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Sample records for aeronomy space physics

  1. Morrow, Reiff, Receive 2013 Space Physics and Aeronomy Richard Carrington Awards: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.

    2014-08-01

    It is a special privilege to receive this award honoring Richard Carrington's discovery of what we now call space weather. It is particularly appropriate that this award also recognizes Cherilynn Morrow, who 20 years ago made a presentation to the Space Science Advisory Committee on Jeff Rosendhal's idea of mission-based E/PO. We worked together, bringing that idea to the successful, but threatened, network it is today. For me, learning and teaching go hand in hand—as we publish our findings for our peers, we should also repay the public investment in our research with accurate, understandable results. My interest in space science was sparked by a father-daughter course in astronomy sponsored by the Brownies at the Oklahoma City Planetarium and kindled by the Bell Labs production The Strange Case of the Cosmic Rays directed by Frank Capra. Knowing that planetarium shows and educational movies can change lives, I have devoted a large portion of my last 25 years to creating software, shows, and portable planetariums to inspire and engage youth. This has not been a one-person effort, of course. My work Cherilynn Ann Morrow would have been impossible without the collaboration of Carolyn Sumners, vice president of the Houston Museum of Natural Science. Our museum kiosk and planetarium control software would not have happened without the skill and perseverance of my chief programmer, Colin Law. Jim Burch has been first a mentor and then a colleague on both the research and outreach sides of my career. I share this honor with a long line of highly talented students and postdocs who have contributed science content and outreach efforts. Most importantly, without the support of my husband, Tom Hill, I would not have had the time and freedom to build an educational network while continuing research and raising a family. I thank AGU for bestowing this honor.

  2. Aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P.

    1984-01-01

    The central theme of Aeronomy in the 1990 period will be the formulation of a coupled global view of the upper atmosphere as an integral extension of the lower regions. Photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics, the atmospheric energy, and observational requirements for the 1990's are discussed.

  3. Aeronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, S.K.

    1984-10-01

    From the known composition (H2, CH4, C2H2 at Uranus, and H2, CH4, C2H6 at Neptune) and the inversion and photolysis region temperatures, reasonable theoretical models for the upper atmospheric distribution of the neutral and ionospheric species are constructed on the basis of the expected physical and chemical processes. The models indicate that C2H2 would condense over an extensive height range of Uranus. The extent of the haze is expected to be smaller and deeper in the polar region. Some ethane is also expected to condense, mostly in the vicinity of the temperature inversion. The behavior of the acetylene condensation with latitude and time appears to be consistent with its apparent abundance variation (detected by IUE), and the brightening of Uranus observed in ground based imaging. Neptune's polar region, on the other hand is expected to be more hazy or cloudy than the equatorial region.

  4. Aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    From the known composition (H2, CH4, C2H2(?) at Uranus, and H2, CH4, C2H6 at Neptune) and the inversion and photolysis region temperatures, reasonable theoretical models for the upper atmospheric distribution of the neutral and ionospheric species are constructed on the basis of the expected physical and chemical processes. The models indicate that C2H2 would condense over an extensive height range of Uranus. The extent of the haze is expected to be smaller and deeper in the polar region. Some ethane is also expected to condense, mostly in the vicinity of the temperature inversion. The behavior of the acetylene condensation with latitude and time appears to be consistent with its apparent abundance variation (detected by IUE), and the brightening of Uranus observed in ground based imaging. Neptune's polar region, on the other hand is expected to be more hazy or cloudy than the equatorial region.

  5. Aeronomy from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lessons learned with The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) a new NASA experiment studying the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from a vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. The RAIDS mission focuses on the coupling and transition from the coldest part of the atmosphere, the mesopause near 85 km, up to the hottest regions of the thermosphere above 300 km. Built jointly by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and The Aerospace Corporation, RAIDS also is serving as a pathfinder experiment for atmospheric remote sensing aboard the ISS. The 51.6 deg. orbital inclination and roughly 340 km orbital altitude of the ISS required tailoring atmospheric science objectives appropriate for low- and mid-latitude observations. Orbital precession enables observations over a range of local time and solar illumination conditions, but also causes the orbital plane to intersect the Sun roughly monthly, requiring a temporary shutdown of the RAIDS sensors. Extensive station structures near the field-of-regard pose a risk of scattered light contamination which must be mitigated through good baffling of optical sensors. Activities aboard the manned station, including attitude perturbations from spacecraft dockings and construction activities, occasionally disrupt observations. A significant challenge for limb-viewing RAIDS was ISS pitch oscillations up to ±0.75 deg. per orbit associated with solar array rotation, but NASA adjusted the station’s flight characteristics to provide ±0.2 deg. pitch stability for RAIDS. Jitter and vibration at the extremity of the ISS have not been a concern for RAIDS. Finally, manned environments are notoriously dirty with respect to contamination-sensitive optical instruments, but after twelve months of continuous operation RAIDS does not exhibit any unusual degradation in sensor performance.

  6. Space plasma physics research progress 1987-1990 - Mars, Venus, and Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, J.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and observational studies of space plasma physics at the inner planets, Mars, Venus, and Mercury are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the solar wind interactions and aeronomy (upper neutral atmospheres and ionospheres) of these planets. 206 refs.

  7. Current understanding of the aeronomy of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Andrew F.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper provides a short overview of our current understanding of the upper atmosphere/ionosphere of Mars including the escaping neutral atmosphere to space that plays a key role in the current state of the Mars upper atmosphere. The proper definition of the word "aeronomy" relates to the upper atmosphere where ionization is important. Currently there is a paucity of measurements of the internal physical structure of the Martian upper atmosphere/ionosphere. Much that we know has been deduced from theoretical models that predict many more things than thus far measured. The newest Mars orbital missions, the US MAVEN and Indian MOM missions, just beginning their science analyses, will provide the measurements needed to fully characterize the aeronomy of Mars.

  8. SOLAR2000 irradiances for climate change research, aeronomy and space system engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Improvements to spectral and temporal solar irradiances are often based upon increasingly accurate and precise measurements as well as upon better understood physics. This paper reports on one example in an emerging trend for solar irradiance models that can be characterized as hybrid irradiance modeling. Empirical and physics-based modeling of irradiances are combined and take advantage of strengths within both methods to provide a variety of solar irradiance products to science and engineering users. The SOLAR2000 (S2K) version 1.24 model (v1.24) described in this paper has gone through 17 upgrades since it was originally released in 1999 as v0.10 and now incorporates three theoretical continua, 13 rocket spectra, and time series data from five satellites using 17 instruments. S2K currently produces six integrated irradiance proxies for science and engineering applications in addition to spectrally resolved irradiances in three common wavelength formats. Integrated irradiance proxies include the E10.7 integrated EUV energy flux, QEUV total thermospheric EUV heating rate, PEUV hemispheric EUV power, T∞ exospheric temperature, RSN derived sunspot number, and S integrated spectrum. Besides three spectral wavelength and six integrated irradiance formats there are three time frames of historical, nowcast, and forecast irradiance products produced by four model grades. The Research Grade (RG) model is developed for aeronomical and climate change research, the Professional Grade (PG) model is developed for space system engineering applications, the Operational Grade (OP) model is developed for institutional and agency real-time operational space weather applications, and the System Grade (SY) model is developed for commercial operational and production applications. This report describes these model characteristics as well as the current state of operational irradiances which are now in the second release of a first generation forecast methodology. Forecast Generation

  9. Outstanding problems in Mars aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    Although the Phobos-2 spacecraft recently obtained important results relevant to some of the major remaining questions in Mars aeronomy, much remains to be done. In particular, not since the Viking Landers have we made in-situ measurements of aeronomical quantities such as atmospheric and ionospheric densities and temperatures below 400 km altitude. We have never made magnetic field measurements at these altitudes. Without such measurements we cannot unambiguously resolve arguments concerning issues such as the significance of the planetary magnetic field in the solar wind interaction, or understand the atmospheric cycle that leads to escape to space. With the trio of future orbiters including Mars Observer, Mars-94, and Planet-B we should see a veritable explosion of new knowledge, but some gaps in aeronomical science coverage will still remain. This paper briefly reviews some of the major unsolved problems in Mars aeronomy, and points out which are expected to remain outstanding after this flotilla of missions.

  10. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  11. A Perspective of the Science and Mission Challenges in Aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2010-01-01

    There are significant fundamental problems for which aeronomy can provide solutions and a critical role in applied science and space weather that only aeronomy can address. Examples of unresolved problems include the interaction of neutral and charged, the role of mass and energy transfer across Earth's interface with space, and the predictability of ionospheric density and composition variability. These and other problems impact the productivity of space assets and thus have a tangible applied dimension. This talk will explore open science problems and barriers to potential mission solutions in an era of constrained resources.

  12. The Long, Bumpy Road to a Mars Aeronomy Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bougher, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of the space age, early focus was put into characterizing the Earth's upper atmosphere with aeronomy missions. These missions were designed to study the upper atmosphere region of a planet where the ionosphere is produced with particular attention given to the composition, properties and motion of atmosphere constituents. In particular a very successful US series of Atmosphere Explorer aeronomy spacecraft (1963-1977) was implemented. This upper atmosphere region is the envelope that all energy from the sun must penetrate and is recognized as an inseparable part of a planet's entire atmosphere. Venus was the next planet to have its upper atmosphere/ionosphere deeply probed via the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1978-1986) that carried a complement of instruments similar to some flown on the Atmosphere Explorers. The planet which humans have long set their imagination on, Mars, has yet to be subjected to the same detailed upper atmosphere perusal until now, with MAVEN. Not that attempts have been wanting. More than 30 spacecraft launches to Mars were attempted, but half were not successful and those that attained orbit came far short of attaining the same level of knowledge of the Martian upper atmosphere. Other countries had planned Mars aeronomy missions that didn't bear fruit - e.g. Mars-96 and Nozomi and the US did studies for two missions, Mars Aeronomy Orbiter and MUADEE, that never were implemented. This is about to change. NASA's Scout Program singled out two aeronomy missions in its final competition and the selected mission, MAVEN, will fly with the needed sophistication of instruments to finally probe and understand the top of Mars' atmosphere. Was this late selection of a NASA aeronomy mission to Mars a philosophy change in US priorities or was it an accident of planning and budget constraints? Was it driven by the developing knowledge that Mars really had an early atmosphere environment conducive to life and that an aeronomy mission is indeed

  13. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  14. Space physics educational outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this Space Physics Educational Outreach project was to develop a laboratory experiment and classroom lecture on Earth's aurora for use in lower division college physics courses, with the particular aim of implementing the experiment and lecture at Saint Mary's College of California. The strategy is to teach physics in the context of an interesting natural phenomenon by investigating the physical principles that are important in Earth's aurora, including motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, particle collisions and chemical reactions, and atomic and molecular spectroscopy. As a by-product, the undergraduate students would develop an appreciation for naturally occurring space physics phenomena.

  15. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  16. MOOSE: A Multi-Spectral Observatory Of Sensitive EMCCDs for innovative research in space physics and aeronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Hampton, D. L.; Trondsen, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Multi-Spectral Observatory Of Sensitive EMCCDs (MOOSE) consists of 5 imaging systems and is the result of an NSF-funded Major Research Instrumentation project. The main objective of MOOSE is to provide a resource to all members of the scientific community that have interests in imaging low-light-level phenomena, such as aurora, airglow, and meteors. Each imager consists of an Andor DU-888 Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD), combined with a telecentric optics section, made by Keo Scientific Ltd., with a selection of available angular fields of view. During the northern hemisphere winter the system is typically based and operated at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska, but any or all imagers can be shipped anywhere in individual stand-alone cases. We will discuss the main components of the MOOSE project, including the imagers, optics, lenses and filters, as well as the Linux-based control software that enables remote operation. We will also discuss the calibration of the imagers along with the initial deployments and testing done. We are requesting community input regarding operational modes, such as filter and field of view combinations, frame rates, and potentially moving some imagers to other locations, either for tomography or for larger spatial coverage. In addition, given the large volume of auroral image data already available, we are encouraging collaborations for which we will freely distribute the data and any analysis tools already developed. Most significantly, initial science highlights relating to aurora, airglow and meteors will be discussed in the context of the creative and innovative ways that the MOOSE observatory can be used in order to address a new realm of science topics, previously unachievable with traditional single imager systems.

  17. [Reflections on physical spaces and mental spaces].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yi

    2013-08-01

    This article analyzes certain reciprocal impacts from physical spaces to mental spaces. If the epistemological construction and the spatial imagination from the subject of cogito or the social collectivities are able to influence the construction and creation of the physical spaces of that subject, then the context of that physical space may also affect the cognitive or social subject's mental cognition. This article applies the methodology of iconology from art history (E. Panofsky) and sociology (P. Bourdieu) to explore correlations between the creation of imaginative and physical spaces from the collective consciousness and mental cognition. The author uses Gilles Deleuses's opinion regarding the 17th-century Baroque style and contemporary social collective symptoms as an explanation. From these theoretical studies, the author analyzes the differences of spatial epistemology generated by Taiwan's special geological text. Finally, the author applies Michel Foucault's studies on spatial context to assess the possible application of this thesis of reciprocal impacts from mental spaces to physical spaces in a nursing context.

  18. JOVE NASA-FIT program: Microgravity and aeronomy projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.; Mantovani, James G.; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    1994-01-01

    This semi-annual status report is divided into two sections: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Lab and Aeronomy Lab. The Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) research involves studying solar cell materials using the STM built at Florida Tech using a portion of our initial Jove equipment funding. One result of the participation in the FSEC project will be to design and build an STM system which is portable. This could serve as a prototype STM system which might be used on the Space Shuttle during a Spacelab mission, or onboard the proposed Space Station. The scanning tunneling microscope is only able to image the surface structure of electrically conductive crystals; by building an atomic force microscope (AFM) the surface structure of any sample, regardless of its conductivity, will be able to be imaged. With regards to the Aeronomy Lab, a total of four different mesospheric oxygen emission codes were created to calculate the intensity along the line of sight of the shuttle observations for 2972A, Herzberg I, Herzberg II, and Chamberlain bands. The thermosphere-ionosphere coupling project was completed with two major accomplishments: collection of 500 data points on modulation of neutral wind with geophysical variables, and establishment of constraints on behavior of the height of the ionosphere as a result of interaction between geophysical and geometrical factors. The magnetotail plasma project has been centered around familiarization with the subject in the form of a literature search and preprocessing of IMP-8 data.

  19. Aeronomy of the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Bougher, S. W.; Drossart, P.; Lopez-Valverde, M.; Pätzold, M.; Piccioni, G.

    2014-04-01

    The structure and content of the 'aeronomy' chapter of the Venus III book will be discussed. This chapter will review all recent results obtained from remote sensing of the upper atmosphere with emphasis on non-thermal emissions, global transport, wind, chemistry and composition related to airglow observations and modeling. Measurements of the ionospheric structure and its variability will be described. Data collected with instruments on board the Venus Express missions will be complemented with ground-based observations and results collected during the Cassini Venus flyby. Recent developments in global modeling coupling photochemistry, transport and gravity waves will also be compared with this set of new observations.

  20. Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, Dave; Weeks, Eric; Gasser, Urs; Dinsmore, Tony; Mawley, Suliana; Segre, Phil; Cipelletti, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    This talk will present recent results from ground-based research to support the "Physics of Colloids in Space" project which is scheduled to fly in the ISS approximately one year from now. In addition, results supporting future planned flights will be discussed.

  1. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  2. Planetary Aeronomy and Related Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Sprague, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Mercury atmosphere - Sprague and Hunten, in collaboration with Katharina Lodders of Washington University, proposed, mainly on cosmochemical grounds, that S atoms are an important constituent of the atmosphere (30 times more abundant than sodium). This paper has appeared in Icarus. We also suggest that condensed sulfur is an excellent candidate for the radar-bright polar caps, more plausible than water ice because the latter is only barely stable even in permanently-shadowed craters. The best prospect for detection of the vapor is through its resonance lines, a triplet near 1814 A. Mercury is too close to the Sun to be observed by any existing space telescope, but there is some prospect that the search could be made from a Shuttle-based spectrograph such as Lyle Broadfoot's USTAR. Sprague and Hunten have completed an elaborate data analysis of over 100 measurements of the Na D lines, obtained with the 61-inch telescope and our echelle spectrograph. Full account has been taken of the radiative-transfer problem that arises because the Na atmosphere is not optically thin. The output of this code is used in another program that makes an elaborate inverse interpolation in two angles and optical depth and computes the effect of the seeing (always bad for Mercury). The seeing is determined by fitting cuts across a computed image to part of the spectrum adjacent to the sodium lines, and typically ranges from slightly less than 4 arcsec to worse than 6 (diameter at l/e of a Gaussian). The final result is a list of Na abundances, with some information on spatial distribution. One particularly interesting result of further analysis is a strong abundance maximum in the morning relative to the afternoon, confirming an earlier result for potassium, based on much fewer measurements. The analysis are completed during the extension of the present grant. This work depends heavily on the Hapke parameters used to estimate the reflectance of Mercury's surface. The paper by Domingue et

  3. An aeronomy mission to investigate the entry and orbiter environment of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brace, Larry H.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an aeronomy mission to Mars as a precursor to a manned Mars mission is discussed. The upper atmosphere and radiation environment of Mars are reviewed, focusing on the implications of the Martian atmosphere for a manned mission. Plans for an aeronomy mission to Mars are described, including the Mars Aeronomy Observer and the Earth/Mars Aeronomy Orbiter.

  4. Living With a Star, the Geospace Mission Definition Team and Aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, Paul M., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Spann, Jim; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the Sun-Earth system, including how and why the sun varies, how the earth responds, and the impacts on humanity, research is needed that has a integrated and systematic approach. The Living With a Star (LWS) program represents an important element in this regard both to continued progress in space science in general and in Aeronomy in particular. A fundamental question in Aeronomy is how the variable sun affects the ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. The LWS program focuses on those areas of scientific understanding that promote progress in areas that have human impact and can be investigated with space borne instruments. The Geospace Mission Definition Team is charged with investigating the science priorities identified by the LWS Science Architecture Team and developing an approach to making the necessary measurements in concert with other missions and programs. An important aspect of this approach is that all LWS measurement programs are operating simultaneously for several years. We will review some of the areas that the LWS SAT have emphasized in Aeronomy, including understanding the effects of solar variability on ionospheric density and irregularities, the effects of solar variability on the mass density of the atmosphere at LEO altitudes, and the effects of solar variability on near-surface temperatures and on ozone distribution.

  5. Low Cost Methods to Accomplish Aeronomy Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accomplishment of aeronomy science using low cost methods involves a number of innovative considerations. These methods will be discussed. They include making broad use of internet to control and operate distributed sensors. Sensor controls should be simple and most important reliable. Imagers are a common sensor for optical systems and include common computer interfaces and menu driven operations which often don't require special software or engineering development. Small, inexpensive but reliable satellite systems are evolving in the Cubesat community. Effective use of students is invaluable, giving them responsibility to operate instrumentation and to routinely archive the data. Management of students is especially important in the early phase of their training to insure quality performance. These ideas will be elaborated on, and most importantly, the science motive is the most important driver for what is done.

  6. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  7. Molecules of significance in planetary aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, H.

    1979-01-01

    This monograph is basically devoted to spectroscopic information of the molecules of planetary interest. Only those molecules have been dealt with which have been confirmed spectroscopically to be present in the atmosphere of major planets of our solar system and play an important role in the aeronomy of the respective planets. An introduction giving the general conditions of planets and their atmospheres including the gaseous molecules is given. Some typical planetary spectra is presented and supported with a discussion on some basic concepts of optical absorption and molecular parameters that are important to the study of planetary atmospheres. Quantities like dipole moments, transition probabilities, Einstein coefficients and line strengths, radiative life times, absorption cross sections, oscillator strengths, line widths and profiles, equivalent widths, growth curves, bond strengths, electronic transition moments, Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids, etc., are discussed. Spectroscopic information and relevant data of 6 diatomic (HF, HCL, CO, H2, O2, N2) and 6 polyatomic (CO2, N2), O3, HeO, NH3, CH4) molecules are presented.

  8. Solar physics in the space age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A concise and brief review is given of the solar physics' domain, and how its study has been affected by NASA Space programs which have enabled space based observations. The observations have greatly increased the knowledge of solar physics by proving some theories and challenging others. Many questions remain unanswered. To exploit coming opportunities like the Space Station, solar physics must continue its advances in instrument development, observational techniques, and basic theory. Even with the Advance Solar Observatory, other space based observation will still be required for the sure to be ensuing questions.

  9. A Science Strategy for Space Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report by the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research recommends the major directions for scientific research in space physics for the coming decade. As a field of science, space physics has passed through the stage of simply looking to see what is out beyond Earth's atmosphere. It has become a 'hard' science, focusing on understanding the fundamental interactions between charged particles, electromagnetic fields, and gases in the natural laboratory consisting of the galaxy, the Sun, the heliosphere, and planetary magnetospheres, ionospheres, and upper atmospheres. The motivation for space physics research goes far beyond basic physics and intellectual curiosity, however, because long-term variations in the brightness of the Sun virtually affect the habitability of the Earth, while sudden rearrangements of magnetic fields above the solar surface can have profound effects on the delicate balance of the forces that shape our environment in space and on the human technology that is sensitive to that balance. The several subfields of space physics share the following objectives: to understand the fundamental laws or processes of nature as they apply to space plasmas and rarefied gases both on the microscale and in the larger complex systems that constitute the domain of space physics; to understand the links between changes in the Sun and the resulting effects at the Earth, with the eventual goal of predicting the significant effects on the terrestrial environment; and to continue the exploration and description of the plasmas and rarefied gases in the solar system.

  10. Solar and Space Physics PhD Production and Job Availability: Implications for the Future of the Space Weather Research Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; Moldwin, L. A.; Torrence, J.

    2012-12-01

    To assess the state-of-health of the field of Solar and Space Physics an analysis of the number of Ph.D.s produced and number of Job Postings each year was done for the decade 2001-2010. To determine the number of Ph.D's produced in the field, the University of Michigan Ph.D. Dissertation Archive (Proquest) was queried for Solar and Space Physics dissertations produced in North America. The field generated about 30 Ph.D. per year from 2001 to 2006, but then saw the number increase to 50 to 70 per year for the rest of the decade. Only 14 institutions account for the majority of Solar and Space Physics PhDs. To estimate the number of jobs available each year in the field, a compilation of the job advertisements listed in the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (SPD) and the American Geophysical Union's Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA) electronic newsletters was done. The positions were sorted into four types (Faculty, Post-doctoral Researcher, and Scientist/Researcher or Staff), institution type (academic, government lab, or industry) and if the position was located inside or outside the United States. Overall worldwide, 943 Solar and Space Physics positions were advertised over the decade. Of this total, 52% were for positions outside the US. Within Solar Physics, 44% of the positions were in the US, while in Space Physics 57% of the positions were for US institutions. The annual average for positions in the US were 26.9 for Solar Physics and 31.5 for Space Physics though there is much variability year-to-year particularly in Solar Physics positions outside the US. A disconcerting trend is a decline in job advertisements in the last two years for Solar Physics positions and between 2009 and 2010 for Space Physics positions. For both communities within the US in 2010, the total job ads reached their lowest levels in the decade (14), approximately half the decadal average number of job advertisements.

  11. Book Review: Physics of the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1998-01-01

    Space physics, narrowly defined as the study of Earth's plasma environment, has had an identity crisis throughout its relatively brief existence as a discipline. - The limited and often serendipitous nature of the data requires the research style of an astrophysicist. However, the in situ observations and instrumentation that are central to the field are quite different from the remote observations and instrumentation of astronomy. Compared to neutral gases, the wealth of additional phenomena and the complexity associated with magnetized plasmas and their interaction leaves little in common with the atmospheric scientist. Although the phenomena studied in space physics are ultimately important to astrophysics, the intimate measurements of plasma properties provide a greater commonality with the plasma physicist. Space physics has experienced something of a renaissance in the past few years. The interdisciplinary umbrella "Solar-Terrestrial Physics" or "Sun-Earth Connection" has stimulated an increasing interaction of space physicists, solar physicists and atmospheric scientists. Spectacular images of the Sun from Yohkoh and SOHO and solar-activity-related damage to communications satellites have increased the public's awareness of and interest in "space weather". The dangers of energetic particles and currents in space to technological systems and to future space exploration have elevated space physics observations from interesting scientific measurements that can be included on a space probe to critically important measurements that must be made.

  12. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  13. Solar Physics in the Space Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmer, Phil D.; And Others

    This amply illustrated booklet provides a physical description of the sun as well as present and future tasks for solar physics study. The first chapter, an introduction, describes the history of solar study, solar study in space, and the relevance of solar study. The second chapter describes the five heliographic domains including the interior,…

  14. Spread F - an old equatorial aeronomy problem finally resolved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    2009-05-01

    One of the oldest scientific topics in Equatorial Aeronomy is related to Spread-F. It includes all our efforts to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the existence of ionospheric F-region irregularities, the spread of the traces in a night-time equatorial ionogram - hence its name - and all other manifestations of the same. It was observed for the first time as an abnormal ionogram in Huancayo, about 70 years ago. But only recently are we coming to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for its occurrence and its capricious day to day variability. Several additional techniques have been used to reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of the F-region irregularities responsible for the phenomenon. Among them we have, in chronological order, radio star scintillations, trans-equatorial radio propagation, satellite scintillations, radar backscatter, satellite and rocket in situ measurements, airglow, total electron content techniques using the propagation of satellite radio signals and, recently, radar imaging techniques. Theoretical efforts are as old as the observations. Nevertheless, 32 years after their discovery, Jicamarca radar observations showed that none of the theories that had been put forward could explain them completely. The observations showed that irregularities were detected at altitudes that were stable according to the mechanisms proposed. A breakthrough came a few years later, again from Jicamarca, by showing that some of the "stable" regions had become unstable by the non-linear propagation of the irregularities from the unstable to the stable region of the ionosphere in the form of bubbles of low density plasma. A problem remained, however; the primary instability mechanism proposed, an extended (generalized) Rayleigh-Taylor instability, was too slow to explain the rapid development seen by the observations. Gravity waves in the neutral background have been proposed as a seeding mechanism to form irregularities from

  15. Geometry of physical systems on quantized spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Vida; Mansourbeigi, Seyed M. H.; Clyde, Stephen W.

    We present a mathematical model for physical systems. A large class of functions is built through the functional quantization method and applied to the geometric study of the model. Quantized equations of motion along the Hamiltonian vector field are built up. It is seen that the procedure in higher dimension carries more physical information. The metric tensor appears to induce an electromagnetic field into the system and the dynamical nature of the electromagnetic field in curved space arises naturally. In the end, an explicit formula for the curvature tensor in the quantized space is given.

  16. Planning Environments for Young Children: Physical Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritchevsky, Sybil; And Others

    This monograph, illustrated with photographs and diagrams, explains how to use physical space to encourage children to involve themselves constructively in particular program activities. Program goals should be stated in specific and concrete terms to allow self-direction of young children and teacher flexibility. Analysis is made of the parts of…

  17. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  18. Exploring Space Physics Concepts Using Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM), a Science and Technology Center (STC) funded by the National Science Foundation, has the goal of developing a suite of integrated physics based computer models of the space environment that can follow the evolution of a space weather event from the Sun to the Earth. In addition to the research goals, CISM is also committed to training the next generation of space weather professionals who are imbued with a system view of space weather. This view should include an understanding of both helio-spheric and geo-space phenomena. To this end, CISM offers a yearly Space Weather Summer School targeted to first year graduate students, although advanced undergraduates and space weather professionals have also attended. This summer school uses a number of innovative pedagogical techniques including devoting each afternoon to a computer lab exercise that use results from research quality simulations and visualization techniques, along with ground based and satellite data to explore concepts introduced during the morning lectures. These labs are suitable for use in wide variety educational settings from formal classroom instruction to outreach programs. The goal of this poster is to outline the goals and content of the lab materials so that instructors may evaluate their potential use in the classroom or other settings.

  19. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  20. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, M. E.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and "space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Photographs of the laboratory magnetospheres located at MIT (top) and Columbia University (bottom).

  1. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, Michael; Davis, M.; Garnier, D.; Roberts, T. M.; Worstell, M.; Kesner, J.

    2013-10-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and ``space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Supported by the NSF-DOE Partnership in Plasma Science.

  2. Towards testing quantum physics in deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    MAQRO is a proposal for a medium-sized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matter-wave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultra-high vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low force-noise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to Cosmic-Vision calls of ESA for a medium-sized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this ground-breaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.

  3. Report of the theory panel. [space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashourabdalla, Maha; Rosner, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro; Curtis, Steven; Fejer, B.; Goertz, Christoph K.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Holzer, Thomas E.; Jokipii, J. R.; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding which is sufficiently comprehensive to allow realistic predictions of the behavior of the physical systems. Theory has a central role to play in the quest for this understanding. The level of theoretical description is dependent on three constraints: (1) the available computer hardware may limit both the number and the size of physical processes the model system can describe; (2) the fact that some natural systems may only be described in a statistical manner; and (3) the fact that some natural systems may be observable only through remote sensing which is intrinsically limited by spatial resolution and line of sight integration. From this the report discusses present accomplishments and future goals of theoretical space physics. Finally, the development and use of new supercomputer is examined.

  4. The MicroSTAR accelerometer, a key payload for low Earth orbit aeronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophe, Bruno; Foulon, Bernard; Perrot, Eddy; Liorzou, Françoise; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    With its mature technology inherited from the still in-orbit electrostatic accelerometers of the GRACE and GOCE geodesy missions, the MicroSTAR accelerometer is well suited for low Earth orbit aeronomy missions. Weighting 1 kg inside less than 1 litre and with a power consumption of a little bit more than 1 W, MicroSTAR can be integrated both as auxiliary passenger payload on board any Earth observation satellite either can be the main payload of a micro satellite dedicated to aeronomy and space weather survey. Positioned in the vicinity of the spacecraft centre of gravity, the accelerometer provides the measurements of the satellite non gravitational surface forces. Associated with a precise orbit determination, the accelerometer measurement permits to distinguish the position or velocity fluctuations of the satellite due to the drag fluctuations from those due to the Earth gravity anomalies and so to deduce the atmospheric density after removal of radiation pressures (direct solar, Earth albedo and infrared radiation) assuming a well known mass and wetted surface of the satellite. MicroSTAR shall achieve a resolution performance up to 1.5E-11 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in the measurement bandwidth from 0.2 mHz to 100 mHz. If integrated at the centre of a nearly spherical micro-satellite, taking advantage of a GPS receiver for precise orbit determination and with a simple mechanical devices for accurate in-orbit centring at the satellite centre of gravity, such a satellite launched on a 300km-1300km orbit with inclination as close as possible to a polar orbit, can provide a global coverage of the upper atmospheric density and of its spatial and temporal variations. After a description of the MicroSTAR instrument, the paper will presents its detailed performance budget and it will be concluded by a short trade off between the possible orbits and the expected scientific performance return pending on the potential LEO satellite missions.

  5. Physics of untied rotating space elevators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Steven; Golubović, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    We explore fundamental aspects of the physics of a novel class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE) (L. Golubović, S. Knudsen, Europhys. Lett. 86, 34001 (2009) and S. Knudsen, L. Golubović, Eur. Phys. J. Plus 129, 242 (2014)). An RSE is a loopy string reaching deep into outer space. The floppy RSE loop executes a double rotating motion due to which the objects sliding along the RSE string (climbers) can be transported far away from the Earth's surface without using internal engines or propulsion. By extensive numerical simulations and analytic calculations, this study addresses an interesting and provocative question at the very heart of the RSE physics: What will happen if one unties the rotating space elevator from the Earth? We find that the untied RSE exhibits rich nonlinear dynamics. In particular, strikingly, we find that the untied RSE may still behave as if it were tied to the planet. Such a quasi-tied yet untied RSE remains close to the Earth and exhibits persistent shape and enduring double rotating motion. Moreover, the climbers sliding along such a quasi-tied RSE move in much the same way as they do along a tied RSE. Under some conditions however we find that the untied RSE may undergo an instability leading it to a dynamical state in which the RSE hops well above the Earth surface. By changing the untied RSE parameters, the maximum height reached during hopping may be made to diverge. Such an untied RSE unbinds from the Earth to infinity, i.e., to interplanetary space.

  6. Physical space and long-tail markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

  7. Developing a Space Physics Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doxas, I.; Klymkowsky, M.; Garvin-Doxas, K.; Willis, C.

    2005-05-01

    Misconceptions are deep-seated models that students hold about the way the physical world works. They are an impediment to learning, and they can be best addressed with specifically designed instructional tools and methods. Mapping the dominant misconceptions in a field is critical for the development of research-based teaching and assessment tools in that field, because they make the most reliable distracters in multiple-choice instruments. This paper will describe how we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) with unsupervised clustering of the LSA vectors to identify and classify misconceptions in various science disciplines, will present previous results from Astronomy and Biology, and will describe current efforts to develop a Concept Inventory for Space Physics.

  8. Space Physics Data Facility Web Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Candey, Robert M.; Harris, Bernard T.; Chimiak, Reine A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) Web services provides a distributed programming interface to a portion of the SPDF software. (A general description of Web services is available at http://www.w3.org/ and in many current software-engineering texts and articles focused on distributed programming.) The SPDF Web services distributed programming interface enables additional collaboration and integration of the SPDF software system with other software systems, in furtherance of the SPDF mission to lead collaborative efforts in the collection and utilization of space physics data and mathematical models. This programming interface conforms to all applicable Web services specifications of the World Wide Web Consortium. The interface is specified by a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file. The SPDF Web services software consists of the following components: 1) A server program for implementation of the Web services; and 2) A software developer s kit that consists of a WSDL file, a less formal description of the interface, a Java class library (which further eases development of Java-based client software), and Java source code for an example client program that illustrates the use of the interface.

  9. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  10. Mars Aeronomy Explorer (MAX): Study Employing Distributed Micro-Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shotwell, Robert F.; Gray, Andrew A.; Illsley, Peter M.; Johnson, M.; Sherwood, Robert L.; Vozoff, M.; Ziemer, John K.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of a Mars Aeronomy Explorer (MAX) mission design study performed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented herein. The mission design consists of ten micro-spacecraft orbiters launched on a Delta IV to Mars polar orbit to determine the spatial, diurnal and seasonal variation of the constituents of the Martian upper atmosphere and ionosphere over the course of one Martian year. The spacecraft are designed to allow penetration of the upper atmosphere to at least 90 km. This property coupled with orbit precession will yield knowledge of the nature of the solar wind interaction with Mars, the influence of the Mars crustal magnetic field on ionospheric processes, and the measurement of present thermal and nonthermal escape rates of atmospheric constituents. The mission design incorporates alternative design paradigms that are more appropriate for-and in some cases motivate-distributed micro-spacecraft. These design paradigms are not defined by a simple set of rules, but rather a way of thinking about the function of instruments, mission reliability/risk, and cost in a systemic framework.

  11. How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space

    SciTech Connect

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2011-04-15

    In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportation-like method of uploading. This method also enables the Gottesman-Chuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtual-real hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

  12. Space-Based Research in Fundamental Physics and Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Shao, Michael; Yu, Nan; Kusenko, Alexander; Wright, Edward L.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Kasevich, Mark; Lipa, John A.; Mester, John C.; Reasenberg, Robert D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ashby, Neil; Gould, Harvey; Paik, Ho Jung

    Space offers unique experimental conditions and a wide range of opportunities to explore the foundations of modern physics with an accuracy far beyond that of ground-based experiments. Space-based experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, high-accuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of space-based research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include space-based research in fundamental physics as one of its focus areas. We recommend establishing an Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee's interagency "Fundamental Physics Task Force" to assess the status of both ground- and space-based efforts in the field, to identify the most important objectives, and to suggest the best ways to organize the work of several federal agencies involved. We also recommend establishing a new NASA-led interagency program in fundamental physics that will consolidate new technologies, prepare key instruments for future space missions, and build a strong scientific and engineering community. Our goal is to expand NASA's science objectives in space by including "laboratory research in fundamental physics" as an element in the agency's ongoing space research efforts.

  13. Applied Physics Lab Kennedy Space Center: Recent Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stan; Youngquist, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Applied Physics Lab is: (1) Develop and deliver novel sensors and devices to support KSC mission operations. (2) Analyze operational issues and recommend or deliver practical solutions. (3) Apply physics to the resolution of long term space flight issues that affect space port operation on Earth or on other planets.

  14. Connecting the physical and psychosocial space to Sandia's mission

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, Glory Ruth; Silva, Austin Ray

    2014-07-01

    Sandia Labs has corporate, lab-wide efforts to enhance the research environment as well as improve physical space. However, these two efforts are usually done in isolation. The integration of physical space design with the nurturing of what we call psychosocial space can foster more efficient and effective creativity, innovation, collaboration, and performance. This paper presents a brief literature review on how academia and industry are studying the integration of physical and psychosocial space and focuses on the efforts that we, the authors, have made to improve the research environment in the Cyber Engineering Research Lab (CERL), home to Group 1460. Interviews with subject matter experts from Silicon Valley and the University of New Mexico plus changes to actual spaces in CERL provided us with six lessons learned when integrating physical and psychosocial space. We describe these six key takeaways in hopes that Sandia will see this area as an evolving research capability that Sandia can both contribute to and benefit from.

  15. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  16. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  17. On the physical Hilbert space of loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro; Vandersloot, Kevin

    2005-02-15

    In this paper we present a model of Riemannian loop quantum cosmology with a self-adjoint quantum scalar constraint. The physical Hilbert space is constructed using refined algebraic quantization. When matter is included in the form of a cosmological constant, the model is exactly solvable and we show explicitly that the physical Hilbert space is separable, consisting of a single physical state. We extend the model to the Lorentzian sector and discuss important implications for standard loop quantum cosmology.

  18. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  19. Space plasma physics results from Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Spacelab 1 payload carried several instrument systems which together investigated a number of space plasma phenomena. These experiments used the Space Shuttle Orbiter as a platform for making controlled particle-beam, plasma and neutral gas inputs to the ionosphere and magnetosphere and for observing the outputs produced. Spacelab 1 space-plasma investigations included the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB), Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI) and the Low Energy Electron Spectrometer and Magnetometer. Among the major phenomena investigated both singly and jointly by these experiments are vehicle charging and neutralization, beam-plasma and wave-particle interactions, anomalous ionization phenomena produced by neutral-gas and plasma injections and several phenomena induced by modulated particle beam injections.

  20. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors.

    PubMed

    McGloin, David

    2014-02-27

    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

  1. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  2. Space physics strategy: Implementation study. Volume 2: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In June, 1989, the Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee (SSAAC) authorized its Space Physics Subcommittee (SPS) to prepare a plan specifying the future missions, launch sequence, and encompassing themes of the Space Physics Division. The plan, now complete, is the product of a year-long study comprising two week-long workshops - in January and June 1990 - assisted by pre-workshop, inter-workshop, and post-workshop preparation and assessment activities. The workshops engaged about seventy participants, drawn equally from the Division's four science disciplines: cosmic and heliospheric physics, solar physics, magnetosphere physics, and ionosphere-thermosphere-mesospheric physics. An earlier report records the outcome of the first workshop; this is the report of the final workshop.

  3. Generic results of the space physics community survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Rikhi R.; Cohen, Nathaniel B.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of the members of the space physics research community conducted in 1990-1991 to ascertain demographic information on the respondents and information on their views on a number of facets of their space physics research. The survey was conducted by questionnaire and the information received was compiled in a database and analyzed statistically. The statistical results are presented for the respondent population as a whole and by four different respondent cross sections: individual disciplines of space physics, type of employers, age groups, and research techniques employed. Data from a brief corresponding survey of the graduate students of respondents are also included.

  4. Space physics strategy-implementation study. Volume 1: Goals, objectives, strategy. A report to the Space Physics Subcommittee of the Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Space physics is defined as the study of the heliosphere as one system; that is, of the Sun and solar wind, and their interactions with the upper atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres of the planets and comets, with energetic particles, and with the interstellar medium. This report contains a number of reports by different panels on the major topics in the space physics program including: (1) the cosmic and heliospheric physics program for the years 1995 to 2010; (2) ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere studies; (3) magnetospheric physics; (4) solar physics; and (5) space physics theory.

  5. Sessions on history of space and geophysics spark interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    Three sessions at international conferences were held in 1997 to discuss the history of space and geophysics and its different disciplines. The first session was held during the Assembly of the German Geophysical Society in March in Potsdam, Germany. Topics included the theory of relativity and gravitation in geophysics; work by Albert Abraham Michelson, Leon Foucault, and Ernst Mach; work by Hermann von Helmholtz; and the physical application and geophysical evidence of Werner Heisenberg's research. Also included were discussions relevant to the history of geophysics, aeronomy, meteor astronomy, and geodetical research, including developments in instrumentation during the last few decades.

  6. Physics of Living in Space: A New Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrow, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a course using the prospect of living in space for motivating students to learn basic physics as well as differences between pure science and technology. Includes course content and a sample final examination. (Author/JN)

  7. Implementation of the Boston University Space Physics Acquisition Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Harlan E.

    1998-01-01

    The tasks carried out during this grant achieved the goals as set forth in the initial proposal. The Boston University Space Physics Acquisition CEnter (BUSPACE) now provides World Wide Web access to data from a large suite of both space-based and ground-based instruments, archived from different missions, experiments, or campaigns in which researchers associated with the Center for Space Physics (CSP) at Boston University have been involved. These archival data sets are in digital form and are valuable for retrospective data analysis studies of magnetospheric as well as ionospheric, thermospheric, and mesospheric physics. We have leveraged our grass-roots effort with the NASA seed money to establish dedicated hardware (computer and hard disk augmentation) and student support to grow and maintain the system. This leveraging of effort now permits easy access by the space physics community to many underutilized, yet important data sets, one example being that of the SCATHA satellite.

