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Sample records for aeronet sun photometer

  1. Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Lee, K.-H.; Gasteiger, J.; Tesche, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Kandler, K.; Müller, T.; Toledano, C.; Otto, S.; Althausen, D.; Ansmann, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) 2006, Morocco, aimed at the characterization of optical, physical, and radiative properties of Saharan dust. AERONET Sun photometer, several lidars (Raman and high-spectral-resolution instruments), and airborne and ground-based in situ instruments provided us with a comprehensive set of data on particle-shape dependent and particle-shape independent dust properties. We compare 4 measurement days in detail, and we carry out a statistical analysis for some of the inferred data products for the complete measurement period. Particle size distributions and complex refractive indices inferred from the Sun photometer observations and measured in situ aboard a research aircraft show systematic differences. We find differences in the wavelength-dependence of single-scattering albedo, compared to light-scattering computations that use data from SOAP (spectral optical absorption photometer). AERONET data products of particle size distribution, complex refractive index, and axis ratios were used to compute particle extinction-to-backscatter (lidar) ratios and linear particle depolarization ratios. We find differences for these parameters to lidar measurements of lidar ratio and particle depolarization ratio. Differences particularly exist at 355 nm, which may be the result of differences of the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index that is inferred by the methods employed in this field campaign. We discuss various error sources that may lead to the observed differences.

  2. The study of atmospheric correction of satellite remotely sensed images intended for air pollution using sun-photometers (AERONET) and lidar system in Lemesos, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Matsas, Alexandros

    2010-10-01

    Solar radiation reflected by the Earth's surface to satellite sensors is modified by its interaction with the atmosphere. The objective of atmospheric correction is to determine true surface reflectance values by removing atmospheric effects from satellite images. Atmospheric correction is arguably the most important part of the pre-processing of satellite remotely sensed data. The most important parameter in applying any atmospheric correction is the aerosol optical thickness which is also used for assessing air pollution. This paper explores how the AOT is extracted from atmospheric corrected satellite imagery acquired from Landsat ETM + and how then AOT values are used to assess air pollution. The atmospheric correction algorihm developed by Hadjimitsis and Clayton (2009) is applied to short wavelengths like Landsat TM band 1 and 2 (0.45-0.52μm, 0.52-0.60 μm). The results are also assessed using Lidar system and Cimel Sunphotometer located in the premises of the Cyprus University of Technology in Limassol. The authors run the atmospheric correction developed by Hadjimitsis and Clayton (2009) in MATLAB and sample AOT results for the Landsat ETM+ images acquired on the 15/01/2010, 20/4/2010, 09/06/2010 are shown. For the Landsat ETM+ image acquired on 20/4/2010, the AOT was found 1.4 after the application of the atmospheric correction. Such value complies with the AOT value measured by the Cimel Sun-photometer (AERONET) during the satellite overpass. An example of how Lidar is used to assess the existing atmospheric conditions which is useful for assessing air pollution is also presented.

  3. Sun photometer aerosol retrievals during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano, Carlos; Torres, Benjamin; Althausen, Dietrich; Groß, Silke; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Gasteiger, Josef; Ansmann, Albert; Wiegner, Matthias; González, Ramiro; Cachorro, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    The Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE), aims at investigating the long-range transport of Saharan dust across the Atlantic Ocean. A large set of ground-based and airborne aerosol and meteorological instrumentation was used for this purpose during a 5-week campaign that took place during June-July 2013. Several Sun photometers were deployed at Barbados Island during this campaign. Two Cimels included in AERONET and the Sun and Sky Automatic Radiometer (SSARA) were co-located with the ground-based lidars BERTHA and POLIS. A set of optical and microphysical aerosol properties derived from Sun and Sky spectral observations (principal plane and almucantar configurations) in the range 340-1640nm are analyzed, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), volume size distribution, complex refractive index, sphericity and single scattering albedo. The Sun photometers include polarization capabilities, therefore apart from the inversion of sky radiances as it is routinely done in AERONET, polarized radiances are also inverted. Several dust events are clearly identified in the measurement period, with moderated AOD (500nm) in the range 0.3 to 0.6. The clean marine background was also observed during short periods. The retrieved aerosol properties are compared with the lidar and in-situ observations carried out within SALTRACE, as well as with data collected during the SAMUM campaigns in Morocco and Cape Verde, in order to investigate possible changes in the dust plume during the transport.

  4. SIMBIOS Sun Photometer Program. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles; Fargion, Giulietta S.

    2001-01-01

    Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values determined from the satellite ocean color data provide useful information on the spatial and temporal distributions of aerosols and are by-products of the atmospheric corrections required to estimation of water-leaving radiances. The Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project is using in situ atmospheric data, primarily from sun photometers, for several purposes including: (1) validation the SeaWiFS and other ocean color mission aerosol optical products, e.g., AOT and Angstrom exponent; (2) evaluation of the aerosol models currently used for atmospheric corrections; and (3) development of vicarious sensor calibration methodologies, especially for the near-infrared bands where in situ water-leaving radiance data in the visible from sites like the Marine Optical Buoy cannot be used. The principal source of in situ aerosol observations was the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET).

  5. Inventory of African desert dust events in the north-central Iberian Peninsula in 2003-2014 based on sun-photometer-AERONET and particulate-mass-EMEP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachorro, Victoria E.; Burgos, Maria A.; Mateos, David; Toledano, Carlos; Bennouna, Yasmine; Torres, Benjamín; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Herguedas, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    A reliable identification of desert dust (DD) episodes over north-central Spain is carried out based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) columnar aerosol sun photometer (aerosol optical depth, AOD, and Ångström exponent, α) and European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) surface particulate-mass concentration (PMx, x = 10, 2.5, and 2.5-10 µm) as the main core data. The impact of DD on background aerosol conditions is detectable by means of aerosol load thresholds and complementary information provided by HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) air mass back trajectories, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images, forecast aerosol models, and synoptic maps, which have been carefully reviewed by a human observer for each day included in the DD inventory. This identification method allows the detection of low and moderate DD intrusions and also of mixtures of mineral dust with other aerosol types by means of the analysis of α. During the period studied (2003-2014), a total of 152 DD episodes composed of 418 days are identified. Overall, this means ˜ 13 episodes and ˜ 35 days per year with DD intrusion, representing 9.5 % days year-1. During the identified DD intrusions, 19 daily exceedances over 50 µg m-3 are reported at the surface. The occurrence of DD event days during the year peaks in March and June, with a marked minimum in April and lowest occurrence in winter. A large interannual variability is observed showing a statistically significant temporal decreasing trend of ˜ 3 days year-1. The DD impact on the aerosol climatology is addressed by evaluating the DD contribution in magnitude and percent (in brackets) for AOD, PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5 - 10, obtaining mean values of 0.015 (11.5 %), 1.3 µg m-3 (11.8 %), 0.55 µg m-3 (8.5 %) and 0.79 µg m-3 (16.1 %), respectively. Annual cycles of the DD contribution for AOD and PM10 present two maxima - one in summer (0.03 and 2.4 µg m-3 for AOD in

  6. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  7. Developing a Stand Alone Sun Photometer for Ships and Buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, John N.

    1997-01-01

    During November and December 1995 the first Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) was carried to characterize the aerosol physical and optical properties in the clean marine atmosphere near Tasmania in the South Pacific. As part of this effort, and with funding from this proposal, we installed a sun photometer on the R/V Discoverer and a spectro-photometer on the NOAA C-130 aircraft.

  8. Sky type discrimination using a ground-based sun photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-year feasibility study was conducted at the USGS EROS Data Center, South Dakota (43.733°N, 96.6167°W) to assess whether a four-band, ground-based, sun photometer could be used to discriminate sky types. The results indicate that unique spectral signatures do exist between sunny skies (including clear and hazy skies) and cirrus, and cirrostratus, altocumulus or fair-weather cumulus, and thin stratocumulus or altostratus, and fog/fractostratus skies. There were insufficient data points to represent other cloud types at a statistically significant level.

  9. Comparison of the aerosol optical properties and size distribution retrieved by sun photometer with in situ measurements at midlatitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvigné, Aurélien; Sellegri, Karine; Hervo, Maxime; Montoux, Nadège; Freville, Patrick; Goloub, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget through scattering and absorption of solar radiation. Several methods are used to investigate aerosol properties and thus quantify their direct and indirect impacts on climate. At the Puy de Dôme station, continuous high-altitude near-surface in situ measurements and low-altitude ground-based remote sensing atmospheric column measurements give the opportunity to compare the aerosol extinction measured with both methods over a 1-year period. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a comparison is realised with continuous measurements of a high-altitude site during a long-term period. This comparison addresses to which extent near-surface in situ measurements are representative of the whole atmospheric column, the aerosol mixing layer (ML) or the free troposphere (FT). In particular, the impact of multi-aerosol layers events detected using lidar backscatter profiles is analysed. A good correlation between in situ aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer is observed with a correlation coefficient around 0.80, indicating that the in situ measurements station is representative of the overall atmospheric column. After filtering for multilayer cases and correcting for each layer optical contribution (ML and FT), the atmospheric structure seems to be the main factor influencing the comparison between the two measurement techniques. When the site lies in the ML, the in situ extinction represents 45 % of the sun photometer ML extinction while when the site lies within the FT, the in situ extinction is more than 2 times higher than the FT sun photometer extinction. Moreover, the assumption of a decreasing linear vertical aerosol profile in the whole atmosphere has been tested, significantly improving the instrumental agreement. Remote sensing retrievals of the aerosol particle size distributions (PSDs) from the sun photometer

  10. A new, low-cost sun photometer for student use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, A.; Pérez-Álvarez, H.; Parra-Vilchis, J. I.; Fauchey-López, E.; Fernando-González, L.; Faus-Landeros, G. E.; Celarier, E. A.; Robinson, D. Q.; Zepeda-Galbez, R.

    2011-12-01

    We have designed a sun photometer for the measurement of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 505 nm and 620 nm, using custom-made glass filters (9.5 nm bandpass, FWHM) and photodiodes. The recommended price-point (US150 - US200) allowed us to incorporate technologies such as microcontrollers, a sun target, a USB port for data uploading, nonvolatile memory to contain tables of up to 127 geolocation profiles, extensive calibration data, and a log of up to 2,000 measurements. The instrument is designed to be easy to use, and to provide instant display of AOT estimates. A diffuser in the fore-optics limits the sensitivity to pointing error. We have developed postprocessing software to refine the AOT estimates, format a spreadsheet file, and upload the data to the GLOBE website. We are currently finalizing hardware and firmware, and conducting extensive calibration/validation experiments. These instruments will soon be in production and available to the K-12 education community, including and especially the GLOBE program.

  11. Retrievals of aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent from ground-based Sun-photometer data of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Santo V; Chew, Boon N; Liew, Soo C

    2009-03-10

    The role of aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the factors that is least understood at the present. Aerosols' direct interaction with solar radiation is a well understood mechanism that affects Earth's net radiative forcing. However, quantifying its magnitude is more problematic because of the temporal and spatial variability of aerosol particles. To enhance our understanding of the radiative effects of aerosols on the global climate, Singapore has joined the AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) worldwide network by contributing ground-based direct Sun measurements performed by means of a multiwavelength Sun-photometer instrument. Data are collected on an hourly basis, then are uploaded to be fully screened and quality assured by AERONET. We use a one year data record (level 1.5/2.0) of measured columnar atmospheric optical depth, spanning from November 2006 to October 2007, to study the monthly and seasonal variability of the aerosol optical depth and the Angström exponent. We performed independent retrievals of these parameters (aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent) by using the photometer's six available bands covering the near-UV to near-IR (380-1080 nm). As a validation, our independent retrievals were compared with AERONET 1.5/2.0 level direct Sun product.

  12. Novel Hyperspectral Sun Photometer for Satellite Remote Sensing Data Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Aerosol Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Holekamp, Kara; Harrington, Gary; Frisbie, Troy

    2006-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective, hyperspectral sun photometer for radiometric vicarious remote sensing system calibration, air quality monitoring, and potentially in-situ planetary climatological studies, was developed. The device was constructed solely from off the shelf components and was designed to be easily deployable for support of short-term verification and validation data collects. This sun photometer not only provides the same data products as existing multi-band sun photometers, this device requires a simpler setup, less data acquisition time and allows for a more direct calibration approach. Fielding this instrument has also enabled Stennis Space Center (SSC) Applied Sciences Directorate personnel to cross calibrate existing sun photometers. This innovative research will position SSC personnel to perform air quality assessments in support of the NASA Applied Sciences Program's National Applications program element as well as to develop techniques to evaluate aerosols in a Martian or other planetary atmosphere.

  13. Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Gausa, M.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Berjón, A.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; de Frutos, A. M.; Bennouna, Y.; Blindheim, S.; Myhre, C. L.; Zibordi, G.; Wehrli, C.; Kratzer, S.; Hakansson, B.; Carlund, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Herber, A.; Torres, B.

    2012-06-01

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and transport patterns. This work evaluates data from operational sites with sun photometer measurements belonging either to national or international networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) and programs conducted in Scandinavia and Svalbard. We enumerate a list of sites, measurement type and periods together with observed aerosol properties. An evaluation and analysis of aerosol data was carried out with a review of previous results as well. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) are the current parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first evaluation of aerosol properties. AOD (500 nm) ranges from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites (Ny-Ålesund: 0.09; Andenes: 0.10; Sodankylä: 0.08), and it is somewhat higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols show larger mean size (AE = 1.2 at Andenes) than in Finland, with continental climate (AE = 1.5 at Sodankylä). Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters derived from inversion of sun/sky radiances were also investigated. This work makes special emphasis in the joint and collaborative effort of the various groups from different countries involved in this study. Part of the measurements presented here were involved in the IPY projects Polar-AOD and POLARCAT.

  14. Microtops II Hand-Held Sun Photometer Sun Pointing Error Correction for Sea Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Pietras, C.; Fargion, G. S.

    2001-12-01

    Hand held sun photometers, such as the Microtops II (manufactured by Solar Light, Inc.), provide simple and inexpensive means to measure in situ Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). Hand held sun photometers require that the user manually points the instrument at the sun. Unstable platforms, such as a ship at sea, can make this difficult, causing pointing errors. A poorly pointed instrument mistakenly records less than the full direct solar radiance, so the computed AOT is much higher than reality, and can be mistaken as cloud contamination or used incorrectly for validation with satellite derived AOT measurements. The relatively low sampling rate (3Hz) of the Microtops II leaves this instrument especially prone to this problem. Two steps were taken to reduce pointing errors. First, the measurement protocol was changed to keep the maximum (rather than average) value of a sequence of measurements. Several sets of these sequences are made for each intended data point. Once on shore, statistics are computed for each group of measurements. If the normalized variance of a group is above a threshold, the highest AOT measurement is discarded as a pointing error. The normalized variance is then recalculated. This is repeated until the normalized variance is reduced below the threshold or the number of points becomes too small to calculate variance. Several versions of this protocol were tested on a recent California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) cruise, and a post processing algorithm was developed to remove pointing errors. These results were compared to concurrent measurements using the old protocol. Finally, a separate post processing algorithm was created for data already gathered with the old protocol, based upon statistics calculated by the instrument at the time of capture.

  15. Novel Hyperspectral Sun Photometer for Satellite Remote Sensing Data Radiometeic Calibration and Atmospheric Aerosol Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Holekamp, Kara; Harrington, Gary; Frisbie, Troy

    2006-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective, hyperspectral sun photometer for radiometric vicarious remote sensing system calibration, air quality monitoring, and potentially in-situ planetary climatological studies, was developed. The device was constructed solely from off the shelf components and was designed to be easily deployable for support of short-term verification and validation data collects. This sun photometer not only provides the same data products as existing multi-band sun photometers but also the potential of hyperspectral optical depth and diffuse-to-global products. As compared to traditional sun photometers, this device requires a simpler setup, less data acquisition time and allows for a more direct calibration approach. Fielding this instrument has also enabled Stennis Space Center (SSC) Applied Sciences Directorate personnel to cross-calibrate existing sun photometers. This innovative research will position SSC personnel to perform air quality assessments in support of the NASA Applied Sciences Program's National Applications program element as well as to develop techniques to evaluate aerosols in a Martian or other planetary atmosphere.

  16. An inexpensive and stable LED Sun photometer for measuring the water vapor column over South Texas from 1990 to 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mims, Forrest M.

    2002-07-01

    A Sun photometer that uses near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as spectrally-selective photodetectors has measured total column water vapor in South Texas since February 1990. The 12 years of solar noon observations to date are correlated with upper air soundings at Del Rio, Texas (r2 = 0.75), and highly correlated with measurements by a Microtops II filter Sun photometer (r2 = 0.94). LEDs are inexpensive and have far better long term stability than the interference filters in conventional Sun photometers. The LED Sun photometer therefore provides an inexpensive, stable and portable means for measuring column water vapor.

  17. Comparison of aerosol properties retrieved using GARRLiC, LIRIC, and Raman algorithms applied to multi-wavelength lidar and sun/sky-photometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovchaliuk, Valentyn; Goloub, Philippe; Podvin, Thierry; Veselovskii, Igor; Tanre, Didier; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Dubovik, Oleg; Mortier, Augustin; Lopatin, Anton; Korenskiy, Mikhail; Victori, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    Aerosol particles are important and highly variable components of the terrestrial atmosphere, and they affect both air quality and climate. In order to evaluate their multiple impacts, the most important requirement is to precisely measure their characteristics. Remote sensing technologies such as lidar (light detection and ranging) and sun/sky photometers are powerful tools for determining aerosol optical and microphysical properties. In our work, we applied several methods to joint or separate lidar and sun/sky-photometer data to retrieve aerosol properties. The Raman technique and inversion with regularization use only lidar data. The LIRIC (LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code) and recently developed GARRLiC (Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data) inversion methods use joint lidar and sun/sky-photometer data. This paper presents a comparison and discussion of aerosol optical properties (extinction coefficient profiles and lidar ratios) and microphysical properties (volume concentrations, complex refractive index values, and effective radius values) retrieved using the aforementioned methods. The comparison showed inconsistencies in the retrieved lidar ratios. However, other aerosol properties were found to be generally in close agreement with the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) products. In future studies, more cases should be analysed in order to clearly define the peculiarities in our results.

  18. GOES Satellite Data Validation Via Hand-held 4 LED Sun Photometer at Norfolk State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Arthur, Jr.; Jackson, Tyrone; Reynolds, Kevin; Davidson, Cassy; Coope-Pabis, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Sun photometry is a passive means of measuring a quantity of light radiation. The GIFTS- IOMI/GLOBE Water Vapor/Haze Sun photometer contains four light emitting diodes (LEDs), which are used to convert photocurrent to voltage. The intensity of the incoming and outgoing radiation as detected on the Earth s surface can be affected by aerosols and gases in the atmosphere. The focus of this research is primarily on aerosol and water vapor particles that absorb and reemit energy. Two LEDs in the photometer correspond to light scattered at 530 nm (green spectrum) and 620 nm (red spectrum). They collect data pertaining to aerosols that scatter light. The other two LEDs detect the light scattered by water vapor at wavelengths of 820 nm and 920 nm. The water vapor measurements will be compared to data collected by the Geostationary Observation Environmental Satellite (GOES). Before a comparison can be made, the extraterrestrial constant (ET), which is intrinsic to each sun photometer, must be measured. This paper will present determination of the ET constant, from which the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) can be computed for comparison to the GOES satellite to ascertain the reliability of the sun photometer.

  19. Precipitable Water Vapor Characterization In The Gulf Of Cadiz Region (Southwestern Spain) Based On Sun Photometer, GPS And Radiosonde Data

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, B.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Berjon, A.; de Frutos, A. M.; Bennouna, Yasmine; Laulainen, Nels S.

    2010-09-16

    Column integrated water vapor (IWV) data in the Gulf of Cádiz area (Southwestern Spain) are analyzed during the period 2001 to 2005 with two aims: 1) to establish the climatology over this area using three different techniques, such as Sun-Photometer (SP), Global Position System (GPS) and Radiosondes, and 2) to take advantage of this comparative process to assess the quality of radiometric IWV data collected at the RIMA-AERONET station. The 5 years of climatological series gives a mean value of about 2 cm (STD=0.72) and a clear seasonal behavior as a general feature, with the highest values in summer and the lowest in winter. In the multi-annual monthly means basis, the highest values are reached in August-September, with a mean value of 2.5-2.6 cm, whereas the lowest are obtained in January-February, with an average of 1.4-24 1.5. However the most relevant results for this area is the observed local minimum in July, occurring during the maximum of desert dust intrusions in the southern Iberian Peninsula. A comparison process allows us to evaluate the agreement of IWV data sets between these three different techniques at different temporal scales because of different time sampling. On a daily basis and taking GPS as the reference value we have a bias or difference between Radiosonde and GPS measurements for the entire data base of 0.07 cm (relative bias of 3%) and RMSE of 0.33. For SP-GPS we have a bias of 0.14 cm (about 7%) and RMSE of 0.37. On a monthly basis the differences between Radiosonde and GPS values varies from summer with 2% to winter with -8% and between SP and GPS values from 3% in summer to -14% in winter. The observed bias between GPS and SP varies during each SP operational period, with lower values at the beginning of the measurements and increasing until the end of its measurement term and with the bias values being quite dependent on each individual SP. The observed differences highlight the importance of drift in each Sun-Photometer, because

  20. Analysis of the Performance Characteristics of the Five-Channel Microtops II Sun Photometer for Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness and Precipitable Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Levy, Robert; Kaufman, Yoram; Remer, Lorraine A.; Li, Rong-Rong; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Holben, Brent N.; Abuhassan, Nader; Slutsker, Ilya; Eck, Thomas F.; Pietras, Christophe; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Five Microtops II sun photometers were studied in detail at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to determine their performance in measuring aerosol optical thickness (AOT or Tau(sub alphalambda) and precipitable column water vapor (W). Each derives Tau(sub alphalambda) from measured signals at four wavelengths lambda (340, 440, 675, and 870 nm), and W from the 936 nm signal measurements. Accuracy of Tau(sub alphalambda) and W determination depends on the reliability of the relevant channel calibration coefficient (V(sub 0)). Relative calibration by transfer of parameters from a more accurate sun photometer (such as the Mauna-Loa-calibrated AERONET master sun photometer at GSFC) is more reliable than Langley calibration performed at GSFC. It was found that the factory-determined value of the instrument constant for the 936 nm filter (k= 0.7847) used in the Microtops' internal algorithm is unrealistic, causing large errors in V(sub 0(936)), Tau(sub alpha936), and W. Thus, when applied for transfer calibration at GSFC, whereas the random variation of V(aub 0) at 340 to 870 nm is quite small, with coefficients of variation (CV) in the range of 0 to 2.4%, at 936 nm the CV goes up to 19%. Also, the systematic temporal variation of V(sub 0) at 340 to 870 nm is very slow, while at 936 nm it is large and exhibits a very high dependence on W. The algorithm also computes Tau(sub alpha936) as 0.91Tau(sub alpha870), which is highly simplistic. Therefore, it is recommended to determine Tau(sub alpha936) by logarithmic extrapolation from Tau(sub alpha675) and Tau(sub alpha 870. From the operational standpoint of the Microtops, apart from errors that may result from unperceived cloud contamination, the main sources of error include inaccurate pointing to the Sun, neglecting to clean the front quartz window, and neglecting to calibrate correctly. If these three issues are adequately taken care of, the Microtops can be quite accurate and stable, with root mean square (rms

  1. Results of SPM sun photometer measurements at Mirny Antarctic station (58-60th RAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Prakhov, Aleksander N.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Sakerin, Sergey M.

    2015-11-01

    The SPM portable sun photometer observations in the wavelength range of 0.34-2.14 μm are performed at Mirny Antarctic station since fall 2013. The data obtained are used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The sun photometer intercalibration results and statistical characteristics of interdiurnal and seasonal variations in spectral AOD of the atmosphere are discussed. Estimates of interannual variations in the atmospheric AOD in the region of Mirny station and in the coastal zone of Antarctica are presented. The global background level of AOD of the Antarctic atmosphere is noted to be still about 0.02 at the wavelength of 0.5 μm.

  2. Using sky radiances measured by ground based AERONET Sun-Radiometers for cirrus cloud detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyuk, A.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Lewis, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Screening of cirrus clouds using observations of optical depth (OD) only has proven to be a difficult task due mostly to some clouds having temporally and spatially stable OD. On the other hand, the sky radiances measurements which in AERONET protocol are taken throughout the day may contain additional cloud information. In this work the potential of using sky radiances for cirrus cloud detection is investigated. The detection is based on differences in the angular shape of sky radiances due to cirrus clouds and aerosol (see Figure). The range of scattering angles from 3 to 6 degrees was selected due to two primary reasons: high sensitivity to cirrus clouds presence, and close proximity to the Sun. The angular shape of sky radiances was parametrized by its curvature, which is a parameter defined as a combination of the first and second derivatives as a function of scattering angle. We demonstrate that a slope of the logarithm of curvature versus logarithm of scattering angle in this selected range of scattering angles is sensitive to cirrus cloud presence. We also demonstrate that restricting the values of the slope below some threshold value can be used for cirrus cloud screening. The threshold value of the slope was estimated using collocated measurements of AERONET data and MPLNET lidars.

  3. Analysis of aerosol properties derived from sun photometer and lidar over Dunhuang radiometric calibration site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Xiuqing

    2016-05-01

    Duhuang site has been selected as China Radiation Calibration Site (CRCS) for Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors since 1996. With the economic development of Dunhuang city, the ambient of the radiation calibration field has changed in recent years. Taking into account the key role of aerosol in radiometric calibration, it is essential to investigate the aerosol optical properties over Dunhuang radiometric calibration site. In this paper, the CIMEL sun photometer (CE-318) and Mie-scattering Lidar are simultaneously used to measure aerosol optical properties in Dunhuang site. Data from aerosol-bands of sun photometer are used in a Langley method to determine spectral optical depths of aerosol. And Lidar is utilized to obtain information of vertical profile and integrated aerosol optical depths at different heights. The results showed that the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm wavelength during the in-situ measurement campaigns varied from 0.1 to 0.3 in Dunhuang site. And the observation results also indicated that high aerosol concentration layer mostly located at the height of about 2~4 km. These results implies that the aerosol concentration of atmosphere in Dunhuang was relatively small and suitable for in-flight calibration for remote sensing satellite sensors.

  4. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Optical Depth Using a Smartphone Sun Photometer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Tingting; Thompson, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, smart phones have been explored for making a variety of mobile measurements. Smart phones feature many advanced sensors such as cameras, GPS capability, and accelerometers within a handheld device that is portable, inexpensive, and consistently located with an end user. In this work, a smartphone was used as a sun photometer for the remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth. The top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance was estimated through the construction of Langley plots on days when the sky was cloudless and clear. Changes in optical depth were monitored on a different day when clouds intermittently blocked the sun. The device demonstrated a measurement precision of 1.2% relative standard deviation for replicate photograph measurements (38 trials, 134 datum). However, when the accuracy of the method was assessed through using optical filters of known transmittance, a more substantial uncertainty was apparent in the data. Roughly 95% of replicate smart phone measured transmittances are expected to lie within ±11.6% of the true transmittance value. This uncertainty in transmission corresponds to an optical depth of approx. ±0.12–0.13 suggesting the smartphone sun photometer would be useful only in polluted areas that experience significant optical depths. The device can be used as a tool in the classroom to present how aerosols and gases effect atmospheric transmission. If improvements in measurement precision can be achieved, future work may allow monitoring networks to be developed in which citizen scientists submit acquired data from a variety of locations. PMID:24416199

  5. Four-year study of Middle East and Sahara dust intrusions in terms of particle lidar ratio: Observations with lidar and sun/sky photometer over Limassol, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisantzi, Argyro; Elisavet Mamouri, Rodanthi; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Ansmann, Albert

    2015-04-01

    The remote sensing station of the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) at Limassol (34.7oN, 33oE, 50m above sea level a.s.l.) is located in the southeast part of the Mediterranean (150km south of Turkey and 250km west of Syria) and dust aerosol components from Sahara and Middle East deserts comprise the major sources of dust layers in the study area. The CUT station is equipped with a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidar and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun/sky photometer. The combined database of four years (2010 -2013) of observations was used to compare extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) for dust from Middle East and Sahara deserts. For the first time, a long-term lidar study on the lidar ratio of Middle East desert dust is presented. The results are compared with respective findings for Saharan dust outbreaks. The Limassol lidar station at the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean Sea is unique because it is the only site of the EARLINET which is influenced by a statistically significant number (5-7) of Middle East dust outbreaks each year as well as by numerous Saharan dust outbreaks (>10 per year). For this analysis we considered 17 major dust outbreaks from the Middle East and 32 dust outbreaks from North Africa. Simultaneous EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations were conducted at Limassol almost day by day over the four year period from April 2010 to December 2013. The quality of the retrieval is checked within a case study by comparing the results with respective Raman lidar solutions for particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio. The applied combined lidar/photometer retrievals corroborate recent findings regarding the difference between Middle East and Saharan desert dust lidar ratios. We found values from 44-65 sr with a mean value of 52.7 sr for Saharan dust and from 35-46 sr with a mean value of 41.1 sr for Middle East dust. The presented data analysis, however, also demonstrates the

  6. Direct solar radiation - Spectrum and irradiance derived from sun-photometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrock, Wolfram; Eiden, Reiner

    1988-06-01

    The continuous spectrum of the direct solar radiation from wavelength = 330 to 2690 nm, penetrating a cloudless atmosphere and arriving on the earth surface, is determined by measuring the solar irradiance in ten selected discrete spectral ranges defined by interference filters. Heretofore knowledge of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been required as well as of the transmittance functions to describe the spectral optical properties of the atmosphere. A set of appropriate and simple functions is given and discussed, which allows calculation of the molecular, aerosol, oxygen, and ozone optical thicknesses. The influence of atmospheric water vapor is considered through line by line calculations. The dominant and most fluctuating extinction parameters are the aerosol optical thickness and the content of precipitable water vapor. These are obtained by measurements with two sun photometers, developed according to the World Meteorological Organization recommendation. To test the derived solar spectrum at ground level the photometers are also run with nine broadband filters. The values observed differ little from those obtained by integration of the deduced spectral irradiance. Furthermore, the integral value of the resulting entire spectrum agrees reasonably well with the total direct irradiance gained from actinometer measurements.

  7. Properties of coastal Antarctic aerosol from combined FTIR spectrometer and sun photometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathke, Carsten; Notholt, Justus; Fischer, Jürgen; Herber, Andreas

    2002-12-01

    Remotely sensing the physical and chemical properties of summertime aerosol at the Antarctic coastal station Neumayer has been accomplished for the first time by a combined analysis of atmospheric thermal emission spectra, measured by an FTIR spectrometer, and atmospheric visible-near infrared extinction spectra, measured by a sun photometer. From the synergy of both spectral ranges, we find that the aerosol is composed of 1.1-1.6 mg m-2 of sulfates, with the water component in the solid phase, having a bimodal size distribution with radii peaking at 0.04 and 0.64 μm. We also provide the first estimate of the direct thermal radiative forcing of this aerosol: +1.68 W m-2 at the surface, and +0.006 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere.

  8. Near-infrared extension of a visible spectrum airborne Sun photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Marco; von Bismarck, Jonas; Hollstein, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    The continuously-measuring, multispectral airborne Sun and aureole photometers FUBISS-ASA and FUBISSASA2 were developed at the Institute for Space Sciences of the Freie Universität Berlin in 2002 and 2006 respectively, for the retrieval of aerosol optical and microphysical parameters at wavelengths ranging from 400 to 900 nm. A multispectral near-infrared direct sun radiometer measuring in a spectral range of 1000 to 1700 nm has now been added to FUBISS-ASA2. The main objective of this NIR extension is to enhance the characterization of larger aerosol particles, as Mie scattering theory offers a more accurate approximation for their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, if both the VIS and NIR parts of the spectrum are considered, than it does for the VIS part only. The spectral transmissivity of atmospheric models was computed using the HITRAN2008 database in order to determine local absorption minima suitable for aerosol retrieval. Measurements were first carried out aboard the research vessel FS Polarstern on its transatlantic voyage ANT-XXVI/1. Additional measurements were performed from the Sphinx High Altitude Research Station on the Jungfraujoch and in the nearby Kleine Scheidegg locality during the CLACE2010 measurement campaign. Aerosol optical parameters derived from VIS aureole and direct sun measurements were compared to those of simulated aerosol mixtures in order to estimate the composition of the measured aerosol.

  9. Detailed Aerosol Optical Depth Intercomparison between Brewer and Li-Cor 1800 Spectroradiometers and a Cimel Sun Photometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cachorro, V. E.; Berjon, A.; Toledano, C.; Mogo, S.; Prats, N.; de Frutos, A. M.; Sorribas, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; de la Morena, B. A.; Grobner, Julian; Laulainen, Nels

    2009-08-01

    We present here representative results about a comparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) using different instruments during three short and intensive campaigns carried out from 1999 to 2001 at El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain). The specific aim of this study is to determine the level of agreement between three different instruments operating at our station. This activity, however, is part of a broader objective to recover an extended data series of AOD in the UV range obtained from a Brewer spectroradiometer. This instrument may be used to obtain AOD at the same five UV wavelengths used during normal operation for ozone content determination. As part of the validation of the Brewer AOD data recovery process, a Cimel sun photometer and another spectroradiometer, a Licor1800, were used. The Licor1800 spectroradiometer (which covers the spectral range 300-1100 nm) was the first instrument used at this station for aerosol monitoring (1996-99) and it was operated during these intercomparison campaigns (1999-2001) specifically to assess the continuity of the AOD data series. The Cimel sunphotometer was installed at our station at the beginning of 2000 as part of AERONET to provide AOD data over the visible and near infrared spectrum. A detailed comparison of these three instruments is carried out by means of near-simultaneous measurements, with particular emphasis on examining any diurnal AOD variability that may be linked with calibration and/or measurement errors or real atmospheric variability. Because the comparison is carried out from UV (320nm) to near infrared (1020nm) wavelengths under all possible atmospheric conditions (including clouds), AOD values range from near zero up to 1. Absolute AOD uncertainties range from 0.02 for the Cimel to 0.08 for the Brewer, with intermediate values for the Licor1800. All the values during the comparison are in reasonable agreement, when taking into account the different performance characteristics of each instrument. The

  10. Spectral Discrimination of Fine and Coarse Mode Aerosol Optical Depth from AERONET Direct Sun Data of Singapore and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Cortijo, S.; Chew, B.; Liew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol particle size, with Angstrom exp. values greater than 2 indicating small (fine mode) particles associated with urban pollution and bio-mass burning. Around this region, forest fires are a regular occurrence during the dry season, specially near the large land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. The practice of clearing land by burning the primary and sometimes secondary forest, results in a smog-like haze covering large areas of regional cities such as cities Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and sometimes the south of Thailand, often reducing visibility and increasing health problems for the local population. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from the industrial and urban areas. The proximity to the sea adds a possible oceanic source. However, as stated above and depending on the time of the year, there can be a strong bio-mass component coming from forest fires from various regions of the neighboring countries. Bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. In this work, we analyze three years of direct Sun measurements performed with a multi-channel Cimel Sun-Photometer (part of the AERONET network) located at our site. In order to identify bio-mass burning events in this region, we perform a spectral discrimination between coarse and fine mode optical depth; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponents (and its derivative) are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set.

  11. Monitoring of Sahelian aerosol and Atmospheric water vapor content characteristics from sun photometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizoun, C. A.; Podaire, A.; Dedieu, G.

    1994-11-01

    Atmospheric measurements in two Sahelian sites in West Africa are presented and analyzed. The measurements were performed using a sun photometer with five bands in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum. This instrument measures spectral values of the solar irradiances that are used to derive the aerosol optical thickness in three bands; the two other bands are used to derive the integrated atmospheric water vapor content using a differential absorption method. The Angstroem exponent, which is an estimate of the aerosol particle size, is derived from the spectral dependence of the optical thickness. Although the sites were located far from Sahara Desert aerosol sources, the observed aerosol optical thicknesses were high, with a mean annual value of 0.5 at 550 nm. The spectral dependence of aerosol optical thickness is generally low, with a mean annual value of Angstroem exponent of 0.4. The aerosol optical thickness and the atmosphereic water vapor content are both characterized by high temporal variability and exhibit seasonal cycles. From these measurements, climatological values and associated probability distribution laws are proposed.

  12. Aerosol profiles determined with lidar and sun-photometer over the Pearl River Delta, China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heese, B.; Althausen, D.; Bauditz, M.; Deng, R.; Bao, R.; Li, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The priority program "Megacities-Megachallenge - Informal Dynamics of Global Change" is a large interdisciplinary project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). One of the subproject deals with mega-urbanisation in the Pearl River Delta, South-China, with special respect to particulate air pollution and public health. In the frame of this subproject the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties are investigated by measurements with the multiwavelength-Raman-polarization lidar PollyXT of the IfT. The instrument can measure the particle backscatter coefficient at 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, the particle extinction coefficients at 355 nm and 532 nm, and the particle linear depolarization ratio at 532 nm. These measurements are supported by a dual-polar sun photometer that provides height integrated data as the aerosol optical depth and the degree of linear depolarization. These instruments are placed at the East campus of the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Guangzhou and the Pearl River Delta is a developing area with currently around 11 Million inhabitants. The measurements started in November 2011 and are supposed to continue for at least half a year covering the late autumn and winter season and parts of the spring season. Extensions of the measurements towards a whole seasonal cycle are planned. Thus, different meteorological conditions will lead to particle transport from several source regions. Different aerosol types are expected to be observed during the measurement period: urban particles from local and regional sources as well as dust from the deserts in Central Asia. The observed particles can be distinguished by analyzing their optical properties at several wavelengths. In particular, the depolarization measurements from both instruments promise a better determination of the particle shape.

  13. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and sun photometers during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment. Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scanning Raman lidar system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W); are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and root-mean-square differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a) = 60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements. The lidar measurements of AOT are found to be generally within 25% of the AOT measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-6). However, during certain periods the lidar and Sun photometer measurements of AOT differed significantly, possibly because of variations in the aerosol physical characteristics (e.g., size, composition) which affect S(sub a). Estimates of PWV, derived from water vapor mixing ratio profiles measured by LASE, are within 5-10% of PWV derived from the airborne Sun photometer. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by both lidars show that aerosols were generally concentrated in the lowest 2-3 km.

  14. Characterizing Aerosols over Southeast Asia using the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Slutsker, Ilya; Welton, Ellsworth, J.; Chin, Mian; Kucsera, Thomas; Schmaltz, Jeffery E.; Diehl, Thomas; Singh, Ramesh P.; Boonjawat, Jariya; Snidvongs, Arond; Le, Huy V.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  15. Assessment of Error in Aerosol Optical Depth Measured by AERONET Due to Aerosol Forward Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinyuk, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Eck, Thomas F.; Slustsker, Ilya; Schafer, Joel S.; Giles, David M.; Sorokin, Michail

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of aerosol forward scattering on the accuracy of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by CIMEL Sun photometers. The effect is quantified in terms of AOD and solar zenith angle using radiative transfer modeling. The analysis is based on aerosol size distributions derived from multi-year climatologies of AERONET aerosol retrievals. The study shows that the modeled error is lower than AOD calibration uncertainty (0.01) for the vast majority of AERONET level 2 observations, 99.53%. Only 0.47% of the AERONET database corresponding mostly to dust aerosol with high AOD and low solar elevations has larger biases. We also show that observations with extreme reductions in direct solar irradiance do not contribute to level 2 AOD due to low Sun photometer digital counts below a quality control cutoff threshold.

  16. Assessment of error in aerosol optical depth measured by AERONET due to aerosol forward scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyuk, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Schafer, Joel S.; Giles, David M.; Sorokin, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of aerosol forward scattering on the accuracy of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by CIMEL Sun photometers. The effect is quantified in terms of AOD and solar zenith angle using radiative transfer modeling. The analysis is based on aerosol size distributions derived from multi-year climatologies of AERONET aerosol retrievals. The study shows that the modeled error is lower than AOD calibration uncertainty (0.01) for the vast majority of AERONET level 2 observations, ∼99.53%. Only ∼0.47% of the AERONET database corresponding mostly to dust aerosol with high AOD and low solar elevations has larger biases. We also show that observations with extreme reductions in direct solar irradiance do not contribute to level 2 AOD due to low Sun photometer digital counts below a quality control cutoff threshold.

  17. Aerosol optical depth measurements by means of a Sun photometer network in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingold, T.; MäTzler, C.; KäMpfer, N.; Heimo, A.

    2001-11-01

    Within the Swiss Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring program (CHARM) the Swiss Meteorological Institute - MeteoSwiss operates a network of presently six Sun photometer stations. Aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 368, 500, and 778 nm were determined from measurements of the relative direct solar irradiance, primarily to provide climatological information relevant in particular to climate change studies. The six instruments are located at various sites representative of high and low altitudes at the north and south part of the Alps in areas free from urban pollution in Switzerland. AOD time series of recordings back to 1991 are discussed, when data were first collected at Davos. An important aerosol layer is often present over stations at lower sites, showing seasonal variability and regional differences for the observed tropospheric aerosols. A classification scheme for synoptic weather types was applied to separate the AOD data into groups corresponding to different atmospheric transport conditions. On average, lower AODs are measured within advective weather situations than within convective ones. However, at the high Alpine sites such a classification is incomplete for AOD characterization due to orographically induced vertical motion. Monthly averaged values of AOD at 500 nm ranged from 0.05 during winter up to 0.3 in summer. The scale height of the aerosol optical depth is found to be 1-2 km depending on season. The high mountain sites are more suitable to the study stratospheric aerosols, for example, the change of the aerosol content and of its size distribution due to Mount Pinatubo eruption was clearly identified at Davos. In 1996 the aerosol optical depth returned to pre-Pinatubo values. Minimum AODs of ≈0.004-0.007 measured at 500 nm in 1997 are in good agreement with widely reported aerosol optical depth measurements of the stratospheric background aerosols. Besides the Pinatubo-affected period aerosol characterization by means of the Angström power law

  18. Evaluation of the Accuracy of the CAU Multiple-Wavelength Sun Photometer for Spectral Measurements of Total Atmospheric Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Mandock, R. L.; Grams, G. W.; Blyler, M. L.; Tucker, D.

    2005-05-01

    Researchers at Clark Atlanta University have developed a second-generation LED sun photometer with significant improvements over the LED haze sensor distributed to high schools by NASA. We compared sun photometer results obtained in the Atlanta area with simultaneous observations that used a more expensive, handheld, 5-filter Microtops II Sunphotometer, manufactured by Solar Light Company, Inc. This device measures precipitable water (using a 940 nm filter with 10 nm bandwidth) and aerosol optical depth (using a 1020 nm filter with 10 nm bandwidth). It also measures ozone column depth using 3 filters for wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band. Our most recent sun photometer results agreed within expected errors when comparing LED results at the 3 longest wavelengths (660, 860, and 940 nm) with the Microtops aerosol optical thicknesses. However, some problems were encountered with data obtained at the shortest wavelength (400 nm), and that issue needs to be resolved. We are evaluating the performance of our instrument using a series of computer calculations that address the finite bandwidth of the LED detectors. The Bouguer-Beer law assumes the light source is monochromatic. However, the LED bandwidth varies from 30-50 nm (widest at the longest wavelengths). We must determine whether this bandwidth is narrow enough to justify the use of a standard Langley plot. MODTRAN4 is used to obtain the transmissivity of light at relative high resolution through a variety of atmospheric conditions. By assuming realistic concentrations of water vapor, ozone and aerosol content, the wavelength-dependent overlap between radiation reaching the surface and the spectral response of the LEDs is computed to determine the magnitude of any deviations from Beer's law.

  19. Retrieval of aerosol climatology from Sun-Photometer measurements at Andenes, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Hamre, B.; Stamnes, S.; Frette, Ø.; Stamnes, K.; Stamnes, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    The chemical composition and loading of aerosols along the Norwegian coast are expected to be highly varying, making accurate remote sensing of coastal waters difficult. As a first step to remedy this shortcoming, we used a coupled atmosphere-ocean discrete ordinate radiative transfer model (C-DISORT) to investigate the sensitivity of the spectral and angular radiance distributions at the surface to variations in the concentration, size distribution, spectral refractive index of aerosols as well as to variations in the surface albedo. Secondly, we used Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data from Andenes, Norway (69N, 16E) in combination with C-DISORT computations to retrieve a set of aerosol physical parameters which, when varied, caused significant variations in the surface radiances. The goal is to apply this retrieval method to long-term AERONET time series at Andenes in order to classify aerosol physical properties and build up an aerosol climatology database.

  20. Mediterranean aerosol typing by integrating three-wavelength lidar and sun photometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Perrone, M R; Burlizzi, P

    2016-07-01

    Backscatter lidar measurements at 355, 532, and 1064 nm combined with aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs) from sun photometer measurements collocated in space and time were used to retrieve the vertical profiles of intensive and extensive aerosol parameters. Then, the vertical profiles of the Ångström coefficients for different wavelength pairs (Å(λ1, λ2, z)), the color ratio (CR(z)), the fine mode fraction (η(z)) at 532 nm, and the fine modal radius (R f (z)), which represent aerosol characteristic properties independent from the aerosol load, were used for typing the aerosol over the Central Mediterranean. The ability of the Ångström coefficients to identify the main aerosol types affecting the Central Mediterranean with the support of the backward trajectory analysis was first demonstrated. Three main aerosol types, which were designed as continental-polluted (CP), marine-polluted (MP), and desert-polluted (DP), were identified. We found that both the variability range and the vertical profile structure of the tested aerosol intensive parameters varied with the aerosol type. The variability range and the altitude dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, also varied with the identified aerosol types even if they are extensive aerosol parameters. DP, MP, and CP aerosols were characterized by the Å(532, 1064 nm) mean values ± 1 standard deviation equal to 0.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.2, respectively. η(%) mean values ± 1SD were equal to 50 ± 10, 73 ± 7, and 86 ± 6 for DP, MP, and CP aerosols, respectively. The R f and CR mean values ± 1SD were equal to 0.16 ± 0.05 μm and 1.3 ± 0.3, respectively, for DP aerosols; to 0.12 ± 0.03 μm and 1.8 ± 0.4, respectively, for MP aerosols; and to 0.11 ± 0.02 μm and 1.7 ± 0.4, respectively, for CP aerosols. CP and DP aerosols were on average responsible for greater AOT and LR values, but

  1. Aerosol Optical Depth over Europe: Evaluation of the CALIOPE air quality modelling system with direct-sun AERONET observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Pay, María. Teresa; Pérez, Carlos; Cuevas, Emilio; Jorba, Oriol; Piot, Matthias; María Baldasano, Jose

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008), the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS) currently operates a high-resolution air quality forecasting system based on daily photochemical forecasts in Europe (12km x 12km resolution) with the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modelling system (http://www.bsc.es/caliope) and desert dust forecasts over Southern Europe with BSC-DREAM8b (Pérez et al., 2006; http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM). High resolution simulations and forecasts are possible through their implementation on MareNostrum supercomputer at BSC-CNS. As shown in previous air quality studies (e.g. Rodríguez et al., 2001; Jiménez-Guerrero et al., 2008), the contribution of desert dust on particulate matter levels in Southern Europe is remarkable due to its proximity to African desert dust sources. When considering only anthropogenic emissions (Baldasano et al., 2008) and the current knowledge about aerosol physics and chemistry, chemistry-transport model simulations underestimate the PM10 concentrations by 30-50%. As a first approach, the natural dust contribution from BSC-DREAM8b is on-line added to the anthropogenic aerosol output of CMAQ. The aim of the present work is the quantitative evaluation of the WRF-ARW/HERMES/ CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b forecast system to simulate the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Europe. The performance of the modelled AOD has been quantitatively evaluated with discrete and categorical (skill scores) statistics by a comparison to direct-sun AERONET observations for 2004. The contribution of different types of aerosols will be analyzed by means of the O'Neill fine mode AOD products (O'Neill et al., 2001). A previous aerosol characterization of AERONET data was performed (Basart et al., 2009) in order to discriminate the different aerosol source contributions within the study region. The results indicate a remarkable improvement in the discrete and skill-scores evaluation (accuracy, critical success index and

  2. Simple transfer calibration method for a Cimel Sun-Moon photometer: calculating lunar calibration coefficients from Sun calibration constants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Li, Donghui; Yang, Jiuchun; Xu, Hua; Goloub, Philippe; Victori, Stephane

    2016-09-20

    The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V0,Sun, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, CMoon. Our approach is a pure calculation method, independent of site limits, e.g., Moon phase. The method is also not affected by the lunar irradiance model limitations, which is the largest error source of traditional calibration methods. Besides, this new transfer calibration approach is easy to use in the field since CMoon can be obtained directly once V0,Sun is known. Error analysis suggests that the average uncertainty of CMoon over the 440-1640 nm bands obtained with the transfer method is 2.4%-2.8%, depending on the V0,Sun approach (Langley or intercomparison), which is comparable with that of lunar-Langley approach, theoretically. In this paper, the Sun-Moon transfer and the Langley methods are compared based on site measurements in Beijing, and the day-night measurement continuity and performance are analyzed.

  3. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Holben, B.; Remer, L.; Smirnov, A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment). Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W), are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and rms differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a)=60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements.

  4. Raman lidar and sun photometer measurements of aerosols and water vapor during the ARM RCS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Evans, K. D.; Holben, B. N.

