. This effort, called the Materials Interface Interactions Tests (MIIT), comprises the largest, most cooperative field testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by seven countries. Also included are almost 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples of 11 different metals along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are a total of 1926 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which is being conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  9. Application of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] unsaturated test method to actinide doped SRL [Savannah River Laboratory] 165 type glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1990-08-01

    The results of tests done using the Unsaturated Test Method are presented. These tests, done to determine the suitability of glass in a potential high-level waste repository as developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, simulate conditions anticipated for the post-containment phase of the repository when only limited contact between the waste form and water is expected. The reaction of glass occurs via processes that are initiated due to glass/water vapor and glass/liquid water contact. Vapor interaction results in the initiation of an exchange process between water and the more mobile species (alkalis and boron) in the glass. The liquid reaction produces interactions similar to those seen in standard leaching tests, except due to the limited amount of water present and the presence of partially sensitized 304L stainless steel, the formation of reaction products greatly exceeds that found in MCC-1 type leach tests. The effect of sensitized stainless steel on the reaction is to enhance breakdown of the glass matrix thereby increasing the release of the transuranic elements from the glass. However, most of the Pu and Am released is entrained by either the metal components of the test or by the reaction phases, and is not released to solution. 16 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. The Challenge of Self-Regulated Learning in Mathematics Teachers' Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarski, Bracha; Revach, Tali

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated mathematics teachers' professional knowledge among elementary school teachers exposed to a professional training program that either supported self-regulated learning (SRL) or offered no SRL support (no-SRL). The SRL support was based on the IMPROVE metacognitive self-questioning method that directs students' attention to…

  11. Self-Regulated Learning: A Key of a Successful Learner in Online Learning Environments in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samruayruen, Buncha; Enriquez, Judith; Natakuatoong, Onjaree; Samruayruen, Kingkaew

    2013-01-01

    This study identified five effective self-regulated learning (SRL), investigated the correlation of demographic information and SRL, and measured significant predictor of prior experiences on SRL. Eighty-eight Thai learners participated in the SRL survey, which was adapted from the MSLQ. The findings indicated that Intrinsic Goal and Self-Efficacy…

  12. Effective Self-Regulatory Processes in Higher Education: Research Findings and Future Directions. A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn-Smolders, Monique; Timmers, Caroline F.; Gawke, Jason C. L.; Schoonman, Wouter; Born, Marise Ph.

    2016-01-01

    Although self-regulated learning (SRL) is assumed to benefit learning outcomes, gaps in the literature make it difficult to describe what constitutes effective SRL in higher education. That is, SRL that relates positively to learning outcomes. In accordance, at present it is unclear how to train effective SRL in higher education. The current…

  13. Safety and immunologic benefits of conversion to sirolimus in kidney transplant recipients with long-term exposure to calcineurin inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Woon; Kim, Bo-Mi; Chung, Byung Ha; Cho, Mi-La; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Sirolimus (SRL) is a promising immunosuppressant replacingcalcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). This study was performed to evaluate the safetyand immunologic benefits of conversion to SRL in stable kidney transplant (KT)recipients exposed to CNIs for long periods. Methods: Fourteen CNI-treated KT recipients with stable renal function for morethan 10 years were included. Either 2 or 3 mg per day of SRL was administeredwhile CNIs were reduced by half starting on day 1, and then stopped 2 weeks afterSRL introduction. The safety of SRL conversion was assessed considering thegraft function, acute rejection, and graft loss. Immunologic alterations were measuredvia serial changes of T cell and B cell subsets after SRL conversion. Adverseeffects of SRL conversion were also evaluated. Results: Conversion to SRL was successful in nine patients (64.2%). Conversionto SRL preserved graft function as compared to the baseline value (p = 0.115). Noacute rejection or allograft loss was observed during the follow-up period. Immunemonitoring of T and B cells revealed a regulatory T cells increase after SRL conversion (p = 0.028). Most adverse events developed within 6 weeks after SRLconversion, and oral mucositis was the main cause of SRL withdrawal. Conclusions: Conversion to SRL can be safe and has immunologic benefits in KTrecipients with long-term CNI exposure. Close monitoring of mucocutaneous adverseevents is, however, required in the early period after SRL conversion. PMID:26968190

  14. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  15. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  16. Self-Regulated Learning and Self-Directed Study in a Pre-College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Beau; Loken, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a multi-dimensional construct that has been difficult to operationalize using traditional, variable-centered methodologies. The current paper takes a person-centered approach to the study of SRL in a sample of 205 high-school students. Using latent profile analysis on self-reports of seven aspects of SRL, three…

  17. Self-Regulated Learning Ability of Chinese Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hong; Chen, Li; Panda, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on self-regulated learning (SRL) of Chinese distance learners by using a structured SRL scale. SRL of adult and lifelong learners is a well-researched area, though its application within distance education is a new area of investigation. Open and distance learning lean heavily on self-learning and self-learning resources, though…

  18. Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

  19. Enhancing Third-Grade Students' Mathematical Problem Solving with Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Prentice, Karin; Burch, Mindy; Hamlett, Carol L.; Owen, Rhoda; Schroeter, Katie

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when combined with problem-solving transfer instruction, on 3rd-graders' mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation. Contrasts the effectiveness of transfer plus SRL to the transfer treatment alone and to teacher-designed instruction. SRL…

  20. Children's Self-Regulated Learning Profile in Language and Mathematics: The Role of Task Value Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallidou, Panayiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the self-regulated learning (SRL) profile of upper elementary (fifth and sixth grade) school children who were differentiated in their task value beliefs (low and high) in language and mathematics. Students' SRL profile involved their teachers' ratings of achievement outcomes and SRL behaviors. The subscale of task value…

  1. The "Self-Regulated Learning Opportunities Questionnaire": A Diagnostic Instrument for Teacher Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieling, E. M.; Bastiaens, Th. J.; Stijnen, P. J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Many recent studies have stressed the importance of students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills for successful learning. Although primary teacher educators are aware of the importance of SRL for their students, they often find it difficult to implement SRL opportunities in their teaching. To support teacher professional development, an SRL…

  2. Student Conscientiousness, Self-Regulated Learning, and Science Achievement: An Explorative Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Zeidner, Moshe; Aharon, Irit

    2009-01-01

    This explorative field study examined the mediating role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the relationship between the personality trait of conscientiousness, SRL, and science achievement in a sample of junior high school students. Over the course of an entire academic year, data on enacted SRL were collected each week for 52 eighth-grade…

  3. Flipping the Classroom: Embedding Self-Regulated Learning Prompts in Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Bonde, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of embedding self-regulated learning (SRL) prompts in a video designed for the flipped class model. The sample included 32 undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: control (video) or experimental (video + SRL prompts). Prior knowledge was measured with a pre-test, SRL was…

  4. Self-Regulated Learning and Executive Function: Exploring the Relationships in a Sample of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effeney, Gerard; Carroll, Annemaree; Bahr, Nan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between SRL and EF in a sample of 254 school-aged adolescent males. Two hypotheses were tested: that self-reported measures of SRL and EF are closely related and that as different aspects of EF mature during adolescence, the corresponding components of SRL should also improve, leading to an age-related…

  5. Self-Regulated Learning Characteristics of Successful versus Unsuccessful Online Learners in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samruayruen, Buncha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the existing level of self-regulated learning (SRL) among Thai online learners, to examine the relationship between SRL and academic achievement based on a) course completion and b) course grades, and to investigate differences in SRL as they correlate to demographic factors. A mixed-methods research…

  6. Understanding Student Coregulation in Task Interpretation during Electronics Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Reyes, Presentacion; Lawanto, Oenardi; Pate, Michale L.

    2016-01-01

    Coregulation (CRL) is a transitional process in which students share problem-solving techniques and utilize self-regulated learning (SRL) when interacting with peers. Coregulation may help students to define and modify inconsistencies in their SRL strategy. Task interpretation is described as the critical first step in the SRL process, and it is a…

  7. A semiconductor ring laser: study of its characteristics as a rotation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Akparov, V V; Dmitriev, Valentin G; Duraev, V P; Kazakov, A A

    2010-12-09

    A semiconductor ring laser (SRL) with a radiation wavelength of 1540 nm and a fibre ring cavity is developed and studied in several main lasing regimes. An SRL design based on a semiconductor optical travelling-wave amplifier and a ring cavity, composed of a single-mode polarisation-maintaining fibre, is considered. The SRL is studied in the regime of a rotation speed sensor, in which the frequency shift of counterpropagating waves in the SRL is proportional to its rotation speed. The minimum rotation speed that can be detected using the SRL under consideration depends on the cavity length; in our experiment it turned to be 1deg s{sup -1}. The changes in the threshold current, emission spectrum, and fundamental radiation wavelength upon closing and opening the SRL ring cavity and with a change in its radius are also investigated. (lasers)

  8. Sirolimus conversion in liver transplant recipients with renal dysfunction: a prospective, randomized, single-center trial.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Surendra; Hardinger, Karen L; Crippin, Jeffrey; Desai, Niraj; Korenblat, Kevin; Lisker-Melman, Mauricio; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Chapman, William

    2007-05-27

    This pilot trial was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of SRL in liver transplant recipients with renal dysfunction. Forty patients with renal dysfunction (24-hr CrCl 40-80 mL/min) were randomized to be withdrawn from the calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and receive sirolimus (SRL) or to continue CNI (control arm). Improvement in 24-hour CrCl was seen in the SRL arm at 3 months (75 mL/min SRL vs. 56 mL/min control, P=0.012), whereas at 12 months there was a trend toward improvement in the SRL arm (72 mL/min SRL vs. 58 mL/min control, P=0.09). Two patients, one in each arm, developed steroid-sensitive rejection. Side effects of SRL were limited and included hyperlipidemia requiring treatment (15%), pruritus (5%), and mouth sores (25%). In this trial, SRL-based immunosuppression was a safe alternative to CNI. Although early improvements were observed, withdrawing CNI and replacing it with SRL did not result in a statistically significant improvement in renal function at 12 months of follow-up. PMID:17519792

  9. Comparison of West Valley and Savannah River waste glass: Part I, Durability of non-radioactive waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-09-29

    Simulated West Valley glass was prepared by Catholic University of America (CUA) and then tested at SRL. The simulated glass was non- radioactive (WV-205) and had ZrO/sub 2/ substituted for the ThO/sub 2/ component of the waste. The durability experiments demonstrated that WV-205 glass is of similar durability and composition to SRL-200 interim precipitate hydrolysis product (PHP) waste glass; WV-205 glass is not as durable as sludge-only SRL-165 but more durable than sludge-only SRL-131 waste glass formulations, and the relative durability of WV-205 glass can be assessed by hydration thermodynamics. 12 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Functional Role of the Sarcin-Ricin Loop of the 23S rRNA in the Elongation Cycle of Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinying; Khade, Prashant K.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Joseph, Simpson

    2012-01-01

    The sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) is one of the longest conserved sequences in the 23S rRNA. The SRL has been accepted as crucial for the activity of the ribosome because it is targeted by cytotoxins such as α-sarcin and ricin that completely abolish translation. Nevertheless, the precise functional role of the SRL in translation is not known. Recent biochemical and structural studies indicate that the SRL is critical for triggering GTP hydrolysis on elongation factors Tu and G (EF-Tu and EF-G). To determine the functional role of the SRL in the elongation stage of protein synthesis, we analyzed mutations in the SRL that are known to abolish protein synthesis and are lethal to cells. Here, we show that the SRL is not critical for GTP hydrolysis on EF-Tu and EF-G. The SRL also is not essential for peptide bond formation. Our results, instead, suggest that the SRL is crucial for anchoring EF-G on the ribosome during mRNA-tRNA translocation. PMID:22459262

  11. Functional role of the sarcin-ricin loop of the 23S rRNA in the elongation cycle of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinying; Khade, Prashant K; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Joseph, Simpson

    2012-06-01

    The sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) is one of the longest conserved sequences in the 23S ribosomal RNA. The SRL has been accepted as crucial for the activity of the ribosome because it is targeted by cytotoxins such as α-sarcin and ricin that completely abolish translation. Nevertheless, the precise functional role of the SRL in translation is not known. Recent biochemical and structural studies indicate that the SRL is critical for triggering GTP hydrolysis on elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and elongation factor G (EF-G). To determine the functional role of the SRL in the elongation stage of protein synthesis, we analyzed mutations in the SRL that are known to abolish protein synthesis and are lethal to cells. Here, we show that the SRL is not critical for GTP hydrolysis on EF-Tu and EF-G. The SRL also is not essential for peptide bond formation. Our results, instead, suggest that the SRL is crucial for anchoring EF-G on the ribosome during mRNA-tRNA translocation. PMID:22459262

  12. Identification of the Operon for the Sorbitol (Glucitol) Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, David A.; Thevenot, Tracy; Gumbmann, Markus; Honeyman, Allen L.; Hamilton, Ian R.

    2000-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis and marker rescue were used to isolate and identify an 8.5-kb contiguous region containing six open reading frames constituting the operon for the sorbitol P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) of Streptococcus mutans LT11. The first gene, srlD, codes for sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, followed downstream by srlR, coding for a transcriptional regulator; srlM, coding for a putative activator; and the srlA, srlE, and srlB genes, coding for the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA components of the sorbitol PTS, respectively. Among all sorbitol PTS operons characterized to date, the srlD gene is found after the genes coding for the EII components; thus, the location of the gene in S. mutans is unique. The SrlR protein is similar to several transcriptional regulators found in Bacillus spp. that contain PTS regulator domains (J. Stülke, M. Arnaud, G. Rapoport, and I. Martin-Verstraete, Mol. Microbiol. 28:865–874, 1998), and its gene overlaps the srlM gene by 1 bp. The arrangement of these two regulatory genes is unique, having not been reported for other bacteria. PMID:10639465

  13. Molecular Cloning, Carbohydrate Specificity and the Crystal Structure of Two Sclerotium rolfsii Lectin Variants.

    PubMed

    Peppa, Vassiliki I; Venkat, Hemalatha; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Bhat, Ganapati G; Eligar, Sachin; Shivanand, Anupama; Chachadi, Vishwanath B; Satisha, Gonchigar J; Swamy, Bale M; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Zographos, Spyridon E; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2015-01-01

    SRL is a cell wall associated developmental-stage specific lectin secreted by Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-born pathogenic fungus. SRL displays specificity for TF antigen (Galβ1→3GalNAc-α-Ser//Thr) expressed in all cancer types and has tumour suppressing effects in vivo. Considering the immense potential of SRL in cancer research, we have generated two variant gene constructs of SRL and expressed in E. coli to refine the sugar specificity and solubility by altering the surface charge. SSR1 and SSR2 are two different recombinant variants of SRL, both of which recognize TF antigen but only SSR1 binds to Tn antigen (GalNAcα-Ser/Thr). The glycan array analysis of the variants demonstrated that SSR1 recognizes TF antigen and their derivative with high affinity similar to SRL but showed highest affinity towards the sialylated Tn antigen, unlike SRL. The carbohydrate binding property of SSR2 remains unaltered compared to SRL. The crystal structures of the two variants were determined in free form and in complex with N-acetylglucosamine at 1.7 Å and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. Structural analysis highlighted the structural basis of the fine carbohydrate specificity of the two SRL variants and results are in agreement with glycan array analysis. PMID:26076107

  14. Sirolimus solid self-microemulsifying pellets: formulation development, characterization and bioavailability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiongwei; Lin, Chen; Chen, Dingxiong; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhihong; Wu, Wei; Song, Hongtao

    2012-11-15

    To enhance the dissolution and oral absorption of water insoluble drug sirolimus (SRL), self-microemulsifying pellets of SRL were developed and evaluated. Solubility test, self-emulsifying grading test, ternary phase diagrams and central composite design were adopted to screen and optimize the composition of liquid SRL-SMEDDS. The selected liquid SRL-SMEDDS formulations were prepared into pellets by extrusion-spheronization method and the optimal formulation of 1mg SRL-SMEDDS pellets capsule (1.0, 22.4, 38.4, 19.2, 121.6, 30.4 and 8.0 mg of SRL, Labrafil M1944CS, Cremophor EL, Transcutol P, MCC, Lactose and CMS-Na, respectively) was finally determinated by the feasibility of the preparing process and redispersibility. The optimal SRL-SMEDDS pellets showed a significant quicker redispersion rate than the dissolution rate of commercial SRL tablets Rapamune in water. The droplet size and polydispersity index of the reconstituted microemulsion was almost unchanged after solidification, and pellet size and friability were all qualified. Visual observation and scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed good appearance of the solid pellets. DSC, XRPD, and IR analysis confirmed that there was no crystalline sirolimus in the pellets. Pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed the oral relative bioavailability of SRL-SMEDDS pellets to the commercial SRL tablets Rapamune was about 136.9%. In conclusion, the solid SMEDDS pellets might be an encouraging strategy to improve the oral absorption of SRL and the extrusion-spheronization method was a feasible technology for the solidification of liquid SMEDDS. PMID:22850296

  15. Investigating How College Students' Task Definitions and Plans Relate to Self-Regulated Learning Processing and Understanding of a Complex Science Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey A.; Hutchison, Leigh Anna; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Crompton, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Winne and Hadwin (2008) identified four phases of self-regulated learning (SRL) including defining the task, setting goals and making plans, studying (i.e., learning), and adaptation. The vast majority of SRL research has focused on processing during the third phase, studying. In this study, we developed coding rubrics that allowed us to examine…

  16. Content Analysis of 1998-2012 Empirical Studies in Science Reading Using a Self-Regulated Learning Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Chang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sufen

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in conducting reading-related studies in science education using a self-regulated learning (SRL) lens. This exploration involved a content analysis of 34 articles (38 studies in total) in highly regarded journals from 1998 to 2012 using an SRL interpretative framework to reveal critical features and relationships in…

  17. Interactions of Metacognition with Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Metacognition, motivation, and affect are components of self-regulated learning (SRL) that interact. The "metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning" (the MASRL model) distinguishes two levels of functioning in SRL, namely, the Person level and the Task x Person level. At the Person level interactions between trait-like…

  18. Disciplinary and Gender Differences among Higher Education Students in Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Paivi; Nevgi, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how university students representing diverse disciplines and gender differ in their self-regulation in learning. The definition of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the present study is based on Pintrich's and Zimmerman's theories of SRL and comprises motivational and learning strategies. The sample consisted of 1248…

  19. Self-Regulated Learning: Studying the Effects of a Nontraditional Instructional Method in the High School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsi, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) encourages students to learn using metacognition, strategic action, and motivation. This nontraditional approach to education relies on the student's active role in learning and the instructor's facilitatory role in teaching. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of an SRL instructional model the author…

  20. Long-Term Self-Regulation of Biology Learning Using Standard Junior High School Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Reiter, Shoshi

    2014-01-01

    In today's world of information explosion, independent lifelong self-regulated learning (SRL) is becoming a necessity. However, opportunities in schools to experience such learning modes are relatively rare. This long-term explorative field study examined students' SRL of science. Changes in students' self-reported and enacted SRL…

  1. Shallow Strategy Development in a Teachable Agent Environment Designed to Support Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Rod D.; Segedy, James R.; Sulcer, Brian; Jeong, Hogyeong; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    To support self-regulated learning (SRL), computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are often designed to be open-ended and multidimensional. These systems incorporate diverse features that allow students to enact and reveal their SRL strategies via the choices they make. However, research shows that students' use of such features is limited;…

  2. Can Students Collaboratively Use Hypermedia to Learn Science? The Dynamics of Self-And Other-Regulatory Processes in an Ecology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Winters, Fielding I.; Moos, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    This classroom study examined the role of low-achieving students' self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors and their teacher's scaffolding of SRL while using a Web-based water quality simulation environment to learn about ecological systems. Forty-nine 11th and 12th grade students learned about ecology and the effects of land use on water quality…

  3. Self-Regulated Learning in the Context of Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Hayon, L.; Tillema, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Examined Dutch and Israeli teacher educators' and student teachers' perceptions of meaning, implementation, and role expectations in self-regulated learning (SRL) within teacher education. Interview data indicated support for the concept of SRL, although conditions for its actual implementation were not always favorable. Student teachers were more…

  4. The Nature of Student Teachers' Regulation of Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Maaike D.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Verloop, Nico; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-regulated learning (SRL) has mainly been conceptualized to involve student learning within academic settings. In teacher education, where learning from theory and practice is combined, student teachers also need to regulate their learning. Hence, there is an urgent need to extend SRL theories to the domain of teacher learning and…

  5. Talking about Teaching Self-Regulated Learning: Scaffolding Student Teachers' Development and Use of Practices that Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Nancy E.; Hutchinson, Lynda; Thauberger, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) involves metacognition, motivation, and strategic action, and self-regulated learners are successful in and beyond school. Therefore, studies of how SRL develops and, perhaps, how it can be taught, are needed. Our research examines whether and how beginning teachers can be mentored to develop practices that support…

  6. Aspects and Prospects of Measuring Studying and Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonka, Kirsti; Olkinuora, Erkki; Makinen, Jarkko

    2004-01-01

    The development of two dominant research traditions is described: students' approaches to learning (SAL) and information processing (IP). The development of the third tradition, self-regulated learning (SRL) is added. SAL is based on European research, whereas IP and SRL are more typical background ideas for North-American research. The most…

  7. Changes in Students' Self-Regulation Based on Different Teaching Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Nan L.; Sheckley, Barry G.

    This study addressed the question: "What instructional techniques are most effective in helping students learn how to self-regulate their learning?" An integrated model based on current research in self-regulated learning (SRL) was used to explain changes in students' SRL. Five key instructional practices were identified and embedded into a math…

  8. Using Formative Assessment and Metacognition to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudesman, John; Crosby, Sara; Flugman, Bert; Issac, Sharlene; Everson, Howard; Clay, Dorie B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multistep Enhanced Formative Assessment Program (EFAP) that features a Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) component. The program, which teaches students to become more effective learners, has been applied in a wide range of academic disciplines. In this paper we report on how the EFAP-SRL model can be applied to the area of…

  9. Technology Enhanced Learning Environments for Self-Regulated Learning: A Framework for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) has become an important topic in education during the last three decades. At the same time, advances in technology have made it possible to create complex Technology Enhanced Learning Environments (TELEs). While there is some evidence that these TELEs have the potential to foster SRL, there is only little research on…

  10. Process-Oriented Design Principles for Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Primary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieling, E. M.; Bastiaens, T. J.; Stijnen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies have stressed the importance of students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills for successful learning. Consequently, primary teacher educators have been encouraged by policy makers to increase their students' SRL opportunities in educational pre-service programs. However, primary teacher educators often find it difficult to…

  11. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Effectiveness of a School-Based Mentoring Program in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Jose Carlos; Rosario, Pedro; Vallejo, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work assessed the efficacy of a middle-school-based mentoring program designed to increase student use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies, self-efficacy for and the perceived usefulness of SRL as well as mathematics and language achievement. A longitudinal cluster randomized trial study design obtained evidence that found…

  12. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Computer-Based Learning Environments: Systematic Review of Effects of Scaffolding in the Domain of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devolder, A.; van Braak, J.; Tondeur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that students require scaffolding support for self-regulated learning (SRL) processes in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs), there is little clarity as to which types of scaffolds are most effective. This study offers a literature review covering the various scaffolds that support SRL processes in the…

  13. Measuring Cognitive and Metacognitive Regulatory Processes during Hypermedia Learning: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Moos, Daniel C.; Johnson, Amy M.; Chauncey, Amber D.

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) with hypermedia environments involves a complex cycle of temporally unfolding cognitive and metacognitive processes that impact students' learning. We present several methodological issues related to treating SRL as an event and strengths and challenges of using online trace methodologies to detect, trace, model, and…

  14. Self-Regulation and Gender within a Game-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietfeld, John L.; Shores, Lucy R.; Hoffmann, Kristin F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined how self-regulated learning (SRL) and gender influences performance in an educational game for 8th-grade students (N = 130). Crystal Island--Outbreak is an immersive, inquiry-based, narrative-centered learning environment featuring a microbiology science mystery aligned with 8th-grade science curriculum. SRL variables…

  15. Issues in Researching Self-Regulated Learning as Patterns of Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winne, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    New methods for gathering and analyzing data about events that comprise self-regulated learning (SRL) support discoveries about patterns among events and tests of hypotheses about roles patterns play in learning. Five such methodologies are discussed in the context of four key questions that shape investigations into patterns in SRL. A framework…

  16. Perception of Reading Instruction and Self-Regulated Learning: A Comparison between Chinese Students in Hong Kong and Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-ling; Chen, Xiao-bo

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theoretical framework of self-regulated learning (SRL), the study aimed to examine whether the proposed relationship between classroom environment and students' SRL was applicable in the case of Chinese readers. In this study, a questionnaire measuring students' perception of reading instruction, strategy use, and reading…

  17. Self-Regulated Learning: The Role of Motivation, Emotion, and Use of Learning Strategies in Students' Learning Experiences in a Self-Paced Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Heron, Michele L.

    2015-01-01

    Enrollment in online remedial mathematics courses has increased in popularity in institutions of higher learning; however, students unskilled in self-regulated learning (SRL) find online remedial mathematics courses particularly challenging. We investigated the role of SRL, specifically motivation, emotion, and learning strategies, in students'…

  18. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Undergraduate Studying: Examining Students' Reports from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Elizabeth A.; Hadwin, Allyson F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined undergraduate students' reports of emotions and emotion regulation during studying from a self-regulated learning (SRL) perspective. Participants were 111 university students enrolled in a first-year course designed to teach skills in SRL. Students reflected on their emotional experiences during goal-directed studying episodes…

  19. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Engineering College Students While Learning Electric Circuit Concepts with Enhanced Guided Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated engineering college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies while learning electric circuit concepts using enhanced guided notes (EGN). Our goal was to describe how students exercise SRL strategies and how their grade performance changes after using EGN. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what…

  20. Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Online Activities between Higher and Lower Performers on a Web-Intensive Undergraduate Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Goodridge, Wade

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills used in a Web-intensive learning environment. The research question guiding the study was: How did the use of student SRL skills and student engagement in online activities compare between higher- and lower-performing students participating in a…

  1. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  2. Fostering Self-Regulated Learning in a Blended Environment Using Group Awareness and Peer Assistance as External Scaffolds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, J-W.; Lai, Y-C.; Lai, Y-C.; Chang, L-C.

    2016-01-01

    Most systems for training self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviour focus on the provision of a learner-centred environment. Such systems repeat the training process and place learners alone to experience that process iteratively. According to the relevant literature, external scaffolds are more promising for effective SRL training. In this work,…

  3. Developing Young Adolescents' Self-Regulation by Means of Formative Assessment: A Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly D.; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Fostering self-regulated learning (SRL) has become increasingly important at various educational levels. Most studies on SRL have been conducted in higher education. The present literature study aims toward understanding self-regulation processes of students in primary and secondary education. We explored the development of young students'…

  4. Improving Measurements of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winne, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    Articles in this special issue present recent advances in using state-of-the-art software systems that gather data with which to examine and measure features of learning and particularly self-regulated learning (SRL). Despite important advances, there remain challenges. I examine key features of SRL and how they are measured using common tools. I…

  5. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  6. Investigating Postsecondary Self-Regulated Learning Instructional Practices: The Development of the Self-Regulated Learning Observation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoops, Leah D.; Yu, Shirley L.; Wang, Qianqian; Hollyer, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Promoting students' self-regulated learning (SRL) is one way to improve postsecondary student success. However, few studies have investigated the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors that may support students' SRL. This study sought to fill this gap. An undergraduate mathematics course was observed to determine instruction utilized…

  7. Self-Regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments: An Investigation with University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenne, Dominique; Abel, Marie-Helene; Trigano, Philippe; Leblanc, Adeline

    2008-01-01

    In Technology Enhanced Learning Environments, self-regulated learning (SRL) partly relies on the features of the technological tools. The authors present two environments they designed in order to facilitate SRL: the first one (e-Dalgo) is a website dedicated to the learning of algorithms and computer programming. It is structured as a classical…

  8. Self-Regulation in a Web-Based Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipp, Joan L.; Chiarelli, Stephannie

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about how successful students in Web-based courses self-regulate their learning. This descriptive case study used a social cognitive model of self-regulated learning (SRL) to investigate how six graduate students used and adapted traditional SRL strategies to complete tasks and cope with challenges in a Web-based technology course;…

  9. University Students' Online Academic Help Seeking: The Role of Self-Regulation and Information Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Students' online academic help seeking (OAHS) can be facilitated by the aid of technology, but improvement in OAHS may also involve personal variables such as self-regulated learning (SRL), and "information commitments" (ICs), which are evaluative standards and strategies of online information. Accordingly, three instruments--an OAHS, an SRL, and…

  10. Effects of addition of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor to metformin on sirolimus-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Lim, Sun Woo; Jin, Jian; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo

    2016-08-01

    The guideline for the management of new-onset diabetes after transplantation recommends metformin (MET) as a first-line drug, and addition of a second-line drug is needed to better control of hyperglycemia. We tested the effect of addition of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor to MET on sirolimus (SRL)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). In animal model of SRL-induced DM, MET treatment improved pancreatic islet function (blood glucose level and insulin secretion) and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. Addition of a DPP IV inhibitor to MET improved these parameters more than MET alone. An in vitro study showed that SRL treatment increased pancreas beta cell death and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment of ROS inhibitor, or p38MAPK inhibitor effectively decreased SRL-induced islet cell death. Exendin-4 (EXD), a substrate of DPP IV or MET significantly improved cell viability and decreased ROS production compared with SRL treatment, and combined treatment with the 2 drugs improved both parameters. At the subcellular level, impaired mitochondrial respiration by SRL were partially improved by MET or EXD and much improved further after addition of EXD to MET. Our data suggest that addition of a DPP IV inhibitor to MET decreases SRL-induced oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial respiration. This finding provides a rationale for the combined use of a DPP IV inhibitor and MET in treating SRL-induced DM. PMID:27059001

  11. Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Environments with Pedagogical Agents that Interact in Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur; McNamara, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the occurrence and measurement of self-regulated learning (SRL) both in human tutoring and in computer tutors with agents that hold conversations with students in natural language and help them learn at deeper levels. One challenge in building these computer tutors is to accommodate, encourage, and scaffold SRL because these…

  12. 76 FR 48122 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ...: Notice of Final Results of the Tenth Administrative Review and Partial Rescission of Review, 72 FR 70298... Department of Commerce's (``the Department's'') results of redetermination as applied to Atar, S.r.L. (``Atar'') pursuant to the CIT's order granting the Department's voluntary remand request in Atar, S.r.L. v....

  13. Emotion Control in Collaborative Learning Situations: Do Students Regulate Emotions Evoked by Social Challenges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Jarvela, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    Background: During recent decades, self-regulated learning (SRL) has become a major research field. SRL successfully integrates the cognitive and motivational components of learning. Self-regulation is usually seen as an individual process, with the social aspects of regulation conceptualized as one aspect of the context. However, recent research…

  14. Albuminuria after renal transplantation: maintenance with sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus vs. mycophenolate mofetil/high-dose tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Skorupa, Jill Y; Sandoz, John P; Rigley, Theodore H; Nielsen, Kathleen J; Stevens, R Brian

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL) in renal transplantation has been associated with proteinuria. We report long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients maintained on steroid-free regimens, either SRL with low-dose tacrolimus (SRL/L-Tac) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with high-dose tacrolimus (MMF/H-Tac). We conducted a case-matched study of 50 patients receiving MMF/H-Tac, matched 1:2 with 100 patients maintained on SRL/L-Tac. All patients were induced with rabbit antithymocyte globulin followed by early steroid withdrawal. Comparisons were made of patient and graft survival, graft function, acute rejection, and albuminuria. There were no significant differences between the SRL/L-Tac and MMF/H-Tac groups for patient survival, graft survival, occurrence of acute rejection, or graft function. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥300 μg/mg (19% vs. 20%), but more patients in the SRL group were receiving renin-angiotensin system blocking agents (72% vs. 53%, p = 0.04). Only flushing the donor kidney with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (vs. UW solution) was predictive of albuminuria. Long-term outcomes are similar at our center for kidney transplant patients receiving either SRL/L-Tac or MMF/H-Tac. Although the occurrence of albuminuria was not different, significantly more SRL-treated patients were receiving antiproteinuric medications. PMID:21077952

  15. Students' Self-Regulated Learning, Online Information Evaluative Standards and Online Academic Searching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Chau; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Online information searching strategies (OISS) used by students can be viewed as a key indicator in online learning environments. Therefore, developments in their OISS may also involve variables such as self-regulated learning (SRL) and online information evaluative standards (OIES). Three instruments, an OISS, a SRL and an OIES were used to…

  16. An Expert Performance Approach to the Study of Individual Differences in Self-Regulated Learning Activities in Upper-Level College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Ericsson, K. Anders

    2012-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of adolescent and adult development of expert performance is its self regulation. This paper reviews different approaches to assessing the use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies in high-school and college students and their ability to predict academic performance. The current study assesses the use of SRL strategies…

  17. A Framework for Implementing Individualized Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a conceptual model that can be used to design and implement individualized learning strategies for students with learning disabilities. Students who self-regulate their learning engage in planning, performance, and self-evaluation during academic tasks. This article highlights one approach for teaching SRL skills…

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of the Self-Regulated Learning of First-Semester College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) plays a key role in student's academic achievement. This study used a social cognitive lens and qualitative methods to discover and describe the SRL of a group of eight students during their first semester in college. Each participant was interviewed four times at strategic points between August and December 2012. In…

  19. Competencies for Successful Self-Regulated Learning in Higher Education: Structural Model and Indications Drawn from Expert Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Schmitz, Bernhard; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christine; Ziegler, Albert; Engelschalk, Tobias; Jöstl, Gregor; Klug, Julia; Roth, Anne; Wimmer, Bastian; Steuer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    A global characteristic of higher education is the opportunity and necessity for students to self-regulate their learning. In contrast to considerable research focusing on self-regulated learning (SRL) from a behavioural perspective, little is known concerning the underlying competencies which enable students to succeed in SRL. A structural model…

  20. Why Is Externally-Facilitated Regulated Learning More Effective than Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Moos, Daniel C.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2008-01-01

    We examined how self-regulated learning (SRL) and externally-facilitated self-regulated learning (ERL) differentially affected adolescents' learning about the circulatory system while using hypermedia. A total of 128 middle-school and high school students with little prior knowledge of the topic were randomly assigned to either the SRL or ERL…

  1. Analysis of Self-Regulated Learning Processing Using Statistical Models for Count Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Dellinger, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often use measures of the frequency of self-regulated learning (SRL; Zimmerman, "American Educational Research Journal," 45(1), 166-183, 2000) processing as a predictor of learning gains. These frequency data, which are really counts of SRL processing events, are often non-normally distributed, and the accurate analysis of these data…

  2. An Investigation of the Role of Contingent Metacognitive Behavior in Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binbasaran Tuysuzoglu, Banu; Greene, Jeffrey Alan

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that, to achieve a conceptual understanding of complex science topics, learners need to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, particularly when learning with Hypermedia Learning Environments (HLEs). Winne and Hadwin (2008) claimed that metacognition is a key aspect of SRL, particularly metacognitive monitoring and control.…

  3. Does Training on Self-Regulated Learning Facilitate Students' Learning with Hypermedia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of self-regulated learning (SRL) training in facilitating college students' learning with hypermedia. Undergraduate students (N = 131) were randomly assigned to either a training condition or a control condition and used a hypermedia environment to learn about the circulatory system. Students in the SRL group…

  4. Adolescents' Use of Self-Regulatory Processes and Their Relation to Qualitative Mental Model Shifts while Using Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Azevedo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 148 adolescents' use of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes when learning about the circulatory system using hypermedia. We examined participants' verbal protocols to determine the relationship between SRL processes and qualitative shifts in students' mental models from pretest to posttest. Results indicated that…

  5. The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Fostering Students' Conceptual Understanding of Complex Systems with Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Guthrie, John T.; Seibert, Diane

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in facilitating students' shifts to more sophisticated mental models of the circulatory system as indicated by both performance and process data. We began with Winne and colleagues' information processing model of SRL (Winne, 2001; Winne & Hadwin, 1998) and used it to examine how…

  6. Theoretical investigation of a semiconductor ring laser driven by Chua's oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takougang Kingni, Sifeu; Woafo, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The modeling and numerical investigation of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor ring laser (SRL) driven by Chua's oscillator are reported. By increasing the coupling strength between the SRL and Chua's oscillator at a fixed bias current, the SRL exhibits an intermittency route to anti-phase chaos. However, for a fixed value of the coupling strength, we report a period-doubling route to out-of-phase and anti-phase chaos when varying one of the parameters of the Chua's oscillator are reported. We also demonstrate that a SRL driven by the chaotic output of Chua's oscillator generates a more complex chaos compared to the one found in a SRL subject to a sinusoidally modulated current. This new way of modulation of semiconductor lasers would not only bring a general benefit in the physical equipment and reduce their cost but could have an impact for some relevant engineering applications.

  7. Earth observations for the space radar laboratory mission: Report on the student challenge awards project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin; Schier, Marguerite; Connors, Vickie; Godwin, Linda; Jones, Tom; Campbell, Alicyn; Dean, Freedom; Garrett, Timothy; Hartley, Hillary

    1994-01-01

    The Challenge Awards are designed to provide a unique perspective to students gifted in the arts and humanities from which to understand scientific endeavor by giving students an opportunity to participate in an ongoing research project. In the graduate program, seven students who had participated in previous Challenge Awards programs were selected to help develop the tools for Earth observations for the astronauts on the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) missions. The goal of the Challenge Awards program was to prepare a training manual for the astronauts on the SRL missions. This paper describes the observations to be made by the astronauts on the SRL missions. The emphasis is on the dynamic seasonal features of the Earth's surface and atmosphere which justify the need for more than one flight of the SRL. Complete notebooks of the sites, global seasonal patterns, examples of radar and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites data, and shuttle photographs have been given to each of the SRL crews.

  8. Sirolimus and cyclosporine A alter barrier function in renal proximal tubular cells through stimulation of ERK1/2 signaling and claudin-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Martin, Natalia; Ryan, Gavin; McMorrow, Tara; Ryan, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    Alteration of the tight junction complex in renal epithelial cells can affect renal barrier function and perturb normal kidney homeostasis. The immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL) used in combination demonstrated beneficial effects in organ transplantation but this combination can also result in increased adverse effects. We previously showed that CsA treatment alone caused an alteration of the tight junction complex, resulting in changes in transepithelial permeability in Madin-Darby canine kidney distal tubular/collecting duct cells. The potential effect of SRL on transepithelial permeability in kidney cells is unknown. In this study, subcytotoxic doses of SRL or CsA were found to decrease the paracellular permeability of the porcine proximal tubular epithelial cells, LLC-PK1 cell monolayers, which was detected as an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The cotreatment with SRL and CsA was found to increase TER in a synergistic manner. CsA treatment increased total cellular expression and membrane localization of the tight junction protein claudin-1 and this further increased with the combination of SRL/CsA. SRL and CsA treatment alone or in combination stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The MEK-ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor, U0126, reduced the SRL, CsA, and CsA/SRL-induced increase in TER. U0126 also reduced the CsA and CsA/SRL-induced increase in the membrane localization of claudin-1. Alterations in claudin-2 and claudin-4 were also detected. However, the results suggest that the modulation in expression and localization of claudin-1 appears to be pivotal in the SRL- and CsA-induced modulation of the epithelial barrier function and that modulation is regulated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:19955189

  9. Sirolimus and Everolimus Pathway: Reviewing Candidate Genes Influencing Their Intracellular Effects.

    PubMed

    Granata, Simona; Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Carraro, Amedeo; Brunelli, Matteo; Stallone, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) and everolimus (EVR) are mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) largely employed in renal transplantation and oncology as immunosuppressive/antiproliferative agents. SRL was the first mTOR-I produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus and approved for several medical purposes. EVR, derived from SRL, contains a 2-hydroxy-ethyl chain in the 40th position that makes the drug more hydrophilic than SRL and increases oral bioavailability. Their main mechanism of action is the inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 and the regulation of factors involved in a several crucial cellular functions including: protein synthesis, regulation of angiogenesis, lipid biosynthesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and function, cell cycle, and autophagy. Most of the proteins/enzymes belonging to the aforementioned biological processes are encoded by numerous and tightly regulated genes. However, at the moment, the polygenic influence on SRL/EVR cellular effects is still not completely defined, and its comprehension represents a key challenge for researchers. Therefore, to obtain a complete picture of the cellular network connected to SRL/EVR, we decided to review major evidences available in the literature regarding the genetic influence on mTOR-I biology/pharmacology and to build, for the first time, a useful and specific "SRL/EVR genes-focused pathway", possibly employable as a starting point for future in-depth research projects. PMID:27187382

  10. Lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improved oral bioavailability of sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Hu, Xiongwei; Ma, Yuhua; Xie, Yunchang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Xiang, Li; Li, Fengqian; Wu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of sirolimus (SRL), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant, by encapsulating into lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). SRL-loaded NLCs (SRL-NLCs) were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization method with glycerol distearates (PRECIROL ATO-5) as the solid lipid, oleic acid as the liquid lipids, and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. The SRL-NLCs prepared under optimum conditions was spherical in shape with a mean particle size of about 108.3 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 99.81%. In vitro release of SRL-NLCs was very slow, about 2.15% at 12 h, while in vitro lipolysis test showed fast digestion of the NLCs within 1 h. Relative oral bioavailability of SRL-NLCs in Beagle dogs was 1.81-folds that of the commercial nanocrystalline sirolimus tablets Rapamune®. In conclusion, the NLCs show potential to improve the oral bioavailability of SRL. PMID:27187522

  11. mTOR Inhibition: Reduced Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Jordi; Ramírez-Bajo, María Jose; Banon-Maneus, Elisenda; Moya-Rull, Daniel; Ventura-Aguiar, Pedro; Hierro-Garcia, Natalia; Lazo-Rodriguez, Marta; Revuelta, Ignacio; Torres, Armando; Oppenheimer, Federico; Campistol, Josep M.; Diekmann, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Background Sirolimus (SRL) has been associated with new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The aim was to determine the effect of SRL on development of insulin resistance and β-cell toxicity. Methods Lean Zucker rat (LZR) and obese Zucker rat (OZR) were distributed into groups: vehicle and SRL (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg) during 12 or 28 days. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was evaluated at days 0, 12, 28, and 45. Islet morphometry, β-cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed at 12 days. Islets were isolated to analyze insulin content, insulin secretion, and gene expression. Results After 12 days, SRL treatment only impaired IPGTT in a dose-dependent manner in OZR. Treatment prolongation induced increase of area under the curve of IPGTT in LZR and OZR; however, in contrast to OZR, LZR normalized glucose levels after 2 hours. The SRL reduced pancreas weight and islet proliferation in LZR and OZR as well as insulin content. Insulin secretion was only affected in OZR. Islets from OZR + SRL rats presented a downregulation of Neurod1, Pax4, and Ins2 gene. Genes related with insulin secretion remained unchanged or upregulated. Conclusions In conditions that require adaptive β-cell proliferation, SRL might reveal harmful effects by blocking β-cell proliferation, insulin production and secretion. These effects disappeared when removing the therapy.