  8. Activities report of the Institute of Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, Lars

    Activities at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), whose main task is to conduct research and perform observatory measurements in the field of space physics, are addressed. Additionally, the IRF also provides education in space physics. Facts about the IRF and its board, staff, finances, and personnel are given. The research carried out in the four divisions is reviewed. The research covers the following topics: hot magnetospheric plasma investigations; research in the field of mechanical waves, especially concerning infrasound and vibration; space plasma theory, with an emphasis on plasma waves and wave particle interactions in the magnetosphere; experimental studies of waves and wave interactions in space plasmas; and electrodynamic processes related to ionosphere magnetosphere coupling. The observatory program which carried out ground based observations in Kiruna, Lycksele, and Uppsala (Sweden) is reviewed, as is the educational program. Committee appointments, participation in conferences and contributions, and publication and reports of 1991 are also addessed.

  9. NASA physics and chemistry experiments in-space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Physics and Chemistry Experiments Program (PACE) is part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) research and technology effort in understanding the fundamental characteristics of physics and chemical phenomena. This program seeks to increase the basic knowledge in these areas by well-planned research efforts which include in-space experiments when the limitations of ground-based activities precludes or restricts the achievement of research goals. Overview study areas are concerned with molecular beam experiments for Space Shuttle, experiments on drops and bubbles in a manned earth-orbiting laboratory, the study of combustion experiments in space, combustion experiments in orbiting spacecraft, gravitation experiments in space, and fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat-transfer experiments. Procedures for the study program have four phases. An overview study was conducted in the area of materials science.

  10. New Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize announced for 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    At the 2011 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., AGU announced the creation of a new award: the Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize. The prize, which is being made possible by a generous contribution from longtime AGU members and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, scientists Bruce Tsurutani and Olga Verkhoglyadova, will recognize an AGU member scientist and will come with a $10,000 award. Tsurutani has served as a researcher with JPL since 1972 and is currently a senior research scientist. He was also the president of AGU's Space Physics and Aeronomy section from 1990 to 1992 and is a recipient of AGU's John Adam Fleming Medal, given “for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, space physics, and related sciences.” Verkhoglyadova served as a professor of space physics in the Department of Astrophysics and Space Physics at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, in the Ukraine, prior to coming to the United States. Their leadership and dedication to AGU and to their field are apparent in their passion for this prize.

  11. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  12. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  13. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space environment of the earth, (2) to perform plasma physics investigations not feasible in ground-based laboratories, and (3) to conduct investigations which are important in understanding planetary and cometary phenomena. The core instrumentation and laboratory configurations for conducting the investigations are defined.

  14. Time and Space: Undergraduate Mexican Physics in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candela, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    This is an ethnographic study of the trajectories and itineraries of undergraduate physics students at a Mexican university. In this work learning is understood as being able to move oneself and, other things (cultural tools), through the space-time networks of a discipline (Nespor in Knowledge in motion: space, time and curriculum in…

  15. Classical-physics applications for Finsler b space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Joshua; Lehnert, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The classical propagation of certain Lorentz-violating fermions is known to be governed by geodesics of a four-dimensional pseudo-Finsler b space parametrized by a prescribed background covector field. This work identifies systems in classical physics that are governed by the three-dimensional version of Finsler b space and constructs a geodesic for a sample non-constant choice for the background covector. The existence of these classical analogues demonstrates that Finsler b spaces possess applications in conventional physics, which may yield insight into the propagation of SME fermions on curved manifolds.

  16. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  17. Physics of Colloids in Space: Flight Hardware Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Bailey, Arthur E.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Lorik, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was launched on Space Shuttle STS-100 in April 2001 and integrated into EXpedite the PRocess of Experiments to Space Station Rack 2 on the International Space Station (ISS). This microgravity fluid physics investigation is being conducted in the ISS U.S. Lab 'Destiny' Module over a period of approximately thirteen months during the ISS assembly period from flight 6A through flight 9A. PCS is gathering data on the basic physical properties of simple colloidal suspensions by studying the structures that form. A colloid is a micron or submicron particle, be it solid, liquid, or gas. A colloidal suspension consists of these fine particles suspended in another medium. Common colloidal suspensions include paints, milk, salad dressings, cosmetics, and aerosols. Though these products are routinely produced and used, we still have much to learn about their behavior as well as the underlying properties of colloids in general. The long-term goal of the PCS investigation is to learn how to steer the growth of colloidal structures to create new materials. This experiment is the first part of a two-stage investigation conceived by Professor David Weitz of Harvard University (the Principal Investigator) along with Professor Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh (the Co-Investigator). This paper describes the flight hardware, experiment operations, and initial science findings of the first fluid physics payload to be conducted on ISS: The Physics of Colloids in Space.

  18. Time and space: undergraduate Mexican physics in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    This is an ethnographic study of the trajectories and itineraries of undergraduate physics students at a Mexican university. In this work learning is understood as being able to move oneself and, other things (cultural tools), through the space-time networks of a discipline (Nespor in Knowledge in motion: space, time and curriculum in undergraduate physics and management. Routledge Farmer, London, 1994). The potential of this socio-cultural perspective allows an analysis of how students are connected through extended spaces and times with an international core discipline as well as with cultural features related to local networks of power and construction. Through an example, I show that, from an actor-network-theory (Latour in Science in action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1987), that in order to understand the complexities of undergraduate physics processes of learning you have to break classroom walls and take into account students' movements through complex spatial and temporal traces of the discipline of physics. Mexican professors do not give classes following one textbook but in a moment-to-moment open dynamism tending to include undergraduate students as actors in classroom events extending the teaching space-time of the classroom to the disciplinary research work of physics. I also find that Mexican undergraduate students show initiative and display some autonomy and power in the construction of their itineraries as they are encouraged to examine a variety of sources including contemporary research articles, unsolved physics problems, and even to participate in several physicists' spaces, as for example being speakers at the national congresses of physics. Their itineraries also open up new spaces of cultural and social practices, creating more extensive networks beyond those associated with a discipline. Some economic, historical and cultural contextual features of this school of sciences are analyzed in order to help understanding the particular

  19. Transitioning From Space Physics Research to Space Weather Application at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, C. I.

    2003-12-01

    The ability to monitor and predict our near-Earth space environment ("space weather") lags its sister discipline of terrestrial weather studies by years, in both observational and forecast capabilities. However, with current rapid progress in space physics research, and with current and near-future space environment sensors on research and operational satellites, the space weather operational community can reach new levels of maturity. A rapid transition of scientific research results into prototype operational products is especially important. This paper addresses the concept of rapid transition and presents examples carried out recently by scientists at JHU/APL, such as: OVATION (Oval Variation, Assessment, Tracking, Intensity and Online Nowcasting), and real-time geomagnetic activity nowcasting using observations from limited ground magnetometer stations. Several potential future application projects will be discussed as well; these space-environment products are designed to coincide with operationally significant events, such as communication outages or space object tracking.

  20. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  1. Introduction to the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L. (Editor); Peters, D. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network or SPAN is emerging as a viable method for solving an immediate communication problem for the space scientist. SPAN provides low-rate communication capability with co-investigators and colleagues, and access to space science data bases and computational facilities. The SPAN utilizes up-to-date hardware and software for computer-to-computer communications allowing binary file transfer and remote log-on capability to over 25 nationwide space science computer systems. SPAN is not discipline or mission dependent with participation from scientists in such fields as magnetospheric, ionospheric, planetary, and solar physics. Basic information on the network and its use are provided. It is anticipated that SPAN will grow rapidly over the next few years, not only from the standpoint of more network nodes, but as scientists become more proficient in the use of telescience, more capability will be needed to satisfy the demands.

  2. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  3. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  4. NASA/JPL Plans for Fundamental Physics Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaelsson, Ulf E.; Lee, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, about 100 researchers met twice to develop plans for the future in this research area. The results of these meetings have been collected in a package titled "A Roadmap for Fundamental Physics in Space". A summary of the Roadmap will be presented along with an overview of the current program. Research is being performed in Low Temperature and Condensed Matter Physics, Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics, and Gravitational and Relativistic Physics. There are currently over 50 investigators in the program of which 8 are being evaluated as potential flight experiments. The number of investigators is expected to grow further during the next selection cycle, planned to start toward the end of this year. In the near future, our investigators will be able to take advantage of long duration experimentation in Space using a suite of different carriers under development.

  5. In Support of Physics: Redesigning library collections, spaces, and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Kathleen

    2014-03-01

    In order to improve support for physics learning, teaching, and research at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, the Physics Library personnel have implemented important changes over the past three years. Updates in collection-building practices, changes to physical spaces, and developments of new services have all been made so the Physics Library is more useful to students and faculty. In terms of collection management, all patrons - students, staff, and faculty - have been encouraged to make suggestions for additions to the library collection. The print collections were rearranged to encourage circulation. Spaces within the library have been designated as either group study or silent study, and teaching assistants are encouraged to use the space for their office hours. Library services have also been taken directly to undergraduate physics lab sections to make library information easily accessible for more students. The Physics Library, along with the other branch libraries on campus, has been highlighted in conjunction with the library campaign promoting subject librarians and introducing undergraduate students to ``their'' librarian. Trends in circulation, research questions, and door count statistics will be presented alongside explanations of the implemented changes.

  6. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  7. The use and misuse of statistics in space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents several statistical techniques most commonly used in space physics, including Fourier analysis, linear correlation, auto- and cross-correlation, power spectral density and superimposed epoch analysis, and presents tests to assess the significance of the results. New techniques such as bootstrapping and jackknifing are presented. When no test of significance is in common usage, a plausible test is suggested.

  8. Low energy physics and properties of extra space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Sergey G.

    2013-02-01

    The mechanism of low energy physics formation in the framework of multidimensional gravity is discussed. It is shown that a wide set of parameters of a primary theory could lead to the observable Universe. Quantum fluctuations of extra space metric and its consequent classical evolution play an important role in this process.

  9. Recent Results from the Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David A.; Bailey, A.; Christianson, R.; Manley, S.; Prasad, V.; Segre, P.; Gasser, U.; Cipelletti, L.; Schoefield, A.; Pusey, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space is an experiment which flew in the ISS. Data on several different samples of colloidal particles were obtained. They provided unexpected information about the behavior of the samples in microgravity. The data are currently being analyzed. The most recent findings will be discussed in this talk.

  10. Physics of Space: the 43d Annual Student Scientific Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, P. E.; Kuznetsov, E. D.; Ostrovskii, A. B.; Salii, S. V.; Sobolev, A. M.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Shustov, B. M.

    2014-02-01

    The 43d annual student scientific conference "Physics of Space" aims to overcome the gap between modern scientific research and basic education in astronomy. The main purpose of the conference is to introduce the students to modern problems and directions of scientific research. The working languages of the conference are Russian and English.

  11. Physics of Space: the 41st Annual Student Scientific Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, P. E.; Kuznetsov, E. D.; Ostrovskii, A. B.; Salii, S. V.; Sobolev, A. M.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Shustov, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The 41st annual student scientific conference "Physics of Space" aims to overcome the gap between modern scientific research and basic education in astronomy. The main purpose of the conference is to introduce the students to modern problems and directions of scientific research. The working languages of the conference are Russian and English.

  12. Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

  13. The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Wagstaff, R. W.

    2016-03-01

    Here we show that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space constitute a system (a "suspension") in a state of uniform volumetric tension because of mass-to-mass forces of attraction. The system "snaps" hierarchically, and evolves faster to a state of reduced tension when the bodies coalesce spontaneously nonuniformly, i.e., hierarchically, into few large and many small bodies suspended in the same space. Hierarchy, not uniformity, is the design that emerges, and it is in accord with the constructal law. The implications of this principle of physics in natural organization and evolution are discussed.

  14. Radiation Physics for Space and High Altitude Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Saganti, P.; Shavers, M. R.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are of extra-solar origin consisting of high-energy hydrogen, helium, and heavy ions. The GCR are modified by physical processes as they traverse through the solar system, spacecraft shielding, atmospheres, and tissues producing copious amounts of secondary radiation including fragmentation products, neutrons, mesons, and muons. We discuss physical models and measurements relevant for estimating biological risks in space and high-altitude air travel. Ambient and internal spacecraft computational models for the International Space Station and a Mars mission are discussed. Risk assessment is traditionally based on linear addition of components. We discuss alternative models that include stochastic treatments of columnar damage by heavy ion tracks and multi-cellular damage following nuclear fragmentation in tissue.

  15. Classical-physics applications for Finsler b space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Josh; Lehnert, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The Standard-Model Extension (SME) is a general effective field theory for Lorentz and CPT violation incorporating both the Standard Model and General Relativity. The SME provides a framework for experimental searches for Lorentz-violating effects and for the investigation of new physics. The classical propagation of certain Lorentz-violating fermions is known to be governed by geodesics of a four-dimensional pseudo-Finsler b space parametrized by a prescribed background covector field. This talk discusses some aspects of the relation between Finsler geometries and the SME, emphasizing the identification of systems in classical physics that are governed by the three-dimensional version of Finsler b space and the construction of geodesics for some sample background covectors. This work was supported in part by Indiana University's STARS program, by the National Science Foundation under the REU program, and by the Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries under an IUCRG grant.

  16. Fluid Physics Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This document is a presentation in viewgraph format which reviews the laboratory facilities and their construction for the International Space Station(ISS). Graphic displays of the ISS are included, with special interest in the facilities available on the US Destiny module and other modules which will be used in the study of fluid physics on the ISS. There are also pictures and descriptions of various components of the Fluids and Combustion Facility.

  17. Research in space physics at the University of Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanallen, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Energetic particles in outer space and their relationship to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, sun, moon, and planets, and the interplanetary medium are investigated. Special attention was given to observations of earth and moon satellites and interplanetary spacecraft; phenomenological analysis and interpretation were emphasized. Data also cover ground based on radio astronomical and optical techniques and theoretical problems in plasma physics as revelant to solar planetary and interplanetary phenomena.

  18. Space Physics for Graduate Students: An Activities-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Arge, N.; Bruntz, R.; Burns, A. G.; Hughes, W. J.; Knipp, D.; Lyon, J.; McGregor, S.; Owens, M.; Siscoe, G.; Solomon, S. C.; Wiltberger, M.

    2009-01-01

    The geospace environment is controlled largely by events on the Sun, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which generate significant geomagnetic and upper atmospheric disturbances. The study of this Sun-Earth system, which has become known as space weather, has both intrinsic scientific interest and practical applications. Adverse conditions in space can damage satellites and disrupt communications, navigation, and electric power grids, as well as endanger astronauts. The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM), a Science and Technology Center (STC) funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (see http://www.bu.edu/cism/), is developing a suite of integrated physics-based computer models that describe the space environment from the Sun to the Earth for use in both research and operations [Hughes and Hudson, 2004, p. 1241]. To further this mission, advanced education and training programs sponsored by CISM encourage students to view space weather as a system that encompasses the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the ionosphere/thermosphere. This holds especially true for participants in the CISM space weather summer school [Simpson, 2004].

  19. Space Radiation and Manned Mission: Interface Between Physics and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom

    2012-07-01

    The natural radiation environment in space consists of a mixed field of high energy protons, heavy ions, electrons and alpha particles. Interplanetary travel to the International Space Station and any planned establishment of satellite colonies on other solar system implies radiation exposure to the crew and is a major concern to space agencies. With shielding, the radiation exposure level in manned space missions is likely to be chronic, low dose irradiation. Traditionally, our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models. Radiobiological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are subjected to modulations by various parameters including bystander effects, adaptive response, genomic instability and genetic susceptibility of the exposed individuals. Radiation dosimetry and modeling will provide conformational input in areas where data are difficult to acquire experimentally. However, modeling is only as good as the quality of input data. This lecture will discuss the interdependent nature of physics and biology in assessing the radiobiological response to space radiation.

  20. Microgravity fluid physics research in the Space Station Freedom era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bradley M.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity fluid physics covers an exciting range of established and potential fields of scientific research. Areas in which the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications is currently supporting research include: multiphase flow and phase change heat transfer, behavior of granular media and colloids; and interface dynamics, morphological stability, and contact line phenomena. As they contribute to our knowledge of fluid behavior, advances in these areas will enhance our understanding of materials processing on Earth and in space, and will contribute to technologies as diverse as chemical extraction, the prediction of soil behavior in earthquakes, and the production of oil reservoirs. NASA' s primary platform for research in microgravity fluid physics will soon be the Fluid Physics/Dynamics Facility on Space Station Freedom. This facility shares a rack for control and utilities with the Modular Combustion Facility, and has one rack for experiment-unique instruments. It is planned to change out the content of the experiment-unique rack at intervals on the order of one year. In order to obtain a maximum return on the operation of the facility during these intervals, the research community must carefully plan and coordinate an effort that brings the efforts of many investigators to bear on problems of particular importance. NASA is currently working with the community to identify research areas in which microgravity can make a unique and valuable contribution, and to build a balanced program of research around these areas or thrusts. Selections will soon be made from our first solicitation for research in fluid dynamics and transport phenomena. These solicitations will build the research community that will make Space Station Freedom a catalyst for scientific and technological discovery, and offer U.S. scientists in many disciplines a unique opportunity to participate in space science.

  1. Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

  2. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  3. Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

    2014-12-15

    We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular α-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general α-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved. - Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alpha-vacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.

  4. Space-weather assets developed by the French space-physics community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.; Briand, C.; Bourdarie, S.; Dudok De Wit, T.; Amari, T.; Blelly, P.-L.; Buchlin, E.; Chambodut, A.; Claret, A.; Corbard, T.; Génot, V.; Guennou, C.; Klein, K. L.; Koechlin, L.; Lavarra, M.; Lavraud, B.; Leblanc, F.; Lemorton, J.; Lilensten, J.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Marchaudon, A.; Masson, S.; Pariat, E.; Reville, V.; Turc, L.; Vilmer, N.; Zucarello, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a short review of space-weather tools and services developed and maintained by the French space-physics community. They include unique data from ground-based observatories, advanced numerical models, automated identification and tracking tools, a range of space instrumentation and interconnected virtual observatories. The aim of the article is to highlight some advances achieved in this field of research at the national level over the last decade and how certain assets could be combined to produce better space-weather tools exploitable by space-weather centres and customers worldwide. This review illustrates the wide range of expertise developed nationally but is not a systematic review of all assets developed in France.

  5. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  6. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  7. Understanding space weather with new physical, mathematical and philosophical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan

    2016-07-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. The development of these investigations can be considered also from another side. This is the philosophical and mathematical approach towards this physical reality. What does it constitute? We have a set of physical processes which occur in the Sun and interplanetary space. All these processes interact with each other and simultaneously participate in the general process which forms the space weather. Let us now consider the Leibniz's monads (G.W. von Leibniz, 1714, Monadologie, Wien; Id., 1710, Théodicée, Amsterdam) and use some of their properties. There are total 90 theses for monads in the Leibniz's work (1714), f.e. "(1) The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts'. (Theod. 10.); … (56) Now this connexion or adaptation of all created things to each and of each to all, means that each simple substance has relations which express all the others, and, consequently, that it is a perpetual living mirror of the universe. (Theod. 130, 360.); (59) … this universal harmony, according to which every substance exactly expresses all others through the relations it has with them. (63) … every Monad is, in its own way, a mirror of the universe, and the universe is ruled according to a perfect order. (Theod. 403.)", etc. Let us introduce in the properties of monads instead of the word "monad" the word "process". We obtain the following statement: Each process reflects all other processes and all other processes reflect this process. This analogy is not formal at all, it reflects accurately the relation between the physical processes and their unity. The category monad which in the Leibniz's Monadology reflects generally the philosophical sense is fully identical with the

  8. Physical conditions for fast reconnection evolution in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ugai, M.

    2012-07-15

    The present paper studies physical conditions for fast reconnection mechanism involving slow shocks to evolve spontaneously in space (high-temperature) plasmas. This is fundamental for onset mechanisms of geomagnetic substorms and solar flares. It is demonstrated that reconnection evolution strongly depends on effective resistivity available in space plasmas as well as on dimensions of initial current sheet. If a current sheet is sufficiently thin, fast reconnection spontaneously evolves only when resistivity is locally enhanced around X reconnection point. This is because in space plasmas reconnection flows cause vital current concentration locally around X point. For current-driven anomalous resistivity, the resulting resistivity is automatically localized around X point, so fast reconnection mechanism can be realized. On the other hand, for uniform or Spitzer resistivity, any fast reconnection cannot grow; in particular, Spitzer resistivity is reduced around X point because of Joule heating. Regarding reconnection simulations (either fluid or particle), unless numerical resistivities are made negligibly small, they seriously mask the effects of physical resistivity, leading to a misleading conclusion that reconnection evolution is little influenced by plasma resistivity.

  9. PREFACE: International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Andreas; Egry, Ivan

    2011-12-01

    ISPS is the major international scientific forum for researchers in physics utilizing the space environment, in particular microgravity. It is intended to inspire and encourage cross-cutting discussions between different scientific communities working in the same environment. Contributions discussing results of experiments carried out on drop towers, parabolic aircraft flights, sounding rockets, unmanned recoverable capsules and, last but not least, the International Space Station ISS, are the backbone of this conference series, complemented by preparatory ground-based work, both experimentally and theoretically. The first International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space (ISPS) sponsored by the International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG) took place in 2000 in Sorrento, Italy. IMSPG seeks to coordinate the planning of space for research in physical sciences by space agencies worldwide. AEB (Brazil), ASI (Italy), CNES (France), CSA (Canada), DLR (Germany), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan), NASA (USA), NSAU (Ukraine) and RSA (Russia) are members, and CNSA (China) and ISRO (India) are also invited to join IMSPG meetings. ISPS-4 was the fourth symposium in that series, following ISPS-2 organized by CSA in 2004 in Toronto, Canada, and ISPS-3 organized in 2007 by JAXA in Nara, Japan. ISPS-4 was jointly organized by ESA and DLR on behalf of the IMSPG and was held in Bonn from 11-15 July 2011. 230 participants from 17 different countries attended ISPS-4. Recent microgravity experiments were presented, analysed, and set in context to results from Earth bound experiments in 16 plenary and 68 topical talks. Lively discussions continued during two dedicated poster sessions and at the exhibition booths of space industry and research centers with new flight hardware on display. The oral presentations at ISPS4 were selected exclusively on the basis of scientific merit, as evidenced through the submitted abstracts. The selection was performed by the International

  10. A Revolutionary Aeronomy Concept to Explore the Coupling of the Solar-Terrestrial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2014-01-01

    A revolutionary opportunity to explore the consequences of reconnection in the ionosphere as never before will be presented. It is a revolutionary opportunity to explore key Aeronomy emissions on a global scale with spatial and temporal resolution not possible today. For example, observations of the signature of dayside merging and nightside reconnection that are reflected in the auroral oval evolution during disturbed periods and quiet times, will be described; observations that will open a window of discovery for coupling phenomena within Geospace and with the solar wind. The description of this new concept will be presented, and its impact and contribution to understanding magnetic merging will be discussed.

  11. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Trinh, E H

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities.

  13. Appreciation of the 2015 JGR Space Physics Peer Reviewers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Balikhin, Michael; Kepko, Larry; Rodger, Alan; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics are deeply indebted to the many people among the research community that serve this journal through peer review. The journal could not exist without the time and effort invested by the community through this voluntary activity, providing expert evaluations and thoughtful assessments of the work of others. In 2015, the journal had 1506 scientists contribute to the process with at least one peer review, for a total of 3575 reviews completed, including additional reviews of resubmitted manuscripts. There were 277 reviewers that contributed four or more reports in 2015. The average number of reviews per referee in 2015 was, therefore, 2.4. Note that the total number of manuscript final decisions (i.e., accept or reject) for Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) Space Physics was 1147 in 2015. Of this, 774 were accepted and 373 were declined, for an acceptance rate of 67% last year. If the 1334 "revision" decisions are included in the tally, then the total number of decisions made in 2015 was 2481. Working out the arithmetic, it means that on average, a manuscript gets about 1.2 revision decisions before a final accept-or-reject decision. This explains the 3.1 average number of reviews per manuscript throughout each paper's lifetime in the submission-revision editorial process. We are pleased and happy that the research community is willing and able to devote their resources toward this service endeavor. We appreciate each and every one of you that helped maintain the high quality of papers in JGR Space Physics last year. We look forward to another excellent year working with all of you through the year ahead.

  14. Wireless avionics for space applications of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linna; Zeng, Guiming

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental physics (FP) research in space relies on a strong support of spacecraft. New types of spacecraft including reusable launch vehicles, reentry space vehicles, long-term on-orbit spacecraft or other new type of spacecraft will pave the way for FP missions. In order to test FP theories in space, flight conditions have to be controlled to a very high precision, data collection and handling abilities have to be improved, real-time and reliable communications in critical environments are needed. These challenge the existing avionics of spacecraft. Avionics consists of guidance, navigation & control, TT&C, the vehicle management, etc. Wireless avionics is one of the enabling technologies to address the challenges. Reasons are expatiated of why it is of great advantage. This paper analyses the demands for wireless avionics by reviewing the FP missions and on-board wireless systems worldwide. Main types of wireless communication are presented. Preliminary system structure of wireless avionics are given. The characteristics of wireless network protocols and wireless sensors are introduced. Key technologies and design considerations for wireless avionics in space applications are discussed.

  15. Data management, archiving, visualization and analysis of space physics data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1995-01-01

    A series of programs for the visualization and analysis of space physics data has been developed at UCLA. In the course of those developments, a number of lessons have been learned regarding data management and data archiving, as well as data analysis. The issues now facing those wishing to develop such software, as well as the lessons learned, are reviewed. Modern media have eased many of the earlier problems of the physical volume required to store data, the speed of access, and the permanence of the records. However, the ultimate longevity of these media is still a question of debate. Finally, while software development has become easier, cost is still a limiting factor in developing visualization and analysis software.

  16. NASA's space physics theory program - An opportunity for collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.

    1990-01-01

    The field of theoretical space physics offers a unique opportunity to Latin American scientists for collaborative participation in NASA programs where the greatly increased complexity of both experimental observations and theoretical simulations requires in-depth comparisons between theory and observational data. The key problem areas identified by NASA for aggressive work in the decade of the 1990s are the nature of flows and turbulence, acceleration and transport of particles, the coupling of microphysics and macrophysics, the coupling of local and global dynamics, and nonclassical plasmas.

  17. Management of the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Thomas, Valerie L.; Butler, Todd F.; Peters, David J.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1990-01-01

    Here, the purpose is to define the operational management structure and to delineate the responsibilities of key Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) individuals. The management structure must take into account the large NASA and ESA science research community by giving them a major voice in the operation of the system. Appropriate NASA and ESA interfaces must be provided so that there will be adequate communications facilities available when needed. Responsibilities are delineated for the Advisory Committee, the Steering Committee, the Project Scientist, the Project Manager, the SPAN Security Manager, the Internetwork Manager, the Network Operations Manager, the Remote Site Manager, and others.

  18. Improving the physics models in the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, G.; Fang, F.; Frazin, R. A.; Gombosi, T. I.; Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Manchester, W. B.; Meng, X.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Vichare, G.; Yigit, E.; Yu, Y.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. H.; Glocer, A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Welling, D. T.; Zaharia, S. G.

    2010-12-01

    The success of physics based space weather forecasting depends on several factors: we need sufficient amount and quality of timely observational data, we have to understand the physics of the Sun-Earth system well enough, we need sophisticated computational models, and the models have to run faster than real time on the available computational resources. This presentation will focus on a single ingredient, the recent improvements of the mathematical and numerical models in the Space Weather Modeling Framework. We have developed a new physics based CME initiation code using flux emergence from the convection zone solving the equations of radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Our new lower corona and solar corona models use electron heat conduction, Alfven wave heating, and boundary conditions based on solar tomography. We can obtain a physically consistent solar wind model from the surface of the Sun all the way to the L1 point without artificially changing the polytropic index. The global magnetosphere model can now solve the multi-ion MHD equations and take into account the oxygen outflow from the polar wind model. We have also added the options of solving for Hall MHD and anisotropic pressure. Several new inner magnetosphere models have been added to the framework: CRCM, HEIDI and RAM-SCB. These new models resolve the pitch angle distribution of the trapped particles. The upper atmosphere model GITM has been improved by including a self-consistent equatorial electrodynamics and the effects of solar flares. This presentation will very briefly describe the developments and highlight some results obtained with the improved and new models.

  19. Planet-B: A Japanese Mars aeronomy observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuruda, K.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction is given to a Japanese Mars mission (Planet-B) which is being planned at the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS), Japan. Planet-B aims to study the upper atmosphere of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The launch of Planet-B is planned for 1996 on a new launcher, M-L, which is being developed at ISAS. In addition to the interaction with the solar wind, the structure of the Martian upper atmosphere is thought to be controlled by the meteorological condition in the lower atmosphere. The orbit of Planet-B was chosen so that it will pass two important regions, the region where the solar wind interacts with the Martian upper atmosphere and the tail region where ion acceleration is taking place. Considering the drag due to the Martian atmosphere, the periapsis altitude of 150 km and apoapsis of 10 Martian radii are planned. The orbit plane will be nearly parallel to the ecliptic plane. The altitude of the spacecraft will be spin stabilized and its spin axis will be controlled to the point of the earth. The dry weight of the spacecraft will be about 250 kg, including the scientific payload which consists of a magnetometer, plasma instruments, HF sounder, UV imaging spectrometer, and lower atmosphere monitor.

  20. VLF Science at Indian Centre for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has been monitoring VLF signals from stations around the world at its laboratories at Kolkata and Sitapur (Ionospheric and Earthquake Research Centre) as well as at several places throughout India when in a campaign mode. We have been interested to study high energy events from space, such as solar flares and gamma ray bursts. We have made studies during multiple solar eclipses and most importantly made substantial progress in the problem of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling while understanding various types of anomalies prior to major earthquakes. Other effects such as AGWs and LEPs are being studied. We have experience of two antarctic expedition and obtained VLF data from both Maitri and Bharati stations of India, which revealed, among other things, how the signal attenuation can indicate the extent of ice mass in Antarctica. We have been able to reproduce various VLF perturbation events using Atmospheric Chemical evolution model coupled with LWPC code. For instance we have reproduced solar flare induced VLF amplitude perturbation pattern by completely ab initio calculation. We also targeted the inverse problem, namely, deduction of the injected radiation spectra from space from the VLF signal alone, thereby establishing that the Earth can be used as a gigantic detector. These interesting results would be presented in my review talk.

  1. Rotating space elevators: Physics of celestial scale spinning strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Steven; Golubović, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We explore classical and statistical mechanics of a novel dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE) (L. Golubović, S. Knudsen, EPL 86, 34001 (2009)). The RSE is a double rotating floppy string reaching extraterrestrial locations. Objects sliding along the RSE string (climbers) do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in space elevator science, which is how to supply energy to the climbers moving along space elevator strings. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in a double rotating frame associated with the RSE. This dynamical equilibrium is achieved by a special ("magical") form of the RSE mass line density derived in this paper. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena explored here by numerical simulations. Thanks to its special design, the RSE exhibits everlasting double rotating motion. Under some conditions, however, we find that the RSE may undergo a morphological transition to a chaotic state reminiscent of fluctuating directed polymers in the realm of the statistical physics of strings and membranes.

  2. Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.

  3. Space plasma physics at the Applied Physics Laboratory over the past half-century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potemra, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of space-plasma experiments conducted at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at Johns Hopkins University including observational campaigns and the instrumentation developed. Specific space-plasma experiments discussed include the study of the radiation environment in the Van Allen radiation belt with solid-state proton detectors. Also described are the 5E-1 satellites which acquired particle and magnetic-field data from earth orbit. The Triad satellite and its magnetometer system were developed for high-resolution studies of the earth's magnetic field, and APL contributions to NASA's Interplanetary Monitoring Platforms are listed. The review mentions the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the Atmosphere Explorer mission, and the Active Magnetic Particle Tracer Explorers mission. Other recent programs reviewed include a high-latitude satellite, contributions to the Voyager mission, and radar studies of space plasmas.

  4. Atmospheric and Space Sciences: Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal

    2015-09-01

    The SpringerBriefs on Atmospheric and Space Sciences in two volumes presents a concise and interdisciplinary introduction to the basic theory, observation & modeling of atmospheric and ionospheric coupling processes on Earth. The goal is to contribute toward bridging the gap between meteorology, aeronomy, and planetary science. In addition recent progress in several related research topics, such atmospheric wave coupling and variability, is discussed. Volume 1 will focus on the atmosphere, while Volume 2 will present the ionosphere— the plasma environment. Volume 1 is aimed primarily at (research) students and researchers that would like to gain quick insight in atmospheric sciences and current research. It also is a useful tool for professors who would like to develop a course in atmospheric physics.

  5. Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C

  6. Self-replicating machines in continuous space with virtual physics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Arnold; Turney, Peter; Ewaschuk, Robert

    2003-01-01

    JohnnyVon is an implementation of self-replicating machines in continuous two-dimensional space. Two types of particles drift about in a virtual liquid. The particles are automata with discrete internal states but continuous external relationships. Their internal states are governed by finite state machines, but their external relationships are governed by a simulated physics that includes Brownian motion, viscosity, and springlike attractive and repulsive forces. The particles can be assembled into patterns that can encode arbitrary strings of bits. We demonstrate that, if an arbitrary seed pattern is put in a soup of separate individual particles, the pattern will replicate by assembling the individual particles into copies of itself. We also show that, given sufficient time, a soup of separate individual particles will eventually spontaneously form self-replicating patterns. We discuss the implications of JohnnyVon for research in nanotechnology, theoretical biology, and artificial life.

  7. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  8. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2012-02-16

    Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.

  9. The Clifford algebra of physical space and Dirac theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Jayme, Jr.

    2016-09-01

    The claim found in many textbooks that the Dirac equation cannot be written solely in terms of Pauli matrices is shown to not be completely true. It is only true as long as the term β \\psi in the usual Dirac factorization of the Klein-Gordon equation is assumed to be the product of a square matrix β and a column matrix ψ. In this paper we show that there is another possibility besides this matrix product, in fact a possibility involving a matrix operation, and show that it leads to another possible expression for the Dirac equation. We show that, behind this other possible factorization is the formalism of the Clifford algebra of physical space. We exploit this fact, and discuss several different aspects of Dirac theory using this formalism. In particular, we show that there are four different possible sets of definitions for the parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation operations for the Dirac equation.

  10. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  11. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  12. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-18

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  13. Services, Perspective and Directions of the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Robert E.; Bilitza, Dieter; Candey, Reine A.; Chimiak, Reine A.; Cooper, John F.; Fung, Shing F.; Harris, Bernard T.; Johnson, Rita C.; King, Joseph H.; Kovalick, Tamara; Leckner, Howard A.; Liu, Michael H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Roberts, D. Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The multi-mission data and orbit services of NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project offer unique capabilities supporting science of the Heliophysics Great Observatory and that are highly complementary to other services now evolving in the international heliophysics data environment. The VSPO (Virtual Space Physics Observatory) service is an active portal to a wide rage of distributed data sources. CDAWeb (Coordinated Data Analysis Web) offers plots, listings and file downloads for current data from many missions across the boundaries of missions and instrument types. CDAWeb now includes extensive new data from STEREO and THEMIS, plus new ROCSAT IPEI data, the latest data from all four TIMED instruments and high-resolution data from all DE-2 experiments. SSCWeb, Helioweb and out 3D Animated Orbit Viewer (TIPSOD) provide position data and identification of spacecraft and ground conjunctions. OMNI Web, with its new extension to 1- and 5-minute resolution, provides interplanetary parameters at the Earth's bow shock. SPDF maintains NASA's CDF (Common Data Format) standard and a range of associated tools including format translation services. These capabilities are all now available through web services based APIs, one element in SPDF's ongoing work to enable heliophysics community development of Virtual discipline Observatories (e.g. VITMO). We will demonstrate out latest data and capabilities, review the lessons we continue to learn in what science users need and value in this class of services, and discuss out current thinking to the future role and appropriate focus of the SPDF effort in the evolving and increasingly distributed heliophysics data environment.

  14. SPASE: The Connection Among Solar and Space Physics Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, James R.; King, Todd A.; Roberts, D. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is an international collaboration among Heliophysics (solar and space physics) groups concerned with data acquisition and archiving. Within this community there are a variety of old and new data centers, resident archives, "virtual observatories", etc. acquiring, holding, and distributing data. A researcher interested in finding data of value for his or her study faces a complex data environment. The SPASE group has simplified the search for data through the development of the SPASE Data Model as a common method to describe data sets in the various archives. The data model is an XML-based schema and is now in operational use. There are both positives and negatives to this approach. The advantage is the common metadata language enabling wide-ranging searches across the archives, but it is difficult to inspire the data holders to spend the time necessary to describe their data using the Model. Software tools have helped, but the main motivational factor is wide-ranging use of the standard by the community. The use is expanding, but there are still other groups who could benefit from adopting SPASE. The SPASE Data Model is also being expanded in the sense of providing the means for more detailed description of data sets with the aim of enabling more automated ingestion and use of the data through detailed format descriptions. We will discuss the present state of SPASE usage and how we foresee development in the future. The evolution is based on a number of lessons learned - some unique to Heliophysics, but many common to the various data disciplines.

  15. Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) Flight Hardware Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koudelka, John M.

    2001-01-01

    investigation that will be located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack. The investigation will be conducted in the International Space Station U.S. laboratory, Destiny, over a period of approximately 10 months during the station assembly period from flight 6A through flight UF-2. This experiment will gather data on the basic physical properties of colloids by studying three different colloid systems with the objective of understanding how they grow and what structures they form. A colloidal suspension consists of fine particles (micrometer to submicrometer) suspended in a fluid for example, paints, milk, salad dressings, and aerosols. The long-term goal of this investigation is to learn how to steer the growth of colloidal suspensions to create new materials and new structures. This experiment is part of a two-stage investigation conceived by Professor David Weitz of Harvard University along with Professor Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh. The experiment hardware was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center through contracts with Dynacs, Inc., and ZIN Technologies.

  16. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  17. Optical aeronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, S.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Optical measurements of thermospheric and ionospheric processes and their interpretation are reviewed and the chemical reactions and their effects on emissions are discussed. Also included are the phenomena which excite the airglow and aurora, i.e., the solar UV/EUV flux and auroral particle precipitation. Consideration is given to solar flux, atomic emissions, molecular emissions, hydrogen geocorona, and molecular oxygen and the green line nightglow.

  18. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-05-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.

  19. Cartan's soldered spaces and conservation laws in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouneiher, Joseph; Barbachoux, Cécile

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will introduce a generalized soldering p-forms geometry, which can be the right framework to describe many new approaches and concepts in modern physics. Here we will treat some aspects of the theory of local cohomology in fields theory or more precisely the theory of soldering-form conservation laws in physics. We provide some illustrative applications, primarily taken from the Einstein equations of general theory of relativity and Yang-Mills theory. This theory can be considered to be a generalization of Noether's theory of conserved current to differential forms of any degree. An essential result of this, is that the conservation of the energy-momentum in general relativity, is linked to the fact that the vacuum field equations are equivalent to the integrability conditions of a first-order system of differential equations. We also apply the idea of the soldered space and the integrability conditions to the case of Yang-Mills theory. The mathematical framework, where these intuitive considerations would fit naturally, can be used to describe also the dynamics of changing manifolds.

  20. An implementation plan for priorities in solar-system space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Athay, R. Grant; Baker, Daniel; Fisk, Lennard A.; Fredricks, Robert W.; Harvey, John W.; Jokipii, Jack R.; Kivelson, Margaret; Mendillo, Michael; Nagy, Andrew F.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific objectives and implementation plans and priorities of the Space Science Board in areas of solar physics, heliospheric physics, magnetospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, solar-terrestrial coupling, and comparative planetary studies are discussed and recommended programs are summarized. Accomplishments of Skylab, Solar Maximum Mission, Nimbus-7, and 11 other programs are highlighted. Detailed mission plans in areas of solar and heliospheric physics, plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics are also described.

  1. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  2. On the topology of wall turbulence in physical space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardu, Sedat

    2017-02-01

    The topological features dominating the different sublayers of the near wall turbulence are revisited through direct numerical simulations performed in large computational domains up to the Karman number of 1100. The averages of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor, conditioned by fixed magnitudes of the velocity components, are adequately performed. In the physical space, the dominating topology in the viscous sublayer is the stable focus stretching cohabiting with the unstable node/saddle/saddle points. The stable and unstable focuses mostly populate the inner layer with equal importance, while the former become predominant in the meso and outer layers. Eddies within the low speed streaks with intense streamwise negative velocity of very high shear stress are located near the zero-discriminant facets. The enstrophy and straining prevails the stable focus stretching and the unstable compressing, respectively. The Eulerian velocity field conditioned by a given topology seen by an observer moving with the local velocity is also considered. It is found that the wall normal velocity marks the stretching line of the unstable saddles and the compressing line of the stable nodes/saddles/saddles. The conditional velocity fields linked to the unstable focuses compressing and stable focuses stretching are closely similar.

  3. VIDARS: Towards Painless Access to Space Physics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, B.; Vega, R.; Raeder, J.

    2006-12-01

    Space physics data sets are notoriously difficult to access, in particular if one wants to combine data sets from different sources. Part of the problem is finding the data. A myriad of different formats and containers poses another problem. Attempts to consolidate data in centers has not solved the problem. We present the prototype of a system (VIDARS, virtual data access and retrieval system) that addresses these issues. Data remain with their originators, but data sets are given unique names, called UDI (Universal Data Identifier), akin to Internet host names or e-mail addresses. The UDIs are known (registered) to one central server where they and associated meta data can be searched. Data access occurs completely transparent to a user such that for a requested UDI the central server returns the IP address of the data provider where the data can be retrieved using simple XML based protocols. This requires some cooperation from the data providers who need to register their data and implement the data server protocol, which is, however, very simple. The data access API allows for a wide variety of clients, ranging from simple ASCII dumps to sophisticated graphical and data mining applications, where the client never needs to know where the data actually reside.

  4. Use of space-related material to increase student interest in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N.; Lopez, R.; Mammei, J.