    1995-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program. These activities are part of an overall plan to assess general circulation model (GCM) parameterization research. Since radiation processes are one of the key areas included in this parameterization research, measurements of water vapor and aerosols are required because of the important roles these atmospheric constituents play in radiative transfer. Two instruments were deployed during this IOP to measure water vapor and aerosols and study their relationship. The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) acquired water vapor and aerosol profile data during 15 nights of operations. The lidar acquired vertical profiles as well as nearly horizontal profiles directed near an instrumented 60 meter tower. Aerosol optical thickness, phase function, size distribution, and integrated water vapor were derived from measurements with a multiband automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer deployed at this site.

  5. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol as determined from AERONET measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal means and standard deviations of column-integrated aerosol optical properties (e.g. spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo, phase function, Ångström exponent, volume particle size distribution, complex refractive index, absorbing aerosol optical thickness) from several Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites located in typical aerosol source and background regions are investigated (Holben et al., 1998). The AERONET program is an inclusive network of ground-based sun-photometers that measure atmospheric aerosol optical properties (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/). The results can be used for improving the accuracy of satellite-retrieved AOT, assessments of the global aerosol models, studies of atmospheric pollution and aerosol radiative forcing on climate. We have paid a special attention to several AERONET sites that are Mexico_City (Mexico), Alta_Floresta (Brazil), Avignon (France), Solar_Village (Saudi Arabia), and Midway_Island (Pacific) representative for industrial/urban, biomass burning, rural, desert dust and oceanic aerosols, respectively. We have found that the optical and microphysical aerosol properties are highly dependent on the local aerosol emission sources and seasonal meteorological conditions.

  6. Langley method applied in study of aerosol optical depth in the Brazilian semiarid region using 500, 670 and 870 nm bands for sun photometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, J. G.; Fernandez, J. H.; Hoelzemann, J. J.; Leme, N. M. P.; Sousa, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the high costs of commercial monitoring instruments, a portable sun photometer was developed at INPE/CRN laboratories, operating in four bands, with two bands in the visible spectrum and two in near infrared. The instrument calibration process is performed by applying the classical Langley method. Application of the Langley’s methodology requires a site with high optical stability during the measurements, which is usually found in high altitudes. However, far from being an ideal site, Harrison et al. (1994) report success with applying the Langley method to some data for a site in Boulder, Colorado. Recently, Liu et al. (2011) show that low elevation sites, far away from urban and industrial centers can provide a stable optical depth, similar to high altitudes. In this study we investigated the feasibility of applying the methodology in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, far away from pollution areas with low altitudes, for sun photometer calibration. We investigated optical depth stability using two periods of measurements in the year during dry season in austral summer. The first one was in December when the native vegetation naturally dries, losing all its leaves and the second one was in September in the middle of the dry season when the vegetation is still with leaves. The data were distributed during four days in December 2012 and four days in September 2013 totaling eleven half days of collections between mornings and afternoons and by means of fitted line to the data V0 values were found. Despite the high correlation between the collected data and the fitted line, the study showed a variation between the values of V0 greater than allowed for sun photometer calibration. The lowest V0 variation reached in this experiment with values lower than 3% for the bands 500, 670 and 870 nm are displayed in tables. The results indicate that the site needs to be better characterized with studies in more favorable periods, soon after the rainy season.

  7. Evaluation of AERONET precipitable water vapor versus microwave radiometry, GPS, and radiosondes at ARM sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Whiteman, David N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Lyamani, Hassan; Holben, Brent N.; Pinker, Rachel; Andrade, Marcos; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we present comparisons of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) precipitable water vapor (W) retrievals from Sun photometers versus radiosonde observations and other ground-based retrieval techniques such as microwave radiometry (MWR) and GPS. The comparisons make use of the extensive measurements made within the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), mainly at their permanent sites located at the Southern Great Plains (Oklahoma, U.S.), Nauru Islands, and Barrow (Alaska, U.S.). These places experience different types of weather which allows the comparison of W under different conditions. Radiosonde and microwave radiometry data were provided by the ARM program while the GPS data were obtained from the SOUMINET network. In general, W obtained by AERONET is lower than those obtained by MWR and GPS by ~6.0-9.0% and ~6.0-8.0%, respectively. The AERONET values are also lower by approximately 5% than those obtained from the numerous balloon-borne radiosondes launched at the Southern Great Plains. These results point toward a consistent dry bias in the retrievals of W by AERONET of approximately 5-6% and a total estimated uncertainty of 12-15%. Differences with respect to MWR retrievals are a function of solar zenith angle pointing toward a possible bias in the MWR retrievals. Finally, the ability of AERONET precipitable water vapor retrievals to provide long-term records of W in diverse climate regimes is demonstrated.

  8. Studies of aerosol optical depth with the use of Microtops II sun photometers and MODIS detectors in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzka, Olga; Makuch, Przemysław; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Ulevičius, Vidmantas; Strzałkowska, Agata; Rozwadowska, Anna; Gutowska, Dorota

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we describe the results of a research campaign dedicated to the studies of aerosol optical properties in different regions of both the open Baltic Sea and its coastal areas. During the campaign we carried out simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth at 4 stations with the use of the hand-held Microtops II sun photometers. The studies were complemented with aerosol data provided by the MODIS. In order to obtain the full picture of aerosol situation over the study area, we added to our analyses the air mass back-trajectories at various altitudes as well as wind fields. Such complex information facilitated proper conclusions regarding aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent for the four locations and discussion of the changes of aerosol properties with distance and with changes of meteorological factors. We also show that the Microtops II sun photometers are reliable instruments for field campaigns. They are easy to operate and provide good quality results.

  9. Sun photometer and lidar measurements of the plume from the Hawaii Kilauea Volcano Pu'u O'o vent: Aerosol flux and SO2 lifetime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, J.N.; Horton, K.A.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Lienert, B.; Sharma, S.K.; Lau, E.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Oppenheimer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol optical depths and lidar measurements were obtained under the plume of Hawaii Kilauea Volcano on August 17, 2001, ???9 km downwind from the erupting Pu'u O'o vent. Measured aerosol optical depths (at 500 nm) were between 0.2-0.4. Aerosol size distributions inverted from the spectral sun photometer measurements suggest the volcanic aerosol is present in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.5 micron diameter), which is consistent with past in situ optical counter measurements. The aerosol dry mass flux rate was calculated to be 53 Mg d-1. The estimated SO2 emission rate during the aerosol measurements was ???1450 Mg d-1. Assuming the sulfur emissions at Pu'u O'o vent are mainly SO2 (not aerosol), this corresponds to a SO2 half-life of 6.0 hours in the atmosphere.

  10. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and comparison with land, aircraft, and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Dubovik, Oleg; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2003-10-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km above sea level (asl) reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in situ measurements of total aerosol number concentration. AATS-6 extinction retrievals also agree with corresponding values derived from ground-based lidar measurements for altitudes above the trade inversion. The spectral behavior of AOD within specific layers beneath the top of the aircraft profile is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt, with mean Ångström wavelength exponents of ˜0.20. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in situ measurements agree to within ˜4% (0.13 g/cm2). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low-altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004-0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky radiometer located on Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by ˜21%. AATS-6 AOD values measured during low-altitude aircraft traverses over the ocean are compared with corresponding AOD values retrieved over water from upwelling radiance measurements by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and GOES 8 Imager satellite sensors, with mixed results.

  11. Enhancement of aerosol characterization using synergy of lidar and sun - photometer coincident observations: the GARRLiC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, A.; Dubovik, O.; Chaikovsky, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Lapyonok, T.; Tanré, D.; Litvinov, P.

    2013-03-01

    Currently most of experiments pursuing comprehensive characterization of atmosphere include coordinated observations by both lidar and radiometers in order to obtain important complimentary information about aerosol properties. The passive observations by radiometers from ground are mostly sensitive to the properties of aerosol in total atmospheric column and have very limited sensitivity to vertical structure of the atmosphere. Such observations are commonly used for measuring aerosol optical thickness and deriving the information about aerosol microphysics including aerosol particles shape, size distribution, and complex refractive index. In a contrast, lidar observations of atmospheric responses from different altitudes to laser pulses emitted from ground are designed to provide accurate profiling of the atmospheric properties. The interpretation of the lidar observation generally relies on some assumptions about aerosol type and loading. Here we present the GARRLiC algorithm (Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data) that simultaneously inverts co-incident lidar and radiometer observations and derives a united set of aerosol parameters. Such synergetic retrieval is expected to result in additional enhancements in derived aerosol properties because the backscattering observations by lidar add some sensitivity to the columnar properties of aerosol, while radiometric observations provide sufficient constraints on aerosol type and loading that generally are missing in lidar signals. GARRLiC is based on AERONET algorithm for inverting combined observations by radiometer and multi-wavelength elastic lidar observations. It is expected that spectral changes of backscattering signal obtained by multi-wavelength lidar at different altitudes provide some sensitivity to the vertical variability of aerosol particle sizes. In order to benefit from this sensitivity the algorithm is set to derive not only the vertical profile of total aerosol

  12. Comparison of the Changes in the Visible and Infrared Irradiance Observed by the SunPhotometers on EURECA to the UARS Total Solar and UV Irradiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Solar irradiance in the near-UV (335 nm), visible (500 nm) and infrared (778 nm) spectral bands has been measured by the SunPhotometers developed at the World Radiation Center, Davos, Switzerland on board the European Retrievable Carrier between August 1992 and May 1993. Study of the variations in the visible and infrared irradiance is important for both solar and atmospheric physics. The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variations observed in the visible and infrared spectral bands after eliminating the trend in the data mainly related to instrument degradation. The effect of active regions in these spectral irradiances is clearly resolved. Variations in the visible and infrared irradiances are compared to total solar irradiance observed by the SOVA2 radiometer on the EURECA platform and by the ACRIMII radiometer on UARS as well as to UV observations of the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. The space-borne spectral irradiance observations are compared to the photometric sunspot deficit and CaII K irradiance measured at the San Fernando Observatory, California State University at Northridge in order to study the effect of active regions in detail.

  13. Excitation and Damping of Low-Degree Solar p-Modes during Activity Cycle 23: Analysis of GOLF and VIRGO Sun Photometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.; Chaplin, W. J.

    2003-09-01

    We have used observations made by the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency (GOLF) and the Variability of Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations Sun Photometer (VIRGO/SPM) instruments on board the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite to study variations in the excitation and damping of low angular degree (low-l) solar p-modes on the rising phase of activity cycle 23. Our analysis includes a correction procedure that for the first time allows GOLF data to be ``treated'' as a single homogeneous set, thereby compensating for the change of operational configuration partway through the mission. Over the range 2.5<=ν<=3.5mHz, we uncover an increase in damping and decrease in mode power that is consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, an excellent level of agreement is found between the variations extracted from the GOLF and VIRGO/SPM data. We find no net long-term changes to the modal energy supply rate. However, an analysis of the residuals uncovers the presence of a quasi-periodic signature of period ~1.5 yr (most pronounced for SPM). While it is true that several workers claim to have uncovered similar periodicities in other phenomena related to the near-surface layers of the Sun here, we are at present more inclined to attribute our finding to an artifact of the mode-fitting procedure. We also uncover a significant change in the asymmetry of mode peaks in the GOLF data, as found in previous studies of much longer data sets. These assumed that the dominant contribution to this arose from the switch in operating configuration partway through the mission (which altered the depth in the solar atmosphere sampled by the instrument). However, our preliminary analysis of data collected over the 100 day period beginning 2002 November 19-when the instrument switched back to its original configuration-suggests that this change may have a solar cycle component.

  14. Airborne Sun Photometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth during SOLVE II: Comparison with SAGE III and POAM III Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Yee, J.-H.; Trepte, C.; Thomason, L.; Zawodny, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated aboard the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II) and obtained successful measurements during the sunlit segments of eight science flights. These included six flights out of Kiruna, Sweden, one flight out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), and the Kiruna-DFRC return transit flight. Values of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), columnar ozone and columnar water vapor have been derived from the AATS-14 measurements. In this paper, we focus on AATS-14 AOD data. In particular, we compare AATS-14 AOD spectra with temporally and spatially near-coincident measurements by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) satellite sensors. We examine the effect on retrieved AOD of uncertainties in relative optical airmass (the ratio of AOD along the instrument-to-sun slant path to that along the vertical path) at large solar zenith angles. Airmass uncertainties result fiom uncertainties in requisite assumed vertical profiles of aerosol extinction due to inhomogeneity along the viewing path or simply to lack of available data. We also compare AATS-14 slant path solar transmission measurements with coincident measurements acquired from the DC-8 by the NASA Langley Research Center Gas and Aerosol Measurement Sensor (GAMS).

  15. A three-dimensional characterization of Arctic aerosols from airborne Sun photometer observations: PAM-ARCMIP, April 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. S.; Herber, A.; Vitale, V.; Mazzola, M.; Lupi, A.; Schnell, R. C.; Dutton, E. G.; Liu, P. S. K.; Li, S.-M.; Dethloff, K.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Neuber, R.; Maturilli, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Arctic climate is modulated, in part, by atmospheric aerosols that affect the distribution of radiant energy passing through the atmosphere. Aerosols affect the surface-atmosphere radiation balance directly through interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and indirectly through interactions with cloud particles. Better quantification of the radiative forcing by different types of aerosol is needed to improve predictions of future climate. During April 2009, the airborne campaign Pan-Arctic Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (PAM-ARCMIP) was conducted. The mission was organized by Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research of Germany and utilized their research aircraft, Polar-5. The goal was to obtain a snapshot of surface and atmospheric conditions over the central Arctic prior to the onset of the melt season. Characterizing aerosols was one objective of the campaign. Standard Sun photometric procedures were adopted to quantify aerosol optical depth AOD, providing a three-dimensional view of the aerosol, which was primarily haze from anthropogenic sources. Independent, in situ measurements of particle size distribution and light extinction, derived from airborne lidar, are used to corroborate inferences made using the AOD results. During April 2009, from the European to the Alaskan Arctic, from sub-Arctic latitudes to near the pole, the atmosphere was variably hazy with total column AOD at 500 nm ranging from ˜0.12 to >0.35, values that are anomalously high compared with previous years. The haze, transported primarily from Eurasian industrial regions, was concentrated within and just above the surface-based temperature inversion layer. Extinction, as measured using an onboard lidar system, was also greatest at low levels, where particles tended to be slightly larger than at upper levels. Black carbon (BC) (soot) was observed at all levels sampled, but at moderate to low concentrations compared with

  16. Climatology of aerosol properties and clear-sky shortwave radiative effects using Lidar and Sun photometer observations in the Dakar site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, A.; Goloub, P.; Derimian, Y.; Tanré, D.; Podvin, T.; Blarel, L.; Deroo, C.; Marticorena, B.; Diallo, A.; Ndiaye, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis of nearly a decade of continuous aerosol observations performed at the Mbour site (Senegal) with Sun photometer, Lidar, and Tapered Electromagnetic Oscillating Microbalance. This site is influenced all year-round by desert dust and sporadically, in wintertime, by biomass burning particles. Different patterns are revealed for winter and summer, seasons associated to air masses of different origin. The summer (wet season) is characterized by a high aerosol loading (optical thickness, AOT, around 0.57 at 532 nm) composed of large and weakly absorbing particles (Angstrom exponent, α, of 0.23 and single-scattering albedo, ϖ0, of 0.94 at 532 nm). A lower aerosol loading (AOT = 0.32) is observed during winter (dry season) for finer and absorbing particles (α = 0.48 and ϖ0 = 0.87) revealing the presence of biomass burning aerosols and a greater proportion of local emissions. This latter anthropogenic contribution is visible at weekly and daily scales through AOT cycles. A decrease of about 30% in AOT has been featured in autumn since 2003. The derivation of the extinction profiles highlights a dust transport close to the ground during winter and in an aloft layer (up to 5 km) during summer. Accurate calculations of the daily aerosol radiative effect in clear-sky conditions are finally addressed. From spring to winter, seasonal shortwave radiative forcing averages of 14.15, 11.15, 8.92, and 12.06 W m-2 have been found respectively. Up to 38% of the solar clear-sky atmospheric heating can be attributed to the aerosols in this site.

  17. Evaluation of the Applicability of Solar and Lamp Radiometric Calibrations of a Precision Sun Photometer Operating Between 300 and 1025 nm.

    PubMed

    Schmid, B; Spyak, P R; Biggar, S F; Wehrli, C; Sekler, J; Ingold, T; Mätzler, C; Kämpfer, N

    1998-06-20

    Over a period of 3 years a precision Sun photometer (SPM) operating between 300 and 1025 nm was calibrated four times at three different high-mountain sites in Switzerland, Germany, and the United States by means of the Langley-plot technique. We found that for atmospheric window wavelengths the total error (2varsigma-statistical plus systematic errors) of the calibration constants V(0) (lambda), the SPM voltage in the absence of any attenuating atmosphere, can be kept below 1.6% in the UV-A and blue, 0.9% in the mid-visible, and 0.6% in the near-infrared spectral region. For SPM channels within strong water-vapor or ozone absorption bands a modified Langley-plot technique was used to determine V(0) (lambda) with a lower accuracy. Within the same period of time, we calibrated the SPM five times using irradiance standard lamps in the optical labs of the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center, Switzerland, and of the Remote Sensing Group of the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. The lab calibration method requires knowledge of the extraterrestrial spectral irradiance. When we refer the standard lamp results to the World Radiation Center extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectrum, they agree with the Langley results within 2% at 6 of 13 SPM wavelengths. The largest disagreement (4.4%) is found for the channel centered at 610 nm. The results of these intercomparisons change significantly when the lamp results are referred to two different extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectra that have become recently available.

  18. Daytime aerosol extinction profiles from the combination of CALIOP profiles and AERONET products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, C.; Pedrós, R.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Sicard, M.; Utrillas, M. P.; Muñoz, C.; Comerón, A.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.

    2013-04-01

    The solar background illumination has a strong effect on CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) measurements, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio of the lidar signal. Because of this, CALIOP level 2 data algorithms might be limited in the retrieval of the properties of the aerosols in the atmosphere. In this work, we present a methodology that combines CALIOP level 1 data with AERONET (Aerosol RObotic NETwork) measurements to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles and lidar ratios in daytime conditions. In this way, we fulfill a two-fold objective: first, we obtain more accurate daytime aerosol information; second, we supplement column integrated measurements from AERONET sun photometers with information about the vertical distribution of aerosols. The methodology has been applied to Burjassot (39.30° N, 0.25° W) and Barcelona (41.39° N, 2.11° E) AERONET stations in the Mediterranean coast of Spain in the period from June 2006 to September 2011. We have found good agreement for the extinction profiles in several study cases of ground lidar measurements in Barcelona, coincident with CALIOP overpasses. Finally, the methodology has proved to be useful for the study of special episodes such as Saharan dust outbreaks.

  19. Type of Aerosols Determination Over Malaysia by AERONET Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Tan, F.; Abdullah, K.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols are one of the most interesting studies by the researchers due to the complicated of their characteristic and are not yet well quantified. Besides that there still have huge uncertainties associated with changes in Earth's radiation budget. The previous study by other researchers shown a lot of difficulties and challenges in quantifying aerosol influences arise. As well as the heterogeneity from the aerosol loading and properties: spatial, temporal, size, and composition. In this study, we were investigated the aerosol characteristics over two regions with different environmental conditions and aerosol sources contributed. The study sites are Penang and Kuching, Malaysia where ground-based AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun-photometer was deployed. The types of the aerosols for both study sites were identified by analyzing aerosol optical depth, angstrom parameter and spectral de-convolution algorithm product from sun-photometer. The analysis was carried out associated with the in-situ meteorological data of relative humidity, visibility and air pollution index. The major aerosol type over Penang found in this study was hydrophobic aerosols. Whereas the hydrophilic type of the aerosols was highly distributed in Kuching. The major aerosol size distributions for both regions were identified in this study. The result also shows that the aerosol optical properties were affected by the types and characteristic of aerosols. Therefore, in this study we generated an algorithm to determine the aerosols in Malaysia by considered the environmental factors. From this study we found that the source of aerosols should always being consider in to retrieve the accurate information of aerosol for air quality study.

  20. Identification of absorbing organic (brown carbon) aerosols through Sun Photometry: results from AEROCAN / AERONET stations in high Arctic and urban Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G. H.; Chaubey, J. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Hayes, P.; Atkinson, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Light absorbing organic aerosols or brown carbon (BrC) aerosols are prominent species influencing the absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD) of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the UV wavelength region. They, along with dust, play an important role in modifying the spectral AAOD and the spectral AOD in the UV region: this property can be used to discriminate BrC aerosols from both weakly absorbing aerosols such as sulfates as well as strongly absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC). In this study we use available AERONET inversions (level 1.5) retrieved for the measuring period from 2009 to 2013, for the Arctic region (Eureka, Barrow and Hornsund), Urban/ Industrial regions (Kanpur, Beijing), and the forest regions (Alta Foresta and Mongu), to identify BrC aerosols. Using Dubovik's inversion algorithm results, we analyzed parameters that were sensitive to BrC presence, notably AAOD, AAODBrC estimated using the approach of Arola et al. [2011], the fine-mode-aerosol absorption derivative (αf, abs) and the fine-mode-aerosol absorption 2nd derivative (αf, abs'), all computed at a near UV wavelength (440 nm). Temporal trends of these parameters were investigated for all test stations and compared to available volume sampling surface data as a means of validating / evaluating the sensitivity of ostensible sunphotometer indicators of BrC aerosols to the presence of BrC as measured using independent indicators. Reference: Arola, A., Schuster, G., Myhre, G., Kazadzis, S., Dey, S., and Tripathi, S. N.: Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 215-225, doi:10.5194/acp-11-215-2011, 2011

  1. Retrieval of Aerosol Microphysical Properties from AERONET Photo-Polarimetric Measurements. 2: A New Research Algorithm and Case Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Dubovik, Oleg; Li, Li; Li, Zhengqiang; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Siniuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent N.

    2015-01-01

    A new research algorithm is presented here as the second part of a two-part study to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties from the multispectral and multiangular photopolarimetric measurements taken by Aerosol Robotic Network's (AERONET's) new-generation Sun photometer. The algorithm uses an advanced UNified and Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model and incorporates a statistical optimization approach.While the new algorithmhas heritage from AERONET operational inversion algorithm in constraining a priori and retrieval smoothness, it has two new features. First, the new algorithmretrieves the effective radius, effective variance, and total volume of aerosols associated with a continuous bimodal particle size distribution (PSD) function, while the AERONET operational algorithm retrieves aerosol volume over 22 size bins. Second, our algorithm retrieves complex refractive indices for both fine and coarsemodes,while the AERONET operational algorithm assumes a size-independent aerosol refractive index. Mode-resolved refractive indices can improve the estimate of the single-scattering albedo (SSA) for each aerosol mode and thus facilitate the validation of satellite products and chemistry transport models. We applied the algorithm to a suite of real cases over Beijing_RADI site and found that our retrievals are overall consistent with AERONET operational inversions but can offer mode-resolved refractive index and SSA with acceptable accuracy for the aerosol composed by spherical particles. Along with the retrieval using both radiance and polarization, we also performed radiance-only retrieval to demonstrate the improvements by adding polarization in the inversion. Contrast analysis indicates that with polarization, retrieval error can be reduced by over 50% in PSD parameters, 10-30% in the refractive index, and 10-40% in SSA, which is consistent with theoretical analysis presented in the companion paper of this two-part study.

  2. MISR Global Aerosol Product Assessment by Comparison with AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical approach is used to assess the quality of the MISR Version 22 (V22) aerosol products. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval results are improved relative to the early post- launch values reported by Kahn et al. [2005a], varying with particle type category. Overall, about 70% to 75% of MISR AOD retrievals fall within 0.05 or 20% AOD of the paired validation data, and about 50% to 55% are within 0.03 or 10% AOD, except at sites where dust, or mixed dust and smoke, are commonly found. Retrieved particle microphysical properties amount to categorical values, such as three groupings in size: "small," "medium," and "large." For particle size, ground-based AERONET sun photometer Angstrom Exponents are used to assess statistically the corresponding MISR values, which are interpreted in terms of retrieved size categories. Coincident Single-Scattering Albedo (SSA) and fraction AOD spherical data are too limited for statistical validation. V22 distinguishes two or three size bins, depending on aerosol type, and about two bins in SSA (absorbing vs. non-absorbing), as well as spherical vs. non-spherical particles, under good retrieval conditions. Particle type sensitivity varies considerably with conditions, and is diminished for mid-visible AOD below about 0.15 or 0.2. Based on these results, specific algorithm upgrades are proposed, and are being investigated by the MISR team for possible implementation in future versions of the product.

  3. AERONET Version 3 processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  4. Sunlight Transmission through Desert Dust and Marine Aerosols: Diffuse Light Corrections to Sun Photometry and Pyrheliometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Dubovik, O.; Ramirez, S. A.; Wang, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Box, M.; Holben, B. N.

    2003-01-01

    Desert dust and marine aerosols are receiving increased scientific attention because of their prevalence on intercontinental scales and their potentially large effects on Earth radiation and climate, as well as on other aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The relatively large size of desert dust and marine aerosols produces scattering phase functions that are strongly forward- peaked. Hence, Sun photometry and pyrheliometry of these aerosols are more subject to diffuse-light errors than is the case for smaller aerosols. Here we quantify these diffuse-light effects for common Sun photometer and pyrheliometer fields of view (FOV), using a data base on dust and marine aerosols derived from (1) AERONET measurements of sky radiance and solar beam transmission and (2) in situ measurements of aerosol layer size distribution and chemical composition. Accounting for particle non-sphericity is important when deriving dust size distribution from both AERONET and in situ aerodynamic measurements. We express our results in terms of correction factors that can be applied to Sun photometer and pyrheliometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD). We find that the corrections are negligible (less than approximately 1% of AOD) for Sun photometers with narrow FOV (half-angle eta less than degree), but that they can be as large as 10% of AOD at 354 nm wavelength for Sun photometers with eta = 1.85 degrees. For pyrheliometers (which can have eta up to approximately 2.8 degrees), corrections can be as large as 16% at 354 nm. We find that AOD correction factors are well correlated with AOD wavelength dependence (hence Angstrom exponent). We provide best-fit equations for determining correction factors from Angstrom exponents of uncorrected AOD spectra, and we demonstrate their application to vertical profiles of multiwavelength AOD.

  5. Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, A.; Tesche, M.; Seifert, P.; Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Apituley, A.; Wilson, K. M.; Serikov, I.; Linné, H.; Heinold, B.; Hiebsch, A.; Schnell, F.; Schmidt, J.; Mattis, I.; Wandinger, U.; Wiegner, M.

    2011-10-01

    A combined lidar-photometer method that permits the retrieval of vertical profiles of ash and non-ash (fine-mode) particle mass concentrations is presented. By using a polarization lidar, the contributions of non-ash and ash particles to total particle backscattering and extinction are separated. Sun photometer measurements of the ratio of particle volume concentration to particle optical thickness (AOT) for fine and coarse mode are then used to convert the non-ash and ash extinction coefficients into respective fine-mode and ash particle mass concentrations. The method is applied to European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer observations of volcanic aerosol layers at Cabauw, Netherlands, and Hamburg, Munich, and Leipzig, Germany, after the strong eruptions of the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April and May 2010. A consistent picture in terms of photometer-derived fine- and coarse-mode AOTs and lidar-derived non-ash and ash extinction profiles is found. The good agreement between the fine- to coarse-mode AOT ratio and non-ash to ash AOT ratio (<10% difference) in several cases corroborates the usefulness of the new retrieval technique. The main phases of the evolution of the volcanic aerosol layers over central Europe from 16 April to 17 May 2010 are characterized in terms of optical properties and mass concentrations of fine fraction and ash particles. Maximum coarse-mode 500 nm AOTs were of the order of 1.0-1.2. Ash concentrations and column mass loads reached maximum values around 1500 μg/m3 and 1750 mg/m2, respectively, on 16-17 April 2010. In May 2010, the maximum ash loads were lower by at least 50%. A critical aspect of the entire retrieval scheme is the high uncertainty in the mass-to-extinction conversion for fresh volcanic plumes with an unknown concentration of particles with radii >15 μm.

  6. Validation of MODIS aerosol product with in-situ AERONET data (a study case in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, M.; Leyva-Contreras, A.; Bonifaz, R.; Llamas, R.

    2009-12-01

    The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is known as blocking particles which avoid the transmission of solar radiation coming from the Sun, and is defined as the integral of the coefficient of extinction over a vertical column of the Atmosphere. This coefficient of extinction is also defined as the limited fraction of the irradiance over the trajectory at a specific wavelength. The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor provides aerosol data products all over the planet. However this data requires constant evaluation and validation using in-situ data such as the provided by the network of photometers managed by AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network). In this work, the procedure of validation of the MODIS AOT data using AERONET data in the wavelengths of 660 and 675 nm is presented. It is expected that using validate remote sensing data which provides spatial and temporal information about the AOT will help to a better understanding of the behavior of the complex atmospheric conditions which characterize the NW of Mexico and SW of the US such as the Mexican monsoon.

  7. Retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from AERONET photopolarimetric measurements: 1. Information content analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a two-part study that aims to retrieve aerosol particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index from the multispectral and multiangular polarimetric measurements taken by the new-generation Sun photometer as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). It provides theoretical analysis and guidance to the companion study in which we have developed an inversion algorithm for retrieving 22 aerosol microphysical parameters associated with a bimodal PSD function from real AERONET measurements. Our theoretical analysis starts with generating the synthetic measurements at four spectral bands (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) with a Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model for various types of spherical aerosol particles. Subsequently, the quantitative information content for retrieving aerosol parameters is investigated in four observation scenarios, i.e., I1, I2, P1, and P2. Measurements in the scenario (I1) comprise the solar direct radiances and almucantar radiances that are used in the current AERONET operational inversion algorithm. The other three scenarios include different additional measurements: (I2) the solar principal plane radiances, (P1) the solar principal plane radiances and polarization, and (P2) the solar almucantar polarization. Results indicate that adding polarization measurements can increase the degree of freedom for signal by 2-5 in the scenario P1, while not as much of an increase is found in the scenarios I2 and P2. Correspondingly, smallest retrieval errors are found in the scenario P1: 2.3% (2.9%) for the fine-mode (coarse-mode) aerosol volume concentration, 1.3% (3.5%) for the effective radius, 7.2% (12%) for the effective variance, 0.005 (0.035) for the real-part refractive index, and 0.019 (0.068) for the single-scattering albedo. These errors represent a reduction from their counterparts in scenario I1 of 79% (57%), 76% (49%), 69% (52%), 66% (46%), and 49% (20%), respectively. We further

  8. Comparision of aerosol optical properties observed over two AERONET sites of Nepal during pre-to post monsoon season of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, B. D.; Aryal, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOP) deduced from CIMEL sun photometer measurements at two AERONET sites EVK2-CNR (located at elevation 5050m,in the foot hill of Mount Everest) and Kathmandu_univ (located at elevation 1510 m, near Kathmandu city) during pre-monsoon to post-monsoon season of 2009 are compared. We present time series of key climate significant AOP such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), absorption angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, absorption AOD, lidar ratio over these two sites. The lidar ratio (LR), single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption AOD due to the total aerosol particles (diameter (d)<10microns) were derived at 500nm using the volume size distribution and refractive index from AERONET inversion products. The variation of absorption AOD at two sites show the same nature with the lowest at monsoon period and highest at pre-monsoon season. This absorption value is higher over kathmandu_univ site than over the EVK2-CNR site by the factor of ~2 in all seasons. The retrieved absorption angstrom exponent over the EVK2-CNR site is near 1(the theoretical value for black carbon) and with low SSA value 0.55(+-0.089) during pre-monsoon period indicating presence of black carbon. We will also discuss the seasonal variability of these properties based on regional and long-range air mass sources at two sites.

  9. In-situ calibration of the water vapor channel for multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer using collocated GPS, AERONET and meteorology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maosi; Zempila, Melina-Maria; Davis, John M.; King, Robert W.; Gao, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The difficulty of in-situ calibration on the 940 nm channel of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) stems from the distinctive non-linear relationship between the amount of precipitable water vapor (PW) and its optical depth (i.e. curve of growth) compared to the counterpart of aerosols. Previous approaches, the modified Langley methods (MLM), require exact aerosol optical depth (AOD) values and a constant PW value at all points participating the regression. Instead, we propose a new method that substitutes the PW optical depth derived from collocated GPS zenith wet delay retrieval in conjunction with meteorology data and requires a constant AOD value at all points participating the regression. The main benefits of the new method include: (1) Aerosol stability is easier to fulfill than PW stability; (2) AOD stability could be inferred from adjacent channels (e.g. 672 and 870 nm) of MFRSR itself without measurements of a collocated AERONET sun photometer; and (3) When applicable, the time interval of GPS derived PW (i.e. 3 minutes) is more compatible with the MFRSR sampling interval (i.e. 3 minutes) than AERONET interpolated AOD (i.e. 15 minutes). Both MLM and the new method were applied to the MFRSR of USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program at the station in Billings, Oklahoma (active for 18 years so far) on July 28, 2015. The performances of the two methods are compared in order to assess their accuracy and the advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  11. How Can AERONET Help with Monitoring Clouds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.

    2004-01-01

    When conditions are inappropriate to make AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) measurements for aerosol studies, new measurements related to cloud physics can be made instead. As such, several AERONET CIMEL sunphotometers have been equipped with a new "cloud mode." This mode allows the CIMELs to make measurements of zenith radiance when the Sun in blocked by clouds. When in cloud mode, a CIMEL points straight up every 10-15 minutes and takes 10 measurements over a 9 second time interval at four wavelengths: 440,670,870, and 1020 nm. For cloudy conditions above green vegetation, the spectral contrast in surface albedo dominates over Rayleigh and aerosol effects. We have developed a new method for retrieving cloud optical depth, even for broken clouds, that uses data from the 670 (and/or 440) and 870 nm channels. In addition to cloud optical depth, the method also infers a "radiatively effective" cloud fraction. The results of the retrievals at the ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma are compared with the ones from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR).

  12. Observations of Aerosol Optical Properties over 15 AERONET Sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. D.; Lagrosas, N.; Uy, S. N.; Holben, B. N.; Dorado, S.; Tobias, V., Jr.; Anh, N. X.; Po-Hsiung, L.; Janjai, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Liew, S. C.; Lim, H. S.; Lestari, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mean column-integrated optical properties from ground sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are studied to provide an overview of the characteristics of aerosols over the region as part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) mission. The 15 AERONET sites with the most available level 2 data products are selected from Thailand (Chiang Mai, Mukdahan, Songkhla and Silpakorn University), Malaysia (University Sains Malaysia), Laos (Vientiane), Vietnam (Bac Giang, Bac Lieu and Nha Trang), Taiwan (National Cheng Kung University and Central Weather Bureau Taipei), Singapore, Indonesia (Bandung) and the Philippines (Manila Observatory and Notre Dame of Marbel University). For all 15 sites, high angstrom exponent values (α>1) have been observed. Chiang Mai and USM have the highest mean Angstrom exponent indicating the dominance of fine particles that can be ascribed to biomass burning and urbanization. Sites with the lowest Angstrom exponent values include Bac Lieu (α=1.047) and Manila Observatory (α=1.021). From the average lognormal size distribution curves, Songkhla and NDMU show the smallest annual variation in the fine mode region, indicating the observed fine aerosols are local to the sites. The rest of the sites show high variation which could be due to large scale forcings (e.g., monsoons and biomass burnings) that affect aerosol properties in these sites. Both high and low single scattering albedo at 440 nm (ω0440) values are found in sites located in major urban areas. Silpakorn University, Manila Observatory and Vientiane have all mean ω0440 < 0.90. Singapore and CWB Taipei have ω0440 > 0.94. The discrepancy in ω0 suggests different types of major emission sources present in urban areas. The absorptivity of urban aerosols can vary depending on the strength of traffic emissions, types of fuel combusted and automobile engines used, and the effect of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season. High aerosol optical depth values (τa550

  13. Aerosol Seasonal Variations over Urban-Industrial Regions in Ukraine According to AERONET and POLDER Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Miatselskaya, N.; Mishchenko, M.; Sosonkin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban-industrial regions in Ukraine. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2013 data from two urban ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Lugansk) as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban-industrial areas in Ukraine. We also analyzed the data from one AERONET site in Belarus (Minsk) in order to compare with the Ukrainian sites. Aerosol amount and optical depth (AOD) values in the atmosphere columns over the large urbanized areas like Kyiv and Minsk have maximum values in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are observed in late autumn. The results show that fine-mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The analysis of the seasonal AOD variations over the urban-industrial areas in the eastern and central parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the similar traits. The seasonal variation similarity in the regions denotes the resemblance in basic aerosol sources that are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. The behavior of basic aerosol parameters in the western part of Ukraine is different from eastern and central regions and shows an earlier appearance of the spring and summer AOD maxima. Spectral single-scattering albedo, complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere column over Kyiv have different behavior for warm (April-October) and cold seasons. The seasonal features of fine and coarse aerosol particle behavior over the Kyiv site were analyzed. A prevailing influence of the fine-mode particles on the optical properties of the aerosol layer over the region has been established. The back-trajectory and cluster analysis techniques were applied to study the seasonal back trajectories and prevailing

  14. Aerosol seasonal variations over urban-industrial regions in Ukraine according to AERONET and POLDER measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Miatselskaya, N.; Mishchenko, M.; Sosonkin, M.

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban-industrial regions in Ukraine. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2013 data from two urban ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Lugansk) as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban-industrial areas in Ukraine. We also analyzed the data from one AERONET site in Belarus (Minsk) in order to compare with the Ukrainian sites. Aerosol amount and optical depth (AOD) values in the atmosphere columns over the large urbanized areas like Kyiv and Minsk have maximum values in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are observed in late autumn. The results show that fine-mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The analysis of the seasonal AOD variations over the urban-industrial areas in the eastern and central parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the similar traits. The seasonal variation similarity in the regions denotes the resemblance in basic aerosol sources that are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. The behavior of basic aerosol parameters in the western part of Ukraine is different from eastern and central regions and shows an earlier appearance of the spring and summer AOD maxima. Spectral single-scattering albedo, complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere column over Kyiv have different behavior for warm (April-October) and cold seasons. The seasonal features of fine and coarse aerosol particle behavior over the Kyiv site were analyzed. A prevailing influence of the fine-mode particles on the optical properties of the aerosol layer over the region has been established. The back-trajectory and cluster analysis techniques were applied to study the seasonal back trajectories and prevailing

  15. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) program is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks established by NASA and LOA-PHOTONS (CNRS) and is greatly expanded by collaborators from national agencies, institutes, universities, individual scientists, and partners. The program provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical, mircrophysical and radiative properties for aerosol research and characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with other databases. The network imposes standardization of instruments, calibration, processing and distribution. AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  16. TIMED Imaging Photometer Experiment (TIPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Stephen B.; Fritts, D. C.; Hecht, James H.; Killeen, T. L.; Llewellyn, Edward J.; Lowe, Robert P.; McDade, Ian C.; Ross, Martin N.; Swenson, Gary R.; Turnbull, David N.

    1994-12-01

    This document contains a summary of the TIMED Imaging Photometer Experiment (TIPE) instrument study at the time of the termination of project due to TIPE being de-selected from the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission.

  17. TIMED Imaging Photometer Experiment (TIPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.; Fritts, D. C.; Hecht, James H.; Killeen, T. L.; Llewellyn, Edward J.; Lowe, Robert P.; Mcdade, Ian C.; Ross, Martin N.; Swenson, Gary R.; Turnbull, David N.

    1994-01-01

    This document contains a summary of the TIMED Imaging Photometer Experiment (TIPE) instrument study at the time of the termination of project due to TIPE being de-selected from the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission.

  18. Evaluation of AERONET Aerosol Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G. L.; Dubovik, O.; Rutledge, C. K.

    2001-12-01

    The aerosol robotic network (AERONET) program provides aerosol retrievals at ground-based sunphotometer sites throughout the world. The aerosol size distributions and refractive index retrievals at two locations have been converted to phase functions and single-scattering albedo using Mie theory. These optical properties are incorporated into a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer model and calculations are compared to independent measurements obtained at the surface. The independent measurements include principle plane radiances from sunphotometer data and narrowband irradiances from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) data. The two locations represent radically different environments. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Central Facility (CF) represents a rural continental environment, while the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) site represents a coastal marine environment. Both sites exhibit good agreement between the model calculations and the principle plane radiances for the year 2000 (generally better than 15 percent at optical depths greater than 0.1). A comparison with RSS measurements in July 2000 at the ARM Central Facility shows an irradiance error of 12 percent or better at tested wavelenghs longer than 500 nm. Comparisons with MFRSR data fared less well, however, indicating a discrepancy between the instruments. Inspection of 28 whole-sky imager (WSI) files coincidental with all AERONET quality-controlled retrievals during 7 days reveals that no clouds were obstructing the almucantar field of view and that indeed the whole sky was clear during this period, indicating a degree of robustness in the AERONET cloud screening. Additionally, the size distributions were evaluated at COVE with hourly-averaged wind speed and direction. Linear regression indicates that the coarse mode column-integrated surface area increases from

  19. 4STAR Spectrometer for Sky-scanning Sun-tracking Atmospheric Research: Results from TCAP Summer 2012 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, C. J.; Dunnagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Kassianov, E.; Kluzek, C. D.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Sinyuk, A.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) concept combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET-like sky scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art monolithic spectrometry. The overall science goal for the 4STAR is to improve knowledge of atmospheric components and their links to climate through measurements of direct and scattered solar radiation. The measurement of contiguous spectra spanning the UV, visible, and near IR will improve retrievals of gas components (e.g., H2O, O3, and NO2) and thereby improve determination of aerosol properties as residual components of the total optical depth. The sky scanning capability enables retrievals of aerosol type (via complex refractive index and shape) and mode-resolved aerosol size distribution with improved sensitivity to larger aerosols compared to using direct-beam sun photometry alone. 4STAR also carries the potential for improved cloud retrievals by combining its zenith sky radiance measurements with surface albedo estimates (analogous to the recently published AERONET cloud mode observations). Vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties may then be obtained through combination of the direct-beam and sky-scanning measurements from an airborne platform flying through different altitudes. When flown as a component of an integrated field campaign, the 4STAR tightens the closure between satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements while providing an exact match of layers sampled by airborne in-situ instruments. The extensive track record of the AATS-6 and AATS-14 sun photometers with more than 100 peer-reviewed publications from more than a dozen field campaigns establishes the value of this approach. A ground-based prototype, 4STAR-Ground, was developed and extensively characterized through laboratory tests, field tests, and instrument inter-comparisons including a 4-way inter-comparison of 4STAR

  20. Optical Properties of Aerosols from Long Term Ground-Based Aeronet Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Smirnov, A.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Dubovik, O.; Lavenu, F.; Abuhassen, N.; Chatenet, B.

    1999-01-01

    AERONET is an optical ground-based aerosol monitoring network and data archive supported by NASA's Earth Observing System and expanded by federation with many non-NASA institutions including AEROCAN (AERONET CANada) and PHOTON (PHOtometrie pour le Traiteinent Operatonnel de Normalisation Satellitaire). The network hardware consists of identical automatic sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers owned by national agencies and universities purchased for their own monitoring and research objectives. Data are transmitted hourly through the data collection system (DCS) on board the geostationary meteorological satellites GMS, GOES and METEOSAT and received in a common archive for daily processing utilizing a peer reviewed series of algorithms thus imposing a standardization and quality control of the product data base. Data from this collaboration provides globally distributed near real time observations of aerosol spectral optical depths, aerosol size distributions, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Access to the AERONET data base has shifted from the interactive program 'demonstrat' (reserved for PI's) to the AERONET homepage allowing faster access and greater development for GIS object oriented retrievals and analysis with companion geocoded data sets from satellites, LIDAR and solar flux measurements for example. We feel that a significant yet under utilized component of the AERONET data base are inversion products made from hourly principal plane and almucanter measurements. The current inversions have been shown to retrieve aerosol volume size distributions. A significant enhancement to the inversion code has been developed and is presented in these proceedings.

  1. Aerosol seasonal variations over urban sites in Ukraine and Belarus according to AERONET and POLDER measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Mishchenko, M.; Sosonkin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban sites in the East European region. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2012 data from three urban ground-based AERONET sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Kyiv-AO, and Lugansk) and one site in Belarus (Minsk), as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban areas in Ukraine. Aerosol amount and optical thickness values exhibit peaks in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are seen in late autumn over the Kyiv and Minsk sites. The results show that aerosol fine mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The seasonal variation similarity in the two regions points to the resemblance in basic aerosol sources which are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. However the aerosol amount and properties change noticeably from year to year and from region to region. The analysis of seasonal aerosol optical thickness variations over the urban sites in the eastern and western parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the same traits. In particular, over Kyiv, the values of the Angstrom exponent are lower in April of 2011 than in 2009 and 2010, while aerosol optical thickness values are almost the same, which can be explained by an increase in the amount of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere, such as Saharan dust. Moreover, the coarse mode particles prevailed over suburbs and the center of Kyiv during a third of all available days of observation in 2012. In general, the fine and coarse mode particles' modal radii averaged over 2008-2012 range from 0.1 to 0.2 μm and 2 to 5 μm, respectively, during the period from April to September. The single scattering albedo and refractive index values of these particles correspond to a mix of urban-industrial, biomass burning, and dust aerosols. In addition

  2. Aerosol Remote Sensing from AERONET, the Ground-Based Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric particles including mineral dust, biomass burning smoke, pollution from carbonaceous aerosols and sulfates, sea salt, impact air quality and climate. The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, established in the early 1990s, is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks of Sun/sky radiometers distributed around the world, which provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical (e.g., aerosol optical depth) and microphysical (e.g., aerosol volume size distribution) properties for aerosol characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with Earth science databases. Climatological aerosol properties will be presented at key worldwide locations exhibiting discrete dominant aerosol types. Further, AERONET's temporary mesoscale network campaign (e.g., UAE2, TIGERZ, DRAGON-USA.) results that attempt to quantify spatial and temporal variability of aerosol properties, establish validation of ground-based aerosol retrievals using aircraft profile measurements, and measure aerosol properties on compatible spatial scales with satellite retrievals and aerosol transport models allowing for more robust validation will be discussed.

  3. Profiling of aerosol microphysical properties at several EARLINET/AERONET sites during the July 2012 ChArMEx/EMEP campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Granados-Muñoz, María; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Nepomuceno Pereira, Sergio; Basart, Sara; María Baldasano, José; Belegante, Livio; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Comerón, Adolfo; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Dubovik, Oleg; Ilic, Luka; Kokkalis, Panos; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Nickovic, Slobodan; Nicolae, Doina; José Olmo, Francisco; Papayannis, Alexander; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Schepanski, Kerstin; Sicard, Michaël; Vukovic, Ana; Wandinger, Ulla; Dulac, François; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2016-06-01

    The simultaneous analysis of aerosol microphysical properties profiles at different European stations is made in the framework of the ChArMEx/EMEP 2012 field campaign (9-11 July 2012). During and in support of this campaign, five lidar ground-based stations (Athens, Barcelona, Bucharest, Évora, and Granada) performed 72 h of continuous lidar measurements and collocated and coincident sun-photometer measurements. Therefore it was possible to retrieve volume concentration profiles with the Lidar Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC). Results indicated the presence of a mineral dust plume affecting the western Mediterranean region (mainly the Granada station), whereas a different aerosol plume was observed over the Balkans area. LIRIC profiles showed a predominance of coarse spheroid particles above Granada, as expected for mineral dust, and an aerosol plume composed mainly of fine and coarse spherical particles above Athens and Bucharest. Due to the exceptional characteristics of the ChArMEx database, the analysis of the microphysical properties profiles' temporal evolution was also possible. An in-depth analysis was performed mainly at the Granada station because of the availability of continuous lidar measurements and frequent AERONET inversion retrievals. The analysis at Granada was of special interest since the station was affected by mineral dust during the complete analyzed period. LIRIC was found to be a very useful tool for performing continuous monitoring of mineral dust, allowing for the analysis of the dynamics of the dust event in the vertical and temporal coordinates. Results obtained here illustrate the importance of having collocated and simultaneous advanced lidar and sun-photometer measurements in order to characterize the aerosol microphysical properties in both the vertical and temporal coordinates at a regional scale. In addition, this study revealed that the use of the depolarization information as input in LIRIC in the stations of Bucharest,

  4. Nighttime Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Using a Ground-based Lunar Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Tim; Omar, Ali; Haggard, Charles; Pippin, Margaret; Tasaddaq, Aasam; Stone, Tom; Rodriguez, Jon; Slutsker, Ilya; Eck, Tom; Holben, Brent; Welton, Judd; da Silva, Arlindo; Colarco, Pete; Trepte, Charles; Winker, David

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was proposed to combine AERONET network photometer capabilities with a high precision lunar model used for satellite calibration to retrieve columnar nighttime AODs. The USGS lunar model can continuously provide pre-atmosphere high precision lunar irradiance determinations for multiple wavelengths at ground sensor locations. When combined with measured irradiances from a ground-based AERONET photometer, atmospheric column transmissions can determined yielding nighttime column aerosol AOD and Angstrom coefficients. Additional demonstrations have utilized this approach to further develop calibration methods and to obtain data in polar regions where extended periods of darkness occur. This new capability enables more complete studies of the diurnal behavior of aerosols, and feedback for models and satellite retrievals for the nighttime behavior of aerosols. It is anticipated that the nighttime capability of these sensors will be useful for comparisons with satellite lidars such as CALIOP and CATS in additional to ground-based lidars in MPLNET at night, when the signal-to-noise ratio is higher than daytime and more precise AOD comparisons can be made.

