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Sample records for aerosol air quality

  1. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  2. Intercontinental Transport of Aerosols: Implication for Regional Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 microns) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 microns), is one of the key atmospheric components that determine ambient air quality. Current US air quality standards for PM10 (particles with diameter < 10 microns) and PM2.5 (particles with diameter 2.5 microns) are 50 pg/cu m and 15 pg/cu m, respectively. While local and regional emission sources are the main cause of air pollution problems, aerosols can be transported on a hemispheric or global scale. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to quantify contributions of long-range transport vs. local/regional pollution sources and from natural vs. anthropogenic sources to PM concentrations different regions. In particular, we estimate the hemispheric impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and dust from major source areas on other regions in the world. The GOCART model results are compared with satellite remote sensing and ground-based network measurements of aerosol optical depth and concentrations.

  3. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  4. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  5. Natural sources of atmospheric aerosols influencing air quality across Europe.

    PubMed

    Viana, M; Pey, J; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; de Leeuw, F; Lükewille, Anke

    2014-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols are emitted by natural and anthropogenic sources. Contributions from natural sources to ambient aerosols vary widely with time (inter-annual and seasonal variability) and as a function of the distance to source regions. This work aims to identify the main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols affecting air quality across Europe. The origin, frequency, magnitude, and spatial and temporal variability of natural events were assessed for the years 2008 and 2009. The main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols identified were African dust, sea spray and wildfires. Primary biological particles were not included in the present work. Volcanic eruptions did not affect air quality significantly in Europe during the study period. The impact of natural episodes on air quality was significant in Southern and Western Europe (Cyprus, Spain, France, UK, Greece, Malta, Italy and Portugal), where they contributed to surpass the PM10 daily and annual limit values. In Central and Northern Europe (Germany, Austria and Latvia) the impact of these events was lower, as it resulted in the exceedance of PM daily but not annual limit values. Contributions from natural sources to mean annual PM10 levels in 2008 and 2009 ranged between 1 and 2 μg/m(3) in Italy, France and Portugal, between 1 and 4 μg/m(3) in Spain (10 μg/m(3) when including the Canary Islands), 5 μg/m(3) in UK, between 3 and 8 μg/m(3) in Greece, and reached up to 13 μg/m(3) in Cyprus. The evaluation of the number of monitoring stations per country reporting natural exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV) is suggested as a potential tool for air quality monitoring networks to detect outliers in the assessment of natural contributions. It is strongly suggested that a reference methodology for the identification and quantification of African dust contributions should be adopted across Europe.

  6. Influence of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Southeast Asia Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Bar-Or, Rotem; Wang, Chien

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning activities in Southeast Asia have become a major concern of general public as well as governments in the region. This is because that aerosols emitted from such fires can cause long-lasting haze events under favorite weather conditions in downwind locations such as Singapore, degrading air quality and causing human health issues. In order to improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in Southeast Asia, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a smoke aerosol module to conduct multi-year simulations covering the period from 2002 to 2014, driven by the biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.5. To attribute the aerosol influences over various target regions to specific fire locations, we have also partitioned aerosols emitted from five major fire regions of Southeast Asia in the simulations. Based on the simulation results, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal. We find that the transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols are strongly modulated by the Southeast Asian monsoon wind field and precipitation. We also identified that in the past decade, smoke aerosols are responsible for a substantial fraction of low visibility events in the major metropolitan areas of the region: 35% in Bangkok, 25% in Kuala Lumpur, 16% in Singapore, and 22% in Jakarta. The fires in the Indochina peninsula account for the largest percentage of the total fire enhancement to PM2.5 in Bangkok (98.9%), and fires in Sumatra were the major contributor in Kuala Lumpur (49%), Singapore (39%), and Jakarta (48%).

  7. Impact of Asian aerosols on air quality over the United States: A perspective from aerosol-cloud-radiation coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z.; Yu, H.; Chin, M.

    2013-12-01

    It has well been established, through satellite/ground observations, that dust and aerosols from various Asian sources can travel across the Pacific and reach North America (NA) at least on episode bases. Once reaching NA, these inflow aerosols would compete with local emissions to influence atmospheric composition and air quality over the United States (US). The previous studies, typically based on one or multiple satellite measurements in combination with global/regional model simulations, suggest that the impact of Asian dust/aerosols on US air quality tend to be small since most inflow aerosols stay aloft. On the other hand, aerosols affect many key meteorological processes that will ultimately channel down to impact air quality. Aerosols absorb and scatter solar radiation that change the atmospheric stability, thus temperature, wind, and planetary boundary layer structure that would directly alter air quality. Aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei to modify cloud properties and precipitation that would also affect aerosol removal and concentration. This indirect impact of Asian aerosol inflow on US air quality may be substantial and need to be investigated. This study employs the NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF) to address the question from the aerosol-radiation-cloud interaction perspective. The simulation period was selected from April to June of 2010 during which the Asian dust continuously reached NA based on CALIPSO satellite observation. The preliminary results show that the directly-transported Asian aerosol increases surface PM2.5 concentration by less than 2 μg/m3 over the west coast areas of US, and the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedback has a profound effect on air quality over the central to eastern US. A more detailed analysis links this finding to a series of meteorological conditions modified by aerosol effects.

  8. INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE-DERIVED AEROSOL DATA INTO THE AIR QUALITY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, the only source of aerosol air quality data available on an ongoing and systematic basis at national levels was generated by ambient air monitoring networks put in place for the US EPA's Air Quality Programs. Over the past several years, the remote sensing of aeros...

  9. Assessing Impact of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport on Regional Air Quality and Climate: What Satellites Can Help

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence for intercontinental transport of aerosols suggests that aerosols from a region could significantly affect climate and air quality in downwind regions and continents. Current assessment of these impacts for the most part has been based on global model simulations that show large variability. The aerosol intercontinental transport and its influence on air quality and climate involve many processes at local, regional, and intercontinental scales. There is a pressing need to establish modeling systems that bridge the wide range of scales. The modeling systems need to be evaluated and constrained by observations, including satellite measurements. Columnar loadings of dust and combustion aerosols can be derived from the MODIS and MISR measurements of total aerosol optical depth and particle size and shape information. Characteristic transport heights of dust and combustion aerosols can be determined from the CALIPSO lidar and AIRS measurements. CALIPSO liar and OMI UV technique also have a unique capability of detecting aerosols above clouds, which could offer some insights into aerosol lofting processes and the importance of above-cloud transport pathway. In this presentation, I will discuss our efforts of integrating these satellite measurements and models to assess the significance of intercontinental transport of dust and combustion aerosols on regional air quality and climate.

  10. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 1: MODEL DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol component of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is designed to be an efficient and economical depiction of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdis...

  11. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations to increase in eastern China (4.4%), southern China (10%), western China (2.3%), and the Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  12. SIMULATION OF AEROSOL DYNAMICS: A COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF ALGORITHMS USED IN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative review of algorithms currently used in air quality models to simulate aerosol dynamics is presented. This review addresses coagulation, condensational growth, nucleation, and gas/particle mass transfer. Two major approaches are used in air quality models to repres...

  13. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  14. Introducing GMXe: A new global aerosol dynamics and thermodynamics model for climate and air quality studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, K.; Metzger, S.; Tost, H.; Steil, B.; Lelieveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    The treatment of aerosols in global atmospheric models has advanced significantly in the past decade, but the global aerosol distribution is very complex and simplifications must be made in order to treat aerosols in global models. One common simplification is in the treatment of the partitioning of semi-volatile species (e.g. NH3, HNO3 and H2O) between the gas and the aerosol phases, which is often neglected in models or treated in a simplified manner. The treatment of partitioning is, however, important as it controls the aerosol composition (including the aerosol water concentration) as well as affecting the concentration of both aerosol and gas phase pollutants. This paper introduces the newly developed GMXe aerosol model, which has been developed to investigate gas / aerosol partitioning on a global scale. The model (implemented within the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model) combines an extended version of an established aerosol microphysics model (the M7, Stier et al ACP 2005) with a thermodynamic equilibrium model (EQSAM3, Metzger et al ACP 2008). The resulting model is capable of calculating gas / aerosol partitioning with relatively little additional computational overhead. In this paper we give an overview of the modelling approach used and show various model inter-comparisons, including a detailed comparison of the results of the GMXe and M7 models. We show the effect of including additional aerosol components - such as nitrate aerosol - on the global aerosol distribution and on the behaviour of other aerosol species (e.g. sulphate). The water uptake behaviour of the aerosol is examined, a factor that is important for the aerosol lifetime and also for the aerosol radiative forcing. We examine our results in the context of future emissions scenarios and air quality standards.

  15. IMPROVING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY FORECASTS WITH SATELLITE AEROSOL OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality forecasts for major US metropolitan areas have been provided to the public through a partnership between the US Environmental Protection Agency and state and local air agencies since 1997. Recent years have witnessed improvement in forecast skill and expansion of fore...

  16. Impact of transpacific aerosol on air quality over the United States: A perspective from aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhining; Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Observations have well established that aerosols from various sources in Asia, Europe, and Africa can travel across the Pacific and reach the contiguous United States (U.S.) at least on episodic bases throughout a year, with a maximum import in spring. The imported aerosol not only can serve as an additional source to regional air pollution (e.g., direct input), but also can influence regional air quality through the aerosol-cloud-radiation (ACR) interactions that change local and regional meteorology. This study assessed impacts of the transpacific aerosol on air quality, focusing on surface ozone and PM2.5, over the U.S. using the NASA Unified Weather Research Forecast model. Based on the results of 3-month (April to June of 2010) simulations, the impact of direct input (as an additional source) of transpacific aerosol caused an increase of surface PM2.5 concentration by approximately 1.5 μg m-3 over the west coast and about 0.5 μg m-3 over the east coast of the U.S. By influencing key meteorological processes through the ACR interactions, the transpacific aerosol exerted a significant effect on both surface PM2.5 (±6 μg m-3) and ozone (±12 ppbv) over the central and eastern U.S. This suggests that the transpacific transport of aerosol could either improve or deteriorate local air quality and complicate local effort toward the compliance with the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

  17. Impact of Aerosol Direct Effect on East Asian Air Quality During the EAST-AIRE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three WRF-Chem simulations were conducted for East Asia region during March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) period to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. WRF-Chem captured the temporal and spatial variations of meteorological fields, trace gases, and aerosol loadings. Surface shortwave radiation changes due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE) were calculated and compared with data from six World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) stations. The comparison indicated that WRF-Chem can simulate the surface short wave radiation moderately well, with temporal correlations between 0.4 and 0.7, and high biases between 9 to 120 W/m2. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 22 W/m2 in surface SW radiation due to the aerosol direct effect, consistent with observational studies. The ADE demonstrates diverse influences on air quality in East Asian. For example, the surface concentration of PM2.5 increases in eastern China (~11.1%) due to ADE, but decreases in central China (-7.3%), western China (-8.8%), and Sichuan Basin (-4%). Surface 1-hour maximum ozone is reduced by 2.3%, owing to less radiation reaching the surface due to the ADE. Since PM2.5 pollution raises serious public concern in China, regulations that control the emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors have been implemented. We investigate the impact of reducing two different types of aerosols, sulfate (scattering) and black carbon (absorbing), by cutting 80% of SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions in two sensitivity simulations. We found that reducing SO2 emissions results in the decline of PM2.5 as much as 16mg/m3 in eastern China, and 20mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. Reducing the BC emissions by the same percentage causes the PM2.5 to decrease as much as 40mg/m3 in eastern China, and 25mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. The monthly averaged surface 1-hour maximum ozone increases 3

  18. Complex Coupling of Air Quality and Climate-Relevant Aerosols in a Chemistry-Aerosol Microphysics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C.; Mann, G.

    2013-12-01

    Controlling emissions of aerosols and their precursors to improve air quality will impact the climate through direct and indirect radiative forcing. We have investigated the impacts of changes in a range of aerosol and gas-phase emission fluxes and changes in temperature on air quality and climate change metrics using a global aerosol microphysics and chemistry model, GLOMAP. We investigate how the responses of PM2.5 and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are coupled, and how attempts to improve air quality could have inadvertent effects on CCN, clouds and climate. The parameter perturbations considered are a 5°C increase in global temperature, increased or decreased precursor emissions of anthropogenic SO2, NH3, and NOx, and biogenic monoterpenes, and increased or decreased primary emissions of organic and black carbon aerosols from wildfire, fossil fuel, and biofuel. To quantify the interactions, we define a new sensitivity metric in terms of the response of CCN divided by the response of PM in different regions. .Our results show that the coupled chemistry and aerosol processes cause complex responses that will make any co-benefit policy decision problematic. In particular, we show that reducing SO2 emissions effectively reduces surface-level PM2.5 over continental regions in summer when background PM2.5 is high, with a relatively small reduction in marine CCN (and hence indirect radiative cooling over ocean), which is beneficial for near-term climate. Reducing NOx emissions does not improve summertime air quality very effectively but leads to a relatively high reduction of marine CCN. Reducing NH3 emissions has moderate effects on both PM2.5 and CCN. These three species are strongly coupled chemically and microphysically and the effects of changing emissions of one species on mass and size distributions of aerosols are very complex and spatially and temporally variable. For example, reducing SO2 emissions leads to reductions in sulphate and ammonium mass

  19. Implementation and initial application of new chemistry-aerosol options in WRF/Chem for simulating secondary organic aerosols and aerosol indirect effects for regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Grell, Georg

    2015-08-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play important roles in affecting regional meteorology and air quality through aerosol direct and indirect effects. Two new chemistry-aerosol options have been developed in WRF/Chem v3.4.1 by incorporating the 2005 Carbon Bond (CB05) mechanism and coupling it with the existing aerosol module MADE with SORGAM and VBS modules for simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA), aqueous-phase chemistry in both large scale and convective clouds, and aerosol feedback processes (hereafter CB05-MADE/SORGAM and CB05-MADE/VBS). As part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase II model intercomparison that focuses on online-coupled meteorology and chemistry models, WRF/Chem with the two new options is applied to an area over North America for July 2006 episode. The simulations with both options can reproduce reasonably well most of the observed meteorological variables, chemical concentrations, and aerosol/cloud properties. Compared to CB05-MADE/SORGAM, CB05-MADE/VBS greatly improves the model performance for organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5, reducing NMBs from -81.2% to -13.1% and from -26.1% to -15.6%, respectively. Sensitivity simulations show that the aerosol indirect effects (including aqueous-phase chemistry) can reduce the net surface solar radiation by up to 53 W m-2 with a domainwide mean of 12 W m-2 through affecting cloud formation and radiation scattering and reflection by increasing cloud cover, which in turn reduce the surface temperature, NO2 photolytic rate, and planetary boundary layer height by up to 0.3 °C, 3.7 min-1, and 64 m, respectively. The changes of those meteorological variables further impact the air quality through the complex chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions by reducing O3 mixing ratios by up to 5.0 ppb. The results of this work demonstrate the importance of aerosol indirect effects on the regional climate and air quality. For comparison, the impacts of aerosol direct effects on both

  20. Aerosol Absorption by Black Carbon and Dust: Implications of Climate Change and Air Quality in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the global model GOCART to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources. We show the seasonal and interannual variations of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere over Asia, mainly black carbon and dust. and their linkage to the changes of anthropogenic and dust emissions in the region. We compare our results with observations from satellite and ground-based networks, and estimate the importance of black carbon and dust on regional climate forcing and air quality.

  1. Regional and Global Aspects of Aerosols in Western Africa: From Air Quality to Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Kucsera, Tom; Spinhime, Jim; Palm, Stephen; Holben, Brent; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Western Africa is one of the most important aerosol source regions in the world. Major aerosol sources include dust from the world's largest desert Sahara, biomass burning from the Sahel, pollution aerosols from local sources and long-range transport from Europe, and biogenic sources from vegetation. Because these sources have large seasonal variations, the aerosol composition over the western Africa changes significantly with time. These aerosols exert large influences on local air quality and regional climate. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to analyze satellite lidar data from the GLAS instrument on the ICESat and the sunphotometer data from the ground-based network AERONET taken in both the wet (September - October 2003) and dry (February - March 2004) seasons over western Africa. We will quantify the seasonal variations of aerosol sources and compositions and aerosol spatial (horizontal and vertical) distributions over western Africa. We will also assess the climate impact of western African aerosols. Such studies will be applied to support the international project, Africa Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) and to analyze the AMMA data.

  2. Using global aerosol models and satellite data for air quality studies: Challenges and data needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 pm) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 pm), are one of the key atmospheric components that determines air quality. Yet, air quality forecasts for PM are still in their infancy and remain a challenging task. It is difficult to simply relate PM levels to local meteorological conditions, and large uncertainties exist in regional air quality model emission inventories and initial and boundary conditions. Especially challenging are periods when a significant amount of aerosol comes from outside the regional modeling domain through long-range transport. In the past few years, NASA has launched several satellites with global aerosol measurement capabilities, providing large-scale chemical weather pictures. NASA has also supported development of global models which simulate atmospheric transport and transformation processes of important atmospheric gas and aerosol species. I will present the current modeling and satellite capabilities for PM2.5 studies, the possibilities and challenges in using satellite data for PM2.5 forecasts, and the needs of future remote sensing data for improving air quality monitoring and modeling.

  3. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions,...

  4. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  5. Satellite Characterization of Fire Emissions of Aerosols and Gases Relevant to Air-Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Yue, Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Because of the transient and widespread nature of wildfires and other types of open biomass burning, satellite remote sensing has become an indispensable technique for characterizing their smoke emissions for modeling applications, especially at regional to global scales. Fire radiative energy (FRE), whose instantaneous rate of release or fire radiative power (FRP) is measurable from space, has been found to be proportional to both the biomass consumption and emission of aerosol particulate matter. We have leveraged this relationship to generate a global, gridded smoke-aerosol emission coefficients (Ce) dataset based on FRP and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements from the MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Ce is a simple coefficient to convert FRE to smoke aerosol emissions, in the same manner as traditional emission factors are used to convert burned biomass to emissions. The first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) global gridded Ce product at 1°x1° resolution is available at http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Based on published emission ratios, the FEER.v1 Ce product for total smoke aerosol has also been used to generate similar products for specific fire-emitted aerosols and gases, including those that are regulated as 'criteria pollutants' under the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), such as particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). These gridded Ce products were used in conjunction with satellite measurements of FRP to derive emissions of several smoke constituents, which were applied to WRF-Chem fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model simulations, with promising results. In this presentation, we analyze WRF-Chem simulations of surface-level concentrations of various pollutants based on FEER.v1 emission products to illustrate their value for air-quality modeling, particularly in parts of Africa and southeast Asia where ground-based air-quality

  6. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; de la Rosa, J.; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Chiari, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2013-02-01

    The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hourly Streaker with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) samples collected continuously for six weeks reveal the chemistry of successive waves of natural mineral desert dust ("Kosa") and metalliferous sulphatic pollutants arriving in western Japan during spring 2011. The main aerosol sources recognised by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of Streaker data are mineral dust and fresh sea salt (both mostly in the coarser fraction PM2.5-10), As-bearing sulphatic aerosol (PM0.1-2.5), metalliferous sodic particulate matter (PM) interpreted as aged, industrially contaminated marine aerosol, and ZnCu-bearing aerosols. Whereas mineral dust arrivals are typically highly transient, peaking over a few hours, sulphatic intrusions build up and decline more slowly, and are accompanied by notable rises in ambient concentrations of metallic trace elements such as Pb, As, Zn, Sn and Cd. The magnitude of the loss in regional air quality due to the spread and persistence of pollution from mainland Asia is especially clear when cleansing oceanic air advects westward across Japan, removing the continental influence and reducing concentrations of the undesirable metalliferous pollutants by over 90%. Our new chemical database, especially the Streaker data, demonstrates the rapidly changing complexity of ambient air inhaled during these transboundary events, and implicates Chinese coal combustion as the main source of the anthropogenic aerosol component.

  7. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  8. INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE, MODELED, AND GROUND BASED AEROSOL DATA FOR USE IN AIR QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case studies of severe pollution events due to forest fires/dust storms/industrial haze, from the integrated 2001 aerosol dataset, will be presented within the context of air quality and human health.

  9. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    , air quality warnings by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This talk will provide an overview of VIIRS algorithms, aerosol product validation, and examples of various applications with a discussion on the relevance of product accuracy.

  10. The Influence of Atmospheric Aerosols on Air Quality Status of the Egyptian Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Zakey, A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the combination of natural and anthropogenic sources of emission over the Nile Delta region, the air quality status is very poor and has a significant health hazards impacts on the population. Here we focused on the optical and chemical characterizations of atmospheric aerosols in the Nile Delta using the online integrated Environmental-Climate Aerosols model (EnvClimA) during a 10 year period 2000-2010. Observations from MODIS and SeaWiFS measurements supplemented by CALIPSO and some ground-based data from AERONET, are used to validate the EnvClimA model and to illustrate the aerosol characteristics and their sources. CALIPSO measurements were used to characterize the vertical structure of aerosols and their shapes (spherical and non-spherical) for major dust storms and biomass burning events. In this study we discussed the synoptic patterns and features, which are associated with either the dust storm or high pollution events. We used MODIS derived aerosol parameters to study seasonal changes in aerosol parameters due to the influence of dust storms, anthropogenic pollution and biomass (crop residue) burning. MODIS derived deep blue AOD provided better representation of aerosol loading over north Africa (Sahara region) along with dark-target AOD and related parameters. AERONET data provided aerosol optical depth, angstrom, fine mode fraction, size fraction, volume, effective radius, refractive index, single scattering albedo, and radiative forcing during different seasons dominated by dust storms, anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning (black cloud phenomena). The results indicated that the observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events. Ground-based AERONET data support the "Dark Product" MODIS retrievals, as they typically show a fall peak in the 500 nm region. The number of dust distribution frequencies over Egypt has more frequency in the southeast and northwest of Egypt (5-7.5 days

  11. Updating Sea Spray Aerosol Emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Bash, J. O.; Kelly, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions, include sea surface temperature (SST) dependency, and revise surf zone emissions. Based on evaluation with several regional and national observational datasets in the continental U.S., the updated emissions generally improve surface concentrations predictions of primary aerosols composed of sea-salt and secondary aerosols affected by sea-salt chemistry in coastal and near-coastal sites. Specifically, the updated emissions lead to better predictions of the magnitude and coastal-to-inland gradient of sodium, chloride, and nitrate concentrations at Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) sites near Tampa, FL. Including SST-dependency to the SSA emission parameterization leads to increased sodium concentrations in the southeast U.S. and decreased concentrations along the Pacific coast and northeastern U.S., bringing predictions into closer agreement with observations at most Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sites. Model comparison with California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) observations will also be discussed, with particular focus on the South Coast Air Basin where clean marine air mixes with anthropogenic pollution in a complex environment. These SSA emission updates enable more realistic simulation of chemical processes in coastal environments, both in clean marine air masses and mixtures of clean marine and polluted conditions.

  12. Polarization properties of aerosol particles over western Japan: classification, seasonal variation, and implications for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Osada, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Wang, Zhe; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Zifa

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based observation of the polarization properties of aerosol particles using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) was made from 27 October 2013, to 31 December 2015, at a suburban site in the Kyushu area of Japan. We found that the depolarization ratio (DR, the fraction of s-polarized signal in the total backward light scattering signal) of aerosol particles showed prominent seasonal variability, with peaks in spring (0.21-0.23) and winter (0.19-0.23), and a minimum value (0.09-0.14) in summer. The aerosol compositions in both fine mode (aerodynamic diameter of particle, Dp < 2.5 µm) and coarse mode (2.5 µm < Dp < 10 µm), and the size-dependent polarization characteristics were analyzed for long-range transport dust particles, sea salt, and anthropogenic pollution-dominant aerosols. The DR value increased with increasing particle size, and DR = 0.1 was a reliable threshold value to identify the sphericity of supermicron (Dp > 1 µm) particles. Occurrence of substandard air quality days in Kyushu was closely related with mixed type (coexistence of anthropogenic pollutants and dust particles in the atmosphere), especially in winter and spring, indicating that dust events in the Asian continent played a key role in the cross-boundary transport of continental pollution. Backward trajectory analysis demonstrated that air masses originating from the western Pacific contained large amounts of spherical particles due to the influence of sea salt, especially in summer; however, for air masses from the Asian continent, the dependence of number fraction of spherical particles on air relative humidity was insignificant, indicating the predominance of less-hygroscopic substances (e.g., mineral dust), although the mass concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants were elevated.

  13. Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

    2007-11-26

    We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present

  14. Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego wildfires.

    PubMed

    Zauscher, Melanie D; Wang, Ying; Moore, Meagan J K; Gaston, Cassandra J; Prather, Kimberly A

    2013-07-16

    Intense wildfires burning >360000 acres in San Diego during October, 2007 provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of wildfires on local air quality and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) aging. The size-resolved mixing state of individual particles was measured in real-time with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for 10 days after the fires commenced. Particle concentrations were high county-wide due to the wildfires; 84% of 120-400 nm particles by number were identified as BBA, with particles <400 nm contributing to mass concentrations dangerous to public health, up to 148 μg/m(3). Evidence of potassium salts heterogeneously reacting with inorganic acids was observed with continuous high temporal resolution for the first time. Ten distinct chemical types shown as BBA factors were identified through positive matrix factorization coupled to single particle analysis, including particles comprised of potassium chloride and organic nitrogen during the beginning of the wildfires, ammonium nitrate and amines after an increase of relative humidity, and sulfate dominated when the air mass back trajectories passed through the Los Angeles port region. Understanding BBA aging processes and quantifying the size-resolved mass and number concentrations are important in determining the overall impact of wildfires on air quality, health, and climate.