    One of the fundamental challenges in teaching introductory physics is maintaining student interest in the material. Anecdotally, some faculty have noticed that the in- clusion of space-related materials and examples can help foster student interest in physics content. Here we discuss efforts to evaluate the potential benefits of inclusion of these materials, and in particular we present results from modifying the introduc- tory calculus-based physics sequence to include space-related examples in illustrating fundamental physical concepts.

  5. Precision ADCS of a spinning spacecraft for the Mars Aeronomy Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg S.; Shotwell, Robert; Gray, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a precision attitude and control technique for meeting these requirements utilizing a similar architecture that was adopted for the Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) SNOE (Student Nitrous Oxide Explorer) spinning spacecraft; SNOE has been operating with its ADCS architecture in low earth orbit (LEO) for over two years.

  6. Physics of Gravitational Interaction: Geometry of Space or Quantum Field in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, Yurij

    2006-03-01

    Thirring-Feynman's tensor field approach to gravitation opens new understanding on the physics of gravitational interaction and stimulates novel experiments on the nature of gravity. According to Field Gravity, the universal gravity force is caused by exchange of gravitons - the quanta of gravity field. Energy of this field is well-defined and excludes the singularity. All classical relativistic effects are the same as in General Relativity. The intrinsic scalar (spin 0) part of gravity field corresponds to ``antigravity'' and only together with the pure tensor (spin 2) part gives the usual Newtonian force. Laboratory and astrophysical experiments which may test the predictions of FG, will be performed in near future. In particular, observations at gravity observatories with bar and interferometric detectors, like Explorer, Nautilus, LIGO and VIRGO, will check the predicted scalar gravitational waves from supernova explosions. New types of cosmological models in Minkowski space are possible too.

  7. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity.

  8. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  9. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  10. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment : A CubeSat for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, Scott; Li, Xinlin; Gerhardt, David; Turner, Drew; Hoxie, V.; Kohnert, Rick; Batiste, Susan

    Energetic particles, electrons and protons either directly associated with solar flares or trapped in the terrestrial radiation belt, have a profound space weather impact. A National Science Foundation supported 3U CubeSat mission with a single instrument, Relativistic Electrons and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), is proposed to address fundamental scientific questions relating to these high energy particles. Of key importance are the relation-ship between solar flares and energetic particles and the acceleration and loss mechanism of outer radiation belt electrons. REPTile, operating in a highly inclined low earth orbit, will measure differential fluxes of relativistic electrons in the energy range of 0.5-3.5 MeV and pro-tons in 10-40 MeV. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment cubesat will be designed, integrated and testing by students at the University of Colorado under the oversight of pro-fessional engineers with the Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics who have extensive space hardware experience. Our design philosophy is to use commercially off the shelf (COTS) parts where available and only engage in detailed designed where COTS parts cannot meet the system needs. The top level science requirements for the mission have driven the system and subsystem level performance requirements and the specific design choices such as a passive magnetic attitude system and instrument design. In this paper we will present details of the CSSWE design and management approach. Specifically we will discuss the top level science requirements for the mission and show that these measurements are novel and will address open questions in the scientific community. The overall system architecture resulting from a flow-down of these requirements will be presented with a focus on the novel aspects of the system including the instrument design. Finally we will discuss how this project is organized and man-aged as part of the Department of

  11. Polar Mesospheric Cloud properties derived from the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Mission (2007-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gary; Russell, J. M., III; Bailey, Scott

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) is the first satellite experiment dedicated solely to the study of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and their atmospheric environment. Launched on April 25, 2007 into a 600-km circular sun-synchronous orbit, the three AIM instruments have performed flawlessly. The three instruments on board are (1) the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment, (2) the Solar Occultation for Ice (SOFIE) experiment, and (3) the Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE). CIPS consists of an array of four cameras, viewing downward and providing wide-field coverage of the polar regions in the UV at spatial resolutions of 5 km. SOFIE uses the technique of satellite solar occultation to measure vertical profiles of limb path atmospheric transmission within 16 spectral bands between wavelengths of 0.29 and 5.32 µm. The Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE) on the AIM satellite is an impact detector designed to monitor the influx of micrometeorite particles greater than approximately 1 µm in radius. The overall goal of the two-year baseline mission is to determine why PMCs form and vary. AIM has provided the most detailed picture of NH clouds ever collected. The major results to date are: The clouds are highly-structured, are widespread and are variable on hourly to daily time scales. PMC brightness varies over horizontal scales of a few kilometers, and with the superior horizontal resolution of the images, highly-localized regions occur where the clouds are ten times brighter than measured by previous space-based instruments viewing the limb. As previously suspected, but never before seen, a population of very small ice particles was measured that is believed to be responsible for strong radar echoes from the summertime mesosphere. Mesospheric ice occurs in one continuous layer extending from below the main peak at 83 km up to around 90 km. Mesospheric cloud structures, resolved for the first time by the CIPS imager, exhibit complex features present in normal

  12. Parallelization of the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, J. W.; Guo, J.; Lyster, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the atmosphere than the observations or forecast alone can provide. Data assimilation plays an increasingly important role in the study of climate and atmospheric chemistry. The NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has developed the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) to create assimilated datasets. The core computational components of the GEOS DAS include the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) and the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system poses computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. PSAS is implemented in Fortran 90 using object-based design principles. The analysis portions of the code solve two equations. The first of these is the "innovation" equation, which is solved on the unstructured observation grid using a preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) method. The "analysis" equation is a transformation from the observation grid back to a structured grid, and is solved by a direct matrix-vector multiplication. Use of a factored-operator formulation reduces the computational complexity of both the CG solver and the matrix-vector multiplication, rendering the matrix-vector multiplications as a successive product of operators on a vector. Sparsity is introduced to these operators by partitioning the observations using an icosahedral decomposition scheme. PSAS builds a large (approx. 128MB) run-time database of parameters used in the calculation of these operators. Implementing a message passing parallel computing paradigm into an existing yet developing computational system as complex as PSAS is nontrivial. One of the technical challenges is balancing the requirements for computational reproducibility with the need for high performance. The problem of computational

  13. Protein Crystals Grow Purer in Space: Physics of Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alex A.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the quantitative experimental and theoretical results obtained by B.R. Thomas, P.G. Vekilov, D.C. Carter, A.M. Holmes, W.K. Widierow and the Author, the team with expertise in physics, biochemistry, crystallography and engineering. Impurities inhomogeneously trapped by a growing crystal - e.g., producing sectorial structure and/or striations - may induce macroscopic internal stress in it if an impurity molecule has slightly (less than 10%) different shape or volume than the regular one(s) they replace. We tested for the first time plasticity and measured Young modulus E of the triclinic, not cross-linked lysozyme by triple point bending technique. Triclinic lysozyme crystals are purely elastic with E similar or equal to 1/5 (raised dot) 10 (exp 9) partial derivative yn/sq cm. The strength limit, sigma (sub c) similar or equal to 10 (exp -3)E similar or equal to Epsilon (sub c), where sigma (sub c) and epsilon (sub c) are critical stress and strain, respectively. Scaling E and sigma (sub c) with the lattice spacing suggests similar binding stiffness in inorganic and biomolecular crystals. The inhomogeneous internal stress may be resolved in these brittle crystals either by cracking or by creation of misoriented mosaic blocks during, not after growth. If each impurity molecule induces in the lattice elementary strain epsilon (sub 0) similar or equal to 3 (raised dot) 10 (exp -2) (this is maximal elementary strain that can arise at the supersaturation DELTA mu/kT similar or equal to 2 and macroscopic molecular concentration difference between subsequent macrolayers or growth sectors is partial derivativeC similar or equal to 5 (raised dot) 10 (exp -3), the internal strain epsilon similar or equal to epsilon (sub 0) partial derivative C similar or equal to 10 (exp -4). Mosaic misorientation resolving such strain is approximately 30 arcsec. Tenfold increase of impurity concentration may cause cracking. Estimates of stress in an isometric

  14. Space as a unifying theme in physics for non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Blerkom, David

    1986-08-01

    The theme of space colonization serves to unify the topics presented in a physics course for non-science majors. Some vivid examples of the behavior of a baseball in space can bring home to students some of the odd features of the simulation of gravity by rotation. A pop fly or a pitched fastball may behave strikingly differently in a rotating space habitat than on Earth. The differences are derived by simple calculations that use only elementary physics.

  15. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  16. Heliospheric Physics and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration outlines NASA's development of a new generation of human-rated launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and an architecture for exploring the Moon and Mars. The system--developed by the Constellation Program--includes a near term (approx. 2014) capability to provide crew and cargo service to the International Space Station after the Shuttle is retired in 2010 and a human return to the Moon no later than 2020. Constellation vehicles and systems will necessarily be required to operate efficiently, safely, and reliably in the space plasma and radiation environments of low Earth orbit, the Earth's magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and on the lunar surface. This presentation will provide an overview of the characteristics of space radiation and plasma environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-lunar injection and trans-Earth injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose and plasma wake charging environments in near lunar space, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the design and operational environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

  17. Physical phenomena related to crystal growth in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism of crystal growth which may be affected by the space environment was studied. Conclusions as to the relative technical and scientific advantages of crystal growth in space over earth bound growth, without regard to economic advantage, were deduced. It was concluded that the crucibleless technique will most directly demonstrate the unique effects of the greatly reduced gravity in the space environment. Several experiments, including crucibleless crystal growth using solar energy and determination of diffusion coefficients of common dopants in liquid silicon were recommended.

  18. Precision Cosmic Ray physics with space-born experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incagli, Marco

    2016-07-01

    More than 100 years after their discoveries, cosmic rays have been extensively studied, both with balloon experiments and with ground observatories. More recently, the possibility of mounting detectors on satellites or on the International Space Station has allowed for a long duration (several years) continuous observation of primary cosmic rays, i.e. before their interaction with the earth atmosphere, thus opening a new regime of precision measurements. In this review, recent results from major space experiments, as Pamela, AMS02 and Fermi, as well as next generation experiments proposed for the International Space Station, for standalone satellites or for the yet to come Chinese Space Station, will be presented. The impact of these experiment on the knowledge of Cosmic Ray propagation will also be discussed.

  19. Towards a Radiation Hardened Fluxgate Magnetometer for Space Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, David M.

    Space-based measurements of the Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes of the solar-terrestrial connection which energize the Van Allen radiation belts and cause space weather. This thesis describes a fluxgate magnetometer payload developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agencys Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65,000 nT field at 900 samples per second with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT per square-root Hertz at 1 Hertz. The design can be manufactured from radiation tolerant (100 krad) space grade parts. A novel combination of analog temperature compensation and digital feedback simplifies and miniaturises the instrument while improving the measurement bandwidth and resolution. The prototype instrument was successfully validated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory, and is being considered for future ground, satellite and sounding rocket applications.

  20. Physical Examination to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Employees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Nurse performs tonometry examination, which measure the tension of the eyeball, during an employee's arnual physical examination given by MSFC Occupational Medicine Environmental Health Services under the Center Operations Directorate.

  1. Distances in spaces of physical models: partition functions versus spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, Gunther; Kontogeorgis, Aristides

    2017-01-01

    We study the relation between convergence of partition functions (seen as general Dirichlet series) and convergence of spectra and their multiplicities. We describe applications to convergence in physical models, e.g., related to topology change and averaging in cosmology.

  2. Predictions of space physics are difficult, especially when they are about the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassak, P.

    2015-12-01

    This talk is about the future of space physics, the broad field of study addressing how the sun works, its interaction with Earth and other planets via the solar wind and solar eruptions, and the region of interplanetary space out to the edge of the solar system. It is the chief field feeding into the development of tools for space weather prediction. Space physics is at an exciting - yet critical - time in its evolution. Scientifically, the capabilities afforded by new ground- and space-based observations and the rapidly increasing speed of supercomputing resources are leading to unprecedented progress in the field. Recently launched missions such as the Van Allen Probes and the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission, and upcoming missions such as Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter, will open doors to science not previously accessible through observations. Predicting the future of space physics is difficult; this talk will offer thoughts on the road forward.

  3. Health Physics Innovations Developed During Cassini for Future Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickell, Rodney E.; Rutherford, Theresa M.; Marmaro, George M.

    1999-01-01

    The long history of space flight includes missions that used Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power devices, starting with the Transit 4A Spacecraft (1961), continuing through the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, and most recently, Cassini (1997). All Major Radiological Source (MRS) missions were processed at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) Launch Site in full compliance with program and regulatory requirements. The cumulative experience gained supporting these past missions has led to significant innovations which will be useful for benchmarking future MRS mission ground processing. Innovations developed during ground support for the Cassini mission include official declaration of sealed-source classifications, utilization of a mobile analytical laboratory, employment of a computerized dosimetry record management system, and cross-utilization of personnel from related disciplines.

  4. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  5. Positive phase space transformation incompatible with classical physics.

    PubMed

    Son, Wonmin; Kofler, Johannes; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Brukner, Caslav

    2009-03-20

    Bell conjectured that a positive Wigner function does not allow violation of the inequalities imposed by local hidden variable theories. A requirement for this conjecture is "when phase space measurements are performed." We introduce the theory-independent concept of "operationally local transformations" which refers to the change of the switch on a local measurement apparatus. We show that two separated parties, performing only phase space measurements on a composite quantum system with a positive Wigner function and performing only operationally local transformations that preserve this positivity, can nonetheless violate Bell's inequality. Such operationally local transformations are realized using entangled ancillae.

  6. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility.

  7. Emotional Valence and Physical Space: Limits of Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Irmgard; de Filippis, Monica; Lachmair, Martin; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    According to the body-specificity hypothesis, people associate positive things with the side of space that corresponds to their dominant hand and negative things with the side corresponding to their nondominant hand. Our aim was to find out whether this association holds also true for a response time study using linguistic stimuli, and whether…

  8. Teacher Education Physical Education: In Search of a Hybrid Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that a learning environment underpinned by a strengths-based collaborative approach between universities and schools offers extended pre-service teacher learning opportunities and subsequently enhanced preparation. The term "hybrid space" describes the ideal environment of shared partnership where knowledge is jointly…

  9. Curricular, Relational, and Physical Spaces in the Japanese Hoikuen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Daniel E.; Kuby, Candace R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent scholarship looks at the relationship of learning to space and place within educational research. The purpose of this article was to put data produced from teaching in four Japanese preschools into conversation with spatial theory and Ma, a Japanese spatial esthetic. We seek to understand "how" and "what" spaces…

  10. The Space Vehicle--Teaching Physics through Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are some areas of overlap between physics and astronomy. Topics include solar power, fusion reactions, atmospheric refraction, solar spectrum, Doppler effects, Hubble constant, quasars, redshift and the expanding universe, sunspots, sundial construction, solar spectroscopes, the moon, optics, wave theory, the history of science,…

  11. Fabry-Perot CCD annular-summing spectroscopy: study and implementation for aeronomy applications.

    PubMed

    Coakley, M M; Roesler, F L; Reynolds, R J; Nossal, S

    1996-11-20

    The technique of Fabry-Perot CCD annular-summing spectroscopy, with particular emphasis on applications in aeronomy, is discussed. Parameter choices for optimizing performance by the use of a standard format CCD array are detailed. Spectral calibration methods, techniques for determining the ring pattern center, and effects imposed by limited radial resolution caused by superpixel size, variable by on-chip binning, are demonstrated. The technique is carefully evaluated experimentally relative to the conventional scanning Fabry-Perot that uses a photomultiplier detector. We evaluate three extreme examples typical of aeronomical spectroscopy using calculated signal-to-noise ratios. Predicted sensitivity gains of 10-30 are typical. Of the cases considered, the largest savings in integration time are estimated for the day sky thermospheric O(1)D case, in which the bright sky background dominates the CCD read noise. For profile measurements of faint night sky emission lines, such as exospheric hydrogen Balmer-α, long integration times are required to achieve useful signal-to-noise ratios. In such cases, CCD read noise is largely overcome. Predictions of a factor of 10-15 savings in integration time for night sky Balmer-α observations are supported by field tests. Bright, isolated night sky lines such as thermospheric O(1)D require shorter integration times, and more modest gains dependent on signal level are predicted. For such cases it appears from estimate results that the Fabry-Perot CCD annular-summing technique with a conventional rectangular format may be outperformed by a factor of 2-5 by special CCD formats or by unusual optical coupling configurations that reduce the importance of read noise, based on the ideal transmission for any additional optics used in these configurations.

  12. Some physical consequences of a random walk in velocity space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzenberg, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    A simple conceptual model of stochastic behavior based on a random walk process in velocity space is examined. For objects moving at non-relativistic velocities, this leads under asymmetric directional probabilities to acceleration processes that resemble the behavior of objects subject to Newton's second law. For three dimensional space, inverse square law acceleration emerges for sufficiently separated objects. In modeling classical behavior, such non-relativistic random walks would appear to be limited to objects of sufficiently large mass. Objects with smaller mass exhibit more rapid diffusion and less localization, and a relativistic random walk would seem to be required for objects having masses smaller than a threshold mass value. Results suggest that the threshold mass value must be similar in magnitude to the Planck mass, which leads to behavior somewhat comparable to that characterizing an intrinsic quantum classical transition in the microgram mass range.

  13. Review of nuclear physics experimental data for space radiation.

    PubMed

    Norbury, John W; Miller, Jack

    2012-11-01

    The available nuclear fragmentation data relevant to space radiation studies are reviewed. It is found that there are serious gaps in the data. Helium data are missing in the intervals 280 MeV n-3 GeV n and >15 GeV n. Carbon data are missing >15 GeV n. Iron projectile data are missing at all energies except in the interval 280 MeV n-3 GeV n.

  14. Looking Inside and Out: Perceptions of Physical Activity in Childcare Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Nanci; Butler, Allison G.; Schumacher, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the need to better understand how providers' perceptions of indoor and outdoor childcare settings can set the stage for arranging play spaces to optimise children's moderate-to-vigorous physical play. Childcare providers' perceptions of the level of physical activity, safety, and quality that children experience…

  15. CVT/GPL phase 2 integrated testing. [in earth observations, space physics, and material sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shurney, R. E.; Maybee, G.; Schmitt, S.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments representing earth observations, space physics, and material sciences disciplines were installed in the General Purpose Laboratory (GPL). The experiments and the GPL are described. The experiments interfaces the GPL and GPL support systems are assessed. The experiments were cloud physics, ionospheric disturbances, material sciences, high energy astronomy, and superfluid helium.

  16. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  17. The Physical Price of a Ticket into Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkey, A.

    As a direct consequence of exposure to microgravity astronauts experience a number of physiological changes, which can have serious medical implications when they return to Earth. Most immediate and significant are the head-ward shift of body fluids and the removal of gravitational loading from bone and muscles, which lead to progressive changes in the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Cardiovascular adaptations result in an increased incidence of orthostatic intolerance (fainting) post-flight, decreased cardiac output and reduced exercise capacity. Changes in the musculoskeletal system contribute significantly to the impaired functions experienced in the post-flight period. The underlying factor producing these changes is the absence of gravity. Countermeasures, therefore, are designed primarily to simulate Earth-like movements, stresses and system interactions. Exercise is one approach that has received wide operational use and acceptance in both the US and Russian space programmes, and has enabled humans to stay relatively healthy in space for well over a year. Although it remains the most effective countermeasure currently available, significant physiological degrada- tion still occurs. The development of other countermeasures will therefore be necessary for longer duration missions, such as the human exploration of Mars.

  18. An Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory for the Space Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Anderson, J.; Schrick, B.; Ellsworth, C.; Davis, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of research and engineering analyses to date show that it is feasible to develop and fly on the first Spacelab mission a multipurpose laboratory in which experiments can be performed on the microphysical processes in atmospheric clouds. The paper presents a series of tables on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory, with attention given to experiment classes, the preliminary equipment list (particle generators, optical and imaging devices, particle detectors and characterizers, etc.), initial equipment (scientific equipment subsystems and flight support subsystems), and scientific functional requirements (the expansion chamber, the continuous flow diffusion chamber, the static diffusion chamber, the humidifier, and particle generators).

  19. Research in space physics at the University of Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanallen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Current investigations relating to energetic particles and the electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, comets, and the interplanetary medium are reported. Primary emphasis is on observational work using a wide diversity of intruments on satellites of the earth and the moon and on planetary and interplanetary spacecraft, and on phenomenological analysis and interpretation. Secondary emphasis is given to closely related observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques, and to theoretical problems in plasma physics as relevant to solar, planetary, and interplanetary phenomena.

  20. No space for girliness in physics: understanding and overcoming the masculinity of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götschel, Helene

    2014-06-01

    Allison Gonsalves' article on "women doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics" explores narratives of Canadian women physicists concerning their strategies to gain recognition as physicists. In my response to her rewarding and inspiring analysis I will reflect on her findings and arguments and put them into a broader context of research in gender and physics. In addition to her promising strategies to make physics attractive and welcoming to all genders I want to stress two more aspects of the tricky problem: diversity and contextuality of physics.

  1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological and Physical Research Enterprise Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As the 21st century begins, NASA's new Vision and Mission focuses the Agency's Enterprises toward exploration and discovery.The Biological and Physical Research Enterprise has a unique and enabling role in support of the Agency's Vision and Mission. Our strategic research seeks innovations and solutions to enable the extension of life into deep space safely and productively. Our fundamental research, as well as our research partnerships with industry and other agencies, allow new knowledge and tech- nologies to bring improvements to life on Earth. Our interdisciplinary research in the unique laboratory of microgravity addresses opportunities and challenges on our home planet as well as in space environments. The Enterprise maintains a key role in encouraging and engaging the next generation of explorers from primary school through the grad- uate level via our direct student participation in space research.The Biological and Physical Research Enterprise encompasses three themes. The biological sciences research theme investigates ways to support a safe human presence in space. This theme addresses the definition and control of physiological and psychological risks from the space environment, including radiation,reduced gravity, and isolation. The biological sciences research theme is also responsible for the develop- ment of human support systems technology as well as fundamental biological research spanning topics from genomics to ecologies. The physical sciences research theme supports research that takes advantage of the space environment to expand our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature. This theme also supports applied physical sciences research to improve safety and performance of humans in space. The research partnerships and flight support theme establishes policies and allocates space resources to encourage and develop entrepreneurial partners access to space research.Working together across research disciplines, the Biological and Physical

  2. Physics of Colloids in Space-2 (PCS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Subramanian; Gasser, Urs; Manley, Suliana; Valentine, Megan; Prasad, Vikram; Rudhardt, Daniel; Bailey, Arthur; Dinsmore, Anthony; Segre, Phil; Doherty, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids-2 (PCS-2) experiment is aimed at investigating the basic physical properties of several types of colloidal suspensions. The three broad classes of colloidal systems of interest are binary colloids, colloid-polymer mixtures, and fractal gels. The objective is to understand their phase behavior as well as the kinetics of the phase transitions in the absence of gravity. The nucleation, growth, and morphology characteristics of the crystals and gels that form would be studied using confocal microscopy. These will be observed directly with excellent time resolution, and therefore extensive information about the different phases and their growth mechanisms will be gained. With the laser tweezers, it will be possible to measure the strength of these structures and to modify them in a controlled way, and the spectrophotometer will provide the possibility to probe their optical properties. We believe that this experiment will provide the basis for future 'colloid engineering' in which complicated structures with novel properties (e.g., photonic crystals) will be grown by controlled self-assembly.

  3. Design and implementation of space physics multi-model application integration based on web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenping; Zou, Ziming

    With the development of research on space environment and space science, how to develop network online computing environment of space weather, space environment and space physics models for Chinese scientific community is becoming more and more important in recent years. Currently, There are two software modes on space physics multi-model application integrated system (SPMAIS) such as C/S and B/S. the C/S mode which is traditional and stand-alone, demands a team or workshop from many disciplines and specialties to build their own multi-model application integrated system, that requires the client must be deployed in different physical regions when user visits the integrated system. Thus, this requirement brings two shortcomings: reducing the efficiency of researchers who use the models to compute; inconvenience of accessing the data. Therefore, it is necessary to create a shared network resource access environment which could help users to visit the computing resources of space physics models through the terminal quickly for conducting space science research and forecasting spatial environment. The SPMAIS develops high-performance, first-principles in B/S mode based on computational models of the space environment and uses these models to predict "Space Weather", to understand space mission data and to further our understanding of the solar system. the main goal of space physics multi-model application integration system (SPMAIS) is to provide an easily and convenient user-driven online models operating environment. up to now, the SPMAIS have contained dozens of space environment models , including international AP8/AE8、IGRF、T96 models,and solar proton prediction model、geomagnetic transmission model,etc. which are developed by Chinese scientists. another function of SPMAIS is to integrate space observation data sets which offers input data for models online high-speed computing. In this paper, service-oriented architecture (SOA) concept that divides

  4. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  5. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to be effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat.

  6. Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    To test and evaluate suitability of materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, and to achieve sufficient understanding of the mechanisms by which, the materials perform in their intended applications. Materials and proposed applications included but were not limited to: Improved anodes for lithium ion batteries, highly-transparent arc-proof solar array coatings, and improved surface materials for solar dynamic concentrators and receivers. Cooperation and interchange of data with industrial companies as appropriate.

  7. Physics of Boundaries and their Interactions in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidi, Nojan; Karimabadi, Homayoun; Krauss-Varban, Dietmar

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes a brief summary of our accomplishments during the complete contract period. Traditionally, due to computational limitations, it has been impossible to obtain a global view of the magnetosphere on ion time and spatial scales. As a result, kinetic simulations have concentrated on the local structure of different magnetospheric discontinuities and boundaries. However, due to the emergence of low cost desktop superconductors, as well as by taking full advantage of latest advances in data mining and visualization technology, we were able to bypass our planned (proposed) regional simulations and proceed to large-scale 3-D and 2-D global hybrid simulations of the magnetosphere. As a result, although we are only finishing the second year of the proposed activity, much of the original scientific objectives have been surpassed and new avenues of investigation have been opened. Such simulations have led us to possible explanations of some long-standing issues in magnetospheric physics. They have also enabled us to make a number of important discoveries/predictions, which need to be looked for in satellite data. Examples include: (1) the finding that the bow shock can become unstable to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH;) (2) the discovery of a mechanism for intermittent reconnection due to ion physics which may be relevant to the explanation of the recurrence rate of flux transfer events (FTEs;) and (3) the finding that the current sheet in the near-Earth magnetotail region can become unstable to KH with detectable, unique ionospheric signatures. Further, we demonstrated a viable mechanism for the onset of reconnection at the magnetopause, examined the detailed structure of the boundary layer incorporating curvature effects, and provided an explanation for the large core fields observed within FTEs as well as flux ropes in the magnetotail.

  8. Physics of Boundaries and their Interactions in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidi, Nojan; Karimabadi, Homayoun; Krauss-Varban, Dietmar

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes a brief summary of our accomplishments during the complete contract period. Traditionally, due to computational limitations, it has been impossible to obtain a global view of the magnetosphere on ion time and spatial scales. As a result, kinetic-simulations have concentrated on the local structure of different magnetospheric discontinuities and boundaries. However, due to the emergence of low cost supercomputers, as well as by taking full advantage of latest advances in data mining and visualization technology, we were able to bypass our planned (proposed) regional simulations and proceed to large-scale 3-D and 2-D global hybrid simulations of the magnetosphere. As a result, although we are only finishing the second year of the proposed activity, much of the original scientific objectives have been surpassed and new avenues of investigation have been opened. Such simulations have led us to possible explanations of some long-standing issues in magnetospheric physics. They have also enables us to make a number of important discoveries predictions, which need to be looked for in satellite data. Examples include the finding that the bow shock can become unstable to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH), (2) the discovery of a mechanism for intermittent reconnection due to ion physics which may be relevant to the explanation of the recurrence rate of flux transfer events (FTEs), and (3) this finding that the current sheet in the near-Earth magnetotail region can become unstable to KH with detectable, unique ionospheric signatures. Further, we demonstrated a viable mechanism for the onset of reconnection at the magnetopause, examined the detailed structure of the boundary layer incorporating curvature effects, and provided an explanation for the large core fields observed within FTEs as well as flux ropes in the magnetotail.

  9. Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space-time.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Neves, Carlos F H

    2010-06-01

    Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system - the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain's activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time in the brain. This space-time is limited to the execution of brain operations of differing complexity. During each such brain operation a particular short-term spatio-temporal pattern of integrated activity of different brain areas emerges within related operational space-time. At the same time, to have a fully functional human brain one needs to have a subjective mental experience. Current research on the subjective mental experience offers detailed analysis of space-time organization of the mind. According to this research, subjective mental experience (subjective virtual world) has definitive spatial and temporal properties similar to many physical phenomena. Based on systematic review of the propositions and tenets of brain and mind space-time descriptions, our aim in this review essay is to explore the relations between the two. To be precise, we would like to discuss the hypothesis that via the brain operational space-time the mind subjective space-time is connected to otherwise distant physical space-time reality.

  10. Physical layer simulator for undersea free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Shirron, Joseph J.; Rashkin, David; Giddings, Thomas E.; Vuorenkoski Dalgleish, Anni K.; Cardei, Ionut; Ouyang, Bing; Caimi, Frank M.; Cardei, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    High bandwidth (10 to 100 Mbps), real-time data networking in the subsea environment using free-space lasers has a potentially high impact as an enabling technology for a variety of future subsea operations in the areas of distributed sensing, real-time wireless data transfer, control of unmanned undersea vehicles, and other submerged assets. However, the development and testing of laser networking equipment in the undersea environment are expensive and time consuming, and there is a clear need for a network simulation framework that will allow researchers to evaluate the performance of alternate optical and electronic configurations under realistic operational and environmental constraints. The overall objective of the work reported in this paper was to develop and validate such a simulation framework, which consists of (1) a time-dependent radiative transfer model to accurately predict the channel impulse characteristics for alternate system designs over a range of geometries and optical properties and (2) digital modulation and demodulation blocks which accurately simulate both laser source and receiver noise characteristics in order to generate time domain bit stream samples that can be digitally demodulated to predict the resulting bit error rate of the simulated link.

  11. Ideas of Flat and Curved Space in History of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2006-04-01

    Since ``everything which is not prohibited is compulsory'' (assigned to Gell-Mann) we can postulate infinite flat Cartesian N-dimensional (N: any integer) space-time (ST) as embedding for any curved ST. Ergodicity raises quest of whether total number of inflationary and/or Everett bubbles (mini-verses) is finite, countably infinite (aleph-zero) or uncountably infinite (aleph-one). Are these bubbles form Gaussian distribution or form some non-random subsetting? Perhaps, communication between mini-verses (idea of D.Deutsch) can be facilitated by a kind of minimax non-local dynamics akin to Fermat principle? (Minimax Principle in Bubble Cosmology). Even such classical effects as magnetism and polarization have some non-local features. Can we go below the Planck length to perhaps Compton wavelength of our ``Hubble's bubble'' (h/Mc = 10 to minus 95 m, if M = 10 to 54 kg)? When talking about time loops and ergodicity (eternal return paradigm) is there some hysterisis in the way quantum states are accessed in ``forward'' or ``reverse'' direction? (reverse direction implies backward causality of J.Wheeler and/or Aristotelian final causation).

  12. Photogrammetric methods for measurements in fluid physics experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, H.-G.; Virant, M.; Becker, J.; Bösemann, W.; Gatti, L.; Henrichs, A.

    2002-02-01

    Methods of digital close-range photogrammetry allow for manifold real 3-D measurements in dynamic processes. Based on the acquisition of multi-camera digital image sequences, image analysis with subpixel accuracy image measurement operators, photogrammetric multi-image matching and point determination techniques, strict geometric modeling of complex environments and thorough system calibration techniques, time-resolved accurate 3-D coordinates of a large number of objects in a scene can be determined fully automatically. The paper will first give a short review on basic principles of digital photogrammetry and discuss the application and accuracy potential. After that, practical examples will be given from several breadboard experiments conducted in the frame of the ESA Technological Research and Development Programme to show the applicability of the technique to typical experiments in the field of fluid physics. These experiments focus on the investigation of experiments on Marangoni convection; they include the determination of 3-D velocity fields near a hanging drop within a fluid matrix and the observation of the tangential tension on the boundary surface by measuring changes in shape and/or position of liquid bodies like drops, bubbles or liquid columns in a fluid matrix.

  13. CDPP activities: Promoting research and education in space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, V. N.; Andre, N.; Cecconi, B.; Gangloff, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Dufourg, N.; Pitout, F.; Budnik, E.; Lavraud, B.; Rouillard, A. P.; Heulet, D.; Bellucci, A.; Durand, J.; Delmas, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Briand, C.; Biegun, A.

    2015-12-01

    The French Plasma Physics Data Centre (CDPP, http://cdpp.eu/) addresses for more than 15 years all issues pertaining to natural plasma data distribution and valorization. Initially established by CNES and CNRS on the ground of a solid data archive, CDPP activities diversified with the advent of broader networks and interoperability standards, and through fruitful collaborations (e.g. with NASA/PDS): providing access to remote data, designing and building science driven analysis tools then became at the forefront of CDPP developments. For instance today AMDA helps scientists all over the world accessing and analyzing data from ancient to very recent missions (from Voyager, Galileo, Geotail, ... to Maven, Rosetta, MMS, ...) as well as results from models and numerical simulations. Other tools like the Propagation Tool or 3DView allow users to put their data in context and interconnect with other databases (CDAWeb, MEDOC) and tools (Topcat). This presentation will briefly review this evolution, show technical and science use cases, and finally put CDPP activities in the perspective of ongoing collaborative projects (Europlanet H2020, HELCATS, ...) and future missions (Bepicolombo, Solar Orbiter, ...).

  14. Effects of space-dependent cross sections on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum space power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lell, R. M.; Hanan, N. A.

    Effects of multigroup neutron cross section generation procedures on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum reactors were examined. Homogeneous and space dependent multigroup cross section set were generated in 11 and 27 groups for a representative fast reactor core. These cross sections were used to compute various reactor physics parameters for the reference core. Coarse group structure and neglect of space dependence in the generation procedure resulted in inaccurate computations of reactor flux and power distributions and in significant errors regarding estimates of core reactivity and control system worth. Delayed neutron fraction was insensitive to cross section treatment, and computed reactivity coefficients were only slightly sensitive. However, neutron lifetime was found to be very sensitive to cross section treatment. Deficiencies in multigroup cross sections are reflected in core nuclear design and, consequently, in system mechanical design.

  15. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Knowledge for Use on Earth and Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Alexander, J. Iwan; Shaw, Nancy J.; Hill, Myron E.; Gati, Frank G.

    2002-01-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. The purpose of the Fluid Physics Program is to support the goals of NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise which seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research and to develop commercial opportunities, while building the vital knowledge base needed to enable efficient and effective systems for protecting and sustaining humans during extended space flights. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, multiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA-sponsored fluid physics and transport phenomena studies will be carried out on the International Space Station in the Fluids Integrated Rack, in the Microgravity Science Glovebox, in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper will present an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to achieve this research.

  16. Destinations That Older Adults Experience Within Their GPS Activity Spaces Relation to Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Meghan; Ashe, Maureen C.; Clarke, Philippa; McKay, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the relevant geography is an ongoing obstacle to effectively evaluate the influence of neighborhood built environment on physical activity. We characterized density and diversity of destinations that 77 older adults experienced within individually representative GPS activity spaces and traditional residential buffers and assessed their associations with accelerometry-measured physical activity. Traditional residential buffers had lower destination density and diversity than activity spaces. Activity spaces based only on pedestrian and bicycling trips had higher destination densities than all-mode activity spaces. Regardless of neighborhood definition, adjusted associations between destinations and physical activity generally failed to reach statistical significance. However, within pedestrian and bicycling-based activity spaces each additional destination type was associated with 243.3 more steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0, 450.7). Traditional buffers may not accurately portray the geographic space or neighborhood resources experienced by older adults. Pedestrian and bicycling activity spaces elucidate the importance of destinations for facilitating active transportation. PMID:26783370

  17. Understanding Space Weather and the Physics Behind It: A Textbook for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    The emerging science of space weather has its roots in the fundamental physics taught at the undergraduate level. However most of the textbook support for this new discipline is either at or near the graduate level. The Air Force Research Laboratory and the Air Force Academy are partnering to produce a new introductory undergraduate level textbook. The text is aimed at students with knowledge of core physics: sophomore-level Newtonian mechanics and electricity and magnetism. We anticipate this book will be appropriate for students who are not physics majors but have a technology interest, be they engineers, meteorologists or space professionals. We are including special focus sections to compare and contrast space and terrestrial weather. In this paper we will discuss the organization and contents of the text and the types of problems and examples to be included. We will also discuss the material being developed for instructor support.

  18. Space and planetary environment criteria guidelines for use in space vehicle development, 1971 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    A consolidation of natural environment data is presented for use as design criteria guidelines in space and planetary exploration vehicle development programs. In addition to information in the disciplinary areas of aeronomy, radiation, geomagnetism, astrodynamic constants, and meteoroids for the earth's environment above 90 kilometers, interplanetary space, and the planetary environments, the upper atmosphere model currently recommended for use at MSFC is discussed in detail.

  19. Secure space-to-space interferometric communications and its nexus to the physics of quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The history of the probability amplitude equation |ψ>=(|x ,y >-|y ,x >) applicable to quanta pairs, propagating in different directions with entangled polarizations, is reviewed and traced back to the 1947-1949 period. The interferometric Dirac foundations common to |ψ>=(|x ,y >-|y ,x >) and the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, for indistinguishable quanta, are also described. The results from a series of experiments on N-slit laser interferometers, with intra interferometric propagation paths up to 527 m, are reviewed. Particular attention is given to explain the generation of interferometric characters, for secure space-to-space communications, which immediately collapse on attempts of interception. The design of a low divergence N-slit laser interferometer for low Earth orbit-low Earth orbit (LEO-LEO), and LEO-geostationary Earth orbit (LEO-GEO), secure interferometric communications is described and a weight assessment is provided.

  20. Physics of the Solar System - Dynamics and Evolution, Space Physics, and Spacetime Structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, B.; Farinella, P.; Vokrouhlick, D.

    2003-10-01

    This volume covers most areas in the physics of the solar system, with special emphasis on gravitational dynamics; its gist is the rational, in particular mathematical, understanding of the main processes at work. Special stress is given to the variety of objects in the planetary system and their long-term evolution. The unique character of this book is its breadth and depth, which aims at bringing the reader to the threshold of original research; however, special chapters and introductory sections are included for the benefit of the beginner. Physics of the Solar System is based on the earlier work by B. Bertotti and P. Farinella: Physics of the Earth and the Solar System (Kluwer, 1990), which has been completely revised and updated, and more focussed on the solar system. It generally attains a higher level than the previous version. This volume is generally suitable for post-graduate students and researchers in physics, especially in the field related to the solar system. A large amount of figures and diagrams is included, often compiled with real data. Link: http:=//www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1428-7

  1. No Space for Girliness in Physics: Understanding and Overcoming the Masculinity of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Götschel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Allison Gonsalves' article on "women doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics" explores narratives of Canadian women physicists concerning their strategies to gain recognition as physicists. In my response to her rewarding and inspiring analysis I will reflect on her findings and arguments and…

  2. A unified framework for mesh refinement in random and physical space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Stinis, Panos

    2016-10-01

    In recent work we have shown how an accurate reduced model can be utilized to perform mesh refinement in random space. That work relied on the explicit knowledge of an accurate reduced model which is used to monitor the transfer of activity from the large to the small scales of the solution. Since this is not always available, we present in the current work a framework which shares the merits and basic idea of the previous approach but does not require an explicit knowledge of a reduced model. Moreover, the current framework can be applied for refinement in both random and physical space. In this manuscript we focus on the application to random space mesh refinement. We study examples of increasing difficulty (from ordinary to partial differential equations) which demonstrate the efficiency and versatility of our approach. We also provide some results from the application of the new framework to physical space mesh refinement.

  3. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) Project: Glue for Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; King, J.; Roberts, A.; King, T.; Rezapkin, V.

    2005-05-01

    The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) Project is a NASA-funded, collaborative development effort among multi-institution, international, space physics data holding organizations intended to allow science users to interoperably locate space physics data of interest, intercompare the information about data, and retrieve selected data sets or portions of data sets. Presently this consortium is continuing to update the SPASE Data Model (see http://www.igpp.ucla.edu/spase/) as a common metadata language for searching across the multitude of disparate data archives for data of interest. The model is being applied to data set descriptions for the important data holdings of the participating institutions. Searching via SPASE-compliant interfaces generates a query using the common metadata language. The query is translated into local search terminology at each relevant space physics data center. Search results are then gathered and displayed to the user in a common format. Thus, there is no need to change the software and search procedures used at the individual institutions. The model is intended to support data description at multiple levels of detail.JosephTodd Data set intercomparisons will enable determination of which data are useful for the purposes of the scientist/user. We are working with the Virtual Observatories relevant to space physics to enable data searching, access, and retrieval from these unifying theme portals. An example interface is available at the Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) through the following URL: http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov/websearch/dispatcher Development of an effective Data Model is challenging and requires feedback from all sectors of the community. We welcome new participants and discussion of the SPASE activities with the authors either in the session or in future SPASE teleconferences, presentations, or related meetings.

  4. Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanallen, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

  5. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 8: Earth and ocean physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Earth and Ocean Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The requirements for the space shuttle mission are defined as: (1) precision measurement for earth and ocean physics experiments, (2) development and demonstration of new and improved sensors and analytical techniques, (3) acquisition of surface truth data for evaluation of new measurement techniques, (4) conduct of critical experiments to validate geophysical phenomena and instrumental results, and (5) development and validation of analytical/experimental models for global ocean dynamics and solid earth dynamics/earthquake prediction. Tables of data are presented to show the flight schedule estimated costs, and the mission model.

  6. Training Early Career Space Weather Researchers and other Space Weather Professionals at the CISM Space Weather Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Hughes, W.