  5. Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica

    2003-01-01

    AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the global mean, but they can be used to calibrate global aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2–4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is ≈1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize global warming. PMID:12746494

  6. A Simple Photometer to Study Skylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh Gordon

    2006-01-01

    A simple photometer constructed from an LED and an op amp can be used to measure light in a number of physical situations. A variety of LEDs exist to investigate different wavelength ranges. Combined with an inexpensive transit, the LED photometer can be used to carry out skylight studies and atmospheric optical depth measurements. The activities…

  7. Simple photometer circuits using modular electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wampler, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Operational and peak holding amplifiers are discussed as useful circuits for bioluminescence assays. Circuit diagrams are provided. While analog methods can give a good integration on short time scales, digital methods were found best for long term integration in bioluminescence assays. Power supplies, a general photometer circuit with ratio capability, and variations in the basic photometer design are also considered.

  8. Assessment of the impact of forest fires on aerosols distribution in the atmosphere over Kyiv based on AERONET and satellites measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galytska, Evgenia; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Snizhko, Sergiy

    2015-04-01

    The study of the dynamics of aerosol particles, revealing their sources in the atmosphere is one of the urgent problems of modern meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, and ecology. Monitoring of the air pollution caused by aerosols contributes to the determination of its effects on the climate and to the reduction of its negative impacts on the health of the population. The research work comprises latest technologies and approaches: remote ground-based together with satellite measurements of the optical properties of aerosol particles, atmospheric dynamics research and modeling of transport of particles. The dynamics of aerosol layer properties over Ukrainian cities as Kyiv, Sevastopol, and over the rural site Martova is the subject of the remote sensing investigation made by the sun photometers network AERONET/PHOTONS, dealing with the columnar aerosol optical properties particularly aerosol optical depth (AOD). As well the CALIOP lidar data on board of CALIPSO satellite were used for AOD analysis for appropriate territory and further comparison with AERONET measurements. It was stated that during warm periods a large concentration of impurities was observed due to natural sources, such as forest fires in Ukraine and the European Russia. Especially in summer 2010 the high-altitude anticyclone and a ridge above the European Russia and Ural caused the hottest weather in the East Europe region for the period that promoted origin of vast and intensive forest fires in Central and Western Russia that caused reach pollution of the atmosphere over Ukraine by aerosols. Thus, in August 15, 2010 an aerosol optical depth over Kyiv at a wavelength of 440 nm reached a value of 1.5, which was associated with the aerosols arrival from these fires. Thus, the values of aerosol optical depth that date was triple more in comparison to usual distribution. The ways of aerosols arrival to the atmosphere over Kyiv from the fires centers during some days of August 2010 and effect

  9. A Photometer for Measuring Population Growth in Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatina, Robert; Hartley, Tamela; Thomas, Danita

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, portable photometer designed specifically for estimating population sizes in yeast cultures. Suggests activities for use with the photometer. (WRM)

  10. The Pierce-Blitzstein Photometer - The PBPHOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambruster, Carol; Hull, A. B.; Koch, R. H.; Mitchell, R. J.; Smith, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the inception, development and extensive use (over 50 years) of the simultaneous 2-source, pulse-counting photometer named after the two astronomers in this paper's title. These men are not, however, the only personalities associated with the lifetime of the photometer from 1952 to 2007 and the contributions of other people are explicitly recognized. The embellishments and upgrades over time of the original conceptions are detailed for both the optical/mechanical/electrical hardware and the software. The opportunities and limitations of the three observing stations where this photometer and its prototypes were tested and functioned and the telescopes upon which they were mounted are also discussed and compared.

  11. Two-Matrix Photometer Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhantayev, Zh. Sh.; Kuratov, K. S.; Seytimbetov, A. M.; Mailybayev, A. G.; Alimgazinova, N. Sh.; Manapbayeva, A. B.; Kuratova, A. K.; Iztleuov, N. T.

    In this paper astronomical two-matrix photometer is described. It differs from common one CCD camera photometers by using the second CCD camera. It enables simultaneously to carry out the studied star and standard star light inputs measurements. The second camera application enables significantly to increase measurements accuracy and at least twice time decrease of one star observation. The significant increase of measurements accuracy is reached by carrying out simultaneous observations, and errors caused by the Earth atmosphere fluctuation are the same as for studied star so for standard star. Time decrease is reached by carrying out both stars simultaneous observations. In the paper photometer's optical mechanics scheme is given. The motion mechanism of receiving and recording block with micrometer screw rotated by stepping motor is described. It is demonstrated that exact coordinates of matrix position attached to clutch on micrometer screw are shoot by absolute magnetic encoder. The applied two-matrix photometer control system electronic equipment is described. The photometer operation control algorithm installed on Tien-Shan astronomical observatory 1-meter telescope is presented.

  12. Nocturnal aerosol optical depth measurements with a small-aperture automated photometer using the moon as a light source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkoff, T.A.; Sorokin, M.; Stone, T.; Eck, T.F.; Hoff, R.; Welton, E.; Holben, B.

    2011-01-01

    A method is described that enables the use of lunar irradiance to obtain nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements using a small-aperture photometer. In this approach, the U.S. Geological Survey lunar calibration system was utilized to provide high-precision lunar exoatmospheric spectral irradiance predictions for a ground-based sensor location, and when combined with ground measurement viewing geometry, provided the column optical transmittance for retrievals of AOD. Automated multiwavelength lunar measurements were obtained using an unmodified Cimel-318 sunphotometer sensor to assess existing capabilities and enhancements needed for day/night operation in NASA's Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Results show that even existing photometers can provide the ability for retrievals of aerosol optical depths at night near full moon. With an additional photodetector signal-to-noise improvement of 10-100, routine use over the bright half of the lunar phase and a much wider range of wavelengths and conditions can be achieved. Although the lunar cycle is expected to limit the frequency of observations to 30%-40% compared to solar measurements, nevertheless this is an attractive extension of AERONET capabilities. ?? 2011 American Meteorological Society.

  13. Nocturnal Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements with a Small-Aperture Automated Photometer Using the Moon as a Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Timothy A.; Sorokin, Mikail; Stone, Tom; Eck, Thomas F.; Hoff, Raymond; Welton, Ellsworth; Holben, Brent

    2011-01-01

    A method is described that enables the use of lunar irradiance to obtain nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements using a small-aperture photometer. In this approach, the U.S. Geological Survey lunar calibration system was utilized to provide high-precision lunar exoatmospheric spectral irradiance predictions for a ground-based sensor location, and when combined with ground measurement viewing geometry, provided the column optical transmittance for retrievals of AOD. Automated multiwavelength lunar measurements were obtained using an unmodified Cimel-318 sunphotometer sensor to assess existing capabilities and enhancements needed for day/night operation in NASA s Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Results show that even existing photometers can provide the ability for retrievals of aerosol optical depths at night near full moon. With an additional photodetector signal-to-noise improvement of 10-100, routine use over the bright half of the lunar phase and a much wider range of wavelengths and conditions can be achieved. Although the lunar cycle is expected to limit the frequency of observations to 30%-40% compared to solar measurements, nevertheless this is an attractive extension of AERONET capabilities.

  14. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer

    DOEpatents

    Shumate, II, Starling E.

    1977-07-12

    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  15. OAO 2/Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) photometer users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wende, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The user's guide is intended to enable astronomers to reduce the filter photometry data obtained by the WEP carried on the OAO 2 spacecraft. Only information related to the stellar photometer contained within the experiment package is presented, since the nebular photometer failed after 2-1/2 months of operation, while the stellar photometers provided roughly 49 months worth of data.

  16. Scattered light corrections to Sun photometry: analytical results for single and multiple scattering regimes.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2007-04-01

    Analytical equations for the diffused scattered light correction factor of Sun photometers are derived and analyzed. It is shown that corrections are weakly dependent on the atmospheric optical thickness. They are influenced mostly by the size of aerosol particles encountered by sunlight on its way to a Sun photometer. In addition, the accuracy of the small-angle approximation used in the work is studied with numerical calculations based on the exact radiative transfer equation.

  17. Application of AERONET Single Scattering Albedo and Absorption Angstrom Exponent to Classify Dominant Aerosol Types during DRAGON Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-12-01

    representative of aerosol source regions, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D17203, doi:10.1029/2012JD018127. Gobbi, G. P., Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, and T. F. Eck (2007), Classification of aerosol properties derived from AERONET direct sun data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 453-458, doi:10.5194/acp-7-453-2007. Russell, P. B., R. W. Bergstrom, Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, J. M. Livingston, J. Redemann, O. Dubovik, and A. Strawa (2010), Absorption Ångstrom Exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1155-1169, doi:10.5194/acp-10-1155-2010.

  18. A fibre optic, four channel comparative photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, E. N.

    1988-01-01

    Development of a four channel comparative photometer is described. Tests have shown that it is stable from night to night and is capable of working in very poor sky conditions. Even when the sky conditions are so poor that stars are barely visible, light curves can still be obtained with an r.m.s. value of 0.0016 mag., provided that integration times that are long compared with the transparancy changes are possible.

  19. ISIS-II Scanning Auroral Photometer.

    PubMed

    Anger, C D; Fancott, T; McNally, J; Kerr, H S

    1973-08-01

    The ISIS-II dual wavelength scanning auroral photometer is designed to map the distribution of auroral emissions at 5577 A and 3914 A over the portion of the dark earth visible to the spacecraft. A combination of internal electronic scanning and the natural orbital and rotational motions of the spacecraft causes a dual wavelength photometer to be scanned systematically across the earth. The data will be reproduced directly in the form of separate pictures representing emissions at each wavelength, which will be used to study the large-scale distribution and morphology of auroras, to study the ratio of 3914-A and 5577-A emissions thought to depend upon the energies of exciting particles), and to compare with results from other instruments on board the spacecraft and on the ground. The Red Line Photometer experiment on the same spacecraft is described in an accompanying paper by Shepherd et al. [Appl. Opt. 12, 1767 (1973)]. The instrument can be thought of as the photometric equivalent of an all-sky color camera which will view the aurora from above instead of below and with a much wider vantage point unobstructed by cloud and haze. In one satellite pass, the instrument will be capable of surveying (in one hemisphere) the entire polar region in which auroras normally occur.

  20. Aerosol variability over the Mediterranean basin from 2005-2012 POLDER-3/PARASOL and AERONET/PHOTONS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiapello, Isabelle; Ducos, Fabrice; Dulac, François; Léon, Jean-François; Mallet, Marc; Tanré, Didier; Goloub, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    POLDER-3 (Polarization and Directionnality of the Earth's Reflectances) has been launched on board the PARASOL microsatellite in December 2004. Although the PARASOL orbit has been lowered twice (in September 2009 and in November 2011) compared to the other platforms of the A-Train constellation, POLDER observations continue, providing now more than seven years of innovative retrievals of aerosol properties from space. In this study we focus on analyzing POLDER-3 capabilities to derive both aerosol loads (Total Aerosol Optical Thickness) and size properties (fine and coarse spherical/non-spherical Aerosol Optical Thickness, Angström coefficients) over oceanic surfaces. This analysis, as part of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) program, focus on the Mediterranean basin, a region under the influence of a complex mixture of aerosols from different sources. Especially we aim to investigate the respective contributions of (i) pollution aerosols (emitted by industry and urban environments of some European regions or megacities surrounding the basin), (ii) carbonaceous particles (from biomass burning events), (iii) mineral dust exported from arid and semi-arid regions of North Africa. In a first step, our study consists in an analysis of aerosol variability retrieved from AERONET/PHOTONS photometer records from selected sites located in Western part of the Mediterranean basin (i.e., Soust-East of France, Spain, Corsica/Sardinia), as well as central part (i.e., Italia and Lampedusa), and Eastern part (i.e.,Greece and Turkey). These measurements provide a unique characterization of both aerosol load (aerosol optical depth) and properties (size distribution and absorption though single scattering albedo) and their temporal variability over each part of the Mediterranean basin. The second step focus on a regional validation of the PARASOL monthly aerosol products by comparison with these equivalent and selected ground-based AERONET

  1. An AERONET-based aerosol classification using the Mahalanobis distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Giordano, Marco; Ward, Carolyne; Giles, David; Holben, Brent

    2016-09-01

    We present an aerosol classification based on AERONET aerosol data from 1993 to 2012. We used the AERONET Level 2.0 almucantar aerosol retrieval products to define several reference aerosol clusters which are characteristic of the following general aerosol types: Urban-Industrial, Biomass Burning, Mixed Aerosol, Dust, and Maritime. The classification of a particular aerosol observation as one of these aerosol types is determined by its five-dimensional Mahalanobis distance to each reference cluster. We have calculated the fractional aerosol type distribution at 190 AERONET sites, as well as the monthly variation in aerosol type at those locations. The results are presented on a global map and individually in the supplementary material. Our aerosol typing is based on recognizing that different geographic regions exhibit characteristic aerosol types. To generate reference clusters we only keep data points that lie within a Mahalanobis distance of 2 from the centroid. Our aerosol characterization is based on the AERONET retrieved quantities, therefore it does not include low optical depth values. The analysis is based on "point sources" (the AERONET sites) rather than globally distributed values. The classifications obtained will be useful in interpreting aerosol retrievals from satellite borne instruments.

  2. Fog Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET, Including Occurrences During Major Air Pollution Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Li, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A. T.; Schafer, J.; Artaxo, P.; Smirnov, A.; Chen, H.; Goloub, P.

    2015-12-01

    The modification of aerosol optical properties due to interaction with fog is examined from measurements made by sun/sky radiometers at several AERONET sites. Retrieved total column volume size distributions for cases identified as aerosol modified by fog often show very a large 'middle mode' submicron radius (~0.4 to 0.5 microns), which is typically seen as a component of a bimodal sub-micron distribution. These middle mode sized particles are often called cloud-processed or residual aerosol. This bimodal accumulation mode distribution may be due to one mode (the larger one) from fog-processed aerosol and the other from interstitial aerosol, or possibly from two different aerosol species (differing chemical composition) with differing hygroscopic growth factors. The size of the fine mode particles from AERONET retrieved for these cases exceeds the size of sub-micron sized particles retrieved for nearly all other aerosol types, suggesting significant modification of aerosols within the fog or cloud environment. In-situ measured aerosol size distributions made during other fog events are compared to the AERONET retrievals, and show close agreement in the residual mode particle size. Almucantar retrievals are analyzed from the Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India (fog in January), Beijing (fog in winter), Fresno, CA in the San Joaquin Valley (fog in winter), South Korea (Yellow Sea fog in spring), Arica on the northern coast of Chile (stratocumulus), and several other sites with aerosol observations made after fog dissipated. Additionally, several major air pollution events are discussed where extremely high aerosol concentrations were measured at the surface and during which fog also occurred, resulting in the detection very large fine mode aerosols (residual mode) from AERONET retrievals in some of these events. Low wind speeds that occurred during these events were conducive to both pollutant accumulation and also fog formation. The presence of fog then

  3. Automated Sky-Compensating Photometer with a Silicon Photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, J. D.; Alexander, D. R.

    1983-12-01

    This article describes the automated, sky-compensating filter photometer, currently being built and tested for the Lake Afton Public Observatory (LAPO) at Wichita State University, for use on the 16-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope. Design emphasis is directed toward minimal user intervention due to varying user backgrounds. The instrumentation consists of a sky-compensating photometer, a Hamamatsu S1133-01 silicon photodiode detector, a programmable DC amplifier, and a computer dedicated to data collection and photometer control.

  4. MIPS - The Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lada, C.; Lebofsky, M.; Low, F.; Strittmatter, P.; Young, E.; Beichman, C.; Gautier, T. N.; Mould, J.; Werner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Multiband Imaging Photometer System (MIPS) for SIRTF is to be designed to reach as closely as possible the fundamental sensitivity and angular resolution limits for SIRTF over the 3 to 700 microns spectral region. It will use high performance photoconductive detectors from 3 to 200 microns with integrating JFET amplifiers. From 200 to 700 microns, the MIPS will use a bolometer cooled by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. Over much of its operating range, the MIPS will make possible observations at and beyond the conventional Rayleigh diffraction limit of angular resolution.

  5. SphinX: The Solar Photometer in X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, Szymon; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Podgorski, Piotr; Plocieniak, Stefan; Siarkowski, Marek; Sylwester, Barbara; Trzebinski, Witold; Kuzin, Sergey V.; Pertsov, Andrey A.; Kotov, Yurij D.; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was a spectrophotometer developed to observe the Sun in soft X-rays. The instrument observed in the energy range ≈ 1 - 15 keV with resolution ≈ 0.4 keV. SphinX was flown on the Russian CORONAS-PHOTON satellite placed inside the TESIS EUV and X telescope assembly. The spacecraft launch took place on 30 January 2009 at 13:30 UT at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The SphinX experiment mission began a couple of weeks later on 20 February 2009 when the first telemetry dumps were received. The mission ended nine months later on 29 November 2009 when data transmission was terminated. SphinX provided an excellent set of observations during very low solar activity. This was indeed the period in which solar activity dropped to the lowest level observed in X-rays ever. The SphinX instrument design, construction, and operation principle are described. Information on SphinX data repositories, dissemination methods, format, and calibration is given together with general recommendations for data users. Scientific research areas in which SphinX data find application are reviewed.

  6. Analysis of the Interaction and Transport of Aerosols with Cloud or Fog in East Asia from AERONET and Satellite Remote Sensing: 2012 DRAGON Campaigns and Climatological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Lynch, P.; Schafer, J.; Giles, D. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sano, I.; Arola, A. T.; Munchak, L. A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Lyapustin, A.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Govindaraju, R.; Hyer, E. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. Major Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) field campaigns involving multiple AERONET sites in Japan and South Korea during Spring of 2012 have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze the fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AODf) signal from AERONET data for these cases of persistent and extensive cloud cover. Satellite retrievals of AOD from MODIS sensors (from Dark Target, Deep Blue and MAIAC algorithms) were also investigated to assess the issue of detectability of high AOD events associated with high cloud fraction. Underestimation of fine mode AOD by the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) and by the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis For Research And Applications Aerosol Re-analysis (MERRAaero) models at very high AOD at sites in China and Korea was observed, especially for observations that are cloud screened by AERONET (Level 2 data). Additionally, multi-year monitoring at several AERONET sites are examined for climatological statistics of cloud screening of fine mode aerosol events. Aerosol that has been affected by clouds or the near-cloud environment may be more prevalent than AERONET data suggest due to inherent difficulty in

  7. A New Fast Silicon Photomultiplier Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddi, F.; Ambrosino, F.; Nesci, R.; Rossi, C.; Sclavi, S.; Bruni, I.; Ruggieri, A.; Sestito, S.

    2012-05-01

    The realization of low-cost instruments with high technical performance is a goal that deserves some efforts in an epoch of fast technological developments; indeed, such instruments can be easily reproduced and therefore allow new research programs to be opened in several observatories. We realized a fast optical photometer based on the SiPM technology, using commercially available modules. Using low-cost components, we have developed a custom electronic chain to extract the signal produced by a commercial MPPC module produced by Hamamatsu Photonics, in order to obtain submillisecond sampling of the light curve of astronomical sources (typically, pulsars). In the early 2011 February, we observed the Crab pulsar with the Cassini telescope with our prototype photometer, deriving its period and power spectrum and the shape of its light curve, in very good agreement with the results obtained in the past with other instruments. Based on observations made with the 152 cm Cassini telescope at the Loiano station of the Bologna Observatory and with the 50 cm telescope of the Università di Roma “La Sapienza” at Vallinfreda (Rome).

  8. Photometer for tracking a moving light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A photometer that tracks a path of a moving light source with little or no motion of the photometer components. The system includes a non-moving, truncated paraboloid of revolution, having a paraboloid axis, a paraboloid axis, a small entrance aperture, a larger exit aperture and a light-reflecting inner surface, that receives and reflects light in a direction substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis. The system also includes a light processing filter to receive and process the redirected light, and to issue the processed, redirected light as processed light, and an array of light receiving elements, at least one of which receives and measures an associated intensity of a portion of the processed light. The system tracks a light source moving along a path and produces a corresponding curvilinear image of the light source path on the array of light receiving elements. Undesired light wavelengths from the light source may be removed by coating a selected portion of the reflecting inner surface or another light receiving surface with a coating that absorbs incident light in the undesired wavelength range.

  9. Black Carbon Concentration from Worldwide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Greg; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Clothiaux, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide black carbon concentration measurements are needed to assess the efficacy of the carbon emissions inventory and transport model output. This requires long-term measurements in many regions, as model success in one region or season does not apply to all regions and seasons. AERONET is an automated network of more than 180 surface radiometers located throughout the world. The sky radiance measurements obtained by AERONET are inverted to provide column-averaged aerosol refractive indices and size distributions for the AERONET database, which we use to derive column-averaged black carbon concentrations and specific absorptions that are constrained by the measured radiation field. This provides a link between AERONET sky radiance measurements and the elemental carbon concentration of transport models without the need for an optics module in the transport model. Knowledge of both the black carbon concentration and aerosol absorption optical depth (i.e., input and output of the optics module) will enable improvements to the transport model optics module.

  10. Airborne Sun photometry and Closure Studies in SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J.; Holben, B. N.; McGill, M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From August 13 to September 25, the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's (SAFARI 2000) dry-season airborne campaign studied the complex interactions between the region's ecosystems, air pollution, atmospheric circulation, land-atmosphere interactions, and land use change. The field campaign was timed to coincide with the annual winter fire season in Southern Africa. This challenging campaign. which coordinated ground-based measurement teams, multiple research aircraft, and satellite overpasses across nine African nations, was head quartered at the Petersburg International Airport in South Africa's Northern Province. Among many others, unique coordinated observations were made of the evolution of massive, thick haze layers produced by industrial emissions, biomass burning, marine and biogenic sources. The NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated successfully aboard the University of Washington CV-580 during 24 data flights. The AATS-14 instrument measures the transmission of the direct solar beam at 14 discrete wavelengths (3501558 nm) from which we derive spectral aerosol optical depths (AOD), columnar water vapor (CWV) and columnar ozone. Flying at different altitudes over a fixed location allows derivation of layer AOD and CWV. Data taken during feasible vertical profiles allows derivation of aerosol extinction and water vapor density. In the talk, we show comparisons with ground-based AERONET sun/sky photometer results, with ground based MPL-Net lidar data, and with measurements from a lidar aboard the high flying ER-2 aircraft. We will use measurements from the Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer to derive estimates of solar spectral forcing as a function of aerosol thickness. Validations of TOMS and Terra satellite aerosol and water-vapor retrievals will also be discussed.

  11. Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR): Airborne Concepts and Ground Prototype Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Flynn, C.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.

    2007-12-01

    calibrated with an integrating sphere, and its performance has been characterized in many tests, including comparisons of its sun-tracking and sky-scanning measurements to AATS-14 and an AERONET Cimel sun-sky photometer, respectively. This poster includes concepts for 4STAR-Air and results of the above 4STAR-Ground measurements.

  12. A rocket-borne airglow photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paarmann, L. D.; Smith, L. G.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a rocket-borne photometer to measure the airglow emission of ionized molecular nitrogen in the 391.4 nm band is presented. This airglow is a well known and often observed phenomenon of auroras, where the principal source of ionization is energetic electrons. It is believed that at some midlatitude locations energetic electrons are also a source of nighttime ionization in the E region of the ionosphere. If this is so, then significant levels of 391.4 nm airglow should be present. The intensity of this airglow will be measured in a rocket payload which also contains instrumentation to measured in a rocket payload which also contains instrumentation to measure energetic electron differential flux and the ambient electron density. An intercomparison of the 3 experiments in a nightime launch will allow a test of the importance of energetic electrons as a nighttime source of ionization in the upper E region.

  13. Photographic photometry with Iris diaphragm photometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general method is presented for solving problems encountered in the analysis of Iris diaphragm photometer (IDP) data. The method is used to derive the general shape of the calibration curve, allowing both a more accurate fit to the IDP data for comparison stars and extrapolation to magnitude ranges for which no comparison stars are measured. The profile of starlight incident and the characteristic curve of the plate are both assumed and then used to derive the profile of the star image. An IDP reading is then determined for each star image. A procedure for correcting the effects of a nonconstant background fog level on the plate is also demonstrated. Additional applications of the method are made in the appendix to determine the relation between the radius of a photographic star image and the star's magnitude, and to predict the IDP reading of the 'point of optimum density'.

  14. Multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Smith, L.L.; Schmelzer, J.R.; Severtsen, R.H.; Berndt, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    This paper presents a design for a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer capable of measuring optical radiation ranging in intensity from the subvisual light levels associated with night sky airglow emissions to the intense flux levels of direct sunlight. The instrument has twelve interference filters for wavelength selection, a 2.5/sup 0/ field of view for nighttime observations, and a 1.5/sup 0/ field of view for daytime observations. A photomultiplier tube is used as the low light-level detector, and a silicon-PIN photodiode serves as the insolation detector. A particular measurement sequence is programmed into the instrument and can be modified by reading a cassette tape in the field. Normal operation is fully automatic.

  15. Auroral meridian scanning photometer calibration using Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackel, Brian J.; Unick, Craig; Creutzberg, Fokke; Baker, Greg; Davis, Eric; Donovan, Eric F.; Connors, Martin; Wilson, Cody; Little, Jarrett; Greffen, M.; McGuffin, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Observations of astronomical sources provide information that can significantly enhance the utility of auroral data for scientific studies. This report presents results obtained by using Jupiter for field cross calibration of four multispectral auroral meridian scanning photometers during the 2011-2015 Northern Hemisphere winters. Seasonal average optical field-of-view and local orientation estimates are obtained with uncertainties of 0.01 and 0.1°, respectively. Estimates of absolute sensitivity are repeatable to roughly 5 % from one month to the next, while the relative response between different wavelength channels is stable to better than 1 %. Astronomical field calibrations and darkroom calibration differences are on the order of 10 %. Atmospheric variability is the primary source of uncertainty; this may be reduced with complementary data from co-located instruments.

  16. Aerosol Particle Property Comparisons Between MISR and AERONET Retrieved Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOT) data from the Multi-angle ImagingSpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite have already been systematically compared with ground-based data from the AERONET network. As a result of that study, MISR data are now being reprocessed with improved aerosol algorithms and aerosol models. The follow-on study reported here systematically compares MISR and AERONET particle micro-physical properties. This project is currently underway. Our goal is to use the statistical power of numerous AERONET measurements to map the behavior of the MISR property retrievals, identify strength and surprises in the MISR data, and use this information both to refine further the MISR retrieval algorithms and to assess the likely error envelopes in the MISR products. Multi-year data from 36 carefully chosen sites having good long-term measurement records are stratified by broad classes of aerosol air mass types: maritime, biomass burning, desert dust, pollution, and continental aerosols. Available AERONET spectral AOT measurements for two-hour windows around MISR overpass times are interpolated to MISR wavelengths and averaged, and AOT variability over the two-hour window is noted. Sky-scan AERONET data, taken only once an hour, are also were interpolated to MISR wavelengths, and are averaged over a four-hour window provided the variability is smaller than MISR sensitivity to particle properties based on previous work. MISR retrievals over the 17.6 km standard retrieval regions that include the AERONET sites are preferentially used for the comparison. The MISR measurements are averages of over all "successful" aerosol type models in the MISR algorithm climatology, where success is measured by the degree to which multi-angle, multi-spectral top-of-atmosphere radiances match modeled radiances, using several chi-squared tests. Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, and size distribution mean values and variance

  17. Lidar Ratio Climatology for Dust, as Computed from AERONET Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G. L.; Vaughan, M.; MacDonnell, D.; Su, W.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubovik, O.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Raman lidar measurements by Tesche et al. (2009) and Wandinger et al. (2010) indicate lidar ratios of about 55 sr in Morocco and Cape Verde, which is significantly higher than the value of 40 sr assumed for the CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals. Hence, we investigated the dust lidar ratio by analyzing the aerosol climatology at AERONET sites in the dust belt. In order to limit our analysis to "pure" dust retrievals, we restricted the data to depolarizations of 0.2 or greater and fine volume fractions of 0.05 or less, and thereby focused on 1714 retrievals at 22 AERONET sites in non-Sahel regions of north Africa, Sahel Africa, the Middle East, and India. The AERONET climatology indicates that the real refractive index increases from n=1.49 for 229 retrievals in non-Sahel Africa to n=1.53 for 929 retrievals in the Sahel, and that the largest refractive indices occur in the Middle East and Kanpur, India (n=1.57 for 489 and 67 retrievals, respectively). Dry dust mixtures with refractive indices that are less than about 1.5 require high fractions of illite (which has a refractive index of 1.41), since the other common minerals in dust -- calcite, quartz, gypsum, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hematite -- all have refractive indices greater than 1.49. Hence, the AERONET refractive indices are consistent with Chester et al. (1972), who measured the relative fraction of illite during a research voyage near the west African coast; they found that illite decreases from a maximum mass fraction of about 0.53 at 15-20 degrees North to a minimum of about 0.09 at 0-5 degrees North. These illite fractions correspond to a refractive index change from 1.48 to 1.54 as the source aerosol region changed from the Sahara to the Sahel (if the average refractive index of the other minerals in the mixture is assumed to be 1.55). We then used the AERONET refractive indices with the AERONET size distributions, "percent spheres," and forward optics code for spheres and spheroids

  18. Portable fluorescence photometer for monitoring free calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Jens; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin; Tenbosch, Jochen; Jones, David B.

    2000-12-01

    We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345 nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provide the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0±0.1 °C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular setup providing the possibility of changing the light source and detectors for investigation of ions other than calcium. Measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.

  19. CALIOP and AERONET Aerosol Optical Depth Comparisons: One Size Fits None

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, A. H.; Winker, D. M.; Tackett, J. L.; Giles, D. M.; Kar, J.; Liu, Z.; Vaughan, M. A.; Powell, K. A.; Trepte, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    We compare the aerosol optical depths (AOD) retrieved from backscatter measurements of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite with coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. Overpass coincidence criteria of +/- 2 h and within a 40 km radius are satisfied at least once at 149 globally distributed AERONET sites from 2006 to 2010. Most data pairs (>80%) use AERONET measurements acquired +/- 30 min of the overpass. We examine the differences in AOD estimates between CALIOP and AERONET for various aerosol, environmental, and geographic conditions. Results show CALIOP AOD are lower than AERONET AOD especially at low optical depths as measured by AERONET (500 nm AOD<0.1). Furthermore, the median relative AOD difference between the two measurements is 25% of the AERONET AOD for AOD>0.1. Differences in AOD between CALIOP and AERONET are possibly due to cloud contamination, scene inhomogeneity, instrument view angle differences, CALIOP retrieval errors, and detection limits. Comparison of daytime to nighttime number of 5 km 60m (60m in the vertical) features detected by CALIOP show that there are 20% more aerosol features at night. We find that CALIPSO and AERONET do not agree on the cloudiness of scenes. Of the scenes that meet the above coincidence criteria, CALIPSO finds clouds in more than 45% of the coincident atmospheric columns AERONET classifies as clear.

  20. MIPS - The Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF. [Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lada, C.; Lebofsky, M.; Low, F.; Strittmatter, P.; Young, E.; Arens, J.; Beichman, C.; Gautier, T. N.; Werner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS) is to be designed to reach as closely as possible the fundamental sensitivity and angular resolution limits for SIRTF over the 3 to 700 micron spectral region. It will use high performance photoconductive detectors from 3 to 200 micron with integrating JFET amplifiers. From 200 to 700 microns, the MIPS will use a bolometer cooled by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. Over much of its operating range, the MIPS will make possible observations at and beyond the conventional Rayleigh diffraction limit of angular resolution.

  1. Aztec Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  2. A multichannel fiber optic photometer present performance and future developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barwig, H.; Schoembs, R.; Huber, G.

    1988-01-01

    A three channel photometer for simultaneous multicolor observations was designed with the aim of making possible highly efficient photometry of fast variable objects like cataclysmic variables. Experiences with this instrument over a period of three years are presented. Aspects of the special techniques applied are discussed with respect to high precision photometry. In particular, the use of fiber optics is critically analyzed. Finally, the development of a new photometer concept is discussed.

  3. CCD Photometer Installed on the Telescope - 600 OF the Shamakhy Astrophysical Observatory: I. Adjustment of CCD Photometer with Optics - 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyuty, V. M.; Abdullayev, B. I.; Alekberov, I. A.; Gulmaliyev, N. I.; Mikayilov, Kh. M.; Rustamov, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    Short description of optical and electric scheme of CCD photometer with camera U-47 installed on the Cassegrain focus of ZEISS-600 telescope of the ShAO NAS Azerbaijan is provided. The reducer of focus with factor of reduction 1.7 is applied. It is calculated equivalent focal distances of a telescope with a focus reducer. General calculations of optimum distance from focal plane and t sizes of optical filters of photometer are presented.

  4. Sun Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ... have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ...

  5. Sun meter

    DOEpatents

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  6. Sun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  7. Sun Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... pass through your skin and damage your skin cells. Sunburns are a sign of skin damage. Suntans ... after the sun's rays have already killed some cells and damaged others. UV rays can cause skin ...

  8. The flame photometer as engine of nephrology: a biography.

    PubMed

    Peitzman, Steven J

    2010-08-01

    In the 1940s, the flame photometer made possible for the first time relatively simple and quick measurements of sodium and potassium in serum and urine. During World War II, it unexpectedly fell into the hands of John P. Peters of Yale University, who sought to understand water and electrolyte physiology and apply such knowledge to patient problems. Pupils and young associates of Peters would seed the early nephrology divisions and training programs in the United States; the flame photometer was essential to their work and that of their trainees, both Americans and international visitors. Hyponatremia and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion became the "attribute" disorders of nephrologists. Invention of a microflame photometer fostered the revival of micropuncture and transport studies. In the 1960s, the flame photometer was linked to Leonard Skeggs' sequential automated analysis system, leading to enormous numbers of routine measurements of electrolytes. The growing number of nephrologists, then based mostly at teaching hospitals, thus found plentiful instances of sodium and potassium abnormalities to address. The autoanalyzer also catalyzed use of the anion gap, another emblem of nephrology in its early decades. Not only ideas and theories, but also the usually invisible machinery, enable the growth of a knowledge base and formation of a scientific discipline or medical specialty. Of course, the flame photometer did not itself shape the agenda of nephrology, but it allowed the most influential group of progenitors and their progeny to explore normal function and bring a strongly physiologic imperative to their daily work with patients.

  9. Inferring Absorbing Organic Carbon Content from AERONET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called brown carbon) and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated globally the amount of light absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South-America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 magnesium per square meters during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 magnesium per square meters during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  10. Photometer Performance Assessment in Kepler Science Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jie; Allen, Christopher; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Gunter, Jay P.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Klaus, Todd C.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Wohler, Bill; Wu, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms of the Photometer Performance Assessment (PPA) software component in the science data processing pipeline of the Kepler mission. The PPA performs two tasks: One is to analyze the health and performance of the Kepler photometer based on the long cadence science data down-linked via Ka band approximately every 30 days. The second is to determine the attitude of the Kepler spacecraft with high precision at each long cadence. The PPA component is demonstrated to work effectively with the Kepler flight data.

  11. Measurements of Asian dust optical properties over the Yellow Sea of China by shipboard and ground-based photometers, along with satellite remote sensing: A case study of the passage of a frontal system during April 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Dongxu; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hua

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured by a POM-01 MarkII Sun and sky photometer onboard the Dongfanghong Number 2 Research Ship on the Yellow Sea of China during the passage of a cold front surrounded by airborne dust that originated in Mongolia between 21 and 24 April 2006. The aerosol size distributions in clean marine environment were dominated by an accumulate mode with radius of 0.15 μm and a coarse mode with radius of 4.5 μm. The mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent were 0.26 and 1.26, respectively. In the frontal zone the aerosol size distribution was dominated by an accumulate mode with radius of 0.25 μm and two coarse modes with radii of 1.69 and 7.73 μm, and the AOD and Ångström exponent were 2.46 and 0.84, respectively. In the nonfrontal dust conditions, the concentration of coarse modes with radii of 2.5 μm increased to a maximum of 0.3 μm3/μm2, and the mean AOD and Ångström exponent were 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations combined with shipboard measurements reveal the decreasing concentration of dust aerosol during its transport from continent to Japan. The spatial distribution of dust aerosol was studied using the Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products. On 22 April, for frontal dust, their AOD and UV aerosol index (UVAI) increased with decreasing distance to the frontal line, peaked with values of 4.36 and 5.21 in the frontal zone, and decreased rapidly with increasing distance off the frontal line. On 23 April, nonfrontal dust showed the lower AOD and UVAI with peak values of 2.0 and 2.7, respectively.

  12. Rapid and precise determination of ATP using a modified photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shultz, David J.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1980-01-01

    An inexpensive delay timer was designed to modify a commercially available ATP photometer which allows a disposable tip pipette to be used for injecting either enzyme or sample into the reaction cuvette. The disposable tip pipette is as precise and accurate as a fixed-needle syringe but eliminates the problem of sample contamination and decreases analytical time. (USGS)

  13. A Performance Comparison for Two Versions of the Vulcan Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Caldwell, D. A.; Koch, D. G.; Jenkins, J. M.; Showen, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the images produced by the first version (V1) of the Vulcan photometer indicated that two major sources of noise were sky brightness and image motion. To reduce the effect of the sky brightness, a second version (V2) with a longer focal length and a larger format detector was developed and tested. The first version consisted of 15-centimeter (cm) focal length, F/1.5 Aerojet Delft reconnaissance lens, and a 2048 x 2048 format front-illuminated charged coupled device (CCD) with 9 microns micropixels (Mpixels). The second version used a 30-cm focal length, F/2.5 Kodak AeroEktar lens, and a 4096 x 4096 format CCD with 9 micro pixels. Both have a 49-square-degree field of view (FOV) but the area of the sky subtended by each pixel in the V2 version is one-fourth that of the V1 version. This modification substantially reduces the shot noise due to the sky background and allows fainter stars to be monitored for planetary transits. To remove the data gap and consequent signal-level change caused by flipping the photometer around the declination axis and to reduce image movement on the detector, several other modifications were incorporated. These include modifying the mount and stiffening the photometer and autoguider structures to reduce flexure. This paper compares the performance characteristics of each photometer and discusses tests to identify sources of systematic noise.

  14. Functional characteristics of the OGO main body airglow photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I.; Fowler, W. B.; Blamont, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The OGO-4 main body airglow photometer used a trialkali cathode photomultiplier to sense light at selected wavelengths between 2500 and 6300A corresponding to important emissions in the aurora and night airglow at emission rates ranging from a few rayleighs to about 200 kilorayleighs. The optical, electronic, and mechanical systems are described in terms of their functional characteristics.

  15. Experiences with the AEROnet/PSCN ATM Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurak, Richard S.; Lisotta, Anthony J.; McCabe, James D.; Nothaft, Alfred E.; Russell, Kelly R.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the experience gained by the AEROnet/PSCN networking team in deploying a prototype Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based network as part of the wide-area network for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. The objectives of this prototype were to test concepts in using ATM over wide-area Internet Protocol (IP) networks and measure end-to-end system performance. This testbed showed that end-to-end ATM over a DS3 reaches approximately 80% of the throughput achieved from a FDDI to DS3 network. The 20% reduction in through-put can be attributed to the overhead associated with running ATM. As a result, we conclude that if the loss in capacity due to ATM overhead is balanced by the reduction in cost of ATM services, as compared to dedicated circuits, then ATM can be a viable alternative.

  16. Fog and Cloud Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M. A.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, G. T.; Krotkov, N. A.; Carn, S. A.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Artaxo, P.; Smirnov, A.; Chen, H.; Goloub, P.

    2011-01-01

    Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.

  17. Studies of aerosol optical depth with use of Microtops sun photometers and MODIS detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, Przemyslaw; Zawadzka, Olga; Markowicz, Krzystof M.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Strzalkowska, Agata; Rozwadowska, Anna; Gutowska, Dorota

    2013-04-01

    We would like to describe the results of a research campaign aimed at the studies of aerosol optical properties in the regions of the open Baltic Sea as well as coastal areas. During the campaign we carried out simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth at 4 stations with use of the hand-held Microtops II sunphotometers. The studies were complemented with the MODIS aerosol data. In order to obtain the full picture of the aerosol situation over the study area we added air mass back-trajectories at various altitudes and wind fields. Such complex information facilitated the proper conclusions regarding aerosol optical depth and Angstroem exponent for the four locations and discussion of the changes of aerosol properties with distance and meteorological factors. We show that Microtops II sunphotometers are reliable instruments for field campaigns. They are easy to operate and provide good quality results. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  18. Terahertz photometers to observe solar flares from space (SOLAR-T project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre

    The space experiment SOLAR-T designed to observe solar flares at THz frequencies was completed. We present the concept, fabrication and performance of a double THz photometers system. An innovative optical setup allows observations of the full solar disk and the detection of small burst transients at the same time. It is the first detecting system conceived to observe solar flare THz emissions on board of stratospheric balloons. The system has been integrated to data acquisition and telemetry modules for this application. SOLAR-T uses two Golay cell detectors preceded by low-pass filters made of rough surface primary mirrors and membranes, 3 and 7 THz band-pass filters, and choppers. Its photometers can detect small solar bursts (tens of solar flux units) with sub second time resolution. One artificial Sun setup was developed to simulate actual observations. Tests comprised the whole system performance, on ambient and low pressure and temperature conditions. It is intended to provide data on the still unrevealed spectral shape of the mysterious THz solar flares emissions. The experiment is planned to be on board of two long-duration stratospheric balloon flights over Antarctica and Russia in 2014-2016. The SOLAR-T development, fabrication and tests has been accomplished by engineering and research teams from Mackenzie, Unicamp and Bernard Lyot Solar Observatory; Propertech Ltda.; Neuron Ltda.; and Samsung, Brazil; Tydex LCC, Russia; CONICET, Argentina; the stratospheric balloon missions will be carried in cooperation with teams from University of California, Berkeley, USA (flight over Antarctica), and Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia (flight over Russia).

  19. Radiative characteristics for atmospheric models from lidar sounding and AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Maxim; Kuznetsov, Anatoly; Efremenko, Dmitry; Bochalov, Valentin; Melnikova, Irina; Samulenkov, Dimity; Vasilyev, Alexander; Poberovsky, Anatoly; Frantsuzova, Inna

    2016-04-01

    Optical models of atmospheric aerosols above of St. Petersburg are constraint on the base of the results of lidar sounding. The lidar system of the Resource Center "Observatory of environmental safety" of the St. Petersburg University Research Park is situated the city center, Vasilievsky Island. The measurements of the vertical profile of velocity and wind direction in the center of St. Petersburg for 2014 -2015 are fulfilled in addition. Height of laser sounding of aerosols is up to 25 km and wind up to 12 km. Observations are accomplished in the daytime and at night and mapped to vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and pressure obtained from radiosounding in Voeikovo (St. Petersburg suburb). Results of wind observations are compared with those of upper-air measurements of meteorological service in Voeikovo. The distance between the points of observation is 25 km. Statistics of wind directions at different heights are identified. The comparison is based on the assumption of homogeneity of the wind field on such a scale. In most cases, good agreement between the observed vertical profiles of wind, obtained by both methods is appeared. However, there were several cases, when the results differ sharply or at high altitudes, or, on the contrary, in the surface layer. The analysis of the impact of wind, temperature, and humidity profiles in the atmosphere on the properties and dynamics of solid impurities is implemented. Comparison with AOT results from AERONET observations in St. Petersburg suburb Peterhof is done. It is shown that diurnal and seasonal variations of optical and morphological parameters of atmospheric aerosols in the pollution cap over the city to a large extent determined by the variability of meteorological parameters. The results of the comparison are presented and possible explanation of the differences is proposed. Optical models of the atmosphere in day and night time in different seasons are constructed from lidar and AERONET

  20. Multistream and Monte Carlo calculations of the sun's aureole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, D. R.; Green, A. E. S.; Mo, T.

    1976-01-01

    The scattered UV intensities in the sun's aureole are calculated using both a multi-stream scattering method and a Monte Carlo approach. Angular distributions for both Rayleigh and aerosol scatterings are obtained with a realistic atmospheric model. Moderate- and sharply-forward-peaked phase functions of aerosol scattering, corresponding to realistic analytic size distributions, are incorporated. Results from the two independent calculations are in reasonable agreement for a realistic atmospheric model. The results indicate that the scattered UV intensity in the sun's aureole is about four orders smaller than the transmitted intensity while the scattered intensity for pure Rayleigh scattering is only 1-10 millionths times that of the transmitted sun. Based on these intensity ratios, we estimate that the integrated scattered contributions from the aureole to a well-collimated sun photometer of acceptance aperture 2-3 deg are below about 1% of the direct contribution.

  1. A far infrared photometer for characterization of stratospheric perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andreta, Gerardo; D'Addio, Lorenzo; Melchiorri, Bianca

    1995-10-01

    The sensitivity of the new generation of He-3 bolometers is such that it is possible to detect tiny atmospheric perturbations occurring at high altitude by means of a submillimetric photometer: an excess of 1% along one km of the stratosphere for H2O vapour is detectable up to 10 km of altitude, while the same excess for O2 is detectable up to 20 km and up to 35 km in the case of Ozone. In the present paper we describe a multi-band photometer operating at the focal plane of MITO (Millimeter and Infrared Testagrigia Observatory), capable of discriminating atmospheric perturbations in altitude and in chemical composition. The instrument is devoted to the study of the dynamics of the upper atmosphere in a long range program of far infrared observations.

  2. Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) measures the aerosol absorption of radiation at three visible wavelengths; 461, 522, and 653 nanometers (nm). Data from this measurement is used in radiative forcing calculations, atmospheric heating rates, and as a prediction of the amount of equivalent black carbon in atmospheric aerosol and in models of aerosol semi-direct forcing. Aerosol absorption measurements are essential to modeling the energy balance of the atmosphere.

  3. On-orbit calibration of the tiny ionospheric photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jiang, fang

    2016-04-01

    The Tiny Ionospheric Photometer(TIP) instrument is a compact, high sensitivity far ultraviolet photometer that observes the nighttime ionosphere of the Earth at 135.6 nm. The sensor will be on board the FY-3 meteorological satellite of China. As an optical instrument, it is necessary to have on-orbit calibration. But because of limited resources, calibration equipment could not be carried together. On order to determine and monitor the on-orbit sensitivity of the TIP instrument, an on-orbit calibration method based on the model calculation was studied. For a calculation, The peak electron density and the electron density profile were obtained from the ground-based digisonde and the neutral molecule density profile was obtained from MSIS-90 model. These parameters were the input values in the OI 135.6 nm nighttime airglow radiative transfer model which was developed and introduced in another paper. the OI 135.6 nm airglow intensity was obtained from the model. The OI 135.6 nm intensity calculated was used to revise the measured value of intensity at 135.6 nm from the tiny ions ionospheric photometer when measuring time and space conditions of both the TIP and the ground-based digisonde were consistent. The method was tested using some measured data from the TIP on COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 satellite and the results showed the method of on-orbit were feasible.

  4. MODIS and AERONET Characterization of the Global Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram; Reme, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently produced daily MODIS aerosol data for the whole year of 2001 are used to show the concentration and dynamics of aerosol over ocean and large parts of the continents. The data were validated against the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements over land and ocean. Monthly averages and a movie based on the daily data are produced and used to demonstrate the spatial and temporal evolution of aerosol. The MODIS wide spectral range is used to distinguish fine smoke and pollution aerosol from coarse dust and salt. The movie produced from the MODIS data provides a new dimension to aerosol observations by showing the dynamics of the system. For example in February smoke and dust emitted from the Sahel and West Africa is shown to travel to the North-East Atlantic. In April heavy dust and pollution from East Asia is shown to travel to North America. In May-June pollution and dust play a dynamical dance in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. In Aug-September smoke from South Africa and South America is shown to pulsate in tandem and to periodically to be transported to the otherwise pristine Southern part of the Southern Hemisphere.

  5. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) instrument on board TARANIS satellite: scientific objectives, design, characterization results and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Hébert, P.; Le Mer-Dachard, F.; Cansot, E.; Offroy, M.; Ravel, K.; Gaillac, S.; Sato, M.; Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNings and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched from late 2017 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose of this poster is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) scientific objectives and the sensor design, to show the performances of this instrument using the recent characterization, and at last to promote its products. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. The calibration results will be detailed. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. It is a key instrument because of its on-board detection of the TLEs which can trigger the whole payload. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The calibration results will also be detailed. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters will be tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. Automatic classification tools are now tested to produce for the Scientific Mission Center some lists of elves, sprites or lightning without TLE following the recent work of Offroy et al. [2015] using ISUAL spectrophotometer data.

  6. Get SunWise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Patricia; Ingram, Dabney

    2004-01-01

    Providing sun-safe environments, schedules, and activities; teaching and modeling sun-safe behaviors; and implementing a sun-safe school policy are ways that schools can help protect children from sun overexposure and lay the foundation for a healthy lifestyle at an early age. This article presents the SunWise program and examples of classroom…

  7. Micro sun sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, C. C.; Mobasser, S.; Wrigley, C. J.; Bae, Y.; Howard, A.; Schroeder, J.

    2002-01-01

    A new generation of sun sensors is emerging. These sun sensors utilize an imaging detector and the sun sensor determines the sun angles based on an image of fringes or centroids on the detector plane. Typically determines the sun angle in two axes.