  12. Sirolimus and Everolimus Pathway: Reviewing Candidate Genes Influencing Their Intracellular Effects

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Simona; Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Carraro, Amedeo; Brunelli, Matteo; Stallone, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) and everolimus (EVR) are mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) largely employed in renal transplantation and oncology as immunosuppressive/antiproliferative agents. SRL was the first mTOR-I produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus and approved for several medical purposes. EVR, derived from SRL, contains a 2-hydroxy-ethyl chain in the 40th position that makes the drug more hydrophilic than SRL and increases oral bioavailability. Their main mechanism of action is the inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 and the regulation of factors involved in a several crucial cellular functions including: protein synthesis, regulation of angiogenesis, lipid biosynthesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and function, cell cycle, and autophagy. Most of the proteins/enzymes belonging to the aforementioned biological processes are encoded by numerous and tightly regulated genes. However, at the moment, the polygenic influence on SRL/EVR cellular effects is still not completely defined, and its comprehension represents a key challenge for researchers. Therefore, to obtain a complete picture of the cellular network connected to SRL/EVR, we decided to review major evidences available in the literature regarding the genetic influence on mTOR-I biology/pharmacology and to build, for the first time, a useful and specific “SRL/EVR genes-focused pathway”, possibly employable as a starting point for future in-depth research projects. PMID:27187382

  13. Long-wavelength light emission from InAs quantum dots covered by GaAsSb grown on GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Ohtani, Naoki

    2004-03-01

    We fabricated InAs quantum dots (QDs) with a GaAsSb strain-reducing layer (SRL) on a GaAs(0 0 1) substrate. The wavelength of emission from InAs QD is shown to be controllable by changing the composition and thickness of the SRL. An increase in photoluminescence intensity with increasing compositions of Sb and thickness of the GaAsSb SRL is also seen. The efficiency of radiative recombination was improved under both conditions because the InAs/GaAsSb/GaAs hetero-interface band structure more effectively suppressed carrier escape from the InAs QDs.

  14. NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Clouds During IHOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Comer, Joe; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Rei-Fong; Evans, Keith; Veselovskii, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U.S. The SRL acquired measurements of water vapor, aerosols, cloud liquid and ice water, and temperature for more than 200 hours during IHOP. Here we report on the SRL water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements with particular emphasis being given to the measurements of June 19-20, 2002, which are motivating cirrus cloud model comparison studies.

  15. Enhanced Luminescence Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells by a Strain Relief Layer and Proper Si Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ping-Chieh; Su, Yan-Kuin; Chen, Wen-Ray; Huang, Chun-Yuan

    2010-04-01

    The effects of a strain relief layer (SRL) employed in the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was demonstrated. The wavelength shift was reduced to as small as 2.5 nm by inserting a SRL between n-GaN and InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs). For the improvement of optical properties, a proper Si-doped layer was simultaneously added in the last several barriers of In0.08Ga0.92N/GaN SRL. It can be found that the output power was increased more than 25% as the Si doping level was increased up to 5 times in the last three barriers of SRL at an injection current of 20 mA. Furthermore, the forward voltages at 20 mA were almost the same for all LEDs with different doping levels and positions.

  16. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  17. Shuttle Imaging Radar-C mission operations - Technology test bed for Earth Observing System synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, J. P.; Collins, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mission operations for the Space Radar Lab (SRL), particularly in the areas of real-time replanning and science activity coordination, are presented. The two main components of SRL are the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and the X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Earth Observing System SAR will be a multispectral, multipolarization radar satellite that will provide information over an entire decade, permitting scientists to monitor large-scale changes in the earth's environment over a long period of time.

  18. ASSOCIATIONS OF ABCB1 3435C>T AND IL-10 -1082G>A POLYMORPHISMS WITH LONG-TERM SIROLIMUS DOSE REQUIREMENTS IN RENAL TRANSPLANT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Wai-Johnn; Chamberlain, Christine E.; Lee, Su-Jun; Goldstein, Joyce A.; Hale, Douglas A.; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Kirk, Allan D.; Hon, Yuen Yi

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds SRL absorption and metabolism are affected by Pgp-mediated transport and CYP3A enzyme activity, which are further under the influences of cytokine concentrations. This retrospective study determined the associations of ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677 G>T/A, and 3435C>T, CYP3A4 -392A>G, CYP3A5 6986A>G and 14690G>A, IL-10 -1082G>A, and TNF -308G>A polymorphisms with SRL dose-adjusted, weight-normalized trough concentrations (C/D) at 7 days, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post initiation of SRL. Methods Genotypes for 86 renal transplant patients who received SRL-based maintenance immunosuppressive therapy were determined using polymerase chain reaction followed by chip-based mass spectrometry. The changes of log-transformed C/D over the days post transplantation were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model, with adjustments for body mass index and weight-normalized doses of tacrolimus, prednisone, clotrimazole, and statins. Results ABCB1 3435C>T and IL-10 -1082G>A were significantly associated with log C/D (p=0.0016 and 0.0394, respectively). Mean SRL C/D was 48% higher in patients with ABCB1 3435CT/TT genotype than those with 3435CC genotype, and was 24% higher in IL-10 -1082GG compared to -1082AG/AA. Conclusions ABCB1 3435C>T and IL-10 -1082G>A were significantly associated with long-term SRL dose requirements. Genetics can play a significant role in SRL dosing and may be useful in therapeutic monitoring of SRL in renal transplantation. Future replication studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:22094953

  19. Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements During the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Evans, K. D.; Berkoff, T. B.; Demoz, B. D.; DiGirolamo, P.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the Water Vapor IOP 2000 (WVIOP2000) and ARM FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) at the DOE SGP CART site in northern Oklahoma. These experiments occurred during the period of September and December, 2000. The goals of both the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX were to better characterize the water vapor measurement capability of numerous sensors in the lower atmosphere and upper troposphere, respectively. The SRL received several hardware upgrades in anticipation of these experiments that permitted improved measurements of water vapor during the daytime and in the upper troposphere (UT). The daytime SRL water vapor error statistics were demonstrated a factor of 2-3 improvement compared to the permanently stationed CART Raman lidar (CARL). The performance of the SRL in the UT showed improvements as well. The technological upgrades that permitted these improved SRL measurements could also be implemented in the CARL system. Data examples demonstrating the new daytime and upper tropospheric measurement capability of the SRL will be shown at the meeting. In addition, preliminary analysis will be presented on several topics: 1) inter comparison of the water vapor measurements for several water vapor sensors including SRL, CARL, the NASA/Langley Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) flown onboard the NASA DC-8, in-situ sensors flown on the DC-8, and the Max Planck Institute Differential Absorption Lidar 2) comparison of cirrus cloud measurements using SRL and CARL and 3) case studies of meteorological events that occurred during the IOPs such as a cold frontal passage on the night of September 23.

  20. Final design review of boron carbide safety rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, R.N.

    1991-09-24

    The object of this paper discusses the design review of the boron carbide safety rod for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This paper reviewed information presented by personnel of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Equipment Engineering Section, SRL Materials Technology Section and Reactor Materials Engineering and Technology. From this report, views, opinions and recommendations were made on the safety rod from materials testing to production.

  1. Comparison of phytoncide with sirolimus as a novel drug candidate for drug-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung Nam; Kim, Si-Eun; Choi, Jiyeon; Park, Kwideok; Goo, Jae Hwan; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Joung, Yoon Ki; Lee, Jay; Jeong, Myung Ho; Han, Dong Keun

    2015-03-01

    A drug-eluting stent (DES) is one of the commonly used treatment techniques in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Sirolimus (SRL) has been widely used for DES as a drug for suppressing neointimal hyperplasia causing restenosis. Phytoncides (PTC) are compounds released from trees and plants, and their solutions contain monoterpenoids such as α-pinene, careen, and myrceen. Some studies have reported that these components exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. We hypothesized that PTC may become an alternative drug to SRL for DES, exhibiting alleviated side effects as compared to SRL. A PTC-incorporated stent was compared with an SRL-incorporated stent in terms of physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and biological properties. In in vitro studies, the effects of each drug on cells were investigated. The results showed that both drugs exhibited similar cytotoxicity, anti-inflammation, and antiproliferation effects. However, these effects resulted from different mechanisms associated with cells, as seen in the immunofluorescence result. An in vivo assay showed that the lumen area was significantly larger and the neointimal area was significantly smaller in SRL- and PTC-loaded stents compared to a drug-unloaded stent. These results suggest that phytoncide can be a feasible alternative drug to SRL for advanced DES although more studies are needed. PMID:25617121

  2. Influence of strain reducing layers on electroluminescence and photoluminescence of InAs/GaAs QD structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodková, A.; Pangrác, J.; Oswald, J.; Hazdra, P.; Kuldová, K.; Vyskočil, J.; Hulicius, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparison of photo- (PL) and electro-luminescence (EL) spectra of quantum dot (QD) structures with different strain reducing layers (SRL). Simple QD structures without SRL have negligible difference between the PL and EL maxima, which are near 1250 nm. InGaAs and GaAsSb SRLs were used to shift the luminescence maximum towards telecommunication wavelengths at 1.3 or 1.55 μm. We have found that MOVPE prepared QD structures with SRL exhibit an EL maximum at a considerably shorter wavelength than the PL maximum measured on similar samples without doping in the absence of built-in electric field. A mechanism to explain this phenomenon is proposed for both types of SRLs. The GaAsSb SRL is more suitable for long wavelength EL due to the higher confinement potential of electrons compared to InGaAs SRL. EL maximum at 1300 nm and PL maximum at 1520 nm were achieved on InAs QD structures with GaAs 0.87Sb 0.13 SRL (type I heterojunction).

  3. Evaluation of uranium geochemical anomalies in the Spartanburg 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area near Pacolet Mills, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, J.

    1981-06-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was involved in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program from 1974 through 1981. The SRL role was to design, conduct, and report the data from a geochemical reconnaissance of almost half the continental United States. The purpose of this work was to provide a basis for evaluating the uranium potential of areas and to identify areas meriting conventional geological followup. In this program over 275,000 samples of stream sediment, soil vegetation, and ground or surface water were collected. As a part of the development program to support interpretation of the geochemical data, SRL conducted a series of anomaly verification field studies. Each study area was chosen on the basis of a geochemical anomaly in reconnaissance data. Subcontractors were selected to conduct field scintillometer surveys, compile geologic maps, collect additional samples, or provide other services as deemed appropriate for a given study. This report, which summarizes the results of a study in the Spartanburg 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, was compiled for SRL by Jerry Owen and is published as a facsimile of this report to SRL. Normal editing was not done so that the report could be placed in the public domain prior to the termination of the NURE program. This study is one of a series designed to provide a basis for interpretation of SRL regional geochemical reconnaissance data. It contains a synthesis of published data and results of a four-channel gamma spectrometer survey of an area near Pacolet Mills, South Carolina.

  4. Semi-Rolled Leaf2 modulates rice leaf rolling by regulating abaxial side cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaofei; Li, Ming; Liu, Kai; Tang, Ding; Sun, Mingfa; Li, Yafei; Shen, Yi; Du, Guijie; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2016-01-01

    Moderate leaf rolling maintains the erectness of leaves and minimizes the shadowing between leaves which is helpful to establish ideal plant architecture. Here, we describe a srl2 (semi-rolled leaf2) rice mutant, which has incurved leaves due to the presence of defective sclerenchymatous cells on the abaxial side of the leaf and displays narrow leaves and reduced plant height. Map-based cloning revealed that SRL2 encodes a novel plant-specific protein of unknown biochemical function. SRL2 was mainly expressed in the vascular bundles of leaf blades, leaf sheaths, and roots, especially in their sclerenchymatous cells. The transcriptional activities of several leaf development-related YABBY genes were significantly altered in the srl2 mutant. Double mutant analysis suggested that SRL2 and SHALLOT-LIKE1 (SLL1)/ROLLED LEAF9 (RL9) function in distinct pathways that regulate abaxial-side leaf development. Hence, SRL2 plays an important role in regulating leaf development, particularly during sclerenchymatous cell differentiation. PMID:26873975

  5. Real-time monitoring of steady-state pulsed chemical beam epitaxy by p-polarized reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, K. J.; Sukidi, N.; Höpfner, C.; Harris, C.; Dietz, N.; Tran, H. T.; Beeler, S.; Ito, K.; Banks, H. T.

    1998-01-01

    The structure in the p-polarized reflectance (PR) intensity Rp4( t) - observed under conditions of pulsed chemical beam epitaxy (PCBE) - is modeled on the basis of the four-layer stack: ambient/surface reaction layer (SRL)/epilayer/substrate. Linearization of the PR intensity with regard to the phase factor associated with the SRL results in a good approximation that can be expressed as Rp4 = Rp3 + ΔRp. Rp3 is the reflectivity of the three-layer stack ambient-epilayer-substrate. ΔRp describes the properties of the SRL. An explicit relation is derived between ΔRp( t) and the time-dependent surface concentrations ch( t) ( h = 1, 2, …, N) of the constituents of the SRL, which holds for conditions of submonolayer coverage of the surface by source vapor molecules. Under conditions of low temperature PCBE at high flux, the SRL is expected to exhibit nonideal behavior, mandating replacement of the surface concentrations by activities. Also, in this case, the thickness of the SRL must be represented in terms of partial molar volumina Vh. Since the relation between ΔRp( t) and the activities of reactants, intermediates and products of the chemical reactions driving heteroepitaxial growth is non-linear, the extraction of kinetic parameters from the measured time dependence of the PR signal generally requires numerical modeling.

  6. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  7. Preparation and optimization of media using Pluronic® micelles for solubilization of sirolimus and release from the drug eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Raval, Ami; Parmar, Arpan; Raval, Ankur; Bahadur, Pratap

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the in-vitro release profile of drugs from drug eluting devices such as cardiac stent is crucial in designing and optimizing the drug embedded matrices. Sirolimus (SRL), a widely used anti-inflammatory/antiproliferative/immunosuppressive hydrophobic drug undergoes irreversible changes such as hydrolysis leading to erroneous assessment of the release profile. The release profile mainly depends on the drug release medium. The present study aims to develop and optimize the aqueous medium for the solubilization of SRL and in-vitro release method from drug eluting stent (DES). In the first stage of study several release media containing different buffer compositions, pH, and a series of micelle forming PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers (known as Pluronic(®)) were examined for solubility and stability of SRL by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). SRL showed good solubility and stability at pH 4.0 (both in acetate buffer as well in phosphate buffer) in the presence of block copolymers. Solubilization of SRL was remarkably higher in P103 and P123 micelles than more hydrophilic F68 and F127. To get further insight into the underlying drug dissolution mechanisms, critical micellization temperature (CMT), and hydrodynamic size of micelles with and without drug incorporation were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) respectively. The micelle-water partition coefficient (P) and location of solubilized drug were also evaluated from a thermodynamics viewpoint. Finally, the optimized media were examined for the release of SRL from drug eluting stent; the data suggest that a release medium consisting of 0.1% P123 in phosphate buffer pH 4.0 is most suitable for evaluation of in-vitro release of SRL from DES. PMID:22265756

  8. NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds during WVIOP2000 and AFWEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; DiGirolamo, P.; Demoz, B. B.; Turner, D.; Comstock, J.; Ismail, S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was deployed to the Southern Great Plains CART site from September - December, 2000 and participated in two field campaigns devoted to comparisons of various water vapor measurement technologies and calibrations. These campaigns were the Water Vapor Intensive Operations Period 2000 (WVIOP2000) and the ARM FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX). WVIOP2000 was devoted to validating water vapor measurements in the lower atmosphere while AFWEX had similar goals but for measurements in the upper troposphere. The SRL was significantly upgraded both optically and electronically prior to these field campaigns. These upgrades enabled the SRL to demonstrate the highest resolution lidar measurements of water vapor ever acquired during the nighttime and the highest S/N Raman lidar measurements of water vapor in the daytime; more than a factor of 2 increase in S/N versus the DOE CARL Raman Lidar. Examples of these new measurement capabilities along with comparisons of SRL and CARL, LASE, MPI-DIAL, in-situ sensors, radiosonde, and others will be presented. The profile comparisons of the SRL and CARL have revealed what appears to be an overlap correction or countrate correction problem in CARL. This may be involved in an overall dry bias in the precipitable water calibration of CARL with respect to the MWR of approx. 4%. Preliminary analysis indicates that the application of a temperature dependent correction to the narrowband Raman lidar measurements of water vapor improves the lidar/Vaisala radiosonde comparisons of upper tropospheric water vapor. Other results including the comparison of the first-ever simultaneous measurements from four water vapor lidar systems, a bore-wave event captured at high resolution by the SRL and cirrus cloud optical depth studies using the SRL and CARL will be presented at the meeting.

  9. Modeling and Preliminary Testing Socket-Residual Limb Interface Stiffness of Above-Elbow Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Sensinger, Jonathon W.; Weir, Richard F. ff.

    2011-01-01

    The interface between the socket and residual limb can have a significant effect on the performance of a prosthesis. Specifically, knowledge of the rotational stiffness of the socket-residual limb (S-RL) interface is extremely useful in designing new prostheses and evaluating new control paradigms, as well as in comparing existing and new socket technologies. No previous studies, however, have examined the rotational stiffness of S-RL interfaces. To address this problem, a math model is compared to a more complex finite element analysis, to see if the math model sufficiently captures the main effects of S-RL interface rotational stiffness. Both of these models are then compared to preliminary empirical testing, in which a series of X-rays, called fluoroscopy, is taken to obtain the movement of the bone relative to the socket. Force data are simultaneously recorded, and the combination of force and movement data are used to calculate the empirical rotational stiffness of elbow S-RL interface. The empirical rotational stiffness values are then compared to the models, to see if values of Young’s modulus obtained in other studies at localized points may be used to determine the global rotational stiffness of the S-RL interface. Findings include agreement between the models and empirical results and the ability of persons to significantly modulate the rotational stiffness of their S-RL interface a little less than one order of magnitude. The floor and ceiling of this range depend significantly on socket length and co-contraction levels, but not on residual limb diameter or bone diameter. Measured trans-humeral S-RL interface rotational stiffness values ranged from 24–140 Nm/rad for the four subjects tested in this study. PMID:18403287

  10. Molecular mechanism of anticancer effect of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin in HT29 cells involves differential expression of genes associated with multiple signaling pathways: A microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkeer, Srikanth; Guha, Nilanjan; Hothpet, Vishwanathreddy; Saligrama Adavigowda, Deepak; Hegde, Prajna; Padmanaban, Arunkumar; Yu, Lu-Gang; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is a lectin isolated from fungus S. rolfsii and has high binding specificity toward the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich carbohydrate antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc-α-O-Ser/Thr, T or TF), which is expressed in more than 90% of human cancers. Our previous studies have shown that binding of SRL to human colon, breast and ovarian cancer cells induces cell apoptosis in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo. This study investigated the SRL-mediated cell signaling in human colon cancer HT29 cells by mRNA and miRNA microarrays. It was found that SRL treatment results in altered expression of several hundred molecules including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-JUN-associated, apoptosis-associated and cell cycle and DNA replication-associated signaling molecules. Pathway analysis using GeneSpring 12.6.1 revealed that SRL treatment induces changes of MAPK and c-JUN-associated signaling pathways as early as 2 h while changes of cell cycle, DNA replication and apoptosis pathways were significantly affected only after 24 h. A significant change of cell miRNA expression was also observed after 12 h treatment of the cells with SRL. These changes were further validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. This study thus suggests that the presence of SRL affects multiple signaling pathways in cancer cells with early effects on cell proliferation pathways associated with MAPK and c-JUN, followed by miRNA-associated cell activity and apoptosis. This provides insight information into the molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of this fungal lectin. PMID:26347523

  11. Seropositive bucks and within-herd prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Witkowski, Lucjan; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis is an economically important disease of goats. It is evident that horizontal transmission through respiratory secretions and milk plays an important part in the disease spread whereas the role of sexual transmission remains questionable. The cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the relationship between presence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRL V)-seropositive bucks and seroprevalence of SRL V infection in does in herds. The analysis included 76 goat herds seropositive for SRL V infection. A sample of adult female goats from each herd was selected in a simple random fashion. All males present in a herd were also enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with commercial serological immunoenzymatic tests. Standardized questionnaires were used to gather knowledge of 3 hypothesized herd-level confounding factors: number of years for which a herd had existed until testing, goat replacement from other herds in Poland and use of machine milking. Three-level hierarchical linear regression model was developed to evaluate the relationship (α = 0.05). Median (interquartile range) within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V was 60.1% (35.7% to 87.9%) and 35.8% (10.1% to 49.6%) in herds where seropositive males were present and absent, respectively. Controlling for possible confounders presence of SRL V-seropositive bucks proved to be an independent factor linked to the higher within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V (p = 0.001). The study indicates that seropositive bucks may facilitate the spread of SRL V infection in goat herds and therefore their presence should be considered as a risk factor. PMID:26648770

  12. Seropositive bucks and within-herd prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Witkowski, Lucjan; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis is an economically important disease of goats. It is evident that horizontal transmission through respiratory secretions and milk plays an important part in the disease spread whereas the role of sexual transmission remains questionable. The cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the relationship between presence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRL V)-seropositive bucks and seroprevalence of SRL V infection in does in herds. The analysis included 76 goat herds seropositive for SRL V infection. A sample of adult female goats from each herd was selected in a simple random fashion. All males present in a herd were also enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with commercial serological immunoenzymatic tests. Standardized questionnaires were used to gather knowledge of 3 hypothesized herd-level confounding factors: number of years for which a herd had existed until testing, goat replacement from other herds in Poland and use of machine milking. Three-level hierarchical linear regression model was developed to evaluate the relationship (α = 0.05). Median (interquartile range) within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V was 60.1% (35.7% to 87.9%) and 35.8% (10.1% to 49.6%) in herds where seropositive males were present and absent, respectively. Controlling for possible confounders presence of SRL V-seropositive bucks proved to be an independent factor linked to the higher within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V (p = 0.001). The study indicates that seropositive bucks may facilitate the spread of SRL V infection in goat herds and therefore their presence should be considered as a risk factor. PMID:26648770

  13. BIOSMILE: A semantic role labeling system for biomedical verbs using a maximum-entropy model with automatically generated template features

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Chou, Wen-Chi; Su, Ying-Shan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Sung, Cheng-Lung; Dai, Hong-Jie; Yeh, Irene Tzu-Hsuan; Ku, Wei; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2007-01-01

    Background Bioinformatics tools for automatic processing of biomedical literature are invaluable for both the design and interpretation of large-scale experiments. Many information extraction (IE) systems that incorporate natural language processing (NLP) techniques have thus been developed for use in the biomedical field. A key IE task in this field is the extraction of biomedical relations, such as protein-protein and gene-disease interactions. However, most biomedical relation extraction systems usually ignore adverbial and prepositional phrases and words identifying location, manner, timing, and condition, which are essential for describing biomedical relations. Semantic role labeling (SRL) is a natural language processing technique that identifies the semantic roles of these words or phrases in sentences and expresses them as predicate-argument structures. We construct a biomedical SRL system called BIOSMILE that uses a maximum entropy (ME) machine-learning model to extract biomedical relations. BIOSMILE is trained on BioProp, our semi-automatic, annotated biomedical proposition bank. Currently, we are focusing on 30 biomedical verbs that are frequently used or considered important for describing molecular events. Results To evaluate the performance of BIOSMILE, we conducted two experiments to (1) compare the performance of SRL systems trained on newswire and biomedical corpora; and (2) examine the effects of using biomedical-specific features. The experimental results show that using BioProp improves the F-score of the SRL system by 21.45% over an SRL system that uses a newswire corpus. It is noteworthy that adding automatically generated template features improves the overall F-score by a further 0.52%. Specifically, ArgM-LOC, ArgM-MNR, and Arg2 achieve statistically significant performance improvements of 3.33%, 2.27%, and 1.44%, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrate the necessity of using a biomedical proposition bank for training SRL systems in the

  14. Optically monostable operation of a monolithic semiconductor ring laser using external optical injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Yuan, Guohui; Yu, Siyuan; Giuliani, Guido; Furst, Sandor; Sorel, Marc

    2007-11-01

    The semiconductor ring laser (SRL) is attracting more and more interest as a potential all-optical logic device. Whilst previous operations used electrical modulation to induce switching, for all-optical applications such as all optical switching, regeneration, and optical memory it is necessary to switch using an external optical signal. When operated as a monostable way at 110 mA (just above the threshold of 80 mA) where the device operates in the bidirectional regime, SRL should also be dynamically forced to work in clockwise (CW) and anticlockwise (CCW) directions depending on the external injection direction. In this paper the response characteristics of SRL to external optical injection which fed into SRL by CCW direction are investigated. Both output directions have highly nonlinear relationship with injection signal power and their responses are highly digital. This operation is also simulated in both directions and the agreement with experiment is very good apart from the injection power scale. This confirms that the SRL power is constant above a certain injection power level in both on and off directions, which can be further verified by future devices with 2 couplers.

  15. Semi-Rolled Leaf2 modulates rice leaf rolling by regulating abaxial side cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofei; Li, Ming; Liu, Kai; Tang, Ding; Sun, Mingfa; Li, Yafei; Shen, Yi; Du, Guijie; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2016-04-01

    Moderate leaf rolling maintains the erectness of leaves and minimizes the shadowing between leaves which is helpful to establish ideal plant architecture. Here, we describe asrl2(semi-rolled leaf2) rice mutant, which has incurved leaves due to the presence of defective sclerenchymatous cells on the abaxial side of the leaf and displays narrow leaves and reduced plant height. Map-based cloning revealed that SRL2 encodes a novel plant-specific protein of unknown biochemical function.SRL2 was mainly expressed in the vascular bundles of leaf blades, leaf sheaths, and roots, especially in their sclerenchymatous cells. The transcriptional activities of several leaf development-related YABBY genes were significantly altered in the srl2 mutant. Double mutant analysis suggested that SRL2 and SHALLOT-LIKE1(SLL1)/ROLLED LEAF9(RL9) function in distinct pathways that regulate abaxial-side leaf development. Hence, SRL2 plays an important role in regulating leaf development, particularly during sclerenchymatous cell differentiation. PMID:26873975

  16. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same diet containing 1% (w/w) SRL powder. All mice were bred for 23 days. On day 7 or 14 after LPS injection, mice were killed, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Histological analysis was performed, and serum levels of inflammatory mediators and the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and osteoclast-related genes were measured. SRL treatment ameliorated the rapid initial paw swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, skeletal tissues damage, osteoclast activation and the mRNA levels for osteoclast-related genes compared with the CAIA mice. However, the serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the CAIA mice and the SRL-treated mice. SRL might reduce the inflammatory cells induction and skeletal tissue degradation by CAIA by the regulating osteoclastogenesis. PMID:19727885

  17. VapC20 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cleaves the sarcin-ricin loop of 23S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Winther, Kristoffer S; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Brown, Alistair K; Gerdes, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    The highly persistent and often lethal human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains at least 88 toxin-antitoxin genes. More than half of these encode VapC PIN domain endoribonucleases that inhibit cell growth by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that VapC20 of M. tuberculosis inhibits translation by cleavage of the Sarcin-Ricin loop (SRL) of 23S ribosomal RNA at the same position where Sarcin and other eukaryotic ribotoxins cleave. Toxin-inhibited cells can be rescued by the expression of the antitoxin, thereby raising the possibility that vapC20 contributes to the extreme persistence exhibited by M. tuberculosis. VapC20 cleavage is inhibited by mutations in the SRL that flank the cleavage site but not by changes elsewhere in the loop. Disruption of the SRL stem abolishes cleavage; however, further mutations that restore the SRL stem structure restore cleavage, revealing that the structure rather than the exact sequence of the SRL is important for this activity. PMID:24225902

  18. Evaluation of uranium geochemical anomalies in the Greenville, SC, area, Greenville 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle (Greenville and Greer). National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, K. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was involved in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) from 1974 through 1981. The SRL role was to design and conduct and report the data from a geochemical reconnaissance of almost half the continental United States. The purpose of the work was to provide a basis for evaluation of the uranium potential of areas and to identify areas meriting some conventional geologic followup. More than 275,000 samples of stream sediment, soil, vegetation, and ground or surface water were collected in the program. As part of the development program to support interpretation of the geochemical data, SRL conducted a series of field studies to verify anomalies identified in the reconnaissance data. Subcontractors were selected to conduct field scintillometer surveys, compile geologic maps, collect additional samples, or provide other services as needed for a given study. This report presents the results of a small study in the Greenville 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. The study was conducted for SRL by Kenneth A. Sargent. This study is one of a series designed to provide a basis for interpretation of SRL regional geochemical reconnaissance data. It contains the results of a four-channel gamma spectrometer survey of an area around Greenville, South Carolina. The report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  19. Saw-tooth refractive lens for high energy x-ray focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimonov, Mikhail A.; Khounsary, Ali M.

    2014-09-01

    Saw-tooth refractive lens (SRL) provides a comparatively attractive option for X-ray focusing. An SRL assembly consists of two parts, each with an array of triangular structures (prisms), set tilted symmetrically with respect to the incoming beam. Its main advantage is a simple, continuous tunability in energy and focal length. SRLs can be used for both long and short focal length focusing. Long focal distance focusing of an SRL can accurately be predicted using simple analytical relations. However, the focus size at short focal distances focusing may deviate appreciably from the expected demagnified source size when: (1) the length of the SRL is comparable with the focusing distance, (2) the incident beam is not monochromatic, and (3) and the distance between adjacent prism tips, the tip step, is large . The first factor was considered in a previous work while the other two are addressed is this paper. This preliminary work is aimed at a better understanding of the SRL lenses for focusing an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS).

  20. Scanning Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor during a cold frontal passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Starr, D. O. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Evans, K. D.; Lare, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) had a highly successful deployment at the Department of Energy Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site in Billings, OK during April, 1994 for the first Intensive Operation Period (IOP) hosted there. During the IOP, the SRL operated from just after sundown to just before sunrise for all declared evenings of operation. The lidar acquired more than 123 hours of data over 15 nights with less than 1 hour of data lost due to minor system malfunction. The SRL acquired data both on the vertical and in scanning mode toward an instrumented 60 m tower during various meteorological conditions such as an intense cold frontal passage on April 15 which is the focus of this presentation.

  1. Detailed Study of the Influence of InGaAs Matrix on the Strain Reduction in the InAs Dot-In-Well Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Qimiao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Chunfang; Wang, Shumin; Gong, Qian

    2016-12-01

    InAs/InGaAs dot-in-well (DWELL) structures have been investigated with the systematically varied InGaAs thickness. Both the strained buffer layer (SBL) below the dot layer and the strain-reducing layer (SRL) above the dot layer were found to be responsible for the redshift in photoluminescence (PL) emission of the InAs/InGaAs DWELL structure. A linear followed by a saturation behavior of the emission redshift was observed as a function of the SBL and SRL thickness, respectively. The PL intensity is greatly enhanced by applying both of the SRL and SBL. Finite element analysis simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement were carried out to analyze the strain distribution in the InAs QD and the InGaAs SBL. The results clearly indicate the strain reduction in the QD induced by the SBL, which are likely the main cause for the emission redshift. PMID:26932758

  2. PSP Program close out documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Andringa, K.; Hootman, H.E.; Ferrara, A.S.; Smith, P.K.; Congdon, J.W.; Randolph, H.W.; Young, R.H.; Driggers, F.E.; Topp, S.V.

    1985-12-31

    In December 1982 DOE-SR directed SRL to study the feasibility and impact of a program to lower the U-236 content of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) stockpile used as fuel for the SRP reactors. In response to this request SRL assessed four technologies, Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS), Gas Centrifuge, and the Plasma Separation Process (PSP) for this purpose with the assistance of the Engineering Department. In April 1983 cost/benefit analyses for these processes, high spot cost estimates for production facilities, and process uncertainties were submitted to DOE-SR with a recommendation to proceed with the conceptual design and supporting development programs for a facility based on the use of the PSP process. The current program status for the PSP development program at SRL and the design and documentation of a production facility at SRP, referred to as the Fuel Improvement Demonstration Facility (FIDF), is described in this report.

  3. Designing appropriate blended courses: a students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2010-10-01

    The computing education in Taiwan's vocational schools usually focuses on how to help students enhance their professional skills and pass certified examinations. In addition, due to national education policy and universities' regulations, pure online courses are not permitted in Taiwan. In order to design appropriate blended learning (BL) courses, the author explored the effects of web-mediated self-regulated learning (SRL) with variations in online class frequency on enhancing students' computing skills and their perspective of the blended courses. A total of 172 students, divided into four groups, participated in the experiment. The results showed that students in the SRL and BL group with five online classes had the highest scores for using a database management system (DBMS), and the highest pass rate on certified examinations. Students in this group also expressed their positive perspective on the arrangement of their blended course with the intervention of web-mediated SRL. PMID:20950181

  4. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics: Cosmic physics portion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Schindler, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Research in particle astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology is supported under NASA Grant NAGW-1919. A three-year proposal for continuation of support was submitted a year ago and put into effect 1 October 1992. This report is the combined progress report and continuation application called for under the Federal Demonstration Project. Gamma-ray Astrophysics at SRL is separately supported under NAGW-1919 and will be separately summarized and proposed. This report will document progress and plans for our particle spectroscopy activities and for related data analysis, calibration, and community service activities. A bibliography and a budget will be attached as appendices. The Caltech SRL research program includes a heavy emphasis on elemental and isotopic spectroscopy of energetic particles in the cosmic radiation; in solar, interplanetary, and anomalous 'cosmic' radiation; and in planetary magnetospheres as discussed.

  5. Academic identity formation and motivation among ethnic minority adolescents: the role of the "self" between internal and external perceptions of identity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jamaal S; Banerjee, Meeta; Lauermann, Fani

    2014-01-01

    Identity is often studied as a motivational construct within research on adolescent development and education. However, differential dimensions of identity, as a set of internal values versus external perceptions of social belonging, may relate to motivation in distinct ways. Utilizing a sample of 600 African American and Latino adolescents (43% female; mean age = 13.9), the present study examines whether self-regulated learning (SRL) mediates two distinct dimensions of academic identity (i.e., value and belonging) and mastery orientation. This study also examines whether self-efficacy moderates the mediating role of SRL between identity and mastery. Results show evidence for moderated mediation between SRL and academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning played its strongest mediating role between belonging and mastery and for low-efficacy students specifically. PMID:25376210

  6. The behavior of silicon and boron in the surface of corroded nuclear waste glasses : an EFTEM study.

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E. C.; Smith, K. L.; Blackford, M. G.

    1999-11-23

    Using electron energy-loss filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have observed the formation of silicon-rich zones on the corroded surface of a West Valley (WV6) glass. This layer is approximately 100-200 nm thick and is directly underneath a precipitated smectite clay layer. Under conventional (C)TEM illumination, this layer is invisible; indeed, more commonly used analytical techniques, such as x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), have failed to describe fully the localized changes in the boron and silicon contents across this region. Similar silicon-rich and boron-depleted zones were not found on corroded Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) borosilicate glasses, including SRL-EA and SRL-51, although they possessed similar-looking clay layers. This study demonstrates a new tool for examining the corroded surfaces of materials.

  7. Budget impact analysis of conversion from cyclosporine to sirolimus as immunosuppressive medication in renal transplantation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, Naghmeh; Rasekh, Hamid R; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Jamshidi, Hamid R; Nafar, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine budget impact of conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) in renal transplant therapy (RTT) from the perspective of insurance organizations in Iran. Methods An Excel-based model was developed to determine cost of RTT, comparing current CsA based therapy to an mTOR inhibitor-based therapy regimen. Total cost included both cost of immunosuppressive agents and relative adverse events. The inputs were derived from database of Ministry of Health and insurance organizations, hospital and pharmacy based registries, and available literature that were varied through a one-way sensitivity analysis. According to the model, there were almost 17,000 patients receiving RTT in Iran, out of which about 2,200 patients underwent the operation within the study year. The model was constructed based on the results of a local RCT, in which test and control groups received CsA, SRL, and steroids over the first 3 months posttransplantation and, from the fourth month on, CsA, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroids were used in the CsA group and SRL, MMF, and steroids were administered in the SRL group, respectively. Results The estimated cost of RTT with CsA was US$4,850,000 versus US$4,300,000 receiving SRL. These costs corresponded to the cost saving of almost US$550,000 for the payers. Conclusion To evaluate the financial consequence of adding mTOR inhibitors to the insurers’ formulary, in the present study, a budget impact analysis was conducted on sirolimus. Fewer cases of costly adverse events along with lower required doses of MMF related to SRL based therapies were major reasons for this saving budgetary impact. PMID:24159260

  8. Structural basis for the carbohydrate recognition of the Sclerotium rolfsii lectin.

    PubMed

    Leonidas, Demetres D; Swamy, Bale M; Hatzopoulos, George N; Gonchigar, Sathisha J; Chachadi, Vishwanath B; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Zographos, Spyros E; Oikonomakos, Nikos G

    2007-05-11

    The crystal structure of a novel fungal lectin from Sclerotium rolfsii (SRL) in its free form and in complex with N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) and N-acetyl- d -glucosamine (GlcNAc) has been determined at 1.1 A, 2.0 A, and 1.7 A resolution, respectively. The protein structure is composed of two beta-sheets, which consist of four and six beta-strands, connected by two alpha-helices. Sequence and structural comparisons reveal that SRL is the third member of a newly identified family of fungal lectins, which includes lectins from Agaricus bisporus and Xerocomus chrysenteron that share a high degree of structural similarity and carbohydrate specificity. The data for the free SRL are the highest resolution data for any protein of this family. The crystal structures of the SRL in complex with two carbohydrates, GalNAc and GlcNAc, which differ only in the configuration of a single epimeric hydroxyl group, provide the structural basis for its carbohydrate specificity. SRL has two distinct carbohydrate-binding sites, a primary and a secondary. GalNAc binds at the primary site, whereas GlcNAc binds only at the secondary site. Thus, SRL has the ability to recognize and probably bind at the same time two different carbohydrate structures. Structural comparison to Agaricus bisporus lectin-carbohydrate complexes reveals that the primary site is also able to bind the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galbeta1-->3GalNAc-alpha- glycan structures) whereas the secondary site cannot. The features of the molecular recognition at the two sites are described in detail. PMID:17391699

  9. STS-59 Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 insignia is dominated by Earth, reflecting the focus of the first Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1) mission upon our planet's surface and atmosphere. The golden symbol of the astronaut corps emblem sweeps over Earth's surface from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, representing the operation of the SIR-C/Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Space (MAPS) sensors. The astronaut emblem also signals the importance of the human element in space exploration and in the study of our planet. The star field visible below Earth represents the many talents and skill of the international SRL-1 team.

  10. Self-regulated Learning in a Hybrid Science Course at a Community College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuelito, Shannon Joy

    Community college students are attracted to courses with alternative delivery formats such as hybrid courses because the more flexible delivery associated with such courses provides convenience for busy students. In a hybrid course, face-to-face, structured seat time is exchanged for online components. In such courses, students take more responsibility for their learning because they assume additional responsibility for learning more of the course material on their own. Thus, self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors have the potential to be useful for students to successfully navigate hybrid courses because the online components require exercise of more personal control over the autonomous learning situations inherent in hybrid courses. Self-regulated learning theory includes three components: metacognition, motivation, and behavioral actions. In the current study, this theoretical framework is used to examine how inducing self-regulated learning activities among students taking a hybrid course influence performance in a community college science course. The intervention for this action research study consisted of a suite of activities that engage students in self-regulated learning behaviors to foster student performance. The specific SRL activities included predicting grades, reflections on coursework and study efforts in course preparation logs, explanation of SRL procedures in response to a vignette, photo ethnography work on their personal use of SRL approaches, and a personalized study plan. A mixed method approach was employed to gather evidence for the study. Results indicate that community college students use a variety of self-regulated learning strategies to support their learning of course material. Further, engaging community college students in learning reflection activities appears to afford some students with opportunities to refine their SRL skills and influence their learning. The discussion focuses on integrating the quantitative and qualitative

  11. STS-59 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 insignia is dominated by Earth, reflecting the focus of the first Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1) mission upon our planet's surface and atmosphere. The golden symbol of the astronaut corps emblem sweeps over Earth's surface from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, representing the operation of the SIR-C/Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Space (MAPS) sensors. The astronaut emblem also signals the importance of the human element in space exploration and in the study of our planet. The star field visible below Earth represents the many talents and skill of the international SRL-1 team.

  12. Space Radar Laboratory photos taken at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1) is being transferred from the payload canister transporter into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. It is to be flown on the STS-59 mission. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is KSC-94PC-323 (30392); In the south Level IV stand of the Operations and Checkout Building low bay, the SRL-1 antenna is being placed atop a pallet which holds the antenna electronics. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is KSC-93PC-1493 (30393).

  13. Pointing mechanisms for the Shuttle Radar Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienthal, Gerald W.; Olivera, Argelio M.; Shiraishi, Lori R.

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Laboratory (SRL) is scheduled for launch in December of 1993 on the first of its two missions. The SRL has three major radar instruments: two distributed phased-array antennas, which make up the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C System (SIR-C) and are capable of being electronically steered, and one X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR), which is pointed mechanically by a suite of mechanisms. This paper will describe these mechanisms and summarize the development difficulties that were encountered in bringing them from the design stage through prototype development and protoflight testing.