  15. Comparisons of aerosol optical depth provided by seviri satellite observations and CAMx air quality modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, A.; Riffler, M.; Ferreira, J.; Wunderle, S.; Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite data provide high spatial coverage and characterization of atmospheric components for vertical column. Additionally, the use of air pollution modelling in combination with satellite data opens the challenging perspective to analyse the contribution of different pollution sources and transport processes. The main objective of this work is to study the AOD over Portugal using satellite observations in combination with air pollution modelling. For this purpose, satellite data provided by Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the geostationary Meteosat-9 satellite on AOD at 550 nm and modelling results from the Chemical Transport Model (CAMx - Comprehensive Air quality Model) were analysed. The study period was May 2011 and the aim was to analyse the spatial variations of AOD over Portugal. In this study, a multi-temporal technique to retrieve AOD over land from SEVIRI was used. The proposed method takes advantage of SEVIRI's high temporal resolution of 15 minutes and high spatial resolution. CAMx provides the size distribution of each aerosol constituent among a number of fixed size sections. For post processing, CAMx output species per size bin have been grouped into total particulate sulphate (PSO4), total primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA + SOA), total primary elemental carbon (PEC) and primary inert material per size bin (CRST1 to CRST_4) to be used in AOD quantification. The AOD was calculated by integration of aerosol extinction coefficient (Qext) on the vertical column. The results were analysed in terms of temporal and spatial variations. The analysis points out that the implemented methodology provides a good spatial agreement between modelling results and satellite observation for dust outbreak studied (10th -17th of May 2011). A correlation coefficient of r=0.79 was found between the two datasets. This work provides relevant background to start the integration of these two different types of the data in order

  16. Simulating aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditionsin winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, Y.; Hao, J.

    2015-03-01

    The aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions in January 2013 are simulated using the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the aerosol's radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of -18.9 μg m-3 (-15.0%) averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects) result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 84.0 W m-2, 3.2°C, 0.8 m s-1, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and stabilizing lower atmosphere, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2). Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb (parts per billion) due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature, while the aerosol feedbacks on PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model performance in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River delta, and central China. Although the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks for real-time air quality forecasting under haze conditions.

  17. Effect of Aerosols on Surface Radiation and Air Quality in the Central American Region Estimated Using Satellite UV Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    Solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is reduced by both aerosol scattering and aerosol absorption. Over many parts of the world the latter effect can be as large or larger than the former effect, and small changes in the aerosol single scattering albedo can either cancel the former effect or enhance it. In addition, absorbing aerosols embedded in clouds can greatly reduce the amount of radiation reaching the surface by multiple scattering. Though the potential climatic effects of absorbing aerosols have received considerable attention lately, their effect on surface UV, photosynthesis, and photochemistry can be equally important for our environment and may affect human health and agricultural productivity. Absorption of all aerosols commonly found in the Earth's atmosphere becomes larger in the UV and blue wavelengths and has a relatively strong wavelength dependence. This is particularly true of mineral dust and organic aerosols. However, these effects have been very difficult to estimate on a global basis since the satellite instruments that operate in the visible are primarily sensitive to aerosol scattering. A notable exception is the UV Aerosol Index (AI), first produced using NASA's Nimbus-7 TOMS data. AI provides a direct measure of the effect of aerosol absorption on the backscattered UV radiation in both clear and cloudy conditions, as well as over snow/ice. Although many types of aerosols produce a distinct color cast in the visible images, and aerosols absorption over clouds and snow/ice could, in principle be detected from their color, so far this technique has worked well only in the UV. In this talk we will discuss what we have learned from the long-term record of AI produced from TOMS and Aura/OMI about the possible role of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality in the Central American region.

  18. The Application of TOMS Ozone, Aerosol and UV-B Data to Madagascar Air Quality Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A.C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products for the area of Madagascar are presented. In addition to total ozone, aerosols and UV-B tropospheric ozone results are shown from 1979 to the present. Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods. The potential of TOMS and other space data for use in public education and research on Madagascar air quality is demonstrated.

  19. Langley mobile ozone lidar: ozone and aerosol atmospheric profiling for air quality research.

    PubMed

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Ganoe, Rene; Pliutau, Denis; Gronoff, Guillaume; Berkoff, Timothy; Kuang, Shi

    2017-01-20

    The Langley mobile ozone lidar (LMOL) is a mobile ground-based ozone lidar system that consists of a pulsed UV laser producing two UV wavelengths of 286 and 291 nm with energy of approximately 0.2  mJ/pulse and repetition rate of 1 kHz. The 527 nm pump laser is also transmitted for aerosol measurements. The receiver consists of a 40 cm parabolic telescope, which is used for both backscattered analog and photon counting. The lidar is very compact and highly mobile. This demonstrates the utility of very small lidar systems eventually leading to space-based ozone lidars. The lidar has been validated by numerous ozonesonde launches and has provided ozone curtain profiles from ground to approximately 4 km in support of air quality field missions.

  20. Simulating and Analyzing Long-Term Changes in Emissions, Air Quality, Aerosol Feedback Effects and Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation covers work performed by the authors to characterize changes in emissions over the 1990 – 2010 time period, quantify the effects of these emission changes on air quality and aerosol/radiation feedbacks using both observations and model simulations, and fin...

  1. Evaluating the potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Liu, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, we compare the potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on the air quality of continental regions. We use a global chemical transport model, Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), to quantify the source-receptor relationships of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols among ten regions in 2000. In order to compare the importance of foreign emissions relative to domestic emissions and estimate the effect of future changes in emissions on human exposure, we define an "influence potential" (IP). The IP quantifies the human exposure that occurs in a receptor region as a result of a unit of SO2 emissions from a source region. We find that due to the non-linear nature of sulfate production, regions with low SO2 emissions usually have large domestic IP, and vice versa. An exception is East Asia (EA), which has both high SO2 emissions and relatively large domestic IP, mostly caused by the spatial coincidence of emissions and population. We find that intercontinental IPs are usually less than domestic IPs by 1-3 orders of magnitude. SO2 emissions from the Middle East (ME) and Europe (EU) have the largest potential to influence populations in surrounding regions. By comparing the IP ratios (IPR) between foreign and domestic SO2 emissions, we find that the IPR values range from 0.00001 to 0.16 and change with season. Therefore, if reducing human exposure to sulfate aerosols is the objective, all regions should first focus on reducing domestic SO2 emissions. In addition, we find that relatively high IPR values exist among the EU, ME, the former Soviet Union (FSU) and African (AF) regions. Therefore, based on the IP and IPR values, we conclude that a regional agreement among EA countries, and an inter-regional agreement among EU, ME, FSU and north AF regions to control sulfur emissions would benefit public health in these regions.

  2. Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we compare the potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on the air quality of (different) continental regions. We use a global chemical transport model, Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), to quantify the source receptor relationships of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols among ten regions in 2000. In order to compare the importance of foreign with domestic emissions and to estimate the effect of future changes in emissions on human exposure, we define an 'influence potential' (IP). The IP quantifies the human exposure that occurs in a receptor region as a result of a unit of SO2 emissions from a source region. We find that due to the non-linear nature of sulfate production, regions with low SO2 emissions usually have large domestic IP, and vice versa. An exception is East Asia (EA), which has both high SO2 emissions and relatively large domestic IP, mostly caused by the spatial coincidence of emissions and population. We find that inter-continental IPs are usually less than domestic IPs by 1 3 orders of magnitude. SO2 emissions from the Middle East (ME) and Europe (EU) have the largest potential to influence populations in surrounding regions. By comparing the IP ratios (IPR) between foreign and domestic SO2 emissions, we find that the IPR values range from 0.000 01 to 0.16 and change with season. Therefore, if reducing human exposure to sulfate aerosols is the objective, all regions should first focus on reducing domestic SO2 emissions. In addition, we find that relatively high IPR values exist among the EU, ME, the former Soviet Union (FSU) and African (AF) regions. Therefore, on the basis of the IP and IPR values, we conclude that a regional agreement among EA countries, and an inter-regional agreement among EU, ME, FSU and (north) AF regions to control sulfur emissions could benefit public health in these regions.

  3. Assimilation of next generation geostationary aerosol optical depth retrievals to improve air quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Kim, Jhoon; Song, Chul H.; Choi, Myungje; Cheng, Yafang; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2014-12-01

    Planned geostationary satellites will provide aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at high temporal and spatial resolution which will be incorporated into current assimilation systems that use low-Earth orbiting (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) AOD. The impacts of such additions are explored in a real case scenario using AOD from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on board of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite, a geostationary satellite observing northeast Asia. The addition of GOCI AOD into the assimilation system generated positive impacts, which were found to be substantial in comparison to only assimilating MODIS AOD. We found that GOCI AOD can help significantly to improve surface air quality simulations in Korea for dust, biomass burning smoke, and anthropogenic pollution episodes when the model represents the extent of the pollution episodes and retrievals are not contaminated by clouds. We anticipate future geostationary missions to considerably contribute to air quality forecasting and provide better reanalyses for health assessments and climate studies.

  4. The role of aerosol in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in winter and air-quality feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Gaetani, M.; Messori, G.; Kloster, S.; Dentener, F. J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical model scenarios of future climate depict a global increase in temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, driven by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Aerosol concentrations also play an important role in altering Earth's radiation budget and consequently surface temperature. Here, we use the general circulation aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model, to investigate the impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies in Europe on winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. We analyze the extreme case of a maximum feasible end-of-pipe reduction of aerosols in the near future (2030), in combination with increasing GHG concentrations. Our results show a more positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mean state in the near future, together with a significant eastward shift of the southern centre of action of the sea level pressure (SLP). Moreover, we show a significantly increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. By separating the aerosol and GHG impacts, our study suggests that the aerosol abatement in the near future may be the primary driver of such circulation changes. All these concomitant modifications of the atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector lead to more stagnant weather conditions that favor air pollutant accumulation in the Mediterranean, especially in the western sector. These changes in atmospheric circulation should be included in future air pollution mitigation assessments. Our results suggest that an evaluation of NAO changes in individual climate model simulations will allow an objective assessment of the role of changes in wintertime circulation on future air quality.

  5. Air quality and ventilation fan control based on aerosol measurement in the bi-directional undersea Bømlafjord tunnel.

    PubMed

    Indrehus, Oddny; Aralt, Tor Tybring

    2005-04-01

    Aerosol, NO and CO concentration, temperature, air humidity, air flow and number of running ventilation fans were measured by continuous analysers every minute for a whole week for six different one-week periods spread over ten months in 2001 and 2002 at measuring stations in the 7860 m long tunnel. The ventilation control system was mainly based on aerosol measurements taken by optical scatter sensors. The ventilation turned out to be satisfactory according to Norwegian air quality standards for road tunnels; however, there was some uncertainty concerning the NO2 levels. The air humidity and temperature inside the tunnel were highly influenced by the outside metrological conditions. Statistical models for NO concentration were developed and tested; correlations between predicted and measured NO were 0.81 for a partial least squares regression (PLS1) model based on CO and aerosol, and 0.77 for a linear regression model based only on aerosol. Hence, the ventilation control system should not solely be based on aerosol measurements. Since NO2 is the hazardous polluter, modelling NO2 concentration rather than NO should be preferred in any further optimising of the ventilation control.

  6. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (atmospheric suspensions of solid of liquid materials, i.e., aerosols) continue to be a major concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High particulate matter (PM) concentrations are associated not only with adv...

  7. Impacts of the Denver Cyclone on regional air quality and aerosol formation in the Colorado Front Range during FRAPPÉ 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Kennedy T.; Dingle, Justin H.; Bahreini, Roya; Reddy, Patrick J.; Apel, Eric C.; Campos, Teresa L.; DiGangi, Joshua P.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Fried, Alan; Herndon, Scott C.; Hills, Alan J.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Huey, Greg; Kaser, Lisa; Montzka, Denise D.; Nowak, John B.; Pusede, Sally E.; Richter, Dirk; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Sachse, Glen W.; Shertz, Stephen; Stell, Meghan; Tanner, David; Tyndall, Geoffrey S.; Walega, James; Weibring, Peter; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Pfister, Gabriele; Flocke, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We present airborne measurements made during the 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ) project to investigate the impacts of the Denver Cyclone on regional air quality in the greater Denver area. Data on trace gases, non-refractory submicron aerosol chemical constituents, and aerosol optical extinction (βext) at λ = 632 nm were evaluated in the presence and absence of the surface mesoscale circulation in three distinct study regions of the Front Range: In-Flow, Northern Front Range, and the Denver metropolitan area. Pronounced increases in mass concentrations of organics, nitrate, and sulfate in the Northern Front Range and the Denver metropolitan area were observed during the cyclone episodes (27-28 July) compared to the non-cyclonic days (26 July, 2-3 August). Organic aerosols dominated the mass concentrations on all evaluated days, with a 45 % increase in organics on cyclone days across all three regions, while the increase during the cyclone episode was up to ˜ 80 % over the Denver metropolitan area. In the most aged air masses (NOx / NOy < 0.5), background organic aerosols over the Denver metropolitan area increased by a factor of ˜ 2.5 due to transport from Northern Front Range. Furthermore, enhanced partitioning of nitric acid to the aerosol phase was observed during the cyclone episodes, mainly due to increased abundance of gas phase ammonia. During the non-cyclone events, βext displayed strong correlations (r = 0.71) with organic and nitrate in the Northern Front Range and only with organics (r = 0.70) in the Denver metropolitan area, while correlation of βext during the cyclone was strongest (r = 0.86) with nitrate over Denver. Mass extinction efficiency (MEE) values in the Denver metropolitan area were similar on cyclone and non-cyclone days despite the dominant influence of different aerosol species on βext. Our analysis showed that the meteorological patterns associated with the Denver Cyclone increased aerosol

  8. Impact of secondary inorganic aerosol and road traffic at a suburban air quality monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Megido, L; Negral, L; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Suárez-Peña, B; Marañón, E

    2017-03-15

    PM10 from a suburban site in the northwest of Spain was assessed using data from chemical determinations, meteorological parameters, aerosol maps and five-day back trajectories of air masses. Temporal variations in the chemical composition of PM10 were subsequently related to stationary/mobile local sources and long-range transport stemming from Europe and North Africa. The presence of secondary inorganic species (sulphates, nitrates and ammonium) in airborne particulate matter constituted one of the main focuses of this study. These chemical species formed 16.5% of PM10 on average, in line with other suburban background sites in Europe. However, a maximum of 47.8% of PM10 were recorded after several days under the influence of European air masses. Furthermore, the highest values of these three chemical species coincided with episodes of poor air circulation and influxes of air masses from Europe. The relationship between SO4(2-) and NH4(+) (R(2) = 0.57, p-value<0.01) was found to improve considerably in summer and spring (R(2) = 0.88 and R(2) = 0.87, respectively, p-value<0.01), whereas NO3(-) and NH4(+) (R(2) = 0.55, p-value<0.01) reproduced this pattern in winter (R(2) = 0.91, p-value<0.01). The application of a receptor model to the dataset led to the identification of notable apportionments due to road traffic and other types of combustion processes. In fact, large amounts of particulate matter were released to the atmosphere during episodes of biomass burning in forest fires. On isolated days, combustion was estimated to contribute up to 21.0 μg PM/m(3) (50.8% of PM10). The contribution from industrial processes to this source is also worth highlighting given the presence of Ni and Co in its profile. Furthermore, African dust outbreaks at the sampling site, characterised by an arc through the Atlantic Ocean, were usually associated with a higher concentration of Al2O3 in PM10. Results evidenced the relevance of stationary (i.e., steelworks and

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Aerosols Over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, Northern India: Implications to Air-quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, K.; Sarin, M.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning, vehicular and industrials emissions of atmospheric fine-particulate matter over south and south-east Asia have led to degradation of regional air-quality, poor visibility and possible impact on regional climate change. In addition to airborne particles of primary origin, secondary aerosol formation has been recognized as a dominant process contributing to air pollution and visibility impairment over urban areas. The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is one of the densely populated regions in northern India where PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year. Aerosol chemical composition analysis suggests that carbonaceous (EC, OC) and water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS) contribute ~30-35% and ~15-20% of PM10 mass, respectively during wintertime. The formation of fog and haze, a common phenomenon observed during wintertime in the IGP, is associated with high aerosol loading from anthropogenic emission sources as well as formation of secondary aerosols via gas to particle conversion under favorable meteorological conditions. Our studies indicate that mass concentrations of EC, OC and WSOC show nearly 30% increase during fog and haze events; whereas inorganic constituents (NH4+, NO3 - and SO4 2-) are 2-3 times higher than those during clear days. The sulphur and nitrogen oxidation ratios (SOR and NOR) also exhibit significant increase suggesting possible enhancement of secondary formation of SO42- and NO3- during fog and haze events. The average WSOC/OC ratio is relatively high in the day-time samples (0.66 ± 0.11) compared to that in the night-time (0.47 ± 0.07); suggesting an increased contribution of secondary organic aerosols. This talk will discuss our understanding of optical, microphysical, CCN and cloud activation processes over northern India.

  10. The role of aerosol in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in winter and its impact on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Gaetani, M.; Messori, G.; Kloster, S.; Dentener, F. J.

    2015-02-01

    Numerical model scenarios of future climate depict a global increase in temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, primarily driven by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Aerosol particles also play an important role by altering the Earth's radiation budget and consequently surface temperature. Here, we use the general circulation aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model, to investigate the impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies in Europe on winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. We analyse the extreme case of a maximum feasible end-of-pipe reduction of aerosols in the near future (2030), in combination with increasing GHG concentrations. Our results show a more positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mean state by 2030, together with a significant eastward shift of the southern centre of action of sea-level pressure (SLP). Moreover, we show a significantly increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. By separating the impacts of aerosols and GHGs, our study suggests that future aerosol abatement may be the primary driver of both the eastward shift in the southern SLP centre of action and the increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. These concomitant modifications of the atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector lead to more stagnant weather conditions that favour air pollutant accumulation, especially in the western Mediterranean sector. Changes in atmospheric circulation should therefore be included in future air pollution mitigation assessments. The indicator-based evaluation of atmospheric circulation changes presented in this work will allow an objective first-order assessment of the role of changes in wintertime circulation on future air quality in other climate model simulations.

  11. Multi-generational oxidation model to simulate secondary organic aerosol in a 3-D air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Wexler, A. S.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Multi-generational gas-phase oxidation of organic vapors can influence the abundance, composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Only recently have SOA models been developed that explicitly represent multi-generational SOA formation. In this work, we integrated the statistical oxidation model (SOM) into SAPRC-11 to simulate the multi-generational oxidation and gas/particle partitioning of SOA in the regional UCD/CIT (University of California, Davis/California Institute of Technology) air quality model. In the SOM, evolution of organic vapors by reaction with the hydroxyl radical is defined by (1) the number of oxygen atoms added per reaction, (2) the decrease in volatility upon addition of an oxygen atom and (3) the probability that a given reaction leads to fragmentation of the organic molecule. These SOM parameter values were fit to laboratory smog chamber data for each precursor/compound class. SOM was installed in the UCD/CIT model, which simulated air quality over 2-week periods in the South Coast Air Basin of California and the eastern United States. For the regions and episodes tested, the two-product SOA model and SOM produce similar SOA concentrations but a modestly different SOA chemical composition. Predictions of the oxygen-to-carbon ratio qualitatively agree with those measured globally using aerosol mass spectrometers. Overall, the implementation of the SOM in a 3-D model provides a comprehensive framework to simulate the atmospheric evolution of organic aerosol.

  12. Crop Burning in the North and Northwestern Parts in India and Its Impact on Air Quality and Aerosol Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Crop burning in the North and Northwestern parts of India started sometime in 1986 when the farmers started using mechanized forming. During October-November and April-May crop residues are burnt which is a serious health threat to people living in the areas and also it impacts climate of the northern parts of India including Himalayan region. Detailed analysis of satellite data, MODIS, AIRS and OMI AURA have been carried out to study aerosol and meteorological parameters near the source of biomass burning and also at far region. During crop burning period, pronounced changes in the aerosol and meteorological parameters are observed at different pressure levels. The emissions from the crop burning are spread in the Indo-Gangetic plains from west-east, over the Himalayan region and over the central parts of India depending upon the wind direction and wind speed. The air quality changes anomalously affecting the visibility and aerosol parameters. The emissions from crop burning mixes with the local emissions (vehicular and industrial sources) affecting the trace gas concentrations and aerosol optical parameters as a result dense haze fog and smog are observed during burning period. Long range transport of emissions from crop burning over India and its various climatic and health consequences will be presented.

  13. Aerosol Properties under Air Quality Control Measures of APEC 2014 in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Xu, H.; Lv, Y.; Xie, Y.; Li, K.; Li, Z.; Li, D.; Ma, Y.; Mei, X.

    2015-12-01

    Because the economic and society were developing fast in the middle of last century, Los Angeles and London both were polluted by photochemical smog, which massacred thousands of people. Now, many regions are often covered by heavy haze in those large developing countries, especially in China and India. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was held in Beijing during 5-11 November 2014. Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia reduced air pollution emissions for the APEC 2014 meeting held in Beijing. Only in Hebei province, there were 1028 factories stopped or restricted and 881 construction sites stopped. Half of the cars were prohibited driving even in the Zibo city which is 400 km far from Beijing. For scientific aims, these control measures were indeed a huge and uncommon atmospheric experiment led by the government. During the experiment, what did the "APEC Blue" mean? We analyzed aerosol properties with the data of an AERONET site in Beijing which is located 500m far from the main reception hall of APEC 2014. The Cimel solar photometers can give a series parameters of aerosol and water vapor. In this paper, we used CE318 solar photometer which is the main instrument of NASA AERONET. The CE318 of RADI belongs to the Chinese SONET (Sun-sky radiometer Observation NETwork) too. We analyzed the total, coarse and fine Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine-Mode Fraction (FMF) and Ångström exponent, Size Distribution and Real Refractive Index. In conclusion, the aerosol properties were analysed with the measurements of a sun photometer. During the APEC 2014, AOD decreased obviously with a 0.27 mean value compared with the annual mean 0.7. Around Beijing, the southern is polluted emission area including the cross part of Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan four provinces, and the northern is clean for less fine mode particles emission in the large Inner Mongolia province. In fact, during the APEC 2014, the weather condition was not good for the

  14. Impact of Emissions and Long-Range Transport on Multi-Decadal Aerosol Trends: Implications for Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2012-01-01

    We present a global model analysis of the impact of long-range transport and anthropogenic emissions on the aerosol trends in the major pollution regions in the northern hemisphere and in the Arctic in the past three decades. We will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to analyze the multi-spatial and temporal scale data, including observations from Terra, Aqua, and CALIPSO satellites and from the long-term surface monitoring stations. We will analyze the source attribution (SA) and source-receptor (SR) relationships in North America, Europe, East Asia, South Asia, and the Arctic at the surface and free troposphere and establish the quantitative linkages between emissions from different source regions. We will discuss the implications for regional air quality and climate change.

  15. In-situ measurement of aerosol organic and elemental carbon, Southern California Air Quality Study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turpin, B.J.; Huntzicker, J.J.

    1989-09-09

    An in situ carbon analyzer measured particulate organic and elemental carbon with two hour time resolution during the Southern California Air Quality Study. Organic and elemental carbon concentrations showed strong diurnal variations. Peak concentrations occurred during the daylight hours in the summer and at night in the fall. The maximum concentrations observed in the fall (maximum total carbon = 88 micrograms carbon per cubic meter) were two to three times higher than the summer maxima (maximum total carbon = 36 micrograms carbon per cubic meter). On several summer days the profiles of organic and elemental carbon were quite similar, and good correlations, comparable to those observed during the fall, were observed between organic and elemental carbon, suggesting that the organic aerosol on those days was principally primary. Comparison of the diurnal profile of organic carbon with those of elemental carbon and ozone provided evidence for considerable secondary formation of organic aerosol during three sampling periods.

  16. Multi-generational oxidation model to simulate secondary organic aerosol in a 3-D air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Wexler, A. S.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    Multi-generational gas-phase oxidation of organic vapors can influence the abundance, composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Only recently have SOA models been developed that explicitly represent multi-generational SOA formation. In this work, we integrated the statistical oxidation model (SOM) into SAPRC-11 to simulate the multi-generational oxidation and gas/particle partitioning of SOA in the regional UCD/CIT air quality model. In SOM, evolution of organic vapors by reaction with the hydroxyl radical is defined by (1) the number of oxygen atoms added per reaction, (2) the decrease in volatility upon addition of an oxygen atom and (3) the probability that a given reaction leads to fragmentation of the organic molecule. These SOM parameter values were fit to laboratory "smog chamber" data for each precursor/compound class. The UCD/CIT model was used to simulate air quality over two-week periods in the South Coast Air Basin of California and the eastern United States. For the regions and episodes tested, the traditional two-product SOA model and SOM produce similar SOA concentrations but a modestly different SOA chemical composition. Predictions of the oxygen-to-carbon ratio qualitatively agree with those measured globally using aerosol mass spectrometers. Overall, the implementation of the SOM in a 3-D model provides a comprehensive framework to simulate the atmospheric evolution of OA.