  8. Aerosol characterization at the Saharan AERONET site Tamanrasset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, C.; Cuevas, E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Bustos, J. J.; Basart, S.; Romero, P. M.; Camino, C.; Mimouni, M.; Zeudmi, L.; Goloub, P.; Baldasano, J. M.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    More than 2 years of columnar atmospheric aerosol measurements (2006-2009) at the Tamanrasset site (22.79° N, 5.53° E, 1377 m a.s.l.), in the heart of the Sahara, are analysed. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) level 2.0 data were used. The KCICLO (K is the name of a constant and ciclo means cycle in Spanish) method was applied to a part of the level 1.5 data series to improve the quality of the results. The annual variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) has been found to be strongly linked to the convective boundary layer (CBL) thermodynamic features. The dry-cool season (autumn and winter) is characterized by a shallow CBL and very low mean turbidity (AOD ~ 0.09 at 440 nm, AE ~ 0.62). The wet-hot season (spring and summer) is dominated by high turbidity of coarse dust particles (AE ~ 0.28, AOD ~ 0.39 at 440 nm) and a deep CBL. The aerosol-type characterization shows desert mineral dust as the prevailing aerosol. Both pure Saharan dust and very clear sky conditions are observed depending on the season. However, several case studies indicate an anthropogenic fine mode contribution from the industrial areas in Libya and Algeria. The concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) source apportionment method was used to identify potential sources of air masses arriving at Tamanrasset at several heights for each season. Microphysical and optical properties and precipitable water vapour were also investigated.

  9. SeaWIFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 13; The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Bailey, Sean W.; Pietras, Christophe M.; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities that took place at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy from 2-6 August 1999. The ultimate objective of the field campaign was to evaluate the capabilities of a new instrument called the SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurements (SeaPRISM). SeaPRISM is based on a CE-318 sun photometer made by CIMEL Electronique (Paris, France). The CE-318 is an automated, robotic system which measures the direct sun irradiance plus the sky radiance in the sun plane and in the almucantar plane. The data are transmitted over a satellite link, and this remote operation capability has made the device very useful for atmospheric measurements. The revision to the CE-318 that makes the instrument potentially useful for SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities is to include a capability for measuring the radiance leaving the sea surface in wavelengths suitable for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration. The initial evaluation of this new capability involved above- and in-water measurement protocols. An intercomparison of the water-leaving radiances derived from SeaPRISM and an in-water system showed the overall spectral agreement was approximately 8.6%, but the blue-green channels intercompared at the 5% level. A blue-green band ratio comparison was at the 4% level.

  10. Our Star, the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities for elementary and middle school students on the sun and the Earth-sun relationship. Studies the structure of the sun with activities that include Shadow Play, Reflective Solar Cooker, Equatorial Sundial, and Tracing Images. (YDS)

  11. A bilateral comparison on illuminance using a photometer between IPT and LABELO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira Junior, A. F. G.; Bindé Junior, C. J. R.

    2016-07-01

    This work presents the result of bilateral illuminance comparison obtained from a photometer calibration. The bilateral comparison was performed comparing the calibration results from the same photometer at LABELO and IPT laboratories, which take part of Brazilian calibration network. Occasionally LABELO was chosen as a pilot laboratory and was responsible to calibrate the photometer at the beginning and end of comparison and define the reference illuminance value of photometer calibration. The illuminance calibration points ranged from 20 to 2000 lx and the comparison evaluation criterion was the normalized error (En numbers). The laboratory measurements are in agreement according to the evaluation criterion.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope high speed photometer orbital verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Evan E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of the HSP (High Speed Photometer) Orbital Verification (OV) tests and to report conclusions and lessons learned from the initial operations of the HSP. The HSP OV plan covered the activities through fine (phase 3) alignment. This report covers all activities (OV, SV, and SAO) from launch to the completion of phase 3 alignment. Those activities in this period that are not OV tests are described to the extent that they relate to OV activities.

  13. The Puoko-nui CCD Time-Series Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chote, P.; Sullivan, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Puoko-nui (te reo Maori for ‘big eye’) is a precision time series photometer developed at Victoria University of Wellington, primarily for use with the 1m McLellan telescope at Mt John University Observatory (MJUO), at Lake Tekapo, New Zealand. GPS based timing provides excellent timing accuracy, and online reduction software processes frames as they are acquired. The user is presented with a simple user interface that includes instrument control and an up to date lightcurve and Fourier amplitude spectrum of the target star. Puoko-nui has been operating in its current form since early 2011, where it is primarily used to monitor pulsating white dwarf stars.

  14. SiFAP: a Simple Sub-Millisecond Astronomical Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Meddi, F.; Nesci, R.; Rossi, C.; Sclavi, S.; Bruni, I.

    2013-09-01

    A new fast photometer based on SiPM technology was developed at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" starting from 2009. A first prototype was successfully tested observing the Crab pulsar at the Loiano telescope of the Bologna Observatory. In this paper we illustrate the improvements we applied to our instrument, concerning new cooled commercial sensors, a new version of our custom dedicated electronics and an upgraded control timing software. Finally we report the results obtained with this instrument on December 2012 on the Crab pulsar at the Loiano telescope to show its goodness and capabilities.

  15. Photometer dewar system for NASA C141 airborne telescope (Kuiper Flying Observatory). [design analysis/performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ney, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    The design, calibration, and testing of a photometer to be used in an airborne telescope is described. A description of the cryogenics of the photometer is given, and photographs and blueprints of the photometer are included. The photometer is designed with a focal plane beam switching system so that the airplane telescope can be used in a normal optical mode at the bent Cassegrain focus and with the photometer operating in the pressurized cabin of the airplane. The concept was to produce a system which could be used in almost the same manner as ground based infrared photometers and dewars of the O'Brien Observatory at the University of Minnesota.

  16. Multi-peak accumulation and coarse modes observed from AERONET retrieved aerosol volume size distribution in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yuhuan; Chen, Yu; Cuesta, Juan; Ma, Yan

    2016-08-01

    We present characteristic peaks of atmospheric columnar aerosol volume size distribution retrieved from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) ground-based Sun-sky radiometer observation, and their correlations with aerosol optical properties and meteorological conditions in Beijing over 2013. The results show that the aerosol volume particle size distribution (VPSD) can be decomposed into up to four characteristic peaks, located in accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. The mean center radii of extra peaks in accumulation and coarse modes locate around 0.28 (±0.09) to 0.38 (±0.11) and 1.25 (±0.56) to 1.47 (±0.30) μm, respectively. The multi-peak size distributions are found in different aerosol loading conditions, with the mean aerosol optical depth (440 nm) of 0.58, 0.49, 1.18 and 1.04 for 2-, 3-I/II and 4-peak VPSD types, while the correspondingly mean relative humidity values are 58, 54, 72 and 67 %, respectively. The results also show the significant increase (from 0.25 to 0.40 μm) of the mean extra peak median radius in the accumulation mode for the 3-peak-II cases, which agrees with aerosol hygroscopic growth related to relative humidity and/or cloud or fog processing.

  17. Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) as a component of AERONET - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents a concept and the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The proposed activity includes deployment of hand-held sunphotometers at sea and measurements from various ships of opportunity. Overall MAN will complement island-based AERONET measurements and will expand AERONET program to acquire additional data over the oceans. Scientific objectives of this kind of activity are primarily climate change studies (direct and indirect forcing); satellite retrievals validation; validation of global aerosol transport model simulations; and atmospheric correction in ocean color studies. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held sunphotometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/maritime_aerosol_network.html) dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. Accomplished cruises included transects from Northern to Southern Atlantic, from Northern to Southern Pacific, from New Zealand to Japan, measurements in Southern Indian Ocean, in the Tropical Atlantic, along the western coast of South America, near the coast of Antarctica, in the Mediterranean, Arabian, Beafort, Bering, Barents, Greenland Seas and in the Bay of Bengal. First results are presented. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compare well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD. We believe that the Maritime Aerosol Network will provide the scientific community with valuable information on aerosol optical properties over the oceans. Employing simple, standard and commercially available instrumentation, traceable calibration, a scientifically sound processing scheme and easily accessible web-based public data archive, the network has strong growth potential. Expanded spatial coverage will contribute

  18. Sun: Friend and Foe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froschauer, Linda K.; Boudrot, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the benefits and hazards that the sun provides. Describes activities which focus on the power of the sun and on the development of "Sun-sensible" behavior. Also included is a poster which contains puzzles and additional information and activities on safe sunning. (ML)

  19. 21 CFR 862.2540 - Flame emission photometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flame emission photometer for clinical use. 862... Instruments § 862.2540 Flame emission photometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A flame emission...) and are, therefore, useful in diagnosis and treatment of those disorders. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2540 - Flame emission photometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flame emission photometer for clinical use. 862... Instruments § 862.2540 Flame emission photometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A flame emission...) and are, therefore, useful in diagnosis and treatment of those disorders. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2540 - Flame emission photometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flame emission photometer for clinical use. 862... Instruments § 862.2540 Flame emission photometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A flame emission...) and are, therefore, useful in diagnosis and treatment of those disorders. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2540 - Flame emission photometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flame emission photometer for clinical use. 862... Instruments § 862.2540 Flame emission photometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A flame emission...) and are, therefore, useful in diagnosis and treatment of those disorders. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 862.2540 - Flame emission photometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flame emission photometer for clinical use. 862... Instruments § 862.2540 Flame emission photometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A flame emission...) and are, therefore, useful in diagnosis and treatment of those disorders. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. Development of a Low-Cost Four-Color LED Photometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jay R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a low-cost four-color LED photometer developed to overcome the rising cost of laboratory equipment used in general chemistry labs and introduce instrumentation at the undergraduate level. The photometer detects absorbance at selected wavelengths of visible light but retains the advantages of a dual-beam system. The unit is compact and…

  5. Improvement of aerosol optical depth retrieval from MODIS spectral reflectance over the global ocean using new aerosol models archived from AERONET inversion data and tri-axial ellipsoidal dust database data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yang, P.

    2011-12-01

    New over-ocean aerosol models are developed by integrating extensive AERONET inversion data and a database of the optical properties of tri-axial ellipsoidal dust particles. These models allow more accurate retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for high AOD cases. Spectral AOD, single scattering albedo (SSA), and phase function, which are used to calculate a lookup table (LUT), are archived by combining inversion data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometers and single-scattering properties from the tri-axial ellipsoidal dust database. The aerosol models are categorized from the AERONET data using the fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm and the SSA at 440 nm to resolve a variety of aerosol types throughout the globe. For each aerosol model, the changes in aerosol optical properties (AOP) are included as functions of AOD. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and MODIS for the period from 2003 to 2010 show that the new aerosol models improve correlation compared to the MODIS Collection 5 products with a Pearson coefficient of 0.93 and a regression slope of 0.99 compared to 0.92 and 0.85, respectively, for the MODIS operational algorithm. Moreover, use of the new algorithms increases the percentage of data within an expected error of ± (0.03 + 0.05 × AOD) from 62 to 64% overall and from 39 to 51% for high AOD cases (AOD > 0.3). Errors in the retrieved AOD are characterized further with respect to the Ångström exponent (AE), scattering angle (Θ), and air mass factor (AMF). Overall, the new aerosol models reduce systematic errors in AOD retrieval compared with the Collection 5 data due to realistic AOP assumptions. In particular, the scattering angle dependence of the retrieved AOD for dust cases is significantly mitigated due to improved treatment of the nonsphericity of dust particles by the new algorithm.

  6. OPTIMA: A Photon Counting High-Speed Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straubmeier, C.; Kanbach, G.; Schrey, F.

    OPTIMA is a small, versatile high-speed photometer which is primarily intended for time resolved observations of young high energy pulsars at optical wavelengths. The detector system consists of eight fiber fed photon counters based on avalanche photodiodes, a GPS timing receiver, an integrating CCD camera to ensure the correct pointing of the telescope and a computerized control unit. Since January 1999 OPTIMA proves its scientific potential by measuring a very detailed lightcurve of the Crab Pulsar as well as by observing cataclysmic variable stars on very short timescales. In this article we describe the design of the detector system focussing on the photon counting units and the software control which correlates the detected photons with the GPS timing signal.

  7. Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of a Robust Photometer Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar; de Vicente, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the uncertainty of a robust photometer circuit (RPC) was estimated. Here, the RPC was considered as a measurement system, having input quantities that were inexactly known, and output quantities that consequently were also inexactly known. Input quantities represent information obtained from calibration certificates, specifications of manufacturers, and tabulated data. Output quantities describe the transfer function of the electrical part of the photodiode. Input quantities were the electronic components of the RPC, the parameters of the model of the photodiode and its sensitivity at 670 nm. The output quantities were the coefficients of both numerator and denominator of the closed-loop transfer function of the RPC. As an example, the gain and phase shift of the RPC versus frequency was evaluated from the transfer function, with their uncertainties and correlation coefficient. Results confirm the robustness of photodiode design. PMID:22574067

  8. The NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET): Co-location of Lidars with AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Holben, Brent; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    We present the formation of a global-ground based eye-safe lidar network, the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET). The aim of MPLNET is to acquire long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at unique geographic sites within the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Network growth follows a federated approach, pioneered by AERONET, wherein independent research groups may join MPLNET with their own instrument and site. MPLNET utilizes standard instrumentation and data processing algorithms for efficient network operations and direct comparison of data between each site. The micro-pulse lidar is eye-safe, compact, and commercially available, and most easily allows growth of the network without sacrificing standardized instrumentation gods. Red-time data products (next-day) are available, and include Level 1 daily lidar signal images from the surface to -2Okm, and Level 1.5 aerosol extinction provides at times co-incident with AERONET observations. Testing of our quality assured aerosol extinction products, Level 2, is near completion and data will soon be available. Level 3 products, continuous daylight aerosol extinction profiles, are under development and testing has begun. An overview of h4PL" will be presented. Successful methods of merging standardized lidar operations with AERONET will also be discussed, with the first 4 years of MPLNET results serving as an example.

  9. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  10. Remote sensing measurements of biomass burning aerosol optical properties during the 2015 Indonesian burning season from AERONET and MODIS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    The strong El Nino event in 2015 resulted in below normal rainfall leading to very dry conditions throughout Indonesia from August though October 2015. These conditions in turn allowed for exceptionally large numbers of biomass burning fires with very high emissions of aerosols. Over the island of Borneo, three AERONET sites (Palangkaraya, Pontianak, and Kuching) measured monthly mean fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm from the spectral deconvolution algorithm in September and October ranging from 1.6 to 3.7, with daily average AOD as high as 6.1. In fact, the AOD was sometimes too high to obtain any significant signal in the mid-visible wavelengths, therefore a previously developed new algorithm in the AERONET Version 3 database was invoked to retain the measurements in as many of the red and near-infrared wavelengths (675, 870, 1020, and 1640 nm) as possible to analyze the AOD in those wavelengths. These AOD at longer wavelengths are then utilized to provide some estimate the AOD in the mid-visible. Additionally, satellite retrievals of AOD at 550 nm from MODIS sensor data and the Dark Target, Beep Blue, and MAIAC algorithms were also analyzed and compared to AERONET measured AOD. Not surprisingly, the AOD was often too high for the satellite algorithms to also measure accurate AOD on many days in the densest smoke regions. The AERONET sky radiance inversion algorithm was utilized to analyze retrievals of the aerosol optical properties of complex refractive indices and size distributions. Since the AOD was often extremely high there was sometimes insufficient direct sun signal for the larger solar zenith angles (> 50 degrees) required for almucantar retrievals. However, the new hybrid sky radiance scan can attain sufficient scattering angle range even at small solar zenith angles when 440 nm direct beam irradiance can be accurately measured, thereby allowing for many more retrievals and also at higher AOD levels during this event. Due to extreme

  11. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  12. Seasons by the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  13. Fireworks on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows fireworks on the sun as 10 significant flares erupted on the sun from Oct. 19-28, 2014. The graph shows X-ray output from the sun as measured by NOAA’s GOES spacecraft. The X-rays ...

  14. Advanced GLS map-making for the Herschel's photometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzo, Lorenzo; Raguso, Maria C.; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Calzoletti, Luca; Altieri, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    We discuss Generalised Least Squares (GLS) map-making for the data of the Herschel satellite's photometers, which is a difficult task, due to the many disturbances affecting the data, and requires appropriate pre- and post-processing. Taking an existing map-maker as a reference, we propose several advanced techniques, which can improve both the quality of the estimate and the efficiency of the software. As a main contribution we discuss two disturbances, which have not been studied yet and may be detrimental to the image quality. The first is a data shift, due to delays in the timing system or in the processing chain. The second is a random noise, termed pixel noise, due to the jitter and the approximation of the pointing information. For both these disturbances, we develop a mathematical model and propose a compensation method. As an additional contribution, we note that the performance can be improved by properly adapting the algorithm parameters to the data being processed and discuss an automatic setting method. We also provide a rich set of examples and experiments, illustrating the impact of the proposed techniques on the image quality and the execution speed.

  15. NIP: the near infrared imaging photometer for Euclid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Mario; Bender, Ralf; Katterloher, Reinhard; Eisenhauer, Frank; Hofmann, Reiner; Saglia, Roberto; Holmes, Rory; Krause, Oliver; Rix, Hans-Walter; Booth, Jeff; Fagrelius, Parker; Rhodes, Jason; Seshadri, Suresh; Refregier, Alexandre; Amiaux, Jerome; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Boulade, Olivier; Cara, Christophe; Amara, Adam; Lilly, Simon; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; di Giorgio, Anna-Maria; Duvet, Ludovic; Kuehl, Christopher; Syed, Mohsin

    2010-07-01

    The NIP is a near infrared imaging photometer that is currently under investigation for the Euclid space mission in context of ESA's 2015 Cosmic Vision program. Together with the visible camera (VIS) it will form the basis of the weak lensing measurements for Euclid. The NIP channel will perform photometric imaging in 3 near infrared bands (Y, J, H) covering a wavelength range from ~ 0.9 to 2 μm over a field of view (FoV) of ~ 0.5 deg2. With the required limiting point source magnitude of 24 mAB (5 sigma) the NIP channel will be used to determine the photometric redshifts of over 2 billion galaxies collected over a wide survey area of 20 000 deg2. In addition to the photometric measurements, the NIP channel will deliver unique near infrared (NIR) imaging data over the entire extragalactic sky, enabling a wide variety of ancillary astrophysical and cosmological studies. In this paper we will present the results of the study carried out by the Euclid Imaging Consortium (EIC) during the Euclid assessment phase.

  16. Using the Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo and Angstrom Exponent from AERONET to Determine Aerosol Origins and Mixing States over the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Slutsker, I.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Ghauri, B.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol mixtures—whether dominated by dust, carbon, sulfates, nitrates, sea salt, or mixtures of them—complicate the retrieval of remotely sensed aerosol properties from satellites and possibly increase the uncertainty of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Major aerosol source regions in South Asia include the Thar Desert as well as agricultural lands, Himalayan foothills, and large urban centers in and near the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Over India and Pakistan, seasonal changes in meteorology, including the monsoon (June-September), significantly affect the transport, lifetime, and type of aerosols. Strong monsoonal winds can promote long range transport of dust resulting in mixtures of dust and carbonaceous aerosols, while more stagnant synoptic conditions (e.g., November-January) can prolong the occurrence of urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, or mixtures of them over the IGP. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer data are analyzed to show the aerosol optical depth (AOD) seasonality and aerosol dominant mixing states. The Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) relationship has been shown to provide sound clustering of dominant aerosol types using long term AERONET site data near known source regions [Giles et al., 2012]. In this study, aerosol type partitioning using the SSA (440 nm) and EAE (440-870 nm) relationship is further developed to quantify the occurrence of Dust, Mixed (e.g., dust and carbonaceous aerosols), Urban/Industrial (U/I) pollution, and Biomass Burning (BB) smoke. Based on EAE thresholds derived from the cluster analysis (for AOD440nm>0.4), preliminary results (2001-2010) for Kanpur, India, show the overall contributions of each dominant particle type (rounded to the nearest 10%): 10% for Dust (EAE≤0.25), 60% for Mixed (0.251.25). In the IGP, BB aerosols may have varying sizes (e.g., corresponding to 1.2

  17. Linearity and accuracy of ultraviolet and visible wavelength photometer: an interlaboratory survey.

    PubMed

    Vanderlinde, R E; Richards, A H; Kowalski, P

    1975-05-15

    A survey was made to determine the linearity and accuracy of ultraviolet and visible wavelength photometers used by laboratories in New York State. Two solutions each of high-purity potassium dichromate and cobalt ammonium sulfate were submitted for photometric performance studies. The majority of the participant spectrophotometer results showed good correlation with reference data. Broad half-band width (greater than 10 nm) photometers showed little deviation from linearity. Coefficients of variation for the models surveyed were 5-10%.

  18. Assessment of long scale plume transport to the US East coast using coordinated CREST lidar network and synergistic AERONET and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshary, Fred; Cordero, Lina; Wu, Yonghua; Gross, Barry; Orozco, Daniel; Sawamura, Patricia; Hoff, Raymond M.; Delgado, Ruben; Su, Jia; Leavor, Kevin; Lee, Robert B.; McCormick, M. Pat

    2013-10-01

    The vertical stratification and optical characteristics of aloft aerosol plumes are critical to evaluate their influences on climate radiation and air quality. In this study, we demonstrate the synergistic measurements of aloft aerosol plumes by a ground-based NOAA-CREST lidar network (CLN) along the US East Coast, the AERONET-sun/sky radiometer network at lidar sites, and satellite observations. During the plume intrusion period on March 6, 2012, the CLN and AERONET measurements were consistent in illustrating the onset of dust aerosol plumes. We observed two-layers of aerosol located at 1.0 ~ 8.0 km altitude. The column-average volume size distributions show increasing concentration of both fine- and coarse-modes aerosols, but are dominated by the coarse-mode. Direct lidar inversions illustrate that the aerosol plume layers contributed up to 70% of the total AOD. NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectories and CALIPSO observations indicate the trans-Pacific transport of Asian-dust at 3 - 8 km altitude to the US East Coast. Meanwhile, the NOAA-HMS fire and smoke products illustrate the transport and possible mixture of dust with fine-mode smoke particles from the middle and southwestern US. The small Angstrom exponents of MODIS/Aqua in the US East Coast imply the dominance of coarse-mode particles. Accordingly, the upper layer of coarse mode aerosols is most likely transported from the East Asia, while the lower layer at 1-3 km altitude probably consists of continental dust particles from the western US mixed with fine-mode smoke particles. In addition, the transport and vertical structure of aerosol are investigated with the NAAPS global aerosol transport model.

  19. AERONET Version 3 Release: Providing Significant Improvements for Multi-Decadal Global Aerosol Database and Near Real-Time Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent; Slutsker, Ilya; Giles, David; Eck, Thomas; Smirnov, Alexander; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Schafer, Joel; Sorokin, Mikhail; Rodriguez, Jon; Kraft, Jason; Scully, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Aerosols are highly variable in space, time and properties. Global assessment from satellite platforms and model predictions rely on validation from AERONET, a highly accurate ground-based network. Ver. 3 represents a significant improvement in accuracy and quality.

  20. Response to "Toward Unified Satellite Climatology of Aerosol Properties. 3. MODIS Versus MISR Versus AERONET"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Garay, Michael J.; Nelson, David L.; Levy, Robert C.; Bull, Michael A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Hansen, Earl G.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Tanre, Didier

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper by Mishchenko et al. compares near-coincident MISR, MODIS, and AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) products, and reports much poorer agreement than that obtained by the instrument teams and others. We trace the reasons for the discrepancies primarily to differences in (1) the treatment of outliers, (2) the application of absolute vs. relative criteria for testing agreement, and (3) the ways in which seasonally varying spatial distributions of coincident retrievals are taken into account.

  1. Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  2. Reduction of Aerosol Absorption in Beijing Since 2007 from MODIS and AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B.; Chin, M.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Kahn, R.; Slutsker, I.; Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Tanre, D.; Dubovik, O.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.-B.; Sinyuk, A.; Wang, Y.; Korkin, S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the time series of MODIS-based and AERONET aerosol records over Beijing reveals two distinct periods, before and after 2007. The MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua satellites were processed with the new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. A comparison of MAIAC and AERONET AOT shows that whereas MAIAC consistently underestimated peak AOT values by 10-20% in the prior period, the bias mostly disappears after mid- 2007. Independent analysis of the AERONET dataset reveals little or no change in the effective radii of the fine and coarse fractions and of the Angstrom exponent. At the same time, it shows an increasing trend in the single scattering albedo, by 0.02 in 9 years. As MAIAC was using the same aerosol model for the entire 2000-2010 period, the decrease in AOT bias after 2007 can be explained only by a corresponding decrease of aerosol absorption caused by a reduction in local black carbon emissions. The observed changes correlate in time with the Chinese government's broad measures to improve air quality in Beijing during preparations for the Summer Olympics of 2008.

  3. Reduction of Aerosol Absorption in Beijing Since 2007 from MODIS and AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B.; Chin, M.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Kahn, R.; Slutsker, I.; Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Tanre, D.; Dubovik, O.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.-B.; Sinyuk, A.; Wang, Y.; Korkin, S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the time series of MODIS-based and AERONET aerosol records over Beijing reveals two distinct periods, before and after 2007. The MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua satellites were processed with the new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. A comparison of MAIAC and AERONET AOT shows that whereas MAIAC consistently underestimated peak AOT values by 10-20% in the prior period, the bias mostly disappears after mid-2007. Independent analysis of the AERONET dataset reveals little or no change in the effective radii of the fine and coarse fractions and of the Angstrom exponent. At the same time, it shows an increasing trend in the single scattering albedo, by approx.0.02 in 9 years. As MAIAC was using the same aerosol model for the entire 2000-2010 period, the decrease in AOT bias after 2007 can be explained only by a corresponding decrease of aerosol absorption caused by a reduction in local black carbon emissions. The observed changes correlate in time with the Chinese government's broad measures to improve air quality in Beijing during preparations for the Summer Olympics of 2008.

  4. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  5. Comparison of PMCAMx aerosol optical depth predictions over Europe with AERONET and MODIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulou, Antigoni; Charalampidis, Panagiotis; Fountoukis, Christos; Pilinis, Christodoulos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-11-01

    The ability of chemical transport model (CTM) PMCAMx to reproduce aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over Europe during the photochemically active period of May 2008 (EUCAARI campaign) is evaluated. Periods with high dust or sea-salt levels are excluded, so the analysis focuses on the ability of the model to simulate the mostly secondary aerosol and its interactions with water. PMCAMx reproduces the monthly mean MODIS and AERONET AOD values over the Iberian Peninsula, the British Isles, central Europe, and Russia with a fractional bias of less than 15 % and a fractional error of less than 30 %. However, the model overestimates the AOD over northern Europe, most probably due to an overestimation of organic aerosol and sulfates. At the other end, PMCAMx underestimates the monthly mean MODIS AOD over the Balkans, the Mediterranean, and the South Atlantic. These errors appear to be related to an underestimation of sulfates. Sensitivity tests indicate that the evaluation results of the monthly mean AODs are quite sensitive to the relative humidity (RH) fields used by PMCAMx, but are not sensitive to the simulated size distribution and the black carbon mixing state. The screening of the satellite retrievals for periods with high dust (or coarse particles in general) concentrations as well as the combination of the MODIS and AERONET datasets lead to more robust conclusions about the ability of the model to simulate the secondary aerosol components that dominate the AOD during this period.

  6. Electro-Optics of an Experimental Quantum-Optical Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomos, N. H.

    2010-07-01

    The first working version of a new ultrafast three-beam photon counting photometer (QOP) has been materialized and demonstrated by the Applied Physics / Electro-optics Laboratory of the Hellenic Naval Academy in Piraeus. The QOP has been installed on the new 0.51m TVD telescope. The instrument is currently being used for quantum-optical study of atmospheric transmission in green monochromatic light over slant paths, at the RFK/Eudoxos Observatories. Actively quenched Single Photon Avalanche Diode detectors can be interchangeably deployed in addition to PMTs and LLL-CCDs. It is also intended for the testing of various approaches for solving the difficult problem of coupling light efficiently to the very small sensitive areas of SPADS, either using fiber couplers, or novel technologies like dedicated fiber tapers. Some particulars of the instrument design philosophy and its optomechanical construction are very briefly mentioned further below. However, it is appropriate to comment, firstly, on its purpose/rationale: The successful formalism of Glauber that led to the quantum-optical framework pertinent to the study of light in the terrestrial laboratories could, perhaps, be proven equally fruitful if applied to celestial light as well. Adopting the new idea of describing an arbitrary light state in terms of coherence functions, it is easily concluded that conventional astronomical instrumentation measures only spatial (imaging) or temporal (spectroscopy) coherence properties of the incoming photon stream. However, higher order spatiotemporal coherence (manifested as correlations among separated photon detection events) convey blueprints of the emission mechanism itself or even of the photon scattering history written in the course of the long path from the emitter to the telescope. To extract this information, high photon fluxes and unprecedented timing resolutions are needed. Our gradual entrance to the era of Extremely Large Telescopes combined with certain new

  7. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  8. Analysis of Fine and Coarse mode Aerosol Distributions from AERONET's mini-DRAGON Set-up at Singapore 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Muller, A.; Liew, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol type and particle size regime. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from industrial and urban areas. However, depending on the time of the year (July-October), there can be a strong bio-mass component originated from uncontrolled forest/plantation fires from the neighboring land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. Unlike urban/fossil fuel aerosols, smoke or bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. Trans-boundary smoke episodes has become an annual phenomenon in this region. Severe episodes were recorded in 1997 and 2006 and other minor episodes happened during 2002, 2004, 2010 and more recently on 2013. On August-September 2012, as part of CRISP participation on the August-September ground campaign of the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS), a Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) set of six CIMEL CE-318A automatic Sun-tracking photometers have been deployed at sites located at North (Yishun ITE), East (Temasek Poly), West (NUS and Pandan Reservoir), Central (NEA) and South (St. John's island) of Singapore. In order to fully discriminate bio-mass burning events over other local sources, we perform a spectral discrimination of fine/coarse mode particle regime to all DRAGON sites; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponent are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set. Spatio-temporal relationship between sites are also investigated.

  9. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval from MODIS Spectral Reflectance over the Global Ocean Using New Aerosol Models Archived from AERONET Inversion Data and Tri-axial Ellipsoidal Dust Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yang, P.; Hsu, N. C.

    2012-01-01

    New over-ocean aerosol models are developed by integrating the inversion data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun/sky radiometers with a database for the optical properties of tri-axial ellipsoid particles. The new aerosol models allow more accurate retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the case of high AOD (AOD greater than 0.3). The aerosol models are categorized by using the fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm and the singlescattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm from the AERONET inversion data to include a variety of aerosol types found around the globe. For each aerosol model, the changes in the aerosol optical properties (AOPs) as functions of AOD are considered to better represent aerosol characteristics. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and MODIS for the period from 2003 to 2010 show that the use of the new aerosol models enhances the AOD accuracy with a Pearson coefficient of 0.93 and a regression slope of 0.99 compared to 0.92 and 0.85 calculated using the MODIS Collection 5 data. Moreover, the percentage of data within an expected error of +/-(0.03 + 0.05xAOD) is increased from 62 percent to 64 percent for overall data and from 39 percent to 51 percent for AOD greater than 0.3. Errors in the retrieved AOD are further characterized with respect to the Angstrom exponent (AE), scattering angle, SSA, and air mass factor (AMF). Due to more realistic AOPs assumptions, the new algorithm generally reduces systematic errors in the retrieved AODs compared with the current operational algorithm. In particular, the underestimation of fine-dominated AOD and the scattering angle dependence of dust-dominated AOD are significantly mitigated as results of the new algorithm's improved treatment of aerosol size distribution and dust particle nonsphericity.

  10. Sun on Skin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)

  11. The magnetic Sun.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Richard A

    2008-05-28

    The nature of our star, the Sun, is dominated by its complex and variable magnetic fields. It is the purpose of this paper to review the fundamental nature of our magnetic Sun by outlining the most basic principles behind the way the Sun works and how its fields are generated, and to examine not only the historical observations of our magnetic star, but, in particular, to study the wonderful observations of the Sun being made from space today. However, lying behind all of this are the most basic equations derived by James Clerk Maxwell, describing how the magnetic fields and plasmas of our Sun's atmosphere, and indeed of all stellar atmospheres, work and how they influence the Earth.

  12. Sun Photometer Laser and Lamp Based Radiometric Calibrations; Comparison with the Langley Technique and Implications on Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souaidia, N.; Pietras, C.; Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Frouin, R.; Deschamps, P.; Fargion, G.; Johnson, B. C.

    2002-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of the earth is a valuable data source for biological and oceanic studies. However when using remote sensing, it is necessary to correct the measured signal for atmospheric effects. As aerosols play a major role in atmospheric scattering, correcting algorithms based on Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data have been developed to describe the scattering of radiation by aerosols. AOT data are collected by filter radiometers measuring the solar irradiance. The AOT is then retrieved applying the Beer-Bouger-Lambert Law to those measurements. Two radiometers, called Satellite Validation for Marine Biology and Aerosol Determination (SimbadA), were calibrated in this study. These instruments measure the upwelling radiance from the ocean as well as the solar irradiance, providing information on both marine reflectance and AOT. The goals of this study were to calibrate the radiometers using independent methods, evaluate the uncertainties for each method, and assess the influence of the results in terms of the science requirements. The radiometers were calibrated in irradiance and radiance mode using a monochromatic, laser-illuminated integrating sphere, in radiance mode using two different lamp-illuminated integrating spheres, and in irradiance mode using the Langley technique. First, a limited characterization of the instrument was conducted. The instrument's temporal stability and its spectral out-of-band response were evaluated. The instrument was then calibrated in radiance mode using a laser-illuminated integrating sphere that overfilled its field of view (FOV). The absolute radiance responsivity from this calibration was compared to results from measurements of two calibrated lamp illuminated spheres. The first comparison, with the NIST portable radiometric source (NPR), was a validation as good agreement between the two methods has been reported in previous studies. The second comparison was with the Hardy sphere from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In this comparison the NASA radiance scale was compared to NIST's. A disagreement was observed and will be discussed. Finally, an absolute irradiance responsivity calibration was performed with the laser based facility using a small integrating sphere that underfilled the instrument's FOV. This was done in order to do a comparison with the Langley technique, which is based on irradiance measurements. Using the absolute spectral responsivity obtained with the laser based calibration and a solar irradiance spectrum, the expected Top of the Atmosphere signal (V0) was determined and compared with the V0 obtained from the Langley calibration. Results will be presented and implications for derived AOT discussed.

  13. Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during SOLVE II: comparison with coincident satellite and aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Eilers, J. A.; Kolyer, R. W.; Redemann, J.; Ramirez, S. R.; Yee, J.-H.; Swartz, W. H.; Trepte, C. R.; Thomason, L. W.; Pitts, M. C.; Avery, M. A.; Randall, C. E.; Lumpe, J. D.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Bittner, M.; Erbertseder, T.; McPeters, R. D.; Shetter, R. E.; Browell, E. V.; Kerr, J. B.; Lamb, K.

    2005-08-01

    During the 2003 SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) II, the fourteen-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was mounted on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and measured spectra of total and aerosol optical depth (TOD and AOD) during the sunlit portions of eight science flights. Values of ozone column content above the aircraft have been derived from the AATS-14 measurements by using a linear least squares method that exploits the differential ozone absorption in the seven AATS-14 channels located within the Chappuis band. We compare AATS-14 columnar ozone retrievals with temporally and spatially near-coincident measurements acquired by the SAGE III and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III satellite sensors during four solar occultation events observed by each satellite. RMS differences are 19 DU (7% of the AATS value) for AATS-SAGE and 10 DU (3% of the AATS value) for AATS-POAM. In these checks of consistency between AATS-14 and SAGE III or POAM III ozone results, the AATS-14 analyses use airmass factors derived from the relative vertical profiles of ozone and aerosol extinction obtained by SAGE III or POAM III.

    We also compare AATS-14 ozone retrievals for measurements obtained during three DC-8 flights that included extended horizontal transects with total column ozone data acquired by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite sensors. To enable these comparisons, the amount of ozone in the column below the aircraft is estimated either by assuming a climatological model or by combining SAGE and/or POAM data with high resolution in-situ ozone measurements acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center chemiluminescent ozone sensor, FASTOZ, during the aircraft vertical profile at the start or end of each flight. Resultant total column ozone values agree with corresponding TOMS and GOME measurements to within 10-15 DU (~3%) for AATS data acquired during two flights - a longitudinal transect from Sweden to Greenland on 21 January, and a latitudinal transect from 47° N to 35° N on 6 February. For the round trip DC-8 latitudinal transect between 34° N and 22° N on 19-20 December 2002, resultant AATS-14 ozone retrievals plus below-aircraft ozone estimates yield a latitudinal gradient that is similar in shape to that observed by TOMS and GOME, but resultant AATS values exceed the corresponding satellite values by up to 30 DU at certain latitudes. These differences are unexplained, but they are attributed to spatial and temporal variability that was associated with the dynamics near the subtropical jet but was unresolved by the satellite sensors.

    For selected cases, we also compare AATS-14 ozone retrievals with values derived from coincident measurements by the other two DC-8 based solar occultation instruments: the National Center for Atmospheric Research Direct beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS) and the NASA Langley Research Center Gas and Aerosol Monitoring System (GAMS). AATS and DIAS retrievals agree to within RMS differences of 1% of the AATS values for the 21 January and 19-20 December flights, and 2.3% for the 6 February flight. Corresponding AATS-GAMS RMS differences are ~1.5% for the 21 January flight; GAMS data were not compared for the 6 February flight and were not available for the 19-20 December flight. Line of sight ozone retrievals from coincident measurements obtained by the three DC-8 solar occultation instruments during the SAGE III solar occultation event on 24 January yield RMS differences of 2.1% for AATS-DIAS and 0.5% for AATS-GAMS.

  14. Sun-Earth Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  15. Validation of Long-Term Global Aerosol Climatology Project Optical Thickness Retrievals Using AERONET and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data from coastal and island AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) stations is used to evaluate Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) retrievals for the period 1995-2009 during which contemporaneous GACP and AERONET data were available. To put the GACP performance in broader perspective, we also compare AERONET and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua level-2 data for 2003-2009 using the same methodology. We find that a large mismatch in geographic coverage exists between the satellite and ground-based datasets, with very limited AERONET coverage of open-ocean areas. This is especially true of GACP because of the smaller number of AERONET stations at the early stages of the network development. Monthly mean AOTs from the two over-the-ocean satellite datasets are well-correlated with the ground-based values, the correlation coefficients being 0.81-0.85 for GACP and 0.74-0.79 for MODIS. Regression analyses demonstrate that the GACP mean AOTs are approximately 17%-27% lower than the AERONET values on average, while the MODIS mean AOTs are 5%-25% higher. The regression coefficients are highly dependent on the weighting assumptions (e.g., on the measure of aerosol variability) as well as on the set of AERONET stations used for comparison. Comparison of over-the-land and over-the-ocean MODIS monthly mean AOTs in the vicinity of coastal AERONET stations reveals a significant bias. This may indicate that aerosol amounts in coastal locations can differ significantly from those in adjacent open-ocean areas. Furthermore, the color of coastal waters and peculiarities of coastline meteorological conditions may introduce biases in the GACP AOT retrievals. We conclude that the GACP and MODIS over-the-ocean retrieval algorithms show similar ranges of discrepancy when compared to available coastal and island AERONET stations. The factors mentioned above may limit the performance of the

  16. Reducing multisensor satellite monthly mean aerosol optical depth uncertainty: 1. Objective assessment of current AERONET locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Li, Xichen; Carlson, Barbara E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Dubovik, Oleg; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-11-01

    Various space-based sensors have been designed and corresponding algorithms developed to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD), the very basic aerosol optical property, yet considerable disagreement still exists across these different satellite data sets. Surface-based observations aim to provide ground truth for validating satellite data; hence, their deployment locations should preferably contain as much spatial information as possible, i.e., high spatial representativeness. Using a novel Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF)-based approach, we objectively evaluate the spatial representativeness of current Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Multisensor monthly mean AOD data sets from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor, Ozone Monitoring Instrument, and Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar are combined into a 605-member ensemble, and AERONET data are considered as the observations to be assimilated into this ensemble using the EnKF. The assessment is made by comparing the analysis error variance (that has been constrained by ground-based measurements), with the background error variance (based on satellite data alone). Results show that the total uncertainty is reduced by 27% on average and could reach above 50% over certain places. The uncertainty reduction pattern also has distinct seasonal patterns, corresponding to the spatial distribution of seasonally varying aerosol types, such as dust in the spring for Northern Hemisphere and biomass burning in the fall for Southern Hemisphere. Dust and biomass burning sites have the highest spatial representativeness, rural and oceanic sites can also represent moderate spatial information, whereas the representativeness of urban sites is relatively localized. A spatial score ranging from 1 to 3 is assigned to each AERONET site based on the uncertainty reduction

  17. Trend Estimates of AERONET-Observed and Model-Simulated AOTs Between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, J.; Pozzer, A.; Chang, D. Y.; Lelieveld, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J.-H.; Lee, J.; Moon, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, temporal changes in Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) have been investigated based on model simulations, satellite and ground-based observations. Most AOT trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope+/-2(sigma) = 0.75 +/- 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires. In most of the selected regions of interest, EMAC-simulated trends are mainly attributed to the significant changes of the dominant aerosols; e.g., significant decrease in sea salt and water soluble compounds over Central America, increase in dust over Northern Africa and Middle East, and decrease in black carbon and organic carbon over

  18. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOTs between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Pozzer, A.; Chang, D. Y.; Lelieveld, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J.-H.; Lee, J.; Moon, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, temporal changes in Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) have been investigated based on model simulations, satellite and ground-based observations. Most AOT trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires. In most of the selected regions of interest, EMAC-simulated trends are mainly attributed to the significant changes of the dominant aerosols; e.g., significant decrease in sea salt and water soluble compounds over Central America, increase in dust over Northern Africa and Middle East, and decrease in black carbon and organic carbon over Australia.

  19. Estimate of the radiative effect of brown carbon using AERONET products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitkänen, M. R.; Schuster, G. L.; Dubovik, O.; Lindfors, A. V.; Lehtinen, K. E.; Arola, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    The AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) provides aerosol size distributions and complex refractive index at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm). This information is used in the method of Schuster et al. 2013 to retrieve the relative proportions of absorbing OC, BC, free iron and scattering host, separately for fine and coarse modes. The absorbing part of fine mode is initially assumed to consist of BC and BrC, but dust is added if necessary. Likewise, the absorbing coarse mode is initially assumed to consist of mineral dust, but BC and BrC are added if necessary. We estimated the direct radiative effect of absorbing OC (Brown Carbon, BrC) by using the volume fractions of BrC retrieved by Schuster et al. 2013 for all available AERONET sites. The volume fractions of BrC were used to form the refractive index and size distributions for aerosol composition without BrC. Then the effect by absorbing OC at TOA was estimated as the difference between net fluxes with and without BrC (i.e. all aerosols and non-BrC aerosols). We used radiative transfer package libRadtran, and the non-sphericity of mineral dust was taken into account using the spheroid model by Dubovik et al. (2006). Chung et al. 2012 also proposed a method to estimate the fraction of BrC from AERONET measurements, separating dust and carbonaceous aerosols based on AAE (Absorption Angstrom Exponent). However, Schuster et al. 2013 demonstrated that dust and biomass burning aerosols are well separated by imaginary refractive indices, but not by AAE. Therefore, we additionally applied the approach of Chung et al. 2012 to calculate the direct effect by BrC and compared with our estimates.

  20. Sounding the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Sounding the Sun Antony Fraser-Smith STAR Laboratory Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 phone: (650) 723-3684 fax: (650) 723-9251 email...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sounding the Sun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...systems. The objective of our “Sounding the sun ” experiment is to detect earth-directed CME’s by using existing earth-based HF (3- 30 MHz) radar systems

  1. Monitoring of urban air pollution from MODIS and AERONET Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, K.; Chiaradia, M.; Guerriero, L.; Pasquariello, G.; Morea, A.; Nutricato, R.; Preziosa, G.

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, caused by fuel industries and urban traffic and its environmental impact, are of considerable interest to studies in air quality. In this paper, the monitoring of the air pollution over urban areas in Italy through Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements is presented. The high spatio-temporal frequency of MODIS AOT products (twice per day at 470nm, 1km full resolution) demonstrates that this satellite can be potentially used to routinely monitor the air pollution over land, especially urban area, which is the main source of aerosol particles. In this work AOT data derived by MODIS from November 2010 to February 2011 (winter period) and from May 2011 to August 2011 (summer period) were compared with AOT measurements from 6 different Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations over Italy (Bari, Lecce, Roma, Ispra, Potenza, Etna). The statistical analysis shows a good agreement between the ground based AOT measurements and the values retrieved using space based sensors, as shown in Figure 1. For all the stations the mean error is negligible, with a correlation ranging from 0.725 (in the worst case) to 0.96 (see Table 1). Moreover, LANDSAT-panchromatic images were used to discriminate urban and rural areas, based on the typical finger-like projections of urban land uses. The results of this study will be presented and commented. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Apulian Region in the framework of the ECOURB project. (Analisi e Modelli di inquinamento atmosferico e termico per sistemi di ECOlabeling URBano, 2009-2012). Figure 1: Scatter plot between AOT derived from MODIS and AERONET for Lecce City in summer period from May 2011 to August 2011. Y = - 0.023+0.86x (fit) ; Table 1: Statistical Analysis Report on the difference between AOT derived from MODIS and AERONET from May 2011 to August 2011 (summer period) for 6 different Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations

  2. MPL-Net Measurements of Aerosol and Cloud Vertical Distributions at Co-Located AERONET Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar system was developed, the Micropulse Lidar (MPL). The MPL acquires signal profiles of backscattered laser light from aerosols and clouds. The signals are analyzed to yield multiple layer heights, optical depths of each layer, average extinction-to-backscatter ratios for each layer, and profiles of extinction in each layer. In 2000, several MPL sites were organized into a coordinated network, called MPL-Net, by the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) using funding provided by the NASA Earth Observing System. tn addition to the funding provided by NASA EOS, the NASA CERES Ground Validation Group supplied four MPL systems to the project, and the NASA TOMS group contributed their MPL for work at GSFC. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) also agreed to make their data available to the MPL-Net project for processing. In addition to the initial NASA and ARM operated sites, several other independent research groups have also expressed interest in joining the network using their own instruments. Finally, a limited amount of EOS funding was set aside to participate in various field experiments each year. The NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project also provides funds to deploy their MPL during ocean research cruises. All together, the MPL-Net project has participated in four major field experiments since 2000. Most MPL-Net sites and field experiment locations are also co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network. (AERONET). Therefore, at these locations data is collected on both aerosol and cloud vertical structure as well as column optical depth and sky radiance. Real-time data products are now available from most MPL-Net sites. Our real-time products are generated at times of AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. The AERONET AOD is used as input to our

  3. Low-cost photometers and open source software for Light Pollution research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Jaime; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Tapia, Carlos; García, Cristóbal; Pascual, Sergio; Ocaña, Francisco; Gallego, Jesús

    2015-08-01

    Astronomical observatories have been measuring the brightness of the sky (NSB) using the methods of astronomical photometry with telescopes, photoelectric photometers and CCD cameras. The observations are disperse and sporadic. This is why some dedicated devices (including all-sky cameras) have been designed to automatically monitor the sky brightness at the observatories.These sophisticated and expensive instruments are restricted to research groups since they are out of reach for the interested citizens who wish to make a contribution to light pollution research. Most of them are using sky photometers (sky quality meter, SQM) a commercial photometer, designed to measure NSB in a photometric band that mimics the human eye response, that provide reliable data at an affordable budget.We are designing and building low cost devices to measure night sky brightness that could be widely distributed. The final designs will be calibrated and distributed to the community as open hardware. The researchers and also the interested people could acquire the parts and replicate the photometers from the instructions provided. Among the new features for these photometers we plan to add the capability to automatically send data to a repository located in a server, the autonomous operation with solar panels and batteries in remote places and the ability to measure in different spectral bands.We also present open source software for NSB research. PySQM, designed for SQM photometers, records the NSB data in the IDA-IAU standard data format and also builds the plots along the night. PyASB analyses all-sky images to determine photometric parameters and to build all-sky NSB maps

  4. The Turbulent Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Sally, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Six articles review current understanding and research in solar physics. Included are topics on sunspots, the corona, solar flares, solar waves, and solar-energy generation. Also included is a resume of physical data relating to the sun. (SL)

  5. STEREO Sun360 Teaser

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the past 4 years, the two STEREO spacecraft have been moving away from Earth and gaining a more complete picture of the sun. On Feb. 6, 2011, NASA will reveal the first ever images of the entir...

  6. Sun protection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen, are all helpful in preventing damage to the ... Any one of these by itself, even the sunscreen, may not be enough to prevent sun damage.

  7. The Sun Gets Loopy

    NASA Video Gallery

    SDO watched as an active region in the Sun’s southern hemisphere produced a whole series of looping arcs of plasma in profile (Sept. 11-13, 2010). The arcs are actually charged particles spirali...

  8. Van Gogh Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    Nicholeen Viall, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center creates images of the sun reminiscent of Van Gogh, but it's science, not art. The color of each pixel contains a wealth of i...

  9. The Sun and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  10. Radiometric calibration of ocean color satellite sensors using AERONET-OC data.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Soe; Gilerson, Alexander; Foster, Robert; Wang, Menghua; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Sam

    2014-09-22

    Radiometric vicarious calibration of ocean color (OC) satellite sensors is carried out through the full sunlight path radiative transfer (RT) simulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system based on the aerosol and water-leaving radiance data from AERONET-OC sites for the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Quantitative evaluation of the potential of such approach for achieving the radiometric accuracies of OC satellite sensors is made by means of direct comparisons between simulated and satellite measured top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Very high correlations (R ≥ 0.96 for all visible channels) are achieved for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor when this approach is applied with the data from the LISCO and WaveCIS AERONET-OC sites. Vicarious calibration gain factors derived with this approach are highly consistent, with comparisons between the two sites exhibiting around 0.5% discrepancy in the blue and green parts of the spectrum, while their average temporal variability is also within 0.28% - 1.23% permitting the approach to be used, at this stage, for verification of sensor calibration performance.