  14. Experience of applying the results of investigations into controlling lines of the salt ratio between the salt and pure sections of high-pressure drum boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Layouts of the connection of the salt ratio lines (SRLs) existing in domestic boiler building are analyzed and the main causes of their low operational efficiency are shown. The results of investigation of hydraulics and the salt mode of an internal boiler layout with the SRL of the TPE-208 boiler are presented. Recommendations on designing the SRL in internal boiler layouts of high-pressure drum boilers, which make it possible to increase the reliability of boilers and to decrease the annual consumption of phosphates, are developed.

  15. Effects of maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus after liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Gustafson, Sally K; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Segev, Dorry L; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    For recipients of liver transplantations (LTs) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC recurrence after transplantation remains a major concern. Sirolimus (SRL), an immunosuppressant with anticarcinogenic properties, may reduce HCC recurrence and improve survival. In our study, the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was linked to pharmacy claims. For liver recipients transplanted for HCC, Cox regression was used to estimate associations of early SRL use with recurrence, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality, adjusting for recipient ethnicity, calendar year of transplant, total tumor volume, alpha-fetoprotein, transplant center size, use of interleukin 2 induction therapy, and allocated and calculated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. We performed stratified analyses among recipients who met Milan criteria, among those without renal failure, among those with deceased liver donors, by age at transplantation, and by tumor size. Among the 3936 included HCC LTs, 234 (6%) were SRL users. In total, there were 242 recurrences and 879 deaths, including 261 cancer-related deaths. All-cause mortality was similar in SRL users and nonusers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.73-1.39). HCC recurrence and cancer-specific mortality rates appeared lower in SRL users, but associations were not statistically significant (recurrence aHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.45-1.65; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.43-1.50). Among recipients >55 years old, associations were suggestive of better outcomes for SRL users (all-cause mortality aHR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.38-1.01; recurrence aHR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.19-1.44; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.11-1.09), whereas among recipients ≤55 years old, SRL users had worse outcomes (all-cause mortality aHR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.12-2.75; recurrence aHR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.62-3.61; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.71-3.32). In conclusion, among HCC liver recipients overall, SRL did not appear

  16. The Role of Parenting in Children's Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Pasternak, Deborah; Whitebread, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a systematic literature review on empirical studies exploring relationships between parental behaviours and children's self-regulated learning (SRL). The literature search resulted in 22 studies published between 1980 and 2009. Studies were analysed in terms of their research findings and their methodological…

  17. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  18. Comparison of lower body strength, power, acceleration, speed, agility, and sprint momentum to describe and compare playing rank among professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2008-01-01

    Success in rugby league football seems heavily reliant on players possessing an adequate degree of various physical fitness qualities, such as strength, power, speed, agility, and endurance, as well as the individual skills and team tactical abilities. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the lower body strength, power, acceleration, maximal speed, agility, and sprint momentum of elite first-division national rugby league (NRL) players (n = 20) to second-division state league (SRL) players (n = 20) players from the same club. Strength and maximal power were the best discriminators of which players were in the NRL or SRL squads. None of the sprinting tests, such as acceleration (10-m sprint), maximal speed (40-m sprint), or a unique 40-m agility test, could distinguish between the NRL or SRL squads. However, sprint momentum, which was a product of 10-m velocity and body mass, was better for discriminating between NRL and SRL players as heavier, faster players would possess better drive forward and conversely be better able to repel their opponents' drive forward. Strength and conditioning specialists should therefore pay particular attention to increasing lower body strength and power and total body mass through appropriate resistance training while maintaining or improving 10-m sprint speed to provide their players with the underlying performance characteristics of play at the elite level in rugby leagues. PMID:18296969

  19. Formative Assessment: Assessment Is for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The article draws from 199 sources on assessment, learning, and motivation to present a detailed decomposition of the values, theories, and goals of formative assessment. This article will discuss the extent to which formative feedback actualizes and reinforces self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies among students. Theoreticians agree that SRL…

  20. Enhance Low-Achieving Students' Learning Involvement in Taiwan's Higher Education: An Approach via E-Learning with Problem-Based Learning and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tsang-Hsiung; Shen, Pei-Di; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effects of web-enabled pedagogies on students' involvement in learning. A series of quasi-experiments were conducted to investigate whether students' involvement increases over time if intervened, respectively, by problem-based learning (PBL), self-regulated learning (SRL), and their combinations. Two classes of 102…

  1. Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia: Too Much of a Good Thing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Think-aloud and self-report data from 99 undergraduates were used to consider whether extensive use of self-regulated learning (SRL) with hypermedia results in diminishing benefits. Participants individually used a commercially-based hypermedia environment for 30 minutes to learn about a challenging science-related topic. Think-aloud data were…

  2. Self-Regulated Learning in Reading: Gifted Pedagogy and Instructional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housand, Angela; Reis, Sally M.

    2008-01-01

    Personal processes, the environment, and individual behaviors of both teachers and students are factors that facilitate students' use of self-regulation learning strategies in reading. Some environmental conditions, such as organization of materials and clear expectations, support the development and use of self-regulation learning (SRL)…

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Effect a Self-Regulated Learning Environment Has on Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Gerry; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a Self Regulated Learning (SRL) environment on pre-service primary teachers of Science and Technology were investigated in this exploratory study. A representative sample of teachers was interviewed about their experience and how it impacted on them pedagogically, affectively, conceptually and metacognitively. The preliminary…

  4. Preservice Teachers' Capacity to Teach Self-Regulated Learning: Integrating Learning from Problems and Learning from Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalsky, Tova; Schechter, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, we integrated systematic learning from problematic and successful experiences into teachers' preparatory programs and examined how such learning affected preservice physics teachers' capacity to teach students self-regulated learning (SRL). Results indicated that preservice teachers who contemplated both…

  5. Commission Recommendations Concerning Alternate Delivery Options for the State's Cal Grant Program. Commission Report 03-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2003

    2003-01-01

    In September 2002, the California Legislature adopted Supplemental Report Language (SRL) directing the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) to convene a task force to examine alternative delivery systems for the State's Cal Grant program. This report responds to that legislative request. The recommendations contained in this report…

  6. Self-Regulation of Learning within Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Fielding I.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Costich, Claudine M.

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) present important opportunities for fostering learning; however, studies have shown that students have difficulty when learning with these environments. Research has identified that students' self-regulatory learning (SRL) processes may mediate the hypothesized positive relations between CBLEs and…

  7. Examination of the Context-Specific Nature of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotgans, Jerome; Schmidt, Henk

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate to what extent self-regulated learning (SRL) is context-dependent. The "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ) was repeatedly administered to 155 first-year students at a Singaporean polytechnic--a general version of the MSLQ before students entered the polytechnic and a…

  8. Space shuttle observations of terrestrial impact structures using SIR-C and X-SAR radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, John F.; Greeley, Ronald; Williams, Kevin K.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.

    2002-03-01

    Ten terrestrial impact structures were imaged during two flights of the 1994 Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) experiment. These craters include Wolf Creek, Australia; Roter Kamm, Namibia; Zhamanshin, Kazakhstan; B.P. and Oasis, Libya; Aorounga, Chad; Amguid, Algeria; and Spider, Connolly Basin and Henbury, Australia. SRL contained two co-registered instruments; the United States SIR-C polarimetric radar system operating in L-band (?=24 cm) and C-band (?=5.6 cm), and the joint German/Italian X-SAR vertically-polarized radar operating in X-band (?=3 cm). Comparisons show SRL images to be complementary to, or in some cases superior to, corresponding optical images for evaluating size, location, and relative age of impact features. Regardless of wavelength or polarization, craters with significant relief appear prominently on radar as a result of slope and roughness effects. In desert regions, longer wavelengths penetrate dry sand mantles to reveal hidden crater dimensions or associated buried landforms. Radar polarities and wavelengths are particularly sensitive to vegetation, surface roughness, and soil moisture or electrical properties. In the more temperate environments of Kazakhstan and Australia, SRL images show detailed stream patterns that reveal the location and structure of otherwise obscured impact features.

  9. Comment on Perry and Winne's "Learning from Learning Kits: gStudy Traces of Students' Self-Regulated Engagements with Computerized Content"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenniger, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The comment starts with a review of the authors' four phase model of SRL as metacognitive, motivated, and strategic where it is suggested to complete the model with aspects of motivation, emotion, and attribution. Furthermore, integrating theories about "online motivation" within the model's internal regulatory part and framing it with elements of…

  10. Determinants of Teachers' Recognitions of Self-Regulated Learning Practices in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombaerts, Koen; Engels, Nadine; van Braak, Johan

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among teacher characteristics, contextual factors, and the recognition of self-regulated learning (SRL). Participants of the survey study were 172 elementary school teachers in the Brussels Capital Region and surrounding area (Belgium). The authors assessed the interrelations of several measures on personal…

  11. Metacognitive Knowledge Monitoring and Self-Regulated Learning: Academic Success and Reflections on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Randy M.; Fujita, Frank

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade the relationship of self-regulated learning (SRL) to academic success has been extensively explored but the impact of metacognition in this process has not been thoroughly examined. This study examined the relationship of metacognitive knowledge monitoring (MKM) to classroom performance. Eighty-four undergraduate students in…

  12. Scaffolding the Appropriation of Self-Regulatory Activity: A Socio-Cultural Analysis of Changes in Teacher-Student Discourse about a Graduate Research Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadwin, Allyson Fiona; Wozney, Lori; Pontin, Oonagh

    2005-01-01

    This study informs the design and development of pedagogical agents that can flexibly support self-regulation by calibrating guidance to specific phases and facets of self-regulated learning (SRL) as individuals encounter challenges and develop more sophisticated understandings of the task and content. From a socio-cultural perspective of…

  13. Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation Belief Differences among Gifted and Non-Gifted Middle School Students across Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogrebe, Jaclyn M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examined self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, perceived responsibility) across ability (i.e., gifted, advanced, average) and achievement groups (i.e., high achievers, low achievers) in a sample of 135 suburban middle school students (i.e., fifth and sixth grade). In order to expand upon…

  14. 44 CFR 79.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... property consisting of 5 or more residences. (h) Severe Repetitive Loss Properties are defined as single or... incurred flood-related damage for which 4 or more separate claims payments have been made, with the amount... planning or project activity to the applicant for assistance under the FMA or SRL programs. Upon...

  15. The Effect of Concept Mapping with Different Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Knowledge Acquisition and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kyu Yon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different levels of generativity in terms of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. Also, it examined whether or not learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills influenced the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different…

  16. Identification and Comparison of Academic Self Regulatory Learning Strategy Use of Students Enrolled in Traditional and Accelerated Baccalaureate Degree Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the use of metacognitive, cognitive, and environmental resource management self regulatory learning (SRL) strategies used by a national sample of students enrolled in traditional and accelerated baccalaureate nursing programs. Background: Learner focused reforms in nursing education require students to assume more…

  17. Instructional Practices and Self-Regulated Learning in Chinese Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between teachers' instructional practices and students' self-regulated learning (SRL) in Hong Kong Chinese language classes using quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants were 1121 Grade 10 students from six secondary schools in Hong Kong. A Chinese reading comprehension (RC) test was used to assess…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  19. Teacher Beliefs, Knowledge, and Practice of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruce, Robin; Bol, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined teacher beliefs, knowledge, and classroom practice of self-regulated learning for ten elementary and middle school teachers. Using Zimmerman's SRL model to frame our method and results, we administered questionnaires, observed classrooms and conducted interviews with these teachers. Teachers had positive beliefs about the role…

  20. Leadership Development on a Diverse Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riutta, Satu; Teodorescu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While leadership development is considered an important goal of education on many campuses, very little is known about how leadership skills develop in a diverse environment, which most colleges will be in the future. We compare causes for Socially Responsible Leadership (SRL) at the end of college students' first year in one diverse liberal…

  1. Evaluation of uranium geochemical anomalies in the Greenville 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle (Avalon, Greer, Honea, and Northeast Greenville). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, K. A.; Price, V. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was involved in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) from 1974 through 1981. The SRL role was to design, conduct, and report the data from a geochemical reconnaissance of almost half the continental United States. The purpose of this work was to provide a basis for evaluating the uranium potential of areas and to identify areas meriting conventional geologic followup. More than 275,000 samples of stream sediment, soil, vegetation, and ground or surface water were collected in the program. As a part of the development program to support interpretation of the geochemical data, SRL conducted a series of field studies to verify anomalies that were identified from reconnaissance data. Subcontractors were selected to conduct field scintillometer surveys, compile geologic maps, collect additional samples, or provide other services needed for a given study. This report summarizes the results of four small studies that were conducted for SRL by V.S. Griffin, Jr., in the Greenville 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Normal editing was not done so the report could be released to the public before the termination of the NURE program. Thus, conceptual errors that may be present have not been corrected, and the reader is cautioned to use professional judgment in interpreting the data. These studies include original geologic maps and the results of field radioactivity measurements. 20 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Reviewing 15 years of experience with sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Tedesco Silva, Helio; Rosso Felipe, Claudia; Medina Pestana, Jose Osmar

    2015-01-01

    Here, we review 15 years of clinical use of sirolimus in our transplant center, in context with the developing immunosuppressive strategies use worldwide. The majority of studies were conducted in de novo kidney transplant recipients, using sirolimus (SRL) in combination with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We also explored steroid (ST) or CNI-sparing therapies, including CNI minimization, elimination, or conversion strategies in combination with mycophenolate (MMF/MPS). Pooled long-term outcomes were comparable with those obtained with CNI and antimetabolite combination. Surprisingly, there are still several areas that need further investigation to improve the risk/benefit profile of SRL in kidney transplantation, including pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic drug-to-drug interaction with cyclosporine (CsA) or tacrolimus (TAC), mechanisms of SRL-associated adverse reactions and combinations with other drugs such as belatacept and once-daily TAC, possibly leading to improved long-term adherence. These studies, along with others investigating the benefits of SRL associated lower viral infections and malignancies, are essential as we do not expect the introduction of new immunosuppressive drugs in the near future. PMID:27293553

  3. Impact of a Student Success Course on Undergraduate Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoops, Leah D.; Yu, Shirley L.; Burridge, Andrea Backscheider; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Both community colleges and four-year institutions offer Student Success Courses (SSCs) to promote student engagement (self-regulated learning, SRL) and performance (grades, retention, and graduation). However, little work has been done to examine the holistic impact of SSC interventions or to determine which aspects of course curriculum most…

  4. A Qualitative Inquiry into the Self-Regulated Learning of First-Semester College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover and describe the self-regulated learning (SRL) of a group of first-semester college students. Using Zimmerman's model of self-regulated learning, this study considered two major research questions: (a) how and why do first-semester college students decide to self-regulate? and (b) how do first-semester…

  5. Use of NURE HSSR data for resource studies of rare earth minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V. Jr.; Ferguson, R.B.; Griffin, V.S. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    SRL is conducting geochemical surveys in 37 eastern and western states of USA. The sampling pattern used is described. The utility of the NURE data for outlining areas containing rare-earth minerals in streams sediments is illustrated using monazite in the southeastern US (TN, NC, SC, and GA) as an example. 4 figures. (DLC)

  6. Raman Lidar Measurements During the International H2O Project. 2; Instrument Comparisons and Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Corner, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Sabatino, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U. S. The SRL system configuration and methods of data analysis were described in part I of this paper. In this second part, comparisons of SRL water vapor measurements and those of chilled mirror radiosonde and LASE airborne water vapor lidar are performed. Two case studies are presented; one for daytime and one for nighttime. The daytime case study is of a convectively driven boundary layer event and is used to characterize the SRL water vapor random error characteristics. The nighttime case study is of a thunderstorm-generated cirrus cloud case that is studied in it s meteorological context. Upper tropospheric humidification due to precipitation from the cirrus cloud is quantified as is the cirrus cloud ice water content and particle depolarization ratio. These detailed cirrus cloud measurements are being used in a cirrus cloud modeling study.

  7. 75 FR 76699 - The University of Texas at Austin, et al.; Notice of Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    .... Manufacturer: ADS International, S.r.l., Italy. Intended Use: See notice at 75 FR 67949, November 4, 2010...: 10-064. Applicant: The University of Texas at Austin, Center for Electromechanics, Pickle Research... because of its ability to achieve the desired accuracy of +/-2 microns, the stiffness of 400 N/micron,...

  8. Training of Self-Regulated Learning Skills on a Social Network System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Kwangsu; Cho, Moon-Heum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-regulated learning (SRL) skills trained using a social network system (SNS) may be generalized outside the training session. A total of 29 undergraduate students participated in the study. During the training session, students in the experimental group were trained to practice…

  9. Examining Self-Efficacy during Learning: Variability and Relations to Behavior, Performance, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew L.; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.; Aleven, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) theorists propose that learners' motivations and cognitive and metacognitive processes interact dynamically during learning, yet researchers typically measure motivational constructs as stable factors. In this study, self-efficacy was assessed frequently to observe its variability during learning and how learners'…

  10. Setting Formative Assessments in Real-World Contexts to Facilitate Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Hui Yong

    2015-01-01

    Some writers (Black and Wiliam in "Phi Delta Kappan" 80(2):139-148, 1998; Clark 2012; Panadero and Jonsson in "Educational Research Review" 9:129-144, 2013) have hypothesized a link between formative assessments (FA) and self-regulated learning (SRL). FA give students an opportunity to play an active role in their learning…

  11. Adjusting Curricular Design to "CREATE" a Culture of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Rylan

    2011-01-01

    Developing learners' ability to self-regulate their own learning has been an ideal sought after by researchers and practitioners alike. Over the past 40 years a plethora of educational psychology research on self-regulated learning (SRL) has flooded the literature. In this article I attempt to consolidate key theories from this literature base and…

  12. Landing of STS-59 Shuttle Endeavour at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The main landing gear of the Space Shuttle Endeavour touches down at Edwards Air Force Base to complete the 11 day STS-59/SRL-1 mission. Landing occured at 9:54 a.m., April 20, 1994. Mission duration was 11 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes.

  13. STS-59 MAPS experiment view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-59's MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites) experiment is sending real-time data that provides the most comprehensive view of carbon monoxide concentrations on Earth ever recorded. This computer image shows a summary of 'quick look' data obtained by the MAPS instrument during its first days of operations as part of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's SRL-1 payload.

  14. An Exploratory Study of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Design Project by Students in Grades 9-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…

  15. Understanding Mobile Learning from the Perspective of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, L.; Looi, C.-K.; Chen, W.; Zhang, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Cognizant of the research gap in the theorization of mobile learning, this paper conceptually explores how the theories and methodology of self-regulated learning (SRL), an active area in contemporary educational psychology, are inherently suited to address the issues originating from the defining characteristics of mobile learning: enabling…

  16. 44 CFR 79.4 - Availability of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Availability of funding. 79.4... § 79.4 Availability of funding. (a) Allocation. (1) For the amount made available for the SRL program... for funding; or (2) FEMA may contribute up to 90 percent of the cost of the eligible activities...

  17. 44 CFR 79.4 - Availability of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of funding. 79.4... § 79.4 Availability of funding. (a) Allocation. (1) For the amount made available for the SRL program... for funding; or (2) FEMA may contribute up to 90 percent of the cost of the eligible activities...

  18. Using Electronic Portfolios to Foster Literacy and Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrami, Philip C.; Venkatesh, Vivek; Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Wade, C. Anne

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here is a continuation of a line of inquiry that explores the impacts of an electronic portfolio software called ePEARL, which is a knowledge tool designed to support the key phases of self-regulated learning (SRL)--forethought, performance, and self-reflection--and promote student learning. Participants in this study were…

  19. Performance improvement of GaN-based near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN superlattices strain relief layer and AlGaN barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chuanyu; Yu, Tongjun; Feng, Xiaohui; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Guoyi

    2016-09-01

    The carrier confinement effect and piezoelectric field-induced quantum-confined stark effect of different GaN-based near-UV LED samples from 395 nm to 410 nm emission peak wavelength were investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active region have higher output power than those with InGaN/GaN MQWs for better carrier confinement effect. However, as emission peak wavelength is longer than 406 nm, the output power of the near-UV LEDs with AlGaN barrier is lower than that of the LEDs with GaN barrier due to more serious spatial separation of electrons and holes induced by the increase of piezoelectric field. The N-doped InGaN/AlGaN superlattices (SLs) were adopted as a strain relief layer (SRL) between n-GaN and MQWs in order to suppress the polarization field. It is demonstrated the output power of near-UV LEDs is increased obviously by using SLs SRL and AlGaN barrier for the discussed emission wavelength range. Besides, the forward voltage of near-UV LEDs with InGaN/AlGaN SLs SRL is lower than that of near-UV LEDs without SRL.

  20. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Regulated Learning in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yongchao; Frederiksen, Carl H.; Muis, Krista R.

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) actions of 30 Canadian and 30 Chinese university students were studied in a face-to-face problem-based learning environment. Participants were randomly assigned to work in dyads consisting of Chinese, Canadian, or mixed Chinese-Canadian pairs to learn Analysis of Variance collaboratively using a computer coach. Dialog…

  1. Helium-induced weld cracking in irradiated 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall, A.K. )

    1989-01-01

    This report consists of slide notes for presentation to The Metallurgical Society of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME). The meeting in question will be held October 3, 1989 in Indianapolis. This presentation will be the second of three consecutive talks contributed by SRL personnel dealing with helium-induced weld cracking.

  2. Collaborating with Front-Line Teachers to Incorporate Self-Regulated Learning in Chinese Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to initially explore the possibility of helping front-line teachers to integrate the principles of self-regulated learning (SRL) into Chinese reading instruction in a 1-year collaborative project. A total of 197 Secondary 3 students and 6 Chinese language teachers from a secondary school in Hong Kong participated in the study. The…

  3. Using Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning to Help Developmental Mathematics Students Achieve: A Multi-Campus Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudesman, John; Crosby, Sara; Ziehmke, Niesha; Everson, Howard; Issac, Sharlene; Flugman, Bert; Zimmerman, Barry; Moylan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe an Enhanced Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning (EFA-SRL) program designed to improve the achievement of community college students enrolled in developmental mathematics courses. Their model includes the use of specially formatted quizzes designed to assess both the students' mathematics and metacognitive…

  4. The Relationship among Self-Regulated Learning, Procrastination, and Learning Behaviors in Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Masanori; Goda, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship among the awareness of self-regulated learning (SRL), procrastination, and learning behaviors in blended learning environment. One hundred seventy nine freshmen participated in this research, conducted in the blended learning style class using learning management system. Data collection was…

  5. 76 FR 33326 - Agency Information Collection Activities, Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Severe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... submission will describe the nature of the information collection, the categories of respondents, the... Titles and Numbers: None. Abstract: The SRL program provides property owners with the ability to appeal... program. The property owner must submit information to FEMA to support their appeal. Affected...

  6. Validation of the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Parent Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Audrey Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The current dissertation gathered empirical evidence of convergent and predictive validity for the Self-Regulation Strategies Inventory-Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), which measures parents' perception of their child's use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies during mathematics activities. The SRSI-PRS, which is part of the larger SRSI…

  7. Student Self-Regulated Learning in an Urban High School: Predictive Validity and Relations between Teacher Ratings and Student Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of a teacher rating scale called the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Teacher Rating Scale (SRSI-TRS) and its level of convergence with several student self-report measures of self-regulated learning (SRL). Eighty-seven high school students enrolled in one of four sections of a mathematics course in an…

  8. Student Perceptions of E-Learning Environments, Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Keisha Casan Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Student perceptions of e-learning are potential causes of student dropout in online education. The social cognitive theoretical view was used to investigate the relationship between perceived e-learning environments, self-regulated learning (SRL), and academic performance in online education. This mixed methods study used a quantitative…

  9. Applying Web-Enabled Problem-Based Learning and Self-Regulated Learning to Enhance Computing Skills of Taiwan's Vocational Students: A Quasi-Experimental Study of a Short-Term Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Pei-Di; Lee, Tsang-Hsiung; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to conventional expectations, the reality of computing education in Taiwan's vocational schools is not so practically oriented, and thus reveals much room for improvement. In this context, we conducted a quasi-experiment to examine the effects of applying web-based problem-based learning (PBL), web-based self-regulated learning (SRL), and…

  10. Predictors of College Student Achievement in Undergraduate Asynchronous Web-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of self-regulated learning (SRL) and epistemological beliefs (EB) on individual learner levels of academic achievement in Web-based learning environments while holding constant the effect of computer self-efficacy, reason for taking an online course, prior college academic achievement, and parental level of…

  11. Self-Regulation of Learning and Preference for Written versus Audio-Recorded Feedback by Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Cooke, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Teacher feedback is critically related to student learning. This study sought to determine the relationships between distance education (DE) student level of self-regulated learning (SRL) and their preference for audio-recorded vs. written feedback from tutors. DE students (n = 102) enrolled in a first-year university course completed an online…

  12. The Reality of Assessing "Authentic" Electronic Portfolios: Can Electronic Portfolios Serve as a Form of Standardized Assessment to Measure Literacy and Self-Regulated Learning at the Elementary Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bures, Eva Mary; Barclay, Alexandra; Abrami, Philip C.; Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores electronic portfolios and their potential to assess student literacy and selfregulated learning in elementary-aged children. Assessment tools were developed and include a holistic rubric that assigns a mark from 1 to 5 to self-regulated learning (SRL) and a mark to literacy, and an analytical rubric measuring multiple…

  13. The Role of Teacher's Initiation in Online Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author redesigned a course titled "Applied Information Technology: Networking" and applied online collaborative learning (CL) with initiation and self-regulated learning (SRL) to improve students' involvement in this course in an environment that is full of free online games, shopping websites, and social networking websites. The…

  14. 78 FR 9364 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Final Results of 15th Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce... mandatory respondents, Pastificio Attilio Mastromauro Granoro S.r.L. (Granoro), and Rummo S.p.A. Molino...

  15. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Web 2.0 Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Yueh-Min; Wang, Chia-Sui; Liu, Chien-Hung; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2012-01-01

    Web-based self-learning (WBSL) provides learners with a powerful means of acquiring knowledge. However, WBSL may disorient learners, especially when their skills are inadequate for regulating their learning. In this paper, a Web 2.0 self-regulated learning (Web2SRL) system based on the theory of self-regulated learning is proposed. Learners use…

  16. 76 FR 77204 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609 (July 1, 2011). Botticelli Mediterraneo S.a.r.1.2.../2010 administrative review for Pastificio Attilio Mastromauro-Pasta Granoro S.R.L. for one year (75 FR... Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404, 53408 (August 26, 2011) (First Initiation Notice). \\3\\...

  17. Web-Based Reading Annotation System with an Attention-Based Self-Regulated Learning Mechanism for Promoting Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of information technology, web-based learning has become a dominant trend. That is, learners can often learn anytime and anywhere without being restricted by time and space. Autonomic learning primarily occurs in web-based learning environments, and self-regulated learning (SRL) is key to autonomic learning…

  18. Primary School Teachers' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are very important in problem solving. It is important to develop these skills from the first years of school. Thus, it is essential that primary school teachers master self-regulated learning skills and they know how to develop these skills in their pupils. In this article, we present the results of a research…

  19. Transcultural Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Program to Promote Self-Regulated Learning in Mozambique, Chile, Portugal, and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Trigo, Luisa; Guimarães, Carina; Fernández, Estrella; Cerezo, Rebeca; Fuentes, Sonia; Orellana, Marcela; Santibáñez, América; Fulano, Celso; Ferreira, Ângelo; Figueiredo, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aims at assessing the effectiveness of an intervention program designed to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies at the university level, with students from different cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds. The central tool of the program is a set of letters in which a fictional first-year student…

  20. Future Time Orientation and Learning Conceptions: Effects on Metacognitive Strategies, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Study Effort and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Braojos, Calixto

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, research on the constructive learning process has been conducted mainly from two perspectives: student approaches to learning (SAL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). The SAL perspective has highlighted the role of learning conceptions with respect to other topics involved in constructive learning processes, whereas…

  1. Implications of Institutionalizing Self-Regulated Learning: An Analysis from Four Sociological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Researchers, theorists, practitioners, and policy makers have shown interest in better preparing students to self-regulate their learning. In educational psychology, researchers have developed a number of pedagogical models and instructional strategies designed to facilitate students' self-regulated learning (SRL). This effort is demonstrative of…

  2. Scaffolding Self-Regulated Learning Online: A Study in High School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kereluik, Kristen Marie

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the implementation and utilization of self-regulated learning (SRL) scaffolds (i.e. videos, journals, surveys) in online K-12 courses. This project is grounded in research on online education as well as theory and research around self-regulated learning in both online and offline contexts. This research is conducted through…

  3. Occurrences and Quality of Teacher and Student Strategies for Self-Regulated Learning in Hands-On Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaled, Anne; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, teacher-structured hands-on simulations have been used in education mainly for developing procedural and technical skills. Stimulating contemporary learning outcomes suggests more constructivist approaches. The aim of this study is to examine how self-regulated learning (SRL), an important constructivist learning environment…

  4. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL Fuel Form Activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  5. Does Concept-Mapping Strategy Work for Everyone? The Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kyu Yon; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Grabowski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of concept-mapping strategies with three different generativity levels (expert-generated concept map, partially learner-generated concept map, fully learner-generated concept map) on knowledge acquisition. Interaction between learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills and different levels of…

  6. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  7. Cultivar variation in morphological response of peanut roots to cadmium stress and its relation to cadmium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ziwei; Zhang, Zheng; Su, Ying; Liu, Caifeng; Shi, Gangrong

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that root morphology may play a crucial role in the variation in Cd accumulation among peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars. The biomass, Cd accumulation and root morphology of five peanut cultivars were determined under 2 and 20μM CdCl2 in a hydroponic experiment. Excess Cd considerably decreased the root lengths (RL), surface area (SA), specific root length (SRL) and number of root tips, but increased the root diameters (RD). Cd-induced decreases in RL and SA were significant in the 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4mm diameter classes. Peanut cultivars differ in Cd accumulation and root morphological parameters. A positive correlation was observed between RL and Cd amount in shoots. RD negatively correlated to Cd concentrations in roots and shoots. Positive correlations were also found between RL vs. shoot Cd concentration, SA vs. Cd amount in shoots, SRL vs. root Cd concentration, SRL vs. shoot Cd concentration, and SRL vs. Cd amount in shoots. The fine roots play a crucial role in determining Cd accumulation in peanut plants. Cultivars with more fine roots in their root system (i.e. Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3) have high capability of Cd accumulation. PMID:23410837

  8. Investigating Grit and Its Relations with College Students' Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Hussain, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    We investigated grit and its relations with students' self-regulated learning (SRL) and academic achievement. An ethnically diverse sample of 213 college students completed an online self-report survey that included the Grit Short scale (Duckworth and Quinn "Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2)," 166-174, 2009), seven indicators of…

  9. The Role of Personal and Contextual Variables in College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    College matriculation rates are increasing but graduation rates are failing to parallel the increased enrollment. One reason for this discrepancy may be that many college students are unable to regulate their own learning. This dissertation examined the Self-Regulated Learning (SRL; Pintrich, 2004) model in students taking Statistics in Psychology…

  10. High and Low Computer Self-Efficacy Groups and Their Learning Behavior from Self-Regulated Learning Perspective While Engaged in Interactive Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Oenardi; Becker, Kurt; Fang, Ning; Reeve, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate high school students' computer self-efficacy (CSE) and learning behavior in a self-regulated learning (SRL) framework while utilizing an interactive learning module. The researcher hypothesizes that CSE is reflected on cognitive actions and metacognitive strategies while the students are engaged with…

  11. Energy Cane Breeding and Selection in Louisiana - A Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service scientists at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory (SRL) in Houma, Louisiana, began assessing the energy potential of high-fiber sugarcanes (Saccharum spp.) in the Louisiana sugar belt. Test sites were selected geographica...

  12. Safety analysis forseismic motion of control rods accounting for rod misalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Osmin, W.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of three safety analyses performed by the SRL Safety Analysis Group (SAG) to assess the safety impact of control rod motion induced by a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

  13. Students' Calibration of Knowledge and Learning Processes: Implications for Designing Powerful Software Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winne, Philip H.

    2004-01-01

    Calibration concerns (a) the deviation of a person's judgment from fact, introducing notions of bias and accuracy; and metric issues regarding (b) the validity of cues' contributions to judgments and (c) the grain size of cues. Miscalibration hinders self-regulated learning (SRL). Considering calibration in the context of Winne and Hadwin's…

  14. Pattern of Task Interpretation and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High School Students and College Freshmen during an Engineering Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie C.; Santoso, Harry B.; Goodridge, Wade; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to describe patterns in self-regulated learning (SRL) for both high school students and college freshmen while engaged in a design activity. The main research question guiding this study was: How did high school and first-year college students self-regulate their approaches to learning when engaged in an…

  15. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL Fuel Form Activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  16. Learning from Learning Kits: gStudy Traces of Students' Self-Regulated Engagements with Computerized Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Nancy E.; Winne, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Researching self-regulated learning (SRL) as a process that evolves across multiple episodes of studying poses large methodological challenges. While self-report data provide useful information about learners' perceptions of learning, these data are not reliable indicators of studying tactics learners actually use while studying, especially when…

  17. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  18. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu fuel form activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL fuel form activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  19. Examining Hypermedia Learning: The Role of Cognitive Load and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Distinct theoretical perspectives, Cognitive Load Theory and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) theory, have been used to examine individual differences the challenges faced with hypermedia learning. However, research has tended to use these theories independently, resulting in less robust explanations of hypermedia learning. This study examined the…

  20. 44 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... severe repetitive loss properties; and (3) Reduce loss of life, property damage, outlays for the NFIF... Repetitive Loss (SRL) and Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) grant programs mitigate losses from floods... severe repetitive loss property; (2) Reduce the need to increase flood insurance premiums of...

  1. Does a Combination of Metaphor and Pairing Activity Help Programming Performance of Students with Different Self-Regulated Learning Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Tie Hui; Umar, Irfan Naufal

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of metaphors and pairing activity on programming performance of students with different self-regulated-learning (SRL) level. A total of 84 computing students were involved in this seven-week study, and they were randomly assigned either to a group that received a combination of metaphor and pair…

  2. The Effects of Design Strategies for Promoting Students' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Students' Self-Regulation and Achievements in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of design strategies for promoting students' self-regulated learning skills on students' self-regulation and achievements. Seven strategies for promoting students' SRL are identified through the literature review and applied into the experimental group: goal setting, self-evaluation,…

  3. Self and Social Regulation of Learning during Collaborative Activities in the Classroom: The Interplay of Individual and Group Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grau, Valeska; Whitebread, David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to advance the development of knowledge regarding social aspects of self-regulated learning (SRL). The study had the objective of exploring the occurrence of self and social aspects of regulation during collaborative activities within regular primary science classes. Through a multiple case study approach, 8…

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Students' Self-Regulated Learning Ability and their ePortfolio Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Gary; Chau, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' self-regulated learning (SRL) ability and their ePortfolio achievement in a language enhancement programme. Undergraduate students (N = 26) were asked to create several ePortfolio showcases to demonstrate their English language learning experience over a period of three months. Upon completion…

  5. Enhancing Skills of Application Software via Web-Enabled Problem-Based Learning and Self-Regulated Learning: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Pei-Di; Lee, Tsang-Hsiung; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2008-01-01

    The computer software education in vocational schools in Taiwan can hardly be deemed as effective. To increase students' learning motivation and develop practical skills, innovative learning designs such as problem-based learning(PBL) and self-regulated learning (SRL) are on trial in this specific context. We conducted a series of…

  6. Self-Regulation, Coregulation, and Socially Shared Regulation: Exploring Perspectives of Social in Self-Regulated Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadwin, Allyson; Oshige, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Models of self-regulated learning (SRL) have increasingly acknowledged aspects of social context influence in its process; however, great diversity exists in the theoretical positioning of "social" in these models. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The purpose of this review article is to introduce and…

  7. Developing Self-Regulated Learners in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Prue

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on emerging data from a doctoral study exploring how schools approach the development of self-regulated learners in Years 7-12. The research is exploring stakeholders' attitudes, beliefs, experiences and perceptions around the development of self-regulated learning (SRL) in contemporary secondary schools and how new and emerging…

  8. Using Web-Based Pedagogical Tools as Scaffolds for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to confirm previous research findings that different categories of Web-based pedagogical tools (WBPT) (e.g., collaborative and communication tools, content creation and delivery tools) supported different self-regulated learning (SRL) processes (e.g., goal setting, self monitoring), and to further examine which…

  9. Grade Level, Study Time, and Grade Retention and Their Effects on Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Mathematics Achievement: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Valle, António; González-Pienda, Julio; Lourenço, Abílio

    2013-01-01

    The present study complements previous research findings with new data to improve our understanding of the relationship between motivational variables and academic performance in math mediated by self-regulated learning (SRL). A structural equation model with predictor (i.e., grade retention, grade level, and study time), process (i.e., perceived…

  10. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning for College Students with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring the "Strategies for College Learning" Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Bryan M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, I piloted the feasibility, effects, and perceived acceptability of a peer mentoring intervention targeting academic achievement and self-regulated learning (SRL) for three college students with Asperger syndrome. The approach, dubbed Strategies for College Learning (SCL), features individualized assessment of academic performance in…

  11. Shaping Self-Regulation in Science Teachers' Professional Growth: Inquiry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalsky, Tova

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 188 preservice science teachers' professional growth along three dimensions--self-regulated learning (SRL) in a science pedagogical context, pedagogical content knowledge, and self-efficacy in teaching science--comparing four learner-centered, active-learning, peer-collaborative environments for learning to teach higher order…

  12. Orbital Sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-68 crew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour told a post-flight audience at JSC that this sunrise was one of the most scenic sunrises/ sunsets witnessed during the week and a half long Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2) mission. Jutting clouds, back-lit by the dawn colors, are sandwiched between the blue airglow and the silhouetted horizon of Earth.

  13. Ferric dicitrate transport system (Fec) of Shigella flexneri 2a YSH6000 is encoded on a novel pathogenicity island carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Luck, S N; Turner, S A; Rajakumar, K; Sakellaris, H; Adler, B

    2001-10-01

    Iron uptake systems which are critical for bacterial survival and which may play important roles in bacterial virulence are often carried on mobile elements, such as plasmids and pathogenicity islands (PAIs). In the present study, we identified and characterized a ferric dicitrate uptake system (Fec) in Shigella flexneri serotype 2a that is encoded by a novel PAI termed the Shigella resistance locus (SRL) PAI. The fec genes are transcribed in S. flexneri, and complementation of a fec deletion in Escherichia coli demonstrated that they are functional. However, insertional inactivation of fecI, leading to a loss in fec gene expression, did not impair the growth of the parent strain of S. flexneri in iron-limited culture media, suggesting that S. flexneri carries additional iron uptake systems capable of compensating for the loss of Fec-mediated iron uptake. DNA sequence analysis showed that the fec genes are linked to a cluster of multiple antibiotic resistance determinants, designated the SRL, on the chromosome of S. flexneri 2a. Both the SRL and fec loci are carried on the 66,257-bp SRL PAI, which has integrated into the serX tRNA gene and which carries at least 22 prophage-related open reading frames, including one for a P4-like integrase. This is the first example of a PAI that carries genes encoding antibiotic resistance and the first report of a ferric dicitrate uptake system in Shigella. PMID:11553538

  14. Consequences of Increased Self-Regulated Learning Opportunities on Student Teachers' Motivation and Use of Metacognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieling, Emmy; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2012-01-01

    This intervention study focused on the relationships between primary student teachers' self-regulated learning (SRL) opportunities, their motivation for learning and their use of metacognitive learning strategies. The participants were 3 teacher educators and 136 first-year student teachers. During one semester, teacher educators and student…

  15. Effects of radiation exposure on glass alteration in a steam environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Tani, B.S.; Wang, L.M.

    1992-12-31

    Several Savannah River Plant (SRL) glass compositions were reacted in steam at temperatures of 150 to 200{degrees}C. Half of the tests utilized actinide-doped monoliths and were exposed to an external ionizing gamma source, while the remainder were doped only with U and reacted without gamma exposure. All glass samples readily reacted to form secondary mineral phases within the first week of testing. An in situ layer of smectite initially developed on nonirradiated SRL 202 glass test samples. After 21 days, a thin layer of illite was precipitated from solution onto the smectite layer. A number of alteration products including zeolite, Casilicate, and alkali or alkaline earth uranyl silicate phases were also distributed over most sample surfaces. In the irradiated SRL 202 glass tests, up to three layers enveloped rounded, and sometimes fractured, glass cores. After 35 to 56 days these remnant cores were replaced by a mottled or banded Fe- and Si-rich material. The formation of some secondary mineral phases also has been accelerated in the irradiated tests, and in some instances, the irradiated environment may have led to the precipitation of a different suite of minerals. The alteration layer(s) developed at rates of 2.3 and 32 {mu}m/day for the nonirradiated and irradiated SRL 202 glasses, respectively, indicating that layer development is accelerated by a factor of {approximately} 10 to 15X due to radiation exposure under the test conditions.

  16. How a Learner Self-Regulates Reading Comprehension: A Case Study for Graduate Level Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Ozgeldi, Meric

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how a learner self-regulates learning while reading an academic text. In particular, the aim is not to generalize self-regulatory processes for any learning task, but to have an overall idea about how a learner self-regulates. In particular, Pintrich's SRL (self-regulated learning) model is used to find out…

  17. A Theoretical Review of Winne and Hadwin's Model of Self-Regulated Learning: New Perspectives and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Azevedo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This theoretical review of Winne and Hadwin's model of self-regulated learning (SRL) seeks to highlight how the model sheds new light on current research as well as suggests interesting new directions for future work. The authors assert that the model's more complex cognitive architecture, inclusion of monitoring and control within each phase of…

  18. Do Different Goal-Setting Conditions Facilitate Students' Ability to Regulate Their Learning of Complex Science Topics with RiverWeb?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Ragan, Susan; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Pritchett, Stacy

    This study examined the role of different goal setting instructional interventions in facilitating high school students' regulation of their conceptual understanding of ecological systems while using a Web-based water quality simulation environment. Building on the information processing theory of self-regulated learning (SRL) of P. Winne and…

  19. Exploring Relations among College Students' Prior Knowledge, Implicit Theories of Intelligence, and Self-Regulated Learning in a Hypermedia Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Robertson, Jane; Pan, Yi; Deekens, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and educators continue to explore how to assist students in the acquisition of conceptual understanding of complex science topics. While hypermedia learning environments (HLEs) afford unique opportunities to display multiple representations of these often abstract topics, students who do not engage in self-regulated learning (SRL) with…

  20. The Role of Goal Structure in Undergraduates' Use of Self-Regulatory Processes in Two Hypermedia Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2006-01-01

    We collected think-aloud and posttest data from 60 undergraduates to examine whether they used different proportions of self-regulated learning (SRL) variables in two related learning tasks about science topics while using a hypermedia environment. We also manipulated the goal structure of the two hypermedia learning tasks to explore whether the…

  1. The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Fostering Students' Understanding of Complex Systems with Hypermedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    This study examined the effectiveness of self-regulated learning (SRL) training in facilitating students' learning with hyerpermedia as indicated by both performance and process data. Undergraduate students (n=131) were randomly assigned to either a training condition on how to regulate their learning (n=63) or a no training condition (n=68) and…

  2. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data: A New Approach for Predicting Earthquake Magnitudes from Fault Segment Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, N. S.; Payne, S. J.; Schafer, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range faults in the Intermountain Seismic Belt, U.S.A. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths, Lseg, where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements, D, along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M ~ Lseg, should equal M ~ D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating Lseg with surface rupture length, SRL. Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M ~ SRL relationship using Lseg as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M ~ Lseg and M ~ D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude, Mw, and length, where length is Lseg instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw ~ Lseg results are strikingly consistent with Mw ~ D calculations using paleoearthquake data for

  3. The effect of hypothermia on influx of leukocytes in the digital lamellae of horses with oligofructose-induced laminitis.