  17. Continued development and testing of a new thermodynamic aerosol module for urban and regional air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Pandis, Spyros N.; Pilinis, Christodoulos

    A computationally efficient and rigorous thermodynamic model (ISORROPIA) that predicts the physical state and composition of inorganic atmospheric aerosol is presented. The advantages of this particular model render it suitable for incorporation into urban and regional air quality models. The model is embodied into the UAM-AERO air quality model, and the performance is compared with two other thermodynamic modules currently in use, SEQUILIB 1.5 and SEQUILIB 2.1. The new model yields predictions that agree with experimental measurements and the results of the other models, but at the same time proves to be much faster and computationally efficient. Using ISORROPIA accelerates the thermodynamic calculations by more than a factor of six, while the overall speed-up of UAM-AERO is at least twofold. This speedup is possible by the optimal solution of the thermodynamic equations, and the usage of precalculated tables, whenever possible.

  18. Aerosol Health Impact Source Attribution Studies with the CMAQ Adjoint Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. D.

    , reductions in emissions from large industrial combustion sources that are not classified as EGUs (i.e., non-EGU) are estimated to have up to triple the benefits per unit emission of reductions to onroad diesel sectors, and provide similar benefits per unit of reduced emission to that of onroad gasoline emissions in the region. While a majority of vehicle emission controls that regulate PM focus on diesel emissions, our analysis shows the most efficient target for stricter controls is actually onroad gasoline emissions. From an analysis of the health impacts of BC emissions on specific demographic populations, we find that emissions in the southern half of the US tend to disproportionally affect persons with a below high school education and persons below 50% of the poverty level. Analysis of national risk (independent of population and mortality rates) shows that the largest risks are associated with drier climates, due to the increased atmospheric lifetime resulting from less wet removal of aerosols. Lastly, analysis of the impacts of BC emissions on maximum individual risk shows that contributions to maximum individual risk are weakly to strongly correlated with emissions (R2 ranging from 0.23 in the San Joaquin Valley to 0.93 in the Dallas region). Overall, this thesis shows the value of high-resolution, adjoint-based source attribution studies for determining the locations, seasons, and sectors that have the greatest estimated impact on human health in air quality models.

  19. Changes in future air quality, deposition, and aerosol-cloud interactions under future climate and emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang; Karamchandani, Prakash; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    The prospect of global climate change will have wide scale impacts, such as ecological stress and human health hazards. One aspect of concern is future changes in air quality that will result from changes in both meteorological forcing and air pollutant emissions. In this study, the GU-WRF/Chem model is employed to simulate the impact of changing climate and emissions following the IPCC AR4 SRES A1B scenario. An average of 4 future years (2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050) is compared against an average of 2 current years (2001 and 2010). Under this scenario, by the Mid-21st century global air quality is projected to degrade with a global average increase of 2.5 ppb in the maximum 8-hr O3 level and of 0.3 μg m-3 in 24-hr average PM2.5. However, PM2.5 changes are more regional due to regional variations in primary aerosol emissions and emissions of gaseous precursor for secondary PM2.5. Increasing NOx emissions in this scenario combines with a wetter climate elevating levels of OH, HO2, H2O2, and the nitrate radical and increasing the atmosphere's near surface oxidation state. This differs from findings under the RCP scenarios that experience declines in OH from reduced NOx emissions, stratospheric recovery of O3, and increases in CH4 and VOCs. Increasing NOx and O3 levels enhances the nitrogen and O3 deposition, indicating potentially enhanced crop damage and ecosystem stress under this scenario. The enhanced global aerosol level results in enhancements in aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud optical thickness. This leads to dimming at the Earth's surface with a global average reduction in shortwave radiation of 1.2 W m-2. This enhanced dimming leads to a more moderate warming trend and different trends in radiation than those found in NCAR's CCSM simulation, which does not include the advanced chemistry and aerosol treatment of GU-WRF/Chem and cannot simulate the impacts of changing climate and emissions with the same level of detailed

  20. Changes in future air quality, deposition, and aerosol-cloud interactions under future climate and emission scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang; Karamchandani, Prakash; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    The prospect of global climate change will have wide scale impacts, such as ecological stress and human health hazards. One aspect of concern is future changes in air quality that will result from changes in both meteorological forcing and air pollutant emissions. In this study, the GU-WRF/Chem model is employed to simulate the impact of changing climate and emissions following the IPCC AR4 SRES A1B scenario. An average of 4 future years (2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050) is compared against an average of 2 current years (2001 and 2010). Under this scenario, by the Mid-21st century global air quality is projected to degrade with a global average increase of 2.5 ppb in the maximum 8-hr O3 level and of 0.3 mg m3 in 24-hr average PM2.5. However, PM2.5 changes are more regional due to regional variations in primary aerosol emissions and emissions of gaseous precursor for secondary PM2.5. Increasing NOx emissions in this scenario combines with a wetter climate elevating levels of OH, HO2, H2O2, and the nitrate radical and increasing the atmosphere’s near surface oxidation state. This differs from findings under the RCP scenarios that experience declines in OH from reduced NOx emissions, stratospheric recovery of O3, and increases in CH4 and VOCs. Increasing NOx and O3 levels enhances the nitrogen and O3 deposition, indicating potentially enhanced crop damage and ecosystem stress under this scenario. The enhanced global aerosol level results in enhancements in aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud optical thickness. This leads to dimming at the Earth’s surface with a global average reduction in shortwave radiation of 1.2 W m2 . This enhanced dimming leads to a more moderate warming trend and different trends in radiation than those found in NCAR’s CCSM simulation, which does not include the advanced chemistry and aerosol

  1. The potential of LIRIC to validate the vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration estimated by an air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomos, Nikolaos; Filoglou, Maria; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Dimopoulos, Spyros; Melas, Dimitris; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Balis, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by a retrieval algorithm that uses combined sunphotometer and LIDAR data (LIRIC) were used in order to validate the mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. LIDAR and CIMEL measurements of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki were used for this validation.The aerosol mass concentration profiles of the fine and coarse mode derived by CAMx were compared with the respective profiles derived by the retrieval algorithm. For the coarse mode particles, forecasts of the Saharan dust transportation model BSC-DREAM8bV2 were also taken into account. Each of the retrieval algorithm's profiles were matched to the models' profile with the best agreement within a time window of four hours before and after the central measurement. OPAC, a software than can provide optical properties of aerosol mixtures, was also employed in order to calculate the angstrom exponent and the lidar ratio values for 355nm and 532nm for each of the model's profiles aiming in a comparison with the angstrom exponent and the lidar ratio values derived by the retrieval algorithm for each measurement. The comparisons between the fine mode aerosol concentration profiles resulted in a good agreement between CAMx and the retrieval algorithm, with the vertical mean bias error never exceeding 7 μgr/m3. Concerning the aerosol coarse mode concentration profiles both CAMx and BSC-DREAM8bV2 values are severely underestimated, although, in cases of Saharan dust transportation events there is an agreement between the profiles of BSC-DREAM8bV2 model and the retrieval algorithm.

  2. A PILOT STUDY FOR NEAR REAL-TIME AEROSOL MODELING AND AIR QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objectives of this study are to implement, operate, and evaluate an automated, numerical, model-based air quality forecast system to provide daily predictions of O3 and PM2.5 and to assess the integrated use of modeled and observed concentrations to better ...

  3. Integration of Satellite, Modeled, and Ground Based Aerosol Data for use in Air Quality and Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Kondragunta, S.; Holland, D.; Dimmick, F.; Boothe, V.; Szykman, J.; Chu, A.; Kittaka, C.; Al-Saadi, J.; Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Wayland, R.; Rao, S.; Remer, L.

    2006-05-01

    Advancements in remote sensing over the past decade have been recognized by governments around the world and led to the development of the international Global Earth Observation System of Systems 10-Year Implementation Plan. The plan for the U.S. contribution to GEOSS has been put forth in The Strategic Plan for the U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS) developed under IWGEO-CENR. The approach for the development of the U.S. IEOS is to focus on specific societal benefits that can be achieved by integrating the nation's Earth observation capabilities. One such challenge is our ability to understand the impact of poor air quality on human health and well being. Historically, the air monitoring networks put in place for the Nations air quality programs provided the only aerosol air quality data on an ongoing and systematic basis at national levels. However, scientific advances in the remote sensing of aerosols from space have improved dramatically. The MODIS sensor and GOES Imager aboard NASA and NOAA satellites, respectively, provide synoptic-scale measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) which have been demonstrated to correlate with high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 at the surface. The MODIS sensor has been shown to be capable of a 1 km x 1 km (at nadir) AOD product, while the GOES Imager can provide AOD at 4 km x 4 km every 30 minutes. Within the next several years NOAA and EPA will begin to issue PM2.5 air quality forecasts over the entire domain of the eastern United States, eventually extending to national coverage. These forecasts will provide continuous estimated values of PM2.5 on a daily basis. A multi-agency collaborative project among government and academia is underway to improve the spatial prediction of fine particulate matter through the integration of multi-sensor and multi-platform aerosol observations (MODIS and GOES), numerical model output, and air monitoring data. By giving more weight to monitoring data in monitored areas and relying

  4. The Potential of The Synergy of Sunphotometer and Lidar Data to Validate Vertical Profiles of The Aerosol Mass Concentration Estimated by An Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomos, N.; Filioglou, M.; Poupkou, A.; Liora, N.; Dimopoulos, S.; Melas, D.; Chaikovsky, A.; Balis, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC), that uses combined sunphotometer and lidar data, were used in order to validate the aerosol mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. Lidar and CIMEL measurements performed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5N, 22.9E) from the period 2013-2014 were used in this study.

  5. High Resolution Aerosol Data from MODIS Satellite for Urban Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Tang, C.; Schwartz, J.; Koutrakis, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not suitable for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM(sub 2.5) as measured by the 27 EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated. These results were also compared to conventional MODIS 10 km AOD retrievals (MOD04) for the same days and locations. The coefficients of determination for MOD04 and for MAIAC are R(exp 2) =0.45 and 0.50 respectively, suggested that AOD is a reasonably good proxy for PM(sub 2.5) ground concentrations. Finally, we studied the relationship between PM(sub 2.5) and AOD at the intra-urban scale (10 km) in Boston. The fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 kilometer scale. A local analysis for the Boston area showed that the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship does not depend on relative humidity and air temperatures below approximately 7 C. The correlation improves for temperatures above 7 - 16 C. We found no dependence on the boundary layer height except when the former was in the range 250-500 m. Finally, we apply a mixed effects model approach to MAIAC aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from MODIS to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the greater Boston area. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations (out-of-sample R(exp 2) of 0.86). Therefore, adjustment

  6. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A NEW THERMODYNAMIC AEROSOL MODULE FOR URBAN AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELS. (R824793)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computationally efficient and rigorous thermodynamic model (ISORROPIA) that predicts the physical state and composition of inorganic atmospheric aerosol is presented. The advantages of this particular model render it suitable for incorporation into urban and regional air qualit...

  7. Characterization of indoor aerosol temporal variations for the real-time management of indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuzas, Darius; Prasauskas, Tadas; Krugly, Edvinas; Sidaraviciute, Ruta; Jurelionis, Andrius; Seduikyte, Lina; Kauneliene, Violeta; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2015-10-01

    The study presents the characterization of dynamic patterns of indoor particulate matter (PM) during various pollution episodes for real-time IAQ management. The variation of PM concentrations was assessed for 20 indoor activities, including cooking related sources, other thermal sources, personal care and household products. The pollution episodes were modelled in full-scale test chamber representing a standard usual living room with the forced ventilation of 0.5 h-1. In most of the pollution episodes, the maximum concentration of particles in exhaust air was reached within a few minutes. The most rapid increase in particle concentration was during thermal source episodes such as candle, cigarette, incense stick burning and cooking related sources, while the slowest decay of concentrations was associated with sources, emitting ultrafine particle precursors, such as furniture polisher spraying, floor wet mopping with detergent etc. Placement of the particle sensors in the ventilation exhaust vs. in the centre of the ceiling yielded comparable results for both measured maximum concentrations and temporal variations, indicating that both locations were suitable for the placement of sensors for the management of IAQ. The obtained data provides information that may be utilized considering measurements of aerosol particles as indicators for the real-time management of IAQ.

  8. MODELING THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL WITHIN A COMPREHENSIVE AIR QUALITY MODEL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerosol component of the CMAQ model is designed to be an efficient and economical depiction of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdistributions, called modes. The proces...

  9. Aerosol Optical Depth over Europe: Evaluation of the CALIOPE air quality modelling system with direct-sun AERONET observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Pay, María. Teresa; Pérez, Carlos; Cuevas, Emilio; Jorba, Oriol; Piot, Matthias; María Baldasano, Jose

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008), the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS) currently operates a high-resolution air quality forecasting system based on daily photochemical forecasts in Europe (12km x 12km resolution) with the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modelling system (http://www.bsc.es/caliope) and desert dust forecasts over Southern Europe with BSC-DREAM8b (Pérez et al., 2006; http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM). High resolution simulations and forecasts are possible through their implementation on MareNostrum supercomputer at BSC-CNS. As shown in previous air quality studies (e.g. Rodríguez et al., 2001; Jiménez-Guerrero et al., 2008), the contribution of desert dust on particulate matter levels in Southern Europe is remarkable due to its proximity to African desert dust sources. When considering only anthropogenic emissions (Baldasano et al., 2008) and the current knowledge about aerosol physics and chemistry, chemistry-transport model simulations underestimate the PM10 concentrations by 30-50%. As a first approach, the natural dust contribution from BSC-DREAM8b is on-line added to the anthropogenic aerosol output of CMAQ. The aim of the present work is the quantitative evaluation of the WRF-ARW/HERMES/ CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b forecast system to simulate the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Europe. The performance of the modelled AOD has been quantitatively evaluated with discrete and categorical (skill scores) statistics by a comparison to direct-sun AERONET observations for 2004. The contribution of different types of aerosols will be analyzed by means of the O'Neill fine mode AOD products (O'Neill et al., 2001). A previous aerosol characterization of AERONET data was performed (Basart et al., 2009) in order to discriminate the different aerosol source contributions within the study region. The results indicate a remarkable improvement in the discrete and skill-scores evaluation (accuracy, critical success index and

  10. Improving Aerosol Simulation over South Asia for Climate and Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Chin, Mian; Bian, Huisheng; Gautam, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution over South Asia attracts special attention due to its effects on regional climate, the water cycle, and human health. These effects are potentially growing owing to rising trends of anthropogenic aerosol emissions found there. However, it has been proved quite challenging to adequately represent the aerosol spatial distribution and magnitude over this critical region in global models (Pan et al. 2014), with the surface concentrations, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and absorbing AOD (AAOD) significantly underestimated, especially in October-January when the agricultural waste burning and anthropogenic aerosol dominate over dust aerosol. In this study, we aim to investigate the causes for such discrepancy in winter by conducting sets of model experiments with NASA's GEOS-5 in terms of (1) spatial resolution, (2) emission amount, and (3) meteorological fields.

  11. Air ions and aerosol science

    SciTech Connect

    Tammet, H.

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. The BOND project: Biogenic aerosols and air quality in Athens and Marseille greater areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulou, R. E. P.; Tagaris, E.; Pilinis, C.; Andronopoulos, S.; Sfetsos, A.; Bartzis, J. G.

    2004-03-01

    The role of Secondary Biogenic Organic Aerosol in aerosol budget is examined using the Atmospheric Dispersion of Pollutants over Complex Terrain-Urban Airshed Model-Aerosols (ADREA-I/UAM-AERO) modeling system in two representative Mediterranean areas. The areas have been selected, because of their elevated biogenic emission levels and the sufficient degree of meteorological and land use diversity characterizing the locations. Comparison of the model results with and without biogenic emissions reveals the significant role biogenic emissions play in modulating ozone and aerosol concentrations. Biogenic emissions are predicted to affect the concentrations of organic aerosol constituents through the reactions of terpenes with O3, OH and NO3. The ozonolysis of terpenes is predicted to cause an increase in OH radical concentrations that ranges from 10% to 78% for Athens, and from 20% to 95% for Marseilles, depending on the location, compared to the predictions without biogenic emissions. The reactions of this extra hydroxyl radical with SO2 and NOx have as final products increased concentrations of sulfates and nitrates in the particulate phase. As a result, biogenic emissions are predicted to affect the concentrations not only of organic aerosols, but those of inorganic aerosols as well. Thus biogenic emissions should be taken into consideration when models for the prediction and enforcement of abatement strategies of atmospheric pollution are applied.

  13. Colorado air quality impacted by long-range-transported aerosol: a set of case studies during the 2015 Pacific Northwest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, Jessie M.; Neiman, Paul J.; Coleman, Timothy; Senff, Christoph J.; Kirgis, Guillaume; Alvarez, Raul J.; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Biomass burning plumes containing aerosols from forest fires can be transported long distances, which can ultimately impact climate and air quality in regions far from the source. Interestingly, these fires can inject aerosols other than smoke into the atmosphere, which very few studies have evidenced. Here, we demonstrate a set of case studies of long-range transport of mineral dust aerosols in addition to smoke from numerous fires (including predominantly forest fires and a few grass/shrub fires) in the Pacific Northwest to Colorado, US. These aerosols were detected in Boulder, Colorado, along the Front Range using beta-ray attenuation and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and corroborated with satellite-borne lidar observations of smoke and dust. Further, we examined the transport pathways of these aerosols using air mass trajectory analysis and regional- and synoptic-scale meteorological dynamics. Three separate events with poor air quality and increased mass concentrations of metals from biomass burning (S and K) and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ti) occurred due to the introduction of smoke and dust from regional- and synoptic-scale winds. Cleaner time periods with good air quality and lesser concentrations of biomass burning and mineral metals between the haze events were due to the advection of smoke and dust away from the region. Dust and smoke present in biomass burning haze can have diverse impacts on visibility, health, cloud formation, and surface radiation. Thus, it is important to understand how aerosol populations can be influenced by long-range-transported aerosols, particularly those emitted from large source contributors such as wildfires.

  14. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; de la Campa Sánchez, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pío, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; Dos Santos García, S.; Patier Fernández, R.

    2013-03-01

    standards have been much less effective for the abatement of NOx exhaust emissions in passenger diesel cars. This study concludes that EC, EBC, and especially nmC and OC+EC are very good candidates for new air quality standards since they cover both emission impact and health related issues.

  15. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pio, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández Patier, R.

    2013-07-01

    NO2 / (OC + EC) ratios as these standards have been much less effective for the abatement of NOx exhaust emissions in passenger diesel cars. This study concludes that EC, EBC, and especially nmC and OC + EC are very good candidates for new air quality standards since they cover both emission impact and health-related issues.

  16. Size-Segregated Aerosol Composition and Mass Loading of Atmospheric Particles as Part of the Pacific Northwest 2001(PNW2001) Air Quality Study In Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Barrie, L. A.; Shutthanadan, S.; Cliff, S.; Cahill, T.

    2001-12-01

    In mid-August, 2001, an aircraft-based air-quality study was performed in the Puget Sound, WA, area entitled PNW2001 (http://www.pnl.gov/pnw2001). The objectives of this field campaign were the following: 1. reveal information about the 3-dimensional distribution of ozone, its gaseous precursors and fine particulate matter during weather conditions favoring air pollution; 2. derive information about the accuracy of urban and biogenic emissions inventories that are used to drive the air quality forecast models; and 3. examine the accuracy of modeled ozone concentration with that observed. In support of these efforts, we collected time-averaged ( { ~}10 minute averages), size-segregated, aerosol composition and mass-loading information using ex post facto analysis techniques of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (s-XRF), proton induced x-ray emissions(PIXE), proton elastic scattering (PESA), and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). This is the first time these analysis techniques have been used together on samples collected from aircraft using an optimized 3-stage rotating drum impactor. In our presentation, we will discuss the aerosol components in three aerosol size fractions as identified by statistical analysis of multielemental data (including total mass, H, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb) and relate variations in these components to physical aerosol properties, other gaseous trace constituents and to air mass origin.

  17. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  18. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  19. Variations in optical properties of aerosols on monsoon seasonal change and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) against the Angstrom exponent. A modified algorithm based on the prototype model of Tan et al. (2014a) was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET because of frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on the coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests. The predicted AOD in the proposed model yielded a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.68. The corresponding percent mean relative error was less than 0.33% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Validation tests were performed on the model against selected LIDAR data and yielded good correspondence. The predicted AOD can beneficially monitor short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information in atmospheric corrections.

  20. Monsoonal variations in aerosol optical properties and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining continuous aerosol-optical-depth (AOD) measurements is a difficult task due to the cloud-cover problem. With the main motivation of overcoming this problem, an AOD-predicting model is proposed. In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the Ångström exponent against the AOD. A new empirical algorithm was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET due to frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The calibrated model coefficients have a coefficient of determination, R2, of 0.72. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on these calibrated coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests, yielding a R2 of 0.68 as validation accuracy. The error in weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE) was less than 0.40% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Performance of our model was compared against selected LIDAR data to yield good correspondence. The predicted AOD can enhance measured short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information for climatological studies and monitoring aerosol variation.

  1. REMOTE SENSING MEASUREMENTS OF AEROSOL OPTICAL THICKNESS AND CORRELATION WITH IN-SITU AIR QUALITY PARAMETERS DURING A SMOKE HAZE EPISODE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, B.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Liew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Transboundary smoke haze due to biomass burning is a major environmental problem in Southeast Asia which has not only affected air quality in the source region, but also in the surrounding countries. Air quality monitoring stations and meteorological stations can provide valuable information on the concentrations of criteria pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone and particulate mass (PM10) as well as health advisory to the general public during the haze episodes. Characteristics of aerosol particles in the smoke haze such as the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), aerosol size distribution and Angstrom exponent are also measured or retrieved by sun-tracking photometers, such as those deployed in the world-wide AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). However, due to the limited spatial coverage by the air quality monitoring stations and AERONET sites, it is difficult to study and monitor the spatial and temporal variability of the smoke haze during a biomass burning episode, especially in areas without ground-based instrumentation. As such, we combine the standard in-situ measurements of PM10 by air quality monitoring stations with the remote sensing imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The columnar AOT is first derived from the MODIS images for regions where PM10 measurements are available. Empirical correlations between AOT and PM10 measurements are then established for 50 sites in both Malaysia and Singapore during the smoke haze episode in 2006. When available, vertical feature information from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is used to examine the validity of the correlations. Aloft transport of aerosols, which can weaken the correlations between AOT and PM10 measurements, is also identified by CALIPSO and taken into consideration for the analysis. With this integrated approach, we hope to enhance and

  2. Simulation of Regional-scale Nucleation Events and Prediction of Aerosol Number Concentration in a Regional Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J.; Adams, P.; Pandis, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nanoparticles can perturb Earth's climate by growing to cloud condensation nuclei sizes and also may be harmful to human health. Accurate simulation of the nucleation, growth, and removal of multicomponent nanoparticles demands enormous computational resources. Most regional-scale three-dimensional chemical transport models do not include nanoparticles and do not conserve number concentrations. A major challenge associated with the simulation of nucleation events is the uncertainty regarding the controlling nucleation mechanism under typical atmospheric conditions. Previous work indicates that nucleation events in the Pittsburgh area are well predicted using ternary (H2O-H2SO4-NH3) nucleation theory, which was successful in predicting on which days nucleation events occurred during summer and winter, as well as the beginning and end of the events. To predict the composition and growth of nanoparticles, we have developed a computationally efficient new approach based on the Two-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics module. This model simulates inorganic and organic components of the nanoparticles describing both the number and the mass distribution of the particulate matter from approximately 1 nm to 10 micrometers. The model explains why nanoparticles were observed to be acidic during nucleation events that appear to involve ammonia. The simulation suggests that nanoparticles produced by ternary nucleation can be acidic due to depletion of ammonia vapor during the growth of the particles out of the nucleation sizes. The low CPU time requirements of the model using TOMAS make it suitable for incorporation in three- dimensional chemical transport models. The nucleation/coagulation/growth model has been added to the PMCAMx regional air quality model and is used for the investigation of nucleation events in the Eastern U.S. We can estimate number budget in the Eastern U.S. and predict frequency/size of nucleation events.