  11. Mixing weight determination for retrieving optical properties of polluted dust with MODIS and AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kuo-En; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Hsu, N. Christina; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Liu, Gin-Rong; Liu, Chian-Yi; Lin, Tang-Huang

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an approach in determining effective mixing weight of soot aggregates from dust-soot aerosols is proposed to improve the accuracy of retrieving properties of polluted dusts by means of satellite remote sensing. Based on a pre-computed database containing several variables (such as wavelength, refractive index, soot mixing weight, surface reflectivity, observation geometries and aerosol optical depth (AOD)), the fan-shaped look-up tables can be drawn out accordingly for determining the mixing weights, AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA) of polluted dusts simultaneously with auxiliary regional dust properties and surface reflectivity. To validate the performance of the approach in this study, 6 cases study of polluted dusts (dust-soot aerosols) in Lower Egypt and Israel were examined with the ground-based measurements through AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The results show that the mean absolute differences could be reduced from 32.95% to 6.56% in AOD and from 2.67% to 0.83% in SSA retrievals for MODIS aerosol products when referenced to AERONET measurements, demonstrating the soundness of the proposed approach under different levels of dust loading, mixing weight and surface reflectivity. Furthermore, the developed algorithm is capable of providing the spatial distribution of the mixing weights and removing the requirement to assume that the dust plume properties are uniform. The case study further shows the spatially variant dust-soot mixing weight would improve the retrieval accuracy in AODmixture and SSAmixture about 10.0% and 1.4% respectively.

  12. The Mount Wilson Observatory S-index of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie; Baliunas, Sallie; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly used index of stellar magnetic activity is the instrumental flux scale of singly ionized calcium H & K line core emission, S, developed by the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) HK Project, or the derivative index {R}{HK}\\prime . Accurately placing the Sun on the S scale is important for comparing solar activity to that of the Sun-like stars. We present previously unpublished measurements of the reflected sunlight from the Moon using the second-generation MWO HK photometer during solar cycle 23 and determine cycle minimum {S}23,\\min =0.1634+/- 0.0008, amplitude {{Δ }}{S}23=0.0143+/- 0.0012, and mean < {S}23> =0.1701+/- 0.0005. By establishing a proxy relationship with the closely related National Solar Observatory Sacramento Peak calcium K emission index, itself well correlated with the Kodaikanal Observatory plage index, we extend the MWO S time series to cover cycles 15–24 and find on average < {S}\\min > =0.1621+/- 0.0008, < {{Δ }}{S}{cyc}> =0.0145+/- 0.0012, < {S}{cyc}> =0.1694+/- 0.0005. Our measurements represent an improvement over previous estimates that relied on stellar measurements or solar proxies with non-overlapping time series. We find good agreement from these results with measurements by the Solar-Stellar Spectrograph at Lowell Observatory, an independently calibrated instrument, which gives us additional confidence that we have accurately placed the Sun on the S-index flux scale.

  13. Search for lightning-induced electron precipitation with rocket-borne photometers

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, R.D.; McCarthy, M.P.; Parks, G.K.

    1990-11-01

    Photometers at 3,914{angstrom} and 5,577{angstrom} and an optical imager were part of an experimental package launched on a sounding rocket in the 1987 Wave Induced Particle Precipitation (WIPP) campaign at Wallops Island, Virginia. The objective was to measure lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) by means of its optical signature. This was the first attempt to measure LEP using rocket-borne optical instrumentation. Launch criteria included nearby thunderstorm activity and ground-based observations of Trimpi events. Lightning flashes are clearly discernible in the data. The photometer data was also characterized by large spin and precession modulations in the photon count rate, consistent with elevated steady particle fluxes in the northern portion of the instrument field of view. No evidence of LEP was observed by the photometers or onboard particle detectors (Arnoldy and Kinter, 1989). Analysis of the data has enabled the authors to place an upper limit of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} ergs-cm{sup {minus}2}-sec{sup {minus}1} on any burst precipitation energy flux that many have occurred during the rocket flight in the regions explored by the photometers.

  14. Using a Homemade Flame Photometer to Measure Sodium Concentration in a Sports Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFratta, Christopher N.; Jain, Swapan; Pelse, Ian; Simoska, Olja; Elvy, Karina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to create a simple and inexpensive flame photometer to measure the concentration of sodium in beverages, such as Gatorade. We created a nebulizer using small tubing and sprayed the sample into the base of a Bunsen burner. Adjacent to the flame was a photodiode with a filter specific for the emission of the sodium…

  15. 21 CFR 862.2300 - Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... clinical use. 862.2300 Section 862.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2300 Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical...

  16. Build Your Own Photometer: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment to Introduce Analytical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessie J.; Nun´ez, Jose´ R. Rodríguez; Maxwell, E. Jane; Algar, W. Russ

    2016-01-01

    A guided-inquiry project designed to teach students the basics of spectrophotometric instrumentation at the second year level is presented. Students design, build, program, and test their own single-wavelength, submersible photometer using low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and inexpensive household items. A series of structured prelaboratory…

  17. 21 CFR 862.2300 - Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2300 Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use... instrument intended to measure radiant energy emitted, transmitted, absorbed, or reflected under controlled...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  18. The Sun in STEREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Parallax gives depth to life. Simultaneous viewing from slightly different vantage points makes binocular humans superior to monocular cyclopes, and fixes us in the third dimension of the Universe. We've been stunned by 3-d images of Venus and Mars (along with more familiar views of earth). Now astronomers plan to give us the best view of all, 3-d images of the dynamic Sun. That's one of the prime goals of NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories, also known as STEREO. STEREO is a pair of spacecraft observatories, one placed in orbit in front of earth, and one to be placed in an earth-trailing orbit. Simultaneous observations of the Sun with the two STEREO spacecraft will provide extraordinary 3-d views of all types of solar activity, especially the dramatic events called coronal mass ejections which send high energy particles from the outer solar atmosphere hurtling towards earth. The image above the first image of the sun by the two STEREO spacecraft, an extreme ultraviolet shot of the Sun's million-degree corona, taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) instrument package. STEREO's first 3-d solar images should be available in April if all goes well. Put on your red and blue glasses!

  19. Go Sun Smart

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests risk for skin cancer by adopting sun safe practices. The following narrative describes the intervention in toto from its design and implementation through assessment. Our theory driven, experimentally tested intervention was successful in reducing employees’ risks for skin cancer during and after the ski season. We also succeeded in making ski area guests more aware of the need to take sun safe precautions with both themselves and their children. PMID:20148119

  20. Near-Sun asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q < 0.1 AU. However, due to the Kozai-Lidov secular perturbations, the asteroids, having recently passed near the Sun, could by now have moved to orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q < 0.1 AU. Asteroids may be on such orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  1. Sun direction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, L. F.; Pace, G. D., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    One of the detectors is an illumination detector consisting of two spaced apart elongated strips with a strip of cadmium sulphide (Cds) deposited therebetween. Whenever the line image impinges the CdS strip, the resistance between the two other strips is relatively low, while being high when the line image is outside the field of view of the illumination detector. Also included is a sun angle detector which consists of a vapor deposited resistor strip connected at one end to plus 10v and at the other end to minus 10v. Spaced apart from the resistor strip is an elongated strip of low resistance material acting as an output strip, with a CdS strip between the two strips. When the line image is within the field of view of the sun angle detector, the output voltage at the output strip depends on the position of the line image across the sun angle detector.

  2. Atmospheric Correction at AERONET Locations: A New Science and Validation Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yujie; Lyapustin, Alexei; Privette, Jeffery L.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Holben, Brent

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an AERONET-based Surface Reflectance Validation Network (ASRVN) and its dataset of spectral surface bidirectional reflectance and albedo based on MODIS TERRA and AQUA data. The ASRVN is an operational data collection and processing system. It receives 50x50 square kilometer subsets of MODIS L1B data from MODAPS and AERONET aerosol and water vapor information. Then it performs an accurate atmospheric correction for about 100 AERONET sites based on accurate radiative transfer theory with high quality control of the input data. The ASRVN processing software consists of L1B data gridding algorithm, a new cloud mask algorithm based on a time series analysis, and an atmospheric correction algorithm. The atmospheric correction is achieved by fitting the MODIS top of atmosphere measurements, accumulated for 16-day interval, with theoretical reflectance parameterized in terms of coefficients of the LSRT BRF model. The ASRVN takes several steps to ensure high quality of results: 1) cloud mask algorithm filters opaque clouds; 2) an aerosol filter has been developed to filter residual semi-transparent and sub-pixel clouds, as well as cases with high inhomogeneity of aerosols in the processing area; 3) imposing requirement of consistency of the new solution with previously retrieved BRF and albedo; 4) rapid adjustment of the 16-day retrieval to the surface changes using the last day of measurements; and 5) development of seasonal back-up spectral BRF database to increase data coverage. The ASRVN provides a gapless or near-gapless coverage for the processing area. The gaps, caused by clouds, are filled most naturally with the latest solution for a given pixels. The ASRVN products include three parameters of LSRT model (k(sup L), k(sup G), k(sup V)), surface albedo, NBRF (a normalized BRF computed for a standard viewing geometry, VZA=0 deg., SZA=45 deg.), and IBRF (instantaneous, or one angle, BRF value derived from the last day of MODIS measurement for

  3. Comparing ECMWF AOD with AERONET observations at visible and UV wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnulyte, V.; Lindfors, A. V.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Arola, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents validation results of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) re-analysis aerosol optical depth (AOD) for the period 2003-2006. We evaluate the MACC AOD at a UV wavelength (340 nm) and at mid-visible (500 and 550 nm) by comparing against ground-based AERONET measurements at 12 sites. The AERONET sites cover various parts of the globe and are categorized in three groups: urban/anthropogenic, biomass burning and dust, depending on the typically dominating aerosol type. This is the first time a global model such as the ECMWF has been evaluated for the performance of AOD at a UV wavelength. The results show that the MACC system generally provides a good representation of the AOD on a monthly basis, showing a realistic seasonal cycle. The model is mostly able to capture major dust load events and also the peak months of biomass burning correctly. For Kanpur and Solar Village, however, the model overestimates the AOD during the monsoon period when the aerosol load is generally low. When comparing hourly AOD values, the model-measurement agreement is better for biomass burning and dust sites than for urban sites, with an average correlation coefficient around 0.90 for biomass burning sites, around 0.77 for dust sites, and below 0.70 for urban sites. The AOD at 500 nm averaged over all sites shows only a small systematic difference between modeled and measured values, with a relative mean bias of 0.02. However, for the AOD at 340 nm the relative mean bias is -0.2. All sites included in the study show a relative mean bias at 340 nm smaller (or more negative) than that at 500 nm, indicating a strong wavelength dependence in the performance of the AOD in the MACC system. A comparison against fine and coarse mode AOD of the AERONET indicates that this has to do with the size distribution of the model: generally, the ECMWF model overestimates the

  4. Comparing ECMWF AOD with AERONET observations at visible and UV wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnulyte, V.; Lindfors, A. V.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Morcrette, J. J.; Arola, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validation results of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System MACC re-analysis aerosol optical depth (AOD) for the period 2003-2006. We evaluate the MACC AOD at a UV wavelength (340 nm) and at mid-visible (500 and 550 nm) by comparing against ground-based AERONET measurements at 12 sites. The AERONET sites cover various parts of the globe and are categorized in three groups: urban/anthropogenic, biomass burning and dust, depending on the typically dominating aerosol type. This is the first time when a global model such as the ECMWF is evaluated for the performance of AOD at a UV wavelength. The results show that the MACC system generally provides a good representation of the AOD on a monthly basis, showing a realistic seasonal cycle. The model is mostly able to capture major dust load events and also the peak months of biomass burning correctly. For Kanpur and Solar Village, however, the model overestimates the AOD during the monsoon period when the aerosol load is generally low. When comparing hourly AOD values, the model-measurement agreement is better for biomass burning and dust sites than for urban sites, with an average correlation coefficient around 0.90 for biomass burning sites, around 0.77 for dust sites, and below 0.70 for urban sites. The AOD at 500 nm averaged over all sites shows only a small systematic difference between modeled and measured values, with a relative mean bias of 0.02. However, for the AOD at 340 nm the relative mean bias is -0.2. All sites included in the study show a relative mean bias at 340 nm smaller (or more negative) than that at 500 nm, indicating a strong wavelength-dependence in the performance of the AOD in the MACC system. A comparison against fine and coarse mode AOD of the AERONET indicates that this has to do with the size distribution of the model: generally, the ECMWF model overestimates the contribution by coarse mode particles.

  5. The controversial sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    1993-01-01

    The sun serves as an important test case for a variety of problems related to stellar structure and evolution as well as fundamental physics. The sun also influences the terrestrial environment through its varied outputs. These two aspects of the solar interior combine to generate a surprising level of controversy for such an inherently simple star. I review three topics each of which is the subject of some degree of controversy: 1) the solar neutrino problem, 2) the status of modeling and observational efforts to understand the solar cycle of activity, and 3) observational efforts to detect and identify solar g-modes.

  6. Martian Moon Blocks Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the transit of Mars' moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  7. Atmospheric and Adjacency Correction of Landsat-8 Imagery of Inland and Coastal Waters Near AERONET-OC Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Manzo, Ciro; Bresciani, Mariano; Braga, Federica; Giardino, Claudia; Schroeder, Thomas; Kratzer, Susanne; Brando, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Preliminary results of a new algorithm for the atmospheric correction of OLI imagery acquired over coastal and inland water are presented. The algorithm was based on the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV) radiative transfer model and the atmopheric contribution was simulated by using the microphysical properties of the aerosol, their size distribution and refractive index, available from the AERONET stations located in the study area. The SeaDAS software was also applied to the OLI data to compare the results obtained by OLI@CRI algorithm with the standard procedure for atmospheric correction of remotely data. Furthermore, the adjacency effect was removed by the well-known empirical formula as well as a new empirical formula to assess any possible improvement of the atmospheric correction products using the diffuse fraction of the total atmospheric transmission as weight for averaged reflectance removal. To validate the results and assess its accuracy, the above-water data acquired at AERONET- OC sites were used. A coastal area and a lake are considered, where AERONET and AERONET-OC data are available. These sites cover a significant range of both atmospheric (from boreal to tropics) and water quality conditions.

  8. Response to Toward Unified Satellite Climatology of Aerosol Properties. 3; MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Garay, Michael J.; Nelson, David L.; Levy, Robert C.; Bull, Michael A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Hansen, Earl G.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Tanre, Didler

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper by Mishchenko et al. compares near-coincident MISR, MODIS, and AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD), and gives a much less favorable impression of the utility of the satellite products than that presented by the instrument teams and other groups. We trace the reasons for the differing pictures to whether known and previously documented limitations of the products are taken into account in the assessments. Specifically, the analysis approaches differ primarily in (1) the treatment of outliers, (2) the application of absolute vs. relative criteria for testing agreement, and (3) the ways in which seasonally varying spatial distributions of coincident retrievals are taken into account. Mishchenko et al. also do not distinguish between observational sampling differences and retrieval algorithm error. We assess the implications of the different analysis approaches, and cite examples demonstrating how the MISR and MODIS aerosol products have been applied successfully to a range of scientific investigations.

  9. Atmospheric correction at AERONET locations: A new science and validation data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Lyapustin, A.I.; Privette, J.L.; Morisette, J.T.; Holben, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-based Surface Reflectance Validation Network (ASRVN) and its data set of spectral surface bidirectional reflectance and albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) TERRA and AQUA data. The ASRVN is an operational data collection and processing system. It receives 50 ?? 50 km2; subsets of MODIS level 1B (L1B) data from MODIS adaptive processing system and AERONET aerosol and water-vapor information. Then, it performs an atmospheric correction (AC) for about 100 AERONET sites based on accurate radiative-transfer theory with complex quality control of the input data. The ASRVN processing software consists of an L1B data gridding algorithm, a new cloud-mask (CM) algorithm based on a time-series analysis, and an AC algorithm using ancillary AERONET aerosol and water-vapor data. The AC is achieved by fitting the MODIS top-of-atmosphere measurements, accumulated for a 16-day interval, with theoretical reflectance parameterized in terms of the coefficients of the Li SparseRoss Thick (LSRT) model of the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The ASRVN takes several steps to ensure high quality of results: 1) the filtering of opaque clouds by a CM algorithm; 2) the development of an aerosol filter to filter residual semitransparent and subpixel clouds, as well as cases with high inhomogeneity of aerosols in the processing area; 3) imposing the requirement of the consistency of the new solution with previously retrieved BRF and albedo; 4) rapid adjustment of the 16-day retrieval to the surface changes using the last day of measurements; and 5) development of a seasonal backup spectral BRF database to increase data coverage. The ASRVN provides a gapless or near-gapless coverage for the processing area. The gaps, caused by clouds, are filled most naturally with the latest solution for a given pixel. The ASRVN products include three parameters of the LSRT model (kL, kG, and kV), surface albedo

  10. An Analysis of AERONET Aerosol Absorption Properties and Classifications Representative of Aerosol Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Smirnov, Alexander; Slutsker, Ilya; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Schafer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning of mineral dust, pollution, smoke, and mixtures using remote sensing techniques can help improve accuracy of satellite retrievals and assessments of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Spectral aerosol optical depth (tau) and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0) ) from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements are used to form absorption [i.e., omega (sub 0) and absorption Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub abs))] and size [i.e., extinction Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub ext)) and fine mode fraction of tau] relationships to infer dominant aerosol types. Using the long-term AERONET data set (1999-2010), 19 sites are grouped by aerosol type based on known source regions to: (1) determine the average omega (sub 0) and alpha(sub abs) at each site (expanding upon previous work); (2) perform a sensitivity study on alpha(sub abs) by varying the spectral omega (sub 0); and (3) test the ability of each absorption and size relationship to distinguish aerosol types. The spectral omega (sub 0) averages indicate slightly more aerosol absorption (i.e., a 0.0 < delta omega (sub 0) <= 0.02 decrease) than in previous work and optical mixtures of pollution and smoke with dust show stronger absorption than dust alone. Frequency distributions of alpha(sub abs) show significant overlap among aerosol type categories and at least 10% of the alpha(sub abs) retrievals in each category are below 1.0. Perturbing the spectral omega (sub 0) by +/- 0.03 induces significant alpha(sub abs) changes from the unperturbed value by at least approx. +/- 0.6 for Dust, approx. +/-0.2 for Mixed, and approx. +/-0.1 for Urban/Industrial and Biomass Burning. The omega (sub 0)440nm and alpha(sub ext) 440-870nm relationship shows the best separation among aerosol type clusters, providing a simple technique for determining aerosol type from surface- and future space-based instrumentation.

  11. Variation of aerosol optical properties from AERONET observation at Mt. Muztagh Ata, Eastern Pamirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ni; Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhang, Chenglong; Xu, Tianli; Lazhu

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the ground-based remote sensing Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), and volume size distribution were investigated for the period June to December 2011 at Mt. Muztagh Ata (Muztagata), Eastern Pamirs. The monthly average values of AOD (500 nm) and α (440-870 nm) varied from 0.08 ± 0.02 to 0.16 ± 0.11, and from 0.56 ± 0.06 to 0.93 ± 0.28, respectively. The daily AOD averages 0.14 ± 0.07, with the maximum (0.5) occurring in August and the minimum (0.05) occurring in November. A small increase in AOD is expected with a noticeable decrease in the α value. The daily α averages 0.70 ± 0.27, and most exponents are less than 1, indicating the majority of larger aerosol particles. The volume size distribution of aerosol particles shows bimodal log-normal characteristics, with a fine mode radius of 0.2 μm and a coarse mode radius of 3 μm. The MODIS AOD and AERONET AOD display a similar variation, while the former is always noticeably higher than the latter with a difference of 0.1-0.4, indicating that the MODIS data might overestimate the aerosol load. Our results indicate that high aerosol volume concentration occurs in summer with the dominance of coarse particles over Muztagh Ata. The low AOD shows a clean atmosphere in this region, revealing that it is an atmospheric background site for continental aerosol monitoring.

  12. Licensing the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  13. Sun Packs Double Punch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  14. Our Explosive Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  15. Go Sun Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  16. California Sun Glint

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the Sun, the solar power stations in California's Mohave Desert can reflect solar energy from their large, mirror-like surfaces directly ... array at Harper Lake (upper right-hand corner). The Mohave Desert SEGS are the largest collection of solar fields in the world. Together ...

  17. The Sun in Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Bero, Elizabeth; Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Leveraging funds from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we combined the expertise of an archaeoastronomer, a solar scientist, and a teacher to trace humankind's view of the Sun and how that has changed, from the time of Stonehenge in about 1800 B.C.E., to the time of the Maya in 700 C.E., up to the modem era. Our program was aimed at middle-school students in an attempt to explain not only how science is done today, but how science has evolved from the observations of ancient societies. From these varied cultures, we touched on methods of observing the Sun, ideas of the composition of the Sun, and the relationship of the Sun to everyday life. Further, using the von Braun Astronomical Society's Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama as a test-bed for the program, we illustrated concepts such as solstices, equinoxes, and local noon with approximately 800 eighth grade students from the local area. Our presentation to SEPA will include a description of NASA's IDEAS program and how to go about partnering with a NASA astronomer, some slides from our planetarium program and web-site, and some hands-on activities.

  18. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  19. Global Assessment of OMI Aerosol Single-scattering Albedo Using Ground-based AERONET and SKYNET Inversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    We compare the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved by the near-UV two-channel algorithm (OMAERUV) applied to the Aura-Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements with an equivalent inversion made by the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). This work is the first comprehensive effort to globally compare the OMI-retrieved SSA with that of AERONET using all available sites spanning the regions of biomass burning, dust, and urban pollution. An analysis of the co-located retrievals over 269 sites reveals that about 46 percent (69 percent) of OMI-AERONET matchups agree within the absolute difference of plus or minus 0.03 (plus or minus 0.05) for all aerosol types. The comparison improves to 52 percent (77 percent) when only 'smoke' and 'dust' aerosol types were identified by the OMAERUV algorithm. Regionally, the agreement between the two inversions was robust over the biomass burning sites of South America, Sahel, Indian subcontinent, and oceanic-coastal sites followed by a reasonable agreement over north-east Asia. Over the desert regions, OMI tends to retrieve higher SSA, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. Globally, the OMI-AERONET matchups agree mostly within plus or minus 0.03 for the aerosol optical depth (440 nanometers) and UV-aerosol index larger than 0.4 and 1.0, respectively. We also compare the OMAERUV SSA against the inversion made by an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET with its operating sites in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The advantage of the SKYNET database over AERONET is that it performs retrieval at near-UV wavelengths which facilitate the direct comparison of OMI retrievals with the equivalent ground-based inversion. Comparison of OMI and SKYNET over currently available sites reveals a good agreement between the two where more than 70 percent of matchups agree within the absolute difference of 0.05.

  20. The Sun on Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    For 150 years, the Sun has been seen as a gaseous object devoid of a surface, as required by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Yet, not one line of observational evidence supports a gaseous Sun. In contrast, overwhelming evidence exists that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Recently, 40 proofs have been compiled in conjunction with the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM). This model advances that the Sun has a true surface. Photospheric structures, such as sunspots, granules, and faculae, are not optical illusions, as in the SSM, but real objects with a condensed nature. The LMHSM accounts for the thermal spectrum by invoking true inter-atomic structure on the photosphere in the form of the graphite-like layered hexagonal metallic hydrogen lattice first proposed by Wigner and Huntington. Within the convection zone, layered metallic hydrogen, insulated by intercalate atoms, enables the generation of the solar dynamo. Electrons located in conduction bands provide a proper means of generating magnetic fields. Metallic hydrogen ejected from the photosphere also thinly populates the corona, as reflected by the continuous K-coronal spectrum. This coronal matter harvests electrons, resulting in the production of highly ionized atoms. Electron affinity, not temperature, governs the ion profile. The chromosphere is a site of hydrogen and proton capture. Line emission in this region, strongly supports the idea that exothermic condensation reactions are occurring in the chromosphere. In the LMHSM, solar activity and solar winds are regulated by exfoliation reactions occurring in the Sun itself, as the metallic hydrogen lattice excludes non-hydrogen elements from the solar body.

  1. Ultraviolet-absorption photometer for measurement of ozone on a rocket-boosted payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, B.; Sheldon, W. R.; Benbrook, J. R.

    1996-10-01

    We developed a rocket payload to perform in situ measurements of atmospheric ozone at the University of Houston. The ozone detector is a dual-beam UV-absorption photometer that uses the 253.7-nm radiation from a low-pressure mercury-vapor lamp to illuminate two identical absorption chambers. We describe the design features and the operation of the instrument. The fundamental resolution of the photometer is shown to be 2.7 10 15 molecules m 3 . We present the ozone profile measured during parachute descent following boosted ascent to 60 km by a Nike Orion rocket. The uncertainty in the measurement of this ozone profile is estimated to be 8.2 .

  2. A calibration model for a stellar photometer using a SEC vidicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a SEC vidicon response model that was used to calculate intensities of stars in the ultraviolet. The tube was used only as a stellar filter photometer. The model proposed is applicable for point sources. Experiments with both curve- or surface-fitting techniques and with extrapolation-interpolation procedures were conducted. The curve-fitting techniques were not successful, and the target gain was calculated with the aid of interpolation techniques.

  3. The global sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, Jean-Claude

    After a definition of the various terms used to identify the solar layers, from the center to the exterior, and a physical description of these layers, it is shown that various couplings are controlling the physics in the core and the outer layers, and even the planets. One of these couplings is between convection, rotation and magnetism (the dynamo), and another coupling is between solar activity and planetary physics. These couplings make it possible to use observed data (oscillations, neutrinos, emergence of active regions, and of course their evolution) to infer properties of the solar interior. The theoretical knowledge of the sun must take into account the existence of these couplings, as well as the existence of another type of coupling, the one that links the past and the present states of the sun.

  4. Seismology of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gough, D.; Toomre, J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the sun's oscillations, caused by the constructive interference between internally reflected waves, to study the interior of the sun is examined. Pressure and buoyancy have the strongest influence on oscillations; pressure fluctuations at high frequency produce acoustic waves and at low frequency buoyancy produces internal gravity waves. The theory of acoustic wave frequency, which is used to determine measurements of sound speed and rate of rotation of the solar interior as well as the thickness of the convection zone, is presented. The classification of solar oscillations is described. The models for acoustic modes of low degree and intermediate degree are discussed. The effect of internal speed, gravity modes, and solar rotation on solar models is determined. The oscillation frequencies yield an He abundance that is consistent with cosmology, but they reinforce the severity of the neutrino problem.

  5. [Skin and sun exposure].

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Borgia, Francesco; Trifirò, Caterina; Aragona, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Fisherman commonly experience a significant number of cutaneous problems, related to the exposure to environmental factors due to their working conditions. Among these factors, sun exposure is able to determine both acute and chronic skin damage, mostly linked to the effects of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation on epidermal and dermal structures. In particular, UV-A appears to play a major role in the deterioration of dermal structure leading to the photoaged appearance of the skin, while UV-B is mainly responsible for skin cancers. Peculiar clinical features of skin damage in fishermen include dryness, irregular pigmentation, wrinkling, stellate pseudoscars, elastosis, inelasticity, telangiectasia, comedones and sebaceous hyperplasia. Furtheremore, the high incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers, on sun-exposed areas, confirms the need for occupational health policies focusing on issues such as photoprotection.

  6. Skylab and the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Articles pertaining to the solar studies and the Skylab program are presented, with emphasis on the usefulness of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) program. A description of Skylab objectives and key mission events is included along with articles about the sun. Skylab solar studies which are reported include these topics: ATM solar observatory, scientific instruments, crew operations and crew training, and the joint observing program. The Skylab associated solar programs are also reported.

  7. The sun compass revisited

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Tim; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals, and birds in particular, are thought to use directional information from the sun in the form of a time-compensated sun compass, with predictably deviated orientation under clock shift being regarded as the litmus test of this. We suggest that this paradigm obscures a number of other ways in which solar-derived information could be important in animal orientation. We distinguish between the known use of the sun's azimuth to provide absolute geographical direction (compass mechanism) and its possible use to detect changes in heading (heading indicator mechanism). Just as in an aircraft, these two kinds of information may be provided by separate mechanisms and used for different functions, for example for navigation versus steering. We also argue that although a solar compass must be time-referenced to account for the sun's apparent diurnal movement, this need not entail full time compensation. This is because animals might also use time-dependent solar information in an associatively acquired, and hence time-limited, way. Furthermore, we show that a solar heading indicator, when used on a sufficiently short timescale, need not require time compensation at all. Finally, we suggest that solar-derived cues, such as shadows, could also be involved in navigation in ways that depend explicitly upon position, and are therefore not strictly compass-related. This could include giving directionality to landmarks, or acting as time-dependent landmarks involved in place recognition. We conclude that clock shift experiments alone are neither necessary nor sufficient to identify the occurrence of all conceivable uses of solar information in animal orientation, so that a predictable response to clock shift should not be regarded as an acid test of the use of solar information in navigation. PMID:25389374

  8. The sun compass revisited.

    PubMed

    Guilford, Tim; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-11-01

    Many animals, and birds in particular, are thought to use directional information from the sun in the form of a time-compensated sun compass, with predictably deviated orientation under clock shift being regarded as the litmus test of this. We suggest that this paradigm obscures a number of other ways in which solar-derived information could be important in animal orientation. We distinguish between the known use of the sun's azimuth to provide absolute geographical direction (compass mechanism) and its possible use to detect changes in heading (heading indicator mechanism). Just as in an aircraft, these two kinds of information may be provided by separate mechanisms and used for different functions, for example for navigation versus steering. We also argue that although a solar compass must be time-referenced to account for the sun's apparent diurnal movement, this need not entail full time compensation. This is because animals might also use time-dependent solar information in an associatively acquired, and hence time-limited, way. Furthermore, we show that a solar heading indicator, when used on a sufficiently short timescale, need not require time compensation at all. Finally, we suggest that solar-derived cues, such as shadows, could also be involved in navigation in ways that depend explicitly upon position, and are therefore not strictly compass-related. This could include giving directionality to landmarks, or acting as time-dependent landmarks involved in place recognition. We conclude that clock shift experiments alone are neither necessary nor sufficient to identify the occurrence of all conceivable uses of solar information in animal orientation, so that a predictable response to clock shift should not be regarded as an acid test of the use of solar information in navigation.

  9. The sun, our star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  10. Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Heald, Colette L.; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; de Sá, Suzane S.; Martin, Scot T.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Watson, Thomas B.; Aiken, Allison C.; Springston, Stephen R.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-10-01

    The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However, the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood, leading to large uncertainties in modeling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regarding the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new AAE method which improves upon previous approaches by using the information from the wavelength-dependent measurements themselves and by allowing for an atmospherically relevant range of BC properties, rather than fixing these at a single assumed value. We note that constraints on BC optical properties and mixing state would help further improve this method. We apply this method to multiwavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites. We estimate that BrC globally contributes up to 40 % of the seasonally averaged absorption at 440 nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with the BC / OA mass ratio. Based on the variability in BC properties and BC / OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.5 m2 g-1 for OA-MAC at 440 nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE388/440 nm for BrC is generally ˜ 4 worldwide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of observations at two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of

  11. Identifying Aerosol Type/Mixture from Aerosol Absorption Properties Using AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Slutsker, I.; Li, Z.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Zibordi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols are generated in the atmosphere through anthropogenic and natural mechanisms. These sources have signatures in the aerosol optical and microphysical properties that can be used to identify the aerosol type/mixture. Spectral aerosol absorption information (absorption Angstrom exponent; AAE) used in conjunction with the particle size parameterization (extinction Angstrom exponent; EAE) can only identify the dominant absorbing aerosol type in the sample volume (e.g., black carbon vs. iron oxides in dust). This AAE/EAE relationship can be expanded to also identify non-absorbing aerosol types/mixtures by applying an absorption weighting. This new relationship provides improved aerosol type distinction when the magnitude of absorption is not equal (e.g, black carbon vs. sulfates). The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data provide spectral aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo - key parameters used to determine EAE and AAE. The proposed aerosol type/mixture relationship is demonstrated using the long-term data archive acquired at AERONET sites within various source regions. The preliminary analysis has found that dust, sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosol types/mixtures can be determined from this AAE/EAE relationship when applying the absorption weighting for each available wavelength (Le., 440, 675, 870nm). Large, non-spherical dust particles absorb in the shorter wavelengths and the application of 440nm wavelength absorption weighting produced the best particle type definition. Sulfate particles scatter light efficiently and organic carbon particles are small near the source and aggregate over time to form larger less absorbing particles. Both sulfates and organic carbon showed generally better definition using the 870nm wavelength absorption weighting. Black carbon generation results from varying combustion rates from a number of sources including industrial processes and biomass burning. Cases with primarily black carbon showed

  12. Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: Method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Heald, C. L.; Sedlacek, A.; de Sa, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Aiken, A. C.; Springston, S. R.; Artaxo, P.

    2016-10-13

    The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in modelling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regarding the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new method that decreases the uncertainties associated with estimating BrC absorption. By applying this method to multi-wavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites, we estimate that BrC globally contributes 6-40% of the absorption at 440nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with BC/OA mass ratio. Based on the variability of BC properties and BC/OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.2 m2/g for OA-MAC at 440nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE388/440nm for BrC is generally ~4 world-wide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of Manaus, Brazil) reveal no significant relationship between BrC absorptivity and photochemical aging in typical urban influenced conditions. However, the absorption of BrC measured during the biomass burning season near Manaus is found to decrease with photochemical aging with a lifetime of ~1 day. This lifetime is

  13. Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: Method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, X.; Heald, C. L.; Sedlacek, A.; ...

    2016-10-13

    The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in modelling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regardingmore » the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new method that decreases the uncertainties associated with estimating BrC absorption. By applying this method to multi-wavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites, we estimate that BrC globally contributes 6-40% of the absorption at 440nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with BC/OA mass ratio. Based on the variability of BC properties and BC/OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.2 m2/g for OA-MAC at 440nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE388/440nm for BrC is generally ~4 world-wide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of Manaus, Brazil) reveal no significant relationship between BrC absorptivity and photochemical aging in typical urban influenced conditions. However, the absorption of BrC measured during the biomass burning season near Manaus is found to decrease with photochemical aging with a lifetime of ~1 day. This lifetime is comparable to

  14. An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications representative of aerosol source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Schafer, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    Partitioning of mineral dust, pollution, smoke, and mixtures using remote sensing techniques can help improve accuracy of satellite retrievals and assessments of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Spectral aerosol optical depth (τ) and single scattering albedo (ωo) from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements are used to form absorption (i.e., ωo and absorption Ångström exponent (αabs)) and size (i.e., extinction Ångström exponent (αext) and fine mode fraction of τ) relationships to infer dominant aerosol types. Using the long-term AERONET data set (1999-2010), 19 sites are grouped by aerosol type based on known source regions to (1) determine the averageωo and αabs at each site (expanding upon previous work), (2) perform a sensitivity study on αabs by varying the spectral ωo, and (3) test the ability of each absorption and size relationship to distinguish aerosol types. The spectral ωo averages indicate slightly more aerosol absorption (i.e., a 0.0 < δωo ≤ 0.02 decrease) than in previous work, and optical mixtures of pollution and smoke with dust show stronger absorption than dust alone. Frequency distributions of αabs show significant overlap among aerosol type categories, and at least 10% of the αabs retrievals in each category are below 1.0. Perturbing the spectral ωo by ±0.03 induces significant αabs changes from the unperturbed value by at least ˜±0.6 for Dust, ˜±0.2 for Mixed, and ˜±0.1 for Urban/Industrial and Biomass Burning. The ωo440nm and αext440-870nmrelationship shows the best separation among aerosol type clusters, providing a simple technique for determining aerosol type from surface- and future space-based instrumentation.

  15. AERONET-OC: Strengths and Weaknesses of a Network for the Validation of Satellite Coastal Radiometric Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zibordi, Giuseppe; Holben, Brent; Slutsker, Ilya; Giles, David; D'Alimonte, Davide; Melin, Frederic; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Vandemark, Doug; Feng, Hui; Schuster, Gregory; Fabbri, Bryan E.; Kaitala, Seppo; Seppala, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    The Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been implemented to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site consistent and accurate measurements collected by autonomous radiometer systems deployed on offshore fixed platforms. The ultimate purpose of AERONET-OC is the production of standardized measurements performed at different sites with identical measuring systems and protocols, calibrated using a single reference source and method, and processed with the same code. The AERONET-OC primary data product is the normalized water leaving radiance determined at center-wavelengths of interest for satellite ocean color applications, with an uncertainty lower than 5% in the blue-green spectral regions and higher than 8% in the red. Measurements collected at 6 sites counting the northern Adriatic Sea, the Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, the Persian Gulf, and, the northern and southern margins of the Middle Atlantic Bay, have shown the capability of producing quality assured data over a wide range of bio-optical conditions including Case-2 yellow substance- and sedimentdominated waters. This work briefly introduces network elements like: deployment sites, measurement method, instrument calibration, processing scheme, quality-assurance, uncertainties, data archive and products accessibility. Emphases is given to those elements which underline the network strengths (i.e., mostly standardization of any network element) and its weaknesses (i.e., the use of consolidated, but old-fashioned technology). The work also addresses the application of AERONET-OC data to the validation of primary satellite radiometric products over a variety of complex coastal waters and finally provides elements for the identification of new deployment sites most suitable to support satellite ocean color missions.

  16. The Toboggan Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Wayne P. S.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.

    2005-09-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found early observations of this effect in the literature by Willem Barents (1597) and by Captain Scott and H. G. Ponting (1911). We show recent photographic material of the effect and present ray-tracing calculations to explain its essentials.

  17. Retractable Sun Shade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A.; Derespinis, S. F.; Mockovciak, John, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Window-shade type spring roller contains blanket, taken up by rotating cylindrical frame and held by frame over area to be shaded. Blanket made of tough, opaque polyimide material. Readily unfurled by mechanism to protect space it encloses from Sun. Blanket forms arched canopy over space and allows full access to it from below. When shading not needed, retracted mechanism stores blanket compactly. Developed for protecting sensitive Space Shuttle payloads from direct sunlight while cargo-bay doors open. Adapted to shading of greenhouses, swimming pools, and boats.

  18. Seismology of the sun.

    PubMed

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gough, D; Toomre, J

    1985-09-06

    Oscillations of the sun make it possible to probe the inside of a star. The frequencies of the oscillations have already provided measures of the sound speed and the rate of rotation throughout much of the solar interior. These quantities are important for understanding the dynamics of the magnetic cycle and have a bearing on testing general relativity by planetary precession. The oscillation frequencies yield a helium abundance that is consistent with cosmology, but they reinforce the severity of the neutrino problem. They should soon provide an important standard by which to calibrate the theory of stellar evolution.

  19. LUNA and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo; LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonu-clear reactions responsible for the stellar luminosity and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained in the past 20 years are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and the Sun is discussed.

  20. LUNA and the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Broggini, Carlo; Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-09

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonu-clear reactions responsible for the stellar luminosity and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained in the past 20 years are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and the Sun is discussed.

  1. Aerosol Daytime Variations over North and South America Derived from Multiyear AERONET Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Hongbin; Eck, Tom F.; Smirnov, Alexander; Chin, Mian; Remer, Lorraine A.; Bian, Huisheng; Tan, Qian; Levy, Roberrt; Holben, Brent N.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the daytime variation of aerosol with seasonal distinction by using multi-year measurements from 54 of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over North America, South America, and islands in surrounding oceans. The analysis shows a wide range of daily variability of aerosol optical depth (AOO) and Angstrom exponent depending on location and season. Possible reasons for daytime variations are given. The largest AOO daytime variation range at 440 nm, up to 75%, occurs in Mexico City, with maximum AOO in the afternoon. Large AOO daily variations are also observed in the polluted mid-Atlantic U.S. and U.S. West Coast with maximum AOO occurring in the afternoon in the mid-Atlantic U.S., but in the morning in the West Coast. In South American sites during the biomass burning season (August to October), maximum AOO generally occurs in the afternoon. But the daytime variation becomes smaller when sites are influenced more by long-range transported smoke than by local burning. Islands show minimum AOO in the morning and maximum AOO in the afternoon. The diverse patterns of aerosol daytime variation suggest that geostationary satellite measurements would be invaluable for characterizing aerosol temporal variations on regional and continental scales. In particular, simultaneous measurements of aerosols and aerosol precursors from a geostationary satellite would greatly aid in understanding the evolution of aerosol as determined by emissions, chemical transformations, and transport processes.

  2. Dust Optical Properties Over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula Derived from the AERONET Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Yu, H.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Dust optical properties over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are extracted from the quality assured multi-year datasets obtained at 14 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We select the data with (a) large aerosol optical depth (AOD >= 0.4 at 440 nm) and (b) small Angstrom exponent (A(sub ext)<= 0.2) for retaining high accuracy and reducing interference of non-dust aerosols. The result indicates that the major fraction of high aerosol optical depth days are dominated by dust over these sites even though it varies depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive index, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan and Arabian desert dust is 0.944 +/- 0.005, 0.752 +/- 0.014, 1.498 +/- 0.032, and 0.0024 +/- 0.0034 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively. Dust aerosol selected by this method is less absorbing than the previously reported values over these sites. The weaker absorption of dust from this study is consistent with the studies using remote sensing techniques from satellite. These results can help to constrain uncertainties in estimating global dust shortwave radiative forcing.

  3. Validation of the New VIIRS Deep Blue Algorithm with AERONET in Dust Source and Sink Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carletta, N.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.

    2015-12-01

    With the impacts dust aerosols have on our climate and air quality it is important to measure them. One such satellite data set is Deep Blue, which provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over land and ocean surfaces. This is valuable when tracking dust aerosols that travel over a variety of different surfaces between their source and sink. Deep Blue has a data record from 1997 to present provided by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and two Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS). These instruments are now either well past their life expectancy (MODIS) or no longer in operation (SeaWiFS). To continue the record, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument, which has similar capabilities to MODIS, will be used. This presentation presents validation results of the new version 1 VIIRS Deep Blue aerosol products, using data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). A diverse set of locations, from dust source to sink over land and ocean, have been selected for this validation, which demonstrates reliable performance of Deep Blue products for various surface conditions.

  4. Estimation of columnar concentrations of absorbing and scattering fine mode aerosol components using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongjoo; Ghim, Young Sung

    2016-11-01

    Columnar concentrations of absorbing and scattering components of fine mode aerosols were estimated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for a site downwind of Seoul. The study period was between March 2012 and April 2013 including the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia campaign in March to May 2012. The Maxwell Garnett mixing rule was assumed for insoluble components embedded in a host solution, while the volume average mixing rule was assumed for the aqueous solution of soluble components. During the DRAGON-Asia campaign the surface concentrations of major components of fine particles were measured. The columnar mass fractions of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust (MD), and ammonium sulfate (AS) were 1.5, 5.9, 6.6, and 52%, respectively, which were comparable to the mass fractions measured at the surface for BC, OC, and secondary inorganic aerosols at 2.3, 18, and 55%. The vertical distributions of BC and AS were investigated by employing the concept of a column height. While the column height for BC was similar to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, that for AS was 4.4 times higher than the PBL height and increased with air temperature from March to May. The monthly variations of the columnar mass concentrations during the study period were generally well explained in term of meteorology and emission characteristics. However, certain variations of MD were different from those typically observed primarily because only fine mode aerosols were considered.

  5. The Sun: A Star Close Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    Both the "quiet" sun and the "active" sun are described. The quiet sun includes the solar phenomena that occur everyday and the active sun includes solar phenomena that appear nonuniformly on the sun and vary over time. A general description of the sun, sunspots, flares, plages, filaments, prominences, solar-terrestrial…

  6. The Sun in Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Sever, Thomas L.; Bero, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Using a grant from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we have developed an inter-disciplinary curriculum for middle-school students which targets both history and astronomy. Our curriculum explores the attitudes and techniques of ancient spiritual leaders, specifically those of the Maya and Inca cultures, who observed and tried to control the Sun. We wish students to understand the probable importance of astronomical observations to these ancient peoples. In addition, using the experience of an archaeologist, we show how modern techniques of viewing the Earth through satellite imagery, has allowed the re-discovery of ancient sites where solar observations and attempted manipulation of the universe took place. To contrast ancient observations of the Sun with modern ones, we use the experience of a solar astronomer and bring to the classroom up-to-date information about solar astronomy and the impact of solar activity on the Earth's environment. In this presentation, we will present fragments of our curriculum as well as results from pre- and post-tests given to participating groups of students. Finally, we will discuss comments from local middle-school teachers who were asked to evaluate our curriculum.

  7. Eruptions from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  8. Stellar Calibration of the WIC and SI Imagers and the GEO Photometers on IMAGE/FUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, R.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Geller, S. P.; Immel, T. J.; Lampton, M.; Gerard, J.-C.; Spann, J.; Habraken, S.; Renotte, E.; Jamar, C.; Rochus, P.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The FUV instrument on the IMAGE spacecraft comprises three wide-field imagers, the Wide-Band Imaging Camera (WIC) of observing N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) (140-190 nm) emissions and the Spectrographic Imager (SI), which has a 121.8 nm channel for observing red-shifted HI Lya photons and a 135.6 run channel for observing 01 135.6 nm emissions. In addition, three HI Lya photometers (GEO) are used to monitor the geocorona. The fields of view are 17 degrees x 17 degrees for the WIC imagers, 15 degrees x 15 degrees for the two SI imagers, and 10 diameter for the three GEO photometers. As the IMAGE spacecraft spins every 120 seconds, the GEO photometers sweep out circles on the sky (at 0 degrees and plus or minus 30 degrees with respect to the spacecraft spin plane), and the WIC and SI imagers use the Time Delay Integration (TDI) method to construct images centered on the Earth. Many FUV-bright stars are seen in the WIC, SI and even the GEO data. WE have used archived International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) far-ultraviolet flux spectra for 22 of the brightest of these stars to help refine the FUV instrumental sensitivities. The stars chosen range in spectral type form B0V to A11V, with magnitudes ranging from V- 1.3 (a Cru) to V=4.7 (G Cen) (although many more fainter stars are also seen). The initial results of this stellar calibration will be presented and compared with the pre-flight and dayglow modeling results.

  9. AMPS definition study on Optical Band Imager and Photometer System (OBIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. N.; Deehr, C. S.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the characteristics of a modular optical diagnostic system (OBIPS) for AMPS, to provide input to Phase B studies, and to give information useful for experiment planning and design of other instrumentation. The system described consists of visual and UV-band imagers and visual and UV-band photometers; of these the imagers are most important because of their ability to measure intensity as a function of two spatial dimensions and time with high resolution. The various subsystems of OBIPS are in themselves modular with modules having a high degree of interchangeability for versatility, economy, and redundancy.

  10. Stellar spectral flux calibration of auroral H-beta photometer signal and background channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackel, Brian J.; Unick, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Observations of optical aurora typically require the operation of sensitive instruments at remote field sites. Absolute radiometric calibration of these devices is essential for quantitative comparison over time and with other measurements. In this study we present absolute calibration of a proton auroral photometer using star transits observed during regular data collection. This requires absolute flux spectra with sufficient resolution to account for structure in stellar Hβ absorption line profiles. Several flux spectral catalogs are combined and corrected for systematic differences. The resulting estimates of instrumental sensitivity are consistent with darkroom calibration to roughly 15%.

  11. Productino of KSR-III Airglow Photometers to Measure MUV Airglows of the Upper Atmosphere Above the Korean Peninsular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, T.-H.; Park, K.-C.; Kim, Y.-H.; Yi, Y.; Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    We have constructed two flight models of airglow photometer system (AGP) to be onboard Korea Sounding Rocket-III (KSR-III) for detection of MUV dayglow above the Korean peninsular. The AGP system is designed to detect dayglow emissions of OI 2972 Å, N_2 VK (0,6) 2780Å, N_2 2PG 3150Å and background 3070Å toward the horizon at altitudes between 100 km and 300 km. The AGP system consists of a photometer body, a baffle, an electronic control unit and a battery unit. The MUV dayglow emissions enter through a narrow band interference filter and focusing lens of the photometer, which contains an ultraviolet sensitive photomultiplier tube. The photometer is equipped with an in-flight calibration light source on a circular plane that will rotate at the rocket's apogee. A baffle tube is installed at the entry of the photometer in order to block strong scattering lights from the lower atmosphere. We have carried out laboratory measurements of sensitivity and in-flight calibration light source for the AGP flight models. Although absolute sensitivities of the AGP flight models could not be determined in the country, relative sensitivities among channels are well measured so that observation data during rocket flight in the future can be analyzed with confidence.

  12. Sun light European Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  13. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l < 60. The observationally constrained kinetic energy is approximately a thousandth of the theoretical prediction, suggesting the prevalence of an intrinsically different paradigm of turbulence. A fundamental question arises: what mechanism of turbulence transports the heat ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  14. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2011-12-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the top (TOA) and at the bottom of atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. In this study we have considered six main types of atmospheric aerosols: desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere. The ΔF averages obtained vary from -148 ± 44 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in Central Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.86 ± 0.51) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system, contributing to the greenhouse gas effect.