    PubMed

    Godman, Jennifer D; Burns, Teresa A; Kelly, Carlin S; Watts, Mauria R; Leise, Britta S; Schroeder, Eric L; van Eps, Andrew W; Belknap, James K

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis-related laminitis (SRL) is a common complication in the septic/endotoxemic critically-ill equine patient, in which lamellar injury and failure commonly lead to crippling distal displacement of the distal phalanx. Similar to organ injury in human sepsis, lamellar injury in SRL has been associated with inflammatory events, including the influx of leukocytes into the lamellar tissue and markedly increased expression of a wide array of inflammatory mediators at the onset of Obel grade 1 (OG1) laminitis. The only treatment reported both clinically and experimentally to protect the lamellae in SRL, local hypothermia ("cryotherapy"), has been demonstrated to effectively inhibit lamellar expression of multiple inflammatory mediators when initiated at the time of administration of a carbohydrate overload in experimental models of SRL. However, the effect of hypothermia on leukocyte influx into affected tissue has not been assessed. We hypothesized that cryotherapy inhibits leukocyte emigration into the digital lamellae in SRL. Immunohistochemical staining using leukocyte markers MAC387 (marker of neutrophils, activated monocytes) and CD163 (monocyte/macrophage-specific marker) was performed on archived lamellar tissue samples from an experimental model of SRL in which one forelimb was maintained at ambient temperature (AMB) and one forelimb was immersed in ice water (ICE) immediately following enteral oligofructose administration (10g/kg, n=14 horses). Lamellae were harvested at 24h post-oligofructose administration (DEV, n=7) or at the onset of OG1 laminitis (OG1, n=7). Both MAC387-positive and CD163-positive cells were counted by a single blinded investigator on images [n=10 (40× fields/digit for MAC387 and 20x fields/digit for CD163)] obtained using Aperio microscopy imaging analysis software. Data were assessed for normality and analyzed with a paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with significance set at p<0.05. MAC387-positive cells were present in low numbers in

  4. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    N. Seth Carpenter; Suzette J. Payne; Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range, U.S.A. faults. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths (L{sub seg}) where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements (D) along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M {approx} L{sub seg}, should equal M {approx} D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating L{sub seg} with surface rupture length (SRL). Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M {approx} SRL relationship using L{sub seg} as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M {approx} L{sub seg} and M {approx} D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude (Mw) and length, where length is L{sub seg} instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw {approx} L{sub seg} results are strikingly consistent

  5. Observation of Electron-Beam-Induced Phase Evolution Mimicking the Effect of the Charge–Discharge Cycle in Li-Rich Layered Cathode Materials Used for Li Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Ping; Yan, Pengfei; Romero, Eric; Spoerke, Erik David; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-01-27

    Capacity loss, and voltage decrease upon electrochemical charge-discharge cycling observed in lithium-rich layered cathode oxides (Li[LixMnyTM1-x-y]O2, TM = Ni, Co or Fe) have recently been attributed to the formation of a surface reconstructed layer (SRL) that evolves from a thin (<2 nm), defect spinel layer upon the first charge, to a relatively thick (~5nm), spinel or rock-salt layer upon continuous charge-discharge cycling. Here we report observations of a SRL and structural evolution of the SRL on the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) particles, which are identical to those reported due to the charge-discharge cycle but are a result of electron-beam irradiation during scanningmore » transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. Sensitivity of the lithium-rich layered oxides to high-energy electrons leads to the formation of thin, defect spinel layer on surfaces of the particles when exposed to a 200kV electron beam for as little as 30 seconds under normal high-resolution STEM imaging conditions. Further electron irradiation produces a thicker layer of the spinel phase, ultimately producing a rock-salt layer at a higher electron exposure. Atomic-scale chemical mapping by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in STEM indicates the electron-beam-induced SRL formation on LNMO is accomplished by migration of the transition metal ions to the Li sites without breaking down the lattice. The observation through this study provides an insight for understanding the mechanism of forming the SRL and also possibly a mean to study structural evolution in the Li-rich layered oxides without involving the electrochemistry.« less

  6. Observation of Electron-Beam-Induced Phase Evolution Mimicking the Effect of the Charge–Discharge Cycle in Li-Rich Layered Cathode Materials Used for Li Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping; Yan, Pengfei; Romero, Eric; Spoerke, Erik David; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-01-27

    Capacity loss, and voltage decrease upon electrochemical charge-discharge cycling observed in lithium-rich layered cathode oxides (Li[LixMnyTM1-x-y]O2, TM = Ni, Co or Fe) have recently been attributed to the formation of a surface reconstructed layer (SRL) that evolves from a thin (<2 nm), defect spinel layer upon the first charge, to a relatively thick (~5nm), spinel or rock-salt layer upon continuous charge-discharge cycling. Here we report observations of a SRL and structural evolution of the SRL on the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) particles, which are identical to those reported due to the charge-discharge cycle but are a result of electron-beam irradiation during scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. Sensitivity of the lithium-rich layered oxides to high-energy electrons leads to the formation of thin, defect spinel layer on surfaces of the particles when exposed to a 200kV electron beam for as little as 30 seconds under normal high-resolution STEM imaging conditions. Further electron irradiation produces a thicker layer of the spinel phase, ultimately producing a rock-salt layer at a higher electron exposure. Atomic-scale chemical mapping by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in STEM indicates the electron-beam-induced SRL formation on LNMO is accomplished by migration of the transition metal ions to the Li sites without breaking down the lattice. The observation through this study provides an insight for understanding the mechanism of forming the SRL and also possibly a mean to study structural evolution in the Li-rich layered oxides without involving the electrochemistry.

  7. Observation Of Electron-beam-induced Phase Evolution Mimicking The Effect Of Charge-discharge Cycle In Li-rich Layered Cathode Materials Used For Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping; Yan, Pengfei; Romero, Eric; Spoerke, Erik D.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-02-24

    Capacity loss, and voltage fade upon electrochemical charge-discharge cycling observed in lithium-rich layered cathode oxides (Li[LixMnyTM1-x-y]O2 , TM = Ni, Co or Fe) have recently been identified to be correlated to the gradual phase transformation, featuring the formation of a surface reconstructed layer (SRL) that evolves from a thin (<2 nm), defect spinel layer upon the first charge, to a relatively thick (~5 nm), spinel or rock-salt layer upon continuous charge-discharge cycling. Here we report observations of a SRL and structural evolution of the SRL on the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LMR) particles, which are identical to those reported due to the charge-discharge cycle but are a result of electron-beam irradiation during scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. Sensitivity of the lithium-rich layered oxides to high-energy electrons leads to the formation of thin, defect spinel layer on surfaces of the particles when exposed to a 200 kV electron beam for as little as 30 seconds under normal high-resolution STEM imaging conditions. Further electron irradiation produces a thicker layer of the spinel phase, ultimately producing a rock-salt layer at a higher electron exposure. Atomic-scale chemical mapping by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in STEM indicates the electron-beam-induced SRL formation on LMR is accomplished by migration of the transition metal ions to the Li sites without breaking down the lattice. This study provides an insight for understanding the mechanism of forming the SRL and also possibly a mean to study structural evolution in the Li-rich layered oxides without involving the electrochemistry.

  8. Semi-automatic conversion of BioProp semantic annotation to PASBio annotation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Dai, Hong-Jie; Huang, Chi-Hsin; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Background Semantic role labeling (SRL) is an important text analysis technique. In SRL, sentences are represented by one or more predicate-argument structures (PAS). Each PAS is composed of a predicate (verb) and several arguments (noun phrases, adverbial phrases, etc.) with different semantic roles, including main arguments (agent or patient) as well as adjunct arguments (time, manner, or location). PropBank is the most widely used PAS corpus and annotation format in the newswire domain. In the biomedical field, however, more detailed and restrictive PAS annotation formats such as PASBio are popular. Unfortunately, due to the lack of an annotated PASBio corpus, no publicly available machine-learning (ML) based SRL systems based on PASBio have been developed. In previous work, we constructed a biomedical corpus based on the PropBank standard called BioProp, on which we developed an ML-based SRL system, BIOSMILE. In this paper, we aim to build a system to convert BIOSMILE's BioProp annotation output to PASBio annotation. Our system consists of BIOSMILE in combination with a BioProp-PASBio rule-based converter, and an additional semi-automatic rule generator. Results Our first experiment evaluated our rule-based converter's performance independently from BIOSMILE performance. The converter achieved an F-score of 85.29%. The second experiment evaluated combined system (BIOSMILE + rule-based converter). The system achieved an F-score of 69.08% for PASBio's 29 verbs. Conclusion Our approach allows PAS conversion between BioProp and PASBio annotation using BIOSMILE alongside our newly developed semi-automatic rule generator and rule-based converter. Our system can match the performance of other state-of-the-art domain-specific ML-based SRL systems and can be easily customized for PASBio application development. PMID:19091017

  9. Medical students’ self-efficacy in problem-based learning and its relationship with self-regulated learning

    PubMed Central

    Demirören, Meral; Turan, Sevgi; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Background Problem-based learning (PBL) is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students’ self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1%) and third (275; 80.2%) year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP) scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL) scale were used in the study. Results The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale) and the subscales of SPBL and the students’ views on benefiting from PBL. The female students’ mean score was higher for the ‘planning and goal setting’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.017), and the second-year students’ mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the ‘lack of self-directedness’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.001) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the ‘responsibility’ subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26). Conclusions The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students’ development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum, learning

  10. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1β-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850 μg/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25 μg dry matter per millilitre) of the extract inhibited IL-1β-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1β-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1β-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins. PMID:22537486

  11. Optical Bistability And Hysteresis In A Solid State Ring Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornienko, L. S.; Kravtsov, N. S.; Shelaev, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of optical bistability, hysteresis and memory under the interaction of oppositely directed (OD) light waves in a CW YAG:Nd3+ solid state ring laser (SRL) have been experimentally discovered. The possibilities of spontaneous or forced (with modulated SRL parameters) commutation of the radiation direction without transients at the relaxation frequency (typical for solid state lasers) have been established both in the single-mode and in the mode-locking regimes with various feedback circuits. The mode-locking band was found to be substantially broadened by more than an order of magnitude when OD light waves primarily diffracted on a standing ultrasonic wave were returned into the acousto-optical modulator. With such acousto-optical feedback the mode-locking regime has been obtained using a modulator on a running ultrasonic wave.

  12. Renovation of the hot press in the Plutonium Experimental Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.; Nelson, G.H.

    1990-03-05

    The Plutonium Experimental Facility (PEF) will be used to develop a new fuel pellet fabrication process and to evaluate equipment upgrades. The facility was used from 1978 until 1982 to optimize the parameters for fuel pellet production using a process which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PEF was shutdown and essentially abandoned until mid-1987 when the facility renovations were initiated by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) of SRL. A major portion of the renovation work was related to the restart of the hot press system. This report describes the renovations and modifications which were required to restart the PEF hot press. The primary purpose of documenting this work is to help provide a basis for Separations to determine the best method of renovating the hot press in the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication (PuFF) facility. This report also includes several SRL recommendations concerning the renovation and modification of the PuFF hot press. 4 refs.

  13. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Advanced Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling

    2015-01-01

    Novel approach enables high-speed special-purpose processors Advanced reconfigurable and reprogrammable communication systems will require sub-130-nanometer electronics. Legacy single event upset (SEU) radiation-tolerant circuits are ineffective at speeds greater than 125 megahertz. In Phase I of this project, ICs, LLC, demonstrated new base-level logic circuits that provide SEU immunity for sub-130-nanometer high-speed circuits. In Phase II, the company developed an innovative self-restoring logic (SRL) circuit and a system approach that provides high-speed, SEU-tolerant solutions that are effective for sub-130-nanometer electronics scalable to at least 22-nanometer processes. The SRL system can be used in the design of NASA's next-generation special-purpose processors, especially reconfigurable communication processors.

  14. Overview and first results from project STABLE (STAble Boundary Layer Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.; Kurzeja, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The STABLE project (STAble Boundary Layer Experiment) is a multiyear research effort conceived in 1984 by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and planned by several research groups to study turbulence and diffusion in the stable boundary layer (SBL). The program was jointly planned by Department of Energy (DOE) affiliated laboratories and universities including SRL, Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), North Carolina State University (NCSU), and The Pennsylvania State University. STABLE's goals are to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of turbulent events during the nighttime, to determine the validity of present models and theories in describing the structure and evolution of the SBL, to determine the role of waves and intermittent turbulence in dispersing chemicals, and to determine better parameterization for describing the mean state and intermittent events in the SBL. By taking advantage of special facility, the program seeks to economize effort and cost. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  15. An investigation of the role of metacognitive behavior in self-regulated learning when learning a complex science topic with a hypermedia learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binbasaran Tuysuzoglu, Banu

    Studies have shown that learners need to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills when learning with Hypermedia Learning Environments (HLEs) to reach a conceptual understanding of science. SRL theory suggests that metacognition plays a key role in learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metacognitive monitoring (e.g., judgment of learning [JOL]) and metacognitive control and their effects upon learning about the circulatory system with an HLE. I examined the frequencies of learners' use of negative JOL with and without a change in strategy use, which indicates the quality (i.e., static or adaptive) of metacognitive behavior. The results showed that adaptive metacognitive behavior positively related to learning, and static metacognitive behavior negatively related to learning, above and beyond the effect of prior knowledge. Findings provided valuable implications for the benefits of using JOL followed by control over strategy use when learning with HLEs.

  16. Impairment of olfactory, auditory, and spatial serial reversal learning in rats recovered from pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mair, R G; Knoth, R L; Rabchenuk, S A; Langlais, P J

    1991-06-01

    Rats that had recovered from pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) were compared with controls for spatial, auditory, and olfactory serial reversal learning (SRL); spatial matching to sample (MTS); auditory go-no-go discrimination; and open-field exploration. PTD rats made more errors reaching criterion for SRL in all modalities but showed normal transfer effects between problems. PTD rats were also impaired in learning the go-no-go and MTS tasks and showed consistent alterations in exploratory activity. It is argued that the PTD rat, like human Korsakoff patients, have impairments of learning and memory (but spared capacity for reference memory) that extend across sensory modalities. Postmortem analyses showed normal indices of cortical cholinergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic function and consistent bilateral lesions of the thalamus, which were centered on the internal medullary lamina, and the medial mammillary nucleus. PMID:1907457

  17. Growth and properties of the MOVPE GaAs/InAs/GaAsSb quantum dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodková, A.; Oswald, J.; Pangrác, J.; Kuldová, K.; Zíková, M.; Vyskočil, J.; Hulicius, E.

    2016-01-01

    This review paper summarizes some of results achieved during last years of our quantum dot (QD) research. We show that the QD shape (aspect ratio and elongation) significantly influences the QD photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. Magnetophotoluminescence can be used for determination of the anisotropy of QDs. While the calculated shifts in magnetic field of the energies of higher radiative transitions are found to be sensitive to the lateral elongation, the shift of the lowest transition is determined mainly by the exciton effective mass. This behavior can be used for determining both the effective mass and the elongation fairly reliably from the magnetophotoluminescence spectra displaying at least two resolved bands. Lateral shape of InAs/GaAs QDs in vertically correlated structures was also studied. We found the ways to control the QD elongation and consequently the energy difference between PL transitions by adjusting properly the spacer layer thickness. The main goal was to redshift QD PL emission towards telecommunication wavelengths of Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy prepared InAs/GaAs QDs using InGaAs or GaAsSb covering strain reducing layer (SRL). Our results proved that GaAsSb SRL improves the QD PL properties and the type I or type II band alignment can be controlled by both, GaAsSb composition and QD size. Maintaining the type I heterostructure is important for high luminescence efficiency and emission wavelength stability of QD structure. The simulation of electron structure in InAs QDs covered with GaAsSb SRL and experimental results reveal the importance of increasing QD size for obtaining a longer wavelength PL from the type I heterostructure. The type II structure of InAs/GaAs QDs covered by GaAsSb SRL with Sb content near 30% enabled us to achieve extremely long emission wavelength at 1.8 μm. The high amount of antimony in the SRL causes the preservation of QD size, and increased QD size prolongs the PL wavelength. The type II heterostructures with

  18. Simultaneous Computation of Two Independent Tasks Using Reservoir Computing Based on a Single Photonic Nonlinear Node With Optical Feedback.

    PubMed

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2015-12-01

    In this brief, we numerically demonstrate a photonic delay-based reservoir computing system, which processes, in parallel, two independent computational tasks even when the two tasks have unrelated input streams. Our approach is based on a single-longitudinal mode semiconductor ring laser (SRL) with optical feedback. The SRL emits in two directional optical modes. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk. We illustrate the feasibility of our scheme by analyzing the performance on two benchmark tasks: 1) chaotic time series prediction and 2) nonlinear channel equalization. We identify some feedback configurations for which the results for simultaneous prediction/classification indicate a good performance, but with slight degradation (as compared with the performance obtained for single task processing) due to nonlinear and linear interactions between the two directional modes of the laser. In these configurations, the system performs well on both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. PMID:25751880

  19. Characterization of Savannah River Plant waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M J

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the glass characterization programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to ensure that glass containing Savannah River Plant high-level waste can be permanently stored in a federal repository, in an environmentally acceptable manner. To accomplish this objective, SRL is carrying out several experimental programs, including: fundamental studies of the reactions between waste glass and water, particularly repository groundwater; experiments in which candidate repository environments are simulated as accurately as possible; burial tests of simulated waste glass in candidate repository geologies; large-scale tests of glass durability; and determination of the effects of process conditions on glass quality. In this paper, the strategy and current status of each of these programs is discussed. The results indicate that waste packages containing SRP waste glass will satisfy emerging regulatory criteria.

  20. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome associated with Chiari type I malformation caused by a large 16p13.3 microdeletion: a contiguous gene syndrome?

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Cezary; Volz, Kim; Ranola, Maria; Kitch, Karla; Karim, Tariza; O'Neil, Joseph; Smith, Jodi; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo

    2010-02-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RSTS, OMIM 180849) is a rare condition, which in 65% of cases is caused by haploinsufficiency of CREBBP (cAMP response element binding protein binding protein) localized to 16p13.3. A small subset of RSTS cases caused by 16p13.3 microdeletions involving neighboring genes have been recently suggested to be a true contiguous gene syndrome called severe RSTS or 16p13.3 deletion syndrome (OMIM 610543). In the present report, we describe a case of a 2-year-old female with RSTS who, besides most of the typical features of RSTS has corpus callosum dysgenesis and a Chiari type I malformation which required neurosurgical decompression. CGH microarray showed a approximately 520.7 kb microdeletion on 16p13.3 involving CREBBP, ADCY9, and SRL genes. We hypothesize that the manifestations in this patient might be influenced by the haploinsufficiency for ADCY9 and SRL. PMID:20101707

  1. Solitary and coupled semiconductor ring lasers as optical spiking neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomans, W.; Gelens, L.; Beri, S.; Danckaert, J.; van der Sande, G.

    2011-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of generating pulses in an excitable (asymmetric) semiconductor ring laser (SRL) using optical trigger pulses. We show that the phase difference between the injected field and the electric field inside the SRL determines the direction of the perturbation in phase space. Due to the folded shape of the excitability threshold, this has an important influence on the ability to cross it. A mechanism for exciting multiple consecutive pulses using a single trigger pulse (i.e., multipulse excitability) is revealed. We furthermore investigate the possibility of using asymmetric SRLs in a coupled configuration, which is a first step toward an all-optical neural network using SRLs as building blocks.

  2. Effect of annealing in the Sb and In distribution of type II GaAsSb-capped InAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, D. F.; Ulloa, J. M.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.; Sales, D. L.; Beanland, R.; Sanchez, A. M.; González, D.

    2015-11-01

    Type II emission optoelectronic devices using GaAsSb strain reduction layers (SRL) over InAs quantum dots (QDs) have aroused great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated an extraordinary increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity maintaining type II emission after a rapid thermal anneal (RTA), but with an undesirable blueshift. In this work, we have characterized the effect of RTA on InAs/GaAs QDs embedded in a SRL of GaAsSb by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element simulations. We find that annealing alters both the distribution of Sb in the SRL as well as the exchange of cations (In and Ga) between the QDs and the SRL. First, annealing causes modifications in the capping layer, reducing its thickness but maintaining the maximum Sb content and improving its homogeneity. In addition, the formation of Sb-rich clusters with loop dislocations is noticed, which seems not to be an impediment for an increased PL intensity. Second, RTA produces flatter QDs with larger base diameter and induces a more homogeneous QD height distribution. The Sb is accumulated over the QDs and the RTA enlarges the Sb-rich region, but the Sb contents are very similar. This fact leaves the type II alignment without major changes. Atomic-scale strain analysis of the nanostructures reveal a strong intermixing of In/Ga between the QDs and the capping layer, which is the main responsible mechanism of the PL blueshift. The improvement of the crystalline quality of the capping layer together with higher homogeneity QD sizes could be the origin of the enhancement of the PL emission.

  3. Earthquakes Versus Surface Deformation: Qualitative and Quantitative Relationships From The Aegean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlides, S.; Caputo, R.

    Historical seismicity of the Aegean Region has been revised in order to associate major earthquakes to specific seismogenic structures. Only earthquakes associated to normal faulting have been considered. All available historical and seismotectonic data relative to co-seismic surface faulting have been collected in order to evaluate the surface rup- ture length (SRL) and the maximum displacement (MD). In order to perform Seismic Hazard analyses, empirical relationships between these parameters and the magnitude have been inferred and the best fitting regression functions have been calculated. Both co-seismic fault rupture lengths and maximum displacements show a logarithmic re- lationships, but our data from the Aegean Region have systematically lower values than the same parameters world-wide though they are similar to those of the East- ern Mediterranean-Middle East region. The upper envelopes of our diagrams (SRL vs Mw and MD vs Mw) have been also estimated and discussed, because they give useful information of the wort-case scenarios; these curces will be also discussed. Further- more, geological and morphological criteria have been used to recognise the tectonic structures along which historical earthquakes occurred in order to define the geolog- ical fault length (GFL). Accordingly, the SRL/GFL ratio seems to have a bimodal distribution with a major peak about 0.8-1.0, indicating that several earthquakes break through almost the entire geological fault length, and a second peak around 0.5, re- lated to the possible segmentation of these major neotectonic faults. In contrast, no relationships can be depicted between the SRL/GFL ratio and the magnitude of the corresponding events.

  4. /sup 238/Pu fuel processes. Quarterly report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Folger, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    Recent process development work indicates that the atmosphere (cover gas) in which /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ granules are sintered is a critical parameter in the production of General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel forms. An acceptable feed material for the direct fabrication of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was produced in the SRP HB-Line using a Pu(III) oxalate direct-strike precipitation technique that was developed at SRL.

  5. Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate tree species

    PubMed Central

    Tobner, Cornelia M.; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL), fine root diameter (D) and branching intensity (BI) of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e., plasticity). The first dataset included saplings of 12 North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets) co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e., humid organic, mesic, and xeric podzolic).The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e., relative growth rate) were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for Abies balsamea and Acer rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total variability most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity). This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI. PMID:23874347

  6. The relationships between the use of self-regulated learning strategies and depression among medical students: an accelerated prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Van Nguyen, Hung; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Wright, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    We conducted this study to determine the relationships between the use of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL) and depression scores among medical students. An accelerated prospective cohort study among 623 students at a public medical university in Vietnam was carried out during the academic year 2012-2013. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (21 items) was used to measure depression scores as the primary research outcome, and to measure anxiety and stress scores as the confounding variables. Fourteen SRL subscales including intrinsic/extrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning, control of learning beliefs, rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, meta-cognitive strategies, time and study environment, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking were measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Data were collected at two points in time (once each semester). There were 744 responses at the first time (95.88%) and 623 at time two (drop-out rate of 16.26%). The generalized estimating equation was applied to identify any relationships between the use of each SRL subscale and depression scores at time 2, adjusting for the effects of depression at time 1, anxiety, stress, within cluster correlation, and potential demographic covariates. Separate multivariate GEE analysis indicated that all SRL subscales were significantly negatively associated with depression scores, except for extrinsic goal orientation and peer learning. Whereas full multivariate GEE analysis revealed that self-efficacyT1, help-seekingT1, time and study environmentT2 were found to be significantly negatively associated with depressionT2, adjusting for the effects of depressionT1, anxiety, stress, and demographic covariates. The results should be used to provide appropriate support for medical students to reduce depression. PMID:24628063

  7. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Holocene vertical displacement on the central segments of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuRoss, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Compiled per-event vertical-displacement observations from 17 paleoseismic sites along the six central segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) highlight possible biases and trends in displacement along the fault. The displacement data are consistent with a model of characteristic-type slip, but anomalous and variable displacements indicate that significant natural variability in displacement occurs. When combined into a composite distribution of displacement, 79% of the data fit within a displacement envelope that shows displacement decreasing in a half-ellipse shape from 1.4-3.5 m near the segment centers to 0.6-2.5 m near the ends. Additionally, displacements normalized by the distance from the segment centers to ends decrease from means of 2.0-3.0 m near the segment centers to 1.3-1.9 m near the ends, consistent with characteristic-type slip termination. Although several paleoseismic sites exhibit repeated, similar displacements, the data are sparse and both low-valued (0.5-0.8 m) and high-valued (4.2-4.7 m) outliers suggest complex strain release, possibly resulting from segment interaction and/or noncharacteristic events. Although a global, normal-fault-type surface-rupture-length (SRL) average-displacement regression underpredicts observed WFZ displacements, the largest displacements per segment correspond well with a SRL maximum-displacement regression. This correlation, as well as moderate variability in SRL- and displacement-based moment magnitude, suggests that the anomalous displacements represent the intrinsic variability in characteristic displacement per segment. Thus, minor variations to the characteristic slip model to account for exceptional upper- and lower-bound displacements, e.g., a hybrid characteristic-variable slip model, may be appropriate for the WFZ. Additional paleoseismic data are necessary to address data gaps and biases, to facilitate more robust tests of earthquake-slip models, and to reduce uncertainty in SRL, displacement, and

  9. Octave-Band Thresholds for Modeled Reverberant Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Tran, Laura L.; Anderson, Mark R.; Trejo, Leonard J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Auditory thresholds for 10 subjects were obtained for speech stimuli reverberation. The reverberation was produced and manipulated by 3-D audio modeling based on an actual room. The independent variables were octave-band-filtering (bypassed, 0.25 - 2.0 kHz Fc) and reverberation time (0.2- 1.1 sec). An ANOVA revealed significant effects (threshold range: -19 to -35 dB re 60 dB SRL).

  10. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D. OC; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cardirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL (Scanning Raman Lidar) and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20% . The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

  11. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During The Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D OC.; Eloranta, E. W.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from less than 0.01 to 1.5. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied. A correction technique is presented which minimizes the influences of multiple scattering and derives information about cirrus cloud optical and physical properties. The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.005 or greater. Using the ISCCP detection threshold for cirrus clouds on the GOES data presented here, a high bias of up to 40% in the GOES precipitable water retrieval was found.

  12. Score As You Lift (SAYL): A Statistical Relational Learning Approach to Uplift Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Houssam; Kuusisto, Finn; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Page, David; Shavlik, Jude; Costa, Vítor Santos

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Score As You Lift (SAYL), a novel Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) algorithm, and apply it to an important task in the diagnosis of breast cancer. SAYL combines SRL with the marketing concept of uplift modeling, uses the area under the uplift curve to direct clause construction and final theory evaluation, integrates rule learning and probability assignment, and conditions the addition of each new theory rule to existing ones. Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women, is categorized into two subtypes: an earlier in situ stage where cancer cells are still confined, and a subsequent invasive stage. Currently older women with in situ cancer are treated to prevent cancer progression, regardless of the fact that treatment may generate undesirable side-effects, and the woman may die of other causes. Younger women tend to have more aggressive cancers, while older women tend to have more indolent tumors. Therefore older women whose in situ tumors show significant dissimilarity with in situ cancer in younger women are less likely to progress, and can thus be considered for watchful waiting. Motivated by this important problem, this work makes two main contributions. First, we present the first multi-relational uplift modeling system, and introduce, implement and evaluate a novel method to guide search in an SRL framework. Second, we compare our algorithm to previous approaches, and demonstrate that the system can indeed obtain differential rules of interest to an expert on real data, while significantly improving the data uplift. PMID:26158122

  13. Changes in perceived self-efficacy and attitude toward science and teaching science in elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Betsy Ann

    This study was developed in an effort to ascertain if a proposed biological laboratory curriculum as developed and modeled by the instructor would affect the attitudes and perceived self-efficacy towards science, science teaching and ability to learn science of pre-service elementary teachers. Self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies were incorporated as the variation. Attitudinal topics investigated were the perceived ability to learn science and to teach science. Students in one biology for non-science majors. biology laboratory class at the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this case study. The group participated in the modified laboratory section which utilized SRL activities, including reflections on in-class activities. In addition to these activities, the group worked within the state.s elementary science framework to design and implement science lessons. Password protected on-line surveys were used at the beginning and the end of the course to assess the attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and self-regulated learning level of all students. Interviews with participants were conducted as follow up to ascertain long-term impact of the curriculum. Student artifacts, researcher observations and follow up interviews were analyzed to identify any changes in student attitude towards and perceived self-efficacy in science and teaching science. Analysis identified a positive change in students. attitudes and perceived self-efficacy after participation in the modified laboratory section, indicating moderate success of the proposed curriculum based on SRL.

  14. Postgrafting immunosuppression with sirolimus and cyclosporine facilitates stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism in dogs given sublethal total body irradiation before marrow transplantation from DLA-identical littermates.

    PubMed

    Hogan, William J; Little, Marie-Térèse; Zellmer, Eustacia; Friedetzky, Anke; Diaconescu, Razvan; Gisburne, Serina; Lee, Richard; Kuhr, Christian; Storb, Rainer

    2003-08-01

    We studied the value of postgrafting immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL) and cyclosporine (CSP) in enhancing engraftment of dog leukocyte antigen-identical littermate marrow after nonmyeloablative conditioning in a canine model. Dogs received either 2 Gy (n=7) or 1 Gy (n=5) total body irradiation (TBI), followed by postgrafting immunosuppression with SRL and CSP. In the first cohort, all 7 dogs showed rapid initial engraftment. One engrafted dog died on day 21 due to hemorrhagic pneumonitis. Durable engraftment was seen in 5 of 6 remaining dogs, with a median follow-up of >48 (range, >32 to >56) weeks. The sixth dog rejected the marrow graft (as assessed by variable number of tandem repeats) at 11 weeks; however, a subsequent skin graft from the same marrow donor did not undergo acute cellular rejection, suggesting donor-specific tolerance. In the second cohort, all 5 dogs rejected the marrow graft at a median of 9 weeks (range, 3-11 weeks). We conclude that SRL/CSP is as effective as a previously studied combination of mycophenolate mofetil and CSP at establishing durable marrow engraftment after sublethal conditioning. PMID:12931117

  15. Evaluation of voice and speech following subtotal reconstructive laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Pastore, A; Yuceturk, A V; Trevisi, P

    1998-01-01

    Subtotal reconstructive laryngectomy (SRL) can be used to preserve voice in the treatment of selected laryngeal carcinomas. This study was designed to analyze both voice and speech results achieved after SRL in 14 male patients, aged from 48 to 73 years. Surgery was performed between 1983 and 1993. Fundamental frequencies, ranges of frequency, intensities, and intensity ranges were established using an S.I. 80 Philips AAC 600 Audio Active Comparative Language System. Five prolonged vowels and six phonetically balanced sentences were recorded on a tape positioned at a distance of 30 cm from the mouth of each patient during a 3-min recording time. The recorded material was then evaluated by a panel of ten trained listeners who were asked to consider the qualitative parameters and perceptual characteristics of voice and speech according to a scorecard modified from one devised by Voiers and Formigoni. Although a decrease was determined in Fundamental Frequency and intensity of the voice when compared to normal values, the quality and perception of speech were found to be satisfactory. The verbal message could be understood almost exactly by means of constant sonority, correct articulation and improved pneumophonic coordination. These values demonstrate that the new voice achieved after SRL is less sonorous and allows for understandable and socially acceptable speech. PMID:9783136

  16. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glass through long-term testing: Part 2, Reacted layer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.

    1992-04-01

    An initial comparison of glass behavior of simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of general glass types SRL165, SRL131 and SRL200. The data demonstrate that up to 560 days at S/V of 2000/m, the reacted layers consist of one outer clay layer, which is undetermined by discontinuous etch pits. The regions between the etch pits are alkali depleted. The surface layer becomes thicker as test duration progresses and the reacted layer after the same test time is thinner at higher S/V than at lower S/V. The relative glass durability measured by the thickness of the reacted layer is 165/42S > 131/11S > 200S, which is consistent with solution analyses. In general, the reacted layers on all glass compositions are poorly crystallized which makes the clay identification difficult. The diffraction spacings and EDS compositions for 131/11S and 200S, although not unique to, are consistent with Na (or Ca-) montmorillonite or nontronite. Both of these are dioctahedral smectite.

  17. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glass through long-term testing: Part 2, Reacted layer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    An initial comparison of glass behavior of simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of general glass types SRL165, SRL131 and SRL200. The data demonstrate that up to 560 days at S/V of 2000/m, the reacted layers consist of one outer clay layer, which is undetermined by discontinuous etch pits. The regions between the etch pits are alkali depleted. The surface layer becomes thicker as test duration progresses and the reacted layer after the same test time is thinner at higher S/V than at lower S/V. The relative glass durability measured by the thickness of the reacted layer is 165/42S > 131/11S > 200S, which is consistent with solution analyses. In general, the reacted layers on all glass compositions are poorly crystallized which makes the clay identification difficult. The diffraction spacings and EDS compositions for 131/11S and 200S, although not unique to, are consistent with Na (or Ca-) montmorillonite or nontronite. Both of these are dioctahedral smectite.

  18. Solidification of ash from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, W A; Albenesius, E L; Becker, G W

    1983-01-01

    The safe disposal of both high-level and low-level radioactive waste is a problem of increasing national attention. A full-scale incineration and solidification process to dispose of suspect-level and low-level beta-gamma contaminated combustible waste is being demonstrated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The stabilized wasteform generated by the process will meet or exceed all future anticipated requirements for improved disposal of low-level waste. The incineration process has been evaluated at SRL using nonradioactive wastes, and is presently being started up in SRP to process suspect-level radioactive wastes. A cement solidification process for incineration products is currently being evaluated by SRL, and will be included with the incineration process in SRP during the winter of 1984. The GEM alumnus author conducted research in a related disposal solidification program during the GEM-sponsored summer internship, and upon completion of the Masters program, received full-time responsibility for developing the incineration products solidification process.

  19. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, O C.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cadirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20%. The UV/lR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

  20. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  1. Long-Lifetime Low-Scatter Neutron Polarization Target

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Jonathan M. Richardson

    2004-07-09

    Polarized neutrons scattering is an important technology for characterizing magnetic and other materials. Polarized helium three (P-3He) is a novel technology for creating polarized beams and, perhaps more importantly, for the analysis of polarization in highly divergent scattered beams. Analysis of scattered beams requires specialized targets with complex geometries to ensure accurate results. Special materials and handling procedures are required to give the targets a long useful lifetime. In most cases, the targets must be shielded from stray magnetic fields from nearby equipment. SRL has developed and demonstrated hybrid targets made from glass and aluminum. We have also developed and calibrated a low-field NMR system for measuring polarization lifetimes. We have demonstrated that our low-field system is able to measure NMR signals in the presence of conducting (metallic) cell elements. We have also demonstrated a non-magnetic valve that can be used to seal the cells. We feel that these accomplishments in Phase I are sufficient to ensure a successful Phase II program. The commercial market for this technology is solid. There are over nine neutron scattering centers in the US and Canada and over 22 abroad. Currently, the US plans to build a new $1.4B scattering facility called the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The technology developed in this project will allow SRL to supply targets to both existing and future facilities. SRL is also involved with the application of P-3He to medical imaging.

  2. Changes in medical students’ motivation and self-regulated learning: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether medical students’ motivation and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) change over time to enhance our understanding of these constructs as dependent variables in medical education. Methods A cohort of first-year students (n=43) at a medical school in South Korea completed a self-report questionnaire on motivation and SRL - the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The same questionnaire was administered to the same cohort in the beginning of Year 2. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to determine if changes in participants’ MSLQ scores occurred between in Years 1 and 2. Results Forty-one students completed the questionnaires in both years (95% response rate). Participants’ motivation scores significantly increased, whereas their SRL scores decreased significantly after they went through Year 1. The most notable change in participants’ MLSQ scores was in the increase in their test anxiety. There was a positive association between the participants’ test anxiety and their cognitive strategies use in Year 1, which changed to a negative one in Year 2. Meanwhile, participants’ test anxiety scores and their self-regulation scores became more negatively associated over time. Conclusions Our study shows that even as medical students become more motivated, they actually use fewer self-regulated strategies over time. Our findings highlight the need for change in the medical school’s learning environment to lessen students’ test anxiety to facilitate their use of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies. PMID:26708325

  3. STS-68 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This STS-68 patch was designed by artist Sean Collins. Exploration of Earth from space is the focus of the design of the insignia, the second flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2). SRL-2 was part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) project. The world's land masses and oceans dominate the center field, with the Space Shuttle Endeavour circling the globe. The SRL-2 letters span the width and breadth of planet Earth, symbolizing worldwide coverage of the two prime experiments of STS-68: The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) instruments; and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) sensor. The red, blue, and black colors of the insignia represent the three operating wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR, and the gold band surrounding the globe symbolizes the atmospheric envelope examined by MAPS. The flags of international partners Germany and Italy are shown opposite Endeavour. The relationship of the Orbiter to Earth highlights the usefulness of human space flights in understanding Earth's environment, and the monitoring of its changing surface and atmosphere. In the words of the crew members, the soaring Orbiter also typifies the excellence of the NASA team in exploring our own world, using the tools which the Space Program developed to explore the other planets in the solar system.

  4. A novel molecule integrating therapeutic and diagnostic activities reveals multiple aspects of stem cell-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Hingtgen, Shawn D; Kasmieh, Randa; van de Water, Jeroen; Weissleder, Ralph; Shah, Khalid

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells are promising therapeutic delivery vehicles; however pre-clinical and clinical applications of stem cell-based therapy would benefit significantly from the ability to simultaneously determine therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of therapies delivered by engineered stem cells. In this study, we engineered and screened numerous fusion variants that contained therapeutic (TRAIL) and diagnostic (luciferase) domains designed to allow simultaneous investigation of multiple events in stem cell-based therapy in vivo. When various stem cell lines were engineered with the optimized molecule, SRL(O)L(2)TR, diagnostic imaging showed marked differences in the levels and duration of secretion between stem cell lines, while the therapeutic activity of the molecule showed the different secretion levels translated to significant variability in tumor cell killing. In vivo, simultaneous diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring revealed that stem cell-based delivery significantly improved pharmacokinetics and anti-tumor effectiveness of the therapy compared to intravenous or intratumoral delivery. As treatment for highly malignant brain tumor xenografts, tracking SRL(O)L(2)TR showed stable stem cell-mediated delivery significantly regressed peripheral and intracranial tumors. Together, the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic properties of SRL(O)L(2)TR answer critical questions necessary for successful utilization of stem cells as novel therapeutic vehicles. PMID:20127797

  5. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  6. Evolution Of Lattice Structure And Chemical Composition Of The Surface Reconstruction Layer In Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode Material For Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Nie, Anmin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhou, Yungang; Lu, Dongping; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zu, Xiaotao; Xiao, Jie; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Gao, Fei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-01-14

    Voltage and capacity fading of layer structured lithium and manganese rich (LMR) transition metal oxide is directly related to the structural and composition evolution of the material during the cycling of the battery. However, understanding such evolution at atomic level remains elusive. Based on atomic level structural imaging, elemental mapping of the pristine and cycled samples and density functional theory calculations, it is found that accompanying the hoping of Li ions is the simultaneous migration of Ni ions towards the surface from the bulk lattice, leading to the gradual depletion of Ni in the bulk lattice and thickening of a Ni enriched surface reconstruction layer (SRL). Furthermore, Ni and Mn also exhibit concentration partitions within the thin layer of SRL in the cycled samples where Ni is almost depleted at the very surface of the SRL, indicating the preferential dissolution of Ni ions in the electrolyte. Accompanying the elemental composition evolution, significant structural evolution is also observed and identified as a sequential phase transition of C2/m →I41→Spinel. For the first time, it is found that the surface facet terminated with pure cation is more stable than that with a mixture of cation and anion. These findings firmly established how the elemental species in the lattice of LMR cathode transfer from the bulk lattice to surface layer and further into the electrolyte, clarifying the long standing confusion and debate on the structure and chemistry of the surface layer and their correlation with the voltage fading and capacity decaying of LMR cathode. Therefore, this work provides critical insights for designing of cathode materials with both high capacity and voltage stability during cycling.