  3. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  4. Global air quality and climate.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  5. WRF-Chem Simulation of Air Quality in China: Sensitivity Analyses of PM Concentrations to Emissions, Atmospheric Transport, and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, M.; Saikawa, E.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Takigawa, M.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate air quality in China in April 2007, using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry version 3.5 (WRF-Chem) at a spatial resolution of 20km × 20km with 31 vertical levels. The model domain covers the entire East Asian region with 399 × 299 grid cells. The initial and lateral chemical boundary conditions are taken from a present-day simulation of the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global chemistry-climate model AM3. The Regional Acid Deposition version 2 (RADM2) atmospheric chemical mechanism is used for gas-phase chemistry and the Model Aerosol Dynamics for Europe with the Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM) and aqueous chemistry is used for aerosol chemistry. The emissions of gaseous pollutants (CO, NOx, NH3, VOCs, and SO2) and particulate matter (BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10) are taken from the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2. Dust and sea salt emissions are simulated online, where dust parameters are optimized using observed particular matter (PM10) concentrations in 73 cities in China. We add gravitational settlement for dust and sea salt in vertical levels. The preliminary results show that the model predicts PM10 reasonably well compared to the ground measurement data. The bias in modeled PM10 concentrations in South and Northwest­­­­­­­ China is less than 10%. We will present results of sensitivity analyses that assess the impact of emissions, atmospheric transport, and secondary organic aerosol formation on PM concentrations.

  6. Modeling ozone and aerosol formation and transport in the pacific northwest with the community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K; Chen, Jack; Claiborn, Candis; Finn, Dennis; Otterson, Sally; Figueroa, Cristiana; Bowman, Clint; Boyer, Mike; Wilson, Rob; Arnold, Jeff; Aalbers, Steven; Stocum, Jeffrey; Swab, Christopher; Stoll, Matt; Dubois, Mike; Anderson, Mary

    2006-02-15

    The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system was used to investigate ozone and aerosol concentrations in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) during hot summertime conditions during July 1-15, 1996. Two emission inventories (El) were developed: emissions for the first El were based upon the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96) database and the BEIS2 biogenic emission model, and emissions for the second El were developed through a "bottom up" approach that included biogenic emissions obtained from the GLOBEIS model. The two simulations showed that elevated PM2.5 concentrations occurred near and downwind of the Interstate-5 corridor along the foothills of the Cascade Mountains and in forested areas of central Idaho. The relative contributions of organic and inorganic aerosols varied by region, but generally organic aerosols constituted the largest fraction of PM2.5. In wilderness areas near the 1-5 corridor, organic carbon from anthropogenic sources contributed approximately 50% of the total organic carbon with the remainder from biogenic precursors, while in wilderness areas in Idaho, biogenic organic carbon accounted for 80% of the total organic aerosol. Regional analysis of the secondary organic aerosol formation in the Columbia River Gorge, Central Idaho, and the Olympics/Puget Sound showed that the production rate of secondary organic carbon depends on local terpene concentrations and the local oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, which was strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions. Comparison with observations from 12 IMPROVE sites and 21 ozone monitoring sites showed that results from the two El simulations generally bracketed the average observed PM parameters and that errors calculated for the model results were within acceptable bounds. Analysis across all statistical parameters indicated that the NW-AIRQUEST El solution performed better at predicting PM2.5, PM1, and beta(ext) even though organic carbon PM was over-predicted, and the NET96 El

  7. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 was promulgated after thousands of lives were lost in four catastrophic air pollution events. It authorized the establishment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards or (NAAQS) for six pollutants that are harmful to human health and welfare: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, ozone and sulfur dioxide. The Clean Air Act also led to the establishment of the United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to set and enforce regulations. The first paper in this dissertation studies ozone in the Lake Michigan region (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Jacko, R., Hillery, J., 2011. Lake Michigan air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP). Atmospheric Environment 45, 3192-3202.) The Chicago-Milwaukee-Gary metropolitan area has been unable to meet the ozone NAAQS since the Clean Air Act was implemented. The Lake Michigan Air Directors' Consortium (LADCO) hypothesized that land breezes transport ozone precursor compounds over the lake, where a large air/water temperature difference creates a shallow conduction layer, which is an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. In the afternoon, lake breezes and prevailing synoptic winds then transport ozone back over the land. To further evaluate this hypothesis, LADCO sponsored the 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP) to measure the air quality over Lake Michigan and the surrounding areas. This study has found that the LAP data supports this hypothesis of ozone formation, which has strong implications for ozone control strategies in the Lake Michigan region. The second paper is this dissertation (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Wolf, A.M.A., 2012. Ambient PM10 and metal concentrations measured in the Sunnyside Unified School District, Tucson, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 43, 67-76) evaluated the airborne concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less) and eight metalloids and metals

  8. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  9. A TEST OF THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS AND 3-D AIR QUALITY MODELS FOR PREDICTIONS OF AEROSOL NO3-

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inorganic species of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium constitute a major fraction of atmospheric aerosols. The behavior of nitrate is one of the most intriguing aspects of inorganic atmospheric aerosols because particulate nitrate concentrations depend not only on the amount of ...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  11. Impacts of the Denver Cyclone on Regional Air Quality and Aerosol Formation in the Colorado Front Range during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, K. K. T.; Dingle, J. H.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Colorado Front Range continues to face challenges related to air quality, specifically ozone, and has been classified as a marginal non-attainment area by the U.S EPA. The highly complex topography and meteorology in the Colorado Front Range provide flow patterns that are driven by mountain-valley circulation, resulting in formation of the Denver Cyclone, strongly influencing concentrations of ozone and aerosol particles. However, the impact of the Denver Cyclone on aerosol formation has not been previously explored. In this study, airborne measurements were made during July 16 - August 18, 2014 aboard the NSF C-130 aircraft during the 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) project. We carried out fast time resolved measurements of ambient aerosol chemical constituents (organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride) of non-refractory sub-micrometer particles using an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (mAMS). Pronounced increased mass concentrations of organics, nitrate, and sulfate in two distinct regions in the Front Range were observed during the cyclone episodes, in contrast to the non-cyclonic days. Organics dominated the mass concentrations on all days evaluated. The average mass concentration of organics during a cyclone event was 5.79 ± 1.48 μg·m-3 and were lower during the two non-cyclonic measurement days, 3.09 ± 1.18 μg·m-3. Average sulfate mass concentrations were 1.25 ± 0.41 μg·m-3 vs. 0.58 ± 0.20 μg·m-3 followed by nitrate with an average of 1.66 ± 0.92 μg·m-3 vs. 0.32 ± 0.41 μg·m-3 on cyclone vs. non-cyclonic days, respectively. Correlations between trace gas markers (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, ammonia, and ethane), meteorological variables (relative humidity, temperature), and the extent of aerosol aging are evaluated and used to assess the Front Range aerosol formation and air quality impacts in the region during these events.

  12. Semicontinuous measurements of organic carbon and acidity during the Pittsburgh air quality study: implications for acid-catalyzed organic aerosol formation

    SciTech Connect

    S. Takahama; C.I. Davidson; S.N. Pandis

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that inorganic acid seed particles may increase secondary organic aerosol yields secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through heterogeneous chemistry. Additional laboratory studies, however, report that organic acidity generated in the same photochemical process by which SOA is formed may be sufficient to catalyze these heterogeneous reactions. Understanding the interaction between inorganic acidity and SOA mass is important when evaluating emission controls to meet PM2.5 regulations. Semicontinuous measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and inorganic species from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study were examined to determine if coupling in the variations of inorganic acidity and OC could be detected. Significant enhancements of SOA production could not be detected due to inorganic acidity in Western Pennsylvania most of the time, but its signal might have been lost in the noise. If a causal relationship between inorganic acidity and OC is assumed, reductions in OC for Western Pennsylvania that might result from drastic reductions in inorganic acidity were estimated to be 2 {+-} 4% by a regression technique, and an upper bound for this geographic area was estimated to be 5 {+-} 8% based on calculations from laboratory measurements. 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Concentrations and changes of chemical elements in aerosol particulate matter as indicators of air quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushdi, A. I.; Al-Mutlaq, K. F.; Simoneit, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    : Samples of air particulate matter (PM) were collected for the determination of chemical elements from June 2006 to May 2007. PM samples were taken in two size modes (PM2.5 and PM10) using MiniVolume air samplers on rooftops of various buildings (15-25 m above ground) in the city of Riyadh. The samples were subjected to XRF analysis to determine both major (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Si, P, S and Fe) and trace elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba). The results show that the concentrations of both were higher in PM10 compared to PM2.5 indicating that the major source of the atmospheric PM was local dust. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of high concentrations of PM was in the south and southeast of the city and the lowest was found in the center and north eastern part of the city. This spatial PM distribution was attributed different factors such as wind direction and velocity, existence of cement factories in the southeast of the city, the presence of buildings and trees, and paved streets in the city center that reduce the amount of dust resuspended into the atmosphere. The air quality of the city was found to range from moderate to highly unhealthy for PM2.5 and from good to highly unhealthy for PM10. The enrichment factors for the measured elements were examined and revealed two groups based on their regional distribution. The first group showed no significant spatial changes indicating it has a common source throughout the sampling grid. The second group (mainly S and Ni) showed significant changes as expected from anthropogenic inputs. The S is possibly a combination of a mineralogical (CaSO4) and fossil fuel combustion origin. The source of Ni is probably in emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

  14. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. Model evaluations of SSA emissions have mainly focused on the global scale, but regional-scale evaluations are...

  15. A COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT HYBRID APPROACH FOR DYNAMIC GAS/AEROSOL TRANSFER IN AIR QUALITY MODELS. (R826371C005)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic mass transfer methods have been developed to better describe the interaction of the aerosol population with semi-volatile species such as nitrate, ammonia, and chloride. Unfortunately, these dynamic methods are computationally expensive. Assumptions are often made to r...

  16. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

  17. Aerosol particle and trace gas emissions from earthworks, road construction, and asphalt paving in Germany: Emission factors and influence on local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol emissions from construction sites have a strong impact on local air quality. The chemical and physical characteristics of particles and trace gases emitted by earthworks (excavation and loading of soil as well as traffic on unpaved roads) and road works (asphalt sawing, smashing, soil compacting, asphalt paving) have therefore been addressed in this study by using a mobile set-up of numerous modern online aerosol and trace gas instruments including a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer. Fuel-based emission factors for several variables have been determined, showing that earthwork activities and compacting by use of a plate compactor revealed the highest median emission factors for PM10 (up to 54 g l-1). Construction activities were assigned to contribute about 17% (36 000 t a-1) to total PM10 emissions and 3% (13 500 t a-1) to total traffic-related NOx emissions in Germany. In particular, calculated PM10 emissions by earthworks are about 15 800 t a-1 corresponding to 44% of total PM10 emissions by construction activities in Germany. Mechanical processes such as asphalt sawing (PM1/PM10 = 18 ± 31%), soil compacting by a plate compactor (PM1/PM10 = 5 ± 6%) and earthworks (PM1/PM10 = 2 ± 5%) emit predominantly coarse mineral dust particles. Contrary to that, particle emissions by thermal construction processes (asphalt paving: PM1/PM10 = 62 ± 14%) and by the internal combustion engines of heavy machinery (e.g. road roller PM1/PM10 = 94 ± 9%) are mostly in the submicron range. These particles were mainly composed of organics containing non-polar saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. asphalting: O:C < 0.01, H:C = 2.01). Besides construction activities, mineral dust is also emitted over cleared land by wind-driven resuspension depending on wind speed. PM10 emissions by construction activities often result in local concentrations > 100 μg m-3 and can easily breach the European limit level of PM10. This study also shows that particulate mineral

  18. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  19. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  1. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-05-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of AM aerosols originating from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

  2. Aircraft Observations of Aerosol Composition and Ageing in New England and Mid-Atlantic States during the Summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Hubbe, John M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2007-05-11

    Aerosol chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties were measured during 17 aircraft flights in New England and Middle Atlantic States as part of the summer 2002 NEAQS field campaign. An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was operated with a measurement cycle of 30 s, about an order of magnitude faster than used for ground-based measurements. Noise levels within a single measurement period were sub μg m-3. Volume data derived from the AMS were compared with volume measurements from a PCASP optical particle detector and an Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS); calculated light scattering was compared with measured values from an integrating nephelometer. The median ratio for AMS/SMPS volume was 1.25; the median ratio for AMS/nephelometer scattering was 1.18. Size spectra were compared for subsets of samples with different effective diameters (Deff). There is good agreement between the AMS, PCASP, and SMPS spectra for larger values of Deff but an unexplained over-prediction in the AMS for small values. A dependence of the AMS collection efficiency on aerosol acidity was quantified by a comparison between AMS and PCASP volumes in 2 high sulfate plumes. Average aerosol concentrations were 11 μg m-3. The organic content was high in comparison to monitoring data from the IMPROVE network, varying from 70% in clean air to 40% in high concentration sulfate plumes. The ratio of organic aerosol to CO and light absorption acting were examined as a function of photochemical age. CO is a conservative tracer for urban emissions and light absorption is a surrogate for black carbon which is also conservative. Comparisons were made to surface ratios measured under conditions where there is little secondary organic aerosol (SOA). An increase in these ratios relative to surface values indicates that 70 - 80% of the organic aerosol in polluted air masses was secondary. Most of this SOA is rapidly formed within a few hours. At longer time scales

  3. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Jorba, O.; Pay, M. T.; Montavez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosols (SSA) source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution in a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the surface wind speed cubed and particle size. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around -0.003 and -1.2 μg m-3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA vary strongly across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m-3) and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m-3). The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes implemented. Dry deposition essentially follows the surface drag stress patterns, meanwhile wet

  4. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Jorba, O.; Pay, M. T.; Montávez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosol (SSA) source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution for a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the particle size and the surface wind speed raised to the power 3.41. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around -0.002 and -1.2 μg m-3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA strongly vary across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m-3) and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m-3). The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes implemented. Dry deposition essentially follows the surface drag stress patterns

  5. Inter-comparison of MAX-DOAS Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Extinction, SO2 and NO2 in the Alberta Oil Sands with LIDAR Data and GEM-MACH Air Quality Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Zoe; Friess, Udo; Strawbridge, Kevin; Whiteway, James; Aggarwal, Monika; Makar, Paul; Li, Shao-Meng; O'Brien, Jason; Baray, Sabour; Schnitzler, Elijah; Olfert, Jason S.; Osthoff, Hans D.; Lobo, Akshay; McLaren, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Understanding industrial emissions of trace gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands is essential to maintaining air quality standards and informing public policy. Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of trace gases can improve knowledge of pollutant levels, vertical distribution and chemical transformation. During an intensive air measurement campaign to study emissions, transport, transformation and deposition of oil sands air pollutants from August to September of 2013, a MAX-DOAS instrument was deployed at a site north of Fort McMurray, Alberta to determine the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, NO2 and SO2 through retrieval from the MAX-DOAS spectral measurements using an optimal estimation method. The large complement of data collected from multiple instruments deployed during this field campaign provides a unique opportunity to validate and characterize the performance of the MAX-DOAS vertical profile retrievals. Aerosol extinction profiles determined from two Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments, one collocated and the other on a Twin Otter aircraft that flew over the site during the study, will be compared to the MAX-DOAS aerosol extinction profile retrievals. Vertical profiles of NO2 and SO2 retrieved from the MAX-DOAS measurements will be further compared with the composite vertical profiles measured from the flights of a second aircraft, the NRC-Convair 580, over the field site during the same measurement period. Finally, the MAX-DOAS retrieved tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of SO2 and NO2 will be compared to the predicted VCDs from Environment and Climate Change Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and Chemistry (GEM-MACH) air quality model over the grid cell containing the field site. Emission estimates of SO2 from the major oil mining facility Syncrude Mildred Lake using the MAX-DOAS VCD results, validated through the detailed characterization above

  6. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model - Part 2: Assessing the influence of vapor wall losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Jathar, S. H.; Kleeman, M. J.; Docherty, K. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of losses of organic vapors to chamber walls during secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation experiments has recently been established. Here, the influence of such losses on simulated ambient SOA concentrations and properties is assessed in the UCD/CIT regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model (SOM) for SOA. The SOM was fit to laboratory chamber data both with and without accounting for vapor wall losses following the approach of Zhang et al. (2014). Two vapor wall loss scenarios are considered when fitting of SOM to chamber data to determine best-fit SOM parameters, one with "low" and one with "high" vapor wall-loss rates to approximately account for the current range of uncertainty in this process. Simulations were run using these different parameterizations (scenarios) for both the southern California/South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and the eastern United States (US). Accounting for vapor wall losses leads to substantial increases in the simulated SOA concentrations from VOCs in both domains, by factors of ~ 2-5 for the low and ~ 5-10 for the high scenario. The magnitude of the increase scales approximately inversely with the absolute SOA concentration of the no loss scenario. In SoCAB, the predicted SOA fraction of total OA increases from ~ 0.2 (no) to ~ 0.5 (low) and to ~ 0.7 (high), with the high vapor wall loss simulations providing best general agreement with observations. In the eastern US, the SOA fraction is large in all cases but increases further when vapor wall losses are accounted for. The total OA/ΔCO ratio represents dilution-corrected SOA concentrations. The simulated OA/ΔCO in SoCAB (specifically, at Riverside, CA) is found to increase substantially during the day only for the high vapor wall loss scenario, which is consistent with observations and indicative of photochemical production of SOA. Simulated O : C atomic ratios for both SOA and for total OA increase when vapor wall losses are accounted for, while

  7. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model - Part 2: Assessing the influence of vapor wall losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Christopher D.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Seinfeld, John H.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of losses of organic vapors to chamber walls during secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation experiments has recently been established. Here, the influence of such losses on simulated ambient SOA concentrations and properties is assessed in the University of California at Davis / California Institute of Technology (UCD/CIT) regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model (SOM) for SOA. The SOM was fit to laboratory chamber data both with and without accounting for vapor wall losses following the approach of Zhang et al. (2014). Two vapor wall-loss scenarios are considered when fitting of SOM to chamber data to determine best-fit SOM parameters, one with "low" and one with "high" vapor wall-loss rates to approximately account for the current range of uncertainty in this process. Simulations were run using these different parameterizations (scenarios) for both the southern California/South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and the eastern United States (US). Accounting for vapor wall losses leads to substantial increases in the simulated SOA concentrations from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both domains, by factors of ˜ 2-5 for the low and ˜ 5-10 for the high scenarios. The magnitude of the increase scales approximately inversely with the absolute SOA concentration of the no loss scenario. In SoCAB, the predicted SOA fraction of total organic aerosol (OA) increases from ˜ 0.2 (no) to ˜ 0.5 (low) and to ˜ 0.7 (high), with the high vapor wall-loss simulations providing best general agreement with observations. In the eastern US, the SOA fraction is large in all cases but increases further when vapor wall losses are accounted for. The total OA / ΔCO ratio captures the influence of dilution on SOA concentrations. The simulated OA / ΔCO in SoCAB (specifically, at Riverside, CA) is found to increase substantially during the day only for the high vapor wall-loss scenario, which is consistent with observations and indicative of

  8. MISR Aerosol Air Mass Type Mapping over Mega-City: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, F.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Most aerosol air-quality monitoring in mega-city environments is done from scattered ground stations having detailed chemical and optical sampling capabilities. Satellite instruments such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can retrieve total-column Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), along with some information about particle microphysical properties. Although the particle property information from MISR is much less detailed than that obtained from the ground sampling stations, the coverage is extensive, making it possible to put individual surface observations into the context of regional aerosol air mass types. This paper presents an analysis of MISR aerosol observations made coincident with aircraft and ground-based instruments during the INTEX-B field campaign. These detailed comparisons of satellite aerosol property retrievals against dedicated field measurements provide the opportunity to validate the retrievals quantitatively at a regional level, and help to improve aerosol representation in retrieval algorithms. Validation of MISR retrieved AOD and other aerosol properties over the INTEX-B study region in and around Mexico City will be presented. MISR’s ability to distinguish among aerosol air mass types will be discussed. The goal of this effort is to use the MISR aerosol property retrievals for mapping both aerosol air mass type and AOD gradients in mega-city environments over the decade-plus that MISR has made global observations.

  9. Air pollution and climate response to aerosol direct radiative ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Decadal hemispheric Weather Research and Forecast-Community Multiscale Air Quality simulations from 1990 to 2010 were conducted to examine the meteorology and air quality responses to the aerosol direct radiative effects. The model's performance for the simulation of hourly surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and direction was evaluated through comparison with observations from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center Integrated Surface Data. The inclusion of aerosol direct radiative effects improves the model's ability to reproduce the trend in daytime temperature range which over the past two decades was increasing in eastern China but decreasing in eastern U.S. and Europe. Trends and spatial and diurnal variations of the surface-level gaseous and particle concentrations to the aerosol direct effect were analyzed. The inclusion of aerosol direct radiative effects was found to increase the surface-level concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3, SO42−, NO3−, and particulate matter 2.5 in eastern China, eastern U.S., and Europe by 1.5–2.1%, 1–1.5%, 0.1–0.3%, 1.6–2.3%, 3.5–10.0%, and 2.2–3.2%, respectively, on average over the entire 21 year period. However, greater impacts are noted during polluted days with increases of 7.6–10.6%, 6.2–6.7%, 2.0–3.0%, 7.8–9.5%, 11.1–18.6%, and 7.2–10.1%, respectively. Due to the aerosol direct radiative effects, stabilizing of the atmosphere associated with reduced planetary boundary layer height a

  10. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... September 2016, Busan, South Korea. More more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  11. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one ... exposure and protect your health. For your local air quality, visit www.airnow.gov View or print guide ...

  12. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  13. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  14. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  15. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  16. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  17. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  18. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Qin, Yi; Campbell, Susan; Gras, John L.; Parry, David

    This two-part series investigates the emission and transport of biomass burning aerosol (or particulate matter) across the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. In Part I, Meyer et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.089.] used a fuel load distribution coupled with a satellite-derived imagery of fire scars and hotspots and the diurnal variation of a fire danger index to estimate hourly emission rates of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5) for the dry season April-November 2004 at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. In the present paper, these emission rates are used in TAPM, a three-dimensional meteorological and air pollution model, and the modelled PM 2.5 concentrations and aerosol optical depths are compared with satellite and ground-based measurements. This exercise also seeks to fine-tune and validate the emission calculation methodology, a process through which it is found that cases with hotspots without any corresponding fire scars (e.g. in mountainous terrain), which were initially ignored, need to be included to improve the accuracy of model predictions. Overall, the model is able to describe the measurements satisfactorily, considering the issues associated with the model resolution, emission uncertainty, and modelled meteorology. The model hindcasts numerous exceedences of the advisory maximum PM 2.5 exposure limit across the study region, with large areas in excess of 30 exceedences during the study period. Estimated mean top of atmosphere direct radiative forcing due to aerosol shows a seasonal mean of -1.8 W m -2 with a region of strong enhancement over the western portion of the Top End.

  19. Aerosol optical depth, aerosol composition and air pollution during summer and winter conditions in Budapest.

    PubMed

    Alföldy, B; Osán, J; Tóth, Z; Török, S; Harbusch, A; Jahn, C; Emeis, S; Schäfer, K

    2007-09-20

    The dependence of aerosol optical depth (AOD) on air particulate concentrations in the mixing layer height (MLH) was studied in Budapest in July 2003 and January 2004. During the campaigns gaseous (CO, SO(2), NO(x), O(3)), solid components (PM(2.5), PM(10)), as well as ionic species (ammonium, sulfate and nitrate) were measured at several urban and suburban sites. Additional data were collected from the Budapest air quality monitoring network. AOD was measured by a ground-based sun photometer. The mixing layer height and other common meteorological parameters were recorded. A linear relationship was found between the AOD and the columnar aerosol burden; the best linear fit (R(2)=0.96) was obtained for the secondary sulfate aerosol due to its mostly homogeneous spatial distribution and its optically active size range. The linear relationship is less pronounced for the PM(2.5) and PM(10) fractions since local emissions are very heterogeneous in time and space. The results indicate the importance of the mixing layer height in determining pollutant concentrations. During the winter campaign, when the boundary layer decreases to levels in between the altitudes of the sampling stations, measured concentrations showed significant differences due to different local sources and long-range transport. In the MLH time series unexpected nocturnal peaks were observed. The nocturnal increase of the MLH coincided with decreasing concentrations of all pollutants except for ozone; the ozone concentration increase indicates nocturnal vertical mixing between different air layers.