  15. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the Top (TOA) and at the Bottom Of Atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. Six main types of atmospheric aerosols have been compared (desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere) in similar observational conditions (i.e., for solar zenith angles between 55° and 65°) in order to compare the nearly same solar geometry. The instantaneous ΔF averages obtained vary from -122 ± 37 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in West Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.9 ± 0.5) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  16. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  17. Variability and Trends of Aerosol Properties over Kanpur, Northern India using AERONET Data (2001-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Singh, Ramesh.P.; Gautam, Ritesh; Sharma, Manish; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic aerosols over northern India play an important role in influencing the regional radiation budget, causing climate implications to the overall hydrological cycle of South Asia. In the context of regional climate change and air quality, we discuss aerosol loading variability and trends at Kanpur AERONET station located in the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), during the last decade (2001-10). Ground-based radiometric measurements show an overall increase in column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) on a yearly basis. This upward trend is mainly due to a sustained increase in the seasonal/monthly averaged AOD during the winter (Dec-Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) seasons (dominated by anthropogenic emissions). In contrast, a neutral to weak declining trend is observed during late pre-monsoon (Mar-May) and monsoon (Jun-Sep) months, mainly influenced by inter-annual variations of dust outbreaks. A general decrease in coarse-mode aerosols associated with variable dust activity is observed, whereas the statistically significant increasing post-monsoon/winter AOD is reflected in a shift of the columnar size distribution towards relatively larger particles in the accumulation mode. Overall, the present study provides an insight into the pronounced seasonal behavior in aerosol loading trends and, in general, is in agreement with that associating the findings with those recently reported by satellite observations (MODIS and MISR) over northern India. Our results further suggest that anthropogenic emissions (due mainly to fossil-fuel and biomass combustion) over the IGP have continued to increase in the last decade.

  18. Dynamics and Properties of Global Aerosol using MODIS, AERONET and GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram; Chin, Mian; Reme, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Mattoo, Shana

    2002-01-01

    Recently produced daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol data for the whole year of 2001 are used to show the concentration and dynamics of aerosol over ocean and large parts of the continents. The data were validated against the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements over land and ocean in a special issue in GRL now in press. Monthly averages and a movie based on the daily data are produced and used to demonstrate the spatial and temporal evolution of aerosol. The MODIS wide spectral range is used to distinguish fine smoke and pollution aerosol from coarse dust and salt. The aerosol is observed above ocean and land. The movie produced from the MODIS data provides a new dimension to aerosol observations by showing the dynamics of the system. For example in February smoke and dust emitted from the Sahel and West Africa is shown to travel to the North-East Atlantic. In April heavy dust and pollution from East Asia is shown to travel to North America. In May-June pollution and dust play a dynamical dance in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. In Aug-September smoke from South Africa and South America is shown to pulsate in tandem and to periodically to be transported to the otherwise pristine Southern part of the Southern Hemisphere. The MODIS data are compared with the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation Transport (GOCART) model to test and adjust source and sink strengths in the model and to study the effect of clouds on the representation of the satellite data.

  19. Calibration and first light of the Diabolo photometer at the Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, A.; Zagury, F.; Coron, N.; De Petris, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Giard, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Dambier, G.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; De Luca, A.; de Marcillac, P.; Jegoudez, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Leblanc, J.; Lepeltier, J.-P.; Leriche, B.; Mainella, G.; Narbonne, J.; Pajot, F.; Pons, R.; Puget, J.-L.; Pujol, S.; Recouvreur, G.; Serra, G.; Soglasnova, V.; Torre, J.-P.; Vozzi, B.

    2000-02-01

    We have designed and built a large-throughput dual channel photometer, Diabolo. This photometer is dedicated to the observation of millimetre continuum diffuse sources, and in particular, of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and of anisotropies of the 3 K background. We describe the optical layout and filtering system of the instrument, which uses two bolometric detectors for simultaneous observations in two frequency channels at 1.2 and 2.1 mm. The bolometers are cooled to a working temperature of 0.1 K provided by a compact dilution cryostat. The photometric and angular responses of the instrument are measured in the laboratory. First astronomical light was detected in March 1995 at the focus of the new Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) Telescope. The established sensitivity of the system is of 7 mKRJ\\ s1/2. For a typical map of at least 10 beams, with one hour of integration per beam, one can achieve the rms values of y_SZ =~ 7\\ 10-5 and the 3 K background anisotropy {Delta T/ T} =~ 7\\ 10-5, in winter conditions. We also report on a novel bolometer AC readout circuit which allows for the first time total power measurements on the sky. This technique alleviates (but does not forbid) the use of chopping with a secondary mirror. This technique and the dilution fridge concept will be used in future scan-modulated space instrument like the ESA Planck mission project.

  20. Characterizing a high resolution color display performance using a Prichard photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Olson, Jeff T.; Hixson, Jonathan G.; Richardson, Philip I.; Flug, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    Measuring the performance of a cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) is necessary to enable end-to-end system modeling and characterization of currently used high performance analog imaging systems, such as 2nd Generation FLIR systems. If the display is color, the performance measurements are made more difficult because of the underlying structure of the color pixel as compared to a monochrome pixel. Out of the various characteristics of interest, we focus on determining the gamma value of a display. Gamma quantifies the non-linear response between the input gray scale and the displayed luminance. If the displayed image can be corrected for the display's gamma, an accurate scene can be presented or characterized for laboratory measurements such as MRT (Minimum Resolvable Temperature) and CTF (Contrast Threshold Function). In this paper, we present a method to determine the gamma to characterize a color display using the Prichard 1980A photometer. Gamma corrections were applied to the test images for validating the accuracy of the computed gamma value. The method presented here is a simple one easily implemented employing a Prichard photometer.

  1. Near infrared emission photometer for measuring the oxidative stability of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Francisco Senna; Pasquini, Celio

    2013-09-24

    Near infrared emission spectroscopy (NIRES) allows the determination of the induction time (IT) of edible oils in accelerated oxidation experiments by monitoring the emissivity of a band at 2900 nm, which corresponds to the formation of hydroperoxides. In this work, a new near infrared emission photometer dedicated to the determination of oxidative stability is described. The photometer presents several advantages compared to the previously reported NIRES instrument, such as lower cost and extreme simplicity of design and maintenance. The results obtained in the evaluation of the proposed instrument were compared with the official Rancimat method and instrument. The significant advantages include: faster analysis, lower sample consumption and operational simplicity. It is demonstrated that the procedure for determination of oxidative stability of oils can be significantly simplified and performed by measuring the sample emission at only one spectral region centered at 2900 nm. Also, the proposed instrument and method present precision equivalent to the Rancimat method (coefficient of variation=5.0%). A significant correlation between the methods has been found (R(2)=0.81).

  2. Fast multichannel astronomical photometer based on silicon photo multipliers mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, Filippo; Meddi, Franco; Rossi, Corinne; Sclavi, Silvia; Nesci, Roberto; Bruni, Ivan; Ghedina, Adriano; Riverol, Luis; Di Fabrizio, Luca

    2014-07-01

    The realization of low-cost instruments with high technical performance is a goal that deserves efforts in an epoch of fast technological developments. Such instruments can be easily reproduced and therefore allow new research programs to be opened in several observatories. We realized a fast optical photometer based on the SiPM (Silicon Photo Multiplier) technology, using commercially available modules. Using low-cost components, we developed a custom electronic chain to extract the signal produced by a commercial MPPC (Multi Pixel Photon Counter) module produced by Hamamatsu Photonics to obtain sub-millisecond sampling of the light curve of astronomical sources (typically pulsars). We built a compact mechanical interface to mount the MPPC at the focal plane of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo), using the space available for the slits of the LRS (Low Resolution Spectrograph). On February 2014 we observed the Crab pulsar with the TNG with our prototype photometer, deriving its period and the shape of its light curve, in very good agreement with the results obtained in the past with other much more expensive instruments. After the successful run at the telescope we describe here the lessons learned and the ideas that burst to optimize this instrument and make it more versatile.

  3. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  4. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  5. Global seismology of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-12-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  6. The Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K. F.; Budzen, S. A.; Coker, C.; Chua, D. H.

    2016-10-01

    The Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) is an ultraviolet nadir-viewing photometer that flew aboard the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC, also known as FORMOSAT-3), which was launched on 14 April 2006. One TIP flew on each of the six COSMIC/FORMOSAT3 satellites; these compact instruments operated exclusively at nighttime and observed the O I 135.6 nm emission that is a signature of the decay of the F region ionosphere and, as such, is a diagnostic of the ionospheric state. We describe the TIP instruments and their on-orbit operation. Additionally, some key science highlights of the mission are presented and discussed.

  7. Reconnection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  8. Intercomparison of MODIS, MISR, OMI, and CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals for four locations on the Indo-Gangetic plains and validation against AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Samina; Shahid, Imran; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This study provides an intercomparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) instrumentation over Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur between 2007 and 2013, with validation against AOD observations from the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Both MODIS Deep Blue (MODISDB) and MODIS Standard (MODISSTD) products were compared with the AERONET products. The MODISSTD-AERONET comparisons revealed a high degree of correlation for the four investigated sites at Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, the MODISDB-AERONET comparisons revealed even better correlations, and the MISR-AERONET comparisons also indicated strong correlations, as did the OMI-AERONET comparisons, while the CALIPSO-AERONET comparisons revealed only poor correlations due to the limited number of data points available. We also computed figures for root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean bias (RMB). Using AERONET data to validate MODISSTD, MODISDB, MISR, OMI, and CALIPSO data revealed that MODISSTD data was more accurate over vegetated locations than over un-vegetated locations, while MISR data was more accurate over areas close to the ocean than over other areas. The MISR instrument performed better than the other instruments over Karachi and Kanpur, while the MODISSTD AOD retrievals were better than those from the other instruments over Lahore and Jaipur. We also computed the expected error bounds (EEBs) for both MODIS retrievals and found that MODISSTD consistently outperformed MODISDB in all of the investigated areas. High AOD values were observed by the MODISSTD, MODISDB, MISR, and OMI instruments during the summer months (April-August); these ranged from 0.32 to 0.78, possibly due to human activity and biomass burning. In

  9. Aerosol Optical Thickness comparisons between NASA LaRC Airborne HSRL and AERONET during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hoff, R. M.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Lantz, K. O.; Michalsky, J. J.; Hodges, G.

    2013-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD and during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California and also a scheduled deployment during September 2013 over Houston, TX. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the Mixing Layer Height (MLH). HSRL AOT is compared to AOT measured by the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and long-term AERONET sites. For the 2011 campaign, comparisons of AOT at 532nm between HSRL-1 and AERONET showed excellent agreement (r = 0.98, slope = 1.01, intercept = 0.037) when the King Air flights were within 2.5 km of the ground site and 10 min from the retrieval time. The comparison results are similar for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the SJV. Additional ground-based (MPL) and airborne (CPL) lidar data were used to help screen for clouds in the AERONET observations during the SJV portion. AOT values from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) located at the Porterville, CA site during the SJV campaign are also compared to HSRL-2 AOT. Lastly, using the MLH retrieved from HSRL aerosol backscatter profiles, we describe the distribution of AOT relative to the MLH.

  10. Analysis of aerosol optical properties over Korea during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul campaign using AERONET and GOCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; KIM, M.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate aerosol characteristics over East Asia, many campaigns using in-situ measurements, ground and satellite based remote sensing, and air quality modeling have been conducted as ACE-Asia in 2001, ABC-EAREX in 2005, and DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016. Planned KORUS-AQ 2016 campaigns provides excellent opportunity to monitor and analyze air quality including aerosol and trace gases from diverse platform including ground-based, airborne, shipborne and satellite platform. Prior to the upcoming KORUS-AQ campaign, the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS)-Seoul campaign was held from May 18 to June14, 2015. During the campaign, total 8 AERONET sunphotometers are deployed over Korea. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed, improved and evaluated through the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. GOCI YAER AOD at 550 nm with spatial resolution of 6 km showed good agreement with AERONET AOD (R > 0.88) during the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. In this study, aerosol optical properties from AERONET and GOCI are analyzed together during the MAPS-Seoul campaign. Mean AERONET AOD at 550 nm over a megacity site, Seoul and a coastal site Gosan shows the lowest values in 2015 as 0.338 and 0.214, respectively, compared with values during the same period from 2011 to 2014 (0.557-0.645 at Seoul, and 0.447-0.618 at Gosan). GOCI YAER algorithm uses the minimum reflectivity technique from the composited Rayleigh-corrected reflectance during a month thus low AOD increase a possibility to find clear pixels to obtain accurate surface reflectance. To improve surface reflectance quality, multi-year GOCI data are also analyzed. Furthermore higher spatial resolution retrieval in 3 km is tested to detect small-scale aerosol features and point sources in megacities. DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, MAPS-Seoul in 2015, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016 field campaigns contribute to the continuous assessment of GOCI YAER algorithm performance for the improvements.

  11. Improving biomass burning pollution predictions in Singapore using AERONET and Lidar observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardacre, Catherine; Chew, Boon Ning; Gan, Christopher; Burgin, Laura; Hort, Matthew; Lee, Shao Yi; Shaw, Felicia; Witham, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Every year millions of people are affected by poor air quality from trans-boundary smoke haze emitted from large scale biomass burning in Asia. These fires are a particular problem in the Indonesian regions of Sumatra and Kalimantan where peat fires, lit to clear land for oil palm plantations and agriculture, typically result in high levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions. In June 2013 and from August-October 2015 the combination of widespread burning, meteorological and climatological conditions resulted in severe air pollution throughout Southeast Asia. The Met Office of the United Kingdom (UKMO) and the Hazard and Risk Impact Assessment Unit of the Meteorological Service of Singapore (MSS) have developed a quantitative haze forecast to provide a reliable, routine warning of haze events in the Singapore region. The forecast system uses the UKMO's Lagrangian particle dispersion model NAME (Numerical Atmosphere-dispersion Modelling Environment) in combination with high resolution, satellite based emission data from the Global Fire Emissions System (GFAS). The buoyancy of biomass burning smoke and it's rise through the atmosphere has a large impact on the amount of air pollution at the Earth's surface. This is important in Singapore, which is affected by pollution that has travelled long distances and that will have a vertical distribution influenced by meteorology. The vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol can be observed by Lidar which provides information about haze plume structure. NAME output from two severe haze periods that occurred in June 2013 and from August-October 2015 was compared with observations of total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET stations in Singapore and the surrounding region, as well as vertically resolved Lidar data from a station maintained by MSS and from MPLNET. Comparing total column and vertically resolved AOD observations with NAME output indicates that the model underestimates PM concentrations throughout

  12. Watching the Sun from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2016-07-01

    Space-based solar observatories have made fundamental discoveries about the lifecycle of the solar magnetic field and how that field affects the solar system. Observing the Sun from space provides access to all wavelengths of light and eliminates the smearing of atmospheric seeing. Being in space means the emissions from the highly-ionized material that are the natural emissions of the corona can be measured. Continuous observations of the Sun can be made from a single satellite in certain orbits. This leads to unexpected discoveries, such as orbiting coronagraphs showing that sun grazing comets are the most common class of observed comets. Or when the coronal holes discovered with the solar X-ray telescopes on Skylab explained long-noticed correlations in particle fluxes from the Sun with solar longitudes. Space-based coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers are able to track coronal mass ejections from when they leave the Sun until they hit the Earth or another planet. In a more practical point, as humans have become more entwined in the use of technology, the magnetic field of the Sun has become more intrusive. Energetic particles and high-energy photons from solar fares can compromise humans and electronics in space. As a coronal mass ejection passes by and interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere, it generates large currents at the Earth's surface that can disrupt power distribution systems. The measurements of Sun made possible by being in space will be described, along with some highlights of the observatories that make them.

  13. Deimos Crosses Face of Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the passing, or transit, of the martian moon Deimos over the Sun. This event is similar solar eclipse seen on Earth in which our Moon crosses in front of the Sun. The animation is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 39 of its mission. Deimos passed slightly closer to the center of the Sun than expected, and arrived about 30 seconds early. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Deimos.

  14. Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

  15. Sun tracking systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems.

  16. Brazil: Colossus of the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    COVER FEATURE Brazil: Colossus of the Sun By United States Military Liaison Office Team [Editor’s Note. The following report continues our series...residents of the Colossus of the Sun , as Brazil has come to be known, enjoy tropical weather, maritime breezes, and exciting beaches. Over 90 percent of...DATE 1993 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1993 to 00-00-1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Brazil: Colossus of the Sun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  17. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  18. The Far-Infrared Photometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, A. E.; Freund, M. M.; Sato, S.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Watabe, T.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 microns with spectral resolution wavelength/wavelength spread is approximately 3 and spatial resolution delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W per sq cm per sr per 0.5 degree pixel.

  19. An extreme ultraviolet photometer for solar observations from the Atmosphere Explorer satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Osantowski, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A broadband photometer experiment is being fabricated for the Atmosphere Explorer C, D and E missions to record the solar irradiance in the 40 to 1250 A region with seven distinct passbands. The experiment consists principally of four spinal electron multipliers located behind a moving eight position filter wheel. Six metallic filters are used to spectrally isolate the solar irradiance. In addition three Al2O3 diodes, two with filters, are being used to record the solar irradiance over the range of orbital altitudes from perigee through apogee. A principal goal of the experiment will be to measure time dependence of the solar irradiance with respect to a storage ring synchrotron light source which has been calibrated in terms of the best currently available standards of irradiance.

  20. A Far Infrared Photometer (FIRP) for the infrared telescope in space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, M. M.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sato, S.; Watabe, T.; Brubaker, G. K.; Duband, L.; Grossman, B.; Larkin, N.; Lumetta, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 micrometers with spectral resolution lambda/(Delta lambda) approx. = 3 and spatial resolution Delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the approximately 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W/((sq cm)(sr)) per 0.5 degree pixel.

  1. Development of KRISS standard reference photometer (SRP) for ambient ozone measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface ozone has adverse impacts on human health and ecosystem. Accurate measurement of ambient ozone concentration is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies and understanding atmospheric chemistry. Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed new ozone standard reference photometers (SRPs) for the calibration of ambient ozone instruments. The basic principle of the KRISS ozone SRPs is to determine the absorption of ultraviolet radiation at a specific wavelength, 253.7 nm, by ozone in the atmosphere. Ozone concentration is calculated by converting UV transmittance through the Beer-Lambert Law. This study introduces the newly developed ozone SRPs and characterizes their performance through uncertainty analysis and comparison with BIPM (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) SRP.

  2. Seven Months of the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This multi-wavelength movie of the Sun covers seven months of activity (April 25 - Nov. 30, 2011), the majority of the SDO mission to date. The frames combine images taken at the same time in three...

  3. Hinode Observes an Active Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    The X-ray Telescope on the Japanese/NASA mission Hinode has been observing the full sun, nearly continuously, for an extended period. In this movie significant small-scale dynamic events can be obs...

  4. Prototype of sun projector device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  5. SunShot Identity Video

    ScienceCinema

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2016-07-12

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  6. Spurting Plasma on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, orbiting more than 20,000 miles above Earth, shows a stream of plasma burst out from the sun on May 27,2014. Since the stream lacked en...

  7. SunShot Identity Video

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2014-05-19

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  8. Evidence of a Weakly Absorbing Intermediate Mode of Aerosols in AERONET Data from Saharan and Sahelian Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianelli, Scott M.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Carlson, Barbara E.; Hameed, Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Accurate retrievals of aerosol size distribution are necessary to estimate aerosols' impact on climate and human health. The inversions of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) usually retrieve bimodal distributions. However, when the inversion is applied to Saharan and Sahelian dust, an additional mode of intermediate size between the coarse and fine modes is sometimes seen. This mode explains peculiarities in the behavior of the Angstrom exponent, along with the fine mode fraction retrieved using the spectral deconvolution algorithm, observed in a March 2006 dust storm. For this study, 15 AERONET sites in northern Africa and on the Atlantic are examined to determine the frequency and properties of the intermediate mode. The mode is observed most frequently at Ilorin in Nigeria. It is also observed at Capo Verde and multiple sites located within the Sahel but much less frequently at sites in the northern Sahara and the Canary Islands. The presence of the intermediate mode coincides with increases in Angstrom exponent, fine mode fraction, single-scattering albedo, and to a lesser extent percent sphericity. The Angstrom exponent decreases with increasing optical depth at most sites when the intermediate mode is present, but the fine mode fraction does not. Single-scattering albedo does not steadily decrease with fine mode fraction when the intermediate mode is present, as it does in typical mixtures of dust and biomass-burning aerosols. Continued investigation is needed to further define the intermediate mode's properties, determine why it differs from most Saharan dust, and identify its climate and health effects.

  9. Analysis of aerosol absorption properties and transport over North Africa and the Middle East using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Adetokunbo, Peter; Fuad, Abu-Tharr

    2016-11-01

    In this paper particle categorization and absorption properties were discussed to understand transport mechanisms at different geographic locations and possible radiative impacts on climate. The long-term Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data set (1999-2015) is used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and the absorption Ångström exponent (αabs) at eight locations in North Africa and the Middle East. Average variation in SSA is calculated at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm), and the relationship between aerosol absorption and physical properties is used to infer dominant aerosol types at different locations. It was found that seasonality and geographic location play a major role in identifying dominant aerosol types at each location. Analyzing aerosol characteristics among different sites using AERONET Version 2, Level 2.0 data retrievals and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT) backward trajectories shows possible aerosol particle transport among different locations indicating the importance of understanding transport mechanisms in identifying aerosol sources.

  10. A Critical Examination of Spatial Biases Between MODIS and MISR Aerosol Products - Application for Potential AERONET Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Y.; Zhang, J.; Reid, J. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Kahn, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data are the primary benchmark for evaluating satellite-retrieved aerosol properties. However, despite its extensive coverage, the representativeness of the AERONET data is rarely discussed. Indeed, many studies have shown that satellite retrieval biases have a significant degree of spatial correlation that may be problematic for higher-level processes or inverse-emissions-modeling studies. To consider these issues and evaluate relative performance in regions of few surface observations, cross-comparisons between the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of operational MODIS Collection 5.1 Dark Target (DT) and operational MODIS Collection 5.1 Deep Blue (DB) with MISR version 22 were conducted. Through such comparisons, we can observe coherent spatial features of the AOD bias while side-stepping the full analysis required for determining when or where either retrieval is more correct. We identify regions where MODIS to MISR AOD ratios were found to be above 1.4 and below 0.7. Regions where lower boundary condition uncertainty is likely to be a dominant factor include portions of Western North America, the Andes mountains, Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Central Asia. Similarly, microphysical biases may be an issue in South America, and specific parts of Southern Africa, India Asia, East Asia, and Indonesia. These results help identify high-priority locations for possible future deployments of both in situ and ground based remote sensing measurements. The Supplement includes a km1 file.

  11. Spatial Variability of AERONET Aerosol Optical Properties and Satellite Data in South Korea during NASA DRAGON-Asia Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Son, Youn-Suk

    2016-04-05

    We investigated spatial variability in aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine-mode fraction (FMF), and single scattering albedo (SSA), observed at 21 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and satellite remote sensing data in South Korea during the spring of 2012. These dense AERONET networks established in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign enabled us to examine the spatially detailed aerosol size distribution and composition as well as aerosol levels. The springtime particle air quality was characterized by high background aerosol levels and high contributions of coarse-mode aerosols to total aerosols. We found that between-site correlations and coefficient of divergence for AOD and FMF strongly relied on the distance between sites, particularly in the south-north direction. Higher AOD was related to higher population density and lower distance from highways, and the aerosol size distribution and composition reflected source-specific characteristics. The ratios of satellite NO2 to AOD, which indicate the relative contributions of local combustion sources to aerosol levels, represented higher local contributions in metropolitan Seoul and Pusan. Our study demonstrates that the aerosol levels were determined by both local and regional pollution and that the relative contributions of these pollutions to aerosols generated spatial heterogeneity in the particle air quality.

  12. Euclid Near Infrared Spectro Photometer: a tool to investigate the Dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenziano, Luca

    The Euclid mission objective is to map the geometry of the dark Universe by investigating the distance-redshift relationship and the evolution of cosmic structures. The Euclid project is part of ESA's program Cosmic Vision program with its launch planned for 2020. The NISP (Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer) is one of the two Euclid instruments and is operating in the near-IR spectral region (0.9-2μm) as a photometer and spectrometer. The instrument is composed of: - a cold (140K) optomechanical subsystem consisting of a SiC structure, an optical assembly (corrector and camera lens), a filter wheel mechanism, a grism wheel mechanism, a calibration unit and a thermal control sytem - a detection subsystem based on a mosaic of 16 Teledyne HAWAII2RG cooled to 100K with their front-end readout electronic cooled to 140K, integrated on a mechanical focal plane structure made with Molybdenum and Aluminum. The detection subsystem is mounted on the optomechanical subsystem structure - a warm electronic subsystem (280K) composed of a data processing / detector control unit and of an instrument control unit that interfaces with the spacecraft via a 1553 bus for command and control and via a Spacewire links for science data This paper describes the potential of the NISP instrument for the investigation of the Dark universe with respect to the current and future experiments. The architecture of the instrument at the end of the phase B (Preliminary Design Review), expected performance, technological key challenges will also be presented.

  13. Multi-band automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for measurement of aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Tanre, D.; Buis, J. P.; Setzer, A.; Vermote, E.; Reagan, J. A.; Kaufman, Y. A.

    1994-01-01

    A weather resistant automatic scanning Sun photometer system is assessed and demonstrated as practical for measurements of aerosol concentrations and properties at remote sites. Interfaced with a transmitter using the Geostationary Data Collection System (GDCS), the data are processed in near real time. The processing allows a time dependence of the aerosols and water vapor and an ongoing assessment of the health and calibration of the instruments. The system's automatic data acquisition, transmission, and processing offer immediate application to atmospheric monitoring and modeling on a regional to global scale and validation of satellite retrievals. It is estimated that under normal circumstances the retrieved aerosol optical thickness has a network wide accuracy of +/- 0.02 from 340 nm to 1020 nm, water vapor +/- 0.2 cm and size distribution from 0.1 to 3 micrometers.

  14. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    SciTech Connect

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Catelan, M.

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  15. Sensitivity of aerosol retrieval to geometrical configuration of ground-based sun/sky radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, B.; Dubovik, O.; Toledano, C.; Berjon, A.; Cachorro, V. E.; Lapyonok, T.; Litvinov, P.; Goloub, P.

    2014-01-01

    A sensitivity study of aerosol retrievals to the geometrical configuration of the ground-based sky radiometer observations is carried out through inversion tests. Specifically, this study is focused on principal plane and almucantar observations, since these geometries are employed in AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork). The following effects have been analyzed with simulated data for both geometries: sensitivity of the retrieval to variability of the observed scattering angle range, uncertainties in the assumptions of the aerosol vertical distribution, surface reflectance, possible instrument pointing errors, and the effects of the finite field of view. The synthetic observations of radiometer in the tests were calculated using a previous climatology data set of retrieved aerosol properties over three AERONET sites: Mongu (Zambia) for biomass burning aerosol, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC; Maryland, USA) for urban aerosol and Solar Village (Saudi Arabia) for desert dust aerosol. The results show that almucantar retrievals, in general, are more reliable than principal plane retrievals in presence of the analyzed error sources. This fact partially can be explained by practical advantages of the almucantar geometry: the symmetry between its left and right branches that helps to eliminate some observational uncertainties and the constant value of optical mass during the measurements, that make almucantar observations nearly independent of the vertical variability of aerosol. Nevertheless, almucantar retrievals present instabilities at high sun elevations due to the reduction of the scattering angle range coverage, resulting in decrease of information content. It is in such conditions that principal plane retrievals show a better stability, as shown by the simulation analysis of the three different aerosol models. The last part of the study is devoted to the identification of possible differences between the aerosol retrieval results obtained from real AERONET data

  16. If the Sun Were a Light Bulb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adney, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students compare the sun's brightness with that of a light bulb of known luminosity (in watts) to determine the luminosity of the sun is presented. As an extension, the luminosity value that the student obtains for the sun can also be used to estimate the sun's surface temperature. (KR)

  17. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

  18. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  19. Light absorption, optical and microphysical properties of trajectory-clustered aerosols at two AERONET sites in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawole, O. G.; Cai, X.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol remote sensing techniques and back-trajectory modeling can be combined to identify aerosol types. We have clustered 7 years of AERONET aerosol signals using trajectory analysis to identify dominant aerosol sources at two AERONET sites in West Africa: Ilorin (4.34 oE, 8.32 oN) and Djougou (1.60 oE, 9.76 oN). Of particular interest are air masses that have passed through the gas flaring region in the Niger Delta area, of Nigeria, en-route the AERONET sites. 7-day back trajectories were calculated using the UK UGAMP trajectory model driven by ECMWF wind analyses data. Dominant sources identified, using literature classifications, are desert dust (DD), Biomass burning (BB) and Urban-Industrial (UI). Below, we use a combination of synoptic trajectories and aerosol optical properties to distinguish a fourth source: that due to gas flaring. Gas flaring, (GF) the disposal of gas through stack in an open-air flame, is believed to be a prominent source of black carbon (BC) and greenhouse gases. For these different aerosol source signatures, single scattering albedo (SSA), refractive index , extinction Angstrom exponent (EEA) and absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) were used to classify the light absorption characteristics of the aerosols for λ = 440, 675, 870 and1020 nm. A total of 1625 daily averages of aerosol data were collected for the two sites. Of which 245 make up the GF cluster for both sites. For GF cluster, the range of fine-mode fraction is 0.4 - 0.7. Average values SSA(λ), for the total and GF clusters are 0.90(440), 0.93(675), 0.95(870) and 0.96(1020), and 0.93(440), 0.92(675), 0.9(870) and 0.9(1020), respectively. Values of for the GF clusters for both sites are 0.62 - 1.11, compared to 1.28 - 1.66 for the remainder of the clusters, which strongly indicates the dominance of carbonaceous particles (BC), typical of a highly industrial area. An average value of 1.58 for the real part of the refractive index at low SSA for aerosol in the GF cluster is also

  20. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    The solar tracking control system (Sun Chaser) is believed to be an improved method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions. The Sun Chaser will follow the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and reset itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise. A description of the Sun Chaser hardware and its operation together with results is presented.

  1. Astrophysical processes on the Sun

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been a series of major solar space missions, namely Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, and in the past 5 years, STEREO, Hinode and SDO, studying various aspects of the Sun and providing images and spectroscopic data with amazing temporal, spatial and spectral resolution. Over the same period, the type and nature of numerical models in solar physics have been completely revolutionized as a result of widespread accessibility to parallel computers. These unprecedented advances on both observational and theoretical fronts have led to significant improvements in our understanding of many aspects of the Sun's behaviour and furthered our knowledge of plasma physics processes that govern solar and other astrophysical phenomena. In this Theme Issue, the current perspectives on the main astrophysical processes that shape our Sun are reviewed. In this Introduction, they are discussed briefly to help set the scene. PMID:22665891

  2. Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and Airborne Spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Ramirez, S.; Yee, J-H.; Swartz, W.; Shetter, R.

    2004-01-01

    The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar-beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including its spatial structure and comparisons to results from two satellite sensors and another DC-8 instrument. These are the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) and the Direct beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS).

  3. Maritime Aerosol Network as a Component of AERONET - First Results and Comparison with Global Aerosol Models and Satellite Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Giles, D. M.; Slutsker, I.; O'Neill, N. T.; Eck, T. F.; Macke, A.; Croot, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Sakerin, S. M.; Smyth, T. J.; Zielinski, T.; Zibordi, G.; Goes, J. I.; Harvey, M. J.; Quinn, P. K.; Nelson, N. B.; Radionov, V. F.; Duarte, C. M.; Remer, L. A.; Kahn, R. A.; Kleidman, R. G.; Gaitley, B. J.; Tan, Q.; Diehl, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops handheld sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.

  4. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  5. Slow shocks around the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1982-01-01

    It is inferred from this study that magnetohydrodynamic slow shocks can exist in the vicinity of the sun. The study uses a two-hole corona model, the sub-Alfvenic streams originating from the edge of the polar open-field regions are forced to turn towards equator in coronal space following the curved boundary of the closed field region. When the streamlines from the opposite poles merge at a neutral point, their directions become parallel to the neutral sheet. An oblique slow shock can develop near or at the neutral point, the shock extends polewards to form a surface of discontinuity around the sun.

  6. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  7. Mars and the early Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Doyle, L. R.; Reynolds, R. T.; Whitman, P. G.

    1993-01-01

    Global mean temperatures near 273 K on early Mars are difficult to explain in the context of standards solar evolution models. Even assuming maximum CO2 greenhouse warming, the required flux is approximately 15 percent too low. Here we consider two astrophysical models that could increase the flux by this amount. The first model is a nonstandard solar model in which the early Sun had a mass somewhat greater than today's mass (1.02-1.06 solar mass). The second model is based on a standard evolutionary solar model, but the ecliptic flux is increased due to focusing by an (expected) heavily spotted early Sun.

  8. Detection of a gas flaring signature in the AERONET optical properties of aerosols at a tropical station in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawole, Olusegun G.; Cai, Xiaoming; Levine, James G.; Pinker, Rachel T.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    The West African region, with its peculiar climate and atmospheric dynamics, is a prominent source of aerosols. Reliable and long-term in situ measurements of aerosol properties are not readily available across the region. In this study, Version 2 Level 1.5 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data were used to study the absorption and size distribution properties of aerosols from dominant sources identified by trajectory analysis. The trajectory analysis was used to define four sources of aerosols over a 10 year period. Sorting the AERONET aerosol retrievals by these putative sources, the hypothesis that there exists an optically distinct gas flaring signal was tested. Dominance of each source cluster varies with season: desert-dust (DD) and biomass burning (BB) aerosols are dominant in months prior to the West African Monsoon (WAM); urban (UB) and gas flaring (GF) aerosol are dominant during the WAM months. BB aerosol, with single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm value of 0.86 ± 0.03 and GF aerosol with SSA (675 nm) value of 0.9 ± 0.07, is the most absorbing of the aerosol categories. The range of Absorption Angstr&öm Exponent (AAE) for DD, BB, UB and GF classes are 1.99 ± 0.35, 1.45 ± 0.26, 1.21 ± 0.38 and 0.98 ± 0.25, respectively, indicating different aerosol composition for each source. The AAE (440-870 nm) and Angstr&öm Exponent (AE) (440-870 nm) relationships further show the spread and overlap of the variation of these optical and microphysical properties, presumably due in part to similarity in the sources of aerosols and in part, due to mixing of air parcels from different sources en route to the measurement site.

  9. Utilization of AERONET polarimetric measurements for improving retrieval of aerosol microphysics: GSFC, Beijing and Dakar data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedarenka, Anton; Dubovik, Oleg; Goloub, Philippe; Li, Zhengqiang; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Litvinov, Pavel; Barel, Luc; Gonzalez, Louis; Podvin, Thierry; Crozel, Didier

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the efforts on including the polarimetric data to the routine inversion of the radiometric ground-based measurements for characterization of the atmospheric aerosols and analysis of the obtained advantages in retrieval results. First, to operationally process the large amount of polarimetric data the data preparation tool was developed. The AERONET inversion code adapted for inversion of both intensity and polarization measurements was used for processing. Second, in order to estimate the effect from utilization of polarimetric information on aerosol retrieval results, both synthetic data and the real measurements were processed using developed routine and analyzed. The sensitivity study has been carried out using simulated data based on three main aerosol models: desert dust, urban industrial and urban clean aerosols. The test investigated the effects of utilization of polarization data in the presence of random noise, bias in measurements of optical thickness and angular pointing shift. The results demonstrate the advantage of polarization data utilization in the cases of aerosols with pronounced concentration of fine particles. Further, the extended set of AERONET observations was processed. The data for three sites have been used: GSFC, USA (clean urban aerosol dominated by fine particles), Beijing, China (polluted industrial aerosol characterized by pronounced mixture of both fine and coarse modes) and Dakar, Senegal (desert dust dominated by coarse particles). The results revealed considerable advantage of polarimetric data applying for characterizing fine mode dominated aerosols including industrial pollution (Beijing). The use of polarization corrects particle size distribution by decreasing overestimated fine mode and increasing the coarse mode. It also increases underestimated real part of the refractive index and improves the retrieval of the fraction of spherical particles due to high sensitivity of polarization to particle shape

  10. Stable Auroral Red arc occurrences detected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory photometer network: A decade of observations, 1978--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, D.W.; Kleckner, E.W.

    1989-11-01

    Using data obtained from a network of all-sky scanning photometers designed to operate routinely for long periods of time, a comprehensive inspection of observations covering the time period 1978--1988 has revealed features that we interpret to be Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arcs during 250 nighttime observing periods. These arcs result from high temperature within the ionospheric electron gas that is maintained by slow leakage of energy from the earth's magnetosphere. A listing of these events, the most complete available for this time interval, is presented for the purpose of complementing observations reported for earlier dates. This listing is composed of location of the observing photometer, date, time, photometric intensity, and location (as defined by the earth's magnetic coordinate system). The intent is to make these observations available to a broad range of researchers and thereby initiate further investigations of these features. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Low-cost, high-performance and efficiency computational photometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Sam B.; Shihadeh, Jeries; Myers, Randall; Khandhar, Jay; Ivanov, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    Researchers at the University of Alaska Anchorage and University of Colorado Boulder have built a low cost high performance and efficiency drop-in-place Computational Photometer (CP) to test in field applications ranging from port security and safety monitoring to environmental compliance monitoring and surveying. The CP integrates off-the-shelf visible spectrum cameras with near to long wavelength infrared detectors and high resolution digital snapshots in a single device. The proof of concept combines three or more detectors into a single multichannel imaging system that can time correlate read-out, capture, and image process all of the channels concurrently with high performance and energy efficiency. The dual-channel continuous read-out is combined with a third high definition digital snapshot capability and has been designed using an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to capture, decimate, down-convert, re-encode, and transform images from two standard definition CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras at 30Hz. The continuous stereo vision can be time correlated to megapixel high definition snapshots. This proof of concept has been fabricated as a fourlayer PCB (Printed Circuit Board) suitable for use in education and research for low cost high efficiency field monitoring applications that need multispectral and three dimensional imaging capabilities. Initial testing is in progress and includes field testing in ports, potential test flights in un-manned aerial systems, and future planned missions to image harsh environments in the arctic including volcanic plumes, ice formation, and arctic marine life.

  12. The multichannel astrometric photometer and atmospheric limitations in the measurement of relative positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George D.

    1987-01-01

    The operational Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) now in use in the Allegheny Observatory astrometric program is the culmination of a decade of design and development effort. A detailed description of the system and its related software is followed by analysis of data acquired in four stellar regions. The study indicates an accuracy (in the sense of conformity to the best model), per night, for stars of the eighth magnitude or brighter, of 0.003 arcsec or better. These data points each have approximately twice the precision of the annual normal points obtained in our photographic program. Accuracy is shown to depend on: (1) the photon-count rate of the target star (it follows that the number of photons from the reference frame is also in important factor), (2) the duration of the observation, (3) the angular size of the reference frame, and (4) the quality of the astronomical seeing. Since (4) and, to a lesser extent, (1) involve the atmospheric characteristics at the time of observation, the probable performance at more favorable sites is discussed briefly.

  13. The determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks by flame photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Henry

    1956-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks using the Beckman flame photometer, with photomultiplier attachement. The sample is dissolved in hydrofluoric, nitric, and perchloric acids, the hydrofluoric and nitric acids are expelled, a radiation buffer consisting of aluminum, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, phosphoric acid, and nitric acid is added, and the solution is atomized in an oxy-hydrogen flame with an instrument setting of 554 mµ. Measurements are made by comparison against calcium standards, prepared in the same manner, in the 0 to 50 ppm range. The suppression of calcium emission by aluminum and phosphate was overcome by the addition of a large excess of magnesium. This addition almost completely restores the standard curve obtained from a solution of calcium nitrate. Interference was noted when the iron concentration in the aspirated solution (including the iron from the buffer) exceeded 100 ppm iron. Other common rock-forming elements did not interfere. The results obtained by this procedure are within ± 2 percent of the calcium oxide values obtained by other methods in the range 1 to 95 percent calcium oxide. In the 0 to 1 percent calcium oxide range the method compares favorably with standard methods.

  14. Instrumentation on the RAIDS experiment 2: Extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, photometer, and near IR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Kayser, D. C.; Pranke, J. B.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McCoy, R. P.

    1994-02-01

    The RAIDS experiment consists of eight instruments spanning the wavelength range from the extreme ultraviolet (55 nm) to the near infrared (800 nm) oriented to view the Earth's limb from the NOAA-J spacecraft to be launched into a circular orbit in 1993. Through measurements of the natural optical emissions and scattered sunlight originating in the upper atmosphere including the mesosphere and thermosphere, state variables such as temperature, composition, density and ion concentration of this region will be inferred. This report describes the subset of instruments fabricated or otherwise provided by the Space and Environment Technology Center (formerly Space Sciences Laboratory) at The Aerospace Corp. The companion to this report describes the instruments from the Naval Research Laboratory. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUVS), the three fixed filter photometers OI (630), OI (777), and Na (589), and the near infrared spectrometer (NIR) will be described. These are all mounted on a mechanical scan platform that scans the limb from approximately 75 to 750 km in the orbital plane of the satellite every 90 seconds.

  15. Detecting Close-In Extrasolar Giant Planets with the Kepler Photometer via Scattered Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Doyle, L. R.; Kepler Discovery Mission Team

    2003-05-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission will be launched in 2007 primarily to search for transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of solar-like stars. In addition, it will be poised to detect the reflected light component from close-in extrasolar giant planets (CEGPs) similar to 51 Peg b. Here we use the DIARAD/SOHO time series along with models for the reflected light signatures of CEGPs to evaluate Kepler's ability to detect such planets. We examine the detectability as a function of stellar brightness, stellar rotation period, planetary orbital inclination angle, and planetary orbital period, and then estimate the total number of CEGPs that Kepler will detect over its four year mission. The analysis shows that intrinsic stellar variability of solar-like stars is a major obstacle to detecting the reflected light from CEGPs. Monte Carlo trials are used to estimate the detection threshold required to limit the total number of expected false alarms to no more than one for a survey of 100,000 stellar light curves. Kepler will likely detect 100-760 51 Peg b-like planets by reflected light with orbital periods up to 7 days. LRD was supported by the Carl Sagan Chair at the Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, a division of the SETI Institute. JMJ received support from the Kepler Mission Photometer and Science Office at NASA Ames Research Center.

  16. A Single Particle Soot Photometer for the Measurement of Aerosol Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, D.; Spuler, S.

    2002-12-01

    A Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) has been developed for the measurement of black carbon mass in single particles. The analytical technique is the incandescence of light absorbing particles. An aerosol stream is directed intra-cavity across the beam of a Nd:YAG laser where the laser intensity is in excess of 1 MW/cm2. Non-light absorbing particles only scatter light but particles containing black carbon absorb sufficient energy to heat and incandesce as they vaporize. Four optical detectors are used to measure the scattered and incandescence radiation from the particles. One measures the scattered, 1064 nm radiation while the other three detectors measure the light of incandescence over different wavelength regions. The ratio of intensities at the different wavelengths yields the temperature at which the particle incandesced whereas the absolute intensity is proportional to the carbon mass. The minimum size of non-incandescing particles that can be measured is approximately 100 nm and for incandescing particles it is 80 nm. Data will be presented on the operation of the instrumentation and examples of ambient measurements of black carbon.

  17. Observations of Plasma Blobs by OI 630 nm Using ASI and Photometer over Kolhapur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nade, D. P.; Sharma, A. K.; Nikte, S. S.; Chavan, G. A.; Ghodpage, R. N.; Patil, P. T.; Gurubaran, S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents observations of plasma blobs by nightglow OI 630.0 nm emissions using ground-based techniques, all sky imager and photometer from Kolhapur. The nightglow observations have been made at low latitude station, Kolhapur (16.42°N, 74.2°E, and 10.6°N dip lat.) during clear moonless nights for period of October 2011-April 2012. Generally, these occur 3 h after sunset (18:00 IST). Herein we have calculated velocities of plasma blobs using scanning method, introduced by Pimenta et al. (Adv Space Res 27:1219-1224, 2001). The average zonal drift velocity (eastward) of the plasma blobs were found to be 133 ms-1 and vary between 100 and 200 ms-1. The width (east-west expansion) and length (north-south expansion) of plasma blobs is calculated by recently developed method of Sharma et al. (Curr Sci 106(08):1085-1093, 2014b). Their mean width and length were in the range of 70-180 and 500-950 km respectively. The study shows that localized eastward polarization electric field plays an important role in the generation of plasma blobs.

  18. A filter wheel mechanism for the Euclid near-infrared imaging photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Rory; Grözinger, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Schweitzer, Mario

    2010-07-01

    The Euclid mission is currently being developed within the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision Program. The five year mission will survey the entire extragalactic sky (~ 20 000 deg2) with the aim of constraining the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The spacecraft's payload consists of two instruments: one imaging instrument, which has both a visible and a near-infrared channel, and one spectroscopic instrument operating in the near-infrared wavelength regime. The two channels of the imaging instrument, the Visible Imaging Channel (VIS) and the Near-Infrared Imaging Photometer Channel (NIP), will focus on the weak lensing science probe. The large survey area and the need to not only image each patch of sky in multiple bands, but also in multiple dithers, requires over 640 000 operations of the NIP channel's filter wheel mechanism. With a 127 mm diameter and a mass of ~ 330 g per element, these brittle infrared filters dictate highly demanding requirements on this single-point-failure mechanism. To accommodate the large filters the wheel must have an outer diameter of ~ 400 mm, which will result in significant loads being applied to the bearing assembly during launch. The centrally driven titanium filter wheel will house the infrared filters in specially designed mounts. Both stepper motor and brushless DC drive systems are being considered and tested for this mechanism. This paper presents the design considerations and details the first prototyping campaign of this mechanism. The design and finite element analysis of the filter mounting concept are also presented.

  19. Project SUN (Students Understanding Nature)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, T.; Yanow, G.

    1995-01-01

    Project SUN is part of NASA's 'Mission to Planet Earth' education outreach effort. It is based on development of low cost, scientifi- cally accurate instrumentation and computer interfacing, coupled with Apple II computers as dedicated data loggers. The project is com- prised of: instruments, interfacing, software, curriculum, a detailed operating manual, and a system of training at the school sites.

  20. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... prolonged exposure to the sun when possible. ■■ Wear sunscreen with a minimum of SPF 15. ӽӽ SPF ... 1789, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone. ӽӽ Sunscreen performance is affected by wind, humidity, perspiration, and ...

  1. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  2. Seismology and the Wounded Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Active regions provide an opening in the Sun's surface that allow seismic waves to penetrate the overlying atmosphere. Some proportion then return due to reflection, with implications for "internal" seismology. This is illustrated using simulations with particular reference to "travel times" and acoustic halos.

  3. Creating SunSmart Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles-Corti, B.; English, D. R.; Costa, C.; Milne, E.; Cross, D.; Johnston, R.

    2004-01-01

    Kidskin was a sun-protection intervention study involving 1776 children attending 33 primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. There were three study groups: a control group, a moderate intervention group and a high intervention group. In addition to receiving a specially designed curricular intervention (1995-1998), the moderate and high…

  4. The Sun's Crowded Delivery Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2007-07-01

    Astronomic observations with the latest and greatest telescopes are leading astronomers to embrace the idea that stars usually form in clusters, even if they end up, like our Sun, isolated from other stars. Cosmochemists using optical microscopes, electron microscopes, and mass spectrometers are finding evidence supporting the idea, along with important details about the star-forming regions and about the earliest history of the Solar System. The latest breakthrough is reported by Martin Bizzarro and his colleagues at the Geological Institute and Geological Museum in Denmark, at the University of Texas, and at Clemson University in South Carolina. They made high-precision measurements of iron and nickel isotopes. The results show that the oldest planetesimals to form in the solar system did not contain any iron-60, which decays to nickel-60 with a half-life of only 1.5 million years, yet somewhat younger materials did contain it. In contrast, aluminum-26, with a half-life of 740,000 years, was relatively uniformly distributed. This suggests to Bizzarro and his colleagues that iron-60 was added to the cloud of gas and dust surrounding the primitive Sun (the protoplanetary disk) about 1 million years after the Solar System formed. This could happen if the Sun's nursery contained massive stars (perhaps 30 times the mass of the Sun). Such stars last only about 4 million years. They are extremely active, blowing away their outer layers in the last million years of existence. The dispersed material would have included aluminum-26 and might have caused collapse of interstellar gas and dust to cause formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. A million years later the massive star exploded, ejecting iron-60 from its interior. Bizzarro and colleagues argue that this huge event of destruction and creation is recorded in the meteorites.

  5. The Sun Sets on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On Sol 20 of its journey, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity woke up around 5:30 in the martian afternoon to watch the sunset. A series of five sets of three-color images from the rover's panoramic camera was acquired looking toward the southwest. Each set used an infrared, green and violet filter, rather than the human red-green-blue, so that the maximum panoramic camera wavelength range could be covered by the observations, enhancing the scientific value of the measurements.

    A color image was made from the first post-sunset sequence of calibrated color images, with the color balance set to approximate what the sunset color would have looked like to the human eye. The color seen in this first post-sunset image was then used to colorize each image in the sequence. Approximately one-minute gaps between consecutive color images meant the Sun's position changed within each color set, so the images had to be manually shifted to compensate for this motion. In this fashion, the position and brightness of the Sun are taken from each individual image, but the color is taken from a single set of images. The images were then combined into a movie where one color set fades gracefully into the next. Analysis of the five color sets shows that there were only small color variations during the sunset, so most of the real variations are captured in the movie.