  7. P-wave tomography of the Calabrian Arc region (South Italy) using a new 'a priori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Totaro, Cristina; Guerra, Ignazio; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    A recently published tomographic investigation of the Calabrian Arc, South Italy (Neri et al., SRL, 2009) has shown that the Ionian subducting slab appears in-depth continuous only beneath the central part of the Arc (southern Calabria), while it has already undergone detachment at the edges of the arcuate structure (northern Calabria and northeastern Sicily). Starting from this result we tried to better define the features of the slab by performing a new tomographic inversion of crust and upper lithosphere in the Calabrian Arc region. The starting velocity model was derived from the integration of a new crustal velocity model obtained applying the method proposed by Waldhauser et al. (GJI, 1998 and 2002) and a deep model used by Neri et al. (SRL, 2009). We merged these two models into an averaged regional one, ranging between the surface and 300km depth. Then we used it to perform a new P-wave tomographic inversion of shallow and deep earthquakes occurred between 1981 and 2008 in Southern Italy. We selected all the events with a minimum of 12P+S and 8 P+S readings for shallow and deep earthquakes respectively. The quality of the readings was, in the majority of cases, checked directly on the recordings. The final inversion dataset consists of 75141 P and 40118 S arrival times relative to 7050 earthquakes recorded at a total of 591 stations. All the data available from the national and local networks, including the CAT-SCAN and UniCal network, have been used for inversion. This new model reduced significantly the RMS parameter and allowed us to enlarge the inversion zone. The investigation, together with a detailed analysis of seismicity, allows us to propose an improved and more complete view of the subduction system with respect to the previous works, including Neri et al. (SRL, 2009).

  8. Immunoregulatory Effects of Everolimus on In Vitro Alloimmune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Levitsky, Josh; Miller, Joshua; Huang, Xuemei; Gallon, Lorenzo; Leventhal, Joseph R.; Mathew, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus (EVL) is a novel mTOR-inhibitor similar to sirolimus (SRL) that is used in organ transplant recipients, often in combination with tacrolimus (TAC) or mycophenolate (MPA). The current study aims to determine its effects on regulatory T cells. Increasing concentrations of EVL, MPA and TAC alone or in combination were added to MLRs of healthy volunteers. Lymphoproliferation by 3H-TdR incorporation and the percentage of newly generated CD4+CD127-CD25+FOXP3+ (total Treg) and CD4+CD127-CD25HighFOXP3+ (natural Treg) in CFSE labeled responder cells were assessed by flow cytometry. In comparison to medium controls, EVL and other agents dose-dependently inhibited 3H-TdR incorporation in HLA-2DR-matched and HLA-mismatched MLRs (n = 3–10). However, EVL significantly amplified newly generated total and natural Tregs in CFSE labeled responder cells (p<0.05) at all concentrations, while MPA and SRL did this only at sub-therapeutic concentrations and inhibited at therapeutic levels. In contrast, TAC inhibited newly generated Tregs at all concentrations. When tested in combination with TAC, EVL failed to reverse TAC inhibition of Treg generation. Combinations of EVL and low concentrations of MPA inhibited proliferation and amplified Treg generation in an additive manner when compared to medium controls or each drug tested alone (p<0.05). The relative tolerogenic effect from high to low was EVL > SRL> MPA > TAC. If the results from these in vitro studies are extrapolated to clinical transplantation, it would suggest EVL plus low concentrations of MPA may be the most tolerogenic combination. PMID:27275747

  9. Thoria-fuel irradiation. Program to irradiate 80% ThO/sub 2//20% UO/sub 2/ ceramic pellets at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes the fabrication of proliferation-resistant thorium oxide/uranium oxide ceramic fuel pellets and preparations at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to irradiate those materials. The materials were fabricated in order to study head end process steps (decladding, tritium removal, and dissolution) which would be required for an irradiated proliferation-resistant thorium based fuel. The thorium based materials were also to be studied to determine their ability to withstand average commercial light water reactor (LWR) irradiation conditions. This program was a portion of the Thorium Fuel Cycle Technology (TFCT) Program, and was coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The fuel materials were to be irradiated in a Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor at conditions simulating the heat ratings and burnup of a commercial LWR. The program was terminated due to a de-emphasis of the TFCT Program, following completion of the fabrication of the fuel and the modified assemblies which were to be used in the SRP reactor. The reactor grade ceramic pellets were fabricated for SRL by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Five fuel types were prepared: 100% UO/sub 2/ pellets (control); 80% ThO/sub 2//20% UO/sub 2/ pellets; approximately 80% ThO/sub 2//20% UO/sub 2/ + 0.25 CaO (dissolution aid) pellets; 100% UO/sub 2/ hybrid pellets (prepared from sol-gel microspheres); and 100% ThO/sub 2/ pellets (control). All of the fuel materials were transferred to SRL from PNL and were stored pending a subsequent reactivation of the TFCT Programs.

  10. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

    SciTech Connect

    SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

    1998-10-23

    Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

  11. Identification of peroxisomal proteins by using M13 phage protein VI phage display: molecular evidence that mammalian peroxisomes contain a 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, M; Van Veldhoven, P P; Subramani, S

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate unknown mammalian peroxisomal enzymes and functions, we subjected M13 phage expressing fusions between the gene encoding protein VI and a rat liver cDNA library to an immunoaffinity selection process in vitro (biopanning) with the use of antibodies raised against peroxisomal subfractions. In an initial series of biopanning experiments, four different cDNA clones were obtained. These cDNA species encoded two previously identified peroxisomal enzymes, catalase and urate oxidase, and two novel proteins that contained a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). A primary structure analysis of these novel proteins revealed that one, ending in the tripeptide AKL, is homologous to the yeast peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC 1.3.1.34; DCR), an enzyme required for the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids, and that the other, ending in the tripeptide SRL, is a putative member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, with three isoforms. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions encoding GFP-DCR-AKL, GFP-DCR, GFP-SDR-SRL and GFP-SDR were expressed in mammalian cells. The analysis of the subcellular location of the recombinant fusion proteins confirmed the peroxisomal localization of GFP-DCR-AKL and GFP-SDR-SRL, as well as the functionality of the PTS1. That the AKL protein is indeed an NADPH-dependent DCR was demonstrated by showing DCR activity of the bacterially expressed protein. These results demonstrate at the molecular level that mammalian peroxisomes do indeed contain a DCR. In addition, the results presented here indicate that the protein VI display system is suitable for the isolation of rare cDNA clones from cDNA libraries and that this technology facilitates the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins. PMID:10333503

  12. Root traits explain different foraging strategies between resprouting life histories.

    PubMed

    Paula, Susana; Pausas, Juli G

    2011-02-01

    Drought and fire are prevalent disturbances in Mediterranean ecosystems. Plant species able to regrow after severe disturbances (i.e. resprouter life history) have higher allocation to roots and higher water potential during the dry season than coexisting non-resprouting species. However, seedlings of non-resprouters have a higher survival rate after summer drought. We predict that, to counteract their shallow-rooting systems and to maximize seedling survival, non-resprouters have root traits that confer higher efficiency in soil resource acquisition than resprouters. We tested this prediction in seedlings of less than 1.5 months old. We select 13 coexisting woody species (including both resprouters and non-resprouters), grew them in a common garden and measured the following root traits: length, surface, average diameter, root tissue density (RTD), specific root length (SRL), surface:volume ratio (SVR), specific tip density (STD), tip distribution in depth, internal links ratio (ILR), and degree of branching. These root traits were compared between the two resprouting life histories using both standard cross-species and phylogenetic-informed analysis. Non-resprouters showed higher SRL and longer, thinner and more branched laterals, especially in the upper soil layers. The external links (i.e. the most absorptive root region) were also more abundant, longer, thinner and with higher SVR for non-resprouters. The results were supported by the phylogenetic-informed analysis for the root traits most strongly related to soil resource acquisition (SRL, SVR and branching pattern). The seedling root structure of non-resprouters species allows them to more efficiently explore the upper soil layer, whereas seedling roots of resprouters will permit both carbon storage and deep soil penetration. PMID:20960009

  13. Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal short roots in Betula sp and Picea abies forests across climate and forest succession gradients: its role in changing environments

    PubMed Central

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Godbold, Douglas; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short roots (known also as first and second order roots with primary development) allows trees to adjust their water and nutrient uptake to local environmental conditions. The morphological traits (MTs) of short-living EcM roots, such as specific root length (SRL) and area, root tip frequency per mass unit (RTF), root tissue density, as well as mean diameter, length, and mass of the root tips, are good indicators of acclimation. We investigated the role of EcM root morphological plasticity across the climate gradient (48–68°N) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and (53–66°N) birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) forests, as well as in primary and secondary successional birch forests assuming higher plasticity of a respective root trait to reflect higher relevance of that characteristic in acclimation process. We hypothesized that although the morphological plasticity of EcM roots is subject to the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions in the changing climate; the tools to achieve the appropriate morphological acclimation are tree species-specific. Long-term (1994–2010) measurements of EcM roots morphology strongly imply that tree species have different acclimation-indicative root traits in response to changing environments. Birch EcM roots acclimated along latitude by changing mostly SRL [plasticity index (PI) = 0.60], while spruce EcM roots became adjusted by modifying RTF (PI = 0.68). Silver birch as a pioneer species must have a broader tolerance to environmental conditions across various environments; however, the mean PI of all MTs did not differ between early-successional birch and late-successional spruce. The differences between species in SRL, and RTF, diameter, and length decreased southward, toward temperate forests with more favorable growth conditions. EcM root traits reflected root-rhizosphere succession across forest succession stages. PMID:24032035

  14. Role of a ribosomal RNA phosphate oxygen during the EF-G–triggered GTP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Miriam; Flür, Sara; Kreutz, Christoph; Ennifar, Eric; Micura, Ronald; Polacek, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Elongation factor-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis is a key reaction during the ribosomal elongation cycle. Recent crystal structures of G proteins, such as elongation factor G (EF-G) bound to the ribosome, as well as many biochemical studies, provide evidence that the direct interaction of translational GTPases (trGTPases) with the sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is pivotal for hydrolysis. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive and is intensively debated. Based on the close proximity of the phosphate oxygen of A2662 of the SRL to the supposedly catalytic histidine of EF-G (His87), we probed this interaction by an atomic mutagenesis approach. We individually replaced either of the two nonbridging phosphate oxygens at A2662 with a methyl group by the introduction of a methylphosphonate instead of the natural phosphate in fully functional, reconstituted bacterial ribosomes. Our major finding was that only one of the two resulting diastereomers, the SP methylphosphonate, was compatible with efficient GTPase activation on EF-G. The same trend was observed for a second trGTPase, namely EF4 (LepA). In addition, we provide evidence that the negative charge of the A2662 phosphate group must be retained for uncompromised activity in GTP hydrolysis. In summary, our data strongly corroborate that the nonbridging proSP phosphate oxygen at the A2662 of the SRL is critically involved in the activation of GTP hydrolysis. A mechanistic scenario is supported in which positioning of the catalytically active, protonated His87 through electrostatic interactions with the A2662 phosphate group and H-bond networks are key features of ribosome-triggered activation of trGTPases. PMID:25941362

  15. Plasticity in relative growth rate after a reduction in nitrogen availability is related to root morphological and physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims To maximize growth and fitness a plant must adjust its phenotype by an amount and speed that matches changes in nitrogen availability. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in root physiological and morphological traits interact and whether or not these responses are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR, proportional rate of change of plant dry mass), unit root rate (URR, rate of change of plant dry mass per unit root length or area), specific root length (SRL, root length per dry root mass), specific root area (SRA, root area per dry root mass), and other root traits before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in ten herbaceous species. Methods Plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly reduced from 1 to 0·01 mm during the growth period. Key Results and Conclusions In the treatment series the number of bifurcations per root area and per root length, specific root area (SRA) and length (SRL), areal (URRarea) and length-based (URRmass) unit root rate and RGR decreased, and root tissue density increased relative to the control. Species having greater plasticity in the percentage decrease in SRA at the end of the experiment also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in SRA is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater reduction in URRarea and in the number of bifurcations per root area and per root length, showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in URRarea and in the number of bifurcations per root area and per root length is therefore not adaptive. The plastic responses observed in SRA, SRL and in root tissue density constitute a set of plastic adjustments that would lead to resource conservation in response nutrient stress. PMID:20639301

  16. Applications of spaceborne radar laboratory data to the study of aeolian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Blumberg, Dan G.; McHone, John F.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony; Iversen, James D.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Rasmussen, Keld R.; Wall, Stephen D.; White, Bruce R.

    Aerodynamic roughness (z0) is an important parameter in studies of sand and dust transport, as well as atmospheric circulation models. Aerodynamic roughness is a function of the size and spacing of surface roughness elements and is typically determined at point locations in the field from wind velocity profiles. Because field measurements require complex logistics, z0 values have been obtained for very few localities. If radar can be used to map z0, estimates can be obtained for large areas. In addition, because aerodynamic roughness can change in response to surface processes (e.g., flooding of alluvial surfaces), radar remote sensing could obtain new measurements on short timescales. Both z0 and the radar backscatter coefficient σ0 are dependent on topographic roughness at the submeter scale, and correlation between these two parameters was developed based on radar data obtained from aircraft (AIRSAR). The Spaceborne Radar Laboratory (SRL) afforded the opportunity to test the correlation for data obtained from orbit. SRL data for sites in Death Valley, California; Lunar Lake, Nevada; and Gobabeb, Namibia, were correlated with wind data and compared with previous radar z0 relations. Correlations between σ0 and z0 for L band (λ=24cm) HV (H, vertically and V, vertically polarized modes) L band HH, and C band (λ=5.6cm) HV compare favorably with previous studies. Based on these results, maps of z0 values were derived from SRL data for each site, demonstrating the potential to map z0 for large vegetation-free areas from orbit using radar systems.

  17. Effects of switchgrass cultivars and intraspecific differences in root structure on soil carbon inputs and accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, Jaron; Jastrow, Julie D.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Six, Johan; de Graaff, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), a cellulosic biofuel feedstock, may promote soil C 21 accumulation compared to annual cropping systems by increasing the amount and retention of 22 root-derived soil C inputs. The aim of this study was to assess how different switchgrass 23 cultivars impact soil C inputs and retention, whether these impacts vary with depth, and whether 24 specific root length (SRL) explains these impacts. We collected soil to a depth of 30 cm from six 25 switchgrass cultivars with root systems ranging from high to low SRL. The cultivars (C4 species) 26 were grown for 27 months on soils previously dominated by C3 plants, allowing us to use the 27 natural difference in 13C isotopic signatures between C3 soils and C4 plants to quantify 28 switchgrass-derived C accumulation. The soil was fractionated into coarse particulate organic 29 matter (CPOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. We 30 measured total C and plant-derived C in all soil fractions across all depths. The study led to two main results: (1) bulk soil C concentrations beneath switchgrass cultivars varied by 40% in the 0-32 10 cm soil depth and by 70% in the 10-20 cm soil depth, and cultivars with high bulk soil C 33 concentrations tended to have relatively high C concentrations in the mineral soil fractions and 34 relatively low C concentrations in the POM fractions; (2) there were significant differences in 35 switchgrass-derived soil C between cultivars at the 0-10 cm depth, where soil C inputs ranged 36 from 1.2 to 3.2 mg C g-1 dry soil. There was also evidence of a positive correlation between SRL 37 and switchgrass-derived C inputs when one outlier data point was removed. These results 38 indicate that switchgrass cultivars differentially impact mechanisms contributing to soil C accumulation.

  18. QM Computations on Complete Nucleic Acids Building Blocks: Analysis of the Sarcin-Ricin RNA Motif Using DFT-D3, HF-3c, PM6-D3H, and MM Approaches.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Holger; Havrila, Marek; Šponer, Jiřı

    2014-06-10

    A set of conformations obtained from explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Sarcin-Ricin internal loop (SRL) RNA motif is investigated using quantum mechanical (QM, TPSS-D3/def2-TZVP DFT-D3) and molecular mechanics (MM, AMBER parm99bsc0+χol3 force field) methods. Solvent effects are approximated using implicit solvent methods (COSMO for DFT-D3; GB and PB for MM). Large-scale DFT-D3 optimizations of the full 11-nucleotide motif are compared to MM results and reveal a higher flexibility of DFT-D3 over the MM in the optimization procedure. Conformational energies of the SRL motif expose significant differences in the DFT-D3 and MM energy descriptions that explain difficulties in MD simulations of the SRL motif. The TPSS-D3 data are in excellent agreement with results obtained by the hybrid functionals PW6B95-D3 and M06-2X. Computationally more efficient methods such as PM6-D3H and HF-3c show promising but partly inconsistent results. It is demonstrated that large-scale DFT-D3 computations on complete nucleic acids building blocks are a viable tool to complement the picture obtained from MD simulations and can be used as benchmarks for faster computational methods. Methodological challenges of large-scale QM computations on nucleic acids such as missing solvent-solute interactions and the truncation of the studied systems are discussed. PMID:26580782

  19. Sirolimus plus prednisone for Erdheim-Chester disease: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, Davide; Nicastro, Maria; Galetti, Maricla; Alberici, Federico; Corradi, Domenico; Becchi, Gabriella; Baldari, Giorgio; De Filippo, Massimo; Ferretti, Stefania; Moroni, Gabriella; Foti, Rosario; Di Gangi, Marcella; Jeannin, Guido; Saffroy, Raphael; Emile, Jean-François; Buzio, Carlo; Vaglio, Augusto

    2015-09-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, to whose pathogenesis neoplastic and immune-mediated mechanisms contribute. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-inhibitors have antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties. We tested in this study, the efficacy and safety of the mTOR-inhibitor sirolimus (SRL) plus prednisone (PDN) in patients with ECD. PDN was given initially at 0.75 mg/kg per day, tapered to 5 to 2.5 mg per day by month 6. Target SRL blood levels were 8 to 12 ng/mL. Treatment was continued for at least 24 months in patients who showed disease stabilization or improvement. Ten patients were enrolled; 8 achieved stable disease or objective responses, whereas 2 had disease progression. Responses were mainly observed at the following sites: retroperitoneum in 5/8 patients (62.5%), cardiovascular in 3/4 (75%), bone in 3/9 (33.3%), and central nervous system (CNS) in 1/3 (33.3%). The median follow-up was 29 months (interquartile range, 16.5-74.5); 2 patients died of progressive CNS disease and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. Treatment-related toxicity was mild. Using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on ECD biopsies, we detected expression in foamy histiocytes of the phosphorylated forms of mTOR and of its downstream kinase p70S6K, which indicated mTOR pathway activation. In conclusion, SRL and PDN often induce objective responses or disease stabilization and may represent a valid treatment of ECD. The trial is registered at the Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry as #ACTRN12613001321730. PMID:26041743

  20. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  1. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species.

    PubMed

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2016-07-01

    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution. PMID:27007305

  2. Cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity is ameliorated by dose reduction and conversion to sirolimus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sereno, J; Vala, H; Nunes, S; Rocha-Pereira, P; Carvalho, E; Alves, R; Teixeira, F; Reis, F

    2015-04-01

    Side-effect minimization strategies to avoid serious side-effects of cyclosporine A (CsA), such as nephrotoxicity, have been mainly based on dose reduction and conversion to other putatively less nephrotoxic drugs, such as sirolimus (SRL), an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin. This study intended to evaluate the impact of protocols based on CsA dose reduction and further conversion to SRL on kidney function and lesions, based on serum, urine and renal tissue markers. The following 3 groups (n=6) were tested during a 9-week protocol: control (vehicle); CsA (5 mg/kg/day) and Red + Conv (CsA 30 mg/kg/day during 3 weeks + 3 weeks with CsA 5 mg/kg/day + SRL 1 mg/kg/day during the last 3 weeks). The following parameters were analysed: blood pressure, heart rate and biochemical data; serum and urine contents and clearances of creatinine, urea and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), as well as, glomerular filtration rate; kidney lipid peroxidation and clearance; kidney lesions were evaluated and protein expression was performed by immunohistochemistry. After the first 3 weeks of CsA (30 mg/kg/day) treatment animals showed body weight loss, hypertension, tachycardia, as well as, increased serum levels of non-HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, creatinine and urea, accompanied by decreased GFR and insulin levels. In addition, a significant increase in the expression of connective tissue growth factor, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), mammalian target of rapamycin, nuclear factor-κβ1 and transforming growth factor-β was found in the kidney, accompanied by extensive renal damage. The following 3 weeks with CsA dose reduction revealed amelioration of vascular and glomerular lesions, but without significant tubular improvement. The last 3 weeks with the conversion to sirolimus revealed high serum and urine NGAL contents but the CsA-evoked renal damage was substantially ameliorated, by reduced of connective tissue growth factor, mammalian

  3. Atmospheric Science Research Using Raman Lidar at NASA/GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A broad overview of the research that is taking place in the Code 924 Raman Lidar group will be presented. The measurement capabilities of two instruments, the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) and the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL), will be discussed. Case studies to be presented include: 1) high resolution measurements of water vapor during a boundary layer bore wave event; 2) a study of the influence of thin cirrus clouds on satellite retrievals of water vapor; 3) the retrieval of warm cloud properties such as droplet radius and number density; and 4) remote aerosol characterization using multiwavelength lidar and others.

  4. Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements at the DOE SGP CART Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was deployed to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in northern Oklahoma September - December, 2000 for two DOE sponsored field campaigns: 1) the Water Vapor Intensive Operations Experiment 2000 and 2) the Atmospheric Radiations Measurement First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Experiment Experiment (AFWEX). WvIOP2000 focussed on water vapor measurements in the lower troposphere while AFWEX focussed on upper tropospheric water vapor. For the first time ever, four water vapor lidars were operated simultaneously: one airborne and three ground-based systems. Intercomparisons of these measurements and others will be presented at the meeting.

  5. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  6. Two-mode dynamics in different semiconductor laser structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scirè, Alessandro; Sorel, Marc; Colet, Pere; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Mirasso, Claudio R.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2006-04-01

    We review three two-mode models for different semiconductor laser structures: Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs), Twin-Stripe Semiconductor-Lasers (TSSL), and Semiconductor Ring Lasers (SRL). The VCSELs model and TSSL model display rich dynamic behavior when a saturable absorber is embedded in the cavity. VCSELs with saturable absorber showed polarization chaos, which found applications in encoded communications; TSSLs with saturable absorber show coherent locked states as well as chaotic behavior; and SRLs show a complex two-mode dynamics giving rise to bidirectional operation, alternate oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking toward quasi-unidirectional bistable solutions, with potential applications to all-optical switching.

  7. Lewiston 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont: supplemental data report

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    This data report presents supplemental analytical results for 1168 stream sediment samples that were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lewiston 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Results are reported for 23 elements (extractable, U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn). Analyses are tabulated and displayed graphically on microfiche. Field data and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were open-filed in DPST-80-146-18 (GJBX-14(81)).

  8. Vision/viewing development status, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Veenema, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in many areas of Robotics and Vision/Viewing. An overview of the work recently completed or now in progress in the Vision/Viewing areas is provided below. The nature of the work at SRP has indicated the need for both vision systems related to classic robotics and viewing systems of a specialized nature. The latter concerns the maximizing of information gathering and control efforts in radiation environments not suitable for continued human presence. The following sections will address these applications separately. 17 figs.

  9. Robotics development programs overview Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Veenema, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in many areas to Robotics and Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Remote vision systems at SRP include both the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e., repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from robotic and telerobotics. In addition the quality of the information available from a hazardous environment can be improved by the ability to visually linger and remotely sense.

  10. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  11. Glass sampling program during DWPF Integrated Cold Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1990-03-30

    The described glass sampling program is designed to achieve two objectives: To demonstrate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to control and verify the radionuclide release properties of the glass product; To confirm DWPF's readiness to obtain glass samples during production, and SRL's readiness to analyze and test those samples remotely. The DWPF strategy for control of the radionuclide release properties of the glass product, and verification of its acceptability are described in this report. The basic approach of the test program is then defined.

  12. Glass sampling program during DWPF Integrated Cold Runs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1990-03-30

    The described glass sampling program is designed to achieve two objectives: To demonstrate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to control and verify the radionuclide release properties of the glass product; To confirm DWPF`s readiness to obtain glass samples during production, and SRL`s readiness to analyze and test those samples remotely. The DWPF strategy for control of the radionuclide release properties of the glass product, and verification of its acceptability are described in this report. The basic approach of the test program is then defined.

  13. Raman Spectroscopy and Related Techniques in Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Andrew; Elfick, Alistair

    2010-01-01

    In this review we describe label-free optical spectroscopy techniques which are able to non-invasively measure the (bio)chemistry in biological systems. Raman spectroscopy uses visible or near-infrared light to measure a spectrum of vibrational bonds in seconds. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) microscopy and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) microscopy are orders of magnitude more efficient than Raman spectroscopy, and are able to acquire high quality chemically-specific images in seconds. We discuss the benefits and limitations of all techniques, with particular emphasis on applications in biomedicine—both in vivo (using fiber endoscopes) and in vitro (in optical microscopes). PMID:21151763

  14. Adaptive multi-wavelength LED star simulator for space life studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivellin, Nicola; Barbisan, Diego; Ferretti, Marco; Erculiani, Marco S.; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Bonato, Matteo; Cocola, Lorenzo; Poletto, Luca; Salasnich, Bernardo; Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    With this work we report on the design of an LED based star simulator. The simulator is the result of a cooperation between the Italian National Astrophysics Institute and LightCube SRL, a University of Padova (Italy) R&D spin-off. The simulator is designed to achieve a luminous output customizable both in spectrum and in intensity. The core of the system is a 25 channels independent LED illuminator specifically designed to replicate the spectral emission of the desired star. The simulated star light intensity can also be carefully tuned to achieve the correct illuminance at a specific distance from the star.

  15. Constraints on the affinity term for modeling long-term glass dissolution rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Carroll, S.A.; Phillips, B.L.

    1993-11-01

    Predictions of long-term glass dissolution rates are highly dependent on the form of the affinity term in the rate expression. Analysis of the quantitative effect of saturation state on glass dissolution rate for CSG glass (a simple analog of SRL-165 glass), shows that a simple (1-Q/K) affinity term does not match experimental results. Our data at 100{degree}C show that the data is better fit by an affinity term having the form (1 {minus} (Q/K){sup 1}/{sigma}) where {sigma} = 10.

  16. Proceedings of the second FY87 meeting of the National Working Group for Reduction in Transuranic Waste Arisings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Second FY87 Meeting of the National Working Group for Reduction in Transuranic Waste Arisings (NWGRTWA) was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Tuesday and Wednesday, July 28--29, 1987. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss (1) modeling programs for waste reduction, (2) proposed FY88 and out-year tasks including the SRL Pu incineration, immobilization improvement, erbia coating technology, and (3) improvements in up-stream recovery operations to effect waste reduction. In addition, tours were made of the LLNL Waste Operations, the Laser Fusion (NOVA), and the Magnetic Fusion (MFTF).

  17. Demonstration of remotely operated TRU waste size reduction and material handling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Looper, M G; Charlesworth, D L

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing remote size reduction and material handling equipment to prepare /sup 238/Pu contaminated waste for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The waste is generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) from normal operation and decommissioning activity and is retrievably stored onsite. A Transuranic Waste Facility for preparing, size-reducing, and packaging this waste for disposal is scheduled for completion in 1995. A cold test facility for demonstrating the size reduction and material handling equipment was built, and testing began in January 1987. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Supercritical water oxidation technology for DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.; Gentilucci, J.A.

    1992-02-07

    At the request of Mr. H.L. Brandt and others in the Savannah River Field Office High Level Waste Division office, DWPF, and SRL personnel have reviewed two potential applications for supercritical water oxidation technology in DWPF. The first application would replace the current hydrolysis process by destroying the organic fractions of the precipitated cesium / potassium tetraphenylborate slurry. The second application pertains to liquid benzene destruction. After a thorough evaluation the first application is not recommended. The second is ready to be tested if needed.

  19. Supercritical water oxidation technology for DWPF. [Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.; Gentilucci, J.A.

    1992-02-07

    At the request of Mr. H.L. Brandt and others in the Savannah River Field Office High Level Waste Division office, DWPF, and SRL personnel have reviewed two potential applications for supercritical water oxidation technology in DWPF. The first application would replace the current hydrolysis process by destroying the organic fractions of the precipitated cesium / potassium tetraphenylborate slurry. The second application pertains to liquid benzene destruction. After a thorough evaluation the first application is not recommended. The second is ready to be tested if needed.

  20. New therapeutic agents for acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-02-01

    The currently available somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) and growth hormone (GH) antagonists are used to control levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in patients with acromegaly. However, these therapies are limited by wide variations in efficacy, associated adverse effects and the need for frequent injections. A phase III trial of oral octreotide capsules demonstrated that this treatment can safely sustain suppressed levels of GH and IGF-1 and reduce the severity of symptoms in patients with acromegaly previously controlled by injectable SRL therapy, with the added benefit of no injection-site reactions. Phase I and phase II trials of the pan-selective SRL DG3173, the liquid crystal octreotide depot CAM2029 and an antisense oligonucleotide directed against the GH receptor have shown that these agents can be used to achieve biochemical suppression in acromegaly and have favourable safety profiles. This Review outlines the need for new therapeutic agents for patients with acromegaly, reviews clinical trial data of investigational agents and considers how these therapies might best be integrated into clinical practice. PMID:26610414

  1. Towards quantifying mesoscale flows in the troposphere using Raman lidar and Sondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoz, B.; Starr, D.; Evans, K.; Whiteman, D.; Melfi, S.; Turner, D.; Ferrare, R.; Goldsmith, J.; Schwemmer, G.; Cadirola, M.

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in the energetics of the boundary layer processes which in turn play a key role in regulating regional and global climate. It plays a primary role in Earth's hydrological cycle, in radiation balance as a direct absorber of infrared radiation, and in atmospheric circulation as a latent heat energy source, as well as in determining cloud development and atmospheric stability. Water vapor concentration, expressed as a mass mixing ratio (g kg(exp -l)), is conserved in all meteorological processes except condensation and evaporation. This property makes it an ideal choice for studying many of the atmosphere's dynamic features. Raman scattering measurements from lidar also allow retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio profiles at high temporal and vertical resolution. Raman lidars sense water vapor to altitudes not achievable with towers and surface systems, sample the atmosphere at much higher temporal resolution than radiosondes or satellites, and do not require strong vertical gradients or turbulent fluctuations in temperature that is required by acoustic sounders and radars. Analysis of highly-resolved water vapor profiles are used here to characterize two important mesoscale flows: thunderstorm outflows and a cold front passage. The data were obtained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (CART) by the groundbased Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories lidar (CART Raman lidar or CARL) and Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL). A detailed discussion of the SRL and CARL performance during the IOPs is given by others in this meeting.

  2. Role of InxGa1-xAs Layer Composition in Modifying Strain Fields and Carrier Confinement Potentials in a Close-stacked InAs/GaAs Quantum Dot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woong; Yoo, Yo-Han; Shin, Hyunho; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2005-05-01

    Role of the composition of InxGa1-xAs strain-relief layer (SRL) in controlling the strain fields and consequent modification of band structures in a close-stacked multi-layer InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) system was investigated within the framework of continuum elasticity and model solid theory. It was predicted that strains in the QDs are significantly relieved in proportion to the In concentration in the InxGa1-xAs SRLs between InAs QD and GaAs cap layer. The relaxation of strains caused substantial shift of the conduction band edge in the QDs mainly by the relief of hydrostatic strain component resulting in narrower bandgap within the QDs with increasing In concentration. It is interpreted that such strain relaxation and subsequent band structure modifications are responsible for the experimentally observed redshift of photo-luminescence (PL) spectra elsewhere. Therefore, together with existing experimental work, it is confirmed that conduction band edges of QD systems can be tailored by the control of the SRL composition allowing more flexibility in bandgap engineering.

  3. Multi-color quantum dot ensembles grown in selective-areas for shape-controlled broadband light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.; Ohkouchi, S.; Ikeda, N.; Sugimoto, Y.; Asakawa, K.; Hogg, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    Multi-color quantum dot (QD) ensembles were grown by selective-area growth method to realize a shape-controlled broadband light source. By using a metal-mask, QD ensembles and strain reducing layer (SRL) were formed in selective areas on a wafer. The SRL thickness was varied to achieve appropriate shifts in the peak wavelength of the QD emission spectrum up to 90 nm. A summation of PL spectra obtained from the multi-color QD ensembles shows a broadband emission spectrum with a width of approximately 120 nm, even though this spectrum is attributed to the ground state emissions of these QD ensembles. A current-induced broadband light source such as a superluminescent diode (SLD) based on the multi-color QD ensembles is expected to have an emission spectrum with a width of more than 120 nm owing to the combination of excited state emissions. Furthermore, a desired shape of the SLD spectrum can be obtained by controlling the injection current applied to each QD ensemble. This approach is promising for a shape-controlled broadband SLD, and it is particularly applicable to optical coherence tomography (OCT).

  4. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Measurements with Raman Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoz, B.; Wang, Z.; Whiteman, D.

    2006-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the impact of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate, improved knowledge of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical properties is needed. However, long-term studies of the problem indicate that accurate cirrus cloud measurements are challenging, especially in the low ice water content regime most frequent in the tropical cirrus layers. Recent advances in Raman lidar techniques have demonstrated that Raman lidar is an excellent tool to provide reliable cirrus cloud optical and microphysical properties, which are important to study cirrus clouds as well as to validate satellite cirrus cloud measurements. Based on elastic and nitrogen Raman signals, cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction to backscatter ratio can be quantified. By utilizing the Raman scattered intensities from ice crystals, a new method to remotely sense cirrus ice water content and general effective radius profiles has been demonstrated with NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) measurements. Since the intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved, this method provides a more direct way of measuring the ice water content compared with other schemes. Based on the SRL measurements, these Raman lidar capabilities will be illustrated.

  5. The Effect Of Intraresonator Nonlinear Optical And Magneto-Optical Phenomena Upon The Competitive Interaction Of Oppositely Directed Light Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornienko, L. S.; Kravtsov, N. V.; Shelaev, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    It is found experimentally that the competitive interaction of the oppositely directed (OD) light waves in YAG:Nd3+ and ruby solid-state ring lasers OIRL) can be significantly reduced due to nonlinear optical effects (second harmonic generation, stimulated Raman scattering, resonant absorption) since the nonlinear losses for the wave of lower intensity are lower. It was established that in the SRL with a resonantly absorbing medium the spatially inhomogeneous burning-out and the slowness of the relaxation of the inverted population in the solid-state active medium may result in strong phase nonreciprocity due to the frequency shift of the OD waves after their reflection from the moving lattice of the inverted population. The beat frequency strongly depends on detuning between the gain and absorption lines and may be more than two orders of magnitude less in comparison with the resonator frequency difference in the rotating SRL. The possibility has been shown of active stabilization of the bidirectional generation in the beat regime using the nonreciprocal amplitude Faraday element controlled by the external feedback circuit via the difference of the OD waves intensities.

  6. BelSmile: a biomedical semantic role labeling approach for extracting biological expression language from text

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Po-Ting; Lo, Yu-Yan; Huang, Ming-Siang; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the most popular languages to represent the causal and correlative relationships among biological events. Automatically extracting and representing biomedical events using BEL can help biologists quickly survey and understand relevant literature. Recently, many researchers have shown interest in biomedical event extraction. However, the task is still a challenge for current systems because of the complexity of integrating different information extraction tasks such as named entity recognition (NER), named entity normalization (NEN) and relation extraction into a single system. In this study, we introduce our BelSmile system, which uses a semantic-role-labeling (SRL)-based approach to extract the NEs and events for BEL statements. BelSmile combines our previous NER, NEN and SRL systems. We evaluate BelSmile using the BioCreative V BEL task dataset. Our system achieved an F-score of 27.8%, ∼7% higher than the top BioCreative V system. The three main contributions of this study are (i) an effective pipeline approach to extract BEL statements, and (ii) a syntactic-based labeler to extract subject–verb–object tuples. We also implement a web-based version of BelSmile (iii) that is publicly available at iisrserv.csie.ncu.edu.tw/belsmile. PMID:27173520

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of detected anthrax outbreaks in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in northern Canada, 1962-2008.

    PubMed

    Salb, Amanda; Stephen, Craig; Ribble, Carl; Elkin, Brett

    2014-07-01

    We inventoried and assessed historical anthrax outbreak data from 1962-2008 in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in Wood Buffalo National Park and the Slave River Lowlands (SRL), Northwest Territories, Canada. We compared these results with a 2010 outbreak in the SRL. Anthrax outbreaks have occurred in 12 of the years between 1962 and 2008 in wild wood bison with 1,515 anthrax deaths detected. The average number of carcasses found each outbreak year was 126 (range 1-363), though local averages varied. The numbers of animals found dead per outbreak declined over the past four decades. Outbreaks varied in duration from 16-44 days (average length 25.5 days). The length of an outbreak was not a determinant of the number of dead bison found, but outbreaks starting in July had more deaths than those staring in June. Males were more likely to be detected in an outbreak, outbreaks were likely not random events, and there was no relationship between outbreak size or length and location. Future surveillance activities may benefit from targeting bulls and planning surveillance activities for more than 3 wk after outbreak detection. Coordinating data collecting and recording efforts between jurisdictions may overcome historical challenges in inconsistent record keeping. PMID:24779457

  8. Ground-state energy trends in single and multilayered coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots capped with InGaAs layers: Effects of InGaAs layer thickness and annealing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.; Ghosh, K.; Jejurikar, S.; Mishra, A.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Investigation of ground state energy in single and multi-layered InAs/GaAs QD. • Strain reducing layer (InGaAs) prevents the formation of non-radiative. • Strain reducing layer (InGaAs) is responsible for high activation energy. • Significant deviation from the Varshni model, E(T) = E − αT{sup 2}/T + β. - Abstract: Vertically coupled, multilayered InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) covered with thin InGaAs strain-reducing layers (SRLs) are in demand for various technological applications. We investigated low temperature photoluminescence of single and multilayered structures in which the SRL thickness was varied. The SRL layer was responsible for high activation energies. Deviation of experimental data from the Varshni (1967) model, E(T) = E − ∞ T{sup 2}/T + β, suggests that the InAs-layered QDs have properties different from those in bulk material. Anomalous ground-state peak linewidths (FWHM), especially for annealed multilayer structures, were observed. A ground-state peak blue-shift with a broadened linewidth was also observed. Loss of intensity was detected in samples annealed at 800 °C. Presence of SRLs prevents formation of non-radiative centers under high temperature annealing. The results indicate the potential importance of such structures in optoelectronic applications.

  9. Functional performance requirements for seismic network upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    1991-08-18

    The SRL seismic network, established in 1976, was developed to monitor site and regional seismic activity that may have any potential to impact the safety or reduce containment capability of existing and planned structures and systems at the SRS, report seismic activity that may be relevant to emergency preparedness, including rapid assessments of earthquake location and magnitude, and estimates of potential on-site and off-site damage to facilities and lifelines for mitigation measures. All of these tasks require SRL seismologists to provide rapid analysis of large amounts of seismic data. The current seismic network upgrade, the subject of this Functional Performance Requirements Document, is necessary to improve system reliability and resolution. The upgrade provides equipment for the analysis of the network seismic data and replacement of old out-dated equipment. The digital network upgrade is configured for field station and laboratory digital processing systems. The upgrade consists of the purchase and installation of seismic sensors,, data telemetry digital upgrades, a dedicated Seismic Data Processing (SDP) system (already in procurement stage), and a Seismic Signal Analysis (SSA) system. The field stations and telephone telemetry upgrades include equipment necessary for three remote station upgrades including seismic amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, pulse calibrators, weather protection (including lightning protection) systems, seismometers, seismic amplifiers, and miscellaneous other parts. The central receiving and recording station upgrades will include discriminators, helicopter amplifier, omega timing system, strong motion instruments, wide-band velocity sensors, and other miscellaneous equipment.

  10. The effects of composition on glass dissolution rates: The application of four models to a data base

    SciTech Connect

    Geldart, R.W.; Kindle, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Four models have been applied to a data base to relate glass dissolution in distilled water to composition. The data base is used to compare the precisions obtained from the models in fitting actual data. The usefulness of the data base in formulating a model is also demonstrated. Two related models in which the composite or pH-adjusted free energy of hydration of the glass is the correlating parameter are compared with experimental data. In a structural model, the nonbridging oxygen content of the glasses is used to correlate glass dissolution rate to composition. In a model formulated for this report, the cation valence and the oxygen content of the glass are compared with observed dissolution rates. The models were applied to the 28-day normalized silica release at 90/sup 0/C for over 285 glass compositions with surface area to volume ratios of 10 m/sup -1/ (Materials Characterization Center MCC-1 glass durability test using distilled water). These glasses included the nonradioactive analogs of WV205 and SRL-165, as well as SRL-131, PNL 76-68, and a European glass, UK209. Predicted glass dissolution rates show similar fits to the data for all four models. The predictions of the models were also plotted for two subsets of the glasses: waste glasses and Savannah River Laboratory glasses. The model predictions fit the data for these groups much better than they fit the data for the entire set of glasses. 14 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. BelSmile: a biomedical semantic role labeling approach for extracting biological expression language from text.