  20. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model - Part 1: Assessing the influence of constrained multi-generational ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Wexler, A. S.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Multi-generational oxidation of volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation products can significantly alter the mass, chemical composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compared to calculations that consider only the first few generations of oxidation reactions. However, the most commonly used state-of-the-science schemes in 3-D regional or global models that account for multi-generational oxidation (1) consider only functionalization reactions but do not consider fragmentation reactions, (2) have not been constrained to experimental data; and (3) are added on top of existing parameterizations. The incomplete description of multi-generational oxidation in these models has the potential to bias source apportionment and control calculations for SOA. In this work, we used the Statistical Oxidation Model (SOM) of Cappa and Wilson (2012), constrained by experimental laboratory chamber data, to evaluate the regional implications of multi-generational oxidation considering both functionalization and fragmentation reactions. SOM was implemented into the regional UCD/CIT air quality model and applied to air quality episodes in California and the eastern US. The mass, composition and properties of SOA predicted using SOM are compared to SOA predictions generated by a traditional "two-product" model to fully investigate the impact of explicit and self-consistent accounting of multi-generational oxidation. Results show that SOA mass concentrations predicted by the UCD/CIT-SOM model are very similar to those predicted by a two-product model when both models use parameters that are derived from the same chamber data. Since the two-product model does not explicitly resolve multi-generational oxidation reactions, this finding suggests that the chamber data used to parameterize the models captures the majority of the SOA mass formation from multi-generational oxidation under the conditions tested. Consequently, the use of low and high NOx yields perturbs SOA

  1. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model - Part 1: Assessing the influence of constrained multi-generational ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Wexler, A. S.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-generational oxidation of volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation products can significantly alter the mass, chemical composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compared to calculations that consider only the first few generations of oxidation reactions. However, the most commonly used state-of-the-science schemes in 3-D regional or global models that account for multi-generational oxidation (1) consider only functionalization reactions but do not consider fragmentation reactions, (2) have not been constrained to experimental data and (3) are added on top of existing parameterizations. The incomplete description of multi-generational oxidation in these models has the potential to bias source apportionment and control calculations for SOA. In this work, we used the statistical oxidation model (SOM) of Cappa and Wilson (2012), constrained by experimental laboratory chamber data, to evaluate the regional implications of multi-generational oxidation considering both functionalization and fragmentation reactions. SOM was implemented into the regional University of California at Davis / California Institute of Technology (UCD/CIT) air quality model and applied to air quality episodes in California and the eastern USA. The mass, composition and properties of SOA predicted using SOM were compared to SOA predictions generated by a traditional two-product model to fully investigate the impact of explicit and self-consistent accounting of multi-generational oxidation.Results show that SOA mass concentrations predicted by the UCD/CIT-SOM model are very similar to those predicted by a two-product model when both models use parameters that are derived from the same chamber data. Since the two-product model does not explicitly resolve multi-generational oxidation reactions, this finding suggests that the chamber data used to parameterize the models captures the majority of the SOA mass formation from multi-generational oxidation under the conditions

  2. Multipollutant air quality management.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  3. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  4. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  5. INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE, MODELED, AND GROUND BASED AEROSOL DATA FOR USE IN AIR QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH APPLICATIONS ( AGU-BALTIMORE )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the next several years NOAA and EPA will begin to issue PM2.5 air quality forecasts over the entire domain of the eastern United States, eventually extending to national coverage. These forecasts will provide continuous estimated values of particulate matter on ...

  6. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  7. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  8. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  9. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part II. Future trend analysis and impacts of projected anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Following a comprehensive evaluation of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU), Part II describes the projected changes in the future state of the atmosphere under the representative concentration partway scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5) by 2100 for the 2050 time frame and examine the impact of climate change on future air quality under both scenarios, and the impact of projected emission changes under the RCP4.5 scenario on future climate through aerosol direct and indirect effects. Both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations predict similar changes in air quality by the 2050 period due to declining emissions under both scenarios. The largest differences occur in O3, which decreases by global mean of 1.4 ppb under RCP4.5 but increases by global mean of 2.3 ppb under RCP8.5 due to differences in methane levels, and PM10, which decreases by global mean of 1.2 μg m-3 under RCP4.5 and increases by global mean of 0.2 μg m-3 under RCP8.5 due to differences in dust and sea-salt emissions under both scenarios. Enhancements in cloud formation in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and increases of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in central Africa and South Asia dominate the change in surface radiation in both scenarios, leading to global average dimming of 1.1 W m-2 and 2.0 W m-2 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Declines in AOD, cloud formation, and cloud optical thickness from reductions of emissions of primary aerosols and aerosol precursors under RCP4.5 result in near surface warming of 0.2 °C from a global average increase of 0.7 W m-2 in surface downwelling solar radiation. This warming leads to a weakening of the Walker Circulation in the tropics, leading to significant changes in cloud and precipitation that mirror a shift in climate towards the negative phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  10. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  11. Behavior of aerosols in a steam-air environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) which is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program plan for the NSPP aerosol project provides for the study of the behavior, within containment, of simulated LWR accident aerosols emanating from fuel, reactor core structural materials, and from concrete-molten core materials interactions. The aerodynamic behavior of each of these aerosols was studied individually to establish its characteristics; current experiments involve mixtures of these aerosols to establish their interaction and collective behavior within containment. Tests have been conducted with U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ aerosols, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols, and concrete aerosols in an environment of either dry air (relative humidity (RH) less than 20%) or steam-air (relative humidity (RH) approximately 100%) with aerosol mass concentration being the primary experimental variable.

  12. Air pollution and climate response to aerosol direct radiative effects: A modeling study of decadal trends across the northern hemisphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decadal hemispheric Weather Research and Forecast-Community Multiscale Air Quality simulations from 1990 to 2010 were conducted to examine the meteorology and air quality responses to the aerosol direct radiative effects. The model's performance for the simulation of hourly surfa...

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  14. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  15. Biogenic organic emissions, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Living organisms produce copious amounts of a diverse array of metabolites including many volatile organic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. These compounds participate in numerous chemical reactions that influence the atmospheric abundance of important air pollutants and short-lived climate forcers including organic aerosol, ozone and methane. The production and release of these organics are strongly influenced by environmental conditions including air pollution, temperature, solar radiation, and water availability and they are highly sensitive to stress and extreme events. As a result, releases of biogenic organics to the atmosphere have an impact on, and are sensitive to, air quality and climate leading to potential feedback couplings. Their role in linking air quality and climate is conceptually clear but an accurate quantitative representation is needed for predictive models. Progress towards this goal will be presented including numerical model development and assessments of the predictive capability of the Model of Emission of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). Recent studies of processes controlling the magnitude and variations in biogenic organic emissions will be described and observations of their impact on atmospheric composition will be shown. Recent advances and priorities for future research will be discussed including laboratory process studies, long-term measurements, multi-scale regional studies, global satellite observations, and the development of a next generation model for simulating land-atmosphere chemical exchange.

  16. Aerosol behavior in a steam-air environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Petrykowski, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during accident sequences and released into containment is being studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP). Observation on the behavior of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ aerosol, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol, concrete aerosol, and various mixtures of these aerosols in a dry air environment and in a steam-air environment within the NSPP vessel are reported. Under dry conditions, the aerosols are agglomerated in the form of branched chains; the aerodynamic mass median diameter (AMMD) of the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and mixed U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols ranged between 1.5 and 3..mu..m while that of the concrete aerosol was about 1 ..mu..m. A steam-air environment, which would be present in LWR containment during and following an accident, causes the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and mixed U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols to behave differently from that in a dry atmosphere; the primary effect is an enhanced rate of removal of the aerosol from the vessel atmosphere. Steam does not have a significant effect on the removal rate of a concrete aerosol. Electron microscopy showed the agglomerated U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and mixed U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols to be in the form of spherical clumps of particles differing from the intermingled branched chains observed in the dry air tests; the AMMD was in the range of 1 to 2 ..mu..m. Steam had a lesser influence on the physical shape of the concrete aerosol with the shape being intermediate between branched chain and spherical clumps. 9 figures.

  17. A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Sano, I.; Nishimori, A.; Sato, M.

    A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants over urban cities in Japan S. Mukai, I. Sano, A. Nishimori and M. Sato Kinki University For understanding urban aerosols, sun/sky photometry and polarimetry with PSR-1000 (Opto. Research) have been undertaken over Higashi-Osaka since 1996. Multi-spectral photometers CE-318 (Cimel Electronique) and POM-100P (Prede Co.) are set up later for an AERONET site and a SKYNET site, respectively. Radiometers provide us with the optical thickness of aerosols and Ångström exponent. Another aerosol properties, e.g., size distribution, refractive index, etc., are retrieved based on the inversion method. Higashi-Osaka, which means east side of Osaka, is an industrial city located between Osaka bay and Mt.Ikoma. Anthropogenic aerosols produced by industrial activity and oceanic aerosols flying from Osaka bay are mixed together and trapped just around our site due to reflection from Mt.Ikoma. Therefore our city is famous for heavy air pollution, and aerosols here have a complicated feature mixing with the anthropogenic compound and natural one externally and/or internally. On the other hand, suspended particles matter (SPM) concentrations at ground level are compiled for these 10 years in this city. Strictly speaking, it is difficult to relate SPM data directly to the aerosol properties, however it is possible to say that SPM data represents the mass concentration of atmospheric particles at ground level. In other word, air pollutants could have some relations to the emission and transportation of aerosols. After several aerosol parameters are derived from the measurements and compared with the SPM data, the HYSPLIT4 backward trajectory analysis is adopted to search the origin of atmospheric particles. It is found that aerosol index shows a proportional correlation with SPM concentration, and that our aerosols are contaminated not only by surroundings but also the large scale phenomena, e.g. yellow sand event from China

  18. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  19. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosols are harmful to human health and have both direct and indirect effects on climate. China is a major contributor to global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a sulfate (SO42-) precursor, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) aerosols. Although increasingly examined, the effect of present and potential future levels of these emissions on global premature mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct and indirect effects, SO42- and OC exert negative radiative forcing (cooling) while BC exerts positive forcing (warming). We analyze the effect of China's emissions of SO2, SO42-, OC and BC in 2000 and for three emission scenarios in 2030 on global surface aerosol concentrations, premature mortality, and radiative forcing. Using global models of chemical transport (MOZART-2) and radiative transfer (GFDL RTM), and combining simulation results with gridded population data, mortality rates, and concentration-response relationships from the epidemiological literature, we estimate the contribution of Chinese aerosols to global annual premature mortality and to radiative forcing in 2000 and 2030. In 2000, we estimate these aerosols cause 385,320 premature deaths in China and an additional 18 240 globally. In 2030, aggressive emission controls lead to a reduction in premature deaths to 200,370 in China and 7,740 elsewhere, while under a high emissions scenario premature deaths would increase to 602,950 in China and to 29,750 elsewhere. Because the negative radiative forcing from SO42- and OC is larger than the positive forcing from BC, the Chinese aerosols lead to global net direct radiative forcing of -74 mW m-2 in 2000 and between -15 and -97 mW m-2 in 2030 based on the emissions scenario. Our analysis suggests that environmental policies that simultaneously improve public health and mitigate climate change would be highly beneficial (eg. reductions in BC emissions).

  20. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  1. Indoor Air Quality Management for Operations and Maintenance Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    about indoor air quality (IAQ). Items in the news-notably the outbreak of legionnaires disease in 1976-focused widespread public attention on the IAQ...humans can be transmitted by the air (Table 2). Legionnaires disease , a potentially fatal lung infection, has been associated with infiltration of...aerosols from exterior sources such as cooling towers. The most common means of spreading legionnaires disease involves air-cooling equipment that becomes

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF 3-D AIR QUALITY MODELS WITH CURRENT THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS TO PREDICT AEROSOL NO3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of total nitrate (TNO3) and total ammonium (TNH4) between gas and aerosol phases is studied with two thermodynamic equilibrium models, ISORROPIA and AIM, and three datasets: high time-resolution measurement data from the 1999 Atlanta SuperSite Experiment and from...

  3. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, Eri; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Aerosols are harmful to human health and have both direct and indirect effects on climate. China is a major contributor to global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), a sulfate (SO 42-) precursor, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) aerosols. Although increasingly examined, the effect of present and potential future levels of these emissions on global premature mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects and indirect effects on clouds, SO 42- and OC exert negative radiative forcing (cooling) while BC exerts positive forcing (warming). We analyze the effect of China's emissions of SO 2, SO 42-, OC and BC in 2000 and for three emission scenarios in 2030 on global surface aerosol concentrations, premature mortality, and radiative forcing (RF). Using global models of chemical transport (MOZART-2) and radiative transfer (GFDL RTM), and combining simulation results with gridded population data, mortality rates, and concentration-response relationships from the epidemiological literature, we estimate the contribution of Chinese aerosols to global annual premature mortality and to RF in 2000 and 2030. In 2000, we estimate these aerosols cause approximately 470 000 premature deaths in China and an additional 30 000 deaths globally. In 2030, aggressive emission controls lead to a 50% reduction in premature deaths from the 2000 level to 240 000 in China and 10 000 elsewhere, while under a high emissions scenario premature deaths increase 50% from the 2000 level to 720 000 in China and to 40 000 elsewhere. Because the negative RF from SO 42- and OC is larger than the positive forcing from BC, Chinese aerosols lead to global net direct RF of -74 mW m -2 in 2000 and between -15 and -97 mW m -2 in 2030 depending on the emissions scenario. Our analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change as China's anticipated reduction of aerosols will result in the

  4. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Ozone, Air Quality, ... can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a ...

  5. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  6. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  7. [Air quality and climate change].

    PubMed

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  8. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  9. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, Bas; van der A, Ronald; Wang, Pucai

    2010-05-01

    Within the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 Programme, the AMFIC project consists of an integrated system for monitoring and forecasting tropospheric pollutants over China. Satellite data, in situ measurements and chemical transport model results are used to generate consistent air quality information over China. The system includes a data archive of the recent years, near real time data, and air quality forecasts for several days ahead, which can be find on http://www.amfic.eu. Air pollutants covered are nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, methane and aerosol. The AMFIC system has been used to evaluate the effect of the air quality measures which were taken by the Chinese authorities related to the Olympic Games and Paralympics in Beijing. Industrial activities and traffic in and around the city were reduced drastically to improve air quality. To compensate for the atypical meteorological conditions during the Olympic events, tropospheric NO2 column observations from GOME-2 and OMI are interpreted against simulations from the CHIMERE regional chemistry transport model. When compared with the pre-Olympic concentration levels, we find a NO2 reduction of 60% over Beijing and significant reductions in surrounding areas. After the Olympic period, NO2 concentrations slowly return to their pre-Olympic level. The satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations are also used to constrain NOx emissions over China by using data assimilation techniques. We will present the preliminary results of these efforts. The periodical update of the bottom-up emission inventory is expected to reveal emission trends and improve the air quality forecasts for China.

  10. Aerosol deposition and losses in two alpha air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1985-11-27

    We assessed particle deposition and loss occurring in two alpha-air monitors: an Eberline Alpha-3 Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) and a working-area transuranic aerosol monitor (WOTAMS). We investigated the dependence of particle size on losses in the sampling inlets and the real-time alpha detector areas for both instruments. We determined the uniformity of particle deposition on the filter to ascertain the effectiveness of the detector and collection-filter configuration. Results indicate that particle losses are a strong function of particle size in the CAM unit, with a 44% loss occurring for 6-..mu..m-diameter aerosols and a 0.3% loss for 0.6-..mu..m-diameter aerosols. Losses in the WOTAMS were less than 1% for particle diameters in the 0.6-to-7 ..mu..m range.

  11. Lagrangian Sampling of 3-D Air Quality Model Results for Regional Transport Contributions to Sulfate Aerosol Concentrations at Baltimore, MD in Summer of 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lagrangian method provides estimates of the chemical and physical evolution of air arriving in the daytime boundary layer at Baltimore. Study results indicate a dominant role for regional transport contributions of those days when sulfate air pollution is highest in Baltimor...

  12. Mechanism reduction for the formation of secondary organic aerosol for integration into a 3-dimensional regional Air Quality Model: α-pinene oxidation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, A. G.; Michelangeli, D. V.; Makar, P. A.

    2008-07-01

    A detailed α-pinene oxidation mechanism was reduced systematically through the successive application of five mechanism reduction techniques. The resulting reduced mechanism preserves the ozone- and organic aerosol-forming properties of the original mechanism, while using less species. The methodologies employed included a directed relation graph method with error propagation (DRGEP, which removed a large number of redundant species and reactions), principal component analysis of the rate sensitivity matrix (PCA, used to remove unnecessary reactions), the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA, used to remove some QSS species), an iterative screening method (ISSA, which removes redundant species and reactions simultaneously), and a new lumping approach dependant on the hydrocarbon to NOx ratio (which reduced the number of species in mechanism subsets for specific hydrocarbon to NOx ranges). This multistage methodology results in a reduction ratio of 2.5 for the number of both species and reactions compared with the full mechanism. The simplified mechanism reproduces the important gas and aerosol phase species (the latter are examined in detail by individual condensing species as well as in classes according to four functional groups: PANs, nitrates, organic peroxides, and organic acids). The total SOA mass is also well represented in the condensed mechanism, to within 16% of the detailed mechanism under a wide range of conditions. The methodology described here is general, and may be used in general mechanism reduction problems.

  13. Mechanism reduction for the formation of secondary organic aerosol for integration into a 3-dimensional regional air quality model: α-pinene oxidation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, A. G.; Michelangeli, D. V.; Makar, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    A detailed α-pinene oxidation mechanism was reduced systematically through the successive application of five mechanism reduction techniques. The resulting reduced mechanism preserves the ozone- and organic aerosol-forming properties of the original mechanism, while using less species. The methodologies employed included a directed relation graph method with error propagation (DRGEP, which removed a large number of redundant species and reactions), principal component analysis of the rate sensitivity matrix (PCA, used to remove unnecessary reactions), the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA, used to remove some QSS species), an iterative screening method (ISSA, which removes redundant species and reactions simultaneously), and a new lumping approach dependent on the hydrocarbon to NOx ratio (which reduced the number of species in mechanism subsets for specific hydrocarbon to NOx ranges). This multistage methodology results in a reduction ratio of 2.5 for the number of both species and reactions compared with the full mechanism. The simplified mechanism reproduces the important gas and aerosol phase species (the latter are examined in detail by individual condensing species as well as in classes according to four functional groups: PANs, nitrates, organic peroxides, and organic acids). The total SOA mass is also well represented in the condensed mechanism, to within 16% of the detailed mechanism under a wide range of conditions. The methodology described here is general, and may be used in general mechanism reduction problems.

  14. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Curtis; Modera, Mark

    2012-05-01

    This report presents a process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  15. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  16. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  17. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  18. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  19. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  20. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  1. Light extinction by aerosols during summer air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    In order to utilize satellite measurements of optical thickness over land for estimating aerosol properties during air pollution episodes, the optical thickness was measured from the surface and investigated. Aerosol optical thicknesses have been derived from solar transmission measurements in eight spectral bands within the band lambda 440-870 nm during the summers of 1980 and 1981 near Washington, DC. The optical thicknesses for the eight bands are strongly correlated. It was found that first eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of all observations accounts for 99 percent of the trace of the matrix. Since the measured aerosol optical thickness was closely proportional to the wavelength raised to a power, the aerosol size distribution derived from it is proportional to the diameter (d) raised to a power for the range of diameters between 0.1 to 1.0 micron. This power is insensitive to the total optical thickness. Changes in the aerosol optical thickness depend on several aerosol parameters, but it is difficult to identify the dominant one. The effects of relative humidity and accumulation mode concentration on the optical thickness are analyzed theoretically, and compared with the measurements.

  2. Investigation of wintertime cold-air pools and aerosol layers in the Salt Lake Valley using a lidar ceilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Joseph Swyler

    This thesis investigates the utility of lidar ceilometers, a type of aerosol lidar, in improving the understanding of meteorology and air quality in persistent wintertime stable boundary layers, or cold-air pools, that form in urbanized valley and basin topography. This thesis reviews the scientific literature to survey the present knowledge of persistent cold-air pools, the operating principles of lidar ceilometers, and their demonstrated utility in meteorological investigations. Lidar ceilometer data from the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study (PCAPS) are then used with meteorological and air quality data from other in situ and remote sensing equipment to investigate cold-air pools that formed in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during the winter of 2010-2011. The lidar ceilometer is shown to accurately measure aerosol layer depth and aerosol loading, when compared to visual observations. A linear relationship is found between low-level lidar backscatter and surface particulate measurements. Convective boundary layer lidar analysis techniques applied to cold-air pool ceilometer profiles can detect useful layer characteristics. Fine-scale waves are observed and analyzed within the aerosol layer, with emphasis on Kelvin-Helmholz waves. Ceilometer aerosol backscatter profiles are analyzed to quantify and describe mixing processes in persistent cold-air pools. Overlays of other remote and in-situ observations are combined with ceilometer particle backscatter to describe specific events during PCAPS. This analysis describes the relationship between the aerosol layer and the valley inversion as well as interactions with large-scale meteorology. The ceilometer observations of hydrometers are used to quantify cloudiness and precipitation during the project, observing that 50% of hours when a PCAP was present had clouds or precipitation below 5 km above ground level (AGL). Then, combining an objective technique for determining hourly aerosol layer depths and correcting this

  3. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  4. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health.

  5. Comparison of aerosol and bioaerosol collection on air filters.

    PubMed

    Miaskiewicz-Peska, Ewa; Lebkowska, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Air filters efficiency is usually determined by non-biological test aerosols, such as potassium chloride particles, Arizona dust or di-ethyl-hexyl-sebacate (DEHS) oily liquid. This research was undertaken to asses, if application of non-biological aerosols reflects air filters capacity to collect particles of biological origin. The collection efficiency for non-biological aerosol was tested with the PALAS set and ISO Fine Test Dust. Flow rate during the filtration process was 720 l/h, and particles size ranged 0.246-17.165 μm. The upstream and downstream concentration of the aerosol was measured with a laser particle counter PCS-2010. Tested bioaerosol contained 4 bacterial strains of different shape and size: Micrococcus luteus,Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis. Number of the biological particles was estimated with a culture-based method. Results obtained with bioaerosol did not confirmed 100% filters efficiency noted for the mineral test dust of the same aerodynamic diameter. Maximum efficiency tested with bacterial cells was 99.8%. Additionally, cells reemission from filters into air was also studied. Bioaerosol contained 3 bacterial strains: Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis. It was proved that the highest intensity of the reemission process was during the first 5 min. and reached maximum 0.63% of total number of bacteria retained in filters. Spherical cells adhered stronger to the filter fibres than cylindrical ones. It was concluded that non-biological aerosol containing particles of the same shape and surface characteristics (like DEHS spherical particles) can not give representative results for all particles present in the filtered air.

  6. Instrumentation for air quality measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

  7. Air quality and organic compounds in aerosols from a coastal rural area in the Western Iberian Peninsula over a year long period: Characterisation, loads and seasonal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Pio, Casimiro; Alves, Célia; Silvestre, Armando; Evtyugina, Margarita; Afonso, Joana; Caseiro, Alexandre; Legrand, Michel

    Ambient samples of fine organic aerosol collected from a rural area (Moitinhos) in the vicinity of the small coastal Portuguese city of Aveiro over a period of more than one year have been solvent-extracted and quantitatively characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Particles were also analysed with a thermal-optical technique in order to determine their elemental and organic carbon content. In addition, meteorological sensors and real-time black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide monitors were used. Particulate matter values were higher than background levels in continental Europe. A patent seasonal variation for organic and elemental carbon concentrations was observed, presumably related to stronger local primary emissions and to limited vertical dispersion. The higher levels were most likely a result of residential wood burning, since black carbon and carbon monoxide maximised during late evening hours in wintertime. Of the bulk of elutable organics, more than a half, on average, was present as acidic fraction. Alcohols, aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons represented together, more than 30% of the elutable mass, also showing a marked seasonal pattern with a minimum in summer and a maximum in winter. The winter increase was more evident for resinic acids, phytosterols, n-alkanoic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. Middle East Health and Air Quality Utilizing NASA EOS in the Saharan and Arabian Deserts to Examine Dust Particle Size and Mineralogy of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, Tiffany; Barrick, Bradley; Cooksey, Kirstin; Cowart, Kevin; Florence, Victoria; Herdy, Claire; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Luvall, Jeffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based studies conducted in Iraq have revealed the presence of potential human pathogens in airborne dust. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), airborne particulate matter below 2.5micron (PM2.5) can cause long-term damage to the human respiratory system. NASA fs Earth Observing System (EOS) can be used to determine spectral characteristics of dust particles and dust particle sizes. Comparing dust particle size from the Sahara and Arabian Deserts gives insight into the composition and atmospheric transport characteristics of dust from each desert. With the use of NASA SeaWiFS DeepBlue Aerosol, dust particle sizes were estimated using Angstrom Exponent. Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) equation was used to determine the area of the dust storm. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra satellite was utilized in calculating BTD. Mineral composition of a dust storm that occurred 17 April 2008 near Baghdad was determined using imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Spectral Library and EO-1 Hyperion data. Mineralogy of this dust storm was subsequently compared to that of a dust storm that occurred over the Bodele Depression in the Sahara Desert on 7 June 2003.

  9. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  10. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  11. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  12. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  13. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  14. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, C.; Modera, M.

    2012-05-01

    Space conditioning energy use can be significantly reduced by addressing uncontrolled infiltration and exfiltration through the envelope of a building. A process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology is presented. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  15. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Map Center Forecast AQI Current AQI Current Ozone Current PM ... Ozone Loop PM Loop AQI: Good (0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little ...

  16. Air-Sea-Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    hygrometer by mounting its source and detector tubes inside the housing of the obsolete AIR Lyman-alpha hygrometer . This fast responding sensor is...top is shown in Fig. 3. The path of the krypton hygrometer was set for optimum performance on the higher humidity range for the estimation of...path of the krypton hygrometer was set for optimum performance in the higher humidity range for the estimation of surface fluxes this is why its

  17. Air-quality-model update

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1982-01-15

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality Model (LIRAQ) has been updated and improved. This report describes the changes that have been made in chemistry, species treatment, and boundary conditions. The results of smog chamber simulations that were used to verify the chemistry as well as simulations of the entire air quality model for two prototype days in the Bay Area are reported. The results for the prototype day simulations are preliminary due to the need for improvement in meteorology fields, but they show the dependence and sensitivity of high hour ozone to changes in selected boundary and initial conditions.