    The rapid dimming of the Sun near the horizon is due to the dust in the sky. There is nearly twice as much dust as there was when the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which landed on Mars in 1997, imaged the sunset. This causes the Sun to be many times fainter. The sky above the Sun has the same blue tint observed by Pathfinder and also by Viking, which landed on Mars in 1976. This is because dust in the martian atmosphere scatters blue light forward toward the observer much more efficiently than it scatters red light forward. Therefore, a 'halo' of blueish sky color is always observed close to the Sun. We're only seeing

  6. Evaluation of MODIS columnar aerosol retrievals using AERONET in semi-arid Nevada and California, U.S.A., during the summer of 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Holmes, Heather A.; Patrick Arnott, W.; Barnard, James C.; Moosmüller, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Satellite characterization of local aerosol pollution is desirable because of the potential for broad spatial coverage, enabling transport studies of pollution from major sources, such as biomass burning events. However, retrieval of quantitative measures of air pollution such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from satellite measurements is challenging over land because the underlying surface albedo may be heterogeneous in space and time. Ground-based sunphotometer measurements of AOD are unaffected by surface albedo and are crucial in enabling evaluation, testing, and further development of satellite instruments and retrieval algorithms. Columnar aerosol optical properties from ground-based sunphotometers (Cimel CE-318) as part of AERONET and MODIS aerosol retrievals from Aqua and Terra satellites were compared over semi-arid California and Nevada during the summer season of 2012. Sunphotometer measurements were used as a 'ground truth' to evaluate the current state of satellite retrievals in this spatiotemporal domain. Satellite retrieved (MODIS Collection 6) AOD showed the presence of wildfires in northern California during August. During the study period, the dark-target (DT) retrieval algorithm appears to overestimate AERONET AOD by an average factor of 3.85 in the entire study domain. AOD from the deep-blue (DB) algorithm overestimates AERONET AOD by an average factor of 1.64. Low AOD correlation was also found between AERONET, DT, and DB retrievals. Smoke from fires strengthened the aerosol signal, but MODIS versus AERONET AOD correlation hardly increased during fire events (r2∼0.1-0.2 during non-fire periods and r2∼0-0.31 during fire periods). Furthermore, aerosol from fires increased the normalized mean bias (NMB) of MODIS retrievals of AOD (NMB∼23%-154% for non-fire periods and NMB∼77%-196% for fire periods). Ångström Extinction Exponent (AEE) from DB for both Terra and Aqua did not correlate with AERONET observations. High surface reflectance and

  7. GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data i...

  8. SDO Watches Giant Filament on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    A snaking, extended filament of solar material currently lies on the front of the sun-- some 1 million miles across from end to end. Filaments are clouds of solar material suspended above the sun b...

  9. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk for damage. Both snow and strong wind can wear away sunscreen and reduce its effectiveness, ... protect your skin from the bitter cold, heavy winds and winter sun, follow these important sun protection ...

  10. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  11. Our World: The Sun, A Real Star

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the important relationship between Earth and the sun. Find out about the layers of the sun and how Earth's magnetosphere acts like a giant handkerchief to protect us from all kinds of s...

  12. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  13. Bayesian seismology of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruberbauer, M.; Guenther, D. B.

    2013-06-01

    We perform a Bayesian grid-based analysis of the solar l = 0, 1, 2 and 3 p modes obtained via BiSON in order to deliver the first Bayesian asteroseismic analysis of the solar composition problem. We do not find decisive evidence to prefer either of the contending chemical compositions, although the revised solar abundances (AGSS09) are more probable in general. We do find indications for systematic problems in standard stellar evolution models, unrelated to the consequences of inadequate modelling of the outer layers on the higher order modes. The seismic observables are best fitted by solar models that are several hundred million years older than the meteoritic age of the Sun. Similarly, meteoritic age calibrated models do not adequately reproduce the observed seismic observables. Our results suggest that these problems will affect any asteroseismic inference that relies on a calibration to the Sun.

  14. The Sun and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    The Sun's action on the Earth is fundamentally responsible for maintaining the physical conditions that support life on the land, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere, and a comprehensive understanding of this action should be a central concern of scientific endeavor. The Sun's influence goes beyond providing energy to the biosphere and maintaining the Earth's climate and weather; it strongly affects the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere as well as the magnetosphere, the region of space permeated by the terrestrial magnetic field and occupied by ionized gases. Flares and other solar disturbances can produce strong reactions in the Earth's ionosphere, magnetic field, and space plasma environment, often within 20 minutes of onset. As human activity extends into space, and to the Moon and planets, scientific understanding of solar-terrestrial interactions and, more generally, of the space environment's physics will assume increasing importance.

  15. Total eclipses of the sun.

    PubMed

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  16. A high accuracy sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, H.

    The High Accuracy Sun Sensor (HASS) is described, concentrating on measurement principle, the CCD detector used, the construction of the sensorhead and the operation of the sensor electronics. Tests on a development model show that the main aim of a 0.01-arcsec rms stability over a 10-minute period is closely approached. Remaining problem areas are associated with the sensor sensitivity to illumination level variations, the shielding of the detector, and the test and calibration equipment.

  17. The Herschel-PACS photometer calibration. Point-source flux calibration for scan maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Zoltan; Müller, Thomas; Nielbock, Markus; Altieri, Bruno; Klaas, Ulrich; Blommaert, Joris; Linz, Hendrik; Lutz, Dieter; Moór, Attila; Billot, Nicolas; Sauvage, Marc; Okumura, Koryo

    2014-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the PACS photometer flux calibration concept, in particular for the principal observation mode, the scan map. The absolute flux calibration is tied to the photospheric models of five fiducial stellar standards ( α Boo, α Cet, α Tau, β And, γ Dra). The data processing steps to arrive at a consistent and homogeneous calibration are outlined. In the current state the relative photometric accuracy is ˜2 % in all bands. Starting from the present calibration status, the characterization and correction for instrumental effects affecting the relative calibration accuracy is described and an outlook for the final achievable calibration numbers is given. After including all the correction for the instrumental effects, the relative photometric calibration accuracy (repeatability) will be as good as 0.5 % in the blue and green band and 2 % in the red band. This excellent calibration starts to reveal possible inconsistencies between the models of the K-type and the M-type stellar calibrators. The absolute calibration accuracy is therefore mainly limited by the 5 % uncertainty of the celestial standard models in all three bands. The PACS bolometer response was extremely stable over the entire Herschel mission and a single, time-independent response calibration file is sufficient for the processing and calibration of the science observations. The dedicated measurements of the internal calibration sources were needed only to characterize secondary effects. No aging effects of the bolometer or the filters have been found. Also, we found no signs of filter leaks. The PACS photometric system is very well characterized with a constant energy spectrum νF ν = λF λ = const as a reference. Colour corrections for a wide range of sources SEDs are determined and tabulated.

  18. Probing Black Carbon-containing Particle Microphysics with the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, A. J.; Lewis, E. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Lambe, A. T.; Davidovits, P.; Kleinman, L. I.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the structure and mixing state of black-carbon containing particles is important for calculating their radiative forcing and provides insight into their source and life cycle. Recently analysis of black carbon-containing particles has demonstrated that for a fraction of such particles, the black carbon may reside on or near the surface of the particle as opposed to the traditional core-shell configuration typically assumed in which the black carbon core is surrounded by a shell of non-refractory material. During the DOE-sponsored Aerosol Lifecycle field campaign held in summer, 2011 at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, NY, episodes were encountered in which a high fraction of particles containing black carbon had such configurations, and these episodes corresponded to air masses that contained biomass burning plumes (Sedlacek et al., 2012). Subsequent analysis found other episodes in field campaigns in Colorado and California in which high fractions this configuration corresponded to biomass burning plumes. In an effort to evaluate this interpretation and explore formation mechanisms, a series of laboratory-based experiments examining the coagulation of regal black (surrogate for collapsed soot) with model non-refractory coatings [dioctyl sebacate (surrogate for organic aerosols with liquid-like character) and deliquesced ammonium sulfate (solid)] were carried out. The results of these experiments and their potential implications on black carbon radiative forcing will be discussed. Sedlacek, III, Arthur, E. R. Lewis, L. I. Kleinman, J. Xu and Q. Zhang (2012), Determination of and Evidence for Non-core-shell structure of particles containing black carbon using the single particle soot photometer (SP2). Geophys. Res. Lett., 39 L06802, doi:10.1029/2012GL050905

  19. A dedicated H-beta meridian scanning photometer for proton aurora measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unick, Craig W.; Donovan, Eric; Connors, Martin; Jackel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    An instrument designed to measure the location and brightness of auroral emissions from energetic proton precipitation is described. This photometer scans from the north to south horizon with a stepper motor and mirror. The scans are configured in software for a 30 s cadence with equally spaced samples along a meridian at constant altitude. Broadband light is separated into two channels with a novel optical splitter. This splitter uses a filter that has high transmission for the signal channel and high reflection on both the long- and short-wavelength sides to reflect the combined background passbands, directing each channel to its respective detector. The half-cone angle and angle of incidence of this splitter filter allow for an overall compact optical design that also provides superior sensitivity in both signal and background channels. The signal channel is 3 nm wide full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 486.1 nm, and the background channel comprises two 3 nm wide FWHM passbands at 480 nm and 495 nm created by a single filter. Both of these channels are measured with photomultiplier tubes in photon-counting mode. Calibrations indicate a response of around 1000 c/s per rayleigh. Data are currently acquired in 5 ms bins with a Nyquist frequency of 100 Hz. The first system (Forty-Eight Sixty-One (FESO)-1) has been operating at Athabasca University since February 2014, and the second system (FESO-2) was deployed at Lucky Lake, Saskatchewan, in October 2015. The improved sensitivity over legacy instruments and the simultaneous measurement of signal and background enable operation during intervals with dynamic electron aurora and scattered moonlight.

  20. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  1. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and how exposure might affect cancer risk. UV Radiation (Sun) Ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes from the sun and ...

  2. SunWise[R] Meteorologist Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The SunWise Program is designed to help meteorologists raise sun safety awareness by addressing the science of the sun, the risk of overexposure to its ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and what students and their families can do to protect themselves from overexposure. This Tool Kit has been designed for use all over the United States and its…

  3. Encouraging Sun Safety for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Kathy; Tillotson, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    The rise in the number of cases of skin cancers, both melanomas and nonmelanomas, has prompted increased awareness and educational efforts to limit sun exposure. Because 80% of lifetime sun exposure occurs before the age of 18, educating parents and adolescents to incorporate sun-protective behaviors into daily routines is particularly important.…

  4. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  5. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  6. Observing Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Petrus C.; White, Russel J.

    2016-05-01

    The Sun represents only one realization of the many possibilities for stellar dynamos. In order to fully understand the physics of solar and stellar magnetism we need to study in full detail the magnetic cycles of stars that are very much like the Sun . To do this we need a telescope that can resolve the disks of nearby solar type stars. Georgia State's University Center for High Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) array is a diffraction limited interferometer with a baseline of over 300 m, located on Mount Wilson. It is the highest resolution telescope in the visible and infrared currently in operation. CHARA has resolved the disks of larger stars and observed starspots. We will describe an ongoing observing program for nearby Sun-like stars to determine with great accuracy the basic parameters of these stars and the presence of starspots on their surfaces. Combined with the decades long observations of Mount Wilson and Lowell Observatories of stellar cycles the data obtained will act as a powerful constraint on solar and stellar dynamo models and simulations.

  7. Micro Sun Sensor for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, Sohrab; Liebe, Carl; Bae, Youngsam; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Wrigley, Chris

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the development of a compact micro Sun sensor for use as a part of the attitude determination subsystem aboard future miniature spacecraft and planetary robotic vehicles. The prototype unit has a mass of only 9 g, a volume of only 4.2 cm(sup 3), a power consumption of only 30 mW, and a 120 degree field of view. The unit has demonstrated an accuracy of 1 arcminute. The unit consists of a multiple pinhole camera: A micromachined mask containing a rectangular array of microscopic pinholes, machined utilizing the microectromechanical systems (MEMS), is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS) image detector. The APS consists of a 512 x 512-pixel array, on-chip 10-bit analog to digital converter (ADC), on-chip bias generation, and on-chip timing control for self-sequencing and easy programmability. The digitized output of the APS is processed to compute the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The Sun angle, relative to a coordinate system fixed to the sensor unit, is then computed from the positions of the centroids.

  8. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland - natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have a SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095 μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. These estimates have implications for

  9. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground-based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types and plume age. Smallest fine mode median radius (Rfv) are attributed to plumes from cropland and/or natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grassland (0.157 μm) fires. North American evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller Rfv (0.164 μm) than plumes from Eurasian mixed forests (0.193 μm) and plumes attributed to the land cover types with sparse tree cover - open shrubland (0.185 μm) and woody savannas (0.184 μm). The differences in size distributions are related to inferred variability in plume concentrations between the land cover types. Significant differences are observed between day and night emissions, with daytime emissions showing larger particle sizes. Smoke is predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0

  10. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. A new method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences insize distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. The implications of this work for improved modeling of aerosol radiative effects, which are relevant to both climate modelling and satellite

  11. The Sun's X-ray Emission During the Recent Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Mirek; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Sun recently underwent a period of a remarkable lack of major activity such as large flares and sunspots, without equal since the advent of the space age a half century ago. A widely used measure of solar activity is the amount of solar soft X-ray emission, but until recently this has been below the threshold of the X-ray-monitoring Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). There is thus an urgent need for more sensitive instrumentation to record solar X-ray emission in this range. Anticipating this need, a highly sensitive spectrophotometer called Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was included in the solar telescope/spectrometer TESIS instrument package on the third spacecraft in Russia's Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun (CORONAS-PHOTON) program, launched 30 January 2009 into a near-polar orbit. SphinX measures X-rays in a band similar to the GOES longer-wavelength channel.

  12. Dust Cloud near the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ingrid; Krivov, Alexander; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2000-08-01

    General structure and composition of the near-solar dust cloud are investigated. Based on estimates for sources and transport of dust to the near-solar region, we derive a representative set of trajectories of dust grains by numerical integrations and obtain the spatial distribution of different dust populations within 10 solar radii ( R⊙) from the Sun. For the radial structure, we find the dust number density to be enhanced by a factor of 1 to 4 in a typical heliocentric distance zone with a width of 0.2 R⊙ in the sublimation region—the formation of a dust ring—depending on the materials and porosities considered. The excess density in the ring increases with increasing initial size for porous grains and decreases for compact ones. Non-zero eccentricities of the dust orbits decrease the enhancement. Moderate enhancements that we predict are consistent with eclipse observations, most of which have not shown any peak features in the F-corona brightness at several solar radii. We describe typical features of β-meteoroids formed by the sublimation of particles near the Sun and estimate the total mass loss due to this mechanism to range between 1 and 10 kg s -1. For the vertical structure of the dust cloud we show that grains larger than ˜10 μm in size keep in a disk with a typical thickness of tens degrees; grains with radii of several μm fill in a broader disk-like volume which is tilted off the ecliptic plane by a variable angle depending on the solar activity cycle; submicrometer-sized grains form a nearly spherical halo around the Sun with a radius of more than 10 R⊙. From our present knowledge we cannot exclude the existence of an additional spheroidal component of larger grains near the Sun, which depends on how effective long-period comets are as sources of dust. Estimates of absolute number densities and local fluxes of dust show that simple extrapolation of the interplanetary dust cloud into the solar vicinity does not describe the dust cloud

  13. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  14. Increasing Sun Protection in Winter Outdoor Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, Barbara J.; Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Maloy, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Unprotected and excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the primary risk factor for skin cancer. Design A pair-matched, group-randomized, pre-test/post-test, quasi-experimental design, with ski resorts as the unit of randomization, tested the effectiveness of Go Sun Smart, a multi-channel skin cancer prevention program. Independent samples of guests were taken at baseline (2001) and follow-up (2002); data were analyzed in 2006. Setting and Participants A total of 6516 adult guests at 26 ski resorts in the western U.S. and Canada were recruited, consented, and interviewed on chairlifts. This study was nested within an occupational intervention for ski resort workers. Intervention Ski resorts were pair-matched and randomized to receive Go Sun Smart, which consisted of print, electronic, visual, and interpersonal skin cancer prevention messages. Main Outcome Measures Sun-protection behaviors, sunburning, recall of sun-protection messages, and the association of message exposure to sun protection. Results The difference in recall of all sun-protection messages, messages on signs and posters, and the Go Sun Smart logo was significant between the intervention and control resorts. Reported use of sun-protection practices was higher by guests at intervention ski areas using more (a higher dose of) Go Sun Smart materials. Intervention-group guests who recalled a sun-safety message were more likely to practice sun safety than intervention-group guests who did not recall a message and control-group guests. Conclusions While the mere implementation of Go Sun Smart did not produce sun-safety improvements, Go Sun Smart appeared to be effective for guests who encountered and remembered it. Many factors can work against message exposure. Signage seemed to produce the greatest increase in exposure to sun-safety messages. PMID:18471586

  15. Aerosol single-scattering albedo over the global oceans: Comparing PARASOL retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom models estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Bian, Huisheng; Curci, Gabriele; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Schulz, Michael; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-27

    The aerosol Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) over the global oceans is evaluated based on polarimetric measurements by the PARASOL satellite. The retrieved values for SSA and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) agree well with the ground-based measurements of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The global coverage provided by the PARASOL observations represents a unique opportunity to evaluate SSA and AOD simulated by atmospheric transport model runs, as performed in the AeroCom framework. The SSA estimate provided by the AeroCom models is generally higher than the SSA retrieved from both PARASOL and AERONET. On the other hand, the mean simulated AOD is about right or slightly underestimated compared with observations. An overestimate of the SSA by the models would suggest that these simulate an overly strong aerosol radiative cooling at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and underestimate it at surface. This implies that aerosols have a potential stronger impact within the atmosphere than currently simulated.

  16. Comparison of GOES and MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) to aerosol robotic network (AERONET) AOD and IMPROVE PM2.5 mass at Bondville, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ciren, Pubu; Xu, Chuanyu

    2009-09-01

    Collocated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) chemically speciated data, mass of PM less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and size distribution at Bondville, IL, were compared with satellite-derived AOD. This was done to evaluate the quality of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD data and their potential to predict surface PM2.5 concentrations. MODIS AOD correlated better to AERONET AOD (r = 0.835) than did GOES AOD (r = 0.523). MODIS and GOES AOD compared better to AERONET AOD when the particle size distribution was dominated by fine mode. For all three AOD methods, correlation between AOD and PM2.5 concentration was highest in autumn and lowest in winter. The AERONET AOD-PM2.5 relationship was strongest with moderate relative humidity (RH). At low RH, AOD attributable to coarse mass degrades the relationship; at high RH, added AOD from water growth appears to mask the relationship. For locations such as many in the central and western United States with substantial coarse mass, coarse mass contributions to AOD may make predictions of PM2.5 from AOD data problematic. Seasonal and diurnal variations in particle size distributions, RH, and seasonal changes in boundary layer height need to be accounted for to use satellite AOD to predict surface PM2.5.

  17. Protocol for Validation of the Land Surface Reflectance Fundamental Climate Data Record using AERONET: Application to the Global MODIS and VIIRS Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, J. C.; Vermote, E.; Holben, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    The land surface reflectance is a fundamental climate data record at the basis of the derivation of other climate data records (Albedo, LAI/Fpar, Vegetation indices) and a key parameter in the understanding of the land-surface-climate processes. It is essential that a careful validation of its uncertainties is performed on a global and continuous basis. One approach is the direct comparison of this product with ground measurements but that approach presents several issues related to scale, the episodic nature of ground measurements and the global representativeness. An alternative is to compare the surface reflectance product to reference reflectance determined from Top of atmosphere reflectance corrected using accurate radiative transfer code and very detailed measurements of the atmosphere obtained over the AERONET sites (Vermote and al, 2014, RSE) which allows to test for a large range of aerosol characteristics; formers being important inputs for atmospheric corrections. However, the application of this method necessitates the definition of a very detailed protocol for the use of AERONET data especially as far as size distribution and absorption are concerned, so that alternative validation methods or protocols could be compared. This paper describes the protocol we have been working on based on our experience with the AERONET data and its application to the MODIS and VIIRS record.

  18. Aerosol Optical Depths over Oceans: a View from MISR Retrievals and Collocated MAN and AERONET in Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witek, Marcin L.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In this study, aerosol optical depths over oceans are analyzed from satellite and surface perspectives. Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol retrievals are investigated and validated primarily against Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) observations. Furthermore, AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data from 19 island and coastal sites is incorporated in this study. The 270 MISRMAN comparison points scattered across all oceans were identified. MISR on average overestimates aerosol optical depths (AODs) by 0.04 as compared to MAN; the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error are 0.95 and 0.06, respectively. A new screening procedure based on retrieval region characterization is proposed, which is capable of substantially reducing MISR retrieval biases. Over 1000 additional MISRAERONET comparison points are added to the analysis to confirm the validity of the method. The bias reduction is effective within all AOD ranges. Setting a clear flag fraction threshold to 0.6 reduces the bias to below 0.02, which is close to a typical ground-based measurement uncertainty. Twelve years of MISR data are analyzed with the new screening procedure. The average over ocean AOD is reduced by 0.03, from 0.15 to 0.12. The largest AOD decrease is observed in high latitudes of both hemispheres, regions with climatologically high cloud cover. It is postulated that the screening procedure eliminates spurious retrieval errors associated with cloud contamination and cloud adjacency effects. The proposed filtering method can be used for validating aerosol and chemical transport models.

  19. Preliminary design report, Large Space Telescope OTA/SI Phase B study: High speed area photometer. [systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A photometer is examined which combines several features from separate instruments into a single package. The design presented has both point and area photometry capability with provision for inserting filters to provide spectral discrimination. The electronics provide for photon counting mode for the point detectors and both photon counting and analog modes for the area detector. The area detector also serves as a target locating device for the point detectors. Topics discussed include: (1) electronic equipment requirements, (2) optical properties, (3) structural housing for the instrument, (4) motors and other mechanical components, (5) ground support equipment, and (6) environment control for the instrument. Engineering drawings and block diagrams are shown.

  20. Flight Qualified Micro Sun Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Mobasser, Sohrab; Wrigley, Chris; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Bae, Youngsam; Naegle, James; Katanyoutanant, Sunant; Jerebets, Sergei; Schatzel, Donald; Lee, Choonsup

    2007-01-01

    A prototype small, lightweight micro Sun sensor (MSS) has been flight qualified as part of the attitude-determination system of a spacecraft or for Mars surface operations. The MSS has previously been reported at a very early stage of development in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 1 (January 2004). An MSS is essentially a miniature multiple-pinhole electronic camera combined with digital processing electronics that functions analogously to a sundial. A micromachined mask containing a number of microscopic pinholes is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS). Electronic circuits for controlling the operation of the APS, readout from the pixel photodetectors, and analog-to-digital conversion are all integrated onto the same chip along with the APS. The digital processing includes computation of the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The spacecraft computer has the task of converting the Sun centroids into Sun angles utilizing a calibration polynomial. The micromachined mask comprises a 500-micron-thick silicon wafer, onto which is deposited a 57-nm-thick chromium adhesion- promotion layer followed by a 200-nm-thick gold light-absorption layer. The pinholes, 50 microns in diameter, are formed in the gold layer by photolithography. The chromium layer is thin enough to be penetrable by an amount of Sunlight adequate to form measurable pinhole images. A spacer frame between the mask and the APS maintains a gap of .1 mm between the pinhole plane and the photodetector plane of the APS. To minimize data volume, mass, and power consumption, the digital processing of the APS readouts takes place in a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The particular FPGA is a radiation- tolerant unit that contains .32,000 gates. No external memory is used so the FPGA calculates the centroids in real time as pixels are read off the APS with minimal internal memory. To enable the MSS to fit into a small package, the APS, the FPGA, and other components are mounted

  1. Technical Note: The single particle soot photometer fails to detect PALAS soot nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Corbin, J. C.; Mensah, A. A.; Keller, A.; Kim, J.; Petzold, A.; Sierau, B.

    2012-07-01

    The single particle soot photometer (SP2) uses laser-induced incandescence (LII) for the measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles. The BC mass concentration is obtained by combining quantitative detection of BC mass in single particles with a counting efficiency of 100% above its lower detection limit (LDL). It is commonly accepted that a particle must contain at least several tenths of femtograms BC in order to be detected by the SP2. Here we show the unexpected result that BC particles from a PALAS spark discharge soot generator remain undetected by the SP2, even if their BC mass, as independently determined with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM), is clearly above the typical LDL of the SP2. Comparison of counting efficiency and effective density data of PALAS soot with flame generated soot (combustion aerosol standard burner, CAST), fullerene soot and carbon black particles (Cabot Regal 400R) reveals that particle morphology can affect the SP2's LDL. PALAS soot particles are fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles with a low fractal dimension, resulting in a very low effective density. Such loosely-packed particles behave like "the sum of individual primary particles" in the SP2's laser. Accordingly, the PALAS soot particles remain undetected as the SP2's laser intensity is insufficient to heat the primary particles to vaporisation because of their small size (primary particle diameter ~5-10 nm). It is not surprising that particle morphology can have an effect on the SP2's LDL, however, such a dramatic effect as reported here for PALAS soot was not expected. In conclusion, the SP2's LDL at a certain laser power depends on total BC mass per particle for compact particles with sufficiently high effective density. However, for fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles and low fractal dimension, the BC mass per primary particle determines the limit of detection, independent of the total particle mass

  2. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  3. Irradiance Variability of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froehlich, Claus

    1990-01-01

    Direct measurements of the solar constant--the total irradiance at mean Sun-Earth distance--during the last ten years from satellites show variations over time scales from minutes to years and decades. At high frequencies the spectral power is determined by granulation, super- and mesogranulation. In the 5-minute range, moreover, it is dominated by power from the solar p-mode oscillations. Their power and frequencies change with time, yielding information about changes in the convection zone. During periods of several hours, the power is steadily increasing and may be partly due to solar gravity modes. The most important variance is in the range from days to several months and is related to the photospheric features of solar activity, decrease of the irradiance during the appearance of sunspots, and increasing by faculae and the magnetic network. Long-term modulation by the 11-year activity cycle are observed conclusively with the irradiance being higher during solar maximum. All these variations can be explained--at least qualitatively--by their manifestation on the photosphere. For the long-term changes, the simultaneous changes of the frequencies of solar p-mode oscillations suggest a more global origin of the variations. Indeed, it seems that the observed irradiance modulation is a true luminosity change with the magnetic cycle of the Sun.

  4. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  5. The UBVRI And Infrared Colour Indices Of The Sun And Sun-Like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanriver, Mehmet; Özeren, Ferhat Fikri

    2016-12-01

    The Sun is not a point source, the photometric observational techniques that are utilised for observing other stars cannot be utilised for the Sun, meaning that it is difficult to derive its colours accurately for astronomical work from direct measurements in different passbands. The solar twins are the best choices because they are the stars that are ideally the same as the Sun in all parameters, and also, their colours are highly similar to those of the Sun. From the 60 articles on the Sun and Sun-like stars in the literature from 1964 until today, the solar colour indices in the optic and infrared regions have been estimated.

  6. Cloud Screening and Quality Control Algorithm for Star Photometer Data: Assessment with Lidar Measurements and with All-sky Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, delta Ae(lambda), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of delta Ae() and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable Ae(lambda) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  7. Metabolomic analysis of sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Southall, Michael; Samaras, Samantha Tucker

    2013-08-01

    It is very well known that exposure of skin to sun chronically accelerates the mechanism of aging as well as making it more susceptible toward skin cancer. This aspect of aging has been studied very well through genomics and proteomics tools. In this study we have used a metabolomic approach for the first time to determine the differences in the metabolome from full thickness skin biopsies from sun exposed and sun protected sites. We have primarily investigated the energy metabolism and the oxidative pathway in sun exposed skin. Biochemical pathway analysis revealed that energy metabolism in photoexposed skin is predominantly anaerobic. The study also validated the increased oxidative stress in skin.

  8. Sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A parabolic reflector is supported so that it can track the sun. The support for this reflector comprises an azimuth frame supported on two wheels and a central pivotal point which are positioned in a substantially triangular configuration. On top of the azimuth frame, there is provided an elevation frame. The reflector rides on wheels captured within curved rails. The wheels of the azimuth frame are driven by an azimuth actuator. The reflector structure is counterbalanced about its elevation axis by a pendulum cable system which is driven by a motor. At the focal point of the parabolic reflector, a heat engine or receiver is mounted independently on the reflector. Suitable means are provided for moving the reflector about its two axes.

  9. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  10. A procedure for determining the optical characteristics of a device for measuring illumination in the atmosphere of Venus. [broad band photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golovin, Y. M.; Moshkin, B. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure is described for obtaining the calibration, angular and spectral characteristics of a broad band photometer used on Venera 9 and 10 spacecraft to measure the illuminance regime in five spectral intervals with respect to three directions. The photometer has three identical groups of photoreceivers on which light falls through fiber light guides. Each group contains three cadmium sulfide photoresistors with light filters, a cadmium selenide photoresistor and a silicon photodiode. The temperature of the photoreceivers is measured by thermistors installed in series with the receivers.

  11. The Sun's Impact on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We provide an overview of the impact of the Sun on the Earth atmosphere and climate system, focused on heating of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. We emphasize the importance of the spectral measurements of SIM and SOLSTICE- that we must know how solar variations are distributed over ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths, since these have separate characteristic influences on Earth's ozone layer, clouds, and upper layers of the oceans. Emphasis is also given to understanding both direct and indirect influences of the Sun on the Earth, which involve feedbacks between Earth's stratosphere, troposphere, and oceans, each with unique time scales, dynamics, chemistry, and biology, interacting non-linearly. Especially crucial is the role of all three phases of water on Earth, water vapor being the primary greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, the importance of trace gases such as CO2 arising from their absorption in the "water vapor window" at 800 - 1250/cm (12.5 to 8 microns). Melting of polar ice is one major response to the post-industrial global warming, enhanced due to "ice-albedo" feedback. Finally, water in liquid form has a major influence due to cloud albedo feedback, and also due to the oceans' absorption of solar radiation, particularly at visible wavelengths, through the visible "liquid water window" that allows penetration of visible light deep into the mixed layer, while nearby ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths do not penetrate past the upper centimeter ocean surface skin layer. A large fraction of solar energy absorbed by the oceans goes into the latent heat of evaporation. Thus the solar heating of the atmosphere-ocean system is strongly coupled through the water cycle of evaporation, cloud formation, precipitation, surface runoff and ice formation, to Earth's energy budget and climate, each different climate component responding to variations in different solar spectral bands, at ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths.

  12. Method for estimating the atmospheric content of sub-micrometer aerosol using direct-sun photometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, S.; Filip, L.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that the aerosol generated by human activity falls in the sub-micrometer rage [1]. The rapid increase of such emissions led to massive accumulations in the planetary boundary layer. Aerosol pollutants influence the quality of life on the Earth in at least two ways: by direct physiological effects following their penetration into living organisms and by the indirect implications on the overall energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. For these reasons monitoring the sub-micrometer aerosol on a global scale, become a stringent necessity in protecting the environment. The sun-photometry proved a very efficient way for such monitoring activities, mainly when vast networks of instruments (like AERONET [2]) are used. The size distribution of aerosols is currently a product of AERONET obtained through an inversion algorithm of sky-photometry data [3, 4]. Alternatively, various methods of investigating the aerosol size distribution have been developed through the use of direct-sun photometric data, with the advantages of simpler computation algorithms and a more convenient use [5, 6]. Our research aims to formulate a new simpler way to retrieve aerosol fine and coarse mode volume concentrations, as well as dimensional information, from direct-sun data. As in other works from the literature [3-6], the main hypothesis is that of a bi-modal shape of the size distribution of aerosols that can be reproduced rather satisfactorily by a linear combination of two lognormal functions. Essentially, the method followed in this paper relies on aerosol size information retrieval through fitting theoretical computations to measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) and related data. To this purpose, the experimental spectral dependence of AOD is interpolated and differentiated numerically to obtain the Ǻngström parameter. The reduced (i.e. normalized to the corresponding columnar volumetric content) contributions of the fine and coarse modes to the AOD have also been

  13. THE INFRARED COLORS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Casagrande, L.; Asplund, M.; Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-12-10

    Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but they must be measured with both accuracy and precision in order to do so. We fulfill this requirement by using line-depth ratios to derive in a model-independent way the infrared colors of the Sun, and we use the latter to test the zero point of the Casagrande et al. effective temperature scale, confirming its accuracy. Solar colors in the widely used Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and WISE W1-4 systems are provided: (V - J){sub Sun} = 1.198, (V - H){sub Sun} = 1.484, (V - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 1.560, (J - H){sub Sun} = 0.286, (J - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.362, (H - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.076, (V - W1){sub Sun} = 1.608, (V - W2){sub Sun} = 1.563, (V - W3){sub Sun} = 1.552, and (V - W4){sub Sun} = 1.604. A cross-check of the effective temperatures derived implementing 2MASS or WISE magnitudes in the infrared flux method confirms that the absolute calibration of the two systems agrees within the errors, possibly suggesting a 1% offset between the two, thus validating extant near- and mid-infrared absolute calibrations. While 2MASS magnitudes are usually well suited to derive T{sub eff}, we find that a number of bright, solar-like stars exhibit anomalous WISE colors. In most cases, this effect is spurious and can be attributed to lower-quality measurements, although for a couple of objects (3% {+-} 2% of the total sample) it might be real, and may hint at the presence of warm/hot debris disks.

  14. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  15. Non-melanoma skin cancer, sun exposure and sun protection.

    PubMed

    Calzavara-Pinton, P; Ortel, B; Venturini, M

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of skin tumors including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and its biological precursor, the actinic keratosis, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) often named together non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is growing all over the world in people of Caucasian ancestry. A plenty of clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the causal relationship with high cumulative solar dosages and number of sunburns, although the hazard may be different for different tumors according to the modalities of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. BCC is much more strongly related to measures of intermittent ultraviolet exposure (particularly those of childhood or adolescence) than to measures of cumulative exposure. In contrast, SCC is more strongly related to constant or cumulative sun exposure. Photobiological studies have clarified that sunlight and UVB radiation are complete carcinogens for AK and SCC although the relationship with UVA exposure is much less known. Also the likelihood of BCC has been related to either sunburns and high lifetime solar, UVA and UVB cumulative doses but the pathogenetic pathways of both UVB and UVA radiation for BCC development need to be clarified so far. The lack of a complete knowledge of the photocarcinogenic pathways of keratinocytes has contributed to the limited results of solar photoprotection strategies, beside the limitations of the available sunscreens and present EU regulations.

  16. Sun protection in children: realities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gilaberte, Y; Carrascosa, J M

    2014-04-01

    One of the main goals of all skin cancer prevention campaigns is to protect children from ultraviolet radiation. However, little is known about how sun exposure risks differ between adults and children or about how these risks are best managed. Children's skin is more susceptible to sun damage for a number of reasons, including certain anatomical and functional aspects in children under 2 years of age and habits that predispose to greater sun exposure during the first 2 decades of life. Oil-based emulsions containing inorganic filters appear to be safest sunscreens for children, although the addition of certain organic filters is necessary to achieve a sun protection factor of 50. Oxybenzone, and probably also octocrylene, should be avoided in sunscreens for children. Sunscreen use should be part of an overall sun protection strategy that includes avoidance of exposure to midday sun and the use of protective clothing and hats. The above considerations justify the implementation of primary prevention campaigns focused on sun protection education for children and the continuation of basic and epidemiological research into specific sun protection strategies and sunscreens for each age group.

  17. Harvesting the Sun's Energy with Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-28

    Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory, along with partners at Microcontinuum Inc. (Cambridge, MA) and Patrick Pinhero of the University of Missouri, are developing a novel way to collect energy from the sun with a technology that could potentially cost pennies a yard, be imprinted on flexible materials and still draw energy after the sun has set.

  18. Space Science in Action: Sun [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording shows students what the sun is all about--how big it is, what it is made of, how old it is, and how long it is believed it will continue to burn. Students examine the individual layers of the sun and learn about solar activities, including sunspots, solar flares, and prominences. A hands-on activity guides students in…

  19. The Dark Side of the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes easy-to-implement strategies parents can use to ensure their children's safety in the sun and avoid skin cancer, which is the most prevalent form of cancer in United States. Suggestions include: limit the amount of time spent in the sun, wear protective clothing, use sunscreening agents, and have knowledge of skin cancer and its…

  20. EFFECT OF THE SUN UPON ANTENNA TEMPERATURE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    temperature distributions over the sun at several frequencies are presented. The method by which antenna temperature is evaluated, using the Philco...calculate the variation of carrier-to-noise ratio as an antenna scans toward the sun while receiving signals from a deep-space probe and from a random-orbit satellite.

  1. Harvesting the Sun's Energy with Antennas

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory, along with partners at Microcontinuum Inc. (Cambridge, MA) and Patrick Pinhero of the University of Missouri, are developing a novel way to collect energy from the sun with a technology that could potentially cost pennies a yard, be imprinted on flexible materials and still draw energy after the sun has set.

  2. Assessment of the MODIS-Terra Collection 006 aerosol optical depth data over the greater Mediterranean basin and inter-comparison against MODIS C005 and AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsikas, Marios; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Papadimas, Christos D.; Gkikas, Antonis; Matsoukas, Christos; Sayer, Andrew; Hsu, Christina; Vardavas, Ilias

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols are one of the key factors determining the Earth's solar radiation budget. The aerosol radiative effects are strongly dependent on aerosol optical depth (AOD) which is a good measure of atmospheric aerosol loading. Therefore, understanding better the spatial and temporal patterns of AOD at both global and regional scales is important for more accurate estimations of aerosol radiative effects. Nowadays, improved globally distributed AOD products are available largely based on satellite observations. Currently, one of the most acknowledged accurate AOD dataset is the one derived from measurements of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the twin Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. The MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm, which is used to produce AOD data, is continuously improved and updated, leading to releases of successive series, named as Collections. Recently, MODIS Collection 6 (C006) dataset has been made available. Despite their advantages, satellite AOD products have to be assessed through comparisons against ground based AOD products, such as those from AERosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The aim of the present study is to assess the newest MODIS C006 AOD product over the greater Mediterranean basin. The assessment is performed through comparisons of the MODIS-Terra C006 Level-3 AOD data against corresponding data from the previous C005 MODIS dataset, as well as versus AOD data from AERONET stations within the study region. The study period extends from 2001 to 2012 and our comparisons are performed on a monthly basis. Emphasis is given on differences between the MODIS C006 AOD data and corresponding previous C005 data, as to their spatial and temporal, seasonal and inter-annual, patterns. The results show a better agreement of MODIS C006 than C005 AOD data with AERONET, while the C006 data offer a complete spatial coverage of the study region, specifically over the northern African

  3. Validation and expected error estimation of Suomi-NPP VIIRS aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent with AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Kondragunta, Shobha; Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Remer, Lorraine A.; Zhang, Hai; Superczynski, Stephen; Ciren, Pubu; Holben, Brent N.; Petrenko, Maksym

    2016-06-01

    The new-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, provides critical daily global aerosol observations. As older satellite sensors age out, the VIIRS aerosol product will become the primary observational source for global assessments of aerosol emission and transport, aerosol meteorological and climatic effects, air quality monitoring, and public health. To prove their validity and to assess their maturity level, the VIIRS aerosol products were compared to the spatiotemporally matched Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. Over land, the VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) environmental data record (EDR) exhibits an overall global bias against AERONET of -0.0008 with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the biases as 0.12. Over ocean, the mean bias of VIIRS AOT EDR is 0.02 with RMSE of the biases as 0.06. The mean bias of VIIRS Ocean Ångström Exponent (AE) EDR is 0.12 with RMSE of the biases as 0.57. The matchups between each product and its AERONET counterpart allow estimates of expected error in each case. Increased uncertainty in the VIIRS AOT and AE products is linked to specific regions, seasons, surface characteristics, and aerosol types, suggesting opportunity for future modifications as understanding of algorithm assumptions improves. Based on the assessment, the VIIRS AOT EDR over land reached Validated maturity beginning 23 January 2013; the AOT EDR and AE EDR over ocean reached Validated maturity beginning 2 May 2012, excluding the processing error period 15 October to 27 November 2012. These findings demonstrate the integrity and usefulness of the VIIRS aerosol products that will transition from S-NPP to future polar-orbiting environmental satellites in the decades to come and become the standard global aerosol data set as the previous generations' missions come to an end.

  4. Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR)-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

    2012-10-24

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) being developed for airborne measurements will offer retrievals of aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. In this study, we assess the expected accuracy of the 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval and its sensitivity to major sources of anticipated perturbations in the 4STAR measurements by adapting a theoretical approach previously developed for the AERONET measurements. The major anticipated perturbations are (1) an apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles associated with the necessarily compact design of the 4STAR and (2) and an offset (i.e. uncertainty) of sky radiance calibration independent of scattering angle. The assessment is performed through application of the operational AERONET aerosol retrieval and constructed synthetic 4STAR-like data. Particular attention is given to the impact of these perturbations on the upwelling and downwelling broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The results from this study suggest that limitations in the accuracy of 4STAR-retrieved particle size distributions and scattering phase functions have diminished impact on the accuracy of retrieved bulk microphysical parameters, permitting quite accurate retrievals of properties including the effective radius (up to 10%, or 0.03), and the radiatively important optical properties, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or ±0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 6%, or ±0.04). Also, the obtained results indicate that the uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol optical properties are quite small in the context of the calculated fluxes and direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 15%, or 3 Wm-2).

  5. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  6. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  7. Signature extension for sun angle, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator); Berry, J. K.; Heimes, F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Within a restricted zenith sun angle range of 35 - 50 degrees, it was empirically observed that canopy reflectance is mainly Lambertian. Reflectance changes with crop stage were simple shifts in scale in the sun angle range. It was noted that sun angle variations depend on canopy characteristics. Effects of the vegetative canopy were most pronounced at the larger solar zenith angles (20 %). The linear sun angle correction coefficients demonstrate a dependency on both crop stage (15-20 %) and crop type (10-20 %). The use of canopy reflectance modeling allowed for the generation of a simulated data set over an extremely broad envelope of sun angles.

  8. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  9. SDO Asks: What's The Sun Doing Now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    Solar observations have tended to emphasize events like flares and CMEs, and what leads to these events. The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on understanding the entire Sun, from the nuclear reactions at the core to the development and loss of magnetic loops in the corona. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will return synoptic data, taken at a regular cadence and covering the entire Sun. This means you can still study events, but can also move forward to producing a quantitative model of what the Sun is doing today. The science investigations of SDO will determine how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. How SDO data will transform the study of the Sun and the affect on stellar astrophysics will be discussed.

  10. Regional distribution of PM2.5 over a megacity Osaka in Japan derived from satellite, AERONET and/or LIDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Holben, B.; Sugimoto, N.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of particulate matter near the surface is very important for the Earth environment, especially for human health and atmospheric environment. In Japan, concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is similar to PM10 but sharply cutting at 10 µm for the particle diameter, has been monitored since 1975 and is still now widely available for a daily monitoring. New PM2.5 rule was defined in 1997 in the United States, however the standard rule for PM2.5 monitoring has net yet made in Japan until 2009. As a result, the number of PM2.5 instruments is very limited in Japan. In practice the PM2.5 samplers are only used for scientific objects. Therefore estimation of PM2.5 over the wide area as possible as in Japan is an urgent issue. Anthropogenic small particles dominate the air especially over the urban areas because of local emissions by diesel vehicles and industries. The distribution of these particles is complicated due to the increasing emissions of sulfuric, nitric, carbonaceous and other aerosols in association with economic growth in East Asia. The goal of this work is to estimate PM2.5 distribution over the second big city Osaka in Japan based on satellite measurements. A brief processing line of PM2.5 estimation is as follows: 1. Acquirement of surface reflectance based on satellite data to retrieve aerosol characteristics. 2. Retrieval of columnar aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Osaka from the fine resolved satellite image. 3. Vertical profile of aerosol concentration with NIES-LIDAR measurements. 4. Surface level aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from columnar AOT and LIDAR dataset. 5. Estimation of PM2.5 based on the relationship between AOT, surface AOD, LIDAR and in-situ PM2.5 dataset simultaneously accumulated at AERONET/Osaka site since 2008. Note that, collocated data set of in situ PM2.5, AERONET AOT, and NIES-LIDAR data are available at Kinki University's AERONET site as mentioned in the above item 5. It is of interest

  11. Trend analysis of aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent derived from the global AERONET spectral observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-06-01

    Regular aerosol observations based on well-calibrated instruments have led to a better understanding of the aerosol radiative budget on Earth. In recent years, these instruments have played an important role in the determination of the increase of anthropogenic aerosols by means of long-term studies. Only few investigations regarding long-term trends of aerosol optical characteristics (e.g. aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Ångström exponent (ÅE)) have been derived from ground-based observations. This paper aims to derive and discuss linear trends of AOT (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) and ÅE (440-870 nm) using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) level 2.0 spectral observations. Additionally, temporal trends of coarse- and fine-mode dominant AOTs (CdAOT and FdAOT) have been estimated by applying an aerosol classification based on accurate ÅE and Ångström exponent difference (ÅED). In order to take into account the fact that cloud disturbance is having a significant influence on the trend analysis of aerosols, we introduce a weighted least squares regression depending on two weights: (1) monthly standard deviation (σt) and (2) number of observations per month (nt). Temporal increase of FdAOTs (440 nm) prevails over newly industrializing countries in East Asia (weighted trends; +6.23% yr-1 at Beijing) and active agricultural burning regions in South Africa (+1.89% yr-1 at Mongu). On the other hand, insignificant or negative trends for FdAOTs are detected over Western Europe (+0.25% yr-1 at Avignon and -2.29% yr-1 at Ispra) and North America (-0.52% yr-1 for GSFC and -0.01% yr-1 at MD_Science_Center). Over desert regions, both increase and decrease of CdAOTs (+3.37% yr-1 at Solar_Village and -1.18% yr-1 at Ouagadougou) are observed depending on meteorological conditions.

  12. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix T: Experiment T027/S073 contamination measurement, photometer and Gegenschein/zodiacal light (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A series of analyses for Experiment T027/S073, contamination measurement, photometer and gegenschein/zodiacal light (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditons is presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  13. The evaluation of a photometer (the Radiometer OSM2) for the determination of haemoglobin concentration and per cent oxyhaemoglobin and carboxyhaemoglobin in blood.

    PubMed

    Saloojee, Y; Cole, P V; Adams, L

    1981-11-01

    Haemoglobin concentration and its saturation with oxygen and carbon monoxide were estimated in identical blood samples using an automated two-wavelength photometer (the Radiometer OSM2) and standard methods. The instrument was easy to operate and maintain and, in general, was accurate and repeatable. At carboxyhaemoglobin levels below 1.5%, however, the precision of the instrument was poor.

  14. Meridional Circulation in the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Hanasoge, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring the depth variation of the meridional flows is important for understanding the solar cycle, at least according to a number of dynamo models. While attempting to extend the early observations of Giles (1999; Ph. D. thesis, Stanford Univ.) of time-distance measurements of flow, we have stumbled upon some systematic errors that can affect these measurements: 1) the additional distance traveled by radiation coming from points away from disk center causes an apparent 'shrinking' Sun, that is an apparent flow towards the disk center, 2) in measurements away from the central longitude, the rotation signal can leak into meridional flow signals, and 3) in measurements of the north-south mean travel times along the equator, a spurious error of 6 sec travel time is seen. That the signal is spurious is confirmed by observing half the time with the image rotated 180 degrees. Although this is an effect with mean travel times and not differences, it still seems useful to understand it. Attempts to understand and overcome these systematic problems will be presented. Forward modeling has been done using ray theory to test the sensitivity of travel times to various models.

  15. Dark matter near the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of dark matter in the disk of the Galaxy at the solar position is determined by comparing the observed distributions of tracer stars with the predictions obtained from different assumptions of how the unseen matter is distributed. The major uncertainties, observational and theoretical, are estimated. For all the observed samples, typical models imply that about half of the mass in the solar vicinity must be in the form of unobserved matter. The volume density of unobserved material near the sun is about 0.1 solar mass/cu pc; the corresponding column density is about 30 solar masses/cu pc. This, so far unseen, material must be in a disk with an exponential scale height of less than 0.7 kpc. All the existing observations are consistent with the unseen disk material being in the form of stars not massive enough to burn hydrogen. It is suggested that the unseen material that is required to hold up the rotation curves of galaxies and to satisfy the virial theorem for clusters of galaxies might also be in the form of low-mass stars.

  16. Low Sun from 'Low Ridge'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A spectacular field of Martian sand ripples separates NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit from the slopes of 'Husband Hill.' It has been 200 Martian days, or sols, since the rover started a descent from the top of the peak to the rover's current position on 'Low Ridge.' Looking back to the north on sol 813 (April 17, 2006), Spirit acquired this blue-filter (436-nanometer) view with the right panoramic camera (Pancam) while the Sun was low in the sky late in the afternoon. Because of the low-angle lighting (sunlight is coming from the left), images like this provide superb views of subtle textures in the topography both near and far. Husband Hill, where the rover was perched late last summer, rises prominently just left of center in this view. A 150-meter wide (500 foot) field of curving sand ripples named 'El Dorado' lies at the base of Husband Hill.

    By collecting photos like this at different times of day, when lighting comes from different directions, scientists can distinguish surface properties such as color and reflectivity from topography and roughness. By separating these components they can map more details of the geologic terrain, providing new clues about the geologic history of Gusev Crater.