    PubMed

    Lai, Po-Ting; Lo, Yu-Yan; Huang, Ming-Siang; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the most popular languages to represent the causal and correlative relationships among biological events. Automatically extracting and representing biomedical events using BEL can help biologists quickly survey and understand relevant literature. Recently, many researchers have shown interest in biomedical event extraction. However, the task is still a challenge for current systems because of the complexity of integrating different information extraction tasks such as named entity recognition (NER), named entity normalization (NEN) and relation extraction into a single system. In this study, we introduce our BelSmile system, which uses a semantic-role-labeling (SRL)-based approach to extract the NEs and events for BEL statements. BelSmile combines our previous NER, NEN and SRL systems. We evaluate BelSmile using the BioCreative V BEL task dataset. Our system achieved an F-score of 27.8%, ∼7% higher than the top BioCreative V system. The three main contributions of this study are (i) an effective pipeline approach to extract BEL statements, and (ii) a syntactic-based labeler to extract subject-verb-object tuples. We also implement a web-based version of BelSmile (iii) that is publicly available at iisrserv.csie.ncu.edu.tw/belsmile. PMID:27173520

  12. Polarization modulated background-free hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Marie-Andrée.; Andreana, Marco; Ridsdale, Andrew; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Légaré, François; Stolow, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy is a nonlinear microscopy technique based on Raman vibrational resonances determined by the frequency difference between Pump and Stokes laser pulses. Modulation of one laser beam transfers the modulation to the other, as either a gain in Stokes (SRG) or a loss in Pump power (SRL). SRS microscopy does not exhibit the four-wave mixing nonresonant background characteristic of CARS microscopy. However, other background signals due to two-photon absorption, thermal lensing or cross-phase modulation (XPM) do reduce the detection sensitivity and can distort the hyperspectral scans. Phase sensitive lock-in detection can reduce contributions from two-photon absorption, which is out-of-phase for the SRG case. However, the background signal due to XPM, which can be in-phase with SRS, can reduce the detection sensitivity. We present a novel polarization modulation (PM) scheme in SRS microscopy which greatly reduces the nonresonant XPM background, demonstrated here for the SRL case. Since many Raman vibrational transitions are parallel polarized, the SRS signal is maximum (minimum) when the polarizations of the pump and the Stokes beams are parallel (perpendicular). However, in both parallel and perpendicular Pump-Stokes geometries, XPM is non-zero in many media. Therefore, PM can remove the XPM background without significantly reducing the SRS signal. Our results show that the PM-SRS successfully removes the nonresonant signal due to XPM. High imaging contrast is observed, concomitant with high sensitivity at very low analyte concentrations and undistorted Raman spectra.

  13. Factors affecting self-regulated learning in medical students: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). Method This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Results Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. Conclusion The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students. PMID:26549046

  14. Immobilization of Savannah River high-level wastes in SYNROC: results from performance tests

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Hoenig, C.L.; Bazan, F.; Ryerson, F.J.; Rozsa, R.B.

    1981-09-25

    Large samples (up to 15cm diameter) of SYNROC D containing simulated Savannah River (SRL) waste sludge have been prepared and performance tested. Waste loadings of 60 to 65 wt% for the SRL composite sludge have been achieved; this corresponds to a waste concentration (volumetric) loading of approximately 2.3 to 2.5 g/cm/sup 3/. A typical SYNROC D sample has a density of about 4.0 g/cm/sup 3/ with less than 0.2% porosity. The compressive and flexural strengths of SYNROC D are 51,200 and 9400 psi, respectively and Young's Modulus is 20.1 x 10/sup 6/ psi by ultrasonic measurement. The quantity of respirable fines (less than 10 ..mu..m) generated during a constant energy density impact (10J/cm/sup 3/) was less than 0.16 wt%. Values for the thermal conductivity (22/sup 0/C) and the thermal expansion coefficient (22 to 950/sup 0/C) were measured to be 1.7 W/m.K and 11 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/, respectively.

  15. Operational Changes in a Shared Resource Laboratory with the Use of a Product Lifecycle Management Approach: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Victoria; Wall, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs) provide investigators access to necessary scientific and resource expertise to leverage complex technologies fully for advancing high-quality biomedical research in a cost-effective manner. At the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the Flow Cytometry Research Facility (FCRF) offered access to exceptional technology, but the methods of operation were outdated and unsustainable. Whereas technology has advanced and the institute has expanded, the operations at the facility remained unchanged for 35 yr. To rectify this, at the end of 2013, we took a product lifecycle management approach to affect large operational changes and align the services offered with the SRL goal of education, as well as to provide service to researchers. These disruptive operational changes took over 10 mo to complete and allowed for independent end-user acquisition of flow cytometry data. The results have been monitored for the past 12 mo. The operational changes have had a positive impact on the quality of research, increased investigator-facility interaction, reduced stress of facility staff, and increased overall use of the resources. This product lifecycle management approach to facility operations allowed us to conceive of, design, implement, and monitor effectively the changes at the FCRF. This approach should be considered by SRL management when faced with the need for operationally disruptive measures. PMID:26681929

  16. The physical properties and chemical composition of the gas within the free volume of canistered waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.; Miller, T.J.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    The DWPF must meet Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) for acceptance of the DWPF canistered waste forms. A number of these specifications deal with the exclusion of non-wasteglass (or foreign) materials within the canistered waste forms. Those material which are specifically excluded include the following: Free Liquids, Free Gases, other than cover or radiogenic gases, Explosives, Pyrophorics and Combustibles, and Organics. This report documents the results obtained by carrying out an assigned task as described in three task plans. The task plans cover the determination of pressure, gas composition and relative humidity of SRL canistered waste forms; and organic and inorganic analysis of volatilized and condensed species within SRL canistered waste forms. These results provide evidence to demonstrate compliance with these specifications and will be included in the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). In all, four canistered waste forms, produced during the Scale Glass Melter (SGM) campaigns, were examined. The internal gas pressure, dewpoint temperature and gas composition were determined for each canistered waste form. The experience gained in these experiments will be used to generate procedures for obtaining the same information on canistered waste forms produced during the Integrated Cold Runs (ICR). 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950's are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  18. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950`s are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  19. Environmental aspects of a tritium oxide release from the Savannah River Site on September 2 and 3, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hoel, D.D.; Kurzeja, R.J.; Evans, A.G.

    1990-09-28

    Tritium was released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Plant during an incident on September 2 and 3, 1984 between 10 PM and 3 AM. During this five hour period, 43,800 Ci of tritium, principally in the form of the oxide (HTO), was released. An additional 14,000, Ci was released during subsequent cleanup operations between September 3 and 7. The total amount released from the incident was 57,800 Ci. The HTO cloud initially moved northward and passed near the towns of New Ellenton and Aiken, SC. Two hours after the release began, the wind shifted and carried the cloud toward Columbia, SC. The cloud moved northeast during the daytime on September 3 over the east-central portion of North Carolina. Environmental sampling teams were dispatched by SRL, SRP, and SCDHEC (South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control). SRL collected air and vegetation samples and SRP collected vegetation, water, milk and bioassay samples. SCDHEC collected vegetation, milk, and water samples. The highest activity of HTO measured in vegetation was 501 pCi/mL onsite, 2522 pCi/mL at the plant boundary, and 9859 pCi/mL offsite. These concentrations were approximately 100 times larger than normal values. 13 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Report on HbA1c Proficiency Testing in Asia in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Umemoto, Masao; Hoshino, Tadao; Miyashita, Tetsuo; Tani, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Japan Diabetes Society decided to introduce the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) values into clinical practice. Accordingly, NGSP Certification of Japanese manufacturers of HbA1c-related diagnostic reagents and instruments was initiated in February, 2012, through an NGSP network laboratory, the Asian Secondary Reference Laboratory (ASRL) #1. Traceability to the NGSP reference system can be endorsed by manufacturer certification, as well as by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) survey. Nevertheless, only a few manufacturers participate in the CAP survey in Japan. Thus, proficiency testing (PT) was proposed and executed by ASRL #1. Single-donor whole-blood samples were used for the PT. The participated measurement systems were NGSP certified. Twenty-two laboratories obtained certification through ASRL #1; 2 through the Secondary Reference Laboratory (SRL) #8; and 9 through the SRL #9. The combination plots of the bias data in this PT and in the NGSP certification performed in March and May in 2012 were consistent with each other: mean NGSP values at each level agreed well with the target value. In conclusion, PT using whole blood is useful in endorsing NGSP certification. PMID:25932445

  1. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-05-01

    A series of static leach tests was conducted using glasses developed for vitrifying tank wastes at the Savannah River Site to monitor the disposition of actinide elements upon corrosion of the glasses. In these tests, glasses produced from SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits were corroded at 90{degrees}C in a tuff groundwater. Tests were conducted using crushed glass at different glass surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) ratios to assess the effect of the S/V on the solution chemistry, the corrosion of the glass, and the disposition of actinide elements. Observations regarding the effects of the S/V on the solution chemistry and the corrosion of the glass matrix have been reported previously. This paper highlights the solution analyses performed to assess how the S/V used in a static leach test affects the disposition of actinide elements between fractions that are suspended or dissolved in the solution, and retained by the altered glass or other materials.

  2. Operational Changes in a Shared Resource Laboratory with the Use of a Product Lifecycle Management Approach: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Hexley, Philip; Smith, Victoria; Wall, Samantha

    2016-04-01

    Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs) provide investigators access to necessary scientific and resource expertise to leverage complex technologies fully for advancing high-quality biomedical research in a cost-effective manner. At the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the Flow Cytometry Research Facility (FCRF) offered access to exceptional technology, but the methods of operation were outdated and unsustainable. Whereas technology has advanced and the institute has expanded, the operations at the facility remained unchanged for 35 yr. To rectify this, at the end of 2013, we took a product lifecycle management approach to affect large operational changes and align the services offered with the SRL goal of education, as well as to provide service to researchers. These disruptive operational changes took over 10 mo to complete and allowed for independent end-user acquisition of flow cytometry data. The results have been monitored for the past 12 mo. The operational changes have had a positive impact on the quality of research, increased investigator-facility interaction, reduced stress of facility staff, and increased overall use of the resources. This product lifecycle management approach to facility operations allowed us to conceive of, design, implement, and monitor effectively the changes at the FCRF. This approach should be considered by SRL management when faced with the need for operationally disruptive measures. PMID:26681929

  3. [Seasonal dynamics of quantitative and morphological traits of poplar fine roots and their differences between successive rotation plantations].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-ping; Xu, Tan; Zhu, Wan-rui; Wang, Qi-tong; Liu, Meng-ling; Wang, Hua-tian; Li, Chuan-rong; Dong, Yu-feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on the fine root samples of the first and second generations of poplar (Populus x euramericana ' Neva'), this study examined the response of quantitative and morphological traits of fine roots of different orders and the difference between generations. The results showed that, the quantitative traits of fine roots, such as root length, root surface area and root biomass, presented obvious seasonal variation, and the fine root traits had obvious difference among root orders. The quantitative traits of lower-order fine roots showed significant seasonal difference, and the fine root biomass increased in the growing season and then decreased significantly. The specific root length (SRL) of higher-order roots also showed significant change with season, while the root length density (RLD) and root tissue density (RTD) changed a little. The successive rotation resulted in the significant increase of root length, root biomass, SRL and RLD of 1-2 orders in the growing season. The quantitative traits of first order root significantly positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, and significantly negatively correlated with the soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, the quantitative traits of second order root only showed significant correlation with soil nutrient content. The seasonal dynamics of poplar fine roots and the difference between successive rotation plantations implied carbon investment change of poplar to roots. Soil nutrient deficiency induced more carbon investment into roots, and this carbon allocation pattern might affect the aboveground productivity of poplar plantation. PMID:27396110

  4. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  5. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  6. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation] waste form testing at Argonne National Laboratory; Semiannual report, July--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Biwer, B.M.

    1988-07-01

    Tests are ongoing at Argonne National Laboratory to examine the reaction of glass with water under conditions that may exist in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Examination of glass reaction using the Unsaturated Test method as applied to simulated defense glass (SRL 165 black frit based) and simulated West Valley glass (ATM-10) is ongoing. The tests on SRL 165 glass have been ongoing for 104 weeks with nonstoichiometric release of Li, Na, B, and actinide elements being observed throughout the test period. The tests on ATM-10 glass have been in progress for 26 weeks and it is too early in the test cycle to assess the glass reaction. The influence of penetrating gamma radiation on the reaction of synthetic nuclear waste glasses in tuff groundwater was also investigated. Modified MCC-1 static leaching experiments were performed under radiation exposures of 1 {times} 10{sup 3} R/h and O R/h at 90{degree}C. The groundwater was acidified by nitrous and nitric acids radiolytically produced in the air. The high bicarbonate ion concentration of the groundwater prevented the pH from dropping below 6.4, however. The glass reaction, as measured by the release of glass species and the thickness of an alteration layer formed on the glass surface, was not measurably affected by radiation. 24 refs., 34 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. A Comparison of the Functional Traits of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Northern China: Aquatic vs. Terrestrial Ecotypes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O.; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions). PMID:24586505

  8. QTLs and candidate genes for rice root growth under flooding and upland conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Song; Yang, Ling; Mao, Chuan-Zao; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Wu, Ping

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the genetic factors underlying constitutive and adaptive root growth under different water-supply conditions, a double haploid (DH) population, derived from a cross between lowland rice variety IR64 and upland rice variety Azucena, with 284 molecular markers was used in cylindrical pot experiments. Several QTLs for seminal root length (SRL), adventitious root number (ARN) and total root dry weight (RW) respectively, under both flooding and upland conditions were detected. Two identical QTLs for SRL and RW were found under flooding and upland conditions. The relative parameters defined as the ratio of parameters under the two water-supply conditions were also used for QTL analysis. A comparative analysis among different genetic populations was performed for the QTLs for root traits and several consistent QTLs for root traits across genetic backgrounds were detected. Candidate genes for cell expansion and elongation were used for comparative mapping with the detected QTLs. Four cell wall-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for OsEXP2, OsEXP4, EXT and Xet were mapped on the intervals carrying the QTLs for root traits. PMID:16529298

  9. Optical calibration and test of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2013-12-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT (ESO) represents the state-of-art of the large-format deformable mirror technology with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on actuator co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the results of the optical characterization of the mirror unit with the ASSIST facility located at ESO-Garching and executed in a collaborative effort by ESO, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.). The main purposes of the tests are the optical characterization of the shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions. The results are used for the optical acceptance of the DSM and to allow the next test phase coupling the DSM with the wave-front sensor modules of the new Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) of ESO.

  10. The deformable secondary mirror of VLT: final electro-mechanical and optical acceptance test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2014-07-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT ended the stand-alone electro-mechanical and optical acceptance process, entering the test phase as part of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the ESO Headquarter (Garching). The VLT-DSM currently represents the most advanced already-built large-format deformable mirror with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the final results of the electro-mechanical and optical characterization of the DSM executed in a collaborative effort by the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.), INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and ESO. The electro-mechanical acceptance tests have been performed in the company premises and their main purpose was the dynamical characterization of the internal control loop response and the calibration of the system data that are needed for its optimization. The optical acceptance tests have been performed at ESO (Garching) using the ASSIST optical test facility. The main purpose of the tests are the characterization of the optical shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions.

  11. Strontium-loaded mineral bone cements as sustained release systems: Compositions, release properties, and effects on human osteoprogenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tadier, Solène; Bareille, Reine; Siadous, Robin; Marsan, Olivier; Charvillat, Cédric; Cazalbou, Sophie; Amédée, Joelle; Rey, Christian; Combes, Christèle

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate in vitro the release properties and biological behavior of original compositions of strontium (Sr)-loaded bone mineral cements. Strontium was introduced into vaterite CaCO3 -dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cement via two routes: as SrCO3 in the solid phase (SrS cements), and as SrCl2 dissolved in the liquid phase (SrL cements), leading to different cement compositions after setting. Complementary analytical techniques implemented to thoroughly investigate the release/dissolution mechanism of Sr-loaded cements at pH 7.4 and 37°C during 3 weeks revealed a sustained release of Sr and a centripetal dissolution of the more soluble phase (vaterite) limited by a diffusion process. In all cases, the initial burst of the Ca and Sr release (highest for the SrL cements) that occurred over 48 h did not have a significant effect on the expression of bone markers (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin), the levels of which remained overexpressed after 15 days of culture with human osteoprogenitor (HOP) cells. At the same time, proliferation of HOP cells was significantly higher on SrS cements. Interestingly, this study shows that we can optimize the sustained release of Sr(2+) , the cement biodegradation and biological activity by controlling the route of introduction of strontium in the cement paste. PMID:22102621

  12. Defense Waste Processing Facility canister impact testing

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.; Alzheimer, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    This report summarizes impact testing of seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high level waste canisters during FY 1988. Impact testing was conducted to demonstrate compliance of DWPF canisters with the drop test specification of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification. The prototypical stainless steel canisters were filled with simulated waste to about 85% capacity at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). They were received from SRL in April 1988. Each canister was approximately 300 cm (9 ft 10 in.) long, and 61 cm (2 ft) in diameter, and weighed about 2150 kg (4740 lb). Each canister was dropped twice from a height of 7 m (23 ft). The first drop was a vertical bottom impact where the bottom of the canister was oriented parallel to the impact pad. The second was a center-of-gravity-over-the-corner top impact. Procedures used to examine the canisters were the application and analysis of strain circles, helium leak testing, dye penetrant examination, and canister dimensional measurements. 39 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. The reaction of synthetic nuclear waste glass in steam and hydrothermal solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.

    1989-12-31

    Glass monoliths of the WVCM 44, WVCM 50, SRL 165, and SRL 202 compositions were reacted in steam and in hydrothermal liquid at 200{degree}C. The glass reaction resulted in the formation of leached surface layers in both environments. The reaction in steam proceeds at a very low rate until precipitates form, after which the glass reaction proceeds at a greater rate. Precipitates were formed on all glass types reacted in steam. The assemblage of phases formed was unique to each glass type, but several precipitates were common to all glasses, including analcime, gyrolite, and weeksite. Reaction in steam occurs in a thin layer of condensed water which becomes saturated with respect to the observed phases after only a few days of reaction. The reaction in steam is accelerated relative to reaction in hydrothermal liquid in the sense that secondary phases from after a shorter reaction time, that is, after less glass has reacted, because of the smaller effective leachant volume present in the steam environment. A knowledge of the secondary phases which form and their influence on the glass reaction rate is crucial to the modeling effort of the repository program. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Forensic Medical Assessment for Neurologic Erectile Dysfunction: 58 Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang-you; Shen, Yan; Liu, Hlong-guo

    2015-10-01

    To introduce the approaches and procedures of neurologic erectile dysfunction (ED) assessment in our institute, and evaluate the neurologic investigation by making an analysis of 58 cases. Diagnostic criteria of neurologic ED: nervous system injuries or diseases, abnormal clinical symptoms and signs, electrophysiological abnormalities of nervous system, abnormal results of nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) (penis rigidity <60% and lasting time <10 minutes). In the group of 20 patients with the injuries of the brain, spinal cord or spinal root nerves, pudendal cortical somatic evoked potential (PCSEP), sacral reflex latency (SRL), pudendal-to-cortical motor evoked potential (PCMEP), penile sym- pathetic skin responses (PSSR) and NPTR showed abnormality by 45%, 20%, 20%, 85% and 85%, re- spectively. In 38 patients with the injuries of pelvic fracture with urethra break, PCSEP, SRL, PCMEP, PSSR and NPTR showed abnormality by 24%, 5%, 20%, 92% and 66%, respectively. In the former, 35% were identified to have severe ED, and 50%, moderate ED; in the latter, 21%, to have severe ED, 13%, medium ED, and 37%, light ED. The approaches and procedures were proved to possess excellent specificity and reliability in the assessment of neurological ED. PMID:26821480

  15. The Sahara Troposphere - Simultaneous Aircraft Observations from Fennec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelstaedter, Sebastian; Washington, Richard; Flamant, Cyrille; Allen, Chris J. T.

    2013-04-01

    The Saharan heat low (SHL) that develops over western Africa in Boreal summer has been recognised for its important role in the regional and continental scale climate system. It is co-located with the highest atmospheric dust loading and the deepest dry convective boundary layer in the world. As part of the Fennec 2011 Intensive Observation Period, two aircraft surveyed the SHL region in the morning and afternoon on 22 June 2011 along different tracks employing LIDAR instruments and dropsondes allowing the first characterisation of the structure and daytime evolution of atmospheric features in the central western Sahara including the SHL, the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), the monsoon and atmospheric dust distributions within the system. The observations show a system that is more complex than previously thought. Characteristics include a) a NE-SW orientated SHL, b) a monsoon re-circulation around the SHL associated with dampened Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) growth and Saharan Residual Layer (SRL) top minimum, c) Harmattan winds associated with increased near-surface temperatures and enhanced CBL growth rate and CBL depth, d) near-surface inversions limiting CBL growth and vertical mixing of emitted dust, e) above SRL inversion strength linked to SRL top altitude, f) an aged dust layer close to the SABL top that shows a complex wave-like structure, and g) a potential tropospheric ventilation reducing SRL height and reducing dust concentration. The NE-SW elongated SHL is located over northern Mauritania close to the Mali border in the morning and moves west by about 0.5 to 1.0° in the afternoon corresponding well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The CBL depth ranges from 0.45 to 2.01 km above mean sea level (aMSL) in the morning and from 1.75 to 6.02 km in the afternoon. Low-level inversions in the morning between 0.5 and 0.9 km aMSL are strongest (up to 0.83°C) where the CBL is most shallow and weakening with increasing CBL depth. Above SRL

  16. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    evaluated for potential contamination bias by using the same approach developed by Olsen and others (2010). Some data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for the Southern California Coastal Drainages study unit were included to supplement the GAMA-PBP data. The detection frequency and upper threshold of potential contamination bias (BD-90/90) were determined from field-blank and equipment-blank data for each trace element. The BD-90/90 is the 90th percentile concentration of potential extrinsic contamination calculated by using the binomial probability distribution for greater than 90 percent confidence. Additionally, data from laboratory blanks and blind blanks analyzed by the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) during water years 2010 through 2013, and compiled by the USGS Branch of Quality Systems (BQS), were considered for each trace element. These results were compared to each constituent’s reporting level to determine whether an SRL was necessary to minimize the potential for detections in the groundwater samples, attributed principally to contamination bias. Results of the evaluation were used to set SRLs for trace-element data for about 1,135 samples of groundwater collected by the GAMA-PBP between October 2009 and March 2013. Ten trace elements analyzed (Sb, As, Be, B, Cd, Li, Se, Ag, Tl, and U) had blank results that did not necessitate establishing SRLs during this review or the review by Olsen and others (2010). Five trace elements analyzed (Al, Ba, Cr, Sr, and V) had blank results that necessitated establishing an SRL during the previous review but did not need an SRL starting October 2009. One trace element (Fe) had field and laboratory-blank results that necessitated keeping the previous SRL (6 micrograms per liter [μg/L]). Two trace elements (Ni and W) had quality-control results that warranted decreasing the previous SRL, and five trace elements (Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, and Zn) had field, laboratory, or blind blank results

  17. Exploring clinical reasoning in novices: a self-regulated learning microanalytic assessment approach

    PubMed Central

    Artino, Anthony R; Cleary, Timothy J; Dong, Ting; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to examine the regulatory processes of medical students as they completed a diagnostic reasoning task and to examine whether the strategic quality of these regulatory processes were related to short-term and longer-term medical education outcomes. Methods A self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment was administered to 71 second-year medical students while they read a clinical case and worked to formulate the most probable diagnosis. Verbal responses to open-ended questions targeting forethought and performance phase processes of a cyclical model of SRL were recorded verbatim and subsequently coded using a framework from prior research. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between the SRL processes and several outcomes. Results Most participants (90%) reported focusing on specific diagnostic reasoning strategies during the task (metacognitive monitoring), but only about one-third of students referenced these strategies (e.g. identifying symptoms, integration) in relation to their task goals and plans for completing the task. After accounting for prior undergraduate achievement and verbal reasoning ability, strategic planning explained significant additional variance in course grade (ΔR2 = 0.15, p < 0.01), second-year grade point average (ΔR2 = 0.14, p < 0.01), United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score (ΔR2 = 0.08, p < 0.05) and National Board of Medical Examiner subject examination score in internal medicine (ΔR2 = 0.10, p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that most students in the formative stages of learning diagnostic reasoning skills are aware of and think about at least one key diagnostic reasoning process or strategy while solving a clinical case, but a substantially smaller percentage set goals or develop plans that incorporate such strategies. Given that students who developed more strategic plans

  18. Large Scale Application of Neural Network Based Semantic Role Labeling for Automated Relation Extraction from Biomedical Texts

    PubMed Central

    Barnickel, Thorsten; Weston, Jason; Collobert, Ronan; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Stümpflen, Volker

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the increasing amount of time spent on literature search in the life sciences, several methods for automated knowledge extraction have been developed. Co-occurrence based approaches can deal with large text corpora like MEDLINE in an acceptable time but are not able to extract any specific type of semantic relation. Semantic relation extraction methods based on syntax trees, on the other hand, are computationally expensive and the interpretation of the generated trees is difficult. Several natural language processing (NLP) approaches for the biomedical domain exist focusing specifically on the detection of a limited set of relation types. For systems biology, generic approaches for the detection of a multitude of relation types which in addition are able to process large text corpora are needed but the number of systems meeting both requirements is very limited. We introduce the use of SENNA (“Semantic Extraction using a Neural Network Architecture”), a fast and accurate neural network based Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) program, for the large scale extraction of semantic relations from the biomedical literature. A comparison of processing times of SENNA and other SRL systems or syntactical parsers used in the biomedical domain revealed that SENNA is the fastest Proposition Bank (PropBank) conforming SRL program currently available. 89 million biomedical sentences were tagged with SENNA on a 100 node cluster within three days. The accuracy of the presented relation extraction approach was evaluated on two test sets of annotated sentences resulting in precision/recall values of 0.71/0.43. We show that the accuracy as well as processing speed of the proposed semantic relation extraction approach is sufficient for its large scale application on biomedical text. The proposed approach is highly generalizable regarding the supported relation types and appears to be especially suited for general-purpose, broad-scale text mining systems. The presented approach

  19. An innovative container for WEEE collection and transport: Details and effects following the adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberini, Rita Gebennini, Elisa Rimini, Bianca

    2009-11-15

    The content of hazardous components in Waste arising from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a major concern that urges governments and industry to take measures to ensure proper treatment and disposal. Thus, the European Union issued directives to encourage reuse, recycling and other proper forms of recovery of such waste while companies and academics are still studying methods and technologies for optimizing recovery processes. This paper presents an analysis of the logistics process assuring the correct collection, handling, transportation and storing of WEEE. The experience comes from an Italian WEEE treatment plant (TRED Carpi S.r.l.) where a new kind of container has been introduced in order to improve the logistics system. An evaluation framework is described and used in order to compare different system configurations and assess the advantages emerging from adopting proper equipments for WEEE transport and handling.

  20. Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements Obtained During the 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; Li, Steven; Chen, Huai-Lin; Comer, Joseph; Mathur, Savyasachee; Bobler, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) is a mobile Doppler lidar system that uses direct detection techniques for profiling winds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In May and June of 2002 GLOW was deployed to the Southern Great Plains of the US to participate in the International H2O Project (IHOP). GLOW was located at the Homestead profiling site in the Oklahoma panhandle about 15 km east of the SPOL radar. Several other Goddard lidars, the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) and HARLIE, as well as radars and passive instruments were permanently operated from the Homestead site during the IHOP campaign providing a unique cluster of observations. During the IHOP observation period (May 14, 2002 to June 25, 2002) over 240 hours of wind profile measurements were obtained with GLOW. In this paper we will describe the GLOW instrument as it was configured for the IHOP campaign and we will present examples of wind profiles obtained.

  1. Dapoxetine for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Premature ejaculation, also referred to as rapid or early ejaculation, is a poorly understood disorder with no single, widely-recognised, evidence-based definition. Studies based on patient self-reporting indicate that premature ejaculation is a common complaint with estimated prevalence ranging from 4%-39% of men in the general community.(1) However, a lack of an accurate validated definition has made comparison of the results of such studies difficult.(2) In addition, perception of normal ejaculatory latency varies by country and differs when assessed by the patient or their partner.(3) ▾Dapoxetine (Priligy-A. Menarini Farmaceutica Internazionale SRL), a short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is the first drug to be licensed in the UK for on-demand management of diagnosed premature ejaculation.(4) In this article we review the evidence for dapoxetine and discuss some of the challenges associated with its introduction. PMID:24627135

  2. Broadband Light Source Based on Four-Color Self-Assembled InAs Quantum Dot Ensembles Monolithically Grown in Selective Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Nobuhiko; Takeuchi, Koichi; Ohkouchi, Shunsuke; Ikeda, Naoki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Asakawa, Kiyoshi; Hogg, Richard A.

    We developed advanced techniques for the growth of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for fabricating a broadband light source that can be applied to optical coherence tomography (OCT). Four QD ensembles and strain reducing layers (SRLs) were grown in selective areas on a wafer by the use of a 90° rotational metal mask. The SRL thickness was varied to achieve appropriate shifts in the peak wavelength of the QD emission spectrum of up to 120nm. The four-color QD ensembles were expected to have a broad bandwidth of more than 160nm due to the combination of excited state emissions when introduced in a current-induced broadband light source such as a superluminescent diode (SLD). Furthermore, a desired shape of the SLD spectrum can be obtained by controlling the injection current applied to each QD ensemble. The broadband and spectrum shape controlled light source is promising for high-resolution and low-noise OCT systems.

  3. Alteration zones around Kupferschiefer-type base metal mineralization in West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, F.-P.

    1987-07-01

    Several occurrences of red-colored rocks, which represent an unusual species within the lower Zechstein sediments as well as siderite ribbons and kaolinization have been reported from the West German lower Zechstein sequence. The red-colored rocks had been classified into two types, i.e., the stratiform red layers (SRL) and the Rote Fäule (RF). With regard to the gray beds, both types are characterized by enrichments and depletions of certain elements. As a result, ore-related Rote Fäule could be distinguished from insignificant stratiform red layers. Whereas Rote Fäule, which represents the alteration zone around diagenetic Kupferschiefer-type deposits, is chiefly characterized by apparent red coloring and enrichment in sulfate S, both the siderite ribbons and kaolinization of feldspars refer to formation of Cu-As sulfides and arsenides due to a hydrothermal, epigenetic process. Formation under more oxidizing, synsedimentary conditions is presumed for the stratiform red layers.

  4. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-04-28

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community.

  5. Interconnecting sensors and people to improve the knowledge and sustainable management in rural and alpine environment: the CIRCE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Eugenio; Biddoccu, Marcella; Bagagiolo, Giorgia; De Marziis, Massimo; Gaia Forni, Emanuela; Alemanno, Laura; Ferraris, Stefano; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio; Turconi, Laura; Arattano, Massimo; Coviello, Velio

    2016-04-01

    Environmental sensor monitoring is continuously developing, both in terms of quantity (i.e. measurement sites), and quality (i.e. technological innovation). Environmental monitoring is carried out by either public or private entities for their own specific purposes, such as scientific research, civil protection, support to industrial and agricultural activities, services for citizens, security, education, and information. However, the acquired dataset could be cross-appealing, hence, being interesting for purposes that diverted from their main intended use. The CIRCE project (Cooperative Internet-of-Data Rural-alpine Community Environment) aimed to gather, manage, use and distribute data obtained from sensors and from people, in a multipurpose approach. The CIRCE project was selected within a call for tender launched by Piedmont Region (in collaboration with CSI Piemonte) in order to improve the digital ecosystem represented by YUCCA, an open source platform oriented to the acquisition, sharing and reuse of data resulting both from real-time and on-demand applications. The partnership of the CIRCE project was made by scientific research bodies (IMAMOTER-CNR, IRPI-CNR, DIST) together with SMEs involved in environmental monitoring and ICT sectors (namely: 3a srl, EnviCons srl, Impresa Verde Cuneo srl, and NetValue srl). Within the project a shared network of agro-meteo-hydrological sensors has been created. Then a platform and its interface for collection, management and distribution of data has been developed. The CIRCE network is currently constituted by a total amount of 171 sensors remotely connected and originally belonging to different networks. They are settled-up in order to monitor and investigate agro-meteo-hydrological processes in different rural and mountain areas of Piedmont Region (NW-Italy), including some very sensitive locations, but difficult to access. Each sensor network differs from each other, in terms of purpose of monitoring, monitored

  6. Errors of DWPF frit analysis: Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1993-01-20

    Glass frit will be a major raw material for the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The frit will be controlled by certificate of conformance and a confirmatory analysis from a commercial analytical laboratory. The following effort provides additional quantitative information on the variability of frit chemical analyses at two commercial laboratories. Identical samples of IDMS Frit 202 were chemically analyzed at two commercial laboratories and at three different times over a period of four months. The SRL-ADS analyses, after correction with the reference standard and normalization, provided confirmatory information, but did not detect the low silica level in one of the frit samples. A methodology utilizing elliptical limits for confirming the certificate of conformance or confirmatory analysis was introduced and recommended for use when the analysis values are close but not within the specification limits. It was also suggested that the lithia specification limits might be reduced as long as CELS is used to confirm the analysis.

  7. Errors of DWPF frit analysis: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1993-01-20

    Glass frit will be a major raw material for the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The frit will be controlled by certificate of conformance and a confirmatory analysis from a commercial analytical laboratory. The following effort provides additional quantitative information on the variability of frit chemical analyses at two commercial laboratories. Identical samples of IDMS Frit 202 were chemically analyzed at two commercial laboratories and at three different times over a period of four months. The SRL-ADS analyses, after correction with the reference standard and normalization, provided confirmatory information, but did not detect the low silica level in one of the frit samples. A methodology utilizing elliptical limits for confirming the certificate of conformance or confirmatory analysis was introduced and recommended for use when the analysis values are close but not within the specification limits. It was also suggested that the lithia specification limits might be reduced as long as CELS is used to confirm the analysis.

  8. /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes. Bimonthly report, November-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Folger, R. L.

    1980-11-01

    Progress in the Savannah River Laboratory's /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Program is summarized. Full-scale fabrication tests continued in the Plutonium Experimental Facility (PEF) with the successful fabrication of seven additional GPHS pellets. Three pellets (GPHS Pellets 14, 15, and 16) were fabricated at off-centerline conditions to help define process limits for production of GPHS fuel pellets in the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication (PuFF) Facility. Two additional limit-test pellets (GPHS Pellets 12 and 13) previously hot pressed underwent final heat treatment. Two pellets (GPHS Pellets 17 and 18) were fabricated at centerline conditions as part of the effort to have Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) GPHS pellets impact tested at LASL. All seven pellets remained integral and demonstrated excellent dimensional stability during final heat treatment. However, the quality of those pellets fabricated at centerline conditions was superior to those that were fabricated as part of the limit tests.

  9. Threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Pierowicz, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Calspan SRL Corporation is currently developing an on- vehicle threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance (ICA) as part of its ICA program with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Crash scenarios were previously defined and an on-board radar sensor was designed. This paper describes recent efforts that include the development of a simulation of a multitarget tracker and collision avoidance algorithm used to predict system performance in a variety of target configurations in the various ICA crash scenarios. In addition, a current headway radar was mounted on the Calspan Instrumented Vehicle and in-traffic data were recorded for two limited crash scenarios. Warning functions were developed through the simulation and applied to the recorded data.

  10. Design of a Pu-238 Waste Incineration Process

    SciTech Connect

    Charlesworth, D.L.

    2001-05-29

    Combustible Pu-238 waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored there. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a Pu-238 incineration process is being cold-tested at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986.

  11. Process centrifuge operating problems and equipment failures in canyon reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Baughman, D.F.

    1990-03-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) maintains a compilation of operating problems and equipment failures that have occurred in the fuel reprocessing areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). At present, the data bank contains more than 230,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with the potential for injury or contamination of personnel, or for economic loss. The data bank has been used extensively for a wide variety of purposes, such as failure analyses, trend analyses, and preparation of safety analyses. Typical of the data are problems associated with the canyon process centrifuges. This report contains a compilation of the centrifuge operating problems and equipment failures primarily as an aid to organizations with related equipment. Publication of these data was prompted by a number of requests for this information by other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

  13. Enhancing computing skills of low-achieving students via e-learning: a design experiment of Web-based, problem-based learning and self-regulated learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsang-Hsiung; Shen, Pei-Di; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2008-08-01

    A design experiment was conducted applying Web-based problem-based learning (PBL), self-regulated learning (SRL), or their combination to help low-achieving students improve their skills of deploying application software in a compulsory course at a vocational school in Taiwan. The effects were encouraging and mostly positive. However, students' inertia to change routines of learning inherited from a culture of taking standard tests found in e-learning practice is quite common. A teacher's awareness of these changes and associated resistance may increase likelihood of e-learning success for future trials. Some modifications of the design are thus suggested for the next round of the experiment. PMID:18721091

  14. Satellite Vulnerability to Space Debris- An Improved 3D Risk Assessment Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Lilith; Destefanis, Roberto; Tiboldo, Francesca; Donath, Therese; Winterboer, Arne; Evand, Leanne; Janovsky, Rolf; Kempf, Scott; Rudolph, Martin; Schafer, Frank; Gelhaus, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    The work described in the present paper, performed as a part of the PÇ-ROTECT project, presents an enhanced method to evaluate satellite vulnerability to micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD), using the ESABASE2/Debris tool (developed under ESA contract). Starting from the estimation of induced failures on spacecraft (S/C) components and from the computation of lethal impacts (with an energy leading to the loss of the satellite), and considering the equipment redundancies and interactions between components, the debris-induced S/C functional impairment is assessed. The developed methodology, illustrated through its application to a case study satellite, includes the capability to estimate the number of failures on internal components, overcoming the limitations of current tools which do not allow propagating the debris cloud inside the S/C. The ballistic limit of internal equipment behind a sandwich panel structure is evaluated through the implementation of the Schäfer Ryan Lambert (SRL) Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE).

  15. From Cold War to cold vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Melrath, C.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes a former Soviet weapons plant which is converted to produce cryogenic vessels and other peaceful cylinders. In 1995, Byelocorp Scientific Inc. (BSI), a New York-based firm that specializes in transferring technologies developed in the former Soviet Union, began converting a huge military defense plant in Kazakhstan into civilian-industrial use. The nearly 750,000-square-foot factory in Almaty, the capital of the former Soviet republic, was previously used to manufacture torpedo shells and ballistic rocket casings. The old defense plant, which was known as Gidromash, will now manufacture cylinders of a kinder, gentler variety--cryogenic vessels. The Kazakhstan operation is being managed jointly with Supco Srl., an Italian manufacturing, engineering, and construction company. With financing from the US Department of Defense, BSI, Supco, and the Kazakhstan government, a new joint venture called Byelkamit (a combination of Byelocorp, Kazakhstan, America, and Italy) was established.

  16. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.

  17. PIXIE III: a very large area photon-counting CMOS pixel ASIC for sharp X-ray spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Delogu, P.; de Ruvo, P. L.; Vincenzi, A.

    2015-01-01

    PIXIE III is the third generation of very large area (32 × 25 mm2) pixel ASICs developed by Pixirad Imaging Counters s.r.l. to be used in combination with suitable X-ray sensor materials (Silicon, CdTe, GaAs) in hybrid assemblies using flip-chip bonding. A Pixirad unit module based on PIXIE III shows several advances compared to what has been available up to now. It has a very broad energy range (from 2 to 100 keV before full pulse saturation), high speed (100 ns peaking time), high frame rate (larger than 500 fps), dead-time-free operation, good energy resolution (around 2 keV at 20 keV), high photo-peak fraction and sharp spectral separation between the color images. In this paper the results obtained with PIXIE III both in a test bench set-up as well in X-ray imaging applications are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of liquid-fed ceramic melter scale-up correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the parameters governing factors of scale for liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) in order to design full-scale melters using smaller-scale melter data. Results of melter experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are presented for two feed compositions and five different liquid-fed ceramic melters. The melter performance data including nominal feed rate and glass melt rate are correlated as a function of melter surface area. Comparisons are made between the actual melt rate data and melt rates predicted by a cold cap heat transfer model. The heat transfer model could be used in scale-up calculations, but insufficient data are available on the cold cap characteristics. Experiments specifically designed to determine heat transfer parameters are needed to further develop the model. 17 refs.

  19. A TRMM Rainfall Estimation Method Applicable to Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Oki, R.; Weinman, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing multi-spectral, dual-polarization Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) radiometer measurements, we have developed in this study a method to retrieve average rain rate, R(sub f(sub R)), in a mesoscale grid box of 2deg x 3deg over land. The key parameter of this method is the fractional rain area, f(sub R), in that grid box, which is determined with the help of a threshold on the 85 GHz scattering depression 0 deduced from the SSM/I data. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of this method, nine-months of R(sub f(sub R))are retrieved from SSM/I data over three grid boxes in the Northeastern United States. These retrievals are then compared with the corresponding ground-truth-average rain rate, R(sub g), deduced from 15-minute rain gauges. Based on nine months of rain rate retrievals over three grid boxes, we find that R(sub f(sub R)can explain about 64 % of the variance contained in R(sub g). A similar evaluation of the grid-box-average rain rates R(sub GSCAT) and R(sub SRL), given by the NASA/GSCAT and NOAA/SRL rain retrieval algorithms, is performed. This evaluation reveals that R(sub GSCAT) and R(sub SRL) can explain only about 42 % of the variance contained in R(sub g). In our method, a threshold on the 85 GHz scattering depression is used primarily to determine the fractional rain area in a mesoscale grid box. Quantitative information pertaining to the 85 GHz scattering depression in the grid box is disregarded. In the NASA/GSCAT and NOAA/SRL methods on the other hand, this quantitative information is included. Based on the performance of all three methods, we infer that the magnitude of the scattering depression is a poor indicator of rain rate. Furthermore, from maps based on the observations made by SSM/I on land and ocean we find that there is a significant redundancy in the information content of the SSM/I multi-spectral observations. This leads us to infer that observations of SSM/I at 19 and 37 GHz add only marginal information to that

  20. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

    1989-09-05

    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Formic acid requirement for the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility melter feed preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) will vitrify the high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform using a slurry-fed, joule-heated melter. Formic acid is used to treat the sludge slurry for melter feed preparation. Both a minimum formate requirement and a maximum allowable formate level need to be established to adequately prepare the sludge for melter feed. The data from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Scale Glass Melter (SGM), Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), and research mini-melter runs were used for this purpose. The stoichiometry for major reactions during formic acid treatment was revised to reflect the more predominant chemical reactions and their yields. A minimum formic acid requirement was established according to this revised stoichiometry. Methods for determining the minimum level of formic acid were specified. An operating envelope that includes the maximum total formate level and the minimum nitrate levels, was also proposed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Mitigation alternatives for L Lake. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.B.

    1988-11-03

    L-Lake was built in 1985 to receive and cool the thermal effluents from the L-Reactor. The lake was constructed by impounding approximately 7 km of the upper portions of Steel Creek to form a 1000-acre reservoir. Dam construction and reservoir filling were completed in October 1985 and L-Reactor resumed operations at the end of the same month. Since 1985, this system has been developing a biological community comprised of representatives of all trophic levels. The system is impacted by both temperature from the operating reactor and nutrient inputs from the Savannah River ecosystem. A preliminary evaluation of the technical and monetary feasibilities of a number of thermal and/or nutrient mitigation alternatives for the L-Lake ecosystem has been performed by the Ecology Group of SRL/ESD. This report is a summary of the alternatives considered and their applicability.