    2011-12-01

    This talk will outline the organization of a summer school designed to introduce young professions to a sub-discipline of geophysics. Through out the 10 year life time of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) the CISM Team has offered a two week summer school that introduces new graduate students and other interested professional to the fundamentals of space weather. The curriculum covers basic concepts in space physics, the hazards of space weather, and the utility of computer models of the space environment. Graduate students attend from both inside and outside CISM, from all the sub-disciplines involved in space weather (solar, heliosphere, geomagnetic, and aeronomy), and from across the nation and around the world. In addition, between 1/4 and 1/3 of the participants each year are professionals involved in space weather in some way, such as: forecasters from NOAA and the Air Force, Air Force satellite program directors, NASA specialists involved in astronaut radiation safety, and representatives from industries affected by space weather. The summer school has adopted modern pedagogy that has been used successfully at the undergraduate level. A typical daily schedule involves three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. During the morning lectures, student interaction is encouraged using "Timeout to Think" questions and peer instruction, along with question cards for students to ask follow up questions. During the afternoon labs students, working in groups of four, answer thought provoking questions using results from simulations and observation data from a variety of source. Through the interactions with each other and the instructors, as well as social interactions during the two weeks, students network and form bonds that will last them through out their careers. We believe that this summer school can be used as a model for summer schools in a wide variety of disciplines.

  7. Physical and biological organ dosimetry analysis for international space station astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Willingham, Veronica; George, Kerry A

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the biological and physical organ dose equivalents for International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. Individual physical dosimetry is difficult in space due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which consists of protons, heavy ions and secondary neutrons, and the modification of these radiation types in tissue as well as limitations in dosimeter devices that can be worn for several months in outer space. Astronauts returning from missions to the ISS undergo biodosimetry assessment of chromosomal damage in lymphocyte cells using the multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Individual-based pre-flight dose responses for lymphocyte exposure in vitro to gamma rays were compared to those exposed to space radiation in vivo to determine an equivalent biological dose. We compared the ISS biodosimetry results, NASA's space radiation transport models of organ dose equivalents, and results from ISS and space shuttle phantom torso experiments. Physical and biological doses for 19 ISS astronauts yielded average effective doses and individual or population-based biological doses for the approximately 6-month missions of 72 mSv and 85 or 81 mGy-Eq, respectively. Analyses showed that 80% or more of organ dose equivalents on the ISS are from galactic cosmic rays and only a small contribution is from trapped protons and that GCR doses were decreased by the high level of solar activity in recent years. Comparisons of models to data showed that space radiation effective doses can be predicted to within about a +/-10% accuracy by space radiation transport models. Finally, effective dose estimates for all previous NASA missions are summarized.

  8. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Musculoskeletal response to human space flight and physical countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    The assembly of the Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" to international space station was completed in 2009 and Koichi Wakata became the first Japanese station astronaut who spent more than 4 months in the station. Bone and muscle losses are significant medical concerns for long duration human space flight. Effective countermeasure program for bone loss and muscle atrophy is necessary to avoid post flight bone fracture and joint sprain after landing. The musculoskeletal response to human space flight and current physical countermeasure program for station astronauts are described.

  9. Physics of Colloids in Space--Plus (PCS+) Experiment Completed Flight Acceptance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space--Plus (PCS+) experiment successfully completed system-level flight acceptance testing in the fall of 2003. This testing included electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing, vibration testing, and thermal testing. PCS+, an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack payload will deploy a second set of colloid samples within the PCS flight hardware system that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) from April 2001 to June 2002. PCS+ is slated to return to the ISS in late 2004 or early 2005.

  10. Doing It In The SWMF Way: From Separate Space Physics Simulation Programs To The Framework For Space Weather Simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volberg, O.; Toth, G.; Sokolov, I.; Ridley, A. J.; Gombosi, T. I.; de Zeeuw, D. C.; Hansen, K. C.; Chesney, D. R.; Stout, Q. F.; Powell, K. G.; Kane, K. J.; Oehmke, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA-funded Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) is developed to provide "plug and play" type Sun-to-Earth simulation capabilities serving the space physics modeling community. In its fully developed form, the SWMF will comprise a series of interoperating models of physics domains, ranging from the surface of the Sun to the upper atmosphere of the Earth. In its current form the SWMF links together five models: Global Magnetosphere, Inner Heliosphere, Ionosphere Electrodynamics, Upper Atmosphere, and Inner Magnetosphere. The framework permits to switch models of any type. The SWMF is a structured collection of software building blocks that can be used or customized to develop Sun-Earth system modeling components, and to assemble them into application. The SWMF consist of utilities and data structures for creating model components and coupling them. The SWMF contains Control Model, which controls initialization and execution of the components. It is responsible for component registration, processor layout for each component and coupling schedules. A component is created from the user-supplied physics code by adding a wrapper, which provides the control functions and coupling interface to perform the data exchange with other components. Both the wrapper and coupling interface are constructed from the building blocks provided by the framework itself. The current SWMF implementation is based on the latest component technology and uses many important concepts of Object-Oriented Programming emulated in Fortran 90. Currently it works on Linux Beowulf clusters, SGI Origin 2000 and Compaq ES45 machines.

  11. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  13. Audiovisual Aids for Astronomy and Space Physics at an Urban College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moche, Dinah L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of easily available audiovisual aids to teach a one semester course in astronomy and space physics to liberal arts students of both sexes at Queensborough Community College. Included is a list of teaching aids for use in astronomy instruction. (CC)

  14. Scope and Sequence. Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences. A Summer Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    Presented is a booklet containing scope and sequence charts for kindergarten and grades 1 to 6 science units. Overviews and lists of major concepts for units in the life, physical, and earth/space sciences are provided in tables for each grade level. Also presented are seven complete units, one for each grade level. Following a table of contents,…

  15. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  16. The Sun to the Earth - and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The sun is the source of energy for life on earth and is the strongest modulator of the human physical environment. In fact, the Sun's influence extends throughout the solar system, both through photons, which provide heat, light, and ionization, and through the continuous outflow of a magnetized, supersonic ionized gas known as the solar wind. While the accomplishments of the past decade have answered important questions about the physics of the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies, they have also highlighted other questions, some of which are long-standing and fundamental. The Sun to the Earth--and Beyond organizes these questions in terms of five challenges that are expected to be the focus of scientific investigations in solar and space physics during the coming decade and beyond. While the accomplishments of the past decades have answered important questions about the physics of the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies, they have also highlighted other questions, some of which are long-standing and fundamental. This report organizes these questions in terms of five challenges that are expected to be the focus of scientific investigations in solar and space physics during the coming decade and beyond: Challenge 1: Understanding the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior, the generation of solar magnetic fields, the origin of the solar cycle, the causes of solar activity, and the structure and dynamics of the corona. Challenge 2: Understanding heliospheric structure, the distribution of magnetic fields and matter throughout the solar system, and the interaction of the solar atmosphere with the local interstellar medium. Challenge 3: Understanding the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies and their dynamical response to external and internal influences. Challenge 4: Understanding the basic physical principles manifest

  17. Testing physical models for dipolar asymmetry: From temperature to k space to lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibin, J. P.; Contreras, D.

    2017-03-01

    One of the most intriguing hints of a departure from the standard cosmological model is a large-scale dipolar power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If not a statistical fluke, its origins must lie in the modulation of the position-space fluctuations via a physical mechanism, which requires the observation of new modes to confirm or refute. We introduce an approach to describe such a modulation in k space and calculate its effects on the CMB temperature and lensing. We fit the k -space modulation parameters to Planck 2015 temperature data and show that CMB lensing will not provide us with enough independent information to confirm or refute such a mechanism. However, our approach elucidates some poorly understood aspects of the asymmetry, in particular that it is weakly constrained. Also, it will be particularly useful in predicting the effectiveness of polarization in testing a physical modulation.

  18. Scaling and correlation of human movements in cyberspace and physical space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Liu, Huan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of human movements is key to issues of significant current interest such as behavioral prediction, recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and analyze big data sets of human movements in both cyberspace (through browsing of websites) and physical space (through mobile towers) and find a superlinear scaling relation between the mean frequency of visit and its fluctuation σ :σ ˜β with β ≈1.2 . The probability distribution of the visiting frequency is found to be a stretched exponential function. We develop a model incorporating two essential ingredients, preferential return and exploration, and show that these are necessary for generating the scaling relation extracted from real data. A striking finding is that human movements in cyberspace and physical space are strongly correlated, indicating a distinctive behavioral identifying characteristic and implying that the behaviors in one space can be used to predict those in the other.

  19. Scaling and correlation of human movements in cyberspace and physical space.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Liu, Huan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of human movements is key to issues of significant current interest such as behavioral prediction, recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and analyze big data sets of human movements in both cyberspace (through browsing of websites) and physical space (through mobile towers) and find a superlinear scaling relation between the mean frequency of visit 〈f〉 and its fluctuation σ:σ∼〈f〉^{β} with β≈1.2. The probability distribution of the visiting frequency is found to be a stretched exponential function. We develop a model incorporating two essential ingredients, preferential return and exploration, and show that these are necessary for generating the scaling relation extracted from real data. A striking finding is that human movements in cyberspace and physical space are strongly correlated, indicating a distinctive behavioral identifying characteristic and implying that the behaviors in one space can be used to predict those in the other.

  20. Aligning physical learning spaces with the curriculum: AMEE Guide No. 107.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Jonas; Sundberg, Kristina; Laing, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    This Guide explores emerging issues on the alignment of learning spaces with the changing curriculum in medical education. As technology and new teaching methods have altered the nature of learning in medical education, it is necessary to re-think how physical learning spaces are aligned with the curriculum. The better alignment of learning spaces with the curriculum depends on more directly engaged leadership from faculty and the community of medical education for briefing the requirements for the design of all kinds of learning spaces. However, there is a lack of precedent and well-established processes as to how new kinds of learning spaces should be programmed. Such programmes are essential aspects of optimizing the intended experience of the curriculum. Faculty and the learning community need better tools and instruments to support their leadership role in briefing and programming. A Guide to critical concepts for exploring the alignment of curriculum and learning spaces is provided. The idea of a networked learning landscape is introduced as a way of assessing and evaluating the alignment of physical spaces to the emerging curriculum. The concept is used to explore how technology has widened the range of spaces and places in which learning happens as well as enabling new styles of learning. The networked learning landscaped is explored through four different scales within which learning is accommodated: the classroom, the building, the campus, and the city. High-level guidance on the process of briefing for the networked learning landscape is provided, to take into account the wider scale of learning spaces and the impact of technology. Key to a successful measurement process is argued to be the involvement of relevant academic stakeholders who can identify the strategic direction and purpose for the design of the learning environments in relation to the emerging demands of the curriculum.

  1. Training Physics Students for Space Careers: Introduction to the Balloon Payload Projects at UL Lafayette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerman, W. A.; Mazzino, L.; Fontenot, R.; Giovinazzo, P.; Malespin, C.

    2006-12-01

    In January 2004, the President set goals for the space program in the 21st century. This renewed sense of direction means that a whole new generation of scientists and engineers will be needed to support space- based science and technology. Declining enrollments in science, mathematics, and space related engineering programs are well documented in the United States. These enrollment reductions are also observed at Louisiana colleges and universities, which are starting to recover from last year's hurricanes. Since 2003, physics students at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (UL Lafayette) have participated in two balloon payload projects sponsored by the Louisiana Space Grant Consortium (LaSPACE). In 2004-2005, physics students at UL Lafayette attended an informal ballooning course to design and build a student-directed payload for launch at the NASA National Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, Texas in May 2005. In 2006, students participated in the High Altitude Student Payload (HASP) program to measure cosmic ray intensities using traditional film and absorbers. This 10 kg payload flew from Fort Sumner, New Mexico in early September 2006. This presentation will discuss our participation in both balloon projects. Emphasis will be placed on highlighting the "hands-on" and step-by-step approach used to provide students with practical space related skills.

  2. Challenges in Physical Characterization of Dim Space Objects: What Can We Learn from NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, V.; Sanchez, J.; Thirouin, A.; Rivera-Valentin, E.; Ryan, W.; Ryan, E.; Mokovitz, N.; Tegler, S.

    2016-09-01

    Physical characterization of dim space objects in cis-lunar space can be a challenging task. Of particular interest to both natural and artificial space object behavior scientists are the properties beyond orbital parameters that can uniquely identify them. These properties include rotational state, size, shape, density and composition. A wide range of observational and non-observational factors affect our ability to characterize dim objects in cis-lunar space. For example, phase angle (angle between Sun-Target-Observer), temperature, rotational variations, temperature, and particle size (for natural dim objects). Over the last two decades, space object behavior scientists studying natural dim objects have attempted to quantify and correct for a majority of these factors to enhance our situational awareness. These efforts have been primarily focused on developing laboratory spectral calibrations in a space-like environment. Calibrations developed correcting spectral observations of natural dim objects could be applied to characterizing artificial objects, as the underlying physics is the same. The paper will summarize our current understanding of these observational and non-observational factors and present a case study showcasing the state of the art in characterization of natural dim objects.

  3. Investigations of Physical Processes in Microgravity Relevant to Space Electrochemical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovich, Vadim F.; Green, Robert; Jakupca, Ian

    2015-01-01

    NASA has performed physical science microgravity flight experiments in the areas of combustion science, fluid physics, material science and fundamental physics research on the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The orbital conditions on the ISS provide an environment where gravity driven phenomena, such as buoyant convection, are nearly negligible. Gravity strongly affects fluid behavior by creating forces that drive motion, shape phase boundaries and compress gases. The need for a better understanding of fluid physics has created a vigorous, multidisciplinary research community whose ongoing vitality is marked by the continuous emergence of new fields in both basic and applied science. In particular, the low-gravity environment offers a unique opportunity for the study of fluid physics and transport phenomena that are very relevant to management of fluid - gas separations in fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Experiments conducted in space have yielded rich results. These results provided valuable insights into fundamental fluid and gas phase behavior that apply to space environments and could not be observed in Earth-based labs. As an example, recent capillary flow results have discovered both an unexpected sensitivity to symmetric geometries associated with fluid container shape, and identified key regime maps for design of corner or wedge-shaped passive gas-liquid phase separators. In this presentation we will also briefly review some of physical science related to flight experiments, such as boiling, that have applicability to electrochemical systems, along with ground-based (drop tower, low gravity aircraft) microgravity electrochemical research. These same buoyancy and interfacial phenomena effects will apply to electrochemical power and energy storage systems that perform two-phase separation, such as water-oxygen separation in life support electrolysis, and primary space power generation devices such as passive primary fuel cell.

  4. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  5. Workshop on Research for Space Exploration: Physical Sciences and Process Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division of NASA to define contributions the microgravity research community can provide to advance the human exploration of space. Invited speakers and attendees participated in an exchange of ideas to identify issues of interest in physical sciences and process technologies. This workshop was part of a continuing effort to broaden the contribution of the microgravity research community toward achieving the goals of the space agency in human exploration, as identified in the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) strategic plan. The Microgravity program is one of NASA'a major links to academic and industrial basic research in the physical and engineering sciences. At present, it supports close to 400 principal investigators, who represent many of the nation's leading researchers in the physical and engineering sciences and biotechnology. The intent of the workshop provided a dialogue between NASA and this large, influential research community, mission planners and industry technical experts with the goal of defining enabling research for the Human Exploration and Development of Space activities to which the microgravity research community can contribute.

  6. Workshop on Research for Space Exploration: Physical Sciences and Process Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division of NASA to define contributions the microgravity research community can provide to advance the human exploration of space. Invited speakers and attendees participated in an exchange of ideas to identify issues of interest in physical sciences and process technologies. This workshop was part of a continuing effort to broaden the contribution of the microgravity research community toward achieving the goals of the space agency in human exploration, as identified in the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) strategic plan. The Microgravity program is one of NASA'a major links to academic and industrial basic research in the physical and engineering sciences. At present, it supports close to 400 principal investigators, who represent many of the nation's leading researchers in the physical and engineering sciences and biotechnology. The intent of the workshop provided a dialogue between NASA and this large, influential research community, mission planners and industry technical experts with the goal of defining enabling research for the Human Exploration and Development of Space activities to which the microgravity research community can contribute.

  7. The Research Experience for Undergraduates Program in Solar and Space Physics at the University of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, M.; Wood, E.; Cobabe-Amman, E.; Baker, D.; Renfrow, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in Solar and Space Physics is a collaboration between the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research's High Altitude Observatory (HAO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Northwest Research Associates' Colorado Research Associates (CoRA). The goal of the program is to give students real-world, hands-on experience doing research with scientist mentors and to further their intended careers. Our program began in 2007 and is entering its fourth year. Mentors from the member institutions have supervised over fifty research projects dealing with all aspects of Solar and Space Physics. The students begin their eight-week visit to Boulder with a week of classes on the Sun-Earth system as well as practical courses on data analysis and the IDL programming language. The students give a 30 minute oral presentation of their project as well as a poster in a student symposium at the end of the program. Throughout the summer, the students give progress reports at weekly brown-bag lunch meetings. In addition to their own research projects at their host institution, the students tour and meet scientists from the partner institutions as the weekly lunches rotate from site to site. There are also opportunities for students to network with scientists in an informal way at the excursions we organize which include barbecues and weekend outings.

  8. Physics and biophysics experiments needed for improved risk assessment in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, L.

    To improve the risk assessment of radiation carcinogenesis, late degenerative tissue effects, acute syndromes, synergistic effects of radiation and microgravity or other spacecraft factors, and hereditary effects, on future LEO and interplanetary space missions, the radiobiological effects of cosmic radiation before and after shielding must be well understood. However, cosmic radiation is very complex and includes low and high LET components of many different neutral and charged particles. The understanding of the radiobiology of the heavy ions, from GCRs and SPEs, is still a subject of great concern due to the complicated dependence of their biological effects on the type of ion and energy, and its interaction with various targets both outside and within the spacecraft and the human body. In order to estimate the biological effects of cosmic radiation, accurate knowledge of the physics of the interactions of both charged and non-charged high-LET particles is necessary. Since it is practically impossible to measure all primary and secondary particles from all projectile-target-energy combinations needed for a correct risk assessment in space, accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes might be a helpful instrument to overcome those difficulties. These codes have to be carefully validated to make sure they fulfill preset accuracy criteria, e.g. to be able to predict particle fluence and energy distributions within a certain accuracy. When validating the accuracy of the transport codes, both space and ground-based accelerator experiments are needed. In this paper current and future physics and biophysics experiments needed for improved risk assessment in space will be discussed. The cyclotron HIRFL (heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou) and the new synchrotron CSR (cooling storage ring), which can be used to provide ion beams for space related experiments at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP-CAS), will be presented together with

  9. Office of Biological and Physical Research: Overview Transitioning to the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on NASA's transition to its vision for space exploration is presented. The topics include: 1) Strategic Directives Guiding the Human Support Technology Program; 2) Progressive Capabilities; 3) A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover; 4) Risk Mitigation Status Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Countermeasures Readiness Level (CRL); 5) Biological And Physical Research Enterprise Aligning With The Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 6) Critical Path Roadmap Reference Missions; 7) Rating Risks; 8) Current Critical Path Roadmap (Draft) Rating Risks: Human Health; 9) Current Critical Path Roadmap (Draft) Rating Risks: System Performance/Efficiency; 10) Biological And Physical Research Enterprise Efforts to Align With Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 11) Aligning with the Vision: Exploration Research Areas of Emphasis; 12) Code U Efforts To Align With The Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 13) Types of Critical Path Roadmap Risks; and 14) ISS Human Support Systems Research, Development, and Demonstration. A summary discussing the vision for U.S. space exploration is also provided.

  10. Fundamental Physics Activities in the Hme Directorate of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Minster, Olivier

    The Human Spaceflight, Microgravity, and Exploration (HME) Directorate of the European Space Agency is strongly involved in fundamental physics research. One of the major activities in this field is represented by the ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) mission. ACES will demonstrate the high performances of a new generation of atomic clocks in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). Following ACES, a vigorous research program has been recently approved to develop a second generation of atomic quantum sensors for space applications: atomic clocks in the optical domain, aiming at fractional frequency stability and accuracy in the low 10-18 regime; inertial sensors based on matter-wave interferometry for the detection of tiny accelerations and rotations; a facility to study degenerate Bose gases in space. Tests of quantum physics on large distance scales represent another important issue addressed in the HME program. A quantum communication optical terminal has been proposed to perform a test of Bell's inequalities on pairs of entangled photons emitted by a source located on the ISS and detected by two ground stations. In this paper, present activities and future plans will be described and discussed.

  11. The Aeronomy of Mars: Characterization by MAVEN of the Upper Atmosphere Reservoir That Regulates Volatile Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Cravens, T. E.; Grebowsky, J.; Luhmann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars thermosphere-ionosphere-exosphere (TIE) system constitutes the atmospheric reservoir (i.e. available cold and hot planetary neutral and thermal ion species) that regulates present day escape processes from the planet. The characterization of this TIE system, including its spatial and temporal (e.g., solar cycle, seasonal, diurnal, episodic) variability is needed to determine present day escape rates. Without knowledge of the physics and chemistry creating this TIE region and driving its variations, it is not possible to constrain either the short term or long term histories of atmosphere escape from Mars. MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission) will make both in-situ and remote measurements of the state variables of the Martian TIE system. A full characterization of the thermosphere (˜100-250 km) and ionosphere (˜100-400 km) structure (and its variability) will be conducted with the collection of spacecraft in-situ measurements that systematically span most local times and latitudes, over a regular sampling of Mars seasons, and throughout the bottom half of the solar cycle. Such sampling will far surpass that available from existing spacecraft and ground-based datasets. In addition, remote measurements will provide a systematic mapping of the composition and structure of Mars neutral upper atmosphere and coronae (e.g. H, C, N, O), as well as probe lower altitudes. Such a detailed characterization is a necessary first step toward answering MAVEN's three main science questions (see Jakosky et al. 2014, this issue). This information will be used to determine present day escape rates from Mars, and provide an estimate of integrated loss to space throughout Mars history.

  12. Impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a wormhole space-time with horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Puente, A.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a black hole space-time, which, nonetheless, is geodesically complete is investigated. This space-time is an exact solution of certain extensions of general relativity coupled to Maxwell’s electrodynamics and, roughly speaking, consists of two Reissner-Nordström (or Schwarzschild or Minkowski) geometries connected by a spherical wormhole near the center. We find that, despite the existence of infinite tidal forces, causal contact is never lost among the elements making up the observer. This suggests that curvature divergences may not be as pathological as traditionally thought.

  13. Conceptual design for the Space Station Freedom fluid physics/dynamics facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert L.; Chucksa, Ronald J.; Omalley, Terence F.; Oeftering, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    A study team at NASA's Lewis Research Center has been working on a definition study and conceptual design for a fluid physics and dynamics science facility that will be located in the Space Station Freedom's baseline U.S. Laboratory module. This modular, user-friendly facility, called the Fluid Physics/Dynamics Facility, will be available for use by industry, academic, and government research communities in the late 1990's. The Facility will support research experiments dealing with the study of fluid physics and dynamics phenomena. Because of the lack of gravity-induced convection, research into the mechanisms of fluids in the absence of gravity will help to provide a better understanding of the fundamentals of fluid processes. This document has been prepared as a final version of the handout for reviewers at the Fluid Physics/Dynamics Facility Assessment Workshop held at Lewis on January 24 and 25, 1990. It covers the background, current status, and future activities of the Lewis Project Study Team effort. It is a revised and updated version of a document entitled 'Status Report on the Conceptual Design for the Space Station Fluid Physics/Dynamics Facility', dated January 1990.

  14. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 5: Solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Solar Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The areas to be investigated by the solar physics experiments are: (1) the production of mechanical energy in the subphotospheric layers and its transport and dissipation in the upper layers of the atmosphere, (2) the mass flux from the subphotospheric layers into the chromosphere and corona and beyond the solar wind, (3) solar activity and its relationship to magnetic fields, and (4) the production of solar flares. The approach to be followed in conducting the experiments and the equipment required are defined.

  15. Space Physics of Close-in Exoplanets and its Implications for Planet Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ofer

    2015-04-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets is currently focused on planets orbiting M-dwarf stars, due to the close proximity of the habitable zone to the star. However, the traditional habitability definition does not account for the physical space environment near the planets, which can be extreme at close-in orbits, and can lead to erosion of te planetary atmosphere. In order to sustain their atmosphers, M-dwarf planets need to have either an intrinsic magnetic field, or a thick atmosphere. Here we present a set of numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction of an Earth-like magnetized planet and a Venus-like non-magnetized planet with the stellar wind of M-dwarf star. We study space physics aspects of these interactions and their implications for planet habitability

  16. The Physics of Imaging with Remote Sensors : Photon State Space & Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2012-01-01

    Standard (mono-pixel/steady-source) retrieval methodology is reaching its fundamental limit with access to multi-angle/multi-spectral photo- polarimetry. Next... Two emerging new classes of retrieval algorithm worth nurturing: multi-pixel time-domain Wave-radiometry transition regimes, and more... Cross-fertilization with bio-medical imaging. Physics-based remote sensing: - What is "photon state space?" - What is "radiative transfer?" - Is "the end" in sight? Two wide-open frontiers! center dot Examples (with variations.

  17. Wide housing space and chronic exercise enhance physical fitness and adipose tissue morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro Paulo Menezes; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Torsoni, Adriana Souza; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The current cages commonly used in animal experiments can prevent rats from engaging in most forms of natural locomotion behaviors. These animals tend to exhibit sedentary habits. Here, we show that a combination of wide housing space and training exercise helps to reduce white adipose mass and to increase brown adipose mass. Thus, this combination is a useful strategy for truly enhancing the physical fitness of captive rats commonly used in exercise-related interventional studies and to maximize their welfare.

  18. Basic physical and chemical processes in space radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamaratos, E.; Wilson, J. W.; Chang, C. K.; Xu, Y. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of space ionizing radiation on polymers is investigated in terms of operative physical and chemical processes. A useful model of charged particle impact with a polymer was designed. Principle paths of molecular relaxation were identified and energy handling processes were considered. The focus of the study was on energy absorption and the immediately following events. Further study of the radiation degradation of polymers is suggested.

  19. Space-time finite-element objects: Efficiently modeling physically complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, G.A.

    1996-03-28

    Accurate modeling of high-explosive systems requires detailed consideration of many different physical properties and processes: These diverse processes generally occur in localized regions of the problem. Thus the very partial differential equations used to mathematically model the problem change from one region of space and time to another. The numerical algorithms generally used to solve these equations are frequently conceived in terms of data values for physical field variables u{sup i} defined at a number of spatial points indexed by multi-integer subscripts x{sub J}, resulting in a number of discrete state variables u{sup i}{sub J}. Instead of using as the fundamental object a physical field, which naturally maps to an array, the authors imagine a small piece of space modeled for a small amount of time, a space-time ``element``. Within it, various physical processes occur at various times. Self-contained, it gives account of what happens within its borders. It cooperates with a set of neighbors that organize into meshes, which organize into problems. The authors achieve in the software model a decoupling between the where and the how and the what, lack of which historically has been the source of a great deal of the software overhead of modelling continuum systems, and which is a necessary consequence of writing down u{sup i}{sub J}. An efficient implementation of this idea requires a reformulation of the discretization and solution of systems of conservation laws, and careful class design. A working prototype for systems in one space dimension using Mathematica and C++ is provided.

  20. Solo Life to Second Life: The Design of Physical and Virtual Learning Spaces Inspired by the Drama Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Jennifer; Philip, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the design of virtual and physical learning spaces developed for students of drama and theatre studies. What can we learn from the traditional drama workshop that will inform the design of drama and theatre spaces created in technology-mediated learning environments? The authors examine four examples of spaces created for…

  1. Multi-objective optimization of space station logistics strategies using physical programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kun-Peng; Luo, Ya-Zhong; Tang, Guo-Jin

    2015-08-01

    This study extends a previously proposed single-objective optimization formulation of space station logistics strategies to multi-objective optimization. The four-objective model seeks to maximize the mean utilization capacity index, total utilization capacity index, logistics robustness index and flight independency index, aiming to improve both the utilization benefit and the operational robustness of a space station operational scenario. Physical programming is employed to convert the four-objective optimization problem into a single-objective problem. A genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the resulting physical programming-based optimization problem. Moreover, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the physical programming-based solution. The proposed approach is demonstrated with a notional one-year scenario of China's future space station. It is shown that the designer-preferred compromise solution improving both the utilization benefit and the operational robustness is successfully obtained.

  2. Lessons Learned to Date in Developing the Virtual Space Physics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, C.; Roberts, D. A.; King, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-12-01

    We now have an operational Virtual Space Physics Observatory that provides users the ability to search for and retrieve data from hundreds of space and solar physics data products based on specific terms or a Google-like interface. Lessons learned in building VSPO include: (a) A very close and highly interactive collaboration between scientists and information technologists in the definition and development of services is essential. (b) Constructing a Data Model acceptable to a broad community is very important but very difficult. Variations in usage are inevitable and must be dealt with through translations; this is especially true for the description of variables within data products. (c) Higher-order queries (searches based on events, positions, comparisons of measurements, etc.) are possible, and have been implemented in various systems; currently we see these as being separate from the basic data finding and retrieval services. (d) Building a Virtual Observatory is often more a matter of the tedious details of product descriptions than an exercise in implementing fancy middleware. Paying a knowledgeable third party to build registries can be more efficient than working directly with providers, and automated tools can help but do not solve all the problems. (e) The success of the VO effort in space and solar physics, as elsewhere, will depend on whether the scientific communities involved use and critique the services so that they will come to meet a real need for the integration of resources to solve new scientific problems of perceived importance.

  3. Physical, anthropometrical, and body composition characteristics of workers at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasley, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, workers are often exposed to cardiovascular and muscular stress in job-related activities which may require a high level of physical fitness in order to safely complete the work task. Similar tasks will be performed at other launch and landing facilities and in space for the Space Station. One such category includes workers who handle toxic propellants and must wear Self-Contained Atmospheric Protective Ensembles (SCAPE) that can weigh 56 lbs. with the air pack. These suits provide a significant physical challenge to many of the workers in terms of carrying this load while moving about and performing work. Furthermore, under some conditions, there is a significant thermal stress. The physical characteristics of these workers are, therefore, of consequence. The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometry, body composition, strength, power, endurance, flexibility, aerobic fitness, and blood variables of a representative sample of male KSC SCAPE workers and to compare them with characteristics of other male workers at KSC (total population N=110). Three separate comparisons were made.

  4. The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Quick Access to Data and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Carl; Roberts, D. Aaron; McGuire, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO; see http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov) has grown to provide a way to find and access about 375 data products and services from over 100 spacecraft/observatories in space and solar physics. The datasets are mainly chosen to be the most requested, and include most of the publicly available data products from operating NASA Heliophysics spacecraft as well as from solar observatories measuring across the frequency spectrum. Service links include a "quick orbits" page that uses SSCWeb Web Services to provide a rapid answer to questions such as "What spacecraft were in orbit in July 1992?" and "Where were Geotail, Cluster, and Polar on 2 June 2001?" These queries are linked back to the data search page. The VSPO interface provides many ways of looking for data based on terms used in a registry of resources using the SPASE Data Model that will be the standard for Heliophysics Virtual Observatories. VSPO itself is accessible via an API that allows other applications to use it as a Web Service; this has been implemented in one instance using the ViSBARD visualization program. The VSPO will become part of the Space Physics Data Facility, and will continue to expand its access to data. A challenge for all VOs will be to provide uniform access to data at the variable level, and we will be addressing this question in a number of ways.

  5. Nuclear Physics and Radiobiology - Issues for Humans in Space and on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physics is playing a vital role in human biological applications, specifically in planned space missions, in hadron radiotherapy, and in low dose radiobiology. While seemingly disparate, these and other areas share a common need for the understanding of nuclear interactions in biological systems. Radiobiology continues to provide valuable information that will help develop better methods for using radiation in the treatment of disease as well as provide a scientific basis for radiation protection standards. NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. Protection from hazards of space radiation has been identified as one of the five NASA critical areas for human space flight. The cost effective design of spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposures from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions are very different from that of low earth orbit, and much needs to be done about their effects. However, it is clear that revolutionary technologies will need to be developed. Here on earth, particulate radiation treatment for cancer, such as proton radiotherapy, is playing an increasing important role, while the biological effectiveness remains less well understood than for x-rays and other forms of medical radiation treatments. Advanced imaging, dosimetric, Monte Carlo, and other techniques from nuclear physics are utilized to study the molecular basis of fractionation dependency and other tumor and normal tissue radiation responses, such as radiosensitivity. Moreover, advances developed by biological research efforts, such as the sequencing of the human genome, have opened new horizons for radiobiology. New techniques have made it possible to determine at the cellular / molecular level how living

  6. Space life sciences: ground-based iron-ion biology and physics, including shielding.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This session of the 35th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR focuses on recent advances in ground-based studies of high-energy (mainly 1 GeV/nucleon) iron ions. The theme is interdisciplinary in nature and encompasses both physics and biology reports. Manned space missions, including those of the International Space Station and the planned Mars mission, will require the extended presence of crew members in space. As such, a better understanding in shielding design--in radiation detection as well as radio-protection based on simulating studies--is much needed. On the other hand, a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that modulate radiation sensitivity; in determining DNA double strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and the induction of apoptosis, will provide important information for an interventional approach.

  7. High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology from Space: NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    We summarize currently-funded NASA activities in high energy astrophysics and cosmology embodied in the NASA Physics of the Cosmos program, including updates on technology development and mission studies. The portfolio includes participation in a space mission to measure gravitational waves from a variety of astrophysical sources, including binary black holes, throughout most of cosmic history, and in another to map the evolution of black hole accretion by means of the accompanying X-ray emission. These missions are envisioned as collaborations with the European Space Agency's Large 3 (L3) and Athena programs, respectively. It also features definition of a large, NASA-led X-ray Observatory capable of tracing the surprisingly rapid growth of supermassive black holes during the first billion years of cosmic history. The program also includes the study of cosmic rays and high-energy gamma-ray photons resulting from range of physical processes, and efforts to characterize both the physics of inflation associated with the birth of the universe and the nature of the dark energy that dominates its mass-energy content today. Finally, we describe the activities of the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group, which serves as a forum for community analysis and input to NASA.

  8. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  9. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  10. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  11. Building a research group of Space Physics at UAHuntsville -- the impact of an NSF career award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.

    2011-12-01

    G. Li (1,2) (1) Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35899 (2) CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville Huntsville, AL, 35899 The author joined the faculty of the department of Physics at University of Alabama in Huntsville in August 2008. He was awarded the NSF Career award ATM-0847719 in 2009. To date, the Career award has provided partial supports to one postdoc, two graduate students and three undergraduate students for a variety of periods. Three publications came out as a result of the award (one of which is first authored by one undergraduate). Another two publications are in preparation. The award also helped the PI to be further recognized by the field of space plasma physics and cosmic ray physics. For example, in July 2009, the PI was awarded the Young Scientist Medal by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP); in April 2010, the PI won an Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) 2010 Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award. In short, the NSF CAREER has helped the PI to start his career at a level without which, will be impossible.

  12. Theory of planetary atmospheres: an introduction to their physics and chemistry /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, J.W.; Hunten, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of planetary atmospheres are characterized in an introductory text intended for graduate physics students and practicing scientists. Chapters are devoted to the vertical structure of an atmosphere; atmospheric hydrodynamics; the chemistry and dynamics of the earth stratosphere; planetary astronomy; ionospheres; airglows, auroras, and aeronomy; and the stability of planetary atmospheres. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  13. "Let's Sit Forward": Investigating Interprofessional Communication, Collaboration, Professional Roles, and Physical Space at EmergiCare.

    PubMed

    Dean, Marleah; Gill, Rebecca; Barbour, Joshua B

    2016-12-01

    Communication is key to hospital emergency department (ED) caregiving. Interventions in ED processes (and health care organizing in general) have struggled when they have ignored the professional role expectations that enable and constrain providers with patients and each other. Informed by a communication as design (CAD) approach, this study explored the intersections of professional roles, physical space, and communication at EmergiCare-an academic medical center and level-1 trauma center hospital. Based on an ethnographic analysis of field notes from 70 hours of shadowing at the EmergiCare ED, this study identified two specific communication patterns, "case talk" and "comfort talk," that reflect different logics for communication in health care organizing. The findings indicate (a) that case and comfort talk have different status and therefore different influence in EmergiCare ED interprofessional communication and (b) that the arrangement of physical space at EmergiCare ED reflects the requirements of case talk more so than comfort talk. These findings have important implications for theory and practice, including the importance of considering the macro-discursive construction of professional roles reified in the arrangement of work space.

  14. [A review on urban metabolism research based on physical space entities for environmental management].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Urban metabolism is a basic theory for coping with global environmental problems, which is coherent with the aims of national environmental management. This paper analyzed the concept of urban metabolism, and pointed out the meaning for urban metabolism in physical space entities; reviewed the current methods for urban metabolism and its merits and shortages; analyzed the system boundaries, connotation, and methodologies; and summarized the advances on urban meta-bolism practices in physical space entities. At last, we made conclusions that there were shortages, including conception system, basic theory system, and interdisciplinary integrated theory system in current urban metabolism research, and the current cases studied in urban metabolism were limited and not suitable to the harmony development between society, economy, and environment. In the future, we need to strengthen comparison between different case studies from different countries, develop the prior modes of typical urban metabolism research, identify the mechanism for urban ecosystem, and strengthen the spatial decision support system of environmental management taking urban spatial entity spaces as units.

  15. Petascale Kinetic Simulations in Space Sciences: New Simulations and Data Discovery Techniques and Physics Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in simulation technology and hardware are enabling breakthrough science where many longstanding problems can now be addressed for the first time. In this talk, we focus on kinetic simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere and magnetic reconnection process which is the key mechanism that breaks the protective shield of the Earth's dipole field, allowing the solar wind to enter the Earth's magnetosphere. This leads to the so-called space weather where storms on the Sun can affect space-borne and ground-based technological systems on Earth. The talk will consist of three parts: (a) overview of a new multi-scale simulation technique where each computational grid is updated based on its own unique timestep, (b) Presentation of a new approach to data analysis that we refer to as Physics Mining which entails combining data mining and computer vision algorithms with scientific visualization to extract physics from the resulting massive data sets. (c) Presentation of several recent discoveries in studies of space plasmas including the role of vortex formation and resulting turbulence in magnetized plasmas.

  16. Swarm - The European Space Agency's Constellation Mission: Mapping Earth's Magnetic and Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floberghagen, Rune

    2016-07-01

    Launched on 22 November 2013, the three-satellite Swarm constellation is about halfway into its four-year nominal mission. Embarking identical, high accuracy and high spatial as well as temporal resolution instrumentation on all satellites, the mission has ambitious goals reaching from the deep Earth interior (the liquid outer core) all the way out to the solar-terrestrial interaction in the magnetosphere. One may safely state that the mission addresses a diverse range of science issues, and therefore acts as a true discoverer in many fields. Measurements of the magnetic field (magnitude and vector components), the electric field (through ion drift velocity, ion density, ion temperature, electron density, electron temperature and spacecraft potential), the gas density and horizontal winds as well as precise positioning are supported by a range of derived products for the magnetic field, geophysics, aeronomy and space physics communities. Indeed, Swarm is at the forefront of cross-cutting science issues that involve significant parts of the space and earth physics community. In recent data exploitation and science projects we have also seen a high number of coupling studies emerging. This contribution details the status and achievements of the mission in the field of magnetic field, electric field and geospace research. It furthermore discusses the the Agency's further plans, beyond the currently foreseen nominal end of mission in spring 2018. The role of Swarm for space weather research will also be discussed.

  17. Replacing the Singlet Spinor of the EPR-B Experiment in the Configuration Space with Two Single-Particle Spinors in Physical Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondran, Michel; Gondran, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Recently, for spinless non-relativistic particles, Norsen (Found Phys 40:1858-1884, 2010) and Norsen et al. (Synthese 192:3125-3151, 2015) show that in the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation it is possible to replace the wave function in the configuration space by single-particle wave functions in physical space. In this paper, we show that this replacment of the wave function in the configuration space by single-particle functions in the 3D-space is also possible for particles with spin, in particular for the particles of the EPR-B experiment, the Bohm version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment.

  18. Physical design and Monte Carlo simulations of a space radiation detector onboard the SJ-10 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya-Qing; Wang, Huan-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Yun-Long; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Jia-Wei; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Zhang, Fei; Dong, Yi-Fan; Guo, Dong-Ya; Zhou, Da-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A radiation gene box (RGB) onboard the SJ-10 satellite is a device carrying mice and drosophila cells to determine the biological effects of space radiation environment. The shielded fluxes of different radioactive sources were calculated and the linear energy transfers of γ-rays, electrons, protons and α-particles in the tissue were acquired using A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic. Then, a conceptual model of a space radiation instrument employing three semiconductor sub-detectors for deriving the charged and uncharged radiation environment of the RGB was designed. The energy depositions in the three sub-detectors were classified into 15 channels (bins) in an algorithm derived from the Monte Carlo method. The physical feasibility of the conceptual instrument was also verified by Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation.

  20. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Judith L.; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the United States, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of healthcare, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the United States: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities, and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our healthcare and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation. PMID:26863561

  1. Free-Space optical interconnects for cable-less readout in particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, John; Kwan, Simon; Moretti, Tony; Sugg, Alan; Prosser, Alan; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Particle physics detectors utilize readout data links requiring a complicated network of copper wires or optical fibers. These links are both massive and costly. Upgrades to such detectors may require additional bandwidth to be provisioned with limited space available to route new cables or fibers. In contrast, free-space optical interconnects will offer cable-less readout, thereby resulting in significant reductions of material and labor. A collaborative effort between Fermilab and Vega Wave Systems is pursuing the development of a unique free-space optical link design that utilizes the transparency of silicon at wavelengths including 1310 nm and multiple wavelengths used in standard telecommunications applications such as coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The first step in the pursuit of that design is a proof that the concept may be viable. To that end, experiments have been performed to characterize the bit error rate performance of a prototype link over a free-space optical path and through doped silicon at multi-gigabit rates. These experiments have demonstrated that operation within acceptable bit error rates is possible using single and multiple wavelength transmission arrangements.