  18. Performance of personal inhalable aerosol samplers in very slowly moving air when facing the aerosol source.

    PubMed

    Witschger, O; Grinshpun, S A; Fauvel, S; Basso, G

    2004-06-01

    While personal aerosol samplers have been characterized primarily based on wind tunnel tests conducted at relatively high wind speeds, modern indoor occupational environments are usually represented by very slow moving air. Recent surveys suggest that elevated levels of occupational exposure to inhalable airborne particles are typically observed when the worker, operating in the vicinity of the dust source, faces the source. Thus, the first objective of this study was to design and test a new, low cost experimental protocol for measuring the sampling efficiency of personal inhalable aerosol samplers in the vicinity of the aerosol source when the samplers operate in very slowly moving air. In this system, an aerosol generator, which is located in the centre of a room-sized non-ventilated chamber, continuously rotates and omnidirectionally disperses test particles of a specific size. The test and reference samplers are equally distributed around the source at the same distance from the centre and operate in parallel (in most of our experiments, the total number of simultaneously operating samplers was 15). Radial aerosol transport is driven by turbulent diffusion and some natural convection. For each specific particle size and the sampler, the aerosol mass concentration is measured by weighing the collection filter. The second objective was to utilize the new protocol to evaluate three widely used aerosol samplers: the IOM Personal Inhalable Sampler, the Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler and the 25 mm Millipore filter holder (closed-face C25 cassette). The sampling efficiencies of each instrument were measured with six particle fractions, ranging from 6.9 to 76.9 micro m in their mass median aerodynamic diameter. The Button Sampler efficiency data demonstrated a good agreement with the standard inhalable convention and especially with the low air movement inhalabilty curve. The 25 mm filter holder was found to considerably under-sample the particles larger

  19. An air quality modeling approach to satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, E.; Christopher, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    We simulate visible and near-infrared reflectance of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading with haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models to reproduce meteorological conditions, background emissions, and chemical transport of air pollutants. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ to fully represent aerosol loadings. Radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols during the simulated satellite scene acquisition, which is compared to and verified with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color imagery. We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance, which will not be available on GOES-R ABI, using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. The model-based spectral signatures provide a simple way to select relevant and to deselect irrelevant spectral information from multispectral data. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  20. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    The general problem of urban pollution and its relation to the city population is examined in this dissertation. A simple model suggests that pollutant concentrations should scale approximately with the square root of city population. This model and its experimental evaluation presented here serve as important guidelines for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards including the limits that air pollution places on city population. The model was evaluated using measurements of air pollution. Optical properties of aerosol pollutants such as light absorption and scattering plus chemical species mass concentrations were measured with a photoacoustic spectrometer, a reciprocal nephelometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer in Mexico City in the context of the multinational project "Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)" in March 2006. Aerosol light absorption and scattering measurements were also obtained for Reno and Las Vegas, NV USA in December 2008-March 2009 and January-February 2003, respectively. In all three cities, the morning scattering peak occurs a few hours later than the absorption peak due to the formation of secondary photochemically produced aerosols. In particular, for Mexico City we determined the fraction of photochemically generated secondary aerosols to be about 75% of total aerosol mass concentration at its peak near midday. The simple 2-d box model suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant (e.g., black carbon) mass concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population. This argument extends to the absorption coefficient, as it is approximately proportional to the black carbon mass concentration. Since urban secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary precursors, in linear approximation their mass concentration also should scale with the square root of population. Therefore, the scattering coefficient, a proxy for particulate matter

  1. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  2. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  3. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  4. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  5. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  6. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  7. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  8. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  9. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  10. Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements of Urban Air Quality in Relation with Children's Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria; Dida, Mariana Rodica

    2016-08-01

    The adverse health effects from aerosol particulate matter PM pollution, especially with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm PM2.5 must be considered in developing policies to improve air quality. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that exposure to ambient particulate matter PM is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly associated with cardiopulmonary disease and asthma of which children are most exposed for the rapid increase of asthma disease. Very early exposure to certain components of air pollution can increase the risk of developing of different allergies by age 7. The present study attempts to retrieve the aerosol load in terms of aerosol optical depth (AOD) related to air quality in the Bucharest metropolitan area. In this study is presented a spatio-temporal analysis of the aerosol concentrations in relation with meteorological parameters in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) and Air Qualiy Index and possible health effects on children's asthma.

  11. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  12. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  14. Asthma and domestic air quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, A P

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a global increase in the prevalence of asthma. This has coincided with many modifications to the home environment, resulting in changes to the quality of indoor air. This article considers the links between indoor air pollution and asthma. Exposure to a range of pollutants is examined. Airborne allergens such as those from house dust mites and cockroaches, domestic pets and moulds and fungal spores may be important. Pollution from particulate materials associated with bio-fuel combustion and smoking is discussed, as is the role of chemical vapours and gases including nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. The efficacy of various environmental controls to limit the impact of these pollutants is explored. It is concluded that indoor air pollution may be an important risk for asthma and the health impacts of building design and management require greater recognition and further research.

  15. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for everyone — not just people ... asthma. Studies have shown that high levels of air pollution can be associated with decreased lung function and ...

  16. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  17. Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools Mold and Moisture in Schools Webinar ... premier resource on this issue is the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit. Our schools-related resources ...

  18. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific air quality monitoring data have been used extensively in both scientific and regulatory programs. As such, these data provide essential information to the public, environmental managers, and the atmospheric research community. Currently, air quality management prac...

  19. Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality in Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module provides the fundamentals to understanding indoor air quality. It provides a rudimentary framework for understanding how indoor and outdoor sources of pollution affect the indoor air quality of buildings.

  20. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  1. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  2. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  3. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  4. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  5. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Pinder, R. W.

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that reduces 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using NASA GISS ModelE2, we look at the impacts in year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions and the rest of the world emissions are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in the future but result in positive radiative forcing. Surface PM2.5 is reduced by ~ 2 μg m-3 on average over the US, and surface ozone by ~ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the US, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (~ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduces the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) by both aerosols direct and indirect forcing: total RF is ~ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe; ~ 0.8 W m-2 over the US. Under the hypothetical climate policy, future US energy relies less on coal and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it leads to climate dis-benefits over the US. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing, while the global mean total RF is -0.06 W m-2 due to the dominant negative CO2 RF (instantaneous RF). To achieve a regional-scale climate benefit via a climate policy, it is critical (1) to have multi-national efforts to reduce GHGs emissions and (2) to target emission reduction of light-absorbing species (e.g., BC and O3) on top of long-lived species. The latter is very desirable as the

  6. Aerosol properties and radiative forcing for three air masses transported in Summer 2011 to Sopot, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozwadowska, Anna; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Makuch, P.; Markowicz, K. M.; Petelski, T.; Strzałkowska, A.; Zieliński, T.

    2013-05-01

    Properties of atmospheric aerosols and solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface were measured during Summer 2011 in Sopot, Poland. Three cloudless days, characterized by different directions of incoming air-flows, which are typical transport pathways to Sopot, were used to estimate a radiative forcing due to aerosols present in each air mass.

  7. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality... Air Quality Management District regarding specific implementation of parts of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration program. (i) Incorporation by reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality...

  8. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State... the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality and visibility protection. The purpose...

  9. Ground cloud air quality effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the ground cloud associated with launching of a large rocket on air quality are discussed. The ground cloud consists of the exhaust emitted by the rocket during the first 15 to 25 seconds following ignition and liftoff, together with a large quantity of entrained air, cooling water, dust and other debris. Immediately after formation, the ground cloud rises in the air due to the buoyant effect of its high thermal energy content. Eventually, at an altitude typically between 0.7 and 3 km, the cloud stabilizes and is carried along by the prevailing wind at that altitude. For the use of heavy lift launch vehicles small quantities of nitrogen oxides, primarily nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are expected to be produced from a molecular nitrogen impurity in the fuel or liquid oxygen, or from entrainment and heating of ambient air in the hot rocket exhaust. In addition, possible impurities such as sulfur in the fuel would give rise to a corresponding amount of oxidation products such as sulfur dioxide.

  10. 78 FR 11101 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of trans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... aerosol solvent applications. Estimates of Solstice\\TM\\ 1233zd(E)'s potential to deplete the ozone layer... national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone under title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA). This... negligible contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. DATES: This rule is effective May 16, 2013...

  11. Environmental control: operating room air quality.

    PubMed

    Bartley, J M

    1993-01-01

    1. OR staff members should familiarize themselves with basic air handling system terminology to better manage their own environment (eg, HVAC, air changes, air balancing, HEPA filtration). A working relationship with building engineers is an important skill for the OR nurse. 2. Knowledge of the standards on which air quality in the OR is based should assist in the process of planning for improved design--as well as in monitoring existing air quality. 3. Current standards balance energy savings with air changes and high levels of filtration to achieve optimum outcomes. Recommendations from design and engineering authorities (even for implant surgery) are based on average air changes and HEPA filtration, not laminar air flow. 4. The daily, operational role of the OR staff in maintaining high air quality includes managing traffic, using low-lint barrier materials, monitoring air quality indicators, and investigating unusual variances with the engineering staff for appropriate follow-up (eg, filter changes).

  12. Investigation of air pollution and regional climate change due to anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2016-10-01

    Increased emissions of anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth can lead to increased concentrations of hazardous air pollutants. In particular, large cities in East Asia have experienced numerous heavy haze episodes. Atmospheric aerosol distributions in East Asia are complex, being influenced by both natural phenomena and human activity, with urban areas in particular being dominated by fine anthropogenic aerosols released from diesel-powered vehicles and industrial activity. In Japan, air pollution levels have been reduced; nevertheless, in recent years, there is increasing concern regarding air pollution caused by fine particulate matter. The origins of air pollution were examined, focusing on the comparison between aerosol properties observed from satellites and that on the ground. Because of their short life spans, concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols are highest over the source regions, and as a result, the climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols are also found to be most pronounced in these regions. In this study, aerosol impacts on climate are assessed by numerical model simulations. The direct effects of aerosols include reduced solar radiation, and hence a decrease in surface temperatures. In addition to these changes in the radiation budget, aerosols have a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation fields. These climatic responses to aerosols can manifest far from their source regions with high industrial activities.

  13. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation has been observed between T and PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  14. Indoor air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.

    1985-01-01

    The air inside buildings can contain various threats to human health: cigarette smoke, fumes from fires and cookers, microbes, gases, allergens and fumes produced by household products or building materials. Higher standards of insulation and draught-proofing and more use of air conditioning can increase the problems. This book provides a summary of indoor air quality problems in homes, offices and public buildings. Contents: Preface; Introduction; Formaledhyde and other household contaminants; Radon; Particulates; Combustion products; Involuntary smoking; Energy-efficient buildings and indoor air quality; Control of indoor air pollutants; Indoor air quality problems in office buildings; Legal and regulatory issues; Appendices; Sources and suggested reading; Glossary; Index.

  15. EPA Pushing Improved Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, in response to the growing problem of poor air quality in schools, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set new voluntary air-quality guidelines for schools. Addresses common air-related irritants; successful efforts at Guerrero Elementary School in Mesa, Arizona; preventive maintenance; and a sample of the EPA's…

  16. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  17. Overview of NASA's Observations for Global Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of pollutants are central to the study of air quality. Much focus has been placed on local-scale observations that can help specific geographic areas document their air quality issues, plan abatement strategies, and understand potential impacts. In addition, long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants can cause downwind regions to not meet attainment standards. Satellite observations have shed significant light on air quality from local to regional to global scales, especially for pollutants such as ozone, aerosols, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. These observations have made use of multiple techniques and in some cases multiple satellite sensors. The satellite observations are complemented by surface observations, as well as atmospheric (in situ) observations typically made as part of focused airborne field campaigns. The synergy between satellite observations and field campaigns has been an important theme for recent and upcoming activities and plans. In this talk, a review of NASA's investments in observations relevant to global air quality will be presented, with examples given for a range of pollutants and measurement approaches covering the last twenty-five years. These investments have helped build national and international collaborations such that the global satellite community is now preparing to deploy a constellation of satellites that together will provide fundamental advances in global observations for air quality.

  18. Estimation of biomass burning influence on air pollution around Beijing from an aerosol retrieval model.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Yasumoto, Masayoshi; Nakata, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigate heavy haze episodes (with dense concentrations of atmospheric aerosols) occurring around Beijing in June, when serious air pollution was detected by both satellite and ground measurements. Aerosol retrieval is achieved by radiative transfer simulation in an Earth atmosphere model. We solve the radiative transfer problem in the case of haze episodes by successive order of scattering. We conclude that air pollution around Beijing in June is mainly due to increased emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and that carbonaceous aerosols from agriculture biomass burning in Southeast Asia also contribute to pollution.

  19. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  20. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  1. Quality Screening Algorithms Implemented in the New CALIPSO Level 3 Aerosol Profile Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.; Getzewich, B. J.; Vaughan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol extinction profiles can improve the ability of climate models to properly account for aerosol radiative forcing in Earth's atmosphere. In response to this need, a new CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) level 3 aerosol profile product has been released which for the first time provides monthly, globally gridded and quality-screened aerosol extinction profiles within the troposphere for the entire 6-year mission. Level 3 aerosol extinction profiles are aggregated from CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar extinction retrievals reported in the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol profile product onto an equal-angle grid after quality screening algorithms are applied to reduce occurrences of failed retrievals, misclassified aerosol, surface contamination, and spurious outliers. Implementation of these quality screening algorithms is a substantial value to aerosol modeling groups who desire high confidence datasets without having to independently develop quality screening metrics. Furthermore, quality screening is paramount to understand the scientific content of the resultant CALIPSO level 3 aerosol profile product since classification and retrieval errors in level 2 aerosol data may lead to misinterpretation of the distribution and optical properties of aerosol in the troposphere. This presentation summarizes the averaging and quality screening algorithms implemented in the CALIPSO level 3 aerosol profile product, provides rationale for their implementation, and discusses averaging and filtering differences unique to CALIPSO data compared to level 3 products aggregated from passive satellite measurements. Examples are given that illustrate the benefits of quality screening and the dangers of improper screening CALIPSO level 2 aerosol extinction data. Sensitivity study results are presented to highlight the impact of quality screening on final level 3 statistics. Since overlying cloud

  2. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  3. Evaluation of regional climate simulations for air quality modelling purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, Laurent; Tripathi, Om P.; Colette, Augustin; Vautard, Robert; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Bessagnet, Bertrand

    2013-05-01

    In order to evaluate the future potential benefits of emission regulation on regional air quality, while taking into account the effects of climate change, off-line air quality projection simulations are driven using weather forcing taken from regional climate models. These regional models are themselves driven by simulations carried out using global climate models (GCM) and economical scenarios. Uncertainties and biases in climate models introduce an additional "climate modeling" source of uncertainty that is to be added to all other types of uncertainties in air quality modeling for policy evaluation. In this article we evaluate the changes in air quality-related weather variables induced by replacing reanalyses-forced by GCM-forced regional climate simulations. As an example we use GCM simulations carried out in the framework of the ERA-interim programme and of the CMIP5 project using the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace climate model (IPSLcm), driving regional simulations performed in the framework of the EURO-CORDEX programme. In summer, we found compensating deficiencies acting on photochemistry: an overestimation by GCM-driven weather due to a positive bias in short-wave radiation, a negative bias in wind speed, too many stagnant episodes, and a negative temperature bias. In winter, air quality is mostly driven by dispersion, and we could not identify significant differences in either wind or planetary boundary layer height statistics between GCM-driven and reanalyses-driven regional simulations. However, precipitation appears largely overestimated in GCM-driven simulations, which could significantly affect the simulation of aerosol concentrations. The identification of these biases will help interpreting results of future air quality simulations using these data. Despite these, we conclude that the identified differences should not lead to major difficulties in using GCM-driven regional climate simulations for air quality projections.

  4. Use of Air Quality Observations by the National Air Quality Forecast Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Stein, A. F.; Kondragunta, S.; Ruminski, M.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J. P.; Shafran, P.; Huang, H. C.; Dickerson, P.; Upadhayay, S.

    2015-12-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) operational predictions of ozone and wildfire smoke for the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust for continental U.S. are available at http://airquality.weather.gov/. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions are combined with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to produce the ozone predictions and test fine particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model provides smoke and dust predictions. Air quality observations constrain emissions used by NAQFC predictions. NAQFC NOx emissions from mobile sources were updated using National Emissions Inventory (NEI) projections for year 2012. These updates were evaluated over large U.S. cities by comparing observed changes in OMI NO2 observations and NOx measured by surface monitors. The rate of decrease in NOx emission projections from year 2005 to year 2012 is in good agreement with the observed changes over the same period. Smoke emissions rely on the fire locations detected from satellite observations obtained from NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS). Dust emissions rely on a climatology of areas with a potential for dust emissions based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol retrievals. Verification of NAQFC predictions uses AIRNow compilation of surface measurements for ozone and PM2.5. Retrievals of smoke from GOES satellites are used for verification of smoke predictions. Retrievals of dust from MODIS are used for verification of dust predictions. In summary, observations are the basis for the emissions inputs for NAQFC, they are critical for evaluation of performance of NAQFC predictions, and furthermore they are used in real-time testing of bias correction of PM2.5 predictions, as we continue to work on improving modeling and emissions important for representation of PM2.5.

  5. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  6. Indoor air quality: a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  7. Air Quality Monitoring And Forecasting In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der A, Ronald; Mijling, Bas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Kelder, Hennie

    2010-10-01

    For the last decade the industrial activity of China has been growing at rapid pace, bringing economic wealth to its 1300 million inhabitants, but also generating an unprecedented level of air pollution. This deteriorates the air quality of the densely populated and industrialized areas such as Beijing, Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, and increases the background pollution levels world-wide [1]. The AMFIC project aims at monitoring and forecasting the air quality in China by using satellite observations and model simulations, together with ground observations in China. The combination of these instruments and tools offers a unique possibility to investigate trends in air pollution and the effectiveness of air quality policy.

  8. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  9. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Savage, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Met Office's operational regional Air Quality Unified Model (AQUM) contains a description of atmospheric chemistry/aerosols which allows for the short-term forecast of chemical weather (e.g. high concentrations of ozone or nitrogen dioxide, which can trigger warnings of poor air quality). AQUM's performance has so far only been tested against a network of surface monitoring stations. Therefore, with recent improvements in the quality and quantity of satellite measurements, data products (e.g. tropospheric columns, vertical profiles) from several satellite instruments will be used to test the performance of the model. First comparisons between an AQUM simulation for the UK heatwave event of July 2006 and data from OMI, TES (both on AURA) and MODIS (on AQUA) have identified multiple model-satellite biases. The chemical/aerosol species investigated for this simulation include nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.55 microns wavelength. NO2 spatial positive mean biases (AQUM-OMI July 2006 monthly mean tropospheric columns) over north- east England suggest model overestimation in the area's urban regions. Currently, sensitivity tests of the NOx emission datasets are investigating these biases and the model's represent of urban pollution. In the UK O3 monthly mean vertical profile comparisons (AQUM-TES), strong positive mean biases are detected in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Since the AQUM does not use a stratospheric chemistry scheme, the satellite climatological vertical boundary conditions will be investigated (e.g. test the model with new boundary conditions using multiple satellite instruments or perturb existing climatologies). Comparisons of HCHO (AQUM-OMI monthly mean tropospheric columns) biases highlight strong negative biases over continental Europe and sporadic positive biases in the south-east lateral boundary conditions. Therefore, evaluation and development of

  10. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  11. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  12. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  13. Air Quality Index (AQI) -- A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, ... to 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. "Moderate" AQI is ...

  14. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  15. Monitoring of urban air pollution from MODIS and AERONET Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, K.; Chiaradia, M.; Guerriero, L.; Pasquariello, G.; Morea, A.; Nutricato, R.; Preziosa, G.

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, caused by fuel industries and urban traffic and its environmental impact, are of considerable interest to studies in air quality. In this paper, the monitoring of the air pollution over urban areas in Italy through Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements is presented. The high spatio-temporal frequency of MODIS AOT products (twice per day at 470nm, 1km full resolution) demonstrates that this satellite can be potentially used to routinely monitor the air pollution over land, especially urban area, which is the main source of aerosol particles. In this work AOT data derived by MODIS from November 2010 to February 2011 (winter period) and from May 2011 to August 2011 (summer period) were compared with AOT measurements from 6 different Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations over Italy (Bari, Lecce, Roma, Ispra, Potenza, Etna). The statistical analysis shows a good agreement between the ground based AOT measurements and the values retrieved using space based sensors, as shown in Figure 1. For all the stations the mean error is negligible, with a correlation ranging from 0.725 (in the worst case) to 0.96 (see Table 1). Moreover, LANDSAT-panchromatic images were used to discriminate urban and rural areas, based on the typical finger-like projections of urban land uses. The results of this study will be presented and commented. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Apulian Region in the framework of the ECOURB project. (Analisi e Modelli di inquinamento atmosferico e termico per sistemi di ECOlabeling URBano, 2009-2012). Figure 1: Scatter plot between AOT derived from MODIS and AERONET for Lecce City in summer period from May 2011 to August 2011. Y = - 0.023+0.86x (fit) ; Table 1: Statistical Analysis Report on the difference between AOT derived from MODIS and AERONET from May 2011 to August 2011 (summer period) for 6 different Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations

  16. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. Mobile lidar investigation of air quality over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Ivan N.; Parvanov, Orlin; Kaprielov, Boiko K.

    1996-12-01

    Various mesoscale meteorological phenomena often determine the transportation, changes and spreading of the atmospheric pollutant over urban and rural areas with a developed industry. The corresponding investigations can be performed by combined use of remote (lidar) and conventional means. The present investigation aims at applying the accumulated experience for a determination of the air quality over large area (400 sq km) including residential districts of settlement in a vicinity of oil-refinery and for a determination of the mesoscale phenomena influence on the air quality of the resort in the coastal zone. We used a mobile aerosol lidar, a tethered balloon, pilot balloon measurements and point chemical analyses for the purposes of the mentioned investigation. The measurements were carried out from 14 April to 9 May 1992 in the Bourgas region.

  18. 78 FR 30770 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM). EPA is approving a... Implementation Plan at 35 Illinois Administrative Code part 243, which updates National Ambient Air...

  19. Impact of maritime air mass trajectories on the Western European coast urban aerosol.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S M; Silva, A I; Freitas, M C; Dzung, H M; Caseiro, A; Pio, C A

    2013-01-01

    Lisbon is the largest urban area in the Western European coast. Due to this geographical position the Atlantic Ocean serves as an important source of particles and plays an important role in many atmospheric processes. The main objectives of this study were to (1) perform a chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM2.5) sampled in Lisbon, (2) identify the main sources of particles, (3) determine PM contribution to this urban area, and (4) assess the impact of maritime air mass trajectories on concentration and composition of respirable PM sampled in Lisbon. During 2007, PM2.5 was collected on a daily basis in the center of Lisbon with a Partisol sampler. The exposed Teflon filters were measured by gravimetry and cut into two parts: one for analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the other by ion chromatography (IC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to identify possible sources of PM2.5 and determine mass contribution. Five main groups of sources were identified: secondary aerosols, traffic, calcium, soil, and sea. Four-day backtracking trajectories ending in Lisbon at the starting sampling time were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. Results showed that maritime transport scenarios were frequent. These episodes were characterized by a significant decrease of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations and exerted a significant role on air quality in this urban area.

  20. Biological air filter for air-quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ras, Niels; Krooneman, Janneke; Ogink, Nico; Willers, Hans; D'Amico, Arnaldo; di Natale, Corrado; Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Martinez, N.; Dixon, Mike; Llewellyn, David; Eckhard, Fir; Zona, G.; Fachecci, L.; Kraakman, Bart; Demey, Dries; Michel, Noelle; Darlington, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Biological air filtration is a promising technique for air-quality control in closed environments in space and on Earth, and it offers several advantages over existing techniques. However, to apply it in these environments, specific criteria have to be met. A concept for biological air filtration in closed environments was developed and tested by an international team of specialists. Several model systems for closed environments in space and on Earth were used as a source of contaminated air. Conventional and new analytical techniques were used to determine odour composition and removal efficiency of the filter, including an "electronic nose". The results show that the developed biological air filter is suitable for treating contaminated air in closed environments. The developed electronic nose was shown to be a promising method for air-quality monitoring.