  3. Best-estimate Mark 22 power and temperature limits during the flow instability phase of K Reactor LBLOCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, S.; Steiner, J.; Motley, F.; Morgan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been providing independent analyses to the Department of Energy in its endeavor to enhance the safe operation of the K Reactor located at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). LANL has performed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic system simulations to assess the impact of hypothesized accidents in the K Reactor. In particular, the large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) was one of the major transients that was analyzed. The LBLOCA consists of two distinct thermal-hydraulic phases: the flow instability (FI) phase and the emergency coolant system (ECS) phase. Each phase results in reactor temperature and power limits that are determined using different criteria. This document provides a detailed discussion of the simulations of these phases.

  4. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  5. Monte-Carlo simulation studies of the effect of temperature and diameter variation on spin transport in II-VI semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Sabiq; Ghosh, Bahniman; Bishnoi, Bhupesh

    2015-02-01

    We have analyzed the spin transport behaviour of four II-VI semiconductor nanowires by simulating spin polarized transport using a semi-classical Monte-Carlo approach. The different scattering mechanisms considered are acoustic phonon scattering, surface roughness scattering, polar optical phonon scattering, and spin flip scattering. The II-VI materials used in our study are CdS, CdSe, ZnO and ZnS. The spin transport behaviour is first studied by varying the temperature (4-500 K) at a fixed diameter of 10 nm and also by varying the diameter (8-12 nm) at a fixed temperature of 300 K. For II-VI compounds, the dominant mechanism is for spin relaxation; D'yakonovPerel and Elliot Yafet have been actively employed in the first order model to simulate the spin transport. The dependence of the spin relaxation length (SRL) on the diameter and temperature has been analyzed.

  6. Promoting the Self-Regulation of Clinical Reasoning Skills in Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, R; Pesut, D; Kautz, D

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to describe the research surrounding the theories and models the authors united to describe the essential components of clinical reasoning in nursing practice education. The research was conducted with nursing students in health care settings through the application of teaching and learning strategies with the Self-Regulated Learning Model (SRL) and the Outcome-Present-State-Test (OPT) Model of Reflective Clinical Reasoning. Standardized nursing languages provided the content and clinical vocabulary for the clinical reasoning task. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study described the application of the OPT model of clinical reasoning, use of nursing language content, and reflective journals based on the SRL model with 66 undergraduate nursing students over an 8 month period of time. The study tested the idea that self-regulation of clinical reasoning skills can be developed using self-regulation theory and the OPT model. Results: This research supports a framework for effective teaching and learning methods to promote and document learner progress in mastering clinical reasoning skills. Self-regulated Learning strategies coupled with the OPT model suggest benefits of self-observation and self-monitoring during clinical reasoning activities, and pinpoints where guidance is needed for the development of cognitive and metacognitive awareness. Recommendations and Conclusions: Thinking and reasoning about the complexities of patient care needs requires attention to the content, processes and outcomes that make a nursing care difference. These principles and concepts are valuable to clinical decision making for nurses globally as they deal with local, regional, national and international health care issues. PMID:19888432

  7. Mode beating and heterodyning of monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chiyu

    Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive optical sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) because they do not require any feedback elements, do not have parts exposed to external ambient, and can operate in a traveling-wave mode. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, unidirectional traveling-wave operation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing applications. Ring lasers can also be used as ultrashort pulse generators using various mode-locking schemes and as active gyro components. However, the SRL is a very complicated dynamic system, which requires more investigations to understand the performance regarding details of the design and fabrication. As a part of NASA-supported project "Monolithically Integrated Semiconductor Ring Laser Gyro for Space Applications", this dissertation research was focused on design and characterization of a novel monolithically integrated rotation sensor based on two large-size independent SRLs. Numerical modeling based on the beam propagation method (BPM) was used to design the fabrication parameters for the single-mode ridge-waveguide ring cavity and directional coupler waveguides. The mode internal coupling in single lateral-mode laser diodes with InGaAs/GaAs material system was investigated by optical experiments and numerical modeling. To gain the understanding of the SRL performance, optical and electrical characterization was performed on fabricated SRLs. Particular emphasis was placed on the study of optical and radio frequency (RF) beating spectra of longitudinal modes of ring lasers. RF measurements provide high accuracy in the diagnosis of laser oscillation parameters by purely electronic means, particularly in the measurement of the group index and its dependence on current and temperature. Theoretical analysis based on the effective index method provides good agreement between the experimental data and numerical calculations. Finally, optical heterodyning spectra

  8. Measuring system complexity to support development cost estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Wolfarth, L.

    Systems and System-of-Systems (SoS) are being used more frequently either as a design element of stand alone systems or architectural frameworks. Consequently, a programmatic need has arisen to understand and measure systems complexity in order to estimate more accurately development plans and life-cycle costs. In a prior paper, we introduced the System Readiness Level (SRL) concept as a composite function of both Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRLs) and touched on system complexity. While the SRL approach provides a repeatable, process-driven method to assess the maturity of a system or SoS, it does not capture all aspects of system complexity. In this paper we assess the concept of cyclomatic complexity as a system complexity metric and consider its utility as an approach for estimating the life-cycle costs and cost growth of complex systems. We hypothesize that the greater the number of technologies and integration tasks, the more complex the system and the higher its cost to develop and maintain. We base our analysis on historical data from DoD programs that have experienced significant cost growth, including some that have been cancelled due to unsustainable cost (and schedule) growth. We begin by describing the original implementation of the cyclomatic method, which was developed to estimate the effort to maintain system software. We then describe how the method can be generalized and applied to systems. Next, we show how to estimate the cyclomatic number (CN) and show the statistical significance between a system's CN metric and its cost. We illustrate the method with an example. Last, we discuss opportunities for future research.

  9. Effects of spatiotemporal variation of soil salinity on fine root distribution in different plant configuration modes in new reclamation coastal saline field.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Du, Hongyu; Bai, Yingying; Hu, Yue; Rao, Yingfu; Chen, Chong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-04-01

    In order to study the effects of salinity on plant fine roots, we considered three different plant configuration modes (tree stand model (TSM), shrub stand model (SSM), and tree-shrub stand model (TSSM)). Soil samples were collected with the method of soil drilling. Significant differences of electrical conductivity (EC) in the soil depth of 0-60 cm were observed among the three modes (p < 0.05). In the above three modes, the variation of soil salinity among various soil layers and monthly variation of soil salinity were the highest in SSM and reached 2.30 and 2.23 mS/cm (EC1:5), respectively. Due to the effect of salinity, fine root biomass (FRB) showed significant differences in different soil depths (p < 0.05). More than 60 % of FRB was concentrated in the soil depth above 30 cm. FRB showed exponential decline with soil depth (p < 0.05). FRB showed spatial heterogeneity in the 40-cm soil depth. In the above three modes, compared with FRB, specific root length (SRL) and fine root length density (FRLD) showed the similar changing trend. Fine roots showed significant seasonal differences among different modes (p < 0.05). FRB showed the bimodal variation and was the highest in July. However, we found that the high content of salts had obvious inhibitory effect on the distribution of FRB. Therefore, the salinity should be below 1.5 mS/cm, which was suitable for the growth of plant roots. Among the three modes, TSSM had the highest FRB, SRL, and FRLD and no obvious soil salt accumulation was observed. The results indicated that fine root biomass was affected by high salt and that TSSM had the strong effects of salt suppression and control. In our study, TSSM may be the optimal configuration mode for salt suppression and control in saline soil. PMID:26645228

  10. Cardiorespiratory Responses to Stationary Running in Water and on Land

    PubMed Central

    Kruel, Luiz Fernando M.; Beilke, Débora D.; Kanitz, Ana C.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Antunes, Amanda H.; Pantoja, Patrícia D.; da Silva, Eduardo M.; Pinto, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory responses between progressive tests on a treadmill on land (TRE), and stationary running on land (SRL) and in water (SRW), while also comparing two methods of determining the second turn point (ST) (ventilatory curve and heart rate deflection point). The study sample consisted of nine active women (23 ± 1.94 years) that performed three maximal protocols in separate days. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured in all sessions. The data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and two-way repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni test. Greater values of maximal HR (HRmax) and HR at ST (HRST) were observed during exercise performed on TRE and during the SRL, compared to the SRW (p < 0.05). The results for maximal VO2 (VO2max) and VO2 at ST (VO2ST) showed greater and significant values on TRE compared to STL and STW (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HR and VO2 corresponding to the ST showed similar values between the two methods. Thus, the main conclusion of the present study was that the HR deflection point seems to be a simple and practical alternative method for determining the ST in all protocols analyzed. Key Points The maximal and submaximal (second turn point) oxygen uptake were influenced by the type of exercise, as these responses were similar in both water-based and land-based stationary running protocols and different from those obtained during the treadmill running, that presented greater values compared with both stationary running protocols. The heart rate deflection point can be used for determining the second turn point during stationary running test in aquatic environment. Caution is necessary in the interpretation of the application of the heart rate deflection point in water aerobics exercises because we analyzed only young women performing one water-based exercise. PMID:24149170

  11. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  12. Issues in Applying Bio-Inspiration, Cognitive Critical Mass and Developmental-Inspired Principles to Advanced Intelligent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Samsonovich, Alexei V.

    This Chapter summarizes ideas presented at the special PerMIS 2008 session on Biological Inspiration for Intelligent Systems. Bio-inspired principles of development and evolution are a special part of the bio-models and principles that can be used to improve intelligent systems and related artifacts. Such principles are not always explicit. They represent an alternative to incremental engineering expansion using new technology to replicate human intelligent capabilities. They are more evident in efforts to replicate and produce a “critical mass” of higher cognitive functions of the human mind or their emergence through cognitive developmental robotics (DR) and self-regulated learning (SRL). DR approaches takes inspiration from natural processes, so that intelligently engineered systems may create solutions to problems in ways similar to what we hypothesize is occurring with biologics in their natural environment. This Chapter discusses how an SRL-based approach to bootstrap a “critical mass” can be assessed by a set of cognitive tests. It also uses a three-level bio-inspired framework to illustrate methodological issues in DR research. The approach stresses the importance of using bio-realistic developmental principles to guide and constrain research. Of particular importance is keeping models and implementation separate to avoid the possible of falling into a Ptolemaic paradigm that may lead to endless tweaking of models. Several of Lungarella's design principles [36] for developmental robotics are discussed as constraints on intelligence as it emerges from an ecologically balanced, three-way interaction between an agents' control systems, physical embodiment, and the external environment. The direction proposed herein is to explore such principles to avoid slavish following of superficial bio-inspiration. Rather we should proceed with a mature and informed developmental approach using developmental principles based on our incremental understanding of how

  13. Plasticity in above- and belowground resource acquisition traits in response to single and multiple environmental factors in three tree species.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Bellingham, Peter J; Lyver, Philip O'B; Bonner, Karen I; Wardle, David A

    2013-04-01

    Functional trait plasticity is a major component of plant adjustment to environmental stresses. Here, we explore how multiple local environmental gradients in resources required by plants (light, water, and nutrients) and soil disturbance together influence the direction and amplitude of intraspecific changes in leaf and fine root traits that facilitate capture of these resources. We measured population-level analogous above- and belowground traits related to resource acquisition, i.e. "specific leaf area"-"specific root length" (SLA-SRL), and leaf and root N, P, and dry matter content (DMC), on three dominant understory tree species with contrasting carbon and nutrient economics across 15 plots in a temperate forest influenced by burrowing seabirds. We observed similar responses of the three species to the same single environmental influences, but partially species-specific responses to combinations of influences. The strength of intraspecific above- and belowground trait responses appeared unrelated to species resource acquisition strategy. Finally, most analogous leaf and root traits (SLA vs. SRL, and leaf versus root P and DMC) were controlled by contrasting environmental influences. The decoupled responses of above- and belowground traits to these multiple environmental factors together with partially species-specific adjustments suggest complex responses of plant communities to environmental changes, and potentially contrasting feedbacks of plant traits with ecosystem properties. We demonstrate that despite the growing evidence for broadly consistent resource-acquisition strategies at the whole plant level among species, plants also show partially decoupled, finely tuned strategies between above- and belowground parts at the intraspecific level in response to their environment. This decoupling within species suggests a need for many species-centred ecological theories on how plants respond to their environments (e.g. competitive/stress-tolerant/ruderal and

  14. ANL technical support program for DOE Office of Environmental Management. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; DiSanto, T.; Ebert, W.L.

    1996-07-01

    A program was established for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1995 on the following tasks: (1) Tests are ongoing to evaluate and compare the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses with that of glasses having the same compositions except for the absence of radionuclides under conditions representative of a high-level waste repository environment. Data from these tests will be used to evaluate the effect of radionuclides on the glass corrosion behavior and to determine the disposition of the radionuclides as the glass corrodes. Static dissolution tests and unsaturated tests are being conducted with several Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) glasses. (2) A series of static dissolution tests is being performed to compare the corrosion behavior of nuclear waste glasses made with SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits at different S/V ratios. The S/V ratio affects the extent to which dissolved glass species are diluted; the solution chemistry then affects continued glass dissolution. The solutions generated in tests at high S/V ratios are conducive to the formation of alteration phases that may be deleterious to the glass. After long time periods, the glass dissolution rates of both glasses increase coincidentally with the formation of analcime and other alteration phases. However, the release of radionuclides from the glasses into solution is controlled by their individual solubilities.

  15. QTL mapping of agronomic waterlogging tolerance using recombinant inbred lines derived from tropical maize (Zea mays L) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  16. Effects of interfacial layer wettability and thickness on the coating morphology and sirolimus release for drug-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Bedair, Tarek M; Yu, Seung Jung; Im, Sung Gap; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2015-12-15

    Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been used to treat coronary artery diseases by placing in the arteries. However, current DESs still suffer from polymer coating defects such as delamination and peeling-off that follows stent deployment. Such coating defects could increase the roughness of DES and might act as a source of late or very late thrombosis and might increase the incident of restenosis. In this regard, we modified the cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy surface with hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) or hydrophobic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-grafted-poly(caprolactone) (PHEMA-g-PCL) brushes. The resulting surfaces were biocompatible and biodegradable, which could act as anchoring layer for the drug-in-polymer matrix coating. The two modifications were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XPS, water contact angle measurements, SEM and AFM. On the control and modified Co-Cr samples, a sirolimus (SRL)-containing poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) were ultrasonically spray-coated, and the drug release was examined for 8weeks under physiological conditions. The results demonstrated that PHEMA as a primer coating improved the coating stability and degradation morphology, and drug release profile for short-term as compared to control Co-Cr, but fails after 7weeks in physiological buffer. On the other hand, the hydrophobic PHEMA-g-PCL brushes not only enhanced the stability and degradation morphology of the PDLLA coating layer, but also sustained SRL release for long-term. At 8-week of release test, the surface morphologies and release profiles of coated PDLLA layers verified the beneficial effect of hydrophobic PCL brushes as well as their thickness on coating stability. Our study concludes that 200nm thickness of PHEMA-g-PCL as interfacial layer affects the stability and degradation morphology of the biodegradable coating intensively to be applied for various biodegradable-based DESs. PMID:26319336

  17. Small-Molecule Inhibitor Leads of Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins Developed Using the Doorstop Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Park, Jewn Giew; Wang, Shaohua; Vummenthala, Anuradha; Mishra, Rajesh K.; McLaughlin, John E.; Di, Rong; Kahn, Jennifer Nielsen; Tumer, Nilgun E.; Janosi, Laszlo; Davis, Jon; Millard, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxic because they bind to 28S rRNA and depurinate a specific adenine residue from the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL), thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2), produced by Escherichia coli, are RIPs that cause outbreaks of foodborne diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Ricin, produced by the castor bean plant, is another RIP lethal to mammals. Currently, no US Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines nor therapeutics exist to protect against ricin, Shiga-like toxins, or other RIPs. Development of effective small-molecule RIP inhibitors as therapeutics is challenging because strong electrostatic interactions at the RIP•SRL interface make drug-like molecules ineffective in competing with the rRNA for binding to RIPs. Herein, we report small molecules that show up to 20% cell protection against ricin or Stx2 at a drug concentration of 300 nM. These molecules were discovered using the doorstop approach, a new approach to protein•polynucleotide inhibitors that identifies small molecules as doorstops to prevent an active-site residue of an RIP (e.g., Tyr80 of ricin or Tyr77 of Stx2) from adopting an active conformation thereby blocking the function of the protein rather than contenders in the competition for binding to the RIP. This work offers promising leads for developing RIP therapeutics. The results suggest that the doorstop approach might also be applicable in the development of other protein•polynucleotide inhibitors as antiviral agents such as inhibitors of the Z-DNA binding proteins in poxviruses. This work also calls for careful chemical and biological characterization of drug leads obtained from chemical screens to avoid the identification of irrelevant chemical structures and to avoid the interference caused by direct interactions between the chemicals being screened and the luciferase reporter used in screening assays. PMID:21455295

  18. Construction of CHESS compact undulator magnets at Kyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnykh, Alexander B.; Lyndaker, Aaron; Kokole, Mirko; Milharcic, Tadej; Pockar, Jure; Geometrante, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    In 2014 KYMA S.r.l. has built two CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) magnets that are at present installed and successfully operate at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. This type of undulator was developed for upgrade of Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source beam-lines, but it can be used elsewhere as well. CCU magnets are compact, lightweight, cost efficient and in-vacuum compatible. They are linearly polarized undulators and have a fixed gap. Magnetic field tuning is achieved by phasing (shifting) top magnetic array relative bottom. Two CCUs constructed by KYMA S.r.l. have 28.4 mm period, 6.5 mm gap, 0.93 T peak field. Magnetic structure is of PPM type, made with NdFeB (40UH grade) permanent magnet material. Transitioning from the laboratory to industrial environment for a novel design required additional evaluation, design adjusting and extensive testing. Particular attention was given to the soldering technique used for fastening of the magnetic blocks to holders. This technique had thus far never been used before for undulator magnet construction by industry. The evaluation included tests of different types of soldering paste, measurements of strength of solder and determining the deformations of the soldered magnet and holder under simulated loading forces. This paper focuses on critical features of the CCU design, results of the soldering technique testing and the data regarding permanent magnets magnetization change due to soldering. In addition it deals with optimization-assisted assembly and the performance of the assembled devices and assesses some of the results of the CCU magnets operation at CESR.

  19. GVHD prophylaxis with sirolimus-tacrolimus may overcome the deleterious effect on survival of HLA mismatch after reduced-intensity conditioning allo-SCT.

    PubMed

    Parody, R; Lopez-Corral, L; Godino, O L; Cadenas, I G; Martinez, A P; Vazquez, L; Martino, R; Martinez, C; Solano, C; Barba, P; Valcarcel, D; Caballero-Velazquez, T; Marquez-Malaver, F J; Sierra, J; Caballero, D; Perez-Simón, J A

    2015-01-01

    Large studies, mostly based on series of patients receiving CSA/tacrolimus (TKR) plus MTX as immunoprophylaxis, have demonstrated a deleterious effect on survival of the presence of a single mismatch out of eight loci after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (alloHSCT). We retrospectively analyzed a series of 159 adult patients who received sirolimus(SRL)/TKR prophylaxis after alloHSCT. We compared overall outcomes according to HLA compatibility in A, B, C and DRB1 loci at the allele level: 7/8 (n=20) vs 8/8 (n=139). Donor type was unrelated in 95% vs 70% among 7/8 vs 8/8 pairs, respectively (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in 3-year OS (68 vs 62%), 3-year EFS (53 vs 49%) and 1-year non-relapse mortality (9 vs 13%). Cumulative incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) was significantly higher in 7/8 alloHSCT (68% vs 42%, P<0.001) but no significant differences were found for III-IV aGVHD (4.5% vs 11%), overall (35% vs 53%) and extensive (20% vs 35%) chronic GHVD in 7/8 vs 8/8 subgroups, respectively. In summary, the present study indicates favorable outcomes after alloHSCT using the combination of SRL/TKR combination as GVHD prophylaxis with OS in the range of 55-70%, and non-significant differences in overall outcomes, irrespective of the presence of any mismatches at obligatory loci. PMID:25310306

  20. The A1 Subunit of Shiga Toxin 2 Has Higher Affinity for Ribosomes and Higher Catalytic Activity than the A1 Subunit of Shiga Toxin 1.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debaleena; Li, Xiao-Ping; Kahn, Jennifer N; May, Kerrie L; Kahn, Peter C; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections can lead to life-threatening complications, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children in the United States. Stx1 and Stx2 are AB5 toxins consisting of an enzymatically active A subunit associated with a pentamer of receptor binding B subunits. Epidemiological evidence suggests that Stx2-producing E. coli strains are more frequently associated with HUS than Stx1-producing strains. Several studies suggest that the B subunit plays a role in mediating toxicity. However, the role of the A subunits in the increased potency of Stx2 has not been fully investigated. Here, using purified A1 subunits, we show that Stx2A1 has a higher affinity for yeast and mammalian ribosomes than Stx1A1. Biacore analysis indicated that Stx2A1 has faster association and dissociation with ribosomes than Stx1A1. Analysis of ribosome depurination kinetics demonstrated that Stx2A1 depurinates yeast and mammalian ribosomes and an RNA stem-loop mimic of the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) at a higher catalytic rate and is a more efficient enzyme than Stx1A1. Stx2A1 depurinated ribosomes at a higher level in vivo and was more cytotoxic than Stx1A1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Stx2A1 depurinated ribosomes and inhibited translation at a significantly higher level than Stx1A1 in human cells. These results provide the first direct evidence that the higher affinity for ribosomes in combination with higher catalytic activity toward the SRL allows Stx2A1 to depurinate ribosomes, inhibit translation, and exhibit cytotoxicity at a significantly higher level than Stx1A1. PMID:26483409

  1. Intraspecific variation in root and leaf traits and leaf-root trait linkages in eight aspen demes (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides)

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides) with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better understanding of the link between root trait syndromes and the adaptation of a deme to a particular environment is essential in order to improve the match between planted varieties and their growth conditions. We examined the between-deme (genetic) and within-deme (mostly environmental) variation in important fine root traits [mean root diameter, specific root area (SRA) and specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), root tip abundance, root N concentration] and their co-variation with leaf traits [specific leaf area (SLA), leaf size, leaf N concentration] in eight genetically distinct P. tremula and P. tremuloides demes. Five of the six root traits varied significantly between the demes with largest genotypic variation in root tip abundance and lowest in mean root diameter and RTD (no significant difference). Within-deme variation in root morphology was as large as between-deme variation suggesting a relatively low genetic control. Significant relationships existed neither between SLA and SRA nor between leaf N and root N concentration in a plant. Contrary to expectation, high aboveground relative growth rates (RGR) were associated with large, and not small, fine root diameters with low SRA and SRL. Compared to leaf traits, the influence of root traits on RGR was generally low. We conclude that aspen exhibits large intraspecific variation in leaf and also in root morphological traits which is only partly explained by genetic distances. A root order-related analysis might give deeper insights into intraspecific root trait variation. PMID:24155751

  2. /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    j

    1982-11-01

    Progress in studies of /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes is reported. Analytical studies of weld-quench cracking in DOP-26 iridium alloy-clad vent sets in General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) showed that weld-quench cracking is much more severe in MER alloy than in LR and NR alloys. Spark source mass spectrometry indicated that areas in DOP-26 alloy with severe weld-quench cracking have high thorium inhomogeneity. Secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed differences in LR and MR alloys that may be related to their dissimilar susceptibilities for weld-quench cracking. Impact ductility tests showed that welds in DOP-26 alloy clad vent sets made using parameters similar to PuFF production welding had high elongations. Decontamination of encapsulated GPHS pellets in PuFF was demonstrated using a solution of 3.5 M HNO/sub 3/ + 6.4 M HF which is capable of reducing transferable contamination below the specified 10/sup 3/ dpm upper limit in <30 minutes at a bath temperature of 80/sup 0/C using ultrasonic cleaning. Decontamination vessels were constructed to trap and condense acid vapors during decontamination. Impact and metallographic data showed that although the micro and macrostructures between LANL and SRL pellets have large differences, the difference in impact response between these two types of pellets is not correspondingly large. Both types of pellets have impacted successfully. The micro and macrostructures of SRP pellets made with either low fired shards sintered in Ar/5%O/sub 2/ or Ar are intermediate between those of the LANL and SRL pellets. Therefore, either type of SRP pellet should impact successfully.

  3. Biodegradable polymer brush as nanocoupled interface for improving the durability of polymer coating on metal surface.

    PubMed

    Bedair, Tarek M; Cho, Youngjin; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2014-10-01

    Metal-based drug-eluting stents (DESs) have severe drawbacks such as peeling-off and cracking of the coated polymer. To prevent the fracture of polymer-coated layer and improve the durability of DES, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) brushes were synthesized onto cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr or CC) surface through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) followed by surface-initiated ring opening polymerization (SI-ROP) of l-lactide. The polymer brushes were then characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All of the unmodified and modified Co-Cr surfaces were coated with a matrix of poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL). The in vitro drug release profile was measured for 70 days. The PLLA-modified Co-Cr showed a biphasic release pattern in the initial burst followed by a slow release. On the other hand, the unmodified Co-Cr showed fast drug release and detachment of the coated polymer layer due to the instability of the polymer layer on Co-Cr surface. In comparison, the PLLA-modified Co-Cr preserved a uniform coating without detachment even after 6 weeks of degradation test. The platelet morphology and low density of platelet adhered on the modified layer and the SRL-in-PDLLA coated Co-Cr surfaces demonstrated that these samples would be blood compatible. Therefore, the introduction of PLLA brush onto Co-Cr surface is proved to dramatically improve the durability of the coating layer, and it is a promising strategy to prevent the coating defects found in DESs. PMID:25200098

  4. Removal of cesium from aluminum decladding wastes generated in irradiated target processing using a fixed-bed column of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, R.R.; Williams, D.F.; Bond, W.D.; Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.

    1994-09-01

    The removal of cesium (Cs) from a low-level liquid waste (LLLW) with a cation-exchange column was demonstrated using a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. The RF resin was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and is highly specific for the removal of Cs from an alkaline waste of high sodium content. It was determined that the RF resin would be suitable for removing Cs, the largest gamma radiation contributor, from the LLLW generated at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presently, the disposal of the LLLW is limited due to the amount of Cs contained in the waste. Cesium removal from the waste solution offers immediate benefits by conserving valuable tank space and would allow cask shipments of the treated waste should the present Laboratory pipelines become unavailable in the future. Preliminary laboratory tests of the RF resins, supplied from two different sources, were used to design a full-scale cation-exchange column for the removal of Cs from a Mark 42 SRL fuel element dejacketing waste solution. The in-cell tests reproduced the preliminary bench-scale test results. The initial Cs breakthrough range was 85--92 column volumes (CV). The resin capacity for Cs was found to be {approximately}0.35 meq per gram of resin. A 1.5-liter resin bed loaded a combined {approximately}1,300 Ci of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. A distribution coefficient of {approximately}110 CV was determined, based on a 50% Cs breakthrough point. The kinetics of the system was studied by examining the rate parameters; however, it was decided that several more tests would be necessary to define the mass transfer characteristics of the system.

  5. Zone of capture analysis for the A/M area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.; Beaudoin, C.M.; Schreuder, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    The groundwater of the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) as the result of the past use and disposal of these solvents. For the purpose of remediating this contamination, the A/M Area of the SRS has been divided into three sectors termed the central, northern (or SRL), and southern sectors. The central portion of the A/M Area has had an active remediation system of eleven recovery wells since 1985 and its effectiveness has been evaluated through groundwater modeling. Remediation will soon begin at the northern or SRL sector with a pump and treat system of six wells distributed at four different locations with total pumping of approximately 250 gallons per minute (gpm). The locations and effectiveness of the capture system for each sector has been estimated through groundwater modeling without full consideration of the central recovery system. This report will provide an estimate of the number of recovery wells required for the southern sector and also consider the effects of the current and planned recovery systems for the northern and central plumes. The southern sector contamination (which is defined as the area south of the M-Area basin) has been initially characterized and one recovery well (RWM-16) has been installed, for which an aquifer test was performed. However, to date a recovery well system has not been designed for the southern sector nor has a comprehensive evaluation of the recovery systems for all three sectors been completed. The purpose of this groundwater modeling study is to: (1) determine the location and number of recovery wells necessary to contain or remediate the southern sector, and (2) complete an analysis of the combined central, northern and estimated southern sector remediation so that the interactions of the systems can be determined.

  6. Evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) blank data and application of study reporting levels to groundwater data collected for the California GAMA Priority Basin Project, May 2004 through September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed in quality-control samples collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. From May 2004 through September 2010, a total of 2,026 groundwater samples, 211 field blanks, and 109 source-solution blanks were collected and analyzed for concentrations of 85 VOCs. Results from analyses of these field and source-solution blanks and of 2,411 laboratory instrument blanks during the same time period were used to assess the quality of data for the 2,026 groundwater samples. Eighteen VOCs were detected in field blanks or source-solution blanks: acetone, benzene, bromodichloromethane, 2-butanone, carbon disulfide, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethene, styrene, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, trichloroethene, trichlorofluoromethane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m- and p-xylenes, and o-xylene. The objective of the evaluation of the VOC-blank data was to determine if study reporting levels (SRLs) were needed for any of the VOCs detected in blanks to ensure the quality of the data from groundwater samples. An SRL is equivalent to a raised reporting level that is used in place of the reporting level used by the analyzing laboratory [long‑term method detection level (LT-MDL) or laboratory reporting level (LRL)] to reduce the probability of reporting false-positive detections. Evaluation of VOC-blank data was done in three stages: (1) identification of a set of representative quality‑control field blanks (QCFBs) to be used for calculation of SRLs and identification of VOCs amenable to the SRL approach, (2) evaluation of potential sources of contamination to blanks and groundwater samples by VOCs detected in field blanks, and (3) selection of appropriate SRLs from among four potential SRLs for VOCs detected in field blanks and application of those SRLs to the groundwater data. An important conclusion from this study is that to ensure the

  7. Corrosion testing of a plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate glass made with Frit B.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-30

    releases of Gd, Hf, and Pu from the glass were also measured. The release of Pu was significantly less than Si at all temperatures and pH values (on a normalized basis). More Gd than Pu or Hf was released from the glass in acidic solutions, but more Pu than Gd or Hf was released in alkaline solutions. Almost all of the released Gd remained in solution in tests conducted in Teflon vessels, whereas about half of the released Pu and Hf became fixed to the Teflon. In tests conducted in Type 304L stainless steel vessels, most of the released Gd, Hf, and Pu became fixed to the steel. The aqueous concentrations of Gd, Hf, and Pu decreased from about 2 x 10{sup -5}, 2 x 10{sup -8}, and 1 x 10{sup -7} M in tests solutions near pH 3.7 to about 1 x 10{sup -9}, 8 x 10{sup -10}, and 1 x 10{sup -8} M in test solutions near pH 10.8, respectively, in the 90 C tests in Teflon vessels (the solutions were not filtered prior to analysis). Vapor hydration tests (VHTs) were conducted at 120 and 200 C with Pu LaBS-B glass and SRL 418 glass, which was made to represent the HLW glass that will be used to macro-encapsulate LaBS glass within the waste form. Some VHTs were conducted with specimens of Pu LaBS-B and SRL 418 glasses that were in contact to study the effect of the solution generated as HLW glass dissolves on the corrosion behavior of Pu LaBS-B glass. Other VHTs were conducted in which the glasses were not in contact. The Pu LaBS-B glass is more durable than the HLW glass under these accelerating test conditions, even when the glasses are in contact. The presence of the SRL 418 glass did not promote the dissolution of the Pu LaBS-B glass significantly. However, Gd, Hf, and Pu were detected in alteration phases formed on the Pu LaBS-B glass surface and in (or on) phases formed by SRL 418 glass degradation, such as analcime. This indicates that Gd, Hf, and Pu were transported from the LaBS glass, through the water film formed on the specimens, and to the SRL 418 glass during the test. The

  8. Fast vibrational imaging of single cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Ping; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-08-19

    Traditionally, molecules are analyzed in a test tube. Taking biochemistry as an example, the majority of our knowledge about cellular content comes from analysis of fixed cells or tissue homogenates using tools such as immunoblotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These tools can indicate the presence of molecules but do not provide information on their location or interaction with each other in real time, restricting our understanding of the functions of the molecule under study. For real-time imaging of labeled molecules in live cells, fluorescence microscopy is the tool of choice. Fluorescent labels, however, are too bulky for small molecules such as fatty acids, amino acids, and cholesterol. These challenges highlight a critical need for development of chemical imaging platforms that allow in situ or in vivo analysis of molecules. Vibrational spectroscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering is widely used for label-free analysis of chemical content in cells and tissues. However, the Raman process is a weak effect, limiting its application for fast chemical imaging of a living system. With high imaging speed and 3D spatial resolution, coherent Raman scattering microscopy is enabling a new approach for real-time vibrational imaging of single cells in a living system. In most experiments, coherent Raman processes involve two excitation fields denoted as pump at ωp and Stokes at ωs. When the beating frequency between the pump and Stokes fields (ωp - ωs) is resonant with a Raman-active molecular vibration, four major coherent Raman scattering processes occur simultaneously, namely, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at (ωp - ωs) + ωp, coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) at ωs - (ωp - ωs), stimulated Raman gain (SRG) at ωs, and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) at ωp. In SRG, the Stokes beam experiences a gain in intensity, whereas in SRL, the pump beam experiences a loss. Both SRG and SRL belong to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS

  9. Fast Vibrational Imaging of Single Cells and Tissues by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Traditionally, molecules are analyzed in a test tube. Taking biochemistry as an example, the majority of our knowledge about cellular content comes from analysis of fixed cells or tissue homogenates using tools such as immunoblotting and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. These tools can indicate the presence of molecules but do not provide information on their location or interaction with each other in real time, restricting our understanding of the functions of the molecule under study. For real-time imaging of labeled molecules in live cells, fluorescence microscopy is the tool of choice. Fluorescent labels, however, are too bulky for small molecules such as fatty acids, amino acids, and cholesterol. These challenges highlight a critical need for development of chemical imaging platforms that allow in situ or in vivo analysis of molecules. Vibrational spectroscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering is widely used for label-free analysis of chemical content in cells and tissues. However, the Raman process is a weak effect, limiting its application for fast chemical imaging of a living system. With high imaging speed and 3D spatial resolution, coherent Raman scattering microscopy is enabling a new approach for real-time vibrational imaging of single cells in a living system. In most experiments, coherent Raman processes involve two excitation fields denoted as pump at ωp and Stokes at ωs. When the beating frequency between the pump and Stokes fields (ωp – ωs) is resonant with a Raman-active molecular vibration, four major coherent Raman scattering processes occur simultaneously, namely, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at (ωp – ωs) + ωp, coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) at ωs – (ωp – ωs), stimulated Raman gain (SRG) at ωs, and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) at ωp. In SRG, the Stokes beam experiences a gain in intensity, whereas in SRL, the pump beam experiences a loss. Both SRG and SRL belong to

  10. Does Multi-Segment Rupture Occur on the Wasatch Fault Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duross, C. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) is one of the most-studied normal faults in the Basin and Range Province, but the potential for multi-segment ruptures (MSRs) among its segments is poorly understood. Evaluating the characteristics of surface faulting along the WFZ, including whether paleoseismic data support the possibility of MSRs between adjacent segments, is an important step in understanding normal-fault hazards and improving earthquake-probability studies. Vertical-displacement (VD) data from 16 paleoseismic sites on the central WFZ segments (Brigham City to Levan) indicate a tendency for single-segment ruptures (SSRs), but do not preclude the possibility of MSRs. The VD observations range from 0.5-0.8 to 4.7 m, and the mean VD per earthquake is 2.1±0.97 m (1 sigma), based on 35 measurements. The largest VDs along the WFZ correspond well with the maximum displacements predicted from a displacement - surface-rupture-length (D-SRL) regression for normal faults. However, 86-90% of the WFZ VDs are larger than the average displacements predicted by D-SRL regressions for normal- and all-fault types. When normalized by segment length, over 70% of the VD data fit within a half- ellipse-shaped slip envelope that shows VD decreasing from a maximum of 1.8-3.4 m near the segment centers to ~0.8-2.1 m near the segment ends. Although the VD data support SSRs, several anomalously large VDs near the ends of the segments suggest fault ruptures at least 20 km longer than the mapped segment lengths. Evaluating the potential for MSRs among WFZ paleoearthquakes requires quantifying the uncertainty in the timing of individual events, similarity in the timing of events on adjacent segments (low to high MSR potential), and quality of supporting chronological data (low to high paleoseismic-event confidence). On the four central- most segments (Brigham City to Provo), existing paleoseismic data suggest the possibility of six MSR pairs among 16 post-6500 cal yr B.P. earthquakes. Among the

  11. The vertical structure of the Saharan boundary layer: Observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Carreras, L.; Parker, D. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Rosenberg, P.; Marenco, F.; Mcquaid, J.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical structure of the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) is investigated with the use of aircraft data from the Fennec observational campaign, and high-resolution large-eddy model (LEM) simulations. The SABL is one of the deepest on Earth, and crucial in controlling the vertical redistribution and long-range transport of dust in the Sahara. The SABL is typically made up of an actively growing convective region driven by high sensible heating at the surface, with a deep, near-neutrally stratified Saharan residual layer (SRL) above it, which is mostly well mixed in humidity and temperature and reaches a height of ~500hPa. These two layers are usually separated by a weak (≤1K) temperature inversion, making the vertical structure very sensitive to the surface fluxes. Large-eddy model (LEM) simulations initialized with radiosonde data from Bordj Bardji Mokhtar (BBM), southern Algeria, are used to improve our understanding of the turbulence structure of the stratification of the SABL, and any mixing or exchanges between the different layers. The model can reproduce the typical SABL structure from observations, and a tracer is used to illustrate the growth of the convective boundary layer into the residual layer above. The heat fluxes show a deep entrainment zone between the convective region and the SRL, potentially enhanced by the combination of a weak lid and a neutral layer above. The horizontal variability in the depth of the convective layer was also significant even with homogeneous surface fluxes. Aircraft observations from a number of flights are used to validate the model results, and to highlight the variability present in a more realistic setting, where conditions are rarely homogeneous in space. Stacked legs were performed to get an estimate of the mean flux profile of the boundary layer, as well as the variations in the vertical structure of the SABL with heterogeneous atmospheric and surface conditions. Regular radiosondes from BBM put

  12. Using CFD as a Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Canabal, Francisco; Rocker, marvin; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2005-01-01

    New programs are forcing American propulsion system designers into unfamiliar territory. For instance, industry s answer to the cost and reliability goals set out by the Next Generation Launch Technology Program are engine concepts based on the Oxygen- Rich Staged Combustion Cycle. Historical injector design tools are not well suited for this new task. The empirical correlations do not apply directly to the injector concepts associated with the ORSC cycle. These legacy tools focus primarily on performance with environment evaluation a secondary objective. Additionally, the environmental capability of these tools is usually one-dimensional while the actual environments are at least two- and often three-dimensional. CFD has the potential to calculate performance and multi-dimensional environments but its use in the injector design process has been retarded by long solution turnaround times and insufficient demonstrated accuracy. This paper has documented the parallel paths of program support and technology development currently employed at Marshall Space Flight Center in an effort to move CFD to the forefront of injector design. MSFC has established a long-term goal for use of CFD for combustion devices design. The work on injector design is the heart of that vision and the Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap that focuses the vision. The SRL concept, combining solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, has been established as a quantitative gauge of current and desired capability. Three examples of current injector analysis for program support have been presented and discussed. These examples are used to establish the current capability at MSFC for these problems. Shortcomings identified from this experience are being used as inputs to the Roadmap process. The SRL evaluation identified lack of demonstrated solution accuracy as a major issue. Accordingly, the MSFC view of code validation and current MSFC-funded validation efforts were discussed in

  13. Prednisolone- and sirolimus-eluting stent: Anti-inflammatory approach for inhibiting in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Youn; Bae, In-Ho; Sung Park, Dae; Jang, Eun-Jae; Shim, Jae-Won; Lim, Kyung-Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are powerful anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-proliferative agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a prednisolone- (PDScs) and sirolimus-coated stent (SRLcs) in preventing artery vessel neointimal hyperplasia and inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo. PDS, a synthetic glucocorticoid, is a derivative of cortisol, which is used to treat a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. The stents were fabricated with PDS, SRL, or both agents using a layer-by-layer coating system (designated as PDScs, SRLcs, and PDSRLcs, respectively). The surface morphology of the PDScs showed an evenly dispersed and roughened shape, which was smoothened by the SRL coating. Half of the total drug amounts were released within seven days, followed by an additional release, which continued for up to 28 days. The proliferation of smooth muscle cells was inhibited in the SRLcs group (31.5 ± 4.08%), and this effect was enhanced by PDS addition (PDSRLcs, 46.8 ± 8.11%). Consistently, in the animal study, the restenosis rate was inhibited by the SRLcs and PDSRLcs (18.5 ± 6.23% and 14.5 ± 3.55%, respectively). Especially, fibrin expression and inflammation were suppressed in the PDS-containing group (PDScs, 0.6 ± 0.12 and 1.4 ± 0.33; PDSRLcs, 0.7 ± 0.48 and 1.7 ± 0.12, respectively) compared to PDS non-containing groups (BMS, 1.1 ± 0.12, and 1.8 ± 0.55; SRLcs, 1.6 ± 0.32 and 2.0 ± 0.62, respectively). Moreover, re-endothelialization was enhanced in the PDScs group as determined using immunohistochemistry with a cluster of differentiation (CD)-31 antibodies. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of SRLcs on anti-restenosis can be accelerated by additional coating with PDS, which has promising properties as a bioactive compound with useful anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26873634

  14. Managing Risk for Cassini During Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MOandDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona M.