  2. The Research Experience for Undergraduates Program in Solar and Space Physics at the University of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, M. A.; Wood, E. L.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Baker, D. N.; Renfrow, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in Solar and Space Physicsis a collaboration between the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (CU/LASP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research's High Altitude Observatory (NCAR/HAO), The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center (NOAA/SWPC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Northwest Research Associates' Colorado Research Associates (NWR/CoRA). The goal of the program is to give students real-world, hands-on experience doing research with scientist mentors and to further their intended careers. Our program began in 2007 and is entering its fourth year. Mentors from the member institutions have supervised over fifty research projects dealing with all aspects of Solar and Space Physics. The students begin their 8-week visit to Boulder with a week of classes on the Sun-Earth system as well as practical courses on data analysis and the IDL programming language. The students give a 30 minute oral presentation of their project as well as a poster in a student symposium at the end of the program. Throughout the summer, the students give progress reports at weekly brown-bag lunch meetings. In addition to their own research projects at their host institution, the students tour and meet scientists from the partner institutions as the weekly lunches rotate from site to site. There are also opportunities for students to network with scientists in an informal way at the excursions we organize which include barbecues and weekend outings.

  3. Fuzzy physical programming for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles trajectory optimization based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy physical programming (FPP) method has been introduced for solving multi-objective Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) skip trajectory optimization problem based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods. The dynamic model of SMV is elaborated and then, by employing hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods, the problem has been transformed to nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. According to the mission requirements, the solutions were calculated for each single-objective scenario. To get a compromised solution for each target, the fuzzy physical programming (FPP) model is proposed. The preference function is established with considering the fuzzy factor of the system such that a proper compromised trajectory can be acquired. In addition, the NSGA-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the FPP solution. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective and feasible in terms of dealing with the multi-objective skip trajectory optimization for the SMV.

  4. The use and misuse of statistical analyses. [in geophysics and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    The statistical techniques most often used in space physics include Fourier analysis, linear correlation, auto- and cross-correlation, power spectral density, and superposed epoch analysis. Tests are presented which can evaluate the significance of the results obtained through each of these. Data presented without some form of error analysis are frequently useless, since they offer no way of assessing whether a bump on a spectrum or on a superposed epoch analysis is real or merely a statistical fluctuation. Among many of the published linear correlations, for instance, the uncertainty in the intercept and slope is not given, so that the significance of the fitted parameters cannot be assessed.

  5. The physical space of science: the Neurosciences Institute and Skirkanich Hall.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tod; Tsien, Billie

    2010-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles that Landes Bioscience will publish about the physical space where research takes place-the laboratories and classrooms where the science you read about in our journals is happening. Here we interviewed New York-based architects Tod Williams and Billie Tsien about two of their projects, The Neurosciences Institute in La Jolla and Skirkanich Hall at the University of Pennsylvania. We asked them, among other things, how they engaged scientists in the design process. Here is their response.

  6. Testing Gravitational Physics with Space-based Gravitational-wave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave observations provide exceptional and unique opportunities for precision tests of gravitational physics, as predicted by general relativity (GR). Space-based gravitational wave measurements, with high signal-to-noise ratios and large numbers of observed events may provide the best-suited gravitational-wave observations for testing GR with unprecedented precision. These observations will be especially useful in testing the properties of gravitational waves and strong-field aspects of the theory which are less relevant in other observations. We review the proposed GR test based on observations of massive black hole mergers, extreme mass ratio inspirals, and galactic binary systems.

  7. Success Stories of Undergraduate Retention: A Pathways Study of Graduate Students in Solar and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Stoll, W.; Moldwin, M.; Gross, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation describes results from an NSF-funded study of the pathways students in solar and space physics have taken to arrive in graduate school. Our Pathways study has documented results from structured interviews conducted with graduate students attending two, week-long, NSF-sponsored scientific workshops during the summer of 2011. Our research team interviewed 48 solar and space physics students (29 males and 19 females currently in graduate programs at US institutions,) in small group settings regarding what attracted and retained them along their pathways leading to grad school. This presentation addresses what these students revealed about the attributes and influences that supported completion of their undergraduate experience and focused their aspirations toward graduate school. In advance of the interview process, we collected 125 on-line survey responses from students at the two workshops. This 20-item survey included questions about high school and undergraduate education, as well as about research and graduate experience. A subset of the 125 students who completed this on-line survey volunteered to be interviewed. Two types of interview data were collected from the 48 interviewees: 1) written answers to a pre-interview questionnaire; and 2) detailed notes taken by researchers during group interviews. On the pre-interview questionnaire, we posed the question: "How did you come to be a graduate student in your field?" Our findings to date are based on an analysis of responses to this question, cross correlated with the corresponding on-line survey data. Our analysis reveals the importance of early research experiences. About 80% of the students participating in the Pathways study cited formative undergraduate research experiences. Moreover, about 50% of participants reported undergraduate research experiences that were in the field of their current graduate studies. Graduate students interviewed frequently cited a childhood interest in science

  8. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  9. Spacing and physical habitat selection patterns by peregrine falcons in central West Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wightman, C.; Fuller, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    We examined nest-site spacing and selection of nesting cliffs by Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in central West Greenland. Our sample included 67 nesting cliffs that were occupied at least once between 1972 and 1999 and 38 cliffs with no known history of Peregrine Falcon occupancy. We measured 29 eyrie, cliff, and topographical features at each occupied nesting cliff and unused cliff in 1998a??1999 and used them to model the probability of peregrines occupying a cliff for a breeding attempt. Nearest-neighbor distance was significantly greater than both nearest-cliff distance and nearest-occupied distance (the distance between an occupied cliff and one occupied at least once, 1972a??1999). Thus, spacing among occupied cliffs was probably the most important factor limiting nesting-cliff availability, and, ultimately, peregrine nesting densities. Although some unused cliffs were unavailable in a given year because of peregrine spacing behavior, physical characteristics apparently made some cliffs unsuitable, regardless of availability. We confirmed the importance of several features common to descriptions of peregrine nesting habitat and found that peregrines occupied tall nesting cliffs with open views. They chose nesting cliffs with eyrie ledges that provided a moderate degree of overhang protection and that were inaccessible to ground predators. Overall, we concluded that certain features of a cliff were important in determining its suitability as a nest site, but within a given breeding season there also must be sufficient spacing between neighboring falcon pairs. Our habitat model and information on spacing requirements may be applicable to other areas of Greenland and the Arctic, and can be used to test the generalities about features of Peregrine Falcon nesting cliffs throughout the species' widespread distribution.

  10. High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology from Space: NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2016-03-01

    We summarize currently-funded NASA activities in high energy astrophysics and cosmology, embodied in the NASA Physics of the Cosmos program, including updates on technology development and mission studies. The portfolio includes development of a space mission for measuring gravitational waves from merging supermassive black holes, currently envisioned as a collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) on its L3 mission and development of an X-ray observatory that will measure X-ray emission from the final stages of accretion onto black holes, currently envisioned as a NASA collaboration on ESA's Athena observatory. The portfolio also includes the study of cosmic rays and gamma ray photons resulting from a range of processes, of the physical process of inflation associated with the birth of the universe and of the nature of the dark energy that dominates the mass-energy of the modern universe. The program is supported by an analysis group called the PhysPAG that serves as a forum for community input and analysis and the talk will include a description of activities of this group.

  11. Research Career Persistence for Solar and Space Physics PhD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, Mark B.; Morrow, Cherilynn

    2016-06-01

    Results from a recent graduate student survey found unsurprisingly that Solar and Space Physics (S&SP) PhD graduate students almost all aspire to have research careers in Solar and Space Physics. This study reports on the research career persistence over the first decade of the new millennium for S&SP PhDs. We used publication of science citation indexed articles as the indicator for persistence in a research career. We found that nearly two thirds (64%) of PhDs who graduated between 2001 and 2009 published refereed papers in 2012 or 2013, while 17% of PhDs never published another paper beyond the year they received their PhD. The remaining 19% of PhDs stopped publishing within three years of receiving their PhD. We found no gender difference between research persistence. We also found that though there is statistically no difference on persistence of publishing research between graduates of the largest programs compared to all other programs, there are significant differences between individual programs. This study indicates that a majority of S&SP PhDs find research careers but that a significant fraction pursue careers where publishing in science citation indexed journals is not required. Graduate programs, advisors, and potential graduate students can use these data for career planning and developing mentoring programs that meet the career outcomes of all of their graduates.

  12. Some Thermodynamic Considerations on the Physical and Quantum Nature of Space and Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohrab, Siavash H.; Piltch, Nancy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested that the Planck h = m(sub k)c Lambda(sub k) and the Boltzmann k = m(sub k)c nu(sub k)Constants have stochastic foundation. It is further suggested that a body of fluid at equilibrium is composed of a spectrum of molecular clusters (energy levels) the size of which are governed by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function. Brownian motions are attributed to equilibrium between suspensions and molecular clusters. Atomic (molecular) transition between different size atomic- (molecular-) clusters (energy levels) is shown to result in emission/absorption of energy in accordance with Bohr's theory of atomic spectra. Physical space is identified as a tachyonic fluid that is Dirac's stochastic ether or de Broglie's hidden thermostat. Compressibility of physical space, in accordance with Planck's compressible ether, is shown to result in the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, thus providing a causal explanation of relativistic effect in accordance with the perceptions of Poincare and Lorentz. The invariant Schrodinger equation is derived from the invariant Bernoulli equation for incompressible potential flow. Following Heisenberg a temporal uncertainty relation is introduced as Delta(nu(sub Beta)) Delta(Rho(sub Beta)) > = k.

  13. Developing a Musical Vocabulary to Communicate, Perceive and Analyze Space Physics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    "Light Runners" is a touring E/PO program that provides unprecedented access to STEREO space mission imagery data to the blind and visually handicapped, as well as sighted populations across the country. The program builds on the successful implementation of the innovative science museum exhibit "Walk on the Sun", developed under NASA Ideas Grant ID05-049. The exhibit uses advanced sonification methods to present image pixel data as highly differentiated music, and visually tracks the explorer's physical movements to select those pixels. Musical feedback is generated in real-time based on selections of subsets of the image by the explorer's hands, arms and body movements. Initial indications suggest people not only enjoy the musical effects produced as they explore the imagery using their body movements, spending an average of 2 minutes on the exhibit, but also use the feedback to analyze and compare subsequent images. Blind students, for example, who spent 1 ½ to 3 hours on the exhibit, have reported being able to scan images of the Sun, find its edges and hot spots and control the playback and rewind of movies of the images as they explore imagery from up to 8 cameras on board each spacecraft. Explorers have access to over a million images, comprising more than a years worth of data from the mission and kept up to date as new images are received. The musical sonification vocabulary for this project is compared to two other space physics sonification projects.

  14. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  15. Mars Exploration: Is There Water on Mars? An Educator's Guide with Activities for Physical and Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TERC, Cambridge, MA.

    This educator's guide discusses whether there is water on the planet Mars. The activities, written for grades 9-12, concern physical, earth, and space sciences. By experimenting with water as it changes state and investigating some effects of air pressure, students not only learn core ideas in physical science but can also deduce the water…

  16. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  17. Research Opportunities on the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Feng-Chuan; Adriaans, Mary Jayne; Pensinger, John; Israelsson, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is a state-of-the-art facility for long duration science Investigations whose objectives can only be achieved in microgravity and at low temperature. LTMPF consists of two reusable, cryogenic facilities with self-contained electronics, software and communication capabilities. The Facility will be first launched by Japanese HIIA Rocket in 2003 and retrieved by the Space Shuttle, and will have at least five months cryogen lifetime on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) of the International Space Station. A number of high precision sensors of temperature, pressure and capacitance will be available, which can be further tailored to accommodate a wide variety of low temperature experiments. This paper will describe the LTMPF and its goals and design requirements. Currently there are six candidate experiments in the flight definition phase to fly on LTMPF. Future candidate experiments will be selected through the NASA Research Announcement process. Opportunities for utilization and collaboration with international partners will also be discussed. This work is being carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work was funded by NASA Microgravity Research Division.

  18. Start small, dream big: Experiences of physical activity in public spaces in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; González, Silvia Alejandra; Ríos, Ana Paola; Páez, Diana C; Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2016-08-26

    Multi-sectoral strategies to promote active recreation and physical activity in public spaces are crucial to building a "culture of health". However, studies on the sustainability and scalability of these strategies are limited. This paper identifies the factors related to the sustainability and scaling up of two community-based programs offering physical activity classes in public spaces in Colombia: Bogotá's Recreovía and Colombia's "Healthy Habits and Lifestyles Program-HEVS". Both programs have been sustained for more than 10years, and have benefited 1455 communities. We used a mixed-methods approach including semi-structured interviews, document review and an analysis of data regarding the programs' history, characteristics, funding, capacity building and challenges. Interviews were conducted between May-October 2015. Based on the sustainability frameworks of Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone and Scheirer, we developed categories to independently code each interview. All information was independently analyzed by four of the authors and cross-compared between programs. Findings showed that these programs underwent adaptation processes to address the challenges that threatened their continuation and growth. The primary strategies included flexibility/adaptability, investing in the working conditions and training of instructors, allocating public funds and requesting accountability, diversifying resources, having community support and champions at different levels and positions, and carrying out continuous advocacy to include physical activity in public policies. Recreovía and HEVS illustrate sustainability as an incremental, multi-level process at different levels. Lessons learned for similar initiatives include the importance of individual actions and small events, a willingness to start small while dreaming big, being flexible, and prioritizing the human factor.

  19. Proceedings of the 2003 NASA/JPL Workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, Don (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Fundamental Physics workshop included presentations ranging from forces acting on RNA to properties of clouds of degenerate Fermi atoms, to techniques to probe for a added space-time dimensions, and to flight hardware for low temperature experiments, amongst others. Mark Lee from NASA Headquarters described the new strategic plan that NASA has developed under Administrator Sean O'Keefe's leadership. Mark explained that the Fundamental Physics community now needs to align its research program and the roadmap describing the long-term goals of the program with the NASA plan. Ulf Israelsson of JPL discussed how the rewrite of the roadmap will be implemented under the leadership of the Fundamental Physics Discipline Working Group (DWG). Nick Bigelow, chair of the DWG, outlined how investigators can contribute to the writing of the roadmap. Results of measurements on very cold clouds of Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance were described by three investigators. Also, new measurements relating to tests of Einstein equivalence were discussed. Investigators also described methods to test other aspects of Einstein's relativity theories.

  20. A Revolutionary Aeronomy Concept to Explore the Coupling of the Solar-Terrestrial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2014-01-01

    The Geospace Dynamics Observatory (GDO) mission observes the near-Earth region in space called Geospace with unprecedented resolution, scale and sensitivity. At a distance of 60 Earth Radii (Re) in a near-polar circular orbit and at approximately 27-day period, GDO images the earth's full disk with: (1) a three-channel far ultraviolet imager, (2) an extreme ultraviolet imager of the plasmasphere, and (3) a spectrometer in the near to far ultraviolet range that probes any portion of the disk and simultaneously observes the limb.

  1. The International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program: A Model for International Cooperation in Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, M.

    The International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP) evolved from the individual plans of US, Japanese and European countries to develop space missions to expand our knowledge of the Sun-Earth connection as a "system". Previous experience with independent missions amply illustrated the critical need for coordinated and simultaneous observations in key regions of Sun-Earth space in order to resolve time-space ambiguities and cause-effect relationships. Mission studies such as the US Origins of Plasmas in the Earth's Neighborhood (OPEN), Geotail in Japan, the Solar Heliospheric Observatory in Europe and the Regatta and other magnetospheric missions in the former Soviert Union, formed the early conceptual elements that eventually led to the ISTP program. The coordinating role developed by the Inter-Agency-Consultative-Group (IACG) integrated by NASA, ESA, ISAS and IKI and demonstrated during the comet Halley apparition in 1986, was continued to include solar-terrestrial research and the mission elements described above. In addition to the space elements, a most important component of the coordination effort was the inclusion of data networks, analysis and planning tools as well as globally accessible data sets by the scientific community at large. This approach enabled the active and direct participation of scientists in developing countries in one of the most comprehensive solar-terrestrial research programs implemented to date. The creation of multiple ISTP data repositories throughout the world has enabled a large number of scientists in developing countries to have direct access to the latest spacecraft observations and a most fruitful interaction with fellow researchers throughout the world. This paper will present a review of the evolution of the ISTP program, its products, analysis tools, data bases, infrastructure and lessons learned applicable to future international collaborative programs.

  2. A New Multi-Wavelength Synoptic Network for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Continuous solar observations are important for many research topics in solar physics, such as magnetic field evolution, flare and CME characteristics, and p-mode oscillation measurements. In addition, space weather operations require constant streams of solar data as input. The deployment of a number of identical instruments around the world in a network has proven to be a very effective strategy for obtaining nearly continuous solar observations. The financial costs of a network are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than space-based platforms; network instrumentation can be easily accessed for maintenance and upgrades; and telemetry bandwidth is readily available. Currently, there are two solar observing networks with consistent instruments: BiSON and GONG, both designed primarily for helioseismology. In addition, GONG has been augmented with continual magnetic field measurements and H-alpha imagery, with both being used for space weather operational purposes. However, GONG is now 18 years old and getting increasingly more challenging to maintain. There are also at least three scientific motivations for a multi-wavelength network: Recent advances in helioseismology have demonstrated the need for multi-wavelength observations to allow more accurate interpretation of the structure and dynamics below sunspots. Vector magnetometry would greatly benefit from multi-wavelength observations to provide height information and resolve the azimuthal ambiguity. Finally, space weather operations always need a consistent reliable source of continual solar data. This presentation will outline the scientific need for a multi-wavelength network, and discuss some concepts for the design of the instrumentation. A workshop on the topic will be held in Boulder this April.

  3. Promoting physical activity through the shared use of school recreational spaces: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Young, Deborah R; Spengler, John O; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R; Vincent, Jeffrey M; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-09-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces.

  4. Promoting Physical Activity Through the Shared Use of School Recreational Spaces: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association

    PubMed Central

    Young, Deborah R.; Spengler, John O.; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R.; Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces. PMID:24134355

  5. Crosswalking near-Earth and space physics ontologies in SPASE and ESPAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Heynderickx, D.; Ritschel, B.; King, T. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to support scientific discoveries in Heliophysics (HP), with modern data systems, the HP Data Centers actively pursue harmonization of available metadata that allows crossing boundaries between existing data models, conventions, and resource interfaces. The discoverability of HP observations is improved when associated metadata describes their physical content in agreed terms as a part of the resource registration. One of the great challenges of enabling such content-targeted data search capability is the harmonization of domain ontology across data providers. Ontologies are the cornerstones of the content-aware data systems: they define an agreed vocabulary of keywords that capture the essence of domain-specific concepts and their relationships. With the introduction of the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO), as part of NASA's Virtual System Observatory in 2008, the task of formulating the HP ontology became yet more complicated. Definitions of the wave domain concepts required several layers of specifications that described the generation, propagation, and interaction of the waves with the underlying medium in addition to the observation itself. Simple keyword lists could not provide a sufficiently information-rich description, given the complexity of the wave domain, and the development of a more powerful schema was required. The ontology research at the VWO eventually resulted in a suitable multi-hierarchical design that found its first implementation in 2015 at one of the European space physics data repositories, the near-Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science (ESPAS). Similar to many other European geoscience projects, ESPAS is based on the ISO 19156 Observation and Measurements standard. In cooperation with the NASA VWO, the ESPAS project has deployed a space physics ontology design for all data registration purposes. The VWO science team is now uniquely positioned to establish a crosswalk between the ESPAS ontology based on ISO 19156 and the VWO

  6. TIMED Science With the Space Physics Data Facility's (SPDF) Data and Models Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.; McGuire, R. E.; Kovalick, T.; Candey, R. M.; Leckner, H.

    2005-12-01

    NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) provides access to a large volume of data and models that are of relevance to Ionospheric, Thermospheric and Mesospheric (ITM) physics and to the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission in particular. SPDF has developed a number of web systems to facilitate user access to important data and model resources and is making these services available through Web Services (or Application Programming Interfaces, API) directly to applications such as VxOs. The Coordinated Data Analysis web (CDAWeb) provides access to data from most of NASA's currently operating space science satellites and many of the earlier missions covering the full expanse of the Earth-Sun system from mesosphere to heliosphere. CDAWeb lets user plot data using a wide range of parameter display options including mapped images and movies; capabilities also include parameter listings and data downloads in CDF and ASCII format. TIMED data display options, for example, include GUVI airglow intensities and TIDI neutral wind vectors in a transverse Mercator projection that shows simultaneously both poles and the equatorial region. Coupled with CDAWeb's comprehensive coverage of solar wind parameters the TIMED data will provide new insights into the ITM response to solar and magnetic storms. SPDF's SSCWeb interface enables users to plot orbits for the majority of space physics satellites and to query for magnetic field line conjunctions between multiple spacecraft and ground stations and for magnetic region occupancy and thus enables coordinates science investigation between TIMED and CEDAR ground stations. Recently an Interactive 3-D orbit viewer was added to SSCWeb. Access to legacy data from older ITM satellite missions is provided through the ATMOWeb browse and download system enabling the study of solar cycle effects on ITM parameters. SPDF's Modelweb service is the front-end to a unique collection of solar-terrestrial databased

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, `with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfvén wave theory, observations of Alfvén waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects—a large subject!—are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  8. Promoting Scientist Communications Through Graduate Summer School in Heliophysics and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Schrijver, K.; Bagenal, F.; Sojka, J. J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    edagogical tools that promote student interaction can be applied successfully during graduate workshops to enhance community and communication among the participants and instructors. The NASA/LWS funded Heliophysics Summer School and the NSF funded Space Weather Summer School provide graduate students starting research in the field, and others who are involved in space physics, an opportunity to learn from and interact with leaders in the field and each other. These interactions can happen casually, but there are a number of programatic aspects that foster the interaction so that they can be as fruitful as possible during the short period. These include: specific "ice-breaker" activities, practicing "elevator speeches", embedded lecture questions, question cards, discussion questions, interactive lab activities, structured lab groups, and use of social media. We are continuing to develop new ways to foster profession interaction during these short courses. Along with enhancing their own learning, the inclusion of these strategies provides both the participants and the instructors with models of good pedagogical tools and builds community among the students. Our specific implementation of these strategies and evidence of success will be presented.

  9. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.

    2008-12-01

    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  10. Background and applications of astrodynamics for space missions of the johns hopkins applied physics laboratory.

    PubMed

    Dunham, David W; Farquhar, Robert W

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes astrodynamic techniques applied to develop special orbital designs for past and future space missions of the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of Johns Hopkins University, and background about those techniques. The paper does not describe the long history of low Earth-orbiting missions at APL, but rather concentrates on the astrodynamically more interesting high-altitude and interplanetary missions that APL has undertaken in recent years. The authors developed many of their techniques in preparation for, and during, the Third International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) halo orbit mission while they worked for the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) of NASA during the 1970s and 1980s. Later missions owed much to the ground breaking work of the trajectory designs for ISEE-3 (later known as the International Cometary Explorer, or ICE). This experience, and other new ideas, were applied to the APL near Earth asteroid rendezvous (NEAR) and comet nucleus tour (CONTOUR) discovery missions, as well as to APL's future MESSENGER, STEREO, and New Horizons missions. These will be described in the paper.

  11. Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  12. Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  13. Virtual Observatories for Space Physics Observations and Simulations: New Routes to Efficient Access and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    New tools for data access and visualization promise to make the analysis of space plasma data both more efficient and more powerful, especially for answering questions about the global structure and dynamics of the Sun-Earth system. We will show how new existing tools (particularly the Virtual Space Physics Observatory-VSPO-and the Visual System for Browsing, Analysis and Retrieval of Data-ViSBARD; look for the acronyms in Google) already provide rapid access to such information as spacecraft orbits, browse plots, and detailed data, as well as visualizations that can quickly unite our view of multispacecraft observations. We will show movies illustrating multispacecraft observations of the solar wind and magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, and of simulations of 3 0-spacecraft observations derived from MHD simulations of the magnetosphere sampled along likely trajectories of the spacecraft for the MagCon mission. An important issue remaining to be solved is how best to integrate simulation data and services into the Virtual Observatory environment, and this talk will hopefully stimulate further discussion along these lines.

  14. Modeling the Physics of Sliding Objects on Rotating Space Elevators and Other Non-relativistic Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Knudsen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We consider general problem of modeling the dynamics of objects sliding on moving strings. We introduce a powerful computational algorithm that can be used to investigate the dynamics of objects sliding along non-relativistic strings. We use the algorithm to numerically explore fundamental physics of sliding climbers on a unique class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE). Objects sliding along RSE strings do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported from the Earth's surface into outer space. By extensive numerical simulations, we find that sliding climbers may display interesting non-linear dynamics exhibiting both quasi-periodic and chaotic states of motion. While our main interest in this study is in the climber dynamics on RSEs, our results for the dynamics of sliding object are of more general interest. In particular, we designed tools capable of dealing with strongly nonlinear phenomena involving moving strings of any kind, such as the chaotic dynamics of sliding climbers observed in our simulations.

  15. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research.

  16. AMS-02 Capabilities in Solar Energetic Particle Measurements for Space Weather Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, Cristina; Bindi, Veronica; Corti, Claudio; Hoffman, Julia; Whitman, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), thanks to its large acceptance of about 0.45 m2 sr, is the biggest Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) detector ever flown in space. AMS-02 was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) on May 19, 2011, where it will measure cosmic rays from 1 GV up to a few TV, for the duration of the ISS, currently extended till 2024. During these years of operation, AMS-02 measured several increases of the protons flux over the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) background associated to the strongest solar events. AMS-02 has observed the related SEP accelerated during M- and X-class flares and fast coronal mass ejections measuring an increase of the proton flux near 1 GV and above. Some of these solar events were also followed by the typical GCR suppression i.e. Forbush decrease, which makes even more evident the measurement of the SEP flux over the GCR background. Thanks to its large acceptance and particle detection capabilities, AMS-02 is able to perform precise measurements in a short period of time which is typical of these transient phenomena and to collect enough statistics to measure fine structures and time evolution of particle spectra. The events observed by AMS-02 since the beginning of its mission will be presented and some of the more interesting events will be shown. AMS-02 observations with their unprecedented resolution and high statistics, will improve the understanding of SEP behavior at high energies to constrain models of SEP production used in space weather physics.

  17. Results of recent fluid physics and transport phenomena space flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Singh, Bhim S.

    2000-01-01

    A number of space flight experiments in fluid physics and transport phenomena have been conducted under the auspices of NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications. Results of these have been reported in various journals and technical society meetings. As preparations for a new generation of low gravity experiments to be conducted on ISS are well underway, it is useful to review the results of experiments conducted on the ``Shuttle.'' This paper summarizes the key findings of several recent experiments and emphasizes that such low earth orbit spacecraft should be considered as resource in which experiments can be conducted in near weightless conditions for extended time periods. It is hoped that the scientific community will realize the value of a ``microgravity laboratory'' and, stimulated by past results, will propose new experiments that take maximum advantage of the facilities and long duration microgravity conditions afforded by the ISS. The experiments described in this paper include: Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment, Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment, Pool Boiling Experiment, Thermocapillary Migration of Bubbles and Drops, Electrohydrodynamics of Liquid Bridges, Colloidal Disorder Order Transition, Critical Dynamics of Fluids, Mechanics of Granular Materials, and the Angular Liquid Bridge and Interface Configuration Experiment. .

  18. Ontology of Space Physics for e-Science Applications Based on ISO 19156

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Heynderickx, D.; Charisi, A.; Lowe, D.; Ventouras, S.; Ritschel, B.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.; Roberts, D. A.; King, T. A.; Narock, T.

    2014-12-01

    A structural, ontological presentation of the discipline domain concepts and their relationships is a powerful e-science tool: it enables data search and discovery by content of the observations. Even a simple classification of the concepts using the parent-child hierarchies enables analyses by association, thus bringing a greater insight in the data. Ontology specifications have been put to many uses in space physics, primarily to harmonize data analysis across multiple data resources and thus facilitate interoperability. Among the multitude of ontology writeups, the SPASE data model stands out as a prominent, highly detailed collection of keywords for heliophysics. We will present an ontology design that draws its strengths from SPASE and further enhances it with a greater structural organization of the keyword vocabularies, in particular related to wave phenomena, as well as describes a variety of events and activities in the Sun-Earth system beyond the quiet-time behaviour. The new ontology is being developed for the Near Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science (ESPAS) project funded by the 7th European Framework, whose data model is based on a suite of ISO 19156 standards for Observations and Measurements (O&M). The O&M structure and language have driven the ESPAS ontology organization, with the Observed Property vocabulary as its cornerstone. The ontology development has progressed beyond the O&M framework to include domain-specific components required to describe the space physics concepts in a dictionary-controlled, unambiguous manner. Not surprisingly, wave phenomena and events presented the greatest challenge to the ESPAS ontology team as they demanded characterization of processes involved in the wave generation, propagation, modification, and reception, as well as the propagation medium itself. One of the notable outcomes of this effort is the ability of the new ontology schema to accommodate and categorize, for example, the URSI standard

  19. The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, Stefaan

    The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.

  20. SU-E-E-03: Shared Space Fosters Didactic and Professional Learning Across Professions for Medical and Physics Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Dieterich, S; Perks, J; Fragoso, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists are two professions who should be working as a team for optimal patient care, yet lack of mutual understanding about each others respective role and work environment creates barriers To improve collaboration and learning, we designed a shared didactic and work space for physics and radiation oncology residents to maximize interaction throughout their professional training. Methods: Physician and Physics residents are required to take the same didactic classes, including journal clubs and respective seminars. The residents also share an office environment among the seven physician and two physic residents. Results: By maximizing didactic overlap and sharing office space, the two resident groups have developed a close professional relationship and supportive work environment. Several joint research projects have been initiated by the residents. Awareness of physics tasks in the clinic has led to a request by the physician residents to change physics didactics, converting the physics short course into a lab-oriented course for the medical residents which is in part taught by the physics residents. The physics seminar is given by both residency groups; increased motivation and interest in learning about physics has led to several medical resident-initiated topic selections which generated lively discussion. The physics long course has changed toward including more discussion among residents to delve deeper into topics and study beyond what passing the boards would require. A supportive work environment has developed, embedding the two physics residents into a larger residents group, allowing them to find mentor and peers more easily. Conclusion: By creating a shared work and didactic environment, physician and physics residents have improved their understanding of respective professional practice. Resident-initiated changes in didactic practice have led to improved learning and joint research. A strong social

  1. Using data from automatic planetary stations for solving problems in astronomy and space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey; Bojurova, Eva

    The specific nature of the Astronomy and Space Physics problems promote students' interest in the relevant sciences and provoke their creativity. It is illustrated by numerous examples of positive response from the participants in the Astronomy Olympiad to extraordinary moments in problems, especially those related to space flight and scientific data and photographs from satellites and automatic interplanetary stations (AIS). Jupiter's satellite Io is one of the satellites with the highest volcano activity in the solar system. So far, the volcanoes of Io were photographed for a short time only by the interplanetary stations Voyager 1 and Galileo - sent by NASA, and New Horizons of ESA. By monitoring these often erupting volcanoes, however, one can quickly gather detailed information and establish methods for prediction of eruptions, including the Earth's volcanoes. This could push forward research on volcanism in the Solar system. Therefore, this issue was used for creation conditions for problems in astronomy. The report shows how through measurements on images of Io taken with AIS heights of the jets emitted by volcanoes are defined. Knowing the mass and radius of the satellite initial speed of the emitted particles is evaluated. Similarly, the initial rate of discharge of earth volcanoes and ice geysers on Saturn's satellite Enceladus are also evaluated. An attempt is made to explain the rings of ejection around the volcanoes on Io. The ratio of the diameter of the dispersion of the substance to the height of the stream is studied. Actually, maximum speed of the particles is evaluated as the boundaries of the volcanic "fountain" are determined by the fast moving particles reaching maximal height. The observed ratio is compared with the theoretical one derived by the students. The results show that although the volcanoes of Io , Earth's volcanoes and even ice geysers of Enceladus operate under very different conditions and arise from different causes, the initial

  2. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  3. Space or Physics? Children Use Physical Reasoning to Solve the Trap Problem from 2.5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Amanda M.; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the…

  4. Space Time Physics and Fractality: Festschrift in honour of Mohamed El Naschie on the occasion of his 60th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibel, Peter; Ord, Garnet; Rössler, Otto

    2005-01-01

    Space and Time are the prison bars of reality. Space Time Physics and Fractality is an attempt to tunnel through the rigidity of it all -- by turning everything into dust or smoke. These two ancient traditions are brought together here for the first time -- in the spirit of Democritus and Anaxagoras. Mohamed El Naschie, the sexagenarian, is the "dust dragon". The book contains papers by people who are infected by the same virus of desperately wanting to understand, and represents an incomparable breakthrough.

  5. The association between green space and depressive symptoms in pregnant women: moderating roles of socioeconomic status and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, R R C; Prady, S L; Smith, G; Fairley, L; Cabieses, B; Gidlow, C; Wright, J; Dadvand, P; van Gent, D; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study explored the association between green space and depression in a deprived, multiethnic sample of pregnant women, and examined moderating and mediating variables. Method 7547 women recruited to the ‘Born in Bradford’ cohort completed a questionnaire during pregnancy. A binary measure of depressive symptoms was calculated using a validated survey. Two green space measures were used: quintiles of residential greenness calculated using the normalised difference vegetation index for three neighbourhood sizes (100, 300 and 500 m buffer zones around participant addresses); access to major green spaces estimated as straight line distance between participant address and nearest green space (>0.5 hectares). Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between green space and depressive symptoms, controlling for ethnicity, demographics, socioeconomic status (SES) and health behaviours. Multiplicative interactions explored variations by ethnic group, SES or activity levels. Mediation analysis assessed indirect effects via physical activity. Results Pregnant women in the greener quintiles were 18–23% less likely to report depressive symptoms than those in the least green quintile (for within 100 m of green space buffer zone). The green space-depressive symptoms association was significant for women with lower education or who were active. Physical activity partially mediated the association of green space, but explained only a small portion of the direct effect. Conclusions Higher residential greenness was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms. Associations may be stronger for more disadvantaged groups and for those who are already physically active. Improving green space is a promising intervention to reduce risk of depression in disadvantaged groups. PMID:26560759

  6. Space physics analysis network node directory (The Yellow Pages): Fourth edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David J.; Sisson, Patricia L.; Green, James L.; Thomas, Valerie L.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a component of the global DECnet Internet, which has over 17,000 host computers. The growth of SPAN from its implementation in 1981 to its present size of well over 2,500 registered SPAN host computers, has created a need for users to acquire timely information about the network through a central source. The SPAN Network Information Center (SPAN-NIC) an online facility managed by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) was developed to meet this need for SPAN-wide information. The remote node descriptive information in this document is not currently contained in the SPAN-NIC database, but will be incorporated in the near future. Access to this information is also available to non-DECnet users over a variety of networks such as Telenet, the NASA Packet Switched System (NPSS), and the TCP/IP Internet. This publication serves as the Yellow Pages for SPAN node information. The document also provides key information concerning other computer networks connected to SPAN, nodes associated with each SPAN routing center, science discipline nodes, contacts for primary SPAN nodes, and SPAN reference information. A section on DECnet Internetworking discusses SPAN connections with other wide-area DECnet networks (many with thousands of nodes each). Another section lists node names and their disciplines, countries, and institutions in the SPAN Network Information Center Online Data Base System. All remote sites connected to US-SPAN and European-SPAN (E-SPAN) are indexed. Also provided is information on the SPAN tail circuits, i.e., those remote nodes connected directly to a SPAN routing center, which is the local point of contact for resolving SPAN-related problems. Reference material is included for those who wish to know more about SPAN. Because of the rapid growth of SPAN, the SPAN Yellow Pages is reissued periodically.

  7. Solar and Space Physics Science Enabled by Pico and Nano Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The most significant advances in solar and space physics, or Heliophysics, over the next decade are most likely to derive from new observational techniques. The connection between advances in scientific understanding and technology has historically been demonstrated across many disciplines and time. Progress on some of the most compelling scientific problems will most likely occur through multipoint observations within the space environment to understand the coupling between disparate regions: Heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and mesosphere. Multipoint measurements are also needed to develop understanding of the various scalars or vector field signatures (i.e gradients, divergence) that arise from coupling processes that occur across temporal and spatial scales or within localized regions. The resources that are available over the next decades for all areas of Heliophysics research have limits and it is therefore important that the community be innovative in developing new observational techniques to advance science. One of the most promising new observational techniques becoming available are miniaturized sensors and satellite systems called pico- or nano-satellites and CubeSats. These are enabled by the enormous investment of the commercial, medical, and defense industries in producing highly capable, portable and low-power battery-operated consumer electronics, in-situ composition probes, and novel reconnaissance sensors. The advancements represented by these technologies have direct application in developing pico- or nano-satellites and CubeSats system for Heliophysics research. In this talk we overview the current environment and technologies surrounding these novel small satellites and discuss the types and capabilities of the miniature sensors that are being developed. We discuss how pico- or nano-satellites and CubeSats can be used to address highest priority science identified in the Decadal Survey and the innovations and advancements

  8. Emerging Technologies for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviors in Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    Hurvitz, Philip M.; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Kang, Bumjoon; Saelens, Brian E.; Duncan, Glen E.

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Second, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the “LifeLog.” A graphic interface tool, “LifeLog View,” enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy

  9. A New Undergraduate Course on the Physics of Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, T.; Dearborn, M.; Chun, F.; McHarg, G.

    As documented in the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2010, space situational awareness (SSA) is a high priority for the DoD and intelligence community. A fundamental understanding of the technical issues involved with SSA requires knowledge in many different scientific areas. The mission of the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is to educate, train, and inspire men and women to become officers of character motivated to lead the United States Air Force in service to our Nation. The physics department is implementing the USAFA mission and the need for technically competent officers in SSA through a comprehensive SSA Initiative. As part of the Initiative, we are developing a course to provide junior or senior cadets with the scientific background necessary to understand the challenges associated with SSA missions and systems. This presentation introduces the planned course objectives and includes a discussion of topics to be covered. Examples of topics include, optically resolved imaging, radiometry and photometry, radar detection and tracking, orbital prediction, debris and collision avoidance, detection of proximity operations and modeling and simulation tools. Cadets will have hands-on opportunities to collect metrics of a designated object using Academy assets such as the 41 cm telescope. Cadets will convert telescope gimbal angles into an orbital data. Cadets will synthesize what they learned in the course by completing the semester with a final project where the collected data is merged with a notional scenario to present a mock decision briefing. This class will be open to cadets of any academic major, since the intent is to prepare officers with basic technical competence in SSA applications. This is critical since graduates of the Academy become commissioned officers in the military and serve in a large variety of leadership positions -- from the researcher to the warfighter. Since we are currently developing the course, the SSA

  10. A New 50-MHz VHF Digital Bistatic Radar for E-region Space Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, G. C.; Huyghebaert, D. R.; St-Maurice, J. P.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new fully digital bistatic 50-MHz VHF radar is currently being developed by the radar group in the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies (ISAS) at the University of Saskatchewan. This paper presents the scientific motivation for the new radar. Traditionally bistatic radars have had excellent time resolution, but were significantly lacking in range resolution. With the now available accurate timing abilities and advanced pulse modulation techniques, bistatic radar configurations with both excellent temporal and spatial resolution are able to map or 'image' the E-region. The E-region portion of the ionosphere being the base of the magnetosphere has both global (ionosphere-magnetosphere system) and local phenomena of interest. The currents in the magnetosphere close in the E-region. Field-aligned currents (FACs) and Alfven waves are phenomena with origins in the magnetosphere which present their 'signatures' in the E-region. For example, Alfven waves (produced by the Alfven wave resonator) have different time scales, from less than a Hertz to periods of tens of minutes --- and the high temporal and spatial resolution of this new digital E-region radar will be able to detect them all. The E-region is also a dynamic plasma medium with the two-steam and gradient drift instabilities present and the improved measurement abilities will give fresh physical insight.

  11. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen-hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during flight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced flows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle configuration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot-fire test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate flight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This paper discusses the various trends of base convective heat flux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base flow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi-empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the flight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  12. The NASA Heliophysics Active Final Archive at the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy re-defined and extended the responsibilities of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project. Building on SPDF's established capabilities, the new policy assigned the role of active "Final Archive" for non-solar NASA Heliophysics data to SPDF. The policy also recognized and formalized the responsibilities of SPDF as a source for critical infrastructure services such as VSPO to the overall Heliophysics Data Environment (HpDE) and as a Center of Excellence for existing SPDF science-enabling services and software including CDAWeb, SSCWeb/4D Orbit Viewer, OMNIweb and CDF. We will focus this talk to the principles, strategies and planned SPDF architecture to effectively and efficiently perform these roles, with special emphasis on how SPDF will ensure the long-term preservation and ongoing online community access to all the data entrusted to SPDF. We will layout our archival philosophy and what we are advocating in our work with NASA missions both current and future, with potential providers of NASA and NASA-relevant archival data, and to make the data and metadata held by SPDF accessible to other systems and services within the overall HpOE. We will also briefly review our current services, their metrics and our current plans and priorities for their evolution.

  13. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  14. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  15. In situ detections of Space Weather by the LYRA radiometer on board the PROBA2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiyannis, Athanassios; Kruglanski, Michel; De Donder, Erwin; Dammasch, Ingolf; Dominique, Marie; Ben Moussa, Ali

    The Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) is an ultraviolet irradiance radiometer on-board ESA's PROBA2 micro-satellite. Since it's launch in 2009 it observes the Sun in four different passbands, chosen for their relevance to solar physics, aeronomy and space weather. Flying on an altitude of 735km, LYRA proved to be an excellent flare monitor and is involved in the analysis the atmospheric composition of the Earth. One of the most peculiar and intriguing results of LYRA is the detection of short, strong, bursts that do not directly correlate with solar coronal events, nor with pointing of the instrument to Earth's upper atmosphere, but correlate well with high K_{p} index on Earth's surface. As LYRA has the ability to observe in four different UV bandpasses, the comparison between the filters that allow the detection of this activity versus those that do not, reveals very interesting results as to the nature of those detections. This contribution will focus on the investigation and identification of this phenomenon and it will include crucial comparisons to other space-born instruments that do not detect the same effect.