  1. Development of Data-Assimilation-Quality MODIS and MISR Over Ocean Aerosol Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    graduate students in the Atmospheric Sciences Department, especially Prof. David Delene, Aaron Kennedy, Hongchun Jin, and Zhe Feng, for their technical...properties, as well as impact air quality (e.g. Wang and Christopher, 2003) and visibility (e.g. Appel et al., 1985). Studies have found that aerosols...16,988, July 27. 1997. Tong, Y. P., G. L. Zhang, M. G. Tan, W. Wang , J. M. Chen, Y. Hwu, P. C. Fsu, J. H. Je., G. Margaritondo, W. M. Song, R. F

  2. Overview of aerosol properties associated with air masses sampled by the ATR-42 during the EUCAARI campaign (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumeyrolle, S.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Gomes, L.; Quennehen, B.; Roberts, G.; Weigel, R.; Roger, J. C.; Villani, P.; Pichon, J. M.; Bourrianne, T.; Laj, P.

    2012-04-01

    Within the frame of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) project the Météo-France aircraft ATR-42 performed 22 research flights, over central Europe and the North Sea during the intensive observation period in May 2008. For the campaign, the ATR-42 was equipped in order to study aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, as well as cloud microphysics. During the campaign, continental air masses from Eastern and Western Europe were encountered, along with polar and Scandinavian air masses. For the 22 research flights, retroplume analyses along the flight tracks were performed with FLEXPART in order to classify air masses into five sectors of origin which allows for a qualitative evaluation of emission influence on the respective air parcel. In the polluted boundary layer (BL), typical concentrations of particles with diameters larger than 10 nm (N10) are of the order of 5000-6000 cm-3, whereas N10 concentrations of clean air masses were lower than 1300 cm-3. The detection of the largest particle number concentrations occurred in air masses coming from Polar and Scandinavian regions for which an elevated number of nucleation mode (25-28 nm) particles was observed and attributed to new particle formation over open sea. In the free troposphere (FT), typical observed N10 are of the order of 900 cm-3 in polluted air masses and 400-600 cm-3 in clean air masses, respectively. In both layers, the chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles is dominated by organic matter and nitrate in polluted air masses, while, sulphate and ammonium followed by organics dominate the submicron aerosols in clean air masses. The highest CCN/CN ratios were observed within the polar air masses while the CCN concentration values are the highest within the polluted air masses. Within the five air mass sectors defined and the two layers (BL and FT), observations have been distinguished into anticyclonic (first half of May 2008) and cyclonic

  3. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... 21, 2012 Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 51 and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines...

  4. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  5. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... air quality standards in a new chapter of rules and adjusted the rule references accordingly...

  6. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under...

  7. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA...

  8. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  9. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  11. Breaking the Mold on Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing problem in aging school buildings. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers an Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit which is being used at schools nationwide to improve school maintenance. Profiles an aging school in Connecticut in which teachers were becoming ill to illustrate the use of the kit to…

  12. Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot ProjectEPA is launching a pilot project to test a new tool for making instantaneous outdoor air quality data useful for the public. The new “sensor scale” is designed to be used with sensors

  13. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  14. FORECASTING AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased awareness of national air quality issues on the part of the media and the general public have recently led to more demand for short-term (1-2 day) air quality forecasts for use in assessing potential health impacts (e.g., on children, the elderly, and asthmatics) and po...

  15. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  18. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  19. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  20. Field Studies for Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Transboundary Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irei, S.; Takami, A.; Sadanaga, Y.; Nozoe, S.; Hayashi, M.; Hara, K.; Arakaki, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Bandow, H.

    2014-12-01

    To study formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the air outflowed from the Chinese continent and its fraction in an urban city located in downwind, we have conducted field studies at two background sites and one urban site in the western Japan: the Cape Hedo Aerosol and Atmospheric Monitoring Station (26.9˚N, 128.3˚E), the Fukue Atmospheric Monitoring Station (32.8˚N, 128.7˚E), and Fukuoka University (33.6˚N, 130.4˚E), respectively. During the studies, stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of low-volatile water-soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) was measured in 24 h collected filter samples of total suspended particulate matter. Concentration of fine organic aerosol and the proportion of the signal at m/z 44 (ions from the carboxyl group) in the organic mass spectra (f44) were also measured by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers. Limited to the Fukue site only, mixing ratios of trace gas species, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, NOx, and NOy, were also measured using GC-FID and NOx and NOyanalyzers for estimation of photochemical age (t[OH]). A case study in December 2010 showed that plots of δ13C versus f44 showed systematic variations at Hedo and Fukue. However, their trends were opposite. At Fukue the trend was consistent in the plot of δ13C of LV-WSOC versus t[OH] estimated by the NOx/NOy or the hydrocarbon ratios, indicating influence of SOA. The systematic trends aforementioned qualitatively agreed with a binary mixture model of SOA with background LV-WSOC having the f44 of ~0.06 and the δ13C of -17‰ or higher, implication of some influence of primary emission associated with C4plants. Given that the LV-WSOC at the urban Fukuoka site was a binary mixture, a mass balance for δ13C was constructed below. In the equation, δ13CMix, δ13CLocal, δ13CTrans, and FLocal are δ13C of binary LV-WSOC mixture, δ13C of LV-WSOC from local emission origin, δ13C of LV-WSOC from transboundary pollution origin, and a fraction of LV-WSOC from local emission

  1. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  2. Air quality risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article provides (1) a synthesis of the literature on the linkages between air pollution and human health, (2) an overview of quality management approaches in Canada, the United States, and the European Union (EU), and (3) future directions for air quality research. Numerous studies examining short-term effects of air pollution show significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and increases in premature mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Several well-designed epidemiological studies confirmed the adverse long-term effects of PM on both mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological studies also document significant associations between ozone (O3), sulfur (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and adverse health outcomes; however, the effects of gaseous pollutants are less well documented. Subpopulations that are more susceptible to air pollution include children, the elderly, those with cardiorespiratory disease, and socioeconomically deprived individuals. Canada-wide standards for ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were set in 2000, providing air quality targets to be achieved by 2010. In the United States, the Clean Air Act provides the framework for the establishment and review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants and the establishment of emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants. The 1996 European Union's enactment of the Framework Directive for Air Quality established the process for setting Europe-wide limit values for a series of pollutants. The Clean Air for Europe program was established by the European Union to review existing limit values, emission ceilings, and abatement protocols, as set out in the current legislation. These initiatives serve as the legislative framework for air quality management in North America and Europe.

  3. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District...

  4. Air detoxification with nanosize TiO2 aerosol tested on mice.

    PubMed

    Besov, A S; Krivova, N A; Vorontsov, A V; Zaeva, O B; Kozlov, D V; Vorozhtsov, A B; Parmon, V N; Sakovich, G V; Komarov, V F; Smirniotis, P G; Eisenreich, N

    2010-01-15

    A method for fast air purification using high concentration aerosol of TiO(2) nanoparticles is evaluated in a model chemical catastrophe involving toxic vapors of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Mice are used as human model in a closed 100 dm(3) chamber. Exposure of mice to 37 ppm of DFP vapor for 15 min resulted in acute poisoning. Spraying TiO(2) aerosol in 2 min after the start of exposure to DFP vapors resulted in quick removal of DFP vapors from the chamber's air. Animals did not show signs of poisoning after the decontamination experiment and exposure to TiO(2) aerosol alone. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of mice blood plasma were measured for animals exposed to sound of aerosol generator, DFP vapors, TiO(2) aerosol and DFP vapors+TiO(2) aerosol. Reduced ROS and increased AOA were found for mice exposure to sound, DFP and TiO(2) aerosol. Exposure to DFP and decontamination with TiO(2) nanoparticles resulted in decreased AOA in 48 h following the exposure. The results suggest that application of TiO(2) aerosol is a powerful method of air purification from toxic hydrolysable compounds with moderate health aftermaths and requires further study and optimization.

  5. [Effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/ NO(x)/air mixture].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Hao, Ji-Ming; Lü, Zi-Feng; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Jun-Hua

    2007-06-01

    The effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/NO(x)/air mixture was evaluated with Tsinghua Smog Chamber facility. The results indicate that the presence of concentrated preexisting ammonium sulfate aerosol shortens the time to reach maximum PM (particle matter) concentration and increases the aerosol yield of toluene. And under the presence of high concentrated ammonium sulfate aerosol seed, the concentration of aerosol does not have significant effects on NO(x), NO and O3 variation, but affects the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The SOA yield increases with the increasing initial ammonium sulfate seed concentration (< 160 microg x m(-3)). From the minimum 7.2% to the maximum 11.7%, the percentage increase of SOA yield is more than 60%.

  6. Air Quality Forecast Verification using Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, S.; Lee, P.; McQueen, J.; Kittaka, C.; Prados, A.; Ciren, P.; Laszlo, I.; Pierce, R. B.; Hoff, R.; Szykman, J. J.

    2006-05-01

    NOAA's operational geostationary satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depths (AODs) were used to verify National Weather Service (NWS) developmental (research mode) particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions tested during the summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation/New England Air Quality Study (ICARTT/NEAQS) field campaign. The forecast period was encompassed by long range transport of smoke from fires burning in Canada and Alaska and a regional-scale sulfate event over the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern United States (U.S). Over the 30-day time period for which daytime hourly forecasts were compared to observations, the categorical (event defined as AOD greater than 0.65) forecast accuracy was between 60% and 99% with a mean of ~80%. Hourly normalized mean bias (forecasts -" observations) ranged between -50% and +50% with forecasts being biased high when observed AODs were small and biased low when observed AODs were high. Normalized Mean Errors are between 50% and 100% with the errors on the lower end during July 18-22, 2004 time period when a regional scale sulfate event occurred. Spatially, the errors are small over the regions where sulfate plumes were present. The correlation coefficient (r) also showed similar features (spatially and temporally) with a peak value of ~0.6 during July 18-22, 2004 time period. The dominance of long-range transport of smoke into the US during the summer of 2004, neglected in the model predictions, skewed the model forecast performance. Enhanced accuracy and reduced normalized mean errors during the time period when a sulfate event prevailed shows that the forecast system is capable of skill in predicting PM2.5 associated with urban/industrial pollution events.

  7. Air Quality | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  8. Radioactive Aerosols as an Index of Air Pollution in the City of Thessaloniki, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Ioannidou, A.; Papastefanou, C.

    2010-01-21

    This study summarizes results of an investigation done in order to find out how the radioactive aerosols of {sup 7}Be could serve as indicators of air pollution conditions. Beryllium-7 is a cosmic-ray produced radionuclide with an important fraction of its production to take place in the upper troposphere. Once it is formed is rapidly associated with submicron aerosol particles and participates in the formation and growth of the accumulation mode aerosols, which is a major reservoir of pollutants in the atmosphere. In order to define any influence of AMAD of {sup 7}Be aerosols by air pollution conditions, the aerodynamic size distribution of {sup 7}Be aerosols was determined by collecting samples at different locations in the suburban area of the city of Thessaloniki, including rural areas, industrial areas, high elevations, marine environment and the airport area. The aerodynamic size distribution of {sup 7}Be aerosols in different locations was obtained by using Andersen 1-ACFM cascade impactors and the Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) was determined. Some dependency of the AMADs on height has been observed, while in near marine environment the {sup 7}Be activity size distribution was dominant in the upper size range of aerosol particles. Low AMADs as low as 0.62 to 0.74 {mu}m of {sup 7}Be aerosols have been observed at locations characterized with relative low pollution, while it is concluded that in the activity size distribution of ambient aerosols, {sup 7}Be changes to larger particle sizes in the presence of pollutants, since low AMADs of {sup 7}Be aerosols have been observed at low polluted locations. Preliminary data of simultaneous measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 212}Pb with gaseous air pollutants CO, NO, NO{sub X}, SO{sub 2} and total suspended particulate matter (TSP) show that radon decay products near the ground could be a useful index of air pollution potential conditions and transport processes in the boundary layer.

  9. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  10. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  11. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  12. Deep learning architecture for air quality predictions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Ling; Hu, Yuan; Shao, Jing; Chi, Tianhe

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, many developing countries are suffering from heavy air pollution. Governments and citizens have expressed increasing concern regarding air pollution because it affects human health and sustainable development worldwide. Current air quality prediction methods mainly use shallow models; however, these methods produce unsatisfactory results, which inspired us to investigate methods of predicting air quality based on deep architecture models. In this paper, a novel spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL)-based air quality prediction method that inherently considers spatial and temporal correlations is proposed. A stacked autoencoder (SAE) model is used to extract inherent air quality features, and it is trained in a greedy layer-wise manner. Compared with traditional time series prediction models, our model can predict the air quality of all stations simultaneously and shows the temporal stability in all seasons. Moreover, a comparison with the spatiotemporal artificial neural network (STANN), auto regression moving average (ARMA), and support vector regression (SVR) models demonstrates that the proposed method of performing air quality predictions has a superior performance.

  13. Advection fog formation and aerosols produced by combustion-originated air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The way in which pollutants produced by the photochemical reaction of NO(X) and SO(X) affect the quality of the human environment through such phenomena as the formation of advection fog is considered. These pollutants provide the major source of condensation nuclei for the formation of fog in highways, airports and seaports. Results based on the monodisperse, multicomponent aerosol model show that: (1) condensation nuclei can grow and form a dense fog without the air having attained supersaturation; (2) the mass concentration range for NO(X) is one-third that of SO(X); and (3) the greater the mass concentration, the particle concentration, and the radius of condensation nuclei, the denser the fog that is formed.

  14. Breathing Easy over Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greim, Clifton; Turner, William

    1991-01-01

    School systems should test the air in every school building for the presence and level of contaminants such as radon and asbestos and whether the ventilation system is circulating the proper amount of air. Periodic maintenance is required for all mechanical systems. (MLF)

  15. Air pollution and asthma: clinical studies with sulfuric acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Frampton, M.W.; Morrow, P.E. )

    1991-11-01

    Until recently, acid deposition has been widely considered a serious ecological problem but not a threat to human health. The controlled clinical study is an important approach in linking acidic aerosol inhalation with respiratory effects. Asthmatic patients represent a subpopulation most responsive to sulfuric acid aerosols. In a series of studies with asthmatic volunteers, several factors have been identified that may modulate the intensity of the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled acidic aerosols. We found (1) enhancement of the bronchoconstrictor response during exercise, (2) the more acidic aerosols provoke the greatest changes in lung function, and (3) mitigation of airway responses during sulfuric acid aerosol inhalation caused by high respiratory ammonia concentrations. Additional factors influencing responsiveness await identification.

  16. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  17. Influence of air mass origin on aerosol properties at a remote Michigan forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; Wallace, H. W.; Pressley, S. N.; Erickson, M. H.; Jobson, B. T.; Lamb, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    The northern Great Lakes region of North America is a large, relatively pristine area. To date, there has only been limited study of the atmospheric aerosol in this region. During summer 2009, a detailed characterization of the atmospheric aerosol was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) as part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX). Measurements included particle size distribution, water-soluble composition, and CCN activity. Aerosol properties were strongly dependent on the origin of the air masses reaching the site. For ∼60% of the study period, air was transported from sparsely populated regions to the northwest. During these times aerosol loadings were low, with mean number and volume concentrations of 1630 cm-3 and 1.91 μm3 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol during clean periods was dominated by organics, and exhibited low hygroscopicities (mean κ = 0.18 at s = 0.3%). When air was from more populated regions to the east and south (∼29% of the time), aerosol properties reflected a stronger anthropogenic influence, with 85% greater particle number concentrations, 2.5 times greater aerosol volume, six times more sulfate mass, and increased hygroscopicity (mean k = 0.24 at s = 0.3%). These trends are have the potential to influence forest-atmosphere interactions and should be targeted for future study.

  18. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  19. The impact of European measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnock, S.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T.; Mann, G.; Forster, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Johnson, C.; Bellouin, N.; Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, resulting in improved air quality and benefits to human health but also an unintended impact on regional climate. Here we used a coupled chemistry-climate model and a new policy relevant emission scenario to determine the impact of air pollutant emission reductions over Europe. The emission scenario shows that a combination of technological improvements and end-of-pipe abatement measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors reduced European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon and organic carbon by 53%, 59% and 32% respectively. We estimate that these emission reductions decreased European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, black carbon (BC) by 56% and particulate organic matter (POM) by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 107,000 (40,000-172,000, 5-95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually from cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer across the EU member states. The decrease in aerosol concentrations caused a positive all-sky aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere over Europe of 2.3±0.06 W m-2 and a positive clear-sky forcing of 1.7±0.05 W m-2. Additionally, the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe increased by 3.3±0.07 W m-2 under all-sky and by 2.7±0.05 W m-2 under clear-sky conditions. Reductions in BC concentrations caused a 1 Wm-2 reduction in atmospheric absorption. We use an energy budget approximation to show that the aerosol induced radiative changes caused both temperature and precipitation to increase globally and over Europe. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as altered the regional radiative balance and climate.

  20. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  1. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  2. Ambient air quality in Slovak Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Violova, A.; Cremonini, M.G.; Lombardo, P.; Stenhouse, I.A.; Kocan, A.

    1998-07-01

    The National Government of the Slovak Republic is committed to develop an integrated strategy that will take into account global, regional and local aspects of the national emissions of pollutants. Priority is given to ambient air quality, with particular reference to human health protection. Only limited information on ambient air concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) was available in Slovakia. A comprehensive ambient air quality project has been recently funded by the European Union Phare Programme. The project was performed under the technical supervision of the Slovak Ministry of the Environment and aimed at monitoring the ambient air quality with respect to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (HMs), identifying and evaluating main potential pollution sources, and defining general strategies to reduce impacts.

  3. Kinetic analysis of competition between aerosol particle removal and generation by ionization air purifiers.

    PubMed

    Alshawa, Ahmad; Russell, Ashley R; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2007-04-01

    Ionization air purifiers are increasingly used to remove aerosol particles from indoor air. However, certain ionization air purifiers also emit ozone. Reactions between the emitted ozone and unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOC) commonly found in indoor air produce additional respirable aerosol particles in the ultrafine (<0.1 microm) and fine (<2.5 microm) size domains. A simple kinetic model is used to analyze the competition between the removal and generation of particulate matter by ionization air purifiers under conditions of a typical residential building. This model predicts that certain widely used ionization air purifiers may actually increase the mass concentration of fine and ultrafine particulates in the presence of common unsaturated VOC, such as limonene contained in many household cleaning products. This prediction is supported by an explicit observation of ultrafine particle nucleation events caused by the addition of D-limonene to a ventilated office room equipped with a common ionization air purifier.

  4. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Building materials and furnishings as diverse as: Deteriorated asbestos-containing insulation Newly installed flooring, upholstery or carpet ... more about indoor air pollutants and sources of: Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood ...

  5. Indoor Air Quality in Apartments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apartments can have the same indoor air problems as single-family homes because many of the pollution sources, such as the interior building materials, furnishings, and household products, are similar.

  6. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2014-06-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids, and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measure on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOC), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184 ± 241 ng m-3, 597 ± 159 ng m-3 and 1496 ± 511ng m-3 in PKU, and 1050 ± 303 ng m-3, 475 ± 114 ng m-3 and 1278 ± 372 ng m-3 in Yufa. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa, followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by stearic acid (C18:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from northeast, passing over southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during cleaner events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measure on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested that the

  7. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2015-03-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOCs), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184±241, 597±159 and 1496±511 ng m-3 in Peking University (PKU), and 1050±303, 475±114 and 1278±372 ng m-3 in Yufa, Beijing. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at stearic acid (C18:0), followed by palmitic acid (C16:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from the northeast, passing over the southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from the north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during less pollution events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested

  8. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  9. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  10. Installing Portable Classrooms With Good Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular classrooms and improvements made in indoor air quality, including the pros and cons of portables, challenges districts face when planning and installing portables, and cost considerations. Concluding comments highlight system costs and maintenance required. (GR)

  11. Publications about Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Publications and resources that relate to indoor air quality in schools, and design tools for schools. These publications cover a wide range of issues, including IAQ management, student performance, asthma, mold and moisture, and radon.

  12. Indoor Air Quality and Ice Arenas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All recreational facilities including ice arenas should use good ventilation practices especially where children are present. It is critical that indoor air quality is protected particularly when using fuel-burning equipment indoors.

  13. Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA completed an extensive modeling study to assess the compatibilities and trade-offs between energy, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort objectives for HVAC systems and to formulate strategies for superior performance across all areas.

  14. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  15. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  16. Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program acted swiftly and aggressively to tackle mold and moisture problems in its community members’ homes after several residents became ill as a result of environmental exposures.

  17. Coordinator's Guide for Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit - IAQ Coordinator's Guide. This guidance is designed to present practical and often low-cost actions you can take to identify and address existing or potential air quality problems.

  18. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  19. EVALUATING AND USING AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grid-based models are being used to assess the magnitude of the pollution problem and to design emission control strategies to achieve compliance with the relevant air quality standards in the United States.

  20. Improving AirNow Air Quality Products with NASA Near-Real-Time Remote Sensing Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; Pasch, A. N.; DeWinter, J. L.; Haderman, M.; Szykman, J.; White, J. E.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program provides the public with real-time and forecasted air quality conditions. Millions of people each day use it to protect their health. The AirNow program (http://www.airnow.gov), reports ground-level ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in a standardized index called the Air Quality Index (AQI). AirNow aggregates information from over 130 state, local, and federal air quality agencies and provides tools for over 2,000 agency staff responsible for monitoring, forecasting, and communicating local air quality. Each hour, AirNow systems generate thousands of maps and products. This presentation will describe how AirNow is benefiting from NASA's remote sensing data. We will describe two applications of NASA near-real-time remote sensing data within AirNow through case studies, focusing specifically on days when large spatial gradients in AQI and wildfire smoke impacts were observed. The first case study will show how AirNow is merging satellite-estimated PM2.5 concentrations into the AQI maps via the AirNow Satellite Data Processor (ASDP). AirNow derives these satellite estimates using NASA/NOAA satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals and GEOS-Chem modeled ratios of surface PM2.5 concentrations to AOD. The second case study will show how NASA's Global Image Browse Services (GIBS) provides a near-real-time satellite product in AirNow-Tech for agency users to quickly identify smoke plumes and access air quality conditions in data-sparse areas during wildland fires.

  1. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  2. Urban air quality estimation study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Possibilities are explored for applying estimation theory to the analysis, interpretation, and use of air quality measurements in conjunction with simulation models to provide a cost effective method of obtaining reliable air quality estimates for wide urban areas. The physical phenomenology of real atmospheric plumes from elevated localized sources is discussed. A fluctuating plume dispersion model is derived. Individual plume parameter formulations are developed along with associated a priori information. Individual measurement models are developed.

  3. Air quality management in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

    2005-07-01

    In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Influencing Indoor Air Quality ................... 5 Carbon Dioxide and Fresh Air ........................ 6 Relative Humidity...037, A Procedural Guide on Sick Building Syndrome (Liebhaber, 1987), and supplements AFOEHL Report 90-169, Recommended Carbon Dioxide and Relative...symptoms. The causes most implicated in the literature include comfort parameters such as carbon dioxide (C02) concentration, relative humidity

  5. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  11. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  1. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. Progress Toward a Global, EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    The MISR and MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra Satellite have been collecting data containing information about the state of Earth's atmosphere and surface for over eleven years. Data from these instruments have been used to develop a global, monthly climatology of aerosol amount that is widely used as a constraint on climate models, including those used for the 2007 IPCC assessment report. The next frontier in assessing aerosol radiative forcing of climate is aerosol type, and in particular, the absorption properties of major aerosol air masses. This presentation will focus on the prospects for constraining aerosol type globally, and the steps we are taking to apply a combination of satellite and suborbital data to this challenge.

  2. Toward Obtaining Reliable Particulate Air Quality Information from Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Legg, M.; Esswein, R.; Justice, E.

    2009-12-01

    Air quality agencies use ground sites to monitor air quality, providing accurate information at particular points. Using measurements from satellite imagery has the potential to provide air quality information in a timely manner with better spatial resolution and at a lower cost that can also useful for model validation. While previous studies show acceptable correlations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MODIS and surface Particulate Matter (PM) measurements on the eastern US, the data do not correlate well in the western US (Al-Saadi et al., 2005; Engle-Cox et al., 2004) . This paper seeks to improve the AOD-PM correlations by using advanced statistical analysis techniques. Our study area is the San Joaquin Valley in California because air quality in this region has failed to meet state and federal attainment standards for PM for the past several years. A previous investigation found good correlation of the AOD values between MODIS, MISR and AERONET, but poor correlations (R2 ~ 0.02) between satellite-based AOD and surface PM2.5 measurements. PM2.5 measurements correlated somewhat better (R2 ~ 0.18) with MODIS-derived AOD using the Deep Blue surface reflectance algorithm (Hsu et al., 2006) rather than the standard MODIS algorithm. This level of correlation is not adequate for reliable air quality measurements. Pelletier et al. (2007) used generalized additive models (GAMs) and meteorological data to improve the correlation between PM and AERONET AOD in western Europe. Additive models are more flexible than linear models and the functional relationships can be plotted to give a sense of the relationship between the predictor and the response. In this paper we use GAMs to improve surface PM2.5 to MODIS-AOD correlations. For example, we achieve an R2 ~ 0.44 using a GAM that includes the Deep Blue AOD, and day of year as parameters. Including NOx observations, improves the R2 ~ 0.64. Surprisingly Ångström exponent did not prove to be a significant

  3. Global Aerosol Observations

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... atmosphere, directly influencing global climate and human health. Ground-based networks that accurately measure column aerosol amount and ... being used to improve Air Quality Models and for regional health studies. To assess the human-health impact of chronic aerosol exposure, ...