    2002-01-01

    A Risk Management Process has been tailored for Cassini that not only satisfies the requirements of NASA and JPL, but also allows the Program to proactively identify and assess risks that threaten mission objectives. Cassini Risk Management is a team effort that involves both management and engineering staff. The process is managed and facilitated by the Mission Assurance Manager (MAM), but requires regular interactions with Program Staff and team members to instill the risk management philosophy into the day to day mission operations. While Risk Management is well defined for projects in the development phase, it is a relatively new concept for Mission Operations. The Cassini team has embraced this process and has begun using it in an effective, proactive manner, to ensure mission success. It is hoped that the Cassini Risk Management Process will form the basis by which risk management is conducted during MO&DA on future projects. proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully implemented a Risk Management Process for mission operations, The initial SRL has been developed and input into he online tool. The Risk Management webbased system has been rolled out for use by the flight team and risk owners we working proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully

  15. Standardized method to quantify the variation in voxel value distribution in patient-simulated CBCT data sets

    PubMed Central

    Gotfredsen, E; Wenzel, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To suggest a standardized method to assess the variation in voxel value distribution in patient-simulated CBCT data sets and the effect of time between exposures (TBE). Additionally, a measurement of reproducibility, Aarhus measurement of reproducibility (AMORe), is introduced, which could be used for quality assurance purposes. Methods: Six CBCT units were tested [Cranex® 3D/CRAN (Soredex Oy, Tuusula, Finland); Scanora® 3D/SCAN (Soredex Oy); NewTom™ 5G/NEW5 (QR srl, Verona, Italy); i-CAT/ICAT (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA); 3D Accuitomo FPD80/ACCU (Morita, Kyoto, Japan); and NewTom VG/NEWV (QR srl)]. Two sets of volumetric data of a wax-imbedded dry human skull (containing a titanium implant) were acquired by each CBCT unit at two sessions on separate days. Each session consisted 21 exposures: 1 “initial” followed by a 30-min interval (initial data set), 10 acquired with 30-min TBE (data sets 1–10) and 10 acquired with 15-min TBE (data sets 11–20). CBCT data were exported as digital imaging and communications in medicine files and converted to text files containing x, y and z positions and grey shade for each voxel. Subtractions were performed voxel-by-voxel in two set-ups: (1) between two consecutive data sets and (2) between any subsequent data set and data set 1. The mean grey shade variation for each voxel was calculated for each unit/session. Results: The largest mean grey shade variation was found in the subtraction set-up 2 (27–447 shades of grey, depending on the unit). Considering subtraction set-up 1, the highest variation was seen for NEW5, between data sets 1 and the initial. Conclusions: Discrepancies in voxel value distribution were found by comparing the initial examination of the day with the subsequent examinations. TBE had no predictable effect on the variation of CBCT-derived voxel values. AMORe ranged between 0 and 64. PMID:25354021

  16. Gamma-ray spectrometry of LDEF samples

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 31 samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), including materials of aluminum, vanadium, and steel trunnions were analyzed by ultra-low-level gamma spectroscopy. The study quantified particle induced activations of (sup 22)Na, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 58}Co, and {sup 60}Co. The samples of trunnion sections exhibited increasing activity toward the outer end of the trunnion and decreasing activity toward its radial center. The trunnion sections did not include end pieces, which have been reported to collect noticeable {sup 7}Be on their leading surfaces. No significant {sup 7}Be was detected in the samples analyzed. The Underground Counting Facility at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was used in this work. The facility is 50 ft. underground, constructed with low-background shielding materials, and operated as a clean room. The most sensitive analyses were performed with a 90%-efficient HPGe gamma-ray detector, which is enclosed in a purged active/passive shield. Each sample was counted for one to six days in two orientations to yield more representative average activities for the sample. The non-standard geometries of the LDEF samples prompted the development of a novel calibration method, whereby the efficiency about the samples surfaces (measured with point sources) predicted the efficiency for the bulk sample.

  17. Engineering simulator applications to emergency preparedness at DOE (Department of Energy) reactor sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984 the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has conducted twenty-five comprehensive emergency preparedness exercises at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Center and Regional Incident Response Centers using the NRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), developed at the INEL, as an engineering simulator. The objective of these exercises has been to assist the NRC in upgrading its preparedness to provide technical support backup and oversight to US commercial nuclear plant licensees during emergencies such as the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident. With the current focus on Department of Energy (DOE) reactor operational safety and emergency preparedness, this capability is envisioned as a means of upgrading emergency preparedness at DOE production and test reactor sites such as the K-Reactor at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL. These technically challenging exercises have been instrumental in enhancing the NRC's technical support capability and overall emergency preparedness and would be expected to produce similar results at DOE reactor sites. 3 refs.

  18. Chemical and Structural Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materials under Electron Beam

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results. PMID:25027190

  19. Plutonium scrap recovery at Savannah River: Past, present, and vision of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Blancett, A.L.; Lower, M.W.; Rudisill, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the changing requirement, plus environmental and regulatory commitments, SRP now has essentially completed its paradigm shift. SRP has been transformed from primarily a reprocessor of irradiated uranium targets to primarily a reprocessor of non-specification plutonium. This is the mission which will carry SRP into the 21st Century. Accomplishment of the defined goals for the three-pronged RandD program will achieve several objectives: exploit new processes for recovering low-grade scraps; enhance SRP's position to incorporate pyrochemical processes where they are attractive or beneficial to plant scrap recovery; provide SRL/SRP with a capability to develop compatible aqueous pyrochemical processes; identify material compatibility requirements for the incorporation of pyrochemical processes at SRP; promote development and demonstration of improved NDA instrumentation to accurately measure plutonium holdups in solid residues; identify and implement the technology required for reagent preparation and atmospheric quality control; provide a means to compare economic options for emerging new processes; and as a result, identify process steps which will also put SRP in a position to readily adapt to changing plutonium missions.

  20. Transport and reaction kinetics at the glass:solution interface region: Results of repository-oriented leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.

    1986-12-31

    Repository-oriented leaching experiments involving Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) 165 type glass under a {gamma}-radiation field (1 = 0.2 x 10{sup 4} R/h) have been performed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project. In this communication, we discuss glass surface analyses obtained by SEM, nuclear resonance profiling, and SIMS together with leachate solution data in relation to a mechanism that couples diffusion, hydrolysis (etching and gelation), and precipitation to qualitatively describe the release of different glass components to the leachant solutions. The release of mobile (e.g., Li) and partly mobile (e.g., B) species is controlled primarily by interdiffusion with water species across the interdiffusion zone. Glass components that are immobile in the interdiffusion zone are released to the solution by etching. For prediction of long-term steady-state concentrations of glass components with low solubility, the relative rates of release from the glass and secondary mineral precipitation must be taken into account.

  1. Lidar Applications in Atmospheric Dynamics: Measurements of Wind, Moisture and Boundary Layer Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoz, Belay; Whiteman, David; Gentry, Bruce; Schwemmer, Geary; Evans, Keith; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Comer, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A large array of state-of-the-art ground-based and airborne remote and in-situ sensors were deployed during the International H2O Project (THOP), a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States from 13 May to 30 June 2002. These instruments provided extensive measurements of water vapor mixing ratio in order to better understand the influence of its variability on convection and on the skill of quantitative precipitation prediction (Weckwerth et all, 2004). Among the instrument deployed were ground based lidars from NASA/GSFC that included the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the Goddard Laboratory for Observing Winds (GLOW), and the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE). A brief description of the three lidars is given below. This study presents ground-based measurements of wind, boundary layer structure and water vapor mixing ratio measurements observed by three co-located lidars during MOP at the MOP ground profiling site in the Oklahoma Panhandle (hereafter referred as Homestead). This presentation will focus on the evolution and variability of moisture and wind in the boundary layer when frontal and/or convergence boundaries (e.g. bores, dry lines, thunderstorm outflows etc) were observed.

  2. Super-TIGER-2: A Very Large-Area, High-Resolution Trans-Iron Galactic Cosmic Ray Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewaldt, Richard

    Caltech's Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL), in collaboration with Washington University, the Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the University of Minnesota, is submitting a Multiple-Institution Proposal (headed by W. R. Binns of Washington University) to analyze data from the first flight of the Very-Large-Area, HighResolution, Trans-Iron Cosmic Ray Investigation (Super-TIGER) as well as to make necessary preparatory steps for a second flight of the instrument. The main proposal is titled SuperTIGER-2: A Very-Large-Area, High- Resolution Trans-Iron Galactic Cosmic Ray Investigation. Super-TIGER measures abundances of cosmic rays with atomic number Z from 30 to 56 with an unprecedented combination of individual element resolution and statistical precision. The instrument also measures with very high precision the energy spectra of more abundant cosmic ray elements with Z=10-30 at energies in the 0.8-10 GeV/nuc range. With these measurements, we can evaluate against data the emerging model of cosmic ray origin in OB associations, and we will extend to higher Z models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration to cosmic ray energies.

  3. Do the A subunits contribute to the differences in the toxicity of Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2?

    PubMed

    Basu, Debaleena; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is one of the leading causes of food-poisoning around the world. Some STEC strains produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or variants of either toxin, which are critical for the development of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Currently, there are no therapeutic treatments for HC or HUS. E. coli O157:H7 strains carrying Stx2 are more virulent and are more frequently associated with HUS, which is the most common cause of renal failure in children in the US. The basis for the increased potency of Stx2 is not fully understood. Shiga toxins belong to the AB5 family of protein toxins with an A subunit, which depurinates a universally conserved adenine residue in the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA and five copies of the B subunit responsible for binding to cellular receptors. Recent studies showed differences in the structure, receptor binding, dependence on ribosomal proteins and pathogenicity of Stx1 and Stx2 and supported a role for the B subunit in differential toxicity. However, the current data do not rule out a potential role for the A1 subunits in the differential toxicity of Stx1 and Stx2. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding the differences in the A1 subunits of Stx1 and Stx2 and their role in defining toxicity. PMID:25938272

  4. Subtropical Cirrus Properties Derived from GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements during CAMEX 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Wang, Z.; Demoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island, Bahamas for the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 3) held in August - September, 1998 and acquired an extensive set of water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements (Whiteman et al., 2001). The cirrus data studied here have been segmented by generating mechanism. Distinct differences in the optical properties of the clouds are found when the cirrus are hurricane-induced versus thunderstom-induced. Relationships of cirrus cloud optical depth, mean cloud temperature, and layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S) are presented and compared with mid-latitude and tropical results. Hurricane-induced cirrus clouds are found to generally possess lower values of S than thunderstorm induced clouds. Comparison of these measurements of S are made with other studies revealing at times large differences in the measurements. Given that S is a required parameter for spacebased retrievals of cloud optical depth using backscatter lidar, these large diffaences in S measurements present difficulties for space-based retrievals of cirrus cloud extinction and optical depth.

  5. One Year of FOS Measurements in CMS Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szillási, Zoltán; Buontempo, Salvatore; Béni, Noémi; Breglio, Giovanni; Cusano, Andrea; Laudati, Armando; Giordano, Michele; Saccomanno, Andrea; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Tsirou, Andromachi

    Results are presented on the activity carried out by our research group, in collaboration with the SME Optosmart s.r.l. (an Italian spin-off company), on the application of Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) techniques to monitor high-energy physics (HEP) detectors. Assuming that Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs) radiation hardness has been deeply studied for other field of application, we have applied the FBG technology to the HEP research domain. We present here the experimental evidences of the solid possibility to use such a class of sensors also in HEP detector very complex environmental side conditions. In particular we present more than one year data results of FBG measurements in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment set up at the CERN, where we have monitored temperatures (within CMS core) and strains in different locations by using FBG sensors during the detector operation with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions and high magnetic field. FOS data and FOS readout system stability and reliability is demonstrated, with continuous 24/24 h 7/7d data taking under severe and complex side conditions.

  6. Fifteen years of science and space weather studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenvinge, Tycho T.; Christian, Eric R.

    2012-10-01

    Fifteen years ago, on 25 August 1997, NASA launched the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. In operation for more than a solar cycle, ACE has provided numerous important scientific results while at the same time becoming a key component of the space weather-monitoring system and a cornerstone of the fleet of distributed spacecraft that make up the Heliophysics Great Observatory. ACE is located on the sunward side of Earth about 1.5 million kilometers away, or 4 times as far from Earth as is the Moon. This puts ACE well outside the Earth's magnetosphere and in an ideal position to monitor the solar wind environment "upwind" of Earth. ACE has six high-resolution spectrometers that measure the elemental, isotopic, and ionic charge-state composition of ions from hydrogen to iron; it also includes three particle and field monitors. One of the nine instruments has now failed (Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA)), and two others are partially degraded (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) and Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM)); however, the other six are working well. Instrument descriptions are available on the ACE Web site at http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/.

  7. Multi-element readout of structured HPGe-detectors for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy using CUBE-preamplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krings, T.; Spillmann, U.; Protić, D.; Roß, C.; Stöhlker, Th.; Weber, G.; Bombelli, L.; Alberti, R.; Frizzi, T.

    2015-02-01

    Very recently we have shown that CUBE-preamplifiers developed by XGLab s.r.l. can be used for the readout of single elements of thick structured planar HPGe- and Si(Li)-detectors produced by SEMIKON [1]. In this paper we will present the results of a simultaneous multi-element readout of structured detectors using the same preamplifiers for measuring high-energy x-rays (more than 100 keV) with a comparable energy resolution as for the single-element readout. Several high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe-detectors) with different position sensitive structures on one detector contact have been used for the first tests. In addition to that we have modified an existing 16-pixel HPGe-polarimeter from GSI-Darmstadt with the new readout. The detector elements (7 mm × 7 mm each, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix) are connected to CUBE-preamplifiers used in pulse-reset mode. The technological progress achieved with this detector system resulting in a significant improved energy resolution will contribute a lot to much more precise polarization measurements of x-rays emitted from atom-ion collisions which are part of the physics program of the SPARC collaboration (Stored Particles Atomic Physics Research Collaboration) at GSI and the future FAIR accelerator facility (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research).

  8. Surface-Wave Focal Mechanism of the 23 July 2002 Yellow-Sea Earthquake Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, B. V.; Hsu, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Yellow-Sea earthquake event of 23 July 2002 was reported by the USGS as follows: mb=4.7, Origin Time=12:48:08.23, Latitude = 35.563N, Longitude = 122.183E. In this study, we will present the focal mechanism of this event. Corrected Love-wave and Rayleigh-wave amplitude data from six CDSN stations and INCN station were used in the search for focal mechanism employing the technique of Nguyen and Herrmann (1992, SRL). Eigenfunctions were computed from the average crustal model that was obtained by inversion from surface-wave group velocities of these stations. Surface-wave attenuation coefficients were obtained using the technique of Tsai and Aki (1969). The result for surface-wave focal mechanism is much less as a strike-slip source than a more strike-slip one of the 4.8-mb Yellow-Sea 03 November 1992, as reported by Nguyen (1994 AGU Spring Meeting). The focal mechanism of this event has a nodal plane with dip= 65 deg., slip = 140 deg., and rake = 10 deg. The seismic moment obtained is 1.9E+23 dyne-cm. The source depth is 9 km.

  9. New Ephemeris for LSI+61 303, A Bayesian Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, P. C.

    1997-12-01

    The luminous early-type binary LSI+61 303 is an interesting radio, X-ray and possible gamma-ray source. At radio wavelengths it exhibits periodic outbursts with an approximate period of 26.5 days as well as a longer term modulation of the outburst peaks of approximately 4 years. Recently Paredes et al. have found evidence that the X-ray outbursts are very likely to recur with the same radio outburst period from an analysis of RXTE all sky monitoring data. The system has been observed by many groups at all wavelengths but still the energy source powering the radio outbursts and their relation to the high energy emission remains a mystery. For more details see the "LSI+61 303 Resource Page" at http://www.srl.caltech.edu/personnel/paulr/lsi.html . There has been increasing evidence for a change in the period of the system. We will present a new ephemeris for the system based on a Bayesian analysis of 20 years of radio observations including the GBI-NASA radio monitoring data.

  10. Fifteen years of science and space weather studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rosenvinge, Tycho T.; Christian, Eric R.

    2012-10-01

    Fifteen years ago, on 25 August 1997, NASA launched the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. In operation for more than a solar cycle, ACE has provided numerous important scientific results while at the same time becoming a key component of the space weather-monitoring system and a cornerstone of the fleet of distributed spacecraft that make up the Heliophysics Great Observatory. ACE is located on the sunward side of Earth about 1.5 million kilometers away, or 4 times as far from Earth as is the Moon. This puts ACE well outside the Earth's magnetosphere and in an ideal position to monitor the solar wind environment “upwind” of Earth. ACE has six high-resolution spectrometers that measure the elemental, isotopic, and ionic charge-state composition of ions from hydrogen to iron; it also includes three particle and field monitors. One of the nine instruments has now failed (Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA)), and two others are partially degraded (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) and Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM)); however, the other six are working well. Instrument descriptions are available on the ACE Web site at http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/.

  11. Detecting and monitoring aquacultural patterns through multitemporal SAR imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profeti, Giuliana; Travaglia, Carlo; Carla, Roberto

    2003-03-01

    The inventory and monitoring of aquaculture areas are essential tools for decision-making at a governmental level in developing countries. With the use of satellite imagery, these tasks can be performed in an accurate, rapid and objective way. This approach is also economically viable, as the worth of aquaculture far outweighs its cost. This paper describes a methodology for identifying and monitoring shrimp farms by means of multi-temporal satellite SAR data. SAR offer all-weather capabilities, an important characteristic since shrimp farms exist in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Moreover, the backscatter effect created by the dykes surrounding the ponds produces a typical pattern which allows the interpreter to distinguish them from other types of water-covered surfaces. However, the presence of speckle noise limits the interpretability of SAR imagery. To increase it, a multi-temporal set of four scenes covering the study area was processed by using a method that enhances time-invariant spatial features and reduces speckle without compromising the geometrical resolution of the images. The enhanced SAR imagery has proved to be valuable in identifying shrimp farm patterns with a field-tested accuracy of more than 90 percent. The methodology reported in this study has been tested with the ground truth obtained under operative conditions in Sri Lanka, thanks to the support of the FAO TCP/SRL/6712 project.

  12. Radar observation of Venus' terrestrial analogues using TecSAR X-band SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberg, D. G.

    2012-04-01

    Venus is shrouded in a dense CO2 atmosphere that prevents us from viewing the surface in visible light or with optronic sensors. Long wavelengths are required to 'see' through the dense atmosphere. In the early 1990s, the S-band synthetic aperture radar of the Magellan spacecraft acquired images of a variety of surface features on Venus, including morphologies attributed to wind processes. These include sand dunes, wind-sculpted hills (yardangs), and almost 6000 wind streaks. These aeolian landscapes were formed and shaped by near surface atmospheric circulation and local winds. These can serve as local markers, each providing an integrated wind direction. Since the Magellan mission, there were no missions to Venus until the Venus Express Mission of 2005 to examine the upper atmosphere. The future will probably include high-resolution SAR images of Venus. This poster will demonstrate high resolution SAR images in X-band from the TecSAR sensor launched by Israel in 2008. Observations of wind streaks, dunes and impact craters in desert areas will show the wealth of information that is extracted from high-res X-band data. Detailed images of Aurounga impact crater in Chad, Kelso dunes, California and Pisgah lava flow show immense detail of the morphologies associated with these features. These are compared with Magellan images of sites on Venus and SRL data in C and L-bands. The X-band provides extremely high resolution and resembles optical data much more than the longer wavelengths.

  13. Statistical Evaluation of a Superconductive Physical Random Number Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Tatsuro; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    A physical random number generator, which generates truly random number trains by using the randomness of physical phenomena, is widely used in the field of cryptographic applications. We have developed an ultra high-speed superconductive physical random number generator that can generate random numbers at a frequency of more than 10GHz by utilizing the high-speed operation and high-sensitivity of superconductive integrated circuits. In this study, we have statistically evaluated the quality of the random number trains generated by the superconductive physical random number generator. The performances of the statistical tests were based on a test method provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These statistical tests comprised several fundamental tests that were performed to evaluate the random number trains for their utilization in practical cryptographic applications. We have generated 230 random number trains consisting of 20, 000-bits by using the superconductive physical random number generator fabricated by the SRL 2.5kA/cm2 Nb standard process. The generated random number trains passed all the fundamental statistical tests. This result indicates that the superconductive random number generator can be sufficiently utilized in practical applications.

  14. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Holben, B.; Remer, L.; Smirnov, A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment). Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W), are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and rms differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a)=60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements.

  15. Monitoring seismic velocity changes associated with the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Brenguier, F.; Kong, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze ambient seismic noise wavefield to explore temporal variations in seismic velocity associated with the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. We estimate relative velocity changes (dv/v) with MSNoise [Lecocq et al., 2014, SRL] by analyzing continuous waveforms collected at 10 seismic stations that locate near the epicenter of the 2014 South Napa earthquake. Following Brenguier et al. [2008, Science], our preliminary analysis focuses on the vertical component waveforms in a frequency range of 0.1-0.9 Hz. We determine the reference Green's function (GF) for each station pair as the average of 1-day stacks of GFs obtained in the time interval, January through July 2014. We estimate the time history of dv/v by measuring delay times between 10-day stacks of GF and reference GF. We find about 0.07% velocity reduction immediately after the 2014 South Napa earthquake by measuring the delay times between stacked and reference GFs. Our preliminary result also reveals a post-seismic relaxation process. The velocity reduction is down to 0.04% about 20 days after the 2014 South Napa earthquake. We have implemented an automated system to monitor the time history of dv/v (http://earthquakes.berkeley.edu/~taira/SNapa/SNapa_Noise.html) by using waveforms archived at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center. We will characterize the detailed temporal evolution of velocity change associated with the 2014 South Napa earthquake.

  16. Plant traits as predictor of ecosystem carbon fluxes - a case study across European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bahn, Michael; Acosta, Manuel; Altimir, Nuria; Gimeno, Cristina; Jongen, Marjan; Merbold, Lutz; Moors, Eddy; Pinter, Kistina; Darsonville, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Predicting ecosystem responses to global change has become a major challenge, particularly as terrestrial ecosystems contribute to the mitigation of global climate change through carbon sequestration. Plant traits are major surrogates of ecosystem physiology may thus help to predict carbon (C) fluxes and their consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services (e.g. C sequestration) across climatic gradients and in changing environments. However, linkages between community abundance-weighted means (CWM) of plant functional traits and ecosystem C fluxes have rarely been tested. It is also not known to what degree traits, which are typically measured at a defined point in time, are suitable for predicting annual C fluxes. We analysed the relationships between ecosystem fluxes and community level plant traits for 13 European grasslands under contrasting climate and management regimes, using multiyear eddy covariance data. Plant traits (specific leaf area SLA, leaf dry matter content LDMC, specific root length SLR) were determined at peak biomass. Analyses showed that GPPmax (at maximum radiation) was related to SLA, SRL and LDMC across sites and management, where GPPmax was an excellent indicator for annual GPP. Similar relations were found between for root density (and -diameter) and ecosystem respiration. Ecosystems respiration at GPPmax was also in line with annual respiration, indicating the strong predictive potential of plant community traits. Our study therefore suggests that above- and belowground community level plant traits are well suited surrogates for predicting ecosystem C fluxes at peak biomass and at annual scale.

  17. Raman lidar and sun photometer measurements of aerosols and water vapor during the ARM RCS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Evans, K. D.; Holben, B. N.

    1995-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program. These activities are part of an overall plan to assess general circulation model (GCM) parameterization research. Since radiation processes are one of the key areas included in this parameterization research, measurements of water vapor and aerosols are required because of the important roles these atmospheric constituents play in radiative transfer. Two instruments were deployed during this IOP to measure water vapor and aerosols and study their relationship. The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) acquired water vapor and aerosol profile data during 15 nights of operations. The lidar acquired vertical profiles as well as nearly horizontal profiles directed near an instrumented 60 meter tower. Aerosol optical thickness, phase function, size distribution, and integrated water vapor were derived from measurements with a multiband automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer deployed at this site.

  18. Some results of processing NURE geochemical sampling in the northern Rocky Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, P.A.; Cook, J.R.; Price, V. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was begun in the spring of 1973 to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The significance of the distribution of uranium in natural waters and sediments will be assessed as an indicator of favorable areas for the discovery of uranium deposits. This paper is oriented primarily to the discussion of stream sediments. Data for the Challis 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangle will be used for specific samples of NURE data processing. A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility at SRL is used to determine uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples. Evaluation of the areal distributions of uranium ratios demonstrate that most of the high U/Hf, U/Th and U/(Th + Hf) ratios occur scattered throughout the western two-thirds of the quadrangle. Most of the higher ratio values are found in samples taken at sites underlain by granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith or Tertiary-age plutons.

  19. A climatological description of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1990-05-22

    This report provides a general climatological description of the Savannah River Site. The description provides both regional and local scale climatology. The regional climatology includes a general regional climatic description and presents information on occurrence frequencies of the severe meteorological phenomena that are important considerations in the design and siting of a facility. These phenomena include tornadoes, thunderstorms, hurricanes, and ice/snow storms. Occurrence probabilities given for extreme tornado and non-tornado winds are based on previous site specific studies. Local climatological conditions that are significant with respect to the impact of facility operations on the environment are described using on-site or near-site meteorological data. Summaries of wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability are primarily based on the most recently generated five-year set of data collected from the onsite meteorological tower network (1982--86). Temperature, humidity, and precipitation summaries include data from SRL's standard meteorological instrument shelter and the Augusta National Weather Service office at Bush Field through 1986. A brief description of the onsite meteorological monitoring program is also provided. 24 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Enterosistem 18-R: description and comparative evaluation with conventional methods for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Piccolomini, R; Di Girolamo, A; Catamo, G; Cellini, L; Allocati, N; Ravagnan, G

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of Enterosistem 18-R (Liofilchem s.r.l., Roseto degli Abruzzi, Teramo, Italy) were compared with those of conventional biochemical methods to identify 360 members (38 species) of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, 329 strains (91.3%) were correctly identified (percentage of identification, greater than or equal to 90.0), with 37 (11.2%) requiring additional tests for complete identification. For 11 isolates (3.1%), Enterosistem 18-R gave only genus identifications, and for 14 (3.9%), the strains did not correspond to any key in the codebook and could not be identified by the manufacturer's computer service. Only six isolates (1.7%) were misidentified. The new system accurately identified common and several newly described isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as Enterobacter gergoviae, Providencia rustigianii, Serratia odorifera, and Serratia rubidaea. The system is highly reproducible, simple to perform, easy to handle, and inexpensive. With adjustments in supplementary code numbers for some strains, Enterosistem 18-R is a suitable alternative for identification of members of the Enterobacteriaceae in clinical laboratories. Images PMID:1939588

  1. Small-molecule inhibitors of ricin and Shiga toxins.

    PubMed

    Wahome, Paul G; Robertus, Jon D; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the successes and continuing challenges associated with the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of ricin and Shiga toxins, members of the RNA N-glycosidase family of toxins that irreversibly inactivate eukaryotic ribosomes through the depurination of a conserved adenosine residue within the sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) of 28S rRNA. Virtual screening of chemical libraries has led to the identification of at least three broad classes of small molecules that bind in or near the toxin's active sites and thereby interfere with RNA N-glycosidase activity. Rational design is being used to improve the specific activity and solubility of a number of these compounds. High-throughput cell-based assays have also led to the identification of small molecules that partially, or in some cases, completely protect cells from ricin- and Shiga-toxin-induced death. A number of these recently identified compounds act on cellular proteins associated with intracellular trafficking or pro-inflammatory/cell death pathways, and one was reported to be sufficient to protect mice in a ricin challenge model. PMID:22006183

  2. Dryline on 22 May 2002 During IHOP: Convective Scale Measurements at the Profiling Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoz, Belay; Flamant, Cyrille; Miller, David; Evans, Keith; Fabry, Federic; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Whiteman, David; Geerts, Bart; Weckwerth, Tammy; Brown, William

    2004-01-01

    A unique set of measurements of wind, water vapor mixing ratio and boundary layer height variability was observed during the first MOP dryline mission of 22 May 2002. Water vapor mixing ratio from the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), high-resolution profiles of aerosol backscatter from the HARLIE and wind profiles from the GLOW are combined with the vertical velocity derived from the NCAR/ISS/MAPR and the high-resolution FMCW radar to reveal the convective variability of the cumulus cloud-topped boundary layer. A combined analysis of the in-situ and remote sensing data from aircraft, radiosonde, lidars, and radars reveals moisture variability within boundary layer updraft and downdraft regions as well as characterizes the boundary layer height variability in the dry and moist sides of the dryline. The profiler site measurements will be tied to aircraft data to reveal the relative intensity and location of these updrafts to the dry line. This study provides unprecedented high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of wind, moisture and backscatter within a dryline and the associated convective boundary layer.

  3. The Regulation of Task Performance: A Trans-Disciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian; Dumas, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Definitions of meta-cognition typically have two components: (1) knowledge about one's own cognitive functioning; and, (2) control over one's own cognitive activities. Since Flavell and his colleagues provided the empirical foundation on which to build studies of meta-cognition and the autonoetic (self) knowledge required for effective learning, the intervening years have seen the extensive dissemination of theoretical and empirical research on meta-cognition, which now encompasses a variety of issues and domains including educational psychology and neuroscience. Nevertheless, the psychological and neural underpinnings of meta-cognitive predictions and reflections that determine subsequent regulation of task performance remain ill understood. This article provides an outline of meta-cognition in the science of education with evidence drawn from neuroimaging, psycho-physiological, and psychological literature. We will rigorously explore research that addresses the pivotal role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in controlling the meta-cognitive processes that underpin the self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies learners employ to regulate task performance. The article delineates what those strategies are, and how the learning environment can facilitate or frustrate strategy use by influencing learners' self-efficacy. PMID:26779050

  4. Entrainment sampling at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Savannah River water intakes (1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.

    1990-11-01

    Cooling water for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) L-Reactor, K-Reactor, and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pumphouses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water. They are passed through the reactor heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degree}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is presumably 100%. Apart from a small pilot study conducted in 1989, ichthyoplankton samples have not been collected from the vicinity of the SRS intake canals since 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) resume ichthyoplankton sampling for the purpose of assessing entrainment at the SRS Savannah River intakes. This request is due to the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River. The following scope of work presents a sampling plan that will collect information on the spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae near the SRS intake canal mouths. This data will be combined with information on water movement patterns near the canal mouths in order to determine the percentage of ichthyoplankton that are removed from the Savannah River by the SRS intakes. The following sampling plan incorporates improvements in experimental design that resulted from the findings of the 1989 pilot study. 1 fig.

  5. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  6. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  7. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  8. Satellite Remote Sensing Signatures of Impact Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1995-09-01

    On Earth the impact record is preserved in the form of ~140 landforms [1], although current cratering flux estimates [2] suggest that hundreds of structures remain undiscovered on the terrestrial continents. A primary focus of our ongoing research efforts in this area has necessarily emphasized the geologically most recent impact events, especially those which formed in the last few million years. For example, we have comprehensively examined the orbital remote sensing characteristics of the Zhamanshin impact feature of Kazakhstan, a ~ 14 km diameter complex crater which apparently formed only ~870,000 years ago in a mixed sedimentary target [3]. In this case, we have been most fortunate to have available TM, SPOT Panchromatic (i.e, 10 m spatial resolution), SRL-1 and SRL-2 multiparameter SAR, and a ~ 90 m horizontal resolution DEM, along with excellent field data. The orbital multispectral data (TM) allowed us to discriminate the larger deposits of allogenic breccias at this youthful feature from erosionally emplaced surficial units, and a subtle signature of those areas covered with lag deposits of impact-related glass (zhamanshinites) was also identified [3,4]. As part of an ongoing collaboration with SRL scientists R. Greeley and D. Blumberg, we have also observed that L-band orbital SAR data clearly reveals the subtleties of the drainage networks that developed as a consequence of the cratering event, and which are apparently controlled by crater-related structures and deposit porosities [5]. When the geomorphically subtle Zhamanshin feature is compared against the Bosumtwi crater of Ghana, which apparently formed in crystalline shield rocks at around the same time (~ 1 million years ago), it appears that target rock properties have strongly influenced the level of preservation of these craters. Indeed, SPOT XS remote sensing data for Bosumtwi reveals a relatively pristine "lunar-like" complex crater with a raised rim, a quasi-polygonal outline, and a deep

  9. Neutron activation and other analytical data for plutonic rocks from North America and Africa. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Fay, W.M.; Cook, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this report is to retrieve the elements of an analytical study of granites and associated other plutonic rocks which was begun as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. A discussion of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) neutron activation analysis system is given so that a user will understand the linmitations of the data. Enough information is given so that an experienced geochemist can clean up the data set to the extent required by any project. The data are generally good as they are presented. It is intended that the data be read from a magnetic tape written to accompany this report. Microfiche tables of the data follow the text. These tables were prepared from data on the tape, and programs which will read the tape are presented in the section THE DATA TAPE. It is our intent to write a later paper which will include a thoroughly scrubbed data set and a technical discussion of results of the study. 1 figure.

  10. Simulation of natural corrosion by vapor hydration test: seven-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    We have investigated the alteration behavior of synthetic basalt and SRL 165 borosilicate waste glasses that had been reacted in water vapor at 70 {degrees}C for time periods up to seven years. The nature and extent of corrosion of glasses have been determined by characterizing the reacted glass surface with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Alteration in 70 {degrees}C laboratory tests was compared to that which occurs at 150-200 {degrees}C and also with Hawaiian basaltic glasses of 480 to 750 year old subaerially altered in nature. Synthetic basalt and waste glasses, both containing about 50 percent wt SiO{sub 2} were found to react with water vapor to form an amorphous hydrated gel that contained small amounts of clay, nearly identical to palagonite layers formed on naturally altered basaltic glass. This result implies that the corrosion reaction in nature can be simulated with a vapor hydration test. These tests also provide a means for measuring the corrosion kinetics, which are difficult to determine by studying natural samples because alteration layers have often spelled off the samples and we have only limited knowledge of the conditions under which alteration occurred.

  11. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  12. Contextual role of TRLs and MRLs in technology management.

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Joseph A.

    2010-11-01

    Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) have been used extensively from the 1970s, especially in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Their application was recommended by the General Accounting Office in 1999 to be used for major Department of Defense acquisition projects. Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs) have been proposed for improving the way manufacturing risks and readiness are identified; they were introduced to the defense community in 2005, but have not been used as broadly as TRLs. Originally TRLs were used to assess the readiness of a single technology. With the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRLs have limitations, especially when considering integration of complex systems. Therefore, it is important to use TRLs in the correct context. Details on TRLs and MRLs are reported in this paper. More recent indices to establish a better understanding of the integrated readiness state of systems are presented. Newer readiness indices, System Readiness Levels (SRLs) and Integration Readiness Levels, are discussed and their limitations and advantages are presented, along with an example of computing SRLs. It is proposed that a modified SRL be considered that explicitly includes the MRLs and a modification of the TRLs to include the Integrated Technology Index (ITI) and/or the Advancement Degree of Difficulty index proposed by NASA. Finally, the use of indices to perform technology assessments are placed into the overall context of technology management, recognizing that factors to transition and manage technology include cost, schedule, manufacturability, integration readiness, and technology maturity.

  13. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. PMID:25402850

  14. Geochemical Water and Sediment Data: Reformatted Data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) Program

    DOE Data Explorer

    Smith, Steven M. [USGS

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1973 with a primary goal of identifying uranium resources in the United States. The Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (initiated in 1975) was one of nine components of NURE. Planned systematic sampling of the entire United States began in 1976 under the responsibility of four DOE national laboratories: Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The NURE program effectively ended about 1983-84 when funding disappeared. Out of a total of 625 quadrangles that cover the entire lower 48 States and Alaska, only 307 quadrangles were completely sampled, some were partially completed, and many had not been done at all. Over the years various efforts have been made to finish the original task or analyze the stored samples or complete final reports. The sample archive was transferred to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1985. The archive reportedly contained about 380,000 original sediment samples from all four laboratories, about 250,000 replicates, splits, size fractions or other samples and approximately 500,000 resin samples of waters.

  15. Molecular characterization of the IgE-binding epitopes in the fast ω-gliadins of Triticeae in relation to wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuye; Tang, Heng; Li, Min; Ma, Xin; Yin, Huayan; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiaocun; Qiao, Xuguang; Li, Anfei; Kong, Lingrang

    2016-10-10

    Fast ω-gliadins were minor components of wheat storage proteins but a major antigen triggering allergy to wheat. Sixty-six novel full-length fast ω-gliadin genes with unique characteristics were cloned and sequenced from wheat and its relative species using a PCR-based strategy. Their coding regions ranged from 177bp to 987bp in length and encoded 4.28kDa to 37.56kDa proteins. On the base of first three deduced amino acids at the N-terminal, these genes could be classified into the six subclasses of SRL-, TRQ-, GRL-, NRL-, SRP- and SRM-type ω-gliadin genes. Compared by multiple alignments, these genes were significantly different from each other, due to the insertion or deletion at the repetitive domain. An analysis of the IgE-binding epitopes of the 66 deduced fast ω-gliadins demonstrated that they contained 0-24 IgE-binding epitopes. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the fast ω-gliadins and slow ω-gliadins were separated into two groups and their divergence time was 21.64millionyears ago. Sequence data of the fast ω-gliadin genes assist in the study of the origins and evolutions of the different types of ω-gliadins while also providing a basis for the synthesis of monoclonal antibodies to detect wheat antigen content. PMID:27374148

  16. Chemical and Structural Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materials under Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-07-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results.

  17. Decentralized diagnostics based on a distributed micro-genetic algorithm for transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpaia, P.; Cimmino, P.; Girone, M.; Commara, G. La; Maisto, D.; Manna, C.; Pezzetti, M.

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary approach to centralized multiple-faults diagnostics is extended to distributed transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems. Given a set of anomalies detected by the transducers, each instance of the multiple-fault problem is formulated as several parallel communicating sub-tasks running on different transducers, and thus solved one-by-one on spatially separated parallel processes. A micro-genetic algorithm merges evaluation time efficiency, arising from a small-size population distributed on parallel-synchronized processors, with the effectiveness of centralized evolutionary techniques due to optimal mix of exploitation and exploration. In this way, holistic view and effectiveness advantages of evolutionary global diagnostics are combined with reliability and efficiency benefits of distributed parallel architectures. The proposed approach was validated both (i) by simulation at CERN, on a case study of a cold box for enhancing the cryogeny diagnostics of the Large Hadron Collider, and (ii) by experiments, under the framework of the industrial research project MONDIEVOB (Building Remote Monitoring and Evolutionary Diagnostics), co-funded by EU and the company Del Bo srl, Napoli, Italy.

  18. Final report of experimental laboratory-scale brittle fracture studies of glasses and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Mecham, W.J.; Reedy, G.T.; Steindler, M.J.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental program was conducted to characterize the fragments generated when brittle glasses and ceramics are impacted. The direct application of the results is to radioactive waste forms for which the effects of accidental impacts must be known or predictable. Two major measurable experimental responses used for characterization of these effects are (1) the size distribution of the fragments, including the sizes that are respirable, and (2) the increase in surface area of the brittle test specimen. This report describes the glass and ceramic materials characterized, the procedures and techniques used for the characterization of size distributions and surface areas, and the results of the two key responses of the impact tests. Five alternative methods of determining size distributions were compared. Also examined were the effects of diametral and axial specimen impact configurations and the use of mechanical stops to eliminate secondary crushing during testing. Microscopic characterizations of Pyrex and SRL 131 simulated waste glass and SYNROC fragments were also performed. Preliminary correlations of impact energy with key size-distribution parameters, fragment surface areas, and respirable fines were proposed as useful for future verification and for use with modeling and scale-up studies of brittle fracture of larger realistic waste forms. The impact fragments of all specimens could be described by lognormal size distributions.

  19. Preliminary results and power analysis of the UAH SEDS G503 GAS can

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalbert, Lyle B.; Mustaikis, Steven, II; Nerren, Philip

    1995-01-01

    The G-503 Get Away Special (GAS) Canister contained four experiments. A stainless steel corrosion experiment, and experiment to mix and cure concrete, a plant root growth chamber, and a group of 8 chambers to characterize diatom growth cycles in microgravity. As would be expected for this selection of experiments a significant amount of power was required to carry out these investigations over several days in a GAS environment. This was accomplished through the use of low power experiment control circuitry, heaters, and an estimate 3.6 kWh battery pack. The battery was designed around 120 standard Duracell Alkaline F cells. This pack weighed 29.5 kg (65 lbs) including a DC/DC converter and the power distribution bus for all of the experiments. Although not rechargeable, this configurations was a fraction of the cost of rechargeable systems and did not require venting to the outside of the can. Combining this with the long term storage performance, 85% of initial capacity after four years at 20 C (70 F), this guarantees sufficient power even with unexpected launch delays. This paper describes the experiments, there operation and initial results. Also, the performance of the power system during the STS-68 SRL2 mission will be addressed.

  20. BAFF Is Increased in Renal Transplant Patients Following Treatment with Alemtuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, D.; Chang, Z.; Pauly, K.; Kwun, J.; Fechner, J.; Hayes, C.; Samaniego, M.; Knechtle, S.

    2016-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that depletes T and B cells and is used as induction therapy for renal transplant recipients. Without long-term calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy, alemtuzumab-treated patients have a propensity to develop alloantibody and may undergo antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). In pursuit of a mechanistic explanation, we analyzed peripheral B cells and serum of these patients for BAFF (Blys) and BAFF-R, factors known to be integral for B-cell activation, survival, and homeostasis. Serum BAFF levels of 22/24 alemtuzumab-treated patients were above normal range, with average levels of 1967 pg/mL compared to 775 pg/mL in healthy controls (p = 0.006). BAFF remained elevated 2 years posttransplant in 78% of these patients. BAFF-R on CD19+ B cells was significantly downregulated, suggesting ligand/receptor engagement. BAFF mRNA expression was increased 2–7-fold in CD14+ cells of depleted patients, possibly linking monocytes to the BAFF dysregulation. Addition of recombinant BAFF to mixed lymphocyte cultures increased B-cell activation to alloantigen, as measured by CD25 and CD69 coexpression on CD19+ cells. Of note, addition of sirolimus (SRL) augmented BAFF-enhanced B-cell activation whereas CNIs blocked it. These data suggest associations between BAFF/BAFF-R and AMR in alemtuzumab-treated patients. PMID:19522878