  16. Applying Forecast Models from the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehmeyr, M.; Baker, D. N.; Millward, G.; Odstrcil, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) has developed three forecast models (FMs) for the Sun-Earth chain. They have been matured by various degrees toward the operational stage. The Sun-Earth FM suite comprises empirical and physical models: the Planetary Equivalent Amplitude (AP-FM), the Solar Wind (SW- FM), and the Geospace (GS-FM) models. We give a brief overview of these forecast models and touch briefly on the associated validation studies. We demonstrate the utility of the models: AP-FM supporting the operations of the AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere) mission soon after launch; SW-FM providing assistance with the interpretation of the STEREO beacon data; and GS-FM combining model and observed data to characterize the aurora borealis. We will then discuss space weather tools in a more general sense, point out where the current capabilities and shortcomings are, and conclude with a look forward to what areas need improvement to facilitate better real-time forecasts.

  17. Research in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in aeronomic research is reported. The following topics are discussed: ionospheric theory; rocket experiments; system development for Urbana measurements; meteor radar; coherent and incoherent scatter radar; and laser radar.

  18. Through Microgravity and Towards the Stars: Microgravity and Strategic Research at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    The Microgravity and Strategic research at Marshall s Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall s Biological and Physical Research Laboratory s scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in "Strategic" Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. New research in Radiation Protection, Strategic Molecular Biology, and In-Space Fabrication will be introduced.

  19. Physical simulation of the long-term dynamic action of a plasma beam on a space debris object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, Valentin A.; Gorev, Nikolai. B.; Tokmak, Nikolai A.; Kochubei, Galina S.

    2017-03-01

    A methodology is developed for physical (laboratory) simulation of the long-term dynamic action of plasma beam high-energy ions on a space debris object with the aim of removing it to a lower orbit followed by its burning in the Earth's atmosphere. The methodology is based on the use of a criterion for the equivalence of two plasma beam exposure regimes (in the Earth' ionosphere and in laboratory conditions) and an accelerated test procedure in what concerns space debris object material sputtering and space debris object erosion by a plasma beam in the Earth's ionosphere. The space debris coating material (blanket thermal insulation) sputtering yield and normal and tangential momentum transfer coefficients are determined experimentally as a function of the ion energy and the ion beam incidence angle.

  20. The NASA Heliophysics Active Final Archive at the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, R. E.; Bilitza, D.; Candey, R. M.; Chimiak, R.; Cooper, J. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Harris, B.; Johnson, R. C.; King, J. H.; Kovalick, T.; Lal, N.; Leckner, H.; Liu, M.; Papitashvili, N. E.; Roberts, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy re-defined and extended the responsibilities of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project. Building on SPDF's established capabilities, the new policy assigned the role of active "Final Archive" for non-solar NASA Heliophysics data to SPDF. The policy also recognized and formalized the responsibilities of SPDF as a source for critical infrastructure services such as VSPO to the overall Heliophysics Data Environment (HpDE) and as a Center of Excellence for existing SPDF science-enabling services and software including CDAWeb, SSCWeb/4D Orbit Viewer, OMNIweb and CDF. In this talk, we will discuss the positive impacts of this policy on data planning by missions such as RBSP and MMS and on working coordination with SPDF capabilities to better address NASA program-level requirements in multi-mission science and long-term archiving. We will discuss the key principles, strategies and planned SPDF architecture to effectively and efficiently perform these roles, with special emphasis on how SPDF will ensure the long-term preservation and ongoing online community access to all the data entrusted to SPDF. We will lay out our archival philosophy and what we are advocating in our work with NASA missions both current and future, with potential providers of NASA and NASA-relevant archival data, and to make the data and metadata held by SPDF accessible to other systems and services within the overall HpDE. We will also briefly review our current services, their metrics and our current plans and priorities for their evolution.

  1. Space or physics? Children use physical reasoning to solve the trap problem from 2.5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda M; Call, Josep

    2014-07-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the properties of the wall) remains unclear because spatial information would suffice (the location of the wall in relation to the ball). We confronted 2- to 6-year-old children with a ball resting on a shelf inside a clear plastic-fronted box. To retrieve the ball, children had to roll it away from a trap or barrier using their fingers. Crucially, a single object acted as a barrier or supporting surface in different conditions, thus requiring a flexible response. Preschoolers solved the task and the critical transfers from 2.5 years of age (Study 1). Interestingly, 2.5-year-olds required to use a tool to displace the ball performed significantly worse than those who could use their fingers (Study 2). In contrast, 2.5- to 4.5-year-olds failed a covered trap box that provided only 2-dimensional predictive cues without any visible physical information, and even 6.5-year-olds performed significantly worse on the covered task compared to the uncovered one (Studies 3 and 4). Our results suggest that children from around 2.5 years of age integrate spatial and physical information when solving problems like the trap box task, rather than simply exploit spatial relationships between features.

  2. Physical demands and injuries to the upper extremity associated with the space program.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Steven F; Williams, David; Jones, Jeffrey; Strauss, Samuel; Clark, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    Hand and upper-extremity overuse and repetitive injuries in astronauts have been and continue to be a common problem in the space program. The demands on upper-extremity use in the astronaut training program, the zero-gravity environment, the extreme temperature conditions of space, the effects of space travel on human physiology/anatomy, and the constraints and pressures of space suits and gloves all can negatively impact upper-extremity function in ways that can result in overuse/repetitive injuries. Future plans for space exploration include endeavors that will continue and even increase the demands on the hand and upper extremity.

  3. Spinorial space-time and the origin of Quantum Mechanics. The dynamical role of the physical vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2016-11-01

    Is Quantum Mechanics really and ultimate principle of Physics described by a set of intrinsic exact laws? Are standard particles the ultimate constituents of matter? The two questions appear to be closely related, as a preonic structure of the physical vacuum would have an influence on the properties of quantum particles. Although the first preon models were just « quark-like » and assumed preons to be direct constituents of the conventional « elementary » particles, we suggested in 1995 that preons could instead be constituents of the physical vacuum (the superbradyon hypothesis). Standard particles would then be excitations of the preonic vacuum and have substantially different properties from those of preons themselves (critical speed…). The standard laws of Particle Physics would be approximate expressions generated from basic preon dynamics. In parallel, the mathematical properties of space-time structures such as the spinoral space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can have strong implications for Quantum Mechanics and even be its real origin. We complete here our recent discussion of the subject by pointing out that: i) Quantum Mechanics corresponds to a natural set of properties of vacuum excitations in the presence of a SST geometry ; ii) the recently observed entanglement at long distances would be a logical property if preons are superluminal (superbradyons), so that superluminal signals and correlations can propagate in vacuum ; iii) in a specific description, the function of space-time associated to the extended internal structure of a spin-1/2 particle at very small distances may be incompatible with a continuous motion at space and time scales where the internal structure of vacuum can be felt. In the dynamics associated to iii), and using the SST approach to space-time, a contradiction can appear between macroscopic and microscopic space-times due to an overlap in the time variable directly related to the fact that a spinorial function takes

  4. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes. Update.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Allen, J. S.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2005-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  5. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a three-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret real data, students realize that the research is an application of basic science concepts they should know, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. They can understand the results without knowing how to do the research or operate the instruments.

  6. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes: Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, How do we know these meteorites are from Mars? This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer It s the chemistry of the rock , students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes.

  7. Experimental determination of physical processes in space, leading to deviations of radio synchrotron radiation spectra from the power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men', A. V.

    2008-02-01

    We present universal formulas for spectral characteristics of cosmic radio sources of synchrotron radiation upon the presence of spectral density maxima at certain frequencies (spectra with negative curvature) taking into account most typical physical processes observed in space. On the basis of long-term observations of angular radiation structure of cosmic radio sources in the decameter wavelength range by the URAN radio interferometer system, we determine most probable physical processes resulting in spectra with extremum values for several quasars, radio galaxies, and their separate components. On the basis of these data, we estimate some parameters of cosmic medium, magnetic field, and angular sizes of compact radio sources and their components.

  8. Accessing Solar Irradiance Data via LISIRD, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Wilson, A.; Snow, M. A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Woods, T. N.; Traver, T.; Woodraska, D.

    2015-12-01

    The LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter, LISIRD, http://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird, allows the science community and the public to explore and access solar irradiance and related data sets using convenient, interactive or scriptable, standards-based interfaces. LISIRD's interactive plotting allows users to investigate and download irradiance data sets from a variety of sources, including space missions, ground observatories, and modeling efforts. LISIRD's programmatic interfaces allow software-level data retrievals and facilitate automation. This presentation will describe the current state of LISIRD, provide details of the data sets it serves, outline data access methods, identify key technologies in-use, and address other related aspects of serving spectral and other time series data. We continue to improve LISIRD by integrating new data sets, and also by advancing its data management and presentation capabilities to meet evolving best practices and community needs. LISIRD is hosted and operated by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, which has been a leader in Atmospheric and Heliophysics science for over 60 years. LASP makes a variety of space-based measurements of solar irradiance, which provide crucial input for research and modeling in solar-terrestrial interactions, space physics, planetary, atmospheric, and climate sciences. These data sets consist of fundamental measurements, composite data sets, solar indices, space weather products, and models. Current data sets available through LISIRD originate from the SORCE, SDO (EVE), UARS (SOLSTICE), TIMED (SEE), and SME space missions, as well as several other space and ground-based projects. LISIRD leverages several technologies to provide flexible and standards-based access to the data holdings available through LISIRD. This includes internet-accessible interfaces that permit data access in a variety of formats, data subsetting, as well as program-level access from data analysis

  9. The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1983-01-01

    In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

  10. Primary and High School resources for teachers and students to improve the space physics education in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, P. V.; Pinto, V. A.; Stepanova, M. V.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Primary and High School educational programs in Chile include a wide geophysical section inside the natural sciences and physics courses. Unfortunately, teacher generally have a lack of preparation and knowledge in this field and there is small amount of available didactical material in the native languaje. This implies that in the reality the geophysical topics are ignored year after year in the school rooms. By the preparation of didactic material and web resources in magnetosphere, solar wind and solar topics, in accordance with the official programs of the Chilean Ministry of Education, we are collaborating to the outreach of the space physics in Chile. As the primary diffusion mechanism is the web, we hope that all the spanish talking community in Latin America can benefit from the public teaching resources that we are developing. There are a growing number of space scientist and graduate students volunteering for this endeavour.

  11. Relativistic Momentum-Space Equations with Applications to Atomic and Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardekopf, Eugene Edward

    Relativistic equal-time wave equations obtained from field theory which describe bound states of N Dirac particles inevitably involve free or external-field positive -energy projection operators (LAMDA)(,+)(i). For N > 2 these operators are vital if the equations are to admit normaliz- able solutions. Such equations have been used in the past to obtain relativistic corrections to simple atomic systems, and to provide a theoretical basis for the Dirac-Hartree-Fock type of equations for many-electron atoms. These equations also find applications in ele- mentary particle physics in describing bound states of quarks. Here we initiate a numerical study of such equations, avoiding an expan- sion in powers of v/c. We work in momentum space, where the free projection operators are simple functions of (')p. We describe tech- niques for finding the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H(,+)(1,2) = h(,D)(1) + h(,D)(2) + (LAMDA)(,++)V(LAMDA)(,++) where h(,D)(i) is the free Dirac Hamiltonian and V is a local potential with either a (VBAR)(')r(,1)-(')r(,2)(VBAR)('-1) singularity in the case of atomic systems, or a (VBAR)(')r(,1)-(')r(,2)(VBAR) behavior plus a Coulomb-like singular- ity in the case of bound quarks. Results are presented for both pure Coulomb and a Coulomb plus Breit potential for the atomic case, and for a pure Lorentz scalar in the linear potential case. In the atomic case a wide range of m(,1)/m(,2) and coupling strength (gamma) is studied and the m(,2) = (INFIN) limit is compared with the Dirac equation. The magni- tude of level shifts associated with virtual pair production in such two-body systems is discussed. For intermediate values of (gamma) a com- parison is made between the numerical results and those of pertur- bation theory. We find that there can often be large corrections to perturbative results even for not terribly large values of v/c. We also study the strong coupling limit and find the value (gamma)(,max) for which the lowest-lying bound state

  12. Parallel field line and stream line tracing algorithms for space physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Monostori, G.

    2004-05-01

    Field line and stream line tracing is required in various space physics applications, such as the coupling of the global magnetosphere and inner magnetosphere models, the coupling of the solar energetic particle and heliosphere models, or the modeling of comets, where the multispecies chemical equations are solved along stream lines of a steady state solution obtained with single fluid MHD model. Tracing a vector field is an inherently serial process, which is difficult to parallelize. This is especially true when the data corresponding to the vector field is distributed over a large number of processors. We designed algorithms for the various applications, which scale well to a large number of processors. In the first algorithm the computational domain is divided into blocks. Each block is on a single processor. The algorithm folows the vector field inside the blocks, and calculates a mapping of the block surfaces. The blocks communicate the values at the coinciding surfaces, and the results are interpolated. Finally all block surfaces are defined and values inside the blocks are obtained. In the second algorithm all processors start integrating along the vector field inside the accessible volume. When the field line leaves the local subdomain, the position and other information is stored in a buffer. Periodically the processors exchange the buffers, and continue integration of the field lines until they reach a boundary. At that point the results are sent back to the originating processor. Efficiency is achieved by a careful phasing of computation and communication. In the third algorithm the results of a steady state simulation are stored on a hard drive. The vector field is contained in blocks. All processors read in all the grid and vector field data and the stream lines are integrated in parallel. If a stream line enters a block, which has already been integrated, the results can be interpolated. By a clever ordering of the blocks the execution speed can be

  13. Need for a network of observatories for space debris dynamical and physical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio; Castronuovo, Marco; Portelli, Claudio; Cardona, Tommaso; Arena, Lorenzo; Sciré, Gioacchino; Seitzer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Space debris represents a major concern for space missions since the risk of impact with uncontrolled objects has increased dramatically in recent years. Passive and active mitigation countermeasures are currently under consideration but, at the base of any of such corrective actions is the space debris continuous monitoring through ground based surveillance systems.At the present, many space agencies have the capability to get optical measurements of space orbiting objects mainly relaying on single observatories. The recent research in the field of space debris, demonstrated how it is possible to increase the effectiveness of optical measurements exploitation by using joint observations of the same target from different sites.The University of Rome "La Sapienza", in collaboration with Italian Space Agency (ASI), is developing a scientific network of observatories dedicated to Space Debris deployed in Italy (S5Scope at Rome and SPADE at Matera) and in Kenya at the Broglio Space Center in Malindi (EQUO). ASI founded a program dedicated to space debris, in order to spread the Italian capability to deal with different aspects of this issue. In this framework, the University of Rome is in charge of coordinating the observatories network both in the operation scheduling and in the data analysis. This work describes the features of the observatories dedicated to space debris observation, highlighting their capabilities and detailing their instrumentation. Moreover, the main features of the scheduler under development, devoted to harmonizing the operations of the network, will be shown. This is a new system, which will autonomously coordinate the observations, aiming to optimize results in terms of number of followed targets, amount of time dedicated to survey, accuracy of orbit determination and feasibility of attitude determination through photometric data.Thus, the authors will describe the techniques developed and applied (i) to implement the multi-site orbit

  14. Physical Properties and Durability of New Materials for Space and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    To develop and test new materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, to assist industry in the application of these materials, and to achieve an adequate understanding of the mechanisms by which the materials perform in their intended applications.

  15. Physical Space and the Resource-Based View of the College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugazzotto, Sam J.

    2010-01-01

    Space serves as a key resource for colleges and universities, and institutions exchange information about it with each other and with prospective students. Using content analysis to examine several widely circulated publications, this study looked for differences in the value attributed to space when institutional leaders present it to students…

  16. Where can they play? Outdoor spaces and physical activity among adolescents in U.S. urbanized areas

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Casanova, Kathleen; Richardson, Andrea S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate behavior-specific effects of several objectively-measured outdoor spaces on different types of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a large, diverse sample of U.S. adolescents. Methods Using data from Wave I (1994–95) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (U.S., n=10,359) and a linked geographic information system, we calculated percent greenspace coverage and distance to the nearest neighborhood and major parks. Using sex-stratified multivariable logistic regression, we modeled reported participation in wheel-based activities, active sports, exercise, and ≥5 MVPA bouts/week as a function of each outdoor space variable, controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographics. Results Availability of major or neighborhood parks was associated with higher participation in active sports and, in females, wheel-based activity and reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week [OR (95% CI): up to 1.71 (1.29. 2.27)]. Greater greenspace coverage was associated with reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week in males and females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.62 (1.10, 2.39) for 10.1 to 20% versus ≤10% greenspace] and exercise participation in females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.73 (1.21, 2.49)]. Conclusions Provision of outdoor spaces may promote different types of physical activities, with potentially greater benefits in female adolescents, who have particularly low physical activity levels. PMID:20655948

  17. SPACE PHYSICS: Developing resources for astrophysics at A-level: the TRUMP Astrophysics project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    After outlining the astrophysical options now available in A-level physics syllabuses, this paper notes some of the particular challenges facing A-level teachers and students who chose these options and describes a project designed to support them. The paper highlights some key features of the project that could readily be incorporated into other areas of physics curriculum development.

  18. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  19. Locally covariant quantum field theory and the problem of formulating the same physics in all space-times.

    PubMed

    Fewster, Christopher J

    2015-08-06

    The framework of locally covariant quantum field theory is discussed, motivated in part using 'ignorance principles'. It is shown how theories can be represented by suitable functors, so that physical equivalence of theories may be expressed via natural isomorphisms between the corresponding functors. The inhomogeneous scalar field is used to illustrate the ideas. It is argued that there are two reasonable definitions of the local physical content associated with a locally covariant theory; when these coincide, the theory is said to be dynamically local. The status of the dynamical locality condition is reviewed, as are its applications in relation to (i) the foundational question of what it means for a theory to represent the same physics in different space-times and (ii) a no-go result on the existence of natural states.

  20. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  1. Challenges and Opportunities For Space Plasma Physics in the Use of Electromagnetic Fields Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will review recent progress and future challenges in the use of electromagnetic fields measurements for understanding space plasma phenomena. A summary of the performance of the instrumentation on the recently launched Van Allen Probes and the upcoming NASA MMS mission will describe the state-of-the-art in many of these measurements techniques. There will also be speculation on areas of possible future instrument development that will enhance new space missions.

  2. Geometry of non-Hausdorff spaces and its significance for physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Michael; Pysiak, Leszek; Sasin, Wiesław

    2011-04-01

    Hausdorff relation, topologically identifying points in a given space, belongs to elementary tools of modern mathematics. We show that if subtle enough mathematical methods are used to analyze this relation, the conclusions may be far-reaching and illuminating. Examples of situations in which the Hausdorff relation is of the total type, i.e., when it identifies all points of the considered space, are the space of Penrose tilings and space-times of some cosmological models with strong curvature singularities. With every Hausdorff relation a groupoid can be associated, and a convolutive algebra defined on it allows one to analyze the space that otherwise would remain intractable. The regular representation of this algebra in a bundle of Hilbert spaces leads to a von Neumann algebra of random operators. In this way, a probabilistic description (in a generalized sense) naturally takes over when the concept of point looses its meaning. In this situation counterparts of the position and momentum operators can be defined, and they satisfy a commutation relation which, in the suitable limiting case, reproduces the Heisenberg indeterminacy relation. It should be emphasized that this is neither an additional assumption nor an effect of a quantization process, but simply the consequence of a purely geometric analysis.

  3. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  4. Planning Movements in Visual and Physical Space in Monkey Posterior Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shenbing; Morel, Pierre; Gail, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Neurons in the posterior parietal cortex respond selectively for spatial parameters of planned goal-directed movements. Yet, it is still unclear which aspects of the movement the neurons encode: the spatial parameters of the upcoming physical movement (physical goal), or the upcoming visual limb movement (visual goal). To test this, we recorded neuronal activity from the parietal reach region while monkeys planned reaches under either normal or prism-reversed viewing conditions. We found predominant encoding of physical goals while fewer neurons were selective for visual goals during planning. In contrast, local field potentials recorded in the same brain region exhibited predominant visual goal encoding, similar to previous imaging data from humans. The visual goal encoding in individual neurons was neither related to immediate visual input nor to visual memory, but to the future visual movement. Our finding suggests that action planning in parietal cortex is not exclusively a precursor of impending physical movements, as reflected by the predominant physical goal encoding, but also contains spatial kinematic parameters of upcoming visual movement, as reflected by co-existing visual goal encoding in neuronal spiking. The co-existence of visual and physical goals adds a complementary perspective to the current understanding of parietal spatial computations in primates.

  5. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores.

  6. Physics, chemistry and pulmonary sequelae of thermodegradation events in long-mission space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul; Sklar, Michael; Ramirez, W. Fred; Smith, Gerald J.; Morgenthaler, George W.; Oberdoerster, Guenter

    1993-01-01

    An event in which electronic insulation consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene undergoes thermodegradation on the Space Station Freedom is considered experimentally and theoretically from the initial chemistry and convective transport through pulmonary deposition in humans. The low-gravity enviroment impacts various stages of event simulation. Vapor-phase and particulate thermodegradation products were considered as potential spacecraft contaminants. A potential pathway for the production of ultrafine particles was identified. Different approaches to the simulation and prediction of contaminant transport were studied and used to predict the distribution of generic vapor-phase products in a Space Station model. A lung transport model was used to assess the pulmonary distribution of inhaled particles, and, finally, the impact of adaptation to low gravity on the human response to this inhalation risk was explored on the basis of known physiological modifications of the immune, endocrine, musculoskeletal and pulmonary systems that accompany space flight.

  7. The international space station as an observatory for cosmic-ray physics and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station is an ideal platform for observing cosmic rays. Furthermore, it can readily accommodate the instrumentation needed to address all of the top-priority science objectives identified in 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences for ``Plasma Processes that Accelerate Very Energetic Particles and Control Their Propagation.'' These objectives are synergistic in their pursuit of the illusive goal of understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of the cosmic radiation. A distributed observatory on the International Space Station may be the key to answering this long-standing question in the first decade of the new millennium.

  8. The Case for Atmospheric Physics & Space Exploration in Nigeria In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubachukwu, A. A.; Okeke, P. N.

    2000-12-01

    Capability in basic space science is an essential component for economic development in the 21st century. Yet, African countries in particular are completely passive to the development of basic space science. This article examines the problems facing the development of space science in Nigeria and presents arguments for why a nation such as Nigeria should invest in research on basic space science. La compétence en science spatiale fondamentale est un composant essentiel du développement économique au 21ième siècle. Cependant les pays africains, en particulier, sont complètement passifs envers le dééveloppement des sciences spatiales fondamentales. Cet article examine les problèmes auxquels le développement des sciences spatiales se heurte au Nigéria, et présente les raisons pour lesquelles une nation telle le Nigéria devrait investir dans la recherche spatiale.

  9. A Capability to Generate Physics-based Mass Estimating Relationships for Conceptual Space Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Marcus, Leland

    2002-01-01

    This paper is written in support of the on-going research into conceptual space vehicle design conducted at the Space Systems Design Laboratory (SSDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Research at the SSDL follows a sequence of a number of the traditional aerospace disciplines. The sequence of disciplines and interrelationship among them is shown in the Design Structure Matrix (DSM). The discipline of Weights and Sizing occupies a central location in the design of a new space vehicle. Weights and Sizing interact, either in a feed forward or feed back manner, with every other discipline in the DSM. Because of this principle location, accuracy in Weights and Sizing is integral to producing an accurate model of a space vehicle concept. Instead of using conceptual level techniques, a simplified Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique is described as applied to the problem of the Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank bending loads applied to the forward Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank of the Georgia Tech Air Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV).

  10. A Tie for Third Place: Teens Need Physical Spaces as well as Virtual Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Paula Brehm

    2006-01-01

    "Third places" or public and informal gathering places have declined over the years. Third places, which are "neutral ground" where people gather to discuss, interact, and enjoy the company of those they know, are important for the health of communities. It's a known fact that teens have a strong need to socialize, and their third-space options…

  11. Physical and Social Organization of Space in a Combined Credential Programme: Implications for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathryn S.

    2008-01-01

    Social geography brings a new perspective to understanding longstanding separation between general and special education in higher education. This paper uses methods from social geography to consider how the structures and processes of space function to maintain longstanding divisions between general and special education in a US teacher education…

  12. Physical-Chemical Solid Waste Processing for Space Missions at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark; Wignarajah, K.; Tleimat, Maher; Pace, Greg

    2001-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration and reach out to more distant locations such as Mars, solids waste processing progresses from storage technologies to reclamation technologies. Current low Earth orbit technologies consist of store-and dispose to space or return to Earth. Fully regenerative technologies recycle wastes. The materials reclaimed from waste can be used to provide the basic materials to support plant growth for food including carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Other products can also be reclaimed from waste such as hydrocarbons and activated carbon. This poster describes development at Ames Research Center of a process to make activated carbon from space mission wastes and to make an incineration system that produces clean flue gas. Inedible biomass and feces contain hydrocarbons in a form that can be pyrolyzed and converted to activated carbon. The activated carbon can then be used to clean up contaminants from various other life support systems; in particular, the activated carbon can be used regeneratively to remove NOx from incinerator flue gas. Incinerator flue gas can also be cleaned up by the use of reductive and oxidative catalysts. A catalytic incinerator flue gas cleanup system has been developed at ARC that produces flue gas clean enough (with the exception of carbon dioxide) to meet the Space Minimum Allowable Concentration limits for human exposure.

  13. Situative Creativity: Larger Physical Spaces Facilitate Thinking of Novel Uses for Everyday Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Joel; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    People often use spatial metaphors (e.g., think "laterally," "outside the box") to describe exploration of the problem space during creative problem solving. In this paper, we probe the potential cognitive underpinnings of these spatial metaphors. Drawing on theories of situative cognition, semantic foraging theory, and…

  14. Solar And Cosmic Ray Physics And The Space Environment: Studies For And With LISA

    SciTech Connect

    Shaul, D. N. A.; Araujo, H.; Quenby, J. J.; Sumner, T.; Wass, P.; Aplin, K. L.; Bingham, R.; Hapgood, M.; Kellet, B.; Young, P.; Blake, J. B.; Mulligan, T.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Fazakerley, A.; Matthews, S.; Buchman, S.; Finn, L. S.; Roming, P.; Fletcher, L.; Glover, A.

    2006-11-29

    With data analysis preparations for LISA underway, there has been renewed interest in studying solar, cosmic ray and environmental physics for, and using LISA. The motivation for these studies is two fold. The primary incentive is to predict and consequently minimize the impact of disturbances associated with these factors, to maximize LISA's gravitational wave scientific yield. The second stimulus is the unique opportunity that is afforded by LISA's long-baseline 3-spacecraft configuration for studies of solar, cosmic ray and environmental physics. Here we present an overview of recent progress in these studies.

  15. Physical and Thermal Properties Evaluated of Teflon FEP Retrieved From the Hubble Space Telescope During Three Servicing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Sutter, James K.; Gaier, James R.; Messer, Russell, K.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; McClendon, Mark W.; Viens, Michael J.; Wang, L. Len; He, Charles C.; Gummow, Jonathan D.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical properties of aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) thermal control materials on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) exposed to low Earth orbit for up to 9.7 years have significantly degraded, with extensive cracking occurring on orbit. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have collaborated on analyzing the physical and thermal properties of aluminized FEP (FEP-Al, DuPont) materials retrieved in December 1999 during HST's third servicing mission (SM3A). Comparisons have been made to properties of FEP-Al retrieved during the first and second HST servicing missions, SM1 and SM2, in order to determine degradation processes for FEP on HST.

  16. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  17. Analysis and evaluation of ZPPR (Zero Power Physics Reactor) critical experiments for a 100 kilowatt-electric space reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.; Carpenter, S.G.; Olsen, D.N.; Smith, D.M.; Schaefer, R.W. ); Doncals, R.A.; Andre, S.V.; Porter, C.A. ); Cowan, C.L; Stewart, S.L.; Protsik, R. . Astro Space Div.)

    1990-01-01

    ZPPR critical experiments were used for physics testing the reactor design of the SP-100, a 100-kW thermoelectric LMR that is being developed to provide electrical power for space applications. These tests validated all key physics characteristics of the design, including the ultimate safety in the event of a launch or re-entry accident. Both the experiments and the analysis required the use of techniques not previously applied to fast reactor designs. A few significant discrepancies between the experimental and calculated results leave opportunities for further optimization. An initial investigation has been made into application of the ZPPR-20 results, along with those of other relevant integral data, to the SP-100 design. 13 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Phases and Interfaces from Real Space Atomically Resolved Data: Physics-Based Deep Data Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2016-09-14

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ∼1-10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. This method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure-property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.

  19. A Demonstration of the Analysis of Variance Using Physical Movement and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, William J.; Siakaluk, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom demonstrations help students better understand challenging concepts. This article introduces an activity that demonstrates the basic concepts involved in analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students who physically participated in the activity had a better understanding of ANOVA concepts (i.e., higher scores on an exam question answered 2…

  20. Methods of Achieving and Maintaining Physical Fitness for Prolonged Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, Harry D. (Principal Investigator); Corbin, Bob; Penrod, James; Smith, Carroll

    1969-01-01

    This final summary report covers the five experiments that were conducted over a 24-month period beginning May 1, 1967 and ending April 30, 1969. Experiment I revealed that running and riding a bicycle ergometer produced similar gains in physical fitness variables. In Experiment I the subjects exercising at a 180 heart rate made a greater improvement in physical fitness than did those exercising a t a 140 or 160 heart rate. In Experiment II the subjects who exercised sixty minutes per day made greater gains on specified components of physical fitness than did those who exercised twenty or forty minutes per day, twelve times per week made greater gains on specified components of physical fitness than did those who exercised three or six times per week. In Experiment V, it was found that subjects could maintain a moderate level of fitness by exercising at a pulse rate of 160 beats per minute for twenty-minute periods three times per week, that subjects who "overtrained" by exercising twice daily to near exhaustion increased in fitness and that those subjects who discontinued training decreased in fitness.

  1. Collaborative Curriculum Making in the Physical Education Vein: A Narrative Inquiry of Space, Activity and Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.; You, JeongAe; Oh, Suhak

    2013-01-01

    Located at the intersection where teaching and curriculum meet, this narrative inquiry examines how collaborative curriculum making unfolded between and among six members of a physical education department in a middle school in the mid-southern USA. The internationally significant work takes the position that long-term relations are prerequisite…

  2. Moving across Physical and Online Spaces: A Case Study in a Blended Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibaut, Patricia; Curwood, Jen Scott; Carvalho, Lucila; Simpson, Alyson

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of digital tools and online connectivity in primary schools, the shape of teaching and learning is shifting beyond the physical classroom. Drawing on the architecture of productive learning networks framework, we examine the affordances and limitations of an upper primary learning network and focus on how the digital and…

  3. Phases and interfaces from real space atomically resolved data: Physics-based deep data image analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2016-08-12

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ~1–10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysismore » is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. Furthermore, this method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure–property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.« less

  4. Phases and interfaces from real space atomically resolved data: Physics-based deep data image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-08-12

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ~1–10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. Furthermore, this method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure–property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.

  5. Coupling ocean colour remote sensing data into physical-ecosystem models: mapping uncertainty distributions from space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, David; Twardowski, Mike; Trees, Chuck; Sanjuan-Calzado, Violeta

    2013-04-01

    Ocean colour remote sensing (OCRS) has transformed our understanding of complex feedback processes linking physical forcing events to biogeochemical responses. With continuous daily global coverage extending beyond the last decade, OCRS has become established as an essential global climate variable with potential use as a sensitive indicator of regional and global response to changing climate. There is increasing focus on use of OCRS data for validation and assimilation into coupled physical-ecosystem models for both environmental and operational applications. It is therefore essential that OCRS data products are not only optimised for maximum accuracy, but are also provided to end users with appropriate uncertainties. A simple spectral deconvolution model will be presented along with a new bootstrap approach for estimating product uncertainties. This approach can be adapted for both remote sensing and in situ data, opening up the possibility of mapping uncertainty distributions in 3-D for the first time, and can be applied to other established OCRS data products, including the existent historic data set. Ecosystem models seek to reproduce and predict ocean biogeochemical processes, where the models are constrained by physical parameters such as: wind, currents, density and light. The hydrographic aspects of marine ecosystems can generally be defined through ocean circulation models, which are largely independent of the ecosystem itself. The physical optics determining the light environment, on the other hand, are two-way coupled with ecosystem models since light interacts with seawater and suspended constituents. The Optical Physical and Ecosystem Regional Assessment (OPERA) model proposes a more comprehensive and challenging approach, where all optical interactions occurring within the volume of water are taken into account, thus providing a more accurate definition of light dependent processes.

  6. Coupling ocean colour remote sensing data into physical-ecosystem models: mapping uncertainty distributions from space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, David; Twardowski, Mike; Trees, Chuck; Sanjuan Calzado, Violeta

    2014-05-01

    Ocean colour remote sensing (OCRS) has transformed our understanding of complex feedback processes linking physical forcing events to biogeochemical responses. With continuous daily global coverage extending beyond the last decade, OCRS has become established as an essential global climate variable with potential use as a sensitive indicator of regional and global response to changing climate. There is increasing focus on use of OCRS data for validation and assimilation into coupled physical-ecosystem models for both environmental and operational applications. It is therefore essential that OCRS data products are not only optimised for maximum accuracy, but are also provided to end users with appropriate uncertainties. A simple spectral deconvolution model will be presented along with a new bootstrap approach for estimating product uncertainties. This approach can be adapted for both remote sensing and in situ data, opening up the possibility of mapping uncertainty distributions in 3-D for the first time, and can be applied to other established OCRS data products, including the existent historic data set. Ecosystem models seek to reproduce and predict ocean biogeochemical processes, where the models are constrained by physical parameters such as: wind, currents, density and light. The hydrographic aspects of marine ecosystems can generally be defined through ocean circulation models, which are largely independent of the ecosystem itself. The physical optics determining the light environment, on the other hand, are two-way coupled with ecosystem models since light interacts with seawater and suspended constituents. The Optical Physical and Ecosystem Regional Assessment (OPERA) model proposes a more comprehensive and challenging approach, where all optical interactions occurring within the volume of water are taken into account, thus providing a more accurate definition of light dependent processes.

  7. The physical map of wheat chromosome 1BS provides insights into its gene space organization and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The wheat genome sequence is an essential tool for advanced genomic research and improvements. The generation of a high-quality wheat genome sequence is challenging due to its complex 17 Gb polyploid genome. To overcome these difficulties, sequencing through the construction of BAC-based physical maps of individual chromosomes is employed by the wheat genomics community. Here, we present the construction of the first comprehensive physical map of chromosome 1BS, and illustrate its unique gene space organization and evolution. Results Fingerprinted BAC clones were assembled into 57 long scaffolds, anchored and ordered with 2,438 markers, covering 83% of chromosome 1BS. The BAC-based chromosome 1BS physical map and gene order of the orthologous regions of model grass species were consistent, providing strong support for the reliability of the chromosome 1BS assembly. The gene space for chromosome 1BS spans the entire length of the chromosome arm, with 76% of the genes organized in small gene islands, accompanied by a two-fold increase in gene density from the centromere to the telomere. Conclusions This study provides new evidence on common and chromosome-specific features in the organization and evolution of the wheat genome, including a non-uniform distribution of gene density along the centromere-telomere axis, abundance of non-syntenic genes, the degree of colinearity with other grass genomes and a non-uniform size expansion along the centromere-telomere axis compared with other model cereal genomes. The high-quality physical map constructed in this study provides a solid basis for the assembly of a reference sequence of chromosome 1BS and for breeding applications. PMID:24359668

  8. Heliophysics Science and the Moon: Potential Solar and Space Physics Science for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses both these features new science enabled by NASAs exploration initiative and enabling science that is critical to ensuring a safe return to the Moon and onward to Mars. The areas of interest are structured into four main themes: Theme 1: Heliophysics Science of the Moon Studies of the Moons unique magnetodynamic plasma environment. Theme 2: Space Weather, Safeguarding the Journey Studies aimed at developing a predictive capability for space weather hazards. Theme 3: The Moon as a Historical Record Studies of the variation of the lunar regolith to uncover the history of the Sun, solar system, local interstellar medium, galaxy, and universe. Theme 4: The Moon as a Heliophysics Science Platform Using the unique environment of the lunar surface as a platform to provide observations beneficial to advancing heliophysics science.

  9. Physical limitations in sensors for a drag-free deep space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juillerat, R.

    1971-01-01

    The inner perturbing forces acting on sensors were analyzed, taking into account the technological limitations imposed on the proof mass position pickup and proof mass acquisition system. The resulting perturbing accelerations are evaluated as a function of the drag-free sensor parameters. Perturbations included gravitational attraction, electrical action, magnetic action, pressure effects, radiation effects, and action of the position pickup. These data can be used to study the laws of guidance, providing an optimization of the space probe as a whole.

  10. Quantum simulations in phase-space: from quantum optics to ultra-cold physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Peter D.; Chaturvedi, Subhash

    2016-07-01

    As a contribution to the international year of light, we give a brief history of quantum optics in phase-space, with new directions including quantum simulations of multipartite Bell violations, opto-mechanics, ultra-cold atomic systems, matter-wave Bell violations, coherent transport and quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. We mostly focus on exact methods using the positive-P representation, and semiclassical truncated Wigner approximations.

  11. New Solutions of Three Nonlinear Space- and Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations in Mathematical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ruo-Xia; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ting-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by the widely used ansätz method and starting from the modified Riemann—Liouville derivative together with a fractional complex transformation that can be utilized to transform nonlinear fractional partial differential equations to nonlinear ordinary differential equations, new types of exact traveling wave solutions to three important nonlinear space- and time-fractional partial differential equations are obtained simultaneously in terms of solutions of a Riccati equation. The results are new and first reported in this paper.

  12. SEVAN CRO Particle Detector for Solar Physics and Space Weather research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roša, D.; Angelov, Ch.; Arakelyan, K.; Arsov, T.; Avakyan, K.; Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Hovhanissyan, A.; Hovhannisyan, T.; Hovsepyan, G.; Sargsyan, D.; Hržina, D.; Kalapov, I.; Karapetyan, T.; Kozliner, L.; Mailyan, B.; Maričić, D.; Nishev, A.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Reymers, A.; Romštajn, I.; Stamenov, J.; Tchorbadjieff, A.; Vanyan, L.

    The installation of the SEVAN CRO particle detector at Zagreb Astronomical Observatory was finished at the end of 2008. The detector is a fully autonomous unit, with the capability to send data via the Internet, and it is a part of the SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network), which includes detectors located at middle to low latitudes. Till to now the SEVAN modules are installed at Aragats Space Environmental Centre in Armenia (3 units), Bulgaria (Moussala) and Croatia (Zagreb). SEVAN detectors are use for simultaneous measurements of flux of most species of secondary cosmic rays born in the atmospheric cascade caused by primary ions and solar neutrons. These devices can be used for exploration of solar modulation effects on galactic cosmic rays. The main scientific aim is to the improve research of solar particle acceleration in the vicinity of the Sun by detecting highest energy solar cosmic rays giving additional secondaries detected by surface particle detectors and to improve researches of the space environment conditions.

  13. Effects of X-ray flares on the aeronomy of Mars: Simultaneous measurements of ionospheric effects of X-ray flares on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Syed A.; Machado Santos, Angela; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Batista, Inez S.; Shah, Siddhi Y.; Thirupathaiah, P.

    2016-07-01

    MIRI: Validation and Testing Requirements We have studied X-ray aeronomy in the ionospheric E region of Mars during six X-ray flares that occurred on 28 March and 6 April, 2001; 17,18 March and 21 April, 2003 and 19 February, 2005 respectively. These flares were responded by the corresponding electron density profiles of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). The time series of photoionization rate, photoelectron impact ionization rate, photoelectron flux, ion density, electron density and total Electron Content (TEC) are predicted for each flare day. The estimated production rate, flux and densities are increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude due to effects of these flares in the E region ionosphere of Mars. The normalized estimated TEC are compared with the normalized measured TEC of MGS profiles. At the peak flare time the normalized estimated and normalized measured TEC were enhanced by a factor of 5-10 and 2 respectively. The effects of these flares were also registered in the D region equatorial ionosphere of Earth at Fortaleza observatory. The flares of 6 April, 2001, 17 March and 21 April, 2003 also produced electron density enhancement in the E region ionosphere of Earth at College AK and Cachoeira Paulista observatories. The minimum frequency fmin, recorded in ionogram, increased by 100% (due to D region absorption) while the foE increased by 20%, in the Earth's ionosphere.

  14. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  15. Nuclear Physics in Space: What We Can Learn From Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies and discoveries in cosmic-ray physics and generally in Astrophysics provide a fertile ground for research in many areas of Particle Physics and Cosmology, such as the search for dark matter, antimatter, new particles, and exotic physics, studies of the nucleosynthesis, origin of Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray diffuse emission, formation of the large scale structure of the universe etc. In several years new missions are planned for cosmic-ray experiments, which will tremendously increase the quality and accuracy of cosmic-ray data. On the other hand, direct measurements of cosmic rays are possible in only one location on the outskirts of the Milky Way galaxy and present only a snapshot of very dynamic processes. It has been recently realized that direct information about the fluxes and spectra of cosmic rays in distant locations is provided by the Galactic diffuse gamma-rays, therefore, complementing the local cosmic-ray studies. A wealth of information is also contained in the isotopic abundances of cosmic rays, therefore, accurate evaluation of the isotopic production cross sections is of primary importance for Astrophysics of cosmic rays, studies of the galactic chemical evolution, and Cosmology. In this talk, I will show new results obtained with GALPROP, the most advanced numerical model for cosmic-ray propagation, which includes in a self-consistent way all cosmic-ray species (stable and long-lived radioactive isotopes from H to Ni, antiprotons, positrons and electrons, gamma rays and synchrotron radiation), and all relevant processes and reactions.