  17. Development of photomultiplier electronics and computer interfacing software for a high speed photoelectric photometer-Stoke's meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flesch, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary stages in the design, construction, and development of a photoelectric photometer system interfaced with an IMSAI 8080 microcomputer. The instrument will also include magnetic tape and magnetic disk storage capabilities to enable rapid data storage. The capability of the instrument to make observations with very high time resolution, as high as 10 msec, and measure the intensity and polarization of radiation emitted by objects which show very rapid light variations, pulsars and optical counterparts of X-ray sources was of concern. A better understanding of the magnetic fields and interstellar material which characterize the immediate environment of these stellar systems and an expansion of the observational capabilities of even modest-sized telescopes are expected.

  18. Stabilization of Mass Absorption Cross Section of Elemental Carbon for Filter-Based Absorption Photometer by Heated Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Sahu, L.; Takegawa, N.; Miyazaki, Y.; Han, S.; Moteki, N.; Hu, M.; Kim Oanh, N.; Kim, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate measurements of elemental carbon (EC) or black carbon on a long-term basis are important for the studies of impacts of EC on climate and human health. In principle, mass concentrations of EC (MEC) can be estimated by the measurement of light absorption coefficient by EC. Filter-based methods, which quantify the absorption coefficient (kabs) from the change in transmission through a filter loaded with particles, have been widely used to measure MEC because of the ease of the operation. However, in practice, reliable determination of MEC has been very difficult because of the large variability in the mass absorption cross sections (Cabs), which is a conversion factor from kabs to MEC. Coating of EC by volatile compounds and co-existence of light-scattering particles greatly contributes to the variability of Cabs. In order to overcome this difficulty, volatile aerosol components were removed before collection of EC particles on filters by heating an inlet section to 400°C. The heated inlet vaporized almost completely sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organics without any detectable loss of EC. Simultaneous measurements of kabs by two types photometers (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and Continuous Soot Monitoring System (COSMOS)) together with MEC by the EC-OC analyzer were made to determine Cabs at 6 different locations in Asia (Japan, Korea, China, and Thailand) in different seasons. The Cabs was stable to be 10.5±0.7 m2 g-1 at the wavelength of 565 nm for EC strongly impacted by emissions from vehicles and biomass burning. The stability of the Cabs for different EC sources and under the different physical and chemical conditions provides a firm basis for its use in estimating MEC in fine mode with an accuracy of about 10%.

  19. Brightness Changes in Sun-like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    Does the Sun's energy output vary with time? Are observable climatic changes on the earth caused by changes in the Sun? Can we gain greater insight into this relation-ship by studying other stars with properties similar to the Sun's? In recent years, satellite observations have shown that the solar irradiance varies in phase with the 1 l-year sunspot cycle. The Sun is brighter by about O.l% at the peak of the sunspot cycle when solar magnetic activity is at its maximum. Over longer intervals, changes in the cart h's climate and solar magnetic activity seem to be correlated. We are using automatic photoelectric telescopes to measure brightness changes in a sample of 150 Sun-like stars. Lowell Observatory astronomers have also observed about 30 of these same stars with a manual telescope in a program that began 10 years before ours. Since these two data sets were acquired with different instruments and so have significant systematic differences, we developed software to combine them accurately and, therefore, extend our observational time coverage. We show sample results of brightness variations over 14 years in several Sun-like stars with different ages. Longitudinal studies like these, combined with cross-sectional studies of the larger sample of stars, may eventually allow us to infer with confidence the Sun's long-term brightness history and its impact on the earth's climate.

  20. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  1. Sun signs Valdez Principles; rejoining CMA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1993-02-17

    Four year after an investors' group developed the Valdez Principles in response to the Exxon oil spill, Sun Co. (Philadelphia) has become the first major corporation to sign on to the environmental commitment. Sun also says it plans to rejoin the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) in light of new emphasis on its chemical business and to recommit to the Responsible Care program. Sun negotiated the commitment's working with the Coalition for Economically Responsible Economies (CERES; New York), which devised the code of conduct, now called the CERES Principles. It requries goals of reducing environmental impact, as well as annual environmental auditing and public reporting of results. Annual environmental reporting is coming,' says Sun chairman and CEO Robert H. Campbell. CERES' report provides credibility and accountability, he says. Sun's signing is the onset of a stampede,' says New York City Comptroller Elizabeth Holtzman, who advises on investment of the city's $47-billion pension funds. CERES says that between tens of' Fortune 500 companies have shown interest in a negotiated code. The 50 other signers are smaller companies. Du Pont says it is waiting to see Sun's agreement. Campbell says the commitment complements Sun's five-year-old program, which incorporates the American Petroleum Institute program and CMA's Responsible Care initiative. I don't think anything will change that the customer will notice,' he adds.

  2. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  3. [Latest evidence about longevity of Sun Simiao].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen-Min

    2013-01-01

    Recording in the preface of Binglishufu (written by Lu Zhaolin of the Tang Dynasty) was the only direct evidence about the longevity of Sun Simiao. It recorded 'Sun Simiao said since his birth in the Xinyou Year of the Kaihuang Period, he was 93 years old'. But there were disputes over the time of Xinyou Year-581 AD or 541 AD? It is easy to pick holes in both arguments and the whole research, so the conclusion is not reliable. Recordings in Biography of Sun Simiao, which said 'the governor of the Luozhou area marveled at Sun's intelligence and called him the saint child', are also fabricated. According to literature, 'in the 3(rd) year of the Xianqing Period, Sun Simiao was invited by the emperor and lived in the deserted house of the Boyang Princess. He was more than 90 years old and did not have any visual or hearing loss … he was good to give lectures at various schools like Zhuang and Lao … in the Zhou Xuan Emperor Period Sun was tired of royal affairs and chose to be a hermit in the Taibai Mountain' (Tanghuiyao, Datang Xinyu, Tanbinlu). Sun Simiao should have been born in 560 AD. This time conformed to the time of his other events. He was 20 when a hermit and was 99 when he was invited by the Emperor Gaozong in the 3(rd) year of Xianqing.

  4. Interior structure of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, F. W.; Giacobbe, M. J.

    This paper describes a computational method of estimating physical and chemical properties within the solar interior without employing calculations involving opacities. Instead of using opacities to help determine how interior solar temperatures vary with the radial distance between the centre of the sun and its 'surface', an iterative technique employing empirical adiabatic 'cooling' and a fusion energy production rate expression were employed for this purpose. Other iterative calculations were also made (nearly simultaneously) to ensure that all known solar constraint conditions were precisely satisfied (except for the photospheric 'surface' temperature) during this computational process. In addition, all calculations could be performed using a conventional PC employing an Intel Pentium CPU and a computer program coded in ANSI C. Due to the simplifications that were possible using the techniques employed during this study, as well as the advantages associated with using a programming language that produces machine code when compiled, all solar structural details could be generated very rapidly using an ordinary computer. The results of this study were compared with more conventional results obtained by others. This comparison indicated that the methods employed within this paper produced interior intensive solar properties that were in reasonable agreement with similar properties obtained by employing more sophisticated computational approaches. Although it is not claimed that the results generated during this study are any better than more conventionally obtained findings, it is thought that these results, as well as our computational methods, are interesting and potentially useful to others. In particular, it is thought that the techniques outlined in this paper may provide a useful introduction to more complicated techniques of solar modelling.

  5. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  6. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  7. Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempels, Eric

    2009-02-01

    The series of 'Cool Star' meetings concentrates on the astrophysics of low-mass stars (with masses similar to that of the Sun and lower), including the Sun. The meeting in St. Andrews, Scotland, was the 15th in this series, and focused in particular on the origin of low-mass stars and their planets, as well as the properties of their atmospheres. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the science presented by the 350 participants of this meeting. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in the astrophysics of cool stars and the Sun.

  8. THE SUN AS A VARIABLE STAR III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    observations has taught us more about the variations of solar type stars than about the sun itself. The observations of 15 stars of spectral types F and...stars 40 Leo, beta CVn and eta Boo this deviation is less than 0.004 mag. No evidence of variability in the stars which are similar to the sun has been...detected during this program. If we assume the sun acts in similar fashion to each of these stars, its variability over a fifteen-year period probably

  9. AERONET-based microphysical and optical properties of smoke-dominated aerosol near source regions and transported over oceans, and implications for satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-09-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol cycle. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of size distribution and refractive index reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke transported to coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at near-source sites. Two broad ''families'' of aerosol properties are found, corresponding to sites dominated by boreal forest burning (larger, broader fine mode, with midvisible SSA ∼0.95), and those influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning with additional forest contributions (smaller, narrower particles with SSA ∼0.88-0.9 in the midvisible). The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savannah at Mongu (Zambia), with average SSA ∼0.85 in the midvisible. These can serve as candidate sets of aerosol microphysical/optical properties for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean are often insufficiently absorbing to represent these biomass burning aerosols. A corollary of this is an underestimate of AOD in smoke outflow regions, which has important consequences for applications of these satellite datasets.

  10. Aeronet-based Microphysical and Optical Properties of Smoke-dominated Aerosol near Source Regions and Transported over Oceans, and Implications for Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol cycle. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of size distribution and refractive index reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke transported to coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at near-source sites. Two broad families of aerosol properties are found, corresponding to sites dominated by boreal forest burning (larger, broader fine mode, with midvisible SSA 0.95), and those influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning with additional forest contributions (smaller, narrower particles with SSA 0.88-0.9 in the midvisible). The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savanna at Mongu (Zambia), with average SSA 0.85 in the midvisible. These can serve as candidate sets of aerosol microphysicaloptical properties for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean are often insufficiently absorbing to represent these biomass burning aerosols. A corollary of this is an underestimate of AOD in smoke outflow regions, which has important consequences for applications of these satellite datasets.

  11. Sun and Sky Radiance Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Holben, Brent; Miller, Mark; Pietras, Christophe; Porter, John; Voss, Ken

    2001-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with two types of radiometric measurements essential to verify atmospheric correction algorithms and to calibrate vicariously satellite ocean color sensors. The first type is a photometric measurement of the direct solar beam to determine the optical thickness of the atmosphere. The intensity of the solar beam can be measured directly, or obtained indirectly from measurements of diffuse global upper hemispheric irradiance. The second type is a measurement of the solar aureole and sky radiance distribution using a CCD camera, or a scanning radiometer viewing in and perpendicular to the solar principal plane. From the two types of measurements, the optical properties of aerosols, highly variable in space and time, can be derived. Because of the high variability, the aerosol properties should be known at the time of satellite overpass. Atmospheric optics measurements, however, are not easy to perform at sea, from a ship or any platform. This complicates the measurement protocols and data analysis. Some instrumentation cannot be deployed at sea, and is limited to island and coastal sites. In the following, measurement protocols are described for radiometers commonly used to measure direct atmospheric transmittance and sky radiance, namely standard sun photometers, fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers, automated sky scanning systems, and CCD cameras. Methods and procedures to analyze and quality control the data are discussed, as well as proper measurement strategies for evaluation of atmospheric correction algorithms and satellite-derived ocean color.

  12. Application of Spectral Analysis Techniques in the Intercomparison of Aerosol Data. Part II: Using Maximum Covariance Analysis to Effectively Compare Spatiotemporal Variability of Satellite and AERONET Measured Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiomater (MISR) provide regular aerosol observations with global coverage. It is essential to examine the coherency between space- and ground-measured aerosol parameters in representing aerosol spatial and temporal variability, especially in the climate forcing and model validation context. In this paper, we introduce Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA), also known as Singular Value Decomposition analysis as an effective way to compare correlated aerosol spatial and temporal patterns between satellite measurements and AERONET data. This technique not only successfully extracts the variability of major aerosol regimes but also allows the simultaneous examination of the aerosol variability both spatially and temporally. More importantly, it well accommodates the sparsely distributed AERONET data, for which other spectral decomposition methods, such as Principal Component Analysis, do not yield satisfactory results. The comparison shows overall good agreement between MODIS/MISR and AERONET AOD variability. The correlations between the first three modes of MCA results for both MODIS/AERONET and MISR/ AERONET are above 0.8 for the full data set and above 0.75 for the AOD anomaly data. The correlations between MODIS and MISR modes are also quite high (greater than 0.9). We also examine the extent of spatial agreement between satellite and AERONET AOD data at the selected stations. Some sites with disagreements in the MCA results, such as Kanpur, also have low spatial coherency. This should be associated partly with high AOD spatial variability and partly with uncertainties in satellite retrievals due to the seasonally varying aerosol types and surface properties.

  13. SDO Catches Surfer Waves on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    Scientists have spotted the iconic surfer's wave rolling through the atmosphere of the sun. The waves hold clues as to how energy moves through that atmosphere, known as the corona, and may help ex...

  14. SDO Catches Comet Streaking by Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA instrument captured the first ever image of a comet passing directly in front of the sun in the early morning of July 6, 2011 in 171 angstrom. The comet comes i...

  15. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  16. THE LOST SIBLINGS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2009-05-01

    The anomalous chemical abundances and the structure of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt observed in the solar system constrain the initial mass and radius of the star cluster in which the Sun was born to M {approx_equal} 500-3000M {sub sun} and R {approx_equal} 1-3 pc. When the cluster dissolved, the siblings of the Sun dispersed through the galaxy, but they remained on a similar orbit around the Galactic center. Today these stars hide among the field stars, but 10-60 of them are still present within a distance of {approx}100 pc. These siblings of the Sun can be identified by accurate measurements of their chemical abundances, positions, and their velocities. Finding even a few will strongly constrain the parameters of the parental star cluster and the location in the Galaxy where we were born.

  17. Physics of the Sun and its Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Narain, U.

    ch. 1. Recent advances in solar physics / B. N. Dwivedi -- ch. 2. Overview of the Sun / S. S. Hasan -- ch. 3. Seismic view of the Sun / S. M. Chitre and B. N. Dwivedi -- ch. 4. Solar magnetism / P. Venkatakrishnan and S. Gosain -- ch. 5. Waves and oscillations in the solar atmosphere / R. Erdélyi -- ch. 6. VUV spectroscopy of solar plasma / A. Mohan -- ch. 7. Active region diagnostics / H. E. Mason and D. Tripathi -- ch. 8. Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion in the lower solar atmosphere / V. Krishan -- ch. 9. On solar coronal heating mechanisms / K. Pandey and U. Narain -- ch. 10. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated phenomena / N. Srivastava -- ch. 11. The radio Sun / P. K. Manoharan -- ch. 12. The solar wind / P. K. Manoharan -- ch. 13. The Sun-Earth system: our home in space / J. L. Lean.

  18. SDO and Hinode Views of the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    IRIS will advance our understanding of how the enigmatic interface region on the sun powers its dynamic million-degree atmosphere called the corona. IRIS will join the Solar Dynamics Observatory (S...

  19. Sun-pointing programs and their accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Several sun-pointing programs and their accuracy are described. FORTRAN program listings are given. Program descriptions are given for both Hewlett-Packard (HP-67) and Texas Instruments (TI-59) hand-held calculators.

  20. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  1. A Hole in the Sun's Corona

    NASA Video Gallery

    This timelapse video shows a coronal hole, as captured in ultraviolet light by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory on Jan. 10, 2011. Coronal holes are areas of the sun's surface that are the source o...

  2. Solar physics: Weather of the magnetic Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    The Sun is a magnetically active rotating star. Simultaneous observations with the STEREO and SDO space missions reveal solar analogues of planetary Rossby waves that will help forecast space weather.

  3. Encouraging sun safety for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kathy; Tillotson, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-01

    The rise in the number of cases of skin cancers, both melanomas and nonmelanomas, has prompted increased awareness and educational efforts to limit sun exposure. Because 80% of lifetime sun exposure occurs before the age of 18, educating parents and adolescents to incorporate sun-protective behaviors into daily routines is particularly important. Education of parents is essential to establishing healthy behavior patterns in children. Educational interventions are recommended that encourage the following: using sunscreen, wearing hats with wide brims and clothing that blocks or absorbs ultraviolet rays, using sunglasses that block ultraviolet radiation, and seeking shade. Continued efforts are important through adolescence to maintain the established behaviors. School nurses are in a position to affect the health education curriculum, as well as school policies that promote sun safety behaviors.

  4. RBSP: Studying the Sun's Influence on Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two wide rings of high-intensity particles encircle our planet's equator. Known as the Van Allen Radiation Belts, their behavior in response to the sun directly impacts life on Earth and in orbit. ...

  5. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  6. Flexible Photovoltaics: Mission Power from the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Flexible Photovoltaics : Mission Power from the Sun NSRDEC Project Officer: Steven Tucker Senior Engineer, EE COMM 508-233-6962 DSN 256...NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flexible Photovoltaics : Mission Power from the Sun...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 UNCLASSIFIED Flexible Photovoltaics – Why? Travel Lighter, Stay Longer! Known

  7. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the related intensity level are largely variable. To this end, a reliable and robust image acquisition procedure based on a variable shutter time has been considered as well as a calibration function exploiting also the knowledge of the sun-spot array size. Main focus of the present paper is the experimental validation of the wide field of view operation of the sensor by using a sensor prototype and a laboratory test facility. Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles. PMID:23443388

  8. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  9. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne and Ground-based Measurements of Massive Thick Aerosol Layers during the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Torres, O.

    2003-01-01

    During the dry season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), coordinated observations were made of massive thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda = 0.354- 1.557 microns), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data (MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths fiom the Sun photometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and ATSR-2).

  10. A Tornado on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    On 7 November, 2012 at 08:00 UT, an enormous tornado of plasma rose from the surface of the Sun. It twisted around and around, climbing over the span of 10 hours to a height of 50 megameters roughly four times the diameter of the Earth! Eventually, this monster tornado became unstable and erupted violently as a coronal mass ejection (CME).Now, a team of researchers has analyzed this event in an effort to better understand the evolution of giant solar tornadoes like this one.Oscillating AxisIn this study, led by Irakli Mghebrishvili and Teimuraz Zaqarashvili of Ilia State University (Georgia), images taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to track the tornados motion as it grew, along with a prominence, on the solar surface.The team found that as the tornado evolved, there were several intervals during which it moved back and forth quasi-periodically. The authors think these oscillations were due to one of two effects when the tornado was at a steady height: either twisted threads of the tornado were rotating around each other, or a magnetic effect known as kink waves caused the tornado to sway back and forth.Determining which effect was at work is an important subject of future research, because the structure and magnetic configuration of the tornado has implications for the next stage of this tornados evolution: eruption.Eruption from InstabilitySDO/AIA 3-channel composite image of the tornado an hour before it erupted in a CME. A coronal cavity has opened above the tornado; the top of the cavity is indicated by an arrow. [NASA/SDO/AIA; Mghebrishvili et al. 2015]Thirty hours after its formation, the tornado (and the solar prominence associated with it) erupted as a CME, releasing enormous amounts of energy. In the images from shortly before that moment, the authors observed a cavity open in the solar corona above the tornado. This cavity gradually expanded and rose above the solar limb until the tornado and prominence

  11. The Design and Fabrication of Fiber Optic Sensors and Photometers and Their Application in Measuring Aqueous Ammonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Three low-cost, solid-state fiber optic instrument designs for the analysis of aqueous ammonia in natural and process waters are presented. Two separate fiber optic chemical sensor (FOCS) designs were developed and tested. One was constructed by placing the chemical phase at the distal end of the fiber (optode FOCS), and the other was constructed by placing the chemical phase in a gap between two fibers (in-line FOCS). The dynamic responses of the two designs were evaluated relative to the chemical phase chemistry, the chemical phase volume, and the chemical phase depth (cell depth). Sensor sensitivity and response time were determined to be a function of the three chemical phase parameters. Improvements in sensitivity that increased either volume or cell depth were found to result in an increase in response time. The optode FOCS had a typical sensor response range between 0.1 mg/L and 5.0mg/L ammonia -nitrogen, and the in-line sensor had a sensor response range between 0.02 mg/L and 0.20 mg/L ammonia-nitrogen. The response rate increased with increased aqueous ammonia concentration; however, the time for the sensor to reach an equilibrium condition (response time) also increased with increased concentration. The response time was typically between 5 and 20 minutes. The third instrument design, the fiber optic photometer (FOP), evolved from the in-line FOCS and, was shown to be an important finding of this research. The FOP was developed to have performance characteristics comparable to field spectrometers and filter colorimeters. This included a detection range between 0.01 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L ammonia -nitrogen. Additionally, the FOP was demonstrated to be capable of measuring orthophosphate in surface water with a detection range between 0.01 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L as phosphate. The FOP had the advantage of reduced size, weight and system cost relative to commercially available field spectrometers and colorimeters. The results of this study illustrated the potential

  12. The filter-loading effect by ambient aerosols in filter absorption photometers depends on the coating of the sampled particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinovec, Luka; Gregorič, Asta; Zotter, Peter; Wolf, Robert; Bruns, Emily Anne; Prévôt, André S. H.; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Sciare, Jean; Arnold, Ian J.; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Moosmüller, Hans; Filep, Agnes; Močnik, Griša

    2017-03-01

    Black carbon is a primary aerosol tracer for high-temperature combustion emissions and can be used to characterize the time evolution of its sources. It is correlated with a decrease in public health and contributes to atmospheric warming. Black carbon measurements are usually conducted with absorption filter photometers, which are prone to several artifacts, including the filter-loading effect - a saturation of the instrumental response due to the accumulation of the sample in the filter matrix. In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that this filter-loading effect depends on the optical properties of particles present in the filter matrix, especially on the black carbon particle coating. We conducted field campaigns in contrasting environments to determine the influence of source characteristics, particle age and coating on the magnitude of the filter-loading effect. High-time-resolution measurements of the filter-loading parameter in filter absorption photometers show daily and seasonal variations of the effect. The variation is most pronounced in the near-infrared region, where the black carbon mass concentration is determined. During winter, the filter-loading parameter value increases with the absorption Ångström exponent. It is suggested that this effect is related to the size of the black carbon particle core as the wood burning (with higher values of the absorption Ångström exponent) produces soot particles with larger diameters. A reduction of the filter-loading effect is correlated with the availability of the coating material. As the coating of ambient aerosols is reduced or removed, the filter-loading parameter increases. Coatings composed of ammonium sulfate and secondary organics seem to be responsible for the variation of the loading effect. The potential source contribution function analysis shows that high values of the filter-loading parameter in the infrared are indicative of local pollution, whereas low values of the filter

  13. Transport and Microphysics of Aerosols Released by Collapse and Fire of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 as Observed by AERONET and MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G. L.; Diner, D.; Kahn, R.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution has been studied intensively during the last several decades for its impact on climate, visibility, atmospheric chemistry, and public health. Here we consider the aftermath of the catastrophic aerosol release produced by the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City (NYC) on September 11, 2001. The north and south WTC buildings were attacked at 0846 EDT and 0903 EDT, respectively, on September 11, 2001. The collapse of the WTC South Tower at 0959 EDT followed by the crash of the North Tower at 1029 EDT instantaneously pulverized a vast amount of building material, that was reduced to dust and smoke in nearby streets and the atmosphere above. The remains of the WTC complex covered a 16-acre area known as Ground Zero. Intensive combustion continued until September 14, with temperatures occasionally exceeding 1000 C, producing a steady, elevated source of hazardous gases and aerosols. A detailed spatial and temporal description of the pollution fields' evolution is needed to fully understand their environmental and health impact, but many existing in situ aerosol monitoring stations in the vicinity of the WTC were completely plugged with dust immediately after the collapse. However, the aerosol plume was remotely sensed from the ground and from space. Here we combine numerical modeling of micrometeorological fields and pollution transport using the RAMS/HYPACT modeling system with AERONET and MISR retrievals, to realistically reconstruct plume evolution. AERONET collected plume data in NYC from the roof of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in Upper Manhattan. In NYC, aerosol optical depth was rather low until 1800 UTC on September 12; then it increased to ~0.3 (at 440 nm) by 2130 UTC. On September 13, the optical depth was slightly elevated in the morning and increased further beginning at 1700 UTC, reaching ~0.30 by 2000-2200 UTC. The angstrom exponent increased from 1.8 on September 12 to 2.2 in the late afternoon

  14. The Sol project: the sun in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, L. G. F.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    The solar place in the set of stellar properties of the neighborhood, such as chemical composition, magnetic activity, lithium depletion, and others, suggests that the Sun may not exactly be a representative star. A few of the solar putative peculiarities seem to involve details of its evolutionary history, and that some light might be shed onto this question by a new approach based on the analysis of a time line in the HR diagram, searching for stars that might represent past, present and future solar evolutionary loci. The SOL Project (Solar Origin and Life) aims towards the identification, among the nearby stars, of those that share in detail the solar evolutionary track, in order to put the Sun as a star in proper perspective. We aim at obtaining, spectroscopically, atmospheric parameters, Fe and Li abundances, space velocities, state of evolution, degree of chromospheric activity and rotational velocities of a stellar sample, selected from precise astrometry and photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue, as to represent the Sun in various evolutionary stages along the solar mass, solar metallicity theoretical track: the early Sun, the present Sun, the subgiant Sun and the giant Sun. Here we present a progress report of the survey: the sample selection, OPD spectroscopic observations and preliminary results of the atmospheric parameters and evolutionary status analysis. As a by-product, we also present a new effective temperature calibration, based on published Infrared Flux Method data, and calibrated explicitly for precise spectroscopic stellar metallicities, for the (B-V), (BT-VT), (R-I), (V-I), (V-R) and (V-K) color indices, and valid for cool, normal and moderately metal-poor giant stars.

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Sun Safe Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a spacecraft designed and built at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD, was launched on June 18, 2009 from Cape Canaveral. It is currently in orbit about the Moon taking detailed science measurements and providing a highly accurate mapping of the suface in preparation for the future return of astronauts to a permanent moon base. Onboard the spacecraft is a complex set of algorithms designed by the attitude control engineers at GSFC to control the pointig for all operational events, including anomalies that require the spacecraft to be put into a well known attitude configuration for a sufficiently long duration to allow for the investigation and correction of the anomaly. GSFC level requirements state that each spacecraft s control system design must include a configuration for this pointing and lso be able to maintain a thermally safe and power positive attitude. This stable control algorithm for anomalous events is commonly referred to as the safe mode and consists of control logic thatwill put the spacecraft in this safe configuration defined by the spacecraft s hardware, power and environment capabilities and limitations. The LRO Sun Safe mode consists of a coarse sun-pointing set of algorithms that puts the spacecraft into this thermally safe and power positive attitude and can be achieved wihin a required amount of time from any initial attitude, provided that the system momentum is within the momentum capability of the reaction wheels. On LRO the Sun Safe mode makes use of coarse sun sensors (CSS), an inertial reference unit (IRU) and reaction wheels (RW) to slew the spacecraft to a solar inertial pointing. The CSS and reaction wheels have some level of redundancy because of their numbers. However, the IRU is a single-point-failure piece of hardware. Without the rate information provided by the IRU, the Sun Safe control algorithms could not

  16. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  18. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201.97... Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are topical products that absorb or reflect the sun's ultraviolet radiation...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201.97... Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are topical products that absorb or reflect the sun's ultraviolet radiation...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  2. Concurrent Psychosocial Predictors of Sun Safety among Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sun-induced skin damage, which increases skin cancer risk, is initiated in early life and promoted through later sun exposure patterns. If sun safety determinants are well understood and addressed during the school years, skin cancer incidence might be reduced. This study tested psychosocial influences on youth's sun safety and…

  3. The Solar Chimes: Searching for Oscillations inside the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Donat G.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of investigating the sun's interior is discussed. One method for probing the interiors of some pulsating stars is described. The relationship between the sun's solar oscillation frequencies and the sun's solar cycles is discussed. A project to place six instruments around the world to observe the sun's oscillations (GONG) is…

  4. A Magellan MIKE and Spitzer MIPS Study of 1.5-1.0 M sun Stars in Scorpius-Centaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine H.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Bitner, Martin A.; Pecaut, Mark; Su, Kate Y. L.; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2011-09-01

    We obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 μm and 70 μm observations of 182 nearby, Hipparcos F- and G-type common proper motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. We also obtained Magellan/MIKE R ~ 50,000 visual spectra at 3500-10500 Å for 181 candidate ScoCen stars in single and binary systems. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 μm F+G-type disk fractions of 9/27 (33% ± 11%), 21/67 (31% ± 7%), and 25/71 (35% ± 7%) for Upper Scorpius (~10 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus (~15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux (~17 Myr), respectively. We confirm previous IRAS and MIPS excess detections and present new discoveries of 41 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from L IR/L * = 10-5 to 10-2 and grain temperatures ranging from T gr = 40-300 K. We searched for an increase in 24 μm excess at an age of 15-20 Myr, consistent with the onset of debris production predicted by coagulation N-body simulations of outer planetary systems. We found such an increase around 1.5 M sun stars but discovered a decrease in the 24 μm excess around 1.0 M sun stars. We additionally discovered that the 24 μm excess around 1.0 M sun stars is larger than predicted by self-stirred models. Finally, we found a weak anti-correlation between fractional infrared luminosity (L IR/L *) and chromospheric activity (R'HK), that may be the result of differences in stellar properties, such as mass, luminosity, and/or winds.

  5. An Examination of Coarse Sun Sensor Contingencies in Attitude Determination and the Sun Vector Calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Brenman; Welch, Ray; Burt, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Satellite pointing is vital to the success of a mission. One element of that entails describing the position of the sun relative to the frame of the satellite. Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS) are typically used to provide the information to calculate the sun's position in Safe Modes or contingency operations. In the OCO-2 configuration there are 13 CSS total, which provide redundant 4 celestial coverage. Failures of the individual CSS elements can introduce holes in the celestial coverage resulting in potential loss of sun knowledge. These failures must be analyzed to determine if the contingency plan is sufficient to assure mission success. First the static case was looked at and determined that at a maximum, 3 CSS failures can be sustained on the body and 1 on the array without causing coverage holes. Also array sensors are more important to mission success. The Sun Vector calculation has been transcribed to MATLAB code and failure scenarios are being examined to determine the maximum error given a set of failure scenarios. This activity indicated that if there is a loss of the sun, the sun-searching algorithm could be modified to use XZ rotation as that is guaranteed to find it whereas the design using the YZ rotation misses the sun if it is at the + or - Y orientation.

  6. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  7. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  8. Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Distributions of Particle Parameters from Multiwavelength Lidar Measurements Using the Linear Estimation Technique and Comparison with AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veselovskii, I.; Whiteman, D. N.; Korenskiy, M.; Kolgotin, A.; Dubovik, O.; Perez-Ramirez, D.; Suvorina, A.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the application of the linear estimation technique to multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements performed during the summer of 2011 in Greenbelt, MD, USA, are presented. We demonstrate that multiwavelength lidars are capable not only of providing vertical profiles of particle properties but also of revealing the spatio-temporal evolution of aerosol features. The nighttime 3 Beta + 1 alpha lidar measurements on 21 and 22 July were inverted to spatio-temporal distributions of particle microphysical parameters, such as volume, number density, effective radius and the complex refractive index. The particle volume and number density show strong variation during the night, while the effective radius remains approximately constant. The real part of the refractive index demonstrates a slight decreasing tendency in a region of enhanced extinction coefficient. The linear estimation retrievals are stable and provide time series of particle parameters as a function of height at 4 min resolution. AERONET observations are compared with multiwavelength lidar retrievals showing good agreement.

  9. New portable time-resolved photometer for monitoring the calcium dynamics of osteoblasts under mechanical and zero-gravity stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Jens; Tenbosch, Jochen; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin R.; Jones, David B.

    2000-04-01

    We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero-gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provides the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0 percent C +/- 0.1 degree C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular set-up providing the possibility to change light source and detectors for investigation of other ions than calcium. Quantitative measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.

  10. NitroMAC: An instrument for the measurement of HONO and intercomparison with a long-path absorption photometer.

    PubMed

    Afif, Charbel; Jambert, Corinne; Michoud, Vincent; Colomb, Aurélie; Eyglunent, Gregory; Borbon, Agnès; Daële, Véronique; Doussin, Jean-François; Perros, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    NitroMAC (French acronym for continuous atmospheric measurements of nitrogenous compounds) is an instrument which has been developed for the semi-continuous measurement of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO). This instrument relies on wet chemical sampling and detection using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-visible absorption at 540 nm. Sampling proceeds by dissolution of gaseous HONO in a phosphate buffer solution followed by derivatization with sulfanilamide/N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine. The performance of this instrument was found to be as follows: a detection limit of around 3 ppt with measurement uncertainty of 10% over an analysis time of 10 min. Intercomparison was made between the instrument and a long-path absorption photometer (LOPAP) during two experiments in different environments. First, air was sampled in a smog chamber with concentrations up to 18 ppb of nitrous acid. NitroMAC and LOPAP measurements showed very good agreement. Then, in a second experiment, ambient air with HONO concentrations below 250 ppt was sampled. While NitroMAC showed its capability of measuring HONO in moderate and highly polluted environments, the intercomparison results in ambient air highlighted that corrections must be made for minor interferences when low concentrations are measured.

  11. Feasibility of using a two-wavelength photometer to estimate the concentration of circulating near-infrared extinguishing nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Gregory J; Anderson, Heather A; O'Neal, D Patrick

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate a photometer based on pulse oximeter technology designed to test the feasibility of using non-invasive optics to quantify in vivo circulation parameters of optically-active particles by measuring changes in optical extinction introduced by the particles in a murine animal model. A real-time estimate of relative concentration was produced by collecting log-scaled bandpass pulsatile and non-pulsatile intensity (760 nm or 940 nm) near the extinction peak of the employed gold nanoshells and mathematically subtracting the pre-injection intensity through the murine subject. The circulation half-lives in four mice were estimated between 3 and 43 minutes compared to direct optical measurement of 5 microL blood draws with UV/Vis spectrophotometry which demonstrated nanoparticle extinctions ranging from 0.246 to 7.408 optical density (OD). A linear model fit relating the two methods produced an R2 value of 0.75. The 1.795 OD negative bias (-4.98 x 10(9) nanoparticles/ml) between the two methods describes the 35.5% (or 12.0 minutes) average error of prediction of the half-life. This report demonstrates that the circulation parameters of optically-active particles employed at therapeutically-relevant concentrations can be monitored in real-time using non-invasive optical techniques and advises further refinement.

  12. Automatic determination of insolubles in lubricating oils by flow injection analysis employing an LED-photometer detector.

    PubMed

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Sixto, Alexandra; Knochen, Moisés

    2007-10-31

    A flow injection system is presented for the determination of the insolubles content in used lubricating oil samples. The system is based on the injection of an aliquot of the sample in a stream of organic solvent where it is dispersed, and measurement of the scattered radiation (measured as apparent absorbance) in the visible range (lambda=640nm). An LED-based photometer was used for this purpose. The whole system including sample injection and data acquisition was controlled by a personal computer. Calibration curves exhibited good linearity (h=0.415+/-0.016C+0.00+/-0.03, r(2)=0.9995, confidence level of 95%) in the range up to 2.68% (insolubles in pentane). Detection and quantification limits were respectively 0.07% and 0.16% (w/w). The method was validated by analysis of 25 real samples by the proposed method and the FTIR method finding high correlation. Waste generation and reactive consumption is much less than in the official method (ASTM D-893). The proposed method employs 25mL of kerosene per sample while the official method employs 200mL of pentane.

  13. Investigation of refractory black carbon-containing particle morphologies using the single-particle soot photometer (SP2)

    DOE PAGES

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Lewis, Ernie R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; ...

    2015-07-24

    An important source of uncertainty in radiative forcing by absorbing aerosol particles is the uncertainty in their morphologies (i.e., the location of the absorbing substance on/in the particles). To examine the effects of particle morphology on the response of an individual black carbon-containing particle in a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), a series of experiments was conducted to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate),more » and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermo-chemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources.« less

  14. Investigation of refractory black carbon-containing particle morphologies using the single-particle soot photometer (SP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Lewis, Ernie R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Lambe, Andrew T.; Davidovits, Paul

    2015-07-24

    An important source of uncertainty in radiative forcing by absorbing aerosol particles is the uncertainty in their morphologies (i.e., the location of the absorbing substance on/in the particles). To examine the effects of particle morphology on the response of an individual black carbon-containing particle in a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), a series of experiments was conducted to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate), and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermo-chemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources.

  15. AERONET-based models of smoke-dominated aerosol near source regions and transported over oceans, and implications for satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2014-10-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol system. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of aerosol microphysical/optical parameters at 10 sites reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke observed at coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at the near-source sites. Differences between sites tend to be larger than variability at an individual site, although optical properties for some sites in different regions can be quite similar. Across the sites, typical midvisible SSA ranges from ~ 0.95-0.97 (sites dominated by boreal forest or peat burning, typically with larger fine-mode particle radius and spread) to ~ 0.88-0.9 (sites most influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning, typically smaller fine-mode particle radius and spread). The tropical forest site Alta Floresta (Brazil) is closer to this second category, although with intermediate SSA ~ 0.92. The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savannah at Mongu (Zambia), with average midvisible SSA ~ 0.85. Sites with stronger absorption also tend to have stronger spectral gradients in SSA, becoming more absorbing at longer wavelengths. Microphysical/optical models are presented in detail so as to facilitate their use in radiative transfer calculations, including extension to UV (ultraviolet) wavelengths, and lidar ratios. One intended application is to serve as candidate optical models for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean often have insufficient absorption (i.e. too high SSA) to represent these biomass burning aerosols. The underestimates in satellite-retrieved AOD in smoke outflow regions, which have important consequences for applications of these satellite data sets, are consistent with

  16. Aerosol properties measured by MAX-DOAS in Gwangju during the DRAGON NE-Asia Campaign and comparison with AERONET and MODIS data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Shin, D.; Kim, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.; Song, C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol interacts both directly and indirectly with the Earth's radiation budget and cause climate change. Aerosols also can act as sites for chemical reactions to take place (heterogeneous chemistry). In Asia, the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) campaign for validation of satellite aerosol products and comparison/validation of ground-based aerosol retrievals had been conducted in Korea (DRAGON-Korea) from March to May 2012 for three months with 21 CIMEL sunphotometers, 2 Pandoras, a MAX-DOAS and a multichannel Raman Lidar system. Level 2.0 sunphotometer data (cloud screened and quality assured) at the Gwangju AERONET 321 site (35.2°N, 126.8°E, 52 m above sea level) were used for comparing aerosol optical depths (AODs) derived from the GIST MAX-DOAS observations. Information on O4 slant column densities at several different elevation angles is used to determine the atmospheric aerosol optical depth within the lower troposphere using the MAX-DOAS measurement data. Also, in order to evaluate satellite aerosol products, MODIS Terra satellite aerosol products were compared with the ground-based AERONET aerosol data at the 550 nm spectral wavelength. Significant linear relationship was resulted with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.66 between the sunphotometer measured AODs and GIST MAX-DOAS retrieved AODs values at 476 nm. There is significant linear relationship with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.79 between the sunphotometer measured AODs and MODIS Terra AODs at 550 nm. Aerosol extinction coefficient values from MAX-DOAS and Lidar system were compared. Results from sunphotometer and MAX-DOAS measurements can be used for validation of geostationary satellite measurement in the near future.

  17. Assessment of aerosol optics, microphysics, and transport process of biomass-burning haze over northern SE Asia: 7-SEAS AERONET observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Initiated in 2007, the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is aimed to facilitate an interdisciplinary research on the aerosol environment in SE Asia (SEA) as a whole, promote international collaboration, and further enhance scientific understanding of the impact of biomass burning on clouds, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and region climates. One of the key measurements proposed in the 7-SEAS is the NASA/AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observation, which provides helpful information on columnar aerosol optical properties and allows us consistently to examine biomass-burning aerosols across northern SEA from ground-based remote-sensing point of view. In this presentation, we will focus on the two 7-SEAS field deployments, i.e. the 2012 Son La Experiment and the 2013 BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment). We analyze the daytime variation of aerosol by using consistent measurements from 15 of AERONET sites over Indochina, the South China Sea, and Taiwan. Spatiotemporal characteristics of aerosol optical properties (e.g., aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine/coarse mode AOD, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor) will be discussed. Strong diurnal variation of aerosol optical properties was observed to be attributed to planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. A comparison between aerosol loading (i.e. AOD) and surface PM2.5 concentration will be presented. Our results demonstrate that smoke aerosols emitted from agriculture burning that under certain meteorological conditions can degrade regional air quality 3000 km from the source region, with additional implications for aerosol radiative forcing and regional climate change over northern SE Asia.

  18. Design and performances of microcameras and photometers instruments on TARANIS satellite for an advanced characterization of Transient Luminous Event in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mer-Dachard, Fanny; Cansot, Elodie; Hébert, Philippe; Farges, Thomas; Ravel, Karen; Gaillac, Stéphanie

    2015-10-01

    The TARANIS mission aims at studying upper atmosphere coupling with a scientific nadir-pointing microsatellite - CNES Myriade family - at a low-altitude orbit (700 km). The main objectives are to measure the occurrence of Transient Luminous Event (TLE), impulsive energetic optical phenomena generated by storms according to recently discovered process, and Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF), their emissions and trigger factors. TARANIS instruments are currently in manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing phase. The MicroCameras and Photometers instruments (MCP) are in charge of the remote sensing of the sprites and the lightning in optical wavelengths. MicroCameras instrument [MCP-MC] is an imager in the visible and Photometers instrument [MCP-PH] is a radiometer with four bands from UV to NIR, able to detect TLEs on-board and to trigger the whole payload. The satellite will provide a complete survey of the atmosphere in low resolution together with a high resolution data of sites of interest automatically detected on board. For MC and PH instruments, CEA defined scientific needs and is in charge of processing data and providing scientific results. CNES described the technical requirements of these two instruments and will run in-flight commissioning. Design, manufacturing and testing is under responsibility of Sodern for MicroCameras and Bertin Technologies for Photometers. This article shortly describes physical characteristics of TLEs and presents the final design of these instruments and first measured performances.

  19. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  20. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) and MODIS to AERONET AOD and IMPROVE PM2.5 Mass at Bondville, Illinois Stratified by Chemical Composition, RH, Particle Size, and Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. C.; Kondragunta, S.; Ciren, P.

    2008-05-01

    The USEPA is interested in using satellite remote sensing data to estimate levels of PM2.5. Here we report on comparisons of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to IMPROVE network PM2.5 mass and AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) ground-based AOD. Before we compare GASP and MODIS AOD to PM2.5, we first evaluate satellite AOD using the ground-based AERONET measurements and how it varies by aerosol chemical composition and size distribution. We focus attention on the Bondville, Illinois site because there is collocated IMPROVE sampling and an AERONET site. GASP provides aerosol optical depth at 0.55 um using top of atmosphere visible channel radiance measured from GOES east and GOES west. Time resolution is typically every 30 minutes during daylight hours. MODIS provides typically once per day AOD for any given location. The IMPROVE sampler provides a 24-hour integrated sample of PM10 mass, and PM2.5 mass and elemental composition on a one day in three schedule. AERONET provides aerosol optical depth at multiple wavelengths and aerosol size distribution as well as other derived parameters such as Angstrom exponent from ground based daytime measurements. We stratified cases by RH group, major chemical component, size distribution, and season. GOES AOD correlated best with PM2.5 mass during periods with mainly small particles, moderate RH, and sulfate dominated aerosol. It correlated poorly when RH is very high or low, aerosol is primarily organic, and when coarse to fine mass ratio is high. GASP AOD also correlated best with AERONET AOD when particles are mainly fine, suggesting the aerosol model assumptions (e.g. size distribution) may need to be varied geographically for GASP to achieve better AOD results.

  1. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-10-10

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  2. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  3. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  4. The sun since the Bronze Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  5. Role of clothes in sun protection.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, Thilo; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klauss

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the carcinogenic factor in sunlight. Damage to skin cells from repeated UV exposure can lead to the development of skin cancer. Apart from avoidance of the sun, the most frequently used form of UV protection has been the application of sunscreens. The use of textiles as a means of sun protection has been underrated in previous educational campaigns, even though suitable clothing offers usually simple and effective broadband protection against the sun. Apart from skin cancer formation, exacerbation of photosensitive disorders and premature skin aging could be prevented by suitable UV-protective clothing. Nevertheless, several studies have recently shown that, contrary to popular opinion, some textiles provide only limited UV protection. It has been found that one-third of commercial summer clothing items provide a UV protection factor (UPF) less than 15. Given the increasing interest in sun protection, recreationally and occupationally, test methods and a rating scheme for clothing were needed that would ensure sufficient UV protection. Various textile parameters have an influence on the UPF of a finished garment. Important parameters are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight and thickness. The application of UV absorbers into the yarns significantly improves the UPF of a garment. Under the conditions of wear and use several factors can alter the UV-protective properties of a textile, e.g., stretch, wetness and laundering. The use of UV-blocking cloths can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV-protective clothing. However, further educational efforts are necessary to change people's sun behavior and raise awareness for the use of adequate sun-protective clothing.

  6. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  7. Shining Light through the Sun by Axions

    SciTech Connect

    Rashba, Timur

    2007-11-27

    I show that the Sun can become partially transparent to high energy photons in the presence of a pseudo-scalar. I discuss the possibilities of observing this effect. Present data are limited to the observation of the solar occultation of 3C 279 by EGRET in 1991; 98% C.L. detection of a non-zero flux of gamma rays passing through the Sun is not yet conclusive. Since the same occultation happens every October, future experiments, e.g. GLAST, are expected to have better sensitivity to the discussed effect.

  8. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Marsden, R. G.; Balogh, A.; Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; McComas, D. J.; McKibben, R. B.; MacDowall, R. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Krupp, N.; Krueger, H.; Landgraf, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun'rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  9. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  10. Martian Moon Eclipses Sun, in Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panel illustrates the transit of the martian moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  11. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  12. Development of sun compensation by honeybees: how partially experienced bees estimate the sun's course.

    PubMed

    Dyer, F C; Dickinson, J A

    1994-05-10

    Honeybees and some other insects, in learning the sun's course, behave as if they can estimate the sun's position at times of day when they have never seen it, but there are competing ideas about the computational mechanisms underlying this ability. In an approach to this problem, we provided incubator-reared bees with opportunities to fly and see the sun only during the late afternoon. Then, on a cloudy day, we allowed bees to fly for the first time during the morning and early afternoon, and we observed how they oriented their waggle dances to indicate their direction of flight relative to the sun's position. The clouds denied the bees a direct view of celestial orientation cues and thus forced them to estimate the sun's position on the basis of their experience on previous evenings. During the test days, experience-restricted bees behaved during the entire morning as if they expected the sun to be in an approximately stationary position about 180 degrees from the average solar azimuth that they had experienced on previous evenings; then from about local noon onward they used the evening azimuth. This pattern suggests that honeybees are innately informed of the general pattern of solar movement, such that they can generate an internal representation that incorporates spatial and temporal features of the sun's course that they have never directly seen.

  13. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  14. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  15. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Monster Prominence Erupts from the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    When a rather large M 3.6 class flare occurred near the edge of the Sun on Feb. 24, 2011, it blew out a gorgeous, waving mass of erupting plasma that swirled and twisted for 90 minutes. NASA’s So...

  17. Nanoflare Heating of the Quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, N. M.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    How the solar corona is heated to temperatures of over 1 MK, while the photosphere below is only ~ 6000 K remains one of the outstanding problems in all of space science. Solving this problem is crucial for understanding Sun-Earth connections, and will provide new insight into universal processes such as magnetic reconnection and wave-particle interactions. We use a systematic technique to analyze the properties of coronal heating throughout the solar corona using data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Our technique computes cooling times of the coronal plasma on a pixel-by-pixel basis and has the advantage that it analyzes all of the coronal emission, including the diffuse emission surrounding distinguishable coronal features. We have already applied this technique to 15 different active regions, and find clear evidence for dynamic heating and cooling cycles that are consistent with the 'impulsive nanoflare' scenario. What about the rest of the Solar corona? Whether the quiet Sun is heated in a similar or distinct manner from active regions is a matter of great debate. Here we apply our coronal heating analysis technique to quiet Sun locations. We find areas of quiet Sun locations that also undergo dynamic heating and cooling cycles, consistent with impulsive nanoflares. However, there are important characteristics that are distinct from those of active regions.

  18. SunBlock '99- An Educational Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, C. D.; Mason, H. E.; Walsh, R. W.

    2000-04-01

    SunBlock `99 is a web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which presents the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. It seeks both to increase public awareness of solar physics and to provide an educational resource for use in the classroom.

  19. Error Compensation for Area Digital Sun Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Yang; Zhang, Gao-Fei; You, Zheng; Xing, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the error factors of the Linear Array Digital Sun Sensor (DSS), those of the Area Array DSS are complicated and methods used for error compensation are not valid or simple enough. This paper presents the main error factors of the Area Array DSS and proposes an effective method to compensate them. The procedure of error compensation of Area Array DSS includes three steps. First, the geometric error of calibration is compensated; second, the coordinate map method is used to compensate the error caused by optical refraction; third, the high order polynomial-fitting method is applied to calculate the tangent of the sun angles; finally, the arc tangent method is used to calculate the sun angles. Experimental results of the product of the High Accuracy Sun Sensor indicate that the precision is better than 0.02° during the cone field of view (CFOV) of 10°, and the precision is better than 0.14° during the CFOV 10° to 64°. The proposed compensation method effectively compensates the major error factors and significantly improves the measure precision of the Area APS DSS.

  20. Measuring Pinhole Images of the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriss, Victor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a measurement lab that introduces measurement and presents a simple example of how to use error analysis with an obvious illustration of its value. The experiment measures the diameters of pinhole images of the sun and uses them to calculate the heights of the leafy canopy that created the images. (JRH)