  16. The User Community and a Multi-Mission Data Project: Services, Experiences and Directions of the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Bilitza, D.; Candey, R.; Chimiak, R.; Cooper, John; Fung, Shing; Harris, B.; Johnson R.; King, J.; Kovalick, T.; Leckner, H.; Papitashvili, N.; Roberts, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    From a user's perspective, the multi-mission data and orbit services of NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project offer a unique range of important data and services highly complementary to other services presently available or now evolving in the international heliophysics data environment. The VSP (Virtual Space Physics Observatory) service is an active portal to a wide range of distributed data sources. CDAWeb (Coordinate Data Analysis Web) enables plots, listings and file downloads for current data cross the boundaries of missions and instrument types (and now including data from THEMIS and STEREO). SSCWeb, Helioweb and our 3D Animated Orbit Viewer (TIPSOD) provide position data and query logic for most missions currently important to heliophysics science. OMNIWeb with its new extension to 1- and 5-minute resolution provides interplanetary parameters at the Earth's bow shock as a unique value-added data product. SPDF also maintains NASA's CDF (common Data Format) standard and a range of associated tools including translation services. These capabilities are all now available through webservices-based APIs as well as through our direct user interfaces. In this paper, we will demonstrate the latest data and capabilities now supported in these multi-mission services, review the lessons we continue to learn in what science users need and value in this class of services, and discuss out current thinking to the future role and appropriate focus of the SPDF effort in the evolving and increasingly distributed heliophysics data environment.

  17. Information Telecommunications of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumsky, V.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Zaytcev, A. Yu.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.; Kornilov, V. V.

    Buffer data center was created in the territory of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory three years ago. The necessity of its creation was caused by the high requirements to the speed and quality of the transmission large amounts of scientific and telemetry data received by tracking station RT-22 from the space radio telescope of the international project "Radioastron". The transfer of this data is carried out over a long distance over 100 km from the Pushchino to Moscow center of processing and storage ASC FIAN. And now we use the data center as a center of local network of the Observatory.

  18. Planck scale physics and Bogoliubov spaces in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the consequences caused by a deformed dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum gravity models, upon a bosonic gas. Concerning the ground state of the Bogoliubov space of this system, we deduce the corrections in the pressure, the speed of sound, and the corresponding healing length. Indeed, we prove that the corrections in the relevant thermodynamic properties associated with the ground state, define a non-trivial function of the density of particles and the deformation parameters, allowing us to constrain, in principle, the form of the modified energy-momentum dispersion relation.

  19. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections: A Space- Physics Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electroncapture cross sections at energies relevant to the modeling of the transport, acceleration, and interaction of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in space (approximately few MeV per nucleon) and especially for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantum-mechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts for apace applications, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  20. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for

  1. Volume I. Percussion Sextet. (original Composition). Volume II. The Simulation of Acoustical Space by Means of Physical Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzara, Leonard Charles

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation is in two parts:. 1. Percussion Sextet. The Percussion Sextet is a one movement musical composition with a length of approximately fifteen minutes. It is for six instrumentalists, each on a number of percussion instruments. The overriding formal problem was to construct a coherent and compelling structure which fuses a diversity of musical materials and textures into a dramatic whole. Particularly important is the synthesis of opposing tendencies contained in stochastic and deterministic processes: global textures versus motivic detail, and randomness versus total control. Several compositional techniques are employed in the composition. These methods of composition will be aided, in part, by the use of artificial intelligence techniques programmed on a computer. Finally, the percussion ensemble is the ideal medium to realize the above processes since it encompasses a wide range of both pitched and unpitched timbres, and since a great variety of textures and densities can be created with a certain economy of means. 2. The simulation of acoustical space by means of physical modeling. This is a written report describing the research and development of a computer program which simulates the characteristics of acoustical space in two dimensions. With the computer program the user can simulate most conventional acoustical spaces, as well as those physically impossible to realize in the real world. The program simulates acoustical space by means of geometric modeling. This involves defining wall equations, phantom source points and wall diffusions, and then processing input files containing digital signals through the program, producing output files ready for digital to analog conversion. The user of the program is able to define wall locations and wall reflectivity and roughness characteristics, all of which can be changed over time. Sound source locations are also definable within the acoustical space and these locations can be changed independently at

  2. Calibrating and deriving physical parameters using plasma contactor data from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E.

    The International Space Station (ISS) regularly passes through the southern auroral oval south of Australia. The ISS has two plasma contactors that emit the electron currents needed to balance electron collection by surfaces such as the lattice of bare rods on the solar array masts. These electron currents exceed 0.1 A at times. The largest currents are observed in the auroral oval south of Australia. On the space station, the solar array 40 m long masts each have over 400 m of stainless steel tensioning rods. When subject to orbital v×B-l induced potentials, the rods collect substantial currents from the ionosphere. Maximum v×B-l potentials are generated near the magnetic poles. The plasma contactor emission current can be converted to an estimate of plasma density and calibrated using Floating potential Probe (FPP) and other data. These measurements show that the plasma density in the nighttime auroral ionosphere is frequently several times that predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-90 and IRI-2001 models.

  3. Vector and Scalar Field Visualization Techniques for Multispacecraft Space Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Rezapkin, V.; Coleman, J.; Boller, R.

    2003-12-01

    We present a new way of visualizing data that makes it possible to view simultaneously a large number of measured time series on the orbits of a large number of spacecraft. We shall show examples of using our ``ViSBARD" software to illucidate the structure of the solar wind upstream of the Earth, as well as cases showing magnetic field and particle information from many spacecraft in the magnetosphere. Each measurement is presented by a glyph (symbol or vector) at each point in time and at the position it was measured in the 3-D space. The ecliptic plane and, if appropriate, magnetospheric surfaces are presented to provide context. The software allows scrolling and zooming in time; the usual pan, zoom, and rotate in space; scaling of the data variables; a choice of color palettes; and 2-D graphs that scroll and scale in concert with the 3-D representation to aid the interpretation of the 3-D visualization. As the interval of data changes, the resolution automatically adjusts to maintain rapid response and to limit memory usage. A kinematic projection of all quantities yields a ``spatial view" that is particularly effective in fast flows such as the solar wind. The center of rotation can be moved to any data point to allow a detailed examination of a particular region. The software supports stereo viewing. Future extensions will incorporate the viewing of images as well as the simultaneous viewing of data and models.

  4. Calibrating and deriving physical parameters using plasma contactor data from the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, Edgar A.; Koontz, Steven L.; Evans, David S.; Katz, Ira; Gardner, Barbara M.; Suggs, Robert M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Dalton, Penni J.; Feruson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry; Counts, Jerry L.; Barsamian, Hagop; Kern, John; Mikatarian, Ronald

    2003-12-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) regularly passes through the southern auroral oval south of Australia. The ISS has two plasma contactors that emit the electron currents needed to balance electron collection by surfaces such as the lattice of bare rods on the solar array masts. These electron currents exceed 0.1 A at times. The largest currents are observed in the auroral oval south of Australia. On the space station, the solar array 40 m long masts each have over 400 m of stainless steel tensioning rods. When subject to orbital v × B· l induced potentials, the rods collect substantial currents from the ionosphere. Maximum v × B· l potentials are generated near the magnetic poles. The plasma contactor emission current can be converted to an estimate of plasma density and calibrated using Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and other data. These measurements show that the plasma density in the nighttime auroral ionosphere is frequently several times that predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-90 and IRI2001 models.

  5. Physics and potentials of fissioning plasmas for space power and propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Fissioning uranium plasmas are the nuclear fuel in conceptual high-temperature gaseous-core reactors for advanced rocket propulsion in space. A gaseous-core nuclear rocket would be a thermal reactor in which an enriched uranium plasma at about 10,000 K is confined in a reflector-moderator cavity where it is nuclear critical and transfers its fission power to a confining propellant flow for the production of thrust at a specific impulse up to 5000 sec. With a thrust-to-engine weight ratio approaching unity, the gaseous-core nuclear rocket could provide for propulsion capabilities needed for manned missions to the nearby planets and for economical cislunar ferry services. Fueled with enriched uranium hexafluoride and operated at temperatures lower than needed for propulsion, the gaseous-core reactor scheme also offers significant benefits in applications for space and terrestrial power. They include high-efficiency power generation at low specific mass, the burnup of certain fission products and actinides, the breeding of U-233 from thorium with short doubling times, and improved convenience of fuel handling and processing in the gaseous phase.

  6. The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for High Energy Astroparticle Physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Shoji

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope, CALET, space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of Cosmic Ray electrons (and positrons) t o 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV , nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV, and Gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV- 10 MeV energy range during a five year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of Calet, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fiber planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch, during the Japan Fiscal Year (April, 2014- March, 2015) time frame, to the International Space Station (ISS) for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  7. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-08-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  8. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-05-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  9. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle; Seaford, Mark; Dufrene, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    NASA MSFC and CUBRC designed and developed a 2% scale SLS propulsive wind tunnel test program to investigate base flow effects during flight from lift-off to MECO. This type of test program has not been conducted in 40+ years during the NASA Shuttle Program. Dufrene et al paper described the operation, instrumentation type and layout, facility and propulsion performance, test matrix and conditions and some raw results. This paper will focus on the SLS base flow physics and the generation and results of the design environments being used to design the thermal protection system.

  10. Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

  11. Physics models in the MARS15 code for accelerator and space applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.; Mashnik, S. G.; Rakhno, I. L.; Sierk, A. J.; Striganov, S.

    2004-01-01

    The MARS code system, developed over 30 years, is a set of Monte Carlo programs for detailed simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in an arbitrary geometry of accelerator, detector and spacecraft components with particle energy ranging from a fraction of an electron volt up to 100 TeV. The new MARS15 (2004) version is described with an emphasis on modeling physics processes. This includes an extended list of elementary particles and arbitrary heavy ions, their interaction cross-sections, inclusive and exclusive nuclear event generators, photo - hadron production, correlated ionization energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering, nuclide production and residual activation, and radiation damage (DPA). In particular, the details of a new model for leading baryon production and implementation of advanced versions of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM03), and the Los Alamos version of Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM03) are given. The applications that are motivating these developments, needs for better nuclear data, and future physics improvements are described.

  12. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 9: General science. [experimental design in Astronomy, Biology, Geophysics, Aeronomy and Materials science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives and planning activities for the Apollo-Soyuz mission are summarized. Aspects of the space flight considered include the docking module and launch configurations, spacecraft orbits, and weightlessness. The 28 NASA experiments conducted onboard the spacecraft are summarized. The contributions of the mission to the fields of astronomy, geoscience, biology, and materials sciences resulting from the experiments are explored.

  13. Lessons from the GP-B Experience for Future Fundamental Physics Missions in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    Gravity Probe B launched in April 2004 and completed its science data collection in September 2005, with the objective of sub-milliarcsec measurement of two General Relativistic effects on the spin axis orientation of orbiting gyroscopes. Much of the technology required by GP-B has potential application in future missions intended to make precision measurements. The philosophical approach and experiment design principles developed for GP-B are equally adaptable to these mission concepts. This talk will discuss GP-B's experimental approach and the technological and philosophical lessons learned that apply to future experiments in fundamental physics. Measurement of fundamental constants to high precision, probes of short-range forces, searches for equivalence principle violations, and detection of gravitational waves are examples of concepts and missions that will benefit kern GP-B's experience.

  14. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  15. Physics effects of accidental submersion of space power reactors in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Lell, R. M.

    A study has been performed of the generic aspects of the accidental submersion phenomenon in fast spectrum space power reactors. Since the net effect of submersion is a balance of competing effects of neutron spectrum softening and neutron reflection, a systematic study using rigorous analytical methods is necessary to extract the trends. Monte Carlo calculations were used to determine essential flooding characteristics in realistic infinite lattice cells. For practical clad/structural materials, computed flooding reactivity worths in infinite lattices were found to be negative because parasitic absorption rises faster than neutron production over the neutron energy range of importance. The flooding worth depends strongly on cell design, becoming increasingly negative as the coolant volume fraction increases. Negative flooding worth was calculated for all fissile enrichments considered (24 to 93 percent). Transport theory analyses of idealized cores of realistic sizes showed that computed flooding worths are positive or slightly negative for small cores because reflection of thermalized neutrons by the water outside dominates other flooding effects. As core size increases, infinite lattice behavior in the interior dominates, and flooding worth becomes increasingly negative. The loss of control drums was found to increase the core radius for crossover to negative flooding worths. Monte Carlo and Sn calculations for realistic core designs confirmed the dependence of sign and magnitude of the flooding worth on core size and on the presence or absence of control drums. Experimental evidence from terrestrial reactor programs have demonstrated the need for critical experiments to benchmark and calibrate analytical procedures for flooding calculations.

  16. How to improve essential skills in introductory physics through brief, spaced, online practice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckler, Andrew; Mikula, Brendon

    2017-01-01

    We developed and implemented a set of online ``essential skills'' tasks to help students achieve and retain a core level of mastery and fluency in basic skills necessary for their coursework. The task design is based on our research on student understanding and difficulties as well as three well-established cognitive principles: 1) spaced practice, to promote retention, 2) interleaved practice, to promote the ability to recognize when the learned skill is needed, and 3) mastery practice mastery practice, to promote a base level of performance. We report on training on a variety of skills with vector math. Students spent a relatively small amount of time, 10-20 minutes in practice each week, answering relevant questions online until a mastery level was achieved. Results indicate significant and often dramatic gains, often with average gains of over one standard deviation. Notably, these large gains are retained at least several months after the final practice session, including for less-prepared students. Funding for this research was provided by the Center for Emergent Materials: an NSF MRSEC under Award Number DMR-1420451.

  17. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and physical space in anorexia nervosa: a virtual reality and repertory grid investigation.

    PubMed

    Cipolletta, Sabrina; Malighetti, Clelia; Serino, Silvia; Riva, Giuseppe; Winter, David

    2017-02-28

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe body image disturbances. Recent studies from spatial cognition showed a connection between the experience of body and of space. The objectives of this study were to explore the meanings that characterize AN experience and to deepen the examination of spatiality in relational terms, through the study of how the patient construes herself and her interpersonal world. More specifically this study aimed (1) to verify whether spatial variables and aspects of construing differentiate patients with AN and healthy controls (HCs) and are related to severity of anorexic symptomatology; (2) to explore correlations between impairments in spatial abilities and interpersonal construing. A sample of 12 AN patients and 12 HCs participated in the study. The Eating Disorder Inventory, a virtual reality-based procedure, traditional measures of spatial abilities, and repertory grids were administered. The AN group compared to HCs showed significant impairments in spatial abilities, more unidimensional construing, and more extreme construing of the present self and of the self as seen by others. All these dimensions correlated with the severity of symptomatology. Extreme ways of construing characterized individuals with AN and might represent the interpersonal aspect of impairment in spatial reference frames.

  18. A Hitch-hiker's Guide to Stochastic Differential Equations - Solution Methods for Energetic Particle Transport in Space Physics and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, R. Du Toit; Effenberger, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    In this review, an overview of the recent history of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in application to particle transport problems in space physics and astrophysics is given. The aim is to present a helpful working guide to the literature and at the same time introduce key principles of the SDE approach via "toy models". Using these examples, we hope to provide an easy way for newcomers to the field to use such methods in their own research. Aspects covered are the solar modulation of cosmic rays, diffusive shock acceleration, galactic cosmic ray propagation and solar energetic particle transport. We believe that the SDE method, due to its simplicity and computational efficiency on modern computer architectures, will be of significant relevance in energetic particle studies in the years to come.

  19. Decadal Challenges in Ground-Based Observations for Solar and Space Physics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ground-based observations of the sun and near-Earth space have long provided the fundamental information needed to achieve a better understanding of the coupled Sun-Earth system and the processes responsible for solar activity and its effects on Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. Observations based on both active and passive radio wave and optical techniques provide measurements throughout Earth's atmosphere, geospace, the heliosphere, and the Sun. Although the number of observing instruments, the capabilities of the instruments, and the variety of ground-based assets continue to open new frontiers and enable scientific discoveries, gaps still exist, not only in terms of the spatial coverage of the measurements, but also in the properties of the system that are observed and the cadence and frequency of the observations. Fortunately, new technologies have provided the tools by which these challenges can be overcome. This is an opportune time to develop an integrated strategy for development, deployment, operation, and data analysis of ground-based assets. These include, for example, advanced networking technologies, crowd-sourced data acquisition, and multi-use observational platforms. Ground-based observations can also be optimized through the development of smart sensors, that operate at low power and are easily deployable, reconfigurable, and remotely operable. Furthermore, the data from ground-based observations will be collected, archived, and disseminated in ways that will enable effective and productive data mining, image and pattern recognition, cross-correlation among diverse data sets, and broadly-based collaborative research. These capabilities are especially important as we attempt to understand the system aspects of the solar-terrestrial environment. The next decade will undoubtedly see new understanding and discoveries resulting from improved and expanded ground-based instruments, as well as in their strategic deployment and operation.

  20. Solar-Heliospheric-Interstellar Cosmic Ray Tour with the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory and the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Johnson, Rita C.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.

    2015-04-01

    NASA now has a large collection of solar, heliospheric, and local interstellar (Voyager 1) cosmic ray particle data sets that can be accessed through the data system services of the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) in collaboration with the NASA Space Physics Data Facility SPDF), respectively led by the first and last authors. The VEPO services were developed to enhance the long-existing OMNIWeb solar wind and energetic particle services of SPDF for on-line browse, correlative, and statistical analysis of NASA and ESA mission fields, plasma, and energetic particle data. In this presentation we take of tour through VEPO and SPDF of SEP reservoir events, the outer heliosphere earlier surveyed by the Pioneer, Voyager, and Ulysses spacecraft and now being probed by New Horizons, and the heliosheath-heliopause-interstellar regions now being explored by the Voyagers and IBEX. Implications of the latter measurements are also considered for the flux spectra of low to high energy cosmic rays in interstellar space.

  1. Automatic Georeferencing of Astronaut Auroral Photography: Providing a New Dataset for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechert, Maik; Walsh, Andrew P.; Taylor, Matt

    2014-05-01

    Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have taken tens of thousands of photographs showing the aurora in high temporal and spatial resolution. The use of these images in research though is limited as they often miss accurate pointing and scale information. In this work we develop techniques and software libraries to automatically georeference such images, and provide a time and location-searchable database and website of those images. Aurora photographs very often include a visible starfield due to the necessarily long camera exposure times. We extend on the proof-of-concept of Walsh et al. (2012) who used starfield recognition software, Astrometry.net, to reconstruct the pointing and scale information. Previously a manual pre-processing step, the starfield can now in most cases be separated from earth and spacecraft structures successfully using image recognition. Once the pointing and scale of an image are known, latitudes and longitudes can be calculated for each pixel corner for an assumed auroral emission height. As part of this work, an open-source Python library is developed which automates the georeferencing process and aids in visualization tasks. The library facilitates the resampling of the resulting data from an irregular to a regular coordinate grid in a given pixel per degree density, it supports the export of data in CDF and NetCDF formats, and it generates polygons for drawing graphs and stereographic maps. In addition, the THEMIS all-sky imager web archive has been included as a first transparently accessible imaging source which in this case is useful when drawing maps of ISS passes over North America. The database and website are in development and will use the Python library as their base. Through this work, georeferenced auroral ISS photography is made available as a continously extended and easily accessible dataset. This provides potential not only for new studies on the aurora australis, as there are few all-sky imagers in

  2. Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Hafiychuk, Vasyl Nmn; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic and aircraft systems (including e.g. the power distribution, flight control, solid and liquid motors) dictates employment of hybrid models and high-level reasoners for analysing mixed continuous and discrete information flow involving multiple modes of operation in uncertain environments, unknown state variables, heterogeneous software and hardware components. To provide the information link between key design/performance parameters and high-level reasoners we rely on development of multi-physics performance models, distributed sensors networks, and fault diagnostic and prognostic (FD&P) technologies in close collaboration with system designers. The main challenges of our research are related to the in-flight assessment of the structural stability, engine performance, and trajectory control. The main goal is to develop an intelligent IHM that not only enhances components and system reliability, but also provides a post-flight feedback helping to optimize design of the next generation of aerospace systems. Our efforts are concentrated on several directions of the research. One of the key components of our strategy is an innovative approach to the diagnostics/prognostics based on the real time dynamical inference (DI) technologies extended to encompass hybrid systems with hidden state trajectories. The major investments are into the multiphysics performance modelling that provides an access of the FD&P technologies to the main performance parameters of e.g. solid and liquid rocket motors and composite materials of the nozzle and case. Some of the recent results of our research are discussed in this chapter. We begin by introducing the problem of dynamical inference of stochastic nonlinear models and reviewing earlier

  3. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  4. Assessing the effect of physical activity classes in public spaces on leisure-time physical activity: "Al Ritmo de las Comunidades" A natural experiment in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Hayat, Matthew J; Lyn, Rodney; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2016-11-12

    The Recreovia program provides free physical activity (PA) classes in public spaces in Bogota, Colombia. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Recreovia program in increasing PA among users of nine parks in Bogota. This study was a natural experiment conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Bogota. Community members and park users living nearby three groups of parks were compared: Group 1 were parks implementing new Recreovias (n=3), Group 2 were control parks (n=3) without Recreovias, and Group 3 were parks with existing Recreovías. Individuals in the "intervention" group were exposed to newly implemented Recreovia programs in parks near their homes. Measurements were collected at baseline and 6-8months after the intervention started. A total of 1533 participants were enrolled in the study: 501 for the existing Recreovias (included in a cross-sectional assessment) and 1032 participants (from the new Recreovias and control parks) included in the cross-sectional and pre-post study. Most participants were low income females. Twenty-three percent of the intervention group started participating in the program. Users of existing Recreovias were significantly more active and less likely to be overweight/obese compared to new Recreovia users at baseline. No changes on PA were found when comparing the intervention and control groups. Recreovias may have potential for increasing PA at the population level in urban areas given their rapid scalability, the higher levels of PA observed among program users, and its potential to reach women, low-income, less educated populations, and the overweight and obese.

  5. Whistler wave propagation in the antenna near and far fields in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, David D.; Walker, David N.; Amatucci, William E.

    2010-01-15

    In previous papers, early whistler propagation measurements were presented [W. E. Amatucci et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 637 (2005)] as well as antenna impedance measurements [D. D. Blackwell et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 092106 (2007)] performed in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber (SPSC). Since that time there have been major upgrades in the experimental capabilities of the laboratory in the form of improvement of both the plasma source and antennas. This has allowed access to plasma parameter space that was previously unattainable, and has resulted in measurements that provide a significantly clearer picture of whistler propagation in the laboratory environment. This paper presents some of the first whistler experimental results from the upgraded SPSC. Whereas previously measurements were limited to measuring the cyclotron resonance cutoff and elliptical polarization indicative of the whistler mode, now it is possible to experimentally plot the dispersion relation itself. The waves are driven and detected using balanced dipole and loop antennas connected to a network analyzer, which measures the amplitude and phase of the wave in two dimensions (r and z). In addition the frequency of the signals is also swept over a range of several hundreds of megahertz, providing a comprehensive picture of the near and far field antenna radiation patterns over a variety of plasma conditions. The magnetic field is varied from a few gauss to 200 G, with the density variable over at least 3 decades from 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. The waves are shown to lie on the dispersion surface for whistler waves, with observation of resonance cones in agreement with theoretical predictions. The waves are also observed to propagate without loss of amplitude at higher power, a result in agreement with previous experiments and the notion of ducted whistlers.

  6. Effect of space flight and head-down bedrest on neuroendocrine response to metabolic stress in physically trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Kvetnanský, R; Ksinantová, L; Koska, J; Noskov, V B; Vigas, M; Grigoriev, A I; Macho, L

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) responses to insulin induced hypoglycemia (ITT) 3 weeks before the space flight (SF), on the 5th day of SF, on the 2nd and 16th days after the landing in the first Slovak astronaut, and before and on the 5th day of prolonged subsequent head-down (-6 degrees) bed rest (BR) in 15 military aircraft pilots. Blood samples during the test were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transferred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Insulin hypoglycemia was induced by i.v. administration of 0.1 IU/kg BW insulin (Actrapid HM) in bolus. Insulin administration led to a comparable hypoglycemia in pre-flight, in-flight conditions and before and after bed rest. ITT led to a pronounced increase in EPI levels and moderate increase in NE in pre-flight studies. However, an evidently reduced EPI response was found after insulin administration during SF and during BR. Thus, during the real microgravity in SF and simulated microgravity in BR, insulin-induced hypoglycemia activates the adrenomedullary system to less extent than at conditions of the Earth gravitation. Post-flight changes in EPI and NE levels did not significantly differ from those of pre-flight since SF was relatively short (8 days) and the readaptation to Earth gravitation was fast. It seems, that an increased blood flow in brain might be responsible for the reduced EPI response to insulin. Responses to ITT in physically fit subjects indicate the stimulus specificity of deconditioning effect of 5 days bed rest on stress response. Thus, the data indicate that catecholamine responses to ITT are reduced after exposure to real as well as simulated microgravity.

  7. Space plasma physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  8. Space Plasma Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. James L. Horwitz and R. Hugh Comfort's studies with the high altitude TIDE data have been progressing well. We concluded a study on the relationship of polar cap ion properties observed by TIDE near apogee with solar wind and IMF conditions. We found that in general H+ did not correlate as well as O+ with solar wind and IMF parameters. O+ density correlated(sub IMF), and Kp. At lower solar wind speeds, O+ density decreased with increasing latitude, but this trend was not observed at higher solar wind speeds. By comparing these results with results from other studies of O+ in different parts of the magnetosphere, we concluded that O+ ions often leave the ionosphere near the foot point of the cusp/cleft region, pass through the high-altitude polar cap lobes, and eventually arrive in the plasma sheet. We found that H+ outflows are a persistent feature of the polar cap and are not as dependent on the geophysical conditions; even classical polar wind models show H+ ions readily escaping owing to their low mass. Minor correlations with solar wind drivers were found; specifically, H+ density correlated best with IMF By, V(sub sw)B(sub IMF), and ESW(sub sw).

  9. Complex of Devices for Determining the Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Carbon Materials Used in the Rocket and Space Technology by the Impact Indentation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kren, A. P.; Protasenia, T. A.; Arnautov, A. K.; Rudnitskii, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    The results of checking of the physical and mechanical characteristics of carbon materials by the dynamic indentation method are presented. It is shown that the method and the devices created allow one to control the hardness, strength, and elastic modulus of the isotropic pyrolytic graphite and carbon laminates used to manufacture articles for the rocket and space technology.

  10. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  11. Does office space occupation matter? The role of the number of persons per enclosed office space, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction in the physical and mental health of employees.

    PubMed

    Herbig, B; Schneider, A; Nowak, D

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effects of office space occupation, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction on physical and mental health of office workers in small-sized and open-plan offices as well as possible underlying mechanisms. Office space occupation was characterized as number of persons per one enclosed office space. A total of 207 office employees with similar jobs in offices with different space occupation were surveyed regarding their work situation (psychosocial work characteristics, satisfaction with privacy, acoustics, and control) and health (psychosomatic complaints, irritation, mental well-being, and work ability). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses as well as bootstrapped mediation analyses were used to determine associations and underlying mechanisms. Employee health was significantly associated with all work characteristics. Psychosocial work stressors had the strongest relation to physical and mental health (OR range: 1.66-3.72). The effect of office space occupation on employee health was mediated by stressors and environmental satisfaction, but not by psychosocial work resources. As assumed by sociotechnical approaches, a higher number of persons per enclosed office space was associated with adverse health effects. However, the strongest associations were found with psychosocial work stressors. When revising office design, a holistic approach to work (re)design is needed.

  12. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  13. Research and technology 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the on-going research activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the year 1988. The subjects presented are space transportation systems, shuttle cargo vehicle, materials processing in space, environmental data base management, microgravity science, astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics, magnetospheric physics, aeronomy, atomic physics, rocket propulsion, materials and processes, telerobotics, and space systems.

  14. Random forest learning of ultrasonic statistical physics and object spaces for lesion detection in 2D sonomammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheet, Debdoot; Karamalis, Athanasios; Kraft, Silvan; Noël, Peter B.; Vag, Tibor; Sadhu, Anup; Katouzian, Amin; Navab, Nassir; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy K.

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Early diagnosis can significantly improve lifeexpectancy and allow different treatment options. Clinicians favor 2D ultrasonography for breast tissue abnormality screening due to high sensitivity and specificity compared to competing technologies. However, inter- and intra-observer variability in visual assessment and reporting of lesions often handicaps its performance. Existing Computer Assisted Diagnosis (CAD) systems though being able to detect solid lesions are often restricted in performance. These restrictions are inability to (1) detect lesion of multiple sizes and shapes, and (2) differentiate between hypo-echoic lesions from their posterior acoustic shadowing. In this work we present a completely automatic system for detection and segmentation of breast lesions in 2D ultrasound images. We employ random forests for learning of tissue specific primal to discriminate breast lesions from surrounding normal tissues. This enables it to detect lesions of multiple shapes and sizes, as well as discriminate between hypo-echoic lesion from associated posterior acoustic shadowing. The primal comprises of (i) multiscale estimated ultrasonic statistical physics and (ii) scale-space characteristics. The random forest learns lesion vs. background primal from a database of 2D ultrasound images with labeled lesions. For segmentation, the posterior probabilities of lesion pixels estimated by the learnt random forest are hard thresholded to provide a random walks segmentation stage with starting seeds. Our method achieves detection with 99.19% accuracy and segmentation with mean contour-to-contour error < 3 pixels on a set of 40 images with 49 lesions.

  15. Physical parameters and morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - a main target of Rosetta space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Kleshchonok, Valery; Mozgova, Alyona

    Rosetta, a European space vehicle was head to the icy nucleus of the short period comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 2 March, 2004 from cosmodrome Kouru. On 20 Jan. 2014, Rosetta after 10 years of flight and 31-month sleep has been woke up succesfully and now will approche to the icy nucleus of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and pass away into orbit around the cometary nucleus. In November 2014 the Philae probe will be sent from Rosetta on the nucleus of comet 67P to study the relict matter of the Solar system. Comet 67P was discovered by the Kyiv astronomers Klim Churyumov and Svitlana Gerasimenko on 22 October 1969 on the five photographic plates exponed with the help of 50-cm Maksutov’s reflector of the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute on 9, 11 and 21 Sept. 1969. First 5 exact positions of comet were sent to Dr Brian Marsden. Dr B.Marsden showed it was new comet. The comet had an apparent magnitude of 13 and a faint tail about 1 arcmin in length at position angle 280 degrees. The astronomer Nikolay Belyaev from Saint-Petersbourg calculated that the comet followed an elliptical orbit. In 1982 it had the close encounter with the Earth at 0.3910 A.U. On the basis of the observations of comet 67P obtained in Nizhny Arkhyz with the help of the 6- BTA reflector of SAO of RAS some physical parameters of its comet plasma tail (coefficients of diffusion Dp(parallel) , Ds(perpendicular) and induction of magnetic field B) were determined. Other results of exploration of comet 67P (its polarisation, spectral observations, the light curve and morphology) in different apparitions are discussed.

  16. Effects of space flight and -6 degrees bed rest on the neuroendocrine response to metabolic stress in physically fit subjects.

    PubMed

    Ksinantová, Lucia; Koska, Juraj; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan; Macho, Ladislav; Kvetnansky, Richard

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (ITT) 3 weeks before the space flight (SF), on the fifth day of SF, on days 2 and 16 after landing in the first Slovak astronaut, and before and on the fifth day of prolonged bed rest (BR) in 15 military aircraft pilots, aged 33.5 +/- 1.4 years, body mass index (BMI) 26.5 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2), maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) 55.2 +/- 2.4 mL/kg/min, who volunteered for the study. ITT was induced by i.v. administrations of 0.1 IU/kg body weight insulin (Actrapid HM) in a bolus. Insulin administration led to a comparable hypoglycemia in preflight, actual flight conditions, and before and after bed rest. ITT led to a pronounced increase in EPI levels and moderate increase in NE in preflight studies. However, an evidently reduced plasma elevation of EPI was found after insulin administration during SF and during BR. Thus, during the real microgravity in SF and simulated microgravity in BR, ITT activates the adrenomedullary system to less extent that at conditions of the Earth's gravitation. Post-flight changes in EPI and NE did not differ from those of preflight values, since SF was relatively short (8 days) and the readaptation to Earth's gravitation was fast. It seems that an increased blood flow in brain might be responsible for the reduced EPI response to insulin. Responses to ITT in physically fit subjects indicate the stimulus specificity of the deconditioning effect of 5 days of bed rest on the stress response.

  17. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences which are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research, supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, industry, universities, and other governmental agencies. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, briefly describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar physics, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource modeling and analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs.

  18. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  19. Space Flight Research Relevant to Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, With Particular Reference to Skylab's Life Science Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Huss, Wayne D.; Heusner, William W.

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) studies dealing with the effect of extended space flight on the human body is presented. The results of experiments investigating weight loss, posture change, sleep habits, limb size, and motor skills are some of the topics discussed. Bibliographies, source lists, charts, and…

  20. Teacher Interactions within the Physical Environment: How Teachers Alter Their Space and/or Routines Because of Classroom Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Dale Christopher

    Through questionnaires, observations, and interviews, this study revealed the degree to which 31 high school teachers altered their classroom spaces and/or adjusted their routines to meet their pedagogical goals at a temporary school site. Teachers emphatically desired: (1) an appropriate amount of space to rearrange student furniture, enabling…

  1. Research and technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, P. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The annual report of the Marshall Space Flight Center for 1990 is presented. Brief summaries of research are presented for work in the fields of transportation systems, space systems, data systems, microgravity science, astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics, magnetospheric physics, atomic physics, aeronomy, Earth science and applications, propulsion technology, materials and processes, structures and dynamics, automated systems, space systems, and avionics.

  2. Running into Trouble: Constructions of Danger and Risk in Girls' Access to Outdoor Space and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers girls' participation in running and other outdoor physical activities in their local areas in London, UK. The paper is concerned with the operation of risk discourses in and around this participation and looks at the way that such discourses impacted on girls' opportunities to take part in physical activities that required…

  3. Development of Fast Deterministic Physically Accurate Solvers for Kinetic Collision Integral for Applications of Near Space Flight and Control Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-31

    Modernization Program Office 10501 Furnace Road Suite 101 Lorton, VA 22079 HPCMP, PETTT DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited...Technology Transfer, and Training (PETTT) Program High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Contract No.: GS04T09DBC0017 Government...has potential to address the following problems pertaining to the Space and Astrophysical Sciences area: (1) modeling of near-space vehicle

  4. A life devoted to astronautics. Dr. Olgierd Wołczek (1922-1982)—Biographical remarks and scientific activity in astronautics and space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotowicz, M.

    Dr. Olgierd Wołczek died in August, 1982 in Warsaw. From 1971 he edited the scientific-popular Polish bimonthly Astronautyka and also, from 1973, the scientific journal of the Polish Astronautical Society (PAS) "Postȩpy Astronautyki" (Progresses in Astronautics). He was one of the founders of PAS (1954), then its General Secretary for 10 years, and later the deputy of the President of PAS for 15 years. He was very active also in the field of the scientific research in astronautics and space physics. The scope and width of his knowledge can be seen in his 22 books and 34 papers on astronautics and space physics, 10 books and 14 papers on nuclear physics and other subjects. He published also several hundred papers in popular journals, and took part several hundred times in radio and television programmes. His PhD-degree (1963) was based on his research in nuclear spectroscopy. But astronautics became the main interest and aim of his life. He was corresponding member of the IAA in Paris, and a member of several IAA and IAF committees, spoke at more than 20 IAF Congresses and was an honorary member of several foreign astronautical societies. Dealing with almost all astronautics and space physics on popular level, his scientific activity of qualitative character can be placed in four subjects: (1) nuclear energy in rocketry; (2) impact of astronautics on science, our civilization and mankind; various non-selected problems in astronautics; (3) evolution of matter in the Universe; planetology; (4) life in the Universe. During his several last years Dr. Wołczek was dealing mainly with subjects (3) and (4). Scientific papers of Dr. Wołczek according to the above classification are reviewed. A full list of Dr. Wołczek's scientific papers are included.

  5. Constant-energetics physical-space forcing methods for improved convergence to homogeneous-isotropic turbulence with application to particle-laden flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassenne, Maxime; Urzay, Javier; Park, George I.; Moin, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates control-based forcing methods for incompressible homogeneous-isotropic turbulence forced linearly in physical space which result in constant turbulent kinetic energy, constant turbulent dissipation (also constant enstrophy), or a combination of the two based on a least-squares error minimization. The methods consist of proportional controllers embedded in the forcing coefficients. During the transient, the controllers adjust the forcing coefficients such that the controlled quantity achieves very early a minimal relative error with respect to its target stationary value. Comparisons of these forcing methods are made with the non-controlled approaches of Rosales and Meneveau ["Linear forcing in numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence: Physical space implementations and convergence properties," Phys. Fluids 17, 095106 (2005)] and Carroll and Blanquart ["A proposed modification to Lundgren's physical space velocity forcing method for isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 25, 105114 (2013)], using direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES). The results indicate that the proposed constant-energetics forcing methods shorten the transient period from a user-defined artificial flow field to Navier-Stokes turbulence while maintaining steadier statistics. Additionally, the proposed method of constant kinetic-energy forcing behaves more robustly in coarse LES when initial conditions are employed that favor the occurrence of subgrid-scale backscatter, whereas the other approaches fail to provide physical turbulent flow fields. For illustration, the proposed forcing methods are applied to dilute particle-laden homogeneous-isotropic turbulent flows; the results serve to highlight the influences of the forcing strategies on the disperse-phase statistics.

  6. Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove

  7. Aerosol and nucleation research in support of NASA cloud physics experiments in space. [ice nuclei generator for the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory on Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.; Rogers, D.; Gordon, G.; Saunders, C. P. R.; Reischel, M.; Black, R.

    1978-01-01

    Tasks performed in the development of an ice nucleus generator which, within the facility concept of the ACPL, would provide a test aerosol suitable for a large number and variety of potential experiments are described. The impact of Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory scientific functional requirements on ice nuclei generation and characterization subsystems was established. Potential aerosol generating systems were evaluated with special emphasis on reliability, repeatability and general suitability for application in Spacelab. Possible contamination problems associated with aerosol generation techniques were examined. The ice nucleating abilities of candidate test aerosols were examined and the possible impact of impurities on the nucleating abilities of those aerosols were assessed as well as the relative merits of various methods of aerosol size and number density measurements.

  8. A Back-to-Front Derivation: The Equal Spacing of Quantum Levels Is a Proof of Simple Harmonic Oscillator Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, David L.; Romero, Luciana C. Davila

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of simple harmonic motion can be found in numerous natural phenomena. Within the quantum realm of atomic, molecular and optical systems, two main features are associated with harmonic oscillations: a finite ground-state energy and equally spaced quantum energy levels. Here it is shown that there is in fact a one-to-one…

  9. Program to study optimal protocol for cardiovascular and muscular efficiency. [physical fitness training for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Training programs necessary for the development of optimal strength during prolonged manned space flight were examined, and exercises performed on the Super Mini Gym Skylab 2 were compared with similar exercises on the Universal Gym and calisthenics. Cardiopulmonary gains were found negligible but all training groups exhibited good gains in strength.

  10. A Contemporary Study in Gauge Theory and Mathematical Physics: Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theory on ALE Space & Freudenthal Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Sheng-Yu Darren

    This thesis covers two distinct parts: Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theory on ALE Space and Freudenthal Gauge Theory. In part I, I presented a concise review of the Seiberg-Witten curve, Nekrasov's background, geometric engineering and the holomorphic anomaly equation followed by my published work: Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theory on ALE Space, where an deformed N = 2 SU(2) gauge theory on A1 space and its five dimension lift is studied. We find that the partition functions can be reproduced via special geometry and the holomorphic anomaly equation. Schwinger type integral expressions for the boundary conditions at the monopole/dyon point in moduli space are inferred. The interpretation of the five dimensional partition function as the partition function of a refined topological string on A1x(local P1 x P1) is suggested. In part II, I give a comprehensive review of the Freudenthal Triple System, including Freudenthal's orginal construction from Jordan Triple Systems and its relation to Lie algebra, Yang-Baxter equation, and 4d N = 2 BPS black holes, where the novel Freudenthal-dual was discovered. I also present my published work on the Freudenthal Gauge Theory, where we construct the most generic gauge theory admitting F-dual, and prove a no-go theorem that forbids coupling of a F-dual invariant gauge theory to supersymmetry.

  11. Packaging a Successful NASA Mission to Reach a Large Audience with a Small Budget. Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics and NASA's Polar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Nicola J.; Goldberg, Richard; Barnes, Robin J.; Sigwarth, John B.; Beisser, Kerri B.; Moore, Thomas E.; Hoffman, Robert A.; Russell, Christopher T.; Scudder, Jack D.; Spann, James F.

    2004-01-01

    To showcase the on-going and wide-ranging scope of the Polar science discoveries, the Polar science team has created a one-stop shop for a thorough introduction to geospace physics, in the form of a DVD with supporting website. The DVD, Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission, can be viewed as an end-to-end product or split into individual segments and tailored to lesson plans. Capitalizing on the Polar mission and its amazing science return, the Polar team created an exciting multi-use DVD intended for audiences ranging from a traditional classroom and after school clubs, to museums and science centers. The DVD tackles subjects such as the aurora, the magnetosphere and space weather, whilst highlighting the science discoveries of the Polar mission. This platform introduces the learner to key team members as well as the science principles. Dramatic visualizations are used to illustrate the complex principles that describe Earth's dynamic space. In order to produce such a wide-ranging product on a shoe-string budget, the team poured through existing NASA resources to package them into the Polar story. Team members also created visualizations using Polar data to complement the NASA stock footage. Scientists donated their time to create and review scripts to make this a real team effort, working closely with the award winning audio-visual group at JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory. The team was excited to be invited to join NASA's Sun-Earth Day 2005 E/PO program and the DVD will be distributed as part of the supporting educational packages.

  12. Packaging a successful NASA mission to reach a large audience within a small budget. Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N. J.; Goldberg, R.; Barnes, R. J.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Beisser, K. B.; Moore, T. E.; Hoffman, R. A.; Russell, C. T.; Scudder, J.; Spann, J. F.; Newell, P. T.; Hobson, L. J.; Gribben, S. P.; Obrien, J. E.; Menietti, J. D.; Germany, G. G.; Mobilia, J.; Schulz, M.

    2004-12-01

    To showcase the on-going and wide-ranging scope of the Polar science discoveries, the Polar science team has created a one-stop shop for a thorough introduction to geospace physics, in the form of a DVD with supporting website. The DVD, Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission, can be viewed as an end-to-end product or split into individual segments and tailored to lesson plans. Capitalizing on the Polar mission and its amazing science return, the Polar team created an exciting multi-use DVD intended for audiences ranging from a traditional classroom and after school clubs, to museums and science centers. The DVD tackles subjects such as the aurora, the magnetosphere and space weather, whilst highlighting the science discoveries of the Polar mission. This platform introduces the learner to key team members as well as the science principles. Dramatic visualizations are used to illustrate the complex principles that describe Earth’s dynamic space. In order to produce such a wide-ranging product on a shoe-string budget, the team poured through existing NASA resources to package them into the Polar story, and visualizations were created using Polar data to complement the NASA stock footage. Scientists donated their time to create and review scripts in order to make this a real team effort, working closely with the award winning audio-visual group at JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory. The team was excited to be invited to join NASA’s Sun-Earth Day 2005 E/PO program and the DVD will be distributed as part of the supporting educational packages.

  13. A physical simulation study of the effect of thermal variations on the secondary dendrite arm spacing in a Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimian, Mehdi; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Sabirov, Ilchat

    2014-02-01

    The effect of thermal variations on the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in a MAR-M247 Ni-based superalloy has been studied by a novel method based on a physical simulation of melting/solidification experiments with a constant cooling rate and variable temperature gradient. The method proved to be effective as it yielded a spread of microstructures corresponding to a range of well-controlled solidification rates in a single melting/solidification experiment. In addition, it has been demonstrated that SDAS is better related to the solidification rate than to the cooling rate in cases when significant variations of thermal parameters during the solidification process occur.

  14. Thermal and neutron-physical features of the nuclear reactor for a power pulsation plant for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, É. G.; Kaminskii, A. S.; Konyukhov, G. V.; Pavshuk, V. A.; Turbina, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have explored the possibility of creating small-size reactors with a high power output with the provision of thermal stability and nuclear safety under standard operating conditions and in emergency situations. The neutron-physical features of such a reactor have been considered and variants of its designs preserving the main principles and approaches of nuclear rocket engine technology are presented.

  15. The Physics of Living in Space: A Physicist's Attempt to Provide Science and Engineering Education for Non-Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrow, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A course was developed to teach physics concepts and to help students understand mathematics, the nature and role of engineers and engineering in society, and to distinguish between science/technology from pseudo-science. Includes course goals/content, mechanics, start-up, and long-term projects. (JN)

  16. Space flight research relevant to health, physical education, and recreation: With particular reference to Skylab's life science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhuss, W. D.; Heusner, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected in the Skylab program relating to physiological stresses is presented. Included are routine blood measures used in clinical medicine as research type endocrine analyses to investigate the metabolic/endocrine responses to weightlessness. The daily routine of physical exercise, coupled with appropriate dietary intake, sleep, work, and recreation periods were considered essential in maintaining the crew's health and well being.

  17. Report on monitoring and support instruments for solar physics research from Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Quick Reaction and Special Purpose Facility Definition Team for Solar Physics Spacelab Payloads examined a variety of instruments to fulfill the following functions: (1) solar physics research appropriate to Spacelab, (2) correlative data for research in such fields as aeronomy, magnetospheric physics, ionospheric physics, meteorology and climatology, (3) target selection for activity alert monitoring and (4) pointing accuracy monitoring of Spacelab platforms. In this examination the team accepted a number of restrictions and qualifications: (1) the cost of such instruments must be low, so as not to adversely impact the development of new, research class instrumentation in the early Spacelab era; (2) the instruments should be of such a size that they each would occupy a small fraction of a pointing system, and (3) the weight and power consumption of the instruments should also be small. With these restrictions, the instruments chosen are: the visible light telescope and magnetograph, the extreme-ultraviolet telescope, and the solar irradiance monitor.

  18. Simulations of atmospheric TGFs and related physical processes: detection from space and side effects on MXGS/ASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-González, Javier; Blay, Pere; Espinós, Hector; Reglero, Víctor; Connell, Paul; Eyles, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) is an ESA mission which will be attached to the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The main goal of the ASIM mission is to characterize the optical and high-energy emission related to severe thunderstorms. We are setting up a set of simulations in order to analyse the expected detections from ASIM and in particular from the Modular X-ray and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) imager. On the one hand we have developed a mass model of the instrument for its use in Geant4 applications. We plan to characterize the response of the instrument to the incident high-energy radiation, and the effects of background from backscattered photons from the Columbus module. On the other hand we are developing a set of atmospheric models to set up Geant4 simulations of electron avalanche and gamma-ray propagation, with emphasis on: a) the possible residual optical emission due to interaction with atmospheric components, and b) the expected spectral and timing properties of the resulting high-energy emission towards space. We plan to include comparisons with other software toolkits like CORSIKA or LEPTRACK (under developed at the University of Valencia).

  19. Simulation of DNA Damage in Human Cells from Space Radiation Using a Physical Model of Stochastic Particle Tracks and Chromosomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem; Plante, Ianik; Hada, Megumi; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    The formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) is of great importance in radiation research and, specifically, in space applications. We are presenting a recently developed model, in which chromosomes simulated by NASARTI (NASA Radiation Tracks Image) is combined with nanoscopic dose calculations performed with the Monte-Carlo simulation by RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) in a voxelized space. The model produces the number of DSBs, as a function of dose for high-energy iron, oxygen, and carbon ions, and He ions. The combined model calculates yields of radiation-induced CAs and unrejoined chromosome breaks in normal and repair deficient cells. The merged computational model is calibrated using the relative frequencies and distributions of chromosomal aberrations reported in the literature. The model considers fractionated deposition of energy to approximate dose rates of the space flight environment. The merged model also predicts of the yields and sizes of translocations, dicentrics, rings, and more complex-type aberrations formed in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase during the first cell division after irradiation.

  20. Angry Birds in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA created a video using Angry Birds Space to explain how physics works in space, including demonstrating trajectories in mic...

  1. Bridging the physical scales in evolutionary biology: from protein sequence space to fitness of organisms and populations.

    PubMed

    Bershtein, Shimon; Serohijos, Adrian Wr; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2017-02-01

    Bridging the gap between the molecular properties of proteins and organismal/population fitness is essential for understanding evolutionary processes. This task requires the integration of the several physical scales of biological organization, each defined by a distinct set of mechanisms and constraints, into a single unifying model. The molecular scale is dominated by the constraints imposed by the physico-chemical properties of proteins and their substrates, which give rise to trade-offs and epistatic (non-additive) effects of mutations. At the systems scale, biological networks modulate protein expression and can either buffer or enhance the fitness effects of mutations. The population scale is influenced by the mutational input, selection regimes, and stochastic changes affecting the size and structure of populations, which eventually determine the evolutionary fate of mutations. Here, we summarize the recent advances in theory, computer simulations, and experiments that advance our understanding of the links between various physical scales in biology.

  2. Comment on "The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space" [J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094901 (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, C. H.

    2016-09-01

    A recent paper [A. Bejan and R. W. Wagstaff, J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094901 (2016)] concludes that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space are in a state of high internal tension. The tension is then relieved by rearrangement of the bodies into a non-uniform distribution of mass. In this Comment, it is shown that the conclusions are based upon calculations which are in error, and that the amount of tension is not in fact decreased by such a rearrangement.

  3. Physical-chemical properties of plasma membrane and function of erythrocytes of cosmonauts after long-term space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, S. M.; Brazhe, N. A.; Luneva, O. G.; Yarlikova, Y. V.; Labetskaya, O. I.; Parshina, E. Y.; Baizhumanov, A. A.; Maksimov, G. V.; Morukov, B. V.

    2011-05-01

    We studied microfluidity and selective ion permeability of plasma membranes and O 2-binding properties of erythrocytes of cosmonauts during early rehabilitation after a long-term space flight (LTSF). Microfluidity of plasma membranes in surface regions was found to undergo a reversible decrease during 13-15 days following LTSF, which was accompanied by a reversible increase in relative cholesterol content. Cosmonauts' erythrocytes revealed an increased activity of Na/H-exchanger and K Ca-channel as well as a decrease in number of discocytes and increase in number of echinocytes, stomatocytes and knizocytes. Total hemoglobin content as well as oxyhemoglobin content were lowered after the LTSF, while the affinity of hemoglobin to O 2 was advanced. It is suggested that the changes in Hb properties, microfluidity and selective permeability of plasma membranes following the elevated cholesterol content in the membranes can decrease tissue supply with O 2.

  4. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  5. Differential collision cross-sections for atomic oxygen: Analysis of space flight instruments for solar terrestrial physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the status of the Cross-section Facility at MSFC is presented. A facility was designed, fabricated, assembled, tested, and operated for measurement of differential scattering cross sections important to understand the induced environment for a vehicle (e.g., Space Station) in low earth orbit. A user's manual for the facility is also presented. The performance of the facility was evaluated and found to be satisfactory in all the essential areas. Differential scattering cross sections were measured and results for the scattering measurements are included. Input to the development of the Ultraviolet Imager Optical System is also discussed. Design, fabrication, and evaluation of UV filters using a four-layer aluminum base are reported.

  6. [Study with a quartz resonator of a new natural informational channel associated with quantum properties of the physical space (vacuum)].

    PubMed

    Baurov, Iu A; Iakovenko, V A; Komissarov, A V; Verzhikovskiĭ, V G; Konradov, A A

    2001-01-01

    The results on long-time measurements of differential frequency of two quartz generators are presented. One generator is placed into magnetic system creating a vector potential field, and the other (calibration generator) is situated out of this system. It was found that oscillations of frequency difference occur with periods to 20 h and 22.5 h were revealed. Tangents to the Earth parallel at the moments of observation of value minima form three distinct subsets of directions. The traditional physical concepts do not explain these results. These results are in a good agreement with hypothesis about the anisotropic interaction of objects in nature (due to the new fundamental vector constant, cosmological vector potential Ag) and hence a new informational channel. The possibility is discussed that external factors affect biological objects via the new information channel.

  7. Inferring dust physical properties through light scattering measurements with the ICAPS facility on board the International space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2003-04-01

    Numerous low-density clouds of dust particles and aggregates are formed in the solar system (e.g. cometary comae and tails, interplanetary dust cloud). The physical properties of the dust (i.e. morphology, size distribution, albedo, porosity), seldom revealed by in-situ measurements, may be obtained by remote observations. The phase angle dependence and the wavelength dependence of the scattered light brightness and polarization (which does not depend upon the distance nor upon the concentration) actually provide drastic constraints for these properties. Our present understanding of the properties of these irregular dust particles will first be presented, with emphasis on the need for laboratory measurements (avoiding sedimentation and multiple scattering on gravity packed layers) to interpret the observations. The feasibility of light scattering measurements on dust clouds and on the aggregates they form under micro-gravity conditions, as demonstrated by the PROGRA2 experiment during parabolic flight campaigns and by the CODAG-LSU experiment during a rocket flight, will be summarized. The opportunity offered by the ICAPS facility (now in phase B at ESA) to deduce without any ambiguity the physical properties of cosmic dust particles from their optical properties, as well as their evolution when they break-off or aggregate, will be presented. New possibilities will be discussed, including measurements on ices condensing on micron-sized dust particles/aggregates, and the significance of light scattering measurements on submicron-sized particles with the IMPF facility (to be integrated with ICAPS in a common rack facility on board the ISS). Finally the latest developments of the ICAPS-Sounding Rocket Experiment, to be flown in 2004 on board the ESA MASER 10 rocket, will be presented.

  8. Space Science and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.

  9. JEM-EUSO: an opportunity for carrying out researches in atmospheric physics, meteorology and climatology using remote sensing techniques from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassardo, C.

    2010-09-01

    of clouds in the respective pixels and the cloud-top altitude. Thus, besides providing valuable information for the Extreme Energy Cosmic Ray observation from space, the potential of the AMS could be very effective in observing poor studied transient atmospheric phenomena and in addressing research on other relevant questions in atmospheric physics that are yet without answers. Among these, we could quote: monitoring cloud coverage; monitoring air transparency by detecting aerosol and subvisible clouds layers; creating 3D cloud maps, by evaluating top, depth and other cloud properties, and interpreting their dynamics; carrying out micro-meteors statistics; studying gravity waves; understanding space-atmosphere interactions and possibly related climate changes; improving the knowledge on mesoscale convective system; finding the aerosols distribution in lower atmosphere and establishing their role in provoking thunderstorms; impact phenomena of meteorites and interaction of dust with clouds and radiative properties in the atmosphere; monitoring and understanding light transient phenomena (elves, sprites, terrestrial gamma flashes and generally atmospheric discharge phenomena) with their possible impact on aviation safety). The expected benefits of this unique effort will have long-lasting effects on fundamental physics of high energies and important relapses on atmospheric physics science.

  10. Research and technology 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center annual report summarizes their advanced studies, research programs, and technological developments. Areas covered include: transportation systems; space systems such as Gravity Probe-B and Gamma Ray Imaging Telescope; data systems; microgravity science; astronomy and astrophysics; solar, magnetospheric, and atomic physics; aeronomy; propulsion; materials and processes; structures and dynamics; automated systems; space systems; and avionics.

  11. Destructive physical analysis of hollow cathodes from the Deep Space 1 Flight spare ion engine 30,000 hr life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Destructive physical analysis of the discharge and neutralizer hollow cathode assemblies from the Deep Space 1 Flight Spare 30,000 Hr life test was performed to characterize physical and chemical evidence of operationally induced effects after 30,372 hours of operation with beam extraction. Post-test inspection of the discharge-cathode assembly was subdivided into detailed analyses at the subcomponent level. Detailed materials analysis and optical inspection of the insert, orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, keeper assembly, insulator, and low-voltage propellant isolator were performed. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEW analyses were used to determine the extent and composition of regions of net deposition and erosion of both the discharge and neutralizer inserts. A comparative approach with an un-operated 4:1:1 insert was used to determine the extent of impregnate material depletion as a function of depth from the ID surface and axial position from the orifice plate. Analysis results are compared and contrasted with those obtained from similar analyses on components from shorter term tests, and provide insight regarding the prospect for successful longer-term operation consistent with SOA ion engine program life objectives at NASA.

  12. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths.

  13. Physics: A Career for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    Information is provided for students who may be interested in pursuing a career in physics. This information includes the type of work done and areas studied by physicists in the following areas: nuclear physics, solid-state physics, elementary-particle physics, atomic/molecular/electron physics, fluid/plasma physics, space/planetary physics,…

  14. Transitional Spaces: Mapping Physical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprake, Juliet; Thomas, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Museums and buildings are both considered immutable by the majority of people who use them. A small team from Goldsmiths College, the V&A + RIBA Architecture Partnership and Pimlico School set out to challenge this preconception. The Victoria & Albert museum was taken as a case study to investigate how buildings are a physical…

  15. Nonlinear Oscillators in Space Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester,Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    We discuss dynamical systems that produce an oscillation without an external time dependent source. Numerical results are presented for nonlinear oscillators in the Em1h's atmosphere, foremost the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBOl. These fluid dynamical oscillators, like the solar dynamo, have in common that one of the variables in a governing equation is strongly nonlinear and that the nonlinearity, to first order, has particular form. of 3rd or odd power. It is shown that this form of nonlinearity can produce the fundamental li'equency of the internal oscillation. which has a period that is favored by the dynamical condition of the fluid. The fundamental frequency maintains the oscillation, with no energy input to the system at that particular frequency. Nonlinearities of 2nd or even power could not maintain the oscillation.

  16. Physical characteristics of interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernov, S. N.; Logachev, Y. I.; Pisarenko, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The most important properties of the interplanetary medium are its interplanetary plasma (solar wind), magnetic field, galactic and solar cosmic rays, and micrometeorite material. Also considered is electromagnetic radiation from the sun, stars, and the galaxy.

  17. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karl

    2010-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Setting the Scene: 2. Sites of activity; 3. Plasma models; Part II. Quiescence: 4. Introduction; 5. Magnetohydrodynamic states; 6. Particle picture of steady states; 7. A unified theory of steady states; 8. Quasi-static evolution and thin current sheets (TCS); Part III. Dynamics: 9. Nonideal effects; 10. Selected macroinstabilities; 11. Magnetic reconnection; 12. Aspects of bifurcation and nonlinear dynamics; Part IV. Applications: 13. Magnetospheric activity; 14. Models of solar activity; 15. Discussion; Appendix 1. Unified theory: details and derivations; Appendix 2. Variational principle for collisionless plasmas; Appendix 3. Symbols and fundamental constants; References; Index.

  18. Investigation on iterative multiuser detection physical layer network coding in two-way relay free-space optical links with turbulences and pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee

    2016-11-20

    Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.

  19. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD) for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons) are crucial open subjects

  20. Soft coral abundance on the central Great Barrier Reef: effects of Acanthaster planci, space availability, and aspects of the physical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, K. E.

    1997-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of soft coral genera on reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef was investigated in relation to reef position, recent history of disturbance, wave exposure, substratum slope and depth. Eighty-five 25 m long transects were surveyed at 10 m depth on windward sides of 14 mid- and outer-shelf reefs. A further 75 transects in different zones on one mid-shelf reef (Davies Reef) between 5 and 30 m depth were investigated. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci had caused large-scale mortality of scleractinians on eight of these reefs five to ten years prior to the study, and as a result, scleractinian cover was only 35-55% of that on the six unimpacted reefs. On the impacted reefs, stony corals with massive and encrusting growths form had smaller average colony diameters but similar or slightly lower numerical abundance. In contrast, mean colony size, cover and abundance of branching stony corals showed no difference between impacted and unimpacted reefs. Twenty-four genera of soft corals (in eight families) were recorded, and none showed different abundance or cover in areas of former A. planci impact, compared to unaffected sites. Similarly, no difference was detected among locations in the numbers or area cover of sponges, tunicates, zoanthids, Halimeda or other macro-algae. Mean soft coral cover was 2 to 5% at 10 m on sheltered mid-shelf reefs, and 12 to 17% on more current-exposed reefs. Highest cover and abundances generally occurred on platforms of outer-shelf reefs exposed to relatively strong currents but low wave energy. On Davies Reef, cover and colony numbers of the families Nephtheidae and Xeniidae were low within the zone of wave impact, in flow-protected bays and lagoons, on shaded steep slopes, and at depths above 10 and below 25 m. In contrast, distributions of genera of the family Alcyoniidae were not related to these physical parameters. The physical conditions of a large proportion of habitats appear "sub

  1. Solar Fireworks - Integrating an Exhibit on Solar Physics and Space Science into the Science and Astronomy Curriculum of High-School and College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Wang, H.; Conod, K. D.; Wintemberg, T.; Calderon, I.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomers at The Newark Museum's Alice and Leonard Dreyfuss Planetarium teamed up with the New Jersey Institute of Technology's (NJIT) Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and the Big Bear Solar Observatory in presenting Solar Fireworks. The exhibit opened on May 15, 2004 and features two exhibition kiosks with interactive touch screen displays, where students and other visitors can take "virtual tours" in the fields of solar physics, solar activity, Sun-Earth connection, and geo-sciences. Planetarium and museum visits are an integral part of the introductory physics and astronomy classes at NJIT and the exhibition has been integrated in the astronomy curriculum. For example, NJIT students of the Astronomy Club and regular astronomy courses were closely involved in the design and development of the exhibit. The exhibit is the latest addition to the long-running natural science exhibit "Dynamic Earth: Revealing Nature's Secrets" at the museum. More than 30,000 people per year attend various programs offered by the planetarium including public shows, more than a dozen programs for school groups, after school activities, portable planetarium outreach, outdoor sky watches, solar observing and other family events. More than 1,000 high school students visited the planetarium in 2004. The exhibit is accompanied by a yearly teacher workshop (the first one was held on October 18-20, 2004) to enhance the learning experience of classes visiting the Newark Museum. The planetarium and museum staff has been working with teachers of Newark high schools and has presented many workshops for educators on a wide range of topics from astronomy to zoology. At the conclusion of the exhibit in December 2005, the exhibit will go "on the road" and will be made available to schools or other museums. Finally, the exhibit will find its permanent home at the new office complex of CSTR at NJIT. Acknowledgements: Solar Fireworks was organized by The Newark Museum and the New Jersey

  2. Enhanced Spectral Analysis of SEP Reservoir Events by OMNIWeb Multi-Source Browse Services of the Space Physics Data Facility and the Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Johnson, Rita C.; McGuire, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The NASA Space Physics Data Facility and Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) have jointly upgraded the highly used OMNIWeb services for heliospheric solar wind data to also include energetic electron, proton, and heavier ion data in a variety of graphical browse formats. The underlying OMNI and VEPO data now span just over a half century from 1963 to the present. The new services include overlay of differential flux spectra from multiple instruments and spacecraft, scatter plots of fluxes from two user-selected energy channels, distribution function histograms of selected parameters, and spectrograms of flux vs. energy and time. Users can also overlay directional flux spectra from different angular channels. Data from most current and some past (Helios 1&2, Pioneer 10&11) heliospheric spacecraft and instruments are wholly or partially covered by these evolving new services. The traditional OMNI service of correlating magnetic field and plasma data from L1 to 1 AU solar wind sources is also being extended for other spacecraft, e.g. Voyager 1 and 2, to correlations with energetic particle channels. The user capability is, for example, demonstrated to rapidly scan through particle flux spectra from consecutive time periods for so-called “reservoir” events, in which solar energetic particle flux spectra converge in shape and amplitude from multiple spacecraft sources within the inner heliosphere. Such events are important for understanding spectral evolution of global heliospheric events and for intercalibration of flux data from multiple instruments of the same and different spacecraft. These services are accessible at http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/. SPDF and VEPO are separately accessible at http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and http://vepo.gsfc.nasa.gov/.In the future we will propose to extend OMNIWeb particle flux data coverage to the plasma and suprathermal energy range.

  3. T-cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 expression in human T cells are dependent on T-cell density: physics of a confined space?

    PubMed

    Bernardo, David; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Mann, Elizabeth R; Tee, Cheng T; Murugananthan, Aravinth U; Peake, Simon T C; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C

    2012-03-01

    T-cell proliferation rates in vitro depend on factors including initial T-cell number, dose of stimulus, culture time, and available physical space. The role of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) in the identification of T cells with a regulatory phenotype remains controversial in humans. Through 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester labeling of human T cells and subsequent culture of different numbers of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), we studied proliferative T-cell responses and FoxP3 expression in divided T cells. T-cell proliferation rates depended on initial T-cell/APC numbers. Proliferation rates decreased when high initial T-cell numbers were increased. FoxP3 expression was expressed exclusively in virtually all divided T cells cultured at high T-cell densities, irrespective of their CD4 nature or cytokine content, and was coexpressed with T-bet. However, when T cells were cultured on larger surfaces or at lower initial numbers, FoxP3 expression was not induced in divided T cells, even when most of the cells had undergone cell division. FoxP3(+) T cells generated at high cell densities did not elicit a suppressive phenotype and FoxP3 expression was subsequently lost in time when the stimulus was removed. Therefore, caution should be observed in the use of FoxP3 expression to identify regulatory T cells in humans because its expression may be only a consequence of activation status in a restricted environment.

  4. RTEMP: Exploring an end-to-end, agnostic platform for multidisciplinary real-time analytics in the space physics community and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Jackel, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale, real-time, sensor-driven analytics are a highly effective set of tools in many research environments; however, the barrier to entry is expensive and the learning curve is steep. These systems need to operate efficiently from end to end, with the key aspects being data transmission, acquisition, management and organization, and retrieval. When building a generic multidisciplinary platform, acquisition and data management needs to be designed with scalability and flexibility as the primary focus. Additionally, in order to leverage current sensor web technologies, the integration of common sensor data standards (ie. SensorML and SWE Services) should be supported. Perhaps most important, researchers should be able to get started and integrate the platform into their set of research tools as easily and quickly as possible. The largest issue with current platforms is that the sensor data must be formed and described using the previously mentioned standards. As useful as these standards are for organizing data, they are cumbersome to adopt, often restrictive, and are required to be geospatially-driven. Our solution, RTEMP (Real-time Environment Monitoring Platform), is a real-time analytics platform with over ten years and an estimated two million dollars of investment. It has been developed for our continuously expanding requirements of operating and building remote sensors and supporting equipment for space physics research. A key benefit of our approach is RTEMP's ability to manage agnostic data. This allows data that flows through the system to be structured in any way that best addresses the needs of the sensor operators and data users, enabling extensive flexibility and streamlined development and research. Here we begin with an overview of RTEMP and how it is structured. Additionally, we will showcase the ways that we are using RTEMP and how it is being adopted by researchers in an increasingly broad range of other research fields. We will lay out a

  5. The aeronomy of vibrationally excited ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Allen, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical calculations show that above 80 km in the earth's atmosphere the production of vibrationally excited ozone by chemical processes leads to number densities which are usually larger than those expected for local thermodynamic equilibrium. Quenching of highly excited molecules produced in O+O2+M, O3+M provided a significant source of the lower lying states above the mesopause while the 9.6 microns emission of O3 (0,0,1) was a major sink. Analysis of available laboratory results implied that reactions involving excited ozone play a significant role in the global ozone balance despite the relatively small abundance of the molecule. However, this effect is implicit in many of the rate coefficients currently used in stratospheric calculations. In the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, where the excited state populations differ from those for thermal equilibrium, published reaction rate data are not necessarily applicable to aeronomic calculations.

  6. Low Latitude Aeronomy Study in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-09

    by improvising we were able to construct a small FPI and have it deployed in Abuja, Nigeria and obtained thermospheric winds in West...collaboration in the future. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Equatorial ionosphere, plasma bubble, thermospheric wind observations. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...longitudinal variations of the plasma bubble and its association with the thermospheric wind . To achieve this goal, we proposed to deploy a Fabry-Perot

  7. The Atmosphere as Laboratory: Aeronomy by Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Cosby, P. C.; Huestis, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    Astronomical sky spectra, which are byproducts of long-slit observations with echelle spectrographs on large telescopes, provide a unique platform for studying the optical emissions of excited molecules and atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere that can greatly extend present knowledge based on laboratory spectra. This paper summarizes some of the advances that have been made in our understanding of the lower electronic states of O2 and other species from the sky spectra and from direct observations of the Venus nightglow.

  8. Aeronomy of the current Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. A.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Bougher, S. W.; Hunten, D. M.; Bauer, S. J.; Nagy, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal structure of the Martian atmosphere, which varies diurnally, seasonally and episodically, is discussed. The atomic oxygen airglow at 1304 A is used to determine the density of atomic oxygen, and the 1216-A Lyman-alpha line is used to calculate the density of atomic hydrogen and, when coupled with the temperature measurement, the escape flux of atomic hydrogen. The most intense airglow is the IR atmospheric band of O2 at 1.27 micron that results from the photodissociation of ozone. The escape mechanism for atomic hydrogen is thermal, or Jeans, escape, while the atomic oxygen escape is caused by a nonthermal process, namely, the dissociative recombination of O2(+). The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen is enriched by a factor of 6. Three-dimensional models of the Mars thermospheric circulation show that planetary rotation has a significant effect on the wind, composition, and temperature structure.

  9. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  10. The Climate Space Concept: Analysis of the Steady State Heat Energy Budget of Animals. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Several modules in the thermodynamic series considered the application of the First Law to…

  11. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  12. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brecht, J. J. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Information dealing with active and planned spacecraft and experiments known to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is presented. Included is information concerning a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft represent the efforts and funding of individual countries, as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  13. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, J. I. (Editor); Vostreys, R. W. (Editor); Horowitz, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented, concerning active and planned spacecraft and experiments known to the National Space Science Data Center. The information included a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft projects represented the efforts and funding of individual countries as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  14. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  15. Study of optimal training protocols and devices for developing and maintaining physical fitness in females prior to and during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.; Corbin, B.; Smith, C.

    1977-01-01

    Pedalling a bicycle at least ten minutes a day at 85% of maximum pulse rate, three days a week for ten weeks will produce moderate increases in overall strength and physical work capacity in college-age females. The longer the training session, up to thirty minutes per session, the greater are the increases in physical work capacity that result when college-age females are trained three days a week for ten weeks at 85% of their maximum heart rate.

  16. The Unique Ability of the Electron-Positron (Epo) Lattice (Epola) Model of Space to Explain the Natural Causes of All Known Physical Features and Phenomena, Extrinsic to Nuclear Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhony, Menahem

    1999-10-01

    The binding energy _bE of an epo pair in the epola is 1.02 MeV. In an epola spot, deformed by a "guest" nucleus, such a quantum can be absorbed; this frees an epo pair off bonds, making it appear to our detection. The epo lattice constant is 4.4 fm, 50 R_e. Thus atomic bodies can move in the epola, sweeping their constituent nuclei and electrons between epola particles, creating EM de Broglie waves in the epola space, but no winds or currents. Starting a motion provides the energy of the bound epola particles that vibrate in the waves. This led us to answer the question WHY there is inertia. Epola deformations by masses of constituent nuclear particles of atomic bodies led us to answer the question WHY there is gravity. Epola deformations by electric charges and magnetism of the particles lead to answer the questions of HOW and WHY does space carry and transfer with the speed c of light the tremendous gravitational and EM interaction forces, energies, and radiations. The lattice structure per se causes all quantizations, and the applicability of the otherwise "divine" principles of uncertainty, exclusion, particle-wave duality, universality of our backyard findings, etc. 1.M.Simhony, The Epola Space, 1990, 160 pp, and The Story of Matter and Space, 1999, 70 pp (available from the author). M.Simhony, Invitation to the Natural Physics or Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific, 1994. See the website: http://come.to/natural_physics

  17. Higher Education Space: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but a…

  18. The quantum space race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, Thomas; Higgins, Brendon

    2013-03-01

    Sending satellites equipped with quantum technologies into space will be the first step towards a global quantum-communication network. As Thomas Jennewein and Brendon Higgins explain, these systems will also enable physicists to test fundamental physics in new regimes.

  19. To Boldly Go: America's Next Era in Space. The Plasma Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Dr. France Cordova, NASA's Chief Scientist, chaired this, the eighth seminar in the Administrator's Seminar Series. She introduced the NASA Administrator, Daniel S. Goldin, who, in turn, introduced the subject of plasma. Plasma, an ionized gas, is a function of temperature and density. We ve learned that, at Jupiter, the radiation is dense. But, Goldin asked, what else do we know? Dr. Cordova then introduced Dr. James Van Allen, for whom the Van Allen radiation belt was named. Dr. Van Allen, a member of the University of Iowa faculty, discussed the growing interest in practical applications of space physics, including radiation fields and particles, plasmas and ionospheres. He listed a hierarchy of magnetic fields, beginning at the top, as pulsars, the Sun, planets, interplanetary medium, and interstellar medium. He pointed out that we have investigated eight of the nine known planets,. He listed three basic energy sources as 1) kinetic energy from flowing plasma such as constitutional solar wind or interstellar wind; 2) rotational energy of the planet, and 3) orbital energy of satellites. He believes there are seven sources of energetic particles and five potential places where particles may go. The next speaker, Dr. Ian Axford of New Zealand, has been associated with the Max Planck Institut fuer Aeronomie and plasma physics. He has studied solar and galactic winds and clusters of galaxies of which there are several thousand. He believes that the solar wind temperature is in the millions of degrees. The final speaker was Dr. Roger Blanford of the California Institute of Technology. He classified extreme plasmas as lab plasmas and cosmic plasmas. Cosmic plasmas are from supernovae remnants. These have supplied us with heavy elements and may come via a shock front of 10(sup 15) electron volts. To understand the physics of plasma, one must learn about x-rays, the maximum energy of acceleration by supernova remnants, particle acceleration and composition of cosmic

  20. Exploring the Critical Dialogical Process: Psychological and Physical Spaces Creating Conditions Conducive to Multi-System Collective Action in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman-Adkins, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore physical and psychological elements conducive to engaging educators from K-12 and higher education in meaningful exchanges that lead to collective action. Research Design: Through a qualitative case study of two higher education sites focused on advancing academically-based service learning…

  1. Multiple Voices in Health, Sport, Recreation, and Physical Education Research: Revealing Unfamiliar Spaces in a Polyvocal Review of Qualitative Research Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tim F.; Madill, Leanna E.; Bratseth, Chris D.; Cameron, Kathi A.; Coble, James D.; Nimmon, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the potential genres of qualitative research that can be used to research the domains of health, sport, recreation, and physical education. Drawing on Denzin and Lincoln (2000) and Sparkes (2002a), and connecting to the work of six researchers, this article will present five genres of qualitative research…

  2. Navigating Mythic Space in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Drew Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In prior ages, alternate worlds are associated with symbolic expressions of storied space, here termed "mythic space." The digital age brings new forms of virtual space that are co-existent with physical space. These virtual spaces may be understood as a contemporary representation of mythic space. This dissertation explores the paths by…

  3. Science off the Sphere: Thin Film Physics

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you c...

  4. Flat-space singletons

    SciTech Connect

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-02-15

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED.

  5. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  6. Space Studies Board, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 report of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council summarizes the charter and organization of the board, activities and membership, major and short reports, and congressional testimony. A cumulative bibliography of the Space Studies (formerly Space Science) Board and its committees is provided. An appendix contains reports of the panel to review Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) plans. Major reports cover scientific opportunities in the human exploration of space, the dichotomy between funding and effectiveness in space physics, an integrated strategy for the planetary sciences for the years 1995-2010, and Office of Naval Research (ONR) research opportunities in upper atmospheric sciences. Short reports cover utilization of the space station, life and microgravity sciences and the space station program, Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and Cassini Saturn Probe.

  7. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  8. X ray, extreme and far ultraviolet optical thin films for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    Far and extreme ultraviolet optical thin film filters find many uses in space astronomy, space astrophysics, and space aeronomy. Spacebased spectrographs are used for studying emission and absorption features of the earth, planets, sun, stars, and the interstellar medium. Most of these spectrographs use transmission or reflection filters. This requirement has prompted a search for selective filtering coatings with high throughput in the FUV and EUV spectral region. Important progress toward the development of thin film filters with improved efficiency and stability has been made in recent years. The goal for this field is the minimization of absorption to get high throughput and enhancement of wavelength selection. The Optical Aeronomy Laboratory (OAL) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has recently developed the technology to determine optical constants of bulk and film materials for wavelengths extending from x-rays (0.1 nm) to the FUV (200 nm), and several materials have been identified that were used for designs of various optical devices which previously have been restricted to space application in the visible and near infrared. A new design concept called the Pi-multilayer was introduced and applied to the design of optical coatings for wavelengths extending from x-rays to the FUV. Section 3 of this report explains the Pi-multilayer approach and demonstrates its application for the design and fabrication of the FUV coatings. Two layer Pi-stacks have been utilized for the design of reflection filters in the EUV wavelength range from 70 - 100 nm. In order to eliminate losses due to the low reflection of the imaging optics and increase throughput and out-of-band rejection of the EUV instrumentation we introduced a self-filtering camera concept. In the FUV region, MgF2 and LiF crystals are known to be birefringent. Transmission polarizers and quarterwave retarders made of MgF2 or LiF crystals are commercially available but the performances are poor. New

  9. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The summaries in this document describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1984-1985. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas.

  10. Physics Lab Renovation 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramlo, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If you have an older physics laboratory and/or classroom space, you've probably dreamed about how to make the space more adaptable to today's technology and the best teaching and learning practices. Yet, few articles exist in the literature to give us direction for this type of renovation, thus creating the potential of misspending funds that are…

  11. New mineral physics panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Committee on Mineral Physics has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.

  12. On the physics of the symbol--matter problem in biological systems and the origin of life: affine Hilbert spaces model of the robustness of the internal quantum dynamics of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Balázs, András

    2003-06-01

    In the present paper, some physical considerations of the biological symbol-matter problem is exposed. First of all, the physical concept of quantum dynamical internal measuremental robustness is discussed. In this context, the significance of introducing affine molecular Hilbert spaces, the original (primordeal) internal quantum measurement, and the global constraining nature of time-inversion symmetry restoring, as a special restoration force, is discussed at some length. It is pointed out, as a summary, that global robustness of the internal dynamics of quantum measurements is due to two basic factors: on one hand, the global constraining nature of the chosen specific (symmetry-) restoring force, and on the other, the individual robustness of the discrete local internal measuremental interactions. The second condition is supposed to follow from a system-internalised ("objective") Bohr-type Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, corresponding, in an external context, to the Generalized Complementarity Principle of Bohr and Elsasser. It is not claimed, however, that this latter problem has been, as yet, satisfactorily settled physically. In fact, if it were, it would amount to a specifically biological quantum theory of internal measurement, which had to be rooted in the original primordeal global internal measurement, amounting to the origin of the genetic code.

  13. Art and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author offers lesson plan ideas that are designed to guide teachers of art and science to encourage their students to see connections between art images and physics principles. The four works of art discussed are examples that can be linked visually and conceptually to physics properties in mathematics, space, energy, and light.…

  14. Application of the Physics of Wave-Particle Interactions in the Auroral Upward Current Region for Use in the VASIMR° Deep Space Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Olsen, C.; Longmier, B.; Ballenger, M.; Giambusso, M.; Carter, M.; Cassady, L.; Chang Diaz, F.; Glover, T.; McCaskill, G.; Squire, J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper will describe the laboratory application of the lessons learned from the study of wave particle interactions in the auroral upward current region to the industrial development problem of electric spacecraft propulsion. The VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR°) has been developed by using the results of space plasma experiments in laboratory plasma studies that will ultimately enable further space exploration. VASIMR° is a high power electric spacecraft propulsion system, capable of Isp/thrust modulation at constant power. The VASIMR° uses a helicon discharge to generate plasma. The plasma is leaked though a strong magnetic mirror to the second stage. In this stage, this plasma is energized by an RF booster stage that uses left hand polarized slow mode waves launched from the high field side of the ion cyclotron resonance. In the experiments reported in this paper, the booster uses 0.5-0.7 MHz waves with up to 170 kW of power. The single pass ion cyclotron heating (ICH) produced a substantial increase in ion velocity. Pitch angle distribution studies showed that this increase took place in the resonance region where the ion cyclotron frequency was roughly equal to the frequency on the injected rf waves. Downstream of the resonance region the perpendicular velocity boost should be converted to axial flow velocity through the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant as the magnetic field decreases in the exhaust region of the VASIMR°. Results from high power Helicon only and Helicon with ICH experiments are presented from the VX-200 using argon propellant. A two-axis translation stage has been used to survey the spatial structure of plasma parameters, momentum flux and magnetic perturbations in the VX-200 exhaust plume. These recent measurements were made within a new 150 cubic meter cryo-pumped vacuum chamber and are presented in the context of plasma detachment. For the first time, the thruster efficiency and thrust of a high

  15. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  16. Polluting Black space.

    PubMed

    Bonam, Courtney M; Bergsieker, Hilary B; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2016-11-01

    Social psychologists have long demonstrated that people are stereotyped on the basis of race. Researchers have conducted extensive experimental studies on the negative stereotypes associated with Black Americans in particular. Across 4 studies, we demonstrate that the physical spaces associated with Black Americans are also subject to negative racial stereotypes. Such spaces, for example, are perceived as impoverished, crime-ridden, and dirty (Study 1). Moreover, these space-focused stereotypes can powerfully influence how connected people feel to a space (Studies 2a, 2b, and 3), how they evaluate that space (Studies 2a and 2b), and how they protect that space from harm (Study 3). Indeed, processes related to space-focused stereotypes may contribute to social problems across a range of domains-from racial disparities in wealth to the overexposure of Blacks to environmental pollution. Together, the present studies broaden the scope of traditional stereotyping research and highlight promising new directions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  18. The Action as Natural Force and the Origin of Time, Space, Dimensions, Natural Forces, and Laws of Logics, Geometry and Physics at the Origination of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2011-02-01

    The Action World Model contains a plausible description of the origination of the World, according to which, starting from the most simple condition of an inside itself logically necessary affirmation of its own existence, everything will be effectuated successively, so that its logical, geometrical and physical properties are aspects of the realization or aftereffects of primordial facts, without that this would exclude any external creation. The first dimensions with their natural constants which characterize them formally and subjectively, are: Number of produced Facts and Action, with single events and elementary action; Time and Energy, with their elementary units; Speed or Extension and Impulse, with the light speed and elementary length; Curvature or two Spatial Directions with gravitational constant, and by their corresponding primary natural forces are constituted these familiar for us.

  19. Planetary atmospheric physics and solar physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on current and planned research activities in the major areas of solar physics, planetary atmospheres, and space astronomy. The approach to these unsolved problems involves experimental techniques, theoretical analysis, and the use of computers to analyze the data from space experiments. The point is made that the research program is characterized by each activity interacting with the other activities in the laboratory.

  20. Control of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made to develop controllers for the NASA-JSC Triangular Space Station and evaluate their performances to make recommendations for structural design and/or control alternatives. The control system design assumes the rigid body of the Space Station and developes the lumped parameter control system by using the Inverse Optimal Control Theory. In order to evaluate the performance of the control system, a Parameter Estimation algorithm is being developed which will be used in modeling an equivalent but simpler Space Station model. Finally, a scaled version of the Space Station is being built for the purpose of physical experiments to evaluate the control system performance.