  4. OMI tropospheric NO2 air mass factors over South America: effects of biomass burning aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, K. F.; Torres, O.; de Haan, J. F.

    2015-03-01

    Biomass burning is an important and uncertain source of aerosols and NOx (NO + NO2) to the atmosphere. OMI observations of tropospheric NO2 are essential for characterizing this emissions source, but inaccuracies in the retrieval of NO2 tropospheric columns due to the radiative effects of aerosols, especially light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, are not well understood. It has been shown that the O2-O2 effective cloud fraction and pressure retrieval is sensitive to aerosol optical and physical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD). Aerosols implicitly influence the tropospheric air mass factor (AMF) calculations used in the NO2 retrieval through the effective cloud parameters used in the independent pixel approximation. In this work, we explicitly account for the effects of biomass burning aerosols in the tropospheric NO2 AMF calculation by including collocated aerosol extinction vertical profile observations from the CALIOP instrument, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved by the OMI near-UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) in the DISAMAR radiative transfer model for cloud-free scenes. Tropospheric AMFs calculated with DISAMAR were benchmarked against AMFs reported in the Dutch OMI NO2 (DOMINO) retrieval; the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the difference was 0.6 ± 8%. Averaged over three successive South American biomass burning seasons (2006-2008), the spatial correlation in the 500 nm AOD retrieved by OMI and the 532 nm AOD retrieved by CALIOP was 0.6, and 72% of the daily OMAERUV AOD observations were within 0.3 of the CALIOP observations. Overall, tropospheric AMFs calculated with observed aerosol parameters were on average 10% higher than AMFs calculated with effective cloud parameters. For effective cloud radiance fractions less than 30%, or effective cloud pressures greater than 800 hPa, the difference between tropospheric AMFs based on implicit and explicit aerosol parameters is on average 6 and 3

  5. Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... article title:  Aerosols over Central and Eastern Europe     View Larger Image ... last weeks of March 2003, widespread aerosol pollution over Europe was detected by several satellite-borne instruments. The Multi-angle ...

  6. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... systems (including their brains) arising from Pb exposure may include intelligence quotient (IQ)...

  7. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  8. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  9. Formation and growth of indoor air aerosol particles as a result of D-limonene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, E.; Kulmala, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Taipale, R.; Rinne, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    Oxidation of D-limonene, which is a common monoterpene, can lead to new aerosol particle formation in indoor environments. Thus, products containing D-limonene, such as citrus fruits, air refresheners, household cleaning agents, and waxes, can act as indoor air aerosol particle sources. We released D-limonene into the room air by peeling oranges and measured the concentration of aerosol particles of three different size ranges. In addition, we measured the concentration of D-limonene, the oxidant, and the concentration of ozone, the oxidizing gas. Based on the measurements we calculated the growth rate of the small aerosol particles, which were 3-10 nm in diameter, to be about 6300nmh-1, and the losses of the aerosol particles that were due to the coagulation and condensation processes. From these, we further approximated the concentration of the condensable vapour and its source rate and then calculated the formation rate of the small aerosol particles. For the final result, we calculated the nucleation rate and the maximum number of molecules in a critical cluster. The nucleation rate was in the order of 105cm-3s-1 and the number of molecules in a critical-sized cluster became 1.2. The results were in agreement with the activation theory.

  10. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of air quality interventions.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Annemoon M M; O'Keefe, Robert; Cohen, Aaron J; Warren, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the extent to which air quality regulations improve public health--sometimes referred to as accountability--is part of an emerging effort to assess the effectiveness of environmental regulatory policies. Air quality has improved substantially in the United States and Western Europe in recent decades, with far less visible pollution and decreasing concentrations of several major pollutants. In large part, these gains were achieved through increasingly stringent air quality regulations. The costs associated with compliance and, importantly, the need to ensure that the regulations are achieving the intended public health benefits underscore the importance of accountability research. To date, accountability research has emphasized measuring the effects of actions already taken to improve air quality. Such research may also contribute to estimating the burden of disease that might be avoided in the future if certain actions are taken. The Health Effects Institute (HEI) currently funds eight ongoing studies on accountability, which cover near-term interventions to improve air quality including (1) a ban on the sale of coal, (2) replacing old wood stoves with cleaner ones, (3) decreasing sulfur content in fuel, (4) measures to reduce traffic, and (5) longer term, wide-ranging actions or events (such as complex changes associated with the reunification of Germany). HEI is also funding the development of methods and research to assess regulations that are implemented incrementally over extended periods of time, such as Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, which reduces sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants in the eastern United States.

  12. Air quality remote sensing over alpine regions with METEOSAT SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, E.; Popp, C.; Petitta, M.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2009-04-01

    It is well demonstrated that small aerosol particles or particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) affect air quality and can have severe effects on human's health. Hence, it is of great interest for public institutions to have an efficient PM monitoring network. In the last decades this data has been provided from ground-based instruments. Moreover, due to the fast development of space-borne remote sensing instruments, we can now be able to take advantage of air pollution measurements from space, which bears the potential to fill up the gap of spatial coverage from ground-based networks. This also improves the capability to assess air pollutants transport properties together with a better implementation in forecasting data assimilation procedures. In this study we examine the possibility of using data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), on-board of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, to provide PM concentrations values over Switzerland. SEVIRI's high temporal resolution (15 minutes) could be very useful in investigating the daily behaviour of air pollutants and therefore be a good complement to measurements from polar orbiting sensors (e.g. MODIS). Switzerland is of particular interest because of its mountainous orography that hampers pollutants dispersion. Further, major transalpine connection routes, often characterised by high traffic load, act as a significant air pollution source. The south of Switzerland is also occasionally influenced by pollutants transported from the highly industrialised Po Valley in northern Italy. We investigate the existence of a linear relation between the SEVIRI retrieved AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and the PM concentration obtained from the ground-based air quality network NABEL (Nationales Beobachtungsnetz fuer Luftfremdstoffe). The temporal trend of this two quantities shows a significant relationship over various locations. The correlation coefficient is in some cases higher than 0

  13. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE UNITED STATES: ESTIMATES ON THE BASIS OF OBSERVED ORGANIC CARBON (OC) AND ELEMENTAL CARBON (EC), AND AIR QUALITY MODELED PRIMARY (OC/EC) RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal and spatial distributions of primary and secondary organic carbon aerosols (OC) over the continental US during June 15 to August 31, 1999, were estimated by using observational OC and elemental carbon (EC) data from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environm...

  14. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein. PMID:28250718

  15. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  16. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments have had great success in monitoring the stratospheric ozone and in understanding the processes that control its daily to decadal scale variations. This field is now reaching its zenith with a number of satellite instruments from the US, Europe and Canada capping several decades of active research in this field. The primary public policy imperative of this research was to make reliable prediction of increases in biologically active surface UV radiation due to human activity. By contrast retrieval from satellite data of atmospheric constituents and photo-chemically active radiation that affect air quality is a new and growing field that is presenting us with unique challenges in measurement and data interpretation. A key distinction compared to stratospheric sensors is the greatly enhanced role of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces (CAS) in determining the quality and quantity of useful data that is available for air quality research. In our presentation we will use data from several sensors that are currently flying on the A-train satellite constellation, including OMI, MODIS, CLOUDSAT, and CALIPSO, to highlight that CAS can have both positive and negative effects on the information content of satellite measurements. This is in sharp contrast to other fields of remote sensing where CAS are usually considered an interference except in those cases when they are the primary subject of study. Our analysis has revealed that in the reflected wavelengths one often sees much further down into the atmosphere, through most cirrus, than one does in the emitted wavelengths. The lower level clouds provide a nice background against which one can track long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols. In addition, differences in trace gas columns estimated over cloudy and adjacent clear pixels can be used to measure boundary layer trace gases. However, in order to take full advantage of these features it will be necessary to greatly advance our understanding of

  17. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  18. Global and regional air quality responses to regional CO reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Adelman, Z.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence global and regional air quality and climate through changes in the tropospheric concentrations of O3, methane (CH4), and aerosols. Here we examine the influence of regional carbon monoxide (CO) emissions on air quality by simulating 50% reductions in anthropogenic CO emissions from 10 world regions (Australia/New Zealand, Southeast Asia, East Asia, India, Southern Africa, Northern Africa/Middle East, Former Soviet Union, Europe, South America, and North America), using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. The IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emissions inventory for 2005 and global meteorology from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) for 2004-2005 are used as inputs to MOZART-4, run at 1.9 x 2.5 degree horizontal resolution. Base case global air quality is first simulated for the year 2005, and the resulting distributions of tropospheric O3 and related species are compared with observations. Then CO emission reductions from each of the 10 regions are simulated individually. We quantify global and regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 at the surface and within the troposphere, including the influence of each regional reduction on long-term O3 concentrations via CH4 and the long-range transport of O3 and CO. This analysis shows the sensitivity of global and regional air quality to anthropogenic CO emissions from many world regions, in contrast to previous studies of only a few regions. Beyond this study, these simulations will be used to estimate the net radiative forcing due to CO emission reductions from these world regions.

  19. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  20. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  3. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  4. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence on thermodynamics, gas and aerosol composition of city air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzhegova, Nina; Belan, Boris; Antokhin, Pavel; Zhidovkhin, Evgenii; Ivlev, Georgii; Kozlov, Artem; Fofonov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    In the last 40-50 years there is a global tendency of urbanisation, which is a consequence of most countries' economical development. Concurrently, the issue of environment's ecological state has become critical. Urban air pollution is among the most important ecological problems nowadays. World Health Organization (WHO) points out certain "classical" polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), troposphere ozone (O3) (studied here), as well as lead, carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes, soot, benzpyrene and dredges (including dust, haze and smoke) [1]. An evaluation of antropogenic component's weight in the thermodynamical conditions and gas and aerosol composition of a city's atmosphere (by the example of Tomsk) is given in this paper. Tomsk is located at the South of West Siberia and is the administrative center of Tomsk region. The city's area is equal to 294,6 km2. Its population is 512.6 thousands of people. The overall number of registered motor vehicles in the city in 2008 was 131 700. That is, every fourth city inhabitant has a personal car. From 2002 to 2008 the number of motor vehicles in Tomsk has increased by 25 thousands units [2]. This increase consists mostly of passenger cars. There is also a positive trend in fuel consumtion by the city's industries and motor vehicles - from 2004 to 2007 it has increased by 10%. Such a quick rate of transport quantity's increase in the city provides reason to suggest an unfavorable ecological situation in Tomsk. For this study we have used the AKV-2 mobile station designed by the SB RAS Institute of Atmospheric Optics. The station's equipment provides the following measurements [3]: air temperature and humidity; aerosol disperse composition in 15 channels with a particle size range of 0.3-20 µm by use of the Grimm-1.108 aerosol spectrometer; NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO, CO2 concentration. This paper describes a single experiment conducted in Tomsk. Date of

  5. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  7. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. The introductory paragraph to 18 AAC 50.040(h) as in effect on December 9, 2010...

  13. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  14. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  19. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  1. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  2. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  3. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  4. The Impact of Marine Organic Emissions on Coastal Air Quality of the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Meskhidze, N.; Carlton, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have shown that organic carbon aerosols (OC) are a major component of aerosols found in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two distinct sources for these aerosols have been isolated using vertical gradients: 1) water insoluble OC aerosolized through bubble bursting of the organic surface layer, and 2) water soluble OC produced primarily from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Additionally, these marine-source BVOC can also participate in ozone formation in coastal urban areas with high NOx concentrations. At the present, there has been little work quantifying the impact of marine BVOC emissions on coastal air quality, despite many coastal urban areas having some of the world’s most polluted air. In this work, we examine the impact of marine biogenic emissions to air quality over the Pacific coast of the US. Using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model Version 4.7, we simulate both marine primary organic aerosols and SOA formed from phytoplankton-emitted isoprene. The CMAQ model simulations are performed for the months of June, July, and August 2005 over a domain including the western US at a horizontal resolution of 12 × 12 km2. A combination of remotely sensed data, laboratory measurements, and model meteorology are used to calculate the marine biogenic emissions, with marine isoprene added offline and primary OC simulated online. Our preliminary results show small increases in the surface concentrations of ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) near the coast when marine organic emissions are added. For coastal urban areas like Los Angeles and San Francisco, CA, average ozone concentrations increase ~0.1-0.2%, while PM2.5 concentrations increase up to 3% across much of the Pacific coastline. Organic aerosols with a marine source account for up to 50% (0.15 µg m-3) of the simulated average surface OC concentration over the open ocean, and contribute up

  5. New Methods for Air Quality Model Evaluation with Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Harkey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the ability of satellites to detect gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, there remains significant, untapped potential to apply space-based data to air quality regulatory applications. Here, we showcase research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to support operational air quality management, focused on model evaluation. Particular emphasis is given to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite, and evaluation of simulations from the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. This work is part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and is motivated by ongoing dialog with state and federal air quality management agencies. We present the response of satellite-derived NO2 to meteorological conditions, satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, and the ability of models to capture these sensitivities over the continental U.S. In the case of NO2-weather sensitivities, we find boundary layer height, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity to be the most important variables in determining near-surface NO2 variability. CMAQ agreed with relationships observed in satellite data, as well as in ground-based data, over most regions. However, we find that the southwest U.S. is a problem area for CMAQ, where modeled NO2 responses to insolation, boundary layer height, and other variables are at odds with the observations. Our analyses utilize a software developed by our team, the Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites (WHIPS): a free, open-source program designed to make satellite-derived air quality data more usable. WHIPS interpolates level 2 satellite retrievals onto a user-defined fixed grid, in effect creating custom-gridded level 3 satellite product. Currently, WHIPS can process the following data products: OMI NO2 (NASA retrieval); OMI NO2 (KNMI retrieval); OMI

  6. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  7. Overview of Aerosol Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram

    2005-01-01

    Our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols (smoke, pollution, dust or sea salt particles, small enough to be suspended in the air), their evolution, composition, variability in space and time and interaction with clouds and precipitation is still lacking despite decades of research. Understanding the global aerosol system is fundamental for progress in climate change and hydrological cycle research. While a single instrument was used to demonstrate 50 years ago that the global CO2 levels are rising, posing threat of global warming, we need an array of satellites and field measurements coupled with chemical transport models to understand the global aerosol system. This complexity of the aerosol problem results from their short lifetime (1 week) and variable chemical composition. A new generation of satellites provides exciting opportunities to measure the global distribution of aerosols, distinguishing natural from anthropogenic aerosol and measuring their interaction with clouds and climate. I shall discuss these topics and application of the data to air quality monitoring.

  8. Fog Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET, Including Occurrences During Major Air Pollution Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Li, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A. T.; Schafer, J.; Artaxo, P.; Smirnov, A.; Chen, H.; Goloub, P.

    2015-12-01

    The modification of aerosol optical properties due to interaction with fog is examined from measurements made by sun/sky radiometers at several AERONET sites. Retrieved total column volume size distributions for cases identified as aerosol modified by fog often show very a large 'middle mode' submicron radius (~0.4 to 0.5 microns), which is typically seen as a component of a bimodal sub-micron distribution. These middle mode sized particles are often called cloud-processed or residual aerosol. This bimodal accumulation mode distribution may be due to one mode (the larger one) from fog-processed aerosol and the other from interstitial aerosol, or possibly from two different aerosol species (differing chemical composition) with differing hygroscopic growth factors. The size of the fine mode particles from AERONET retrieved for these cases exceeds the size of sub-micron sized particles retrieved for nearly all other aerosol types, suggesting significant modification of aerosols within the fog or cloud environment. In-situ measured aerosol size distributions made during other fog events are compared to the AERONET retrievals, and show close agreement in the residual mode particle size. Almucantar retrievals are analyzed from the Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India (fog in January), Beijing (fog in winter), Fresno, CA in the San Joaquin Valley (fog in winter), South Korea (Yellow Sea fog in spring), Arica on the northern coast of Chile (stratocumulus), and several other sites with aerosol observations made after fog dissipated. Additionally, several major air pollution events are discussed where extremely high aerosol concentrations were measured at the surface and during which fog also occurred, resulting in the detection very large fine mode aerosols (residual mode) from AERONET retrievals in some of these events. Low wind speeds that occurred during these events were conducive to both pollutant accumulation and also fog formation. The presence of fog then

  9. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  10. Improvements to the OMI Near-uv Aerosol Algorithm Using A-train CALIOP and AIRS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahn, C.; Zhong, C.

    2014-01-01

    The height of desert dust and carbonaceous aerosols layers and, to a lesser extent, the difficulty in assessing the predominant size mode of these absorbing aerosol types, are sources of uncertainty in the retrieval of aerosol properties from near UV satellite observations. The availability of independent, near-simultaneous measurements of aerosol layer height, and aerosol-type related parameters derived from observations by other A-train sensors, makes possible the direct use of these parameters as input to the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) near UV retrieval algorithm. A monthly climatology of aerosol layer height derived from observations by the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) sensor, and real-time AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) CO observations are used in an upgraded version of the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm. AIRS CO measurements are used as a reliable tracer of carbonaceous aerosols, which allows the identification of smoke layers in areas and times of the year where the dust-smoke differentiation is difficult in the near-UV. The use of CO measurements also enables the identification of elevated levels of boundary layer pollution undetectable by near UV observations alone. In this paper we discuss the combined use of OMI, CALIOP and AIRS observations for the characterization of aerosol properties, and show a significant improvement in OMI aerosol retrieval capabilities.

  11. [Aerosol optical properties during different air-pollution episodes over Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chan-Zhen; Yu, Xing-Na; Zhou, Bin; Xiang, Lei; Nie, Hao-Hao

    2013-11-01

    Based on the 2005-2011 data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), this study conducted analysis on aerosol optical properties over Beijing during different air-pollution episodes (biomass burning, CNY firework, dust storm). The aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed notable increases in the air-pollution episodes while the AOD (at 440 nm) during dust storm was 4. 91, 4. 07 and 2.65 times higher as background, biomass burning and firework aerosols. AOD along with Angstrom exponent (alpha) can be used to determine the aerosol types. The dust aerosol had the highest AOD and the lowest alpha. The alpha value of firework (1.09) was smaller than biomass burning (1.21) and background (1.27), indicating that coarse particles were dominant in the former type. Higher AOD of burnings (than background) can be attributed to the optical extinction capability of black carbon aerosol. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was insensitive to wavelength. The SSA value of dust (0.934) was higher than background (0.878), biomass burning (0.921) and firework (0.905). Additionally, the extremely large SSA of burnings here maybe was caused by the aging smoke, hygroscopic growth and so on. The peak radius of aerosol volume size distributions were 0.1-0.2 microm and 2.24 -3.85 microm in clear and polluted conditions. The value of volume concentration ratio between coarse and fine particles was in the order of clear background (1.04), biomass burning (1.10), CNY firework (1.91) and dust storm (4.96) episode.

  12. Thermally-driven advections of aerosol-rich air masses to an Alpine valley: Theoretical considerations and experimental evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, Henri; Magri, Tiziana; Pession, Giordano; Zublena, Manuela; Campanelli, Monica; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Barnaba, Francesca; Di Liberto, Luca; Dionisi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    A CHM-15k laser radar (lidar) was installed in April 2015 at the solar observatory of the Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley (Northern Italy, 45.74N, 7.36E, 560 m a.s.l.). The instrument operates at 1064 nm, is capable of mapping the vertical profile of aerosols and clouds up to the tropopause and is part of the Alice-net ceilometers network (www.alice-net.eu). The site is in a large Alpine valley floor, in a semi-rural context. Among the most interesting cases observed in the first months of operation, several days characterised by weak synoptic circulation and well-developed, thermally-driven up-valley winds are accompanied by the appearance of a thick aerosol layer in the afternoon. The phenomenon is frequent in Spring and Summer and is likely to be related to easterly airmass advections from polluted sites (e.g., the Po basin) rather than to local emissions. To test this hypothesis, the following method was adopted. First, some case studies were selected and the respective meteorological fields were analysed based on both observations at ground and the high-resolution output of the nonhydrostatic limited-area atmospheric prediction model maintained by the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdelling (COSMO) over the complex orography of the domain. Then, to evaluate the dynamics of the aerosol diffusion in the valley, the chemical transport 2D/3D eulerian Flexible Air quality Regional Model (FARM) was run. Finally, the three-dimensional output of the model was compared to the vertically-resolved aerosol field derived from the lidar-ceilometer soundings. The effects of up-slope winds, and the resulting subsidence along the main axis of the valley, is hypothesised to break up the aerosol layer close to the ground in the middle of the day and to drag the residual layer down into the mixing layer. The measurements by a co-located sun/sky photometer operating in the framework of the EuroSkyRad (ESR) network were additionally analysed to detect any

  13. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Chen, Gao; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  14. Air Quality at a Ranch Site in the Western Part of the Eagle Ford shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.; Brooks, S. D.; Zenker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The booming unconventional oil and gas industry in the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas continues to grow. Modeling studies of the air quality impacts of the Eagle Ford rely on emission inventories that may underestimate emissions from such operations, and air quality monitoring in the area remains limited. We conducted an air quality study on a ranch in Dimmit County, Texas, which was ranked 6th in Texas for natural gas production and 10th in Texas for oil production as of April 2015. An automated GC-FID was used to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons (C3 - C14), with concurrent measurements of CO, CO2, H2O, O3, NO/NOx. In addition, the concentration and sizing of aerosols ranging from 0.6 to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter were measured with a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer (GRIMM 1.108), and meteorological variables including wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and insolation were recorded. We report on local air quality and changes during the process as observed during the measurement campaign. Local drilling on the ranch began in May 2015 and production started in June 2015, at a site approximately 5 km southeast of the air quality trailer. Local air quality showed typically low, near background abundances of CO and NOx early during the campaign, and more frequent local NOx plumes during the drilling and production phases. Aerosol mass measurements were also relatively low and well within attainment of NAAQS particulate matter standards. We assess OH radical reactivity of individual and/or groups of VOCs using observed concentrations and their reaction rate coefficient with OH, the dominant VOC sink in the troposphere.

  15. The AirQuality SenseBox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  16. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Youn, D.

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3) and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p-value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  17. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Youn, D.

    2013-06-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The large-scale effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes (9-11 km in altitude) rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3) and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  18. Satellite remote sensing of particulate matter and air quality assessment over global cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Jun; Gehrig, Robert; Lee, Yc; Kumar, Naresh

    Using 1 year of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellite along with ground measurements of PM 2.5 mass concentration, we assess particulate matter air quality over different locations across the global urban areas spread over 26 locations in Sydney, Delhi, Hong Kong, New York City and Switzerland. An empirical relationship between AOT and PM 2.5 mass is obtained and results show that there is an excellent correlation between the bin-averaged daily mean satellite and ground-based values with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.96. Using meteorological and other ancillary datasets, we assess the effects of wind speed, cloud cover, and mixing height (MH) on particulate matter (PM) air quality and conclude that these data are necessary to further apply satellite data for air quality research. Our study clearly demonstrates that satellite-derived AOT is a good surrogate for monitoring PM air quality over the earth. However, our analysis shows that the PM 2.5-AOT relationship strongly depends on aerosol concentrations, ambient relative humidity (RH), fractional cloud cover and height of the mixing layer. Highest correlation between MODIS AOT and PM 2.5 mass is found under clear sky conditions with less than 40-50% RH and when atmospheric MH ranges from 100 to 200 m. Future remote sensing sensors such as Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) that have the capability to provide vertical distribution of aerosols will further enhance our ability to monitor and forecast air pollution. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between satellite and ground measurements over several global locations.

  19. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part I. model evaluation for the current decadal simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; He, Jian; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    A version of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU) is used to simulate the current and future atmosphere following the representative concentration partway scenarios for stabilization of radiative forcing at 4.5 W m-2 (RCP4.5) and radiative forcing of 8.5 W m-2 (RCP8.5). Part I describes the results from a comprehensive evaluation of current decadal simulations. Radiation and most meteorological variables are well simulated in CESM-NCSU. Cloud parameters are not as well simulated due in part to the tuning of model radiation and general biases in cloud variables common to all global chemistry-climate models. The concentrations of most inorganic aerosol species (i.e., SO42-, NH4+, and NO3-) are well simulated with normalized mean biases (NMBs) typically less than 20%. However, some notable exceptions are European NH4+, which is overpredicted by 33.0-42.2% due to high NH3 emissions and irreversible coarse mode condensation, and Cl-, that is negatively impacted by errors in emissions driven by wind speed and overpredicted HNO3. Carbonaceous aerosols are largely underpredicted following the RCP scenarios due to low emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and anthropogenic volatile compounds in the RCP inventory and efficient wet removal. This results in underpredictions of PM2.5 and PM10 by 6.4-55.7%. The column mass abundances are reasonably well simulated. Larger biases occur in surface mixing ratios of trace gases in CESM-NCSU, likely due to numerical diffusion from the coarse grid spacing of the CESM-NCSU simulations or errors in the magnitudes and vertical structure of emissions. This is especially true for SO2 and NO2. The mixing ratio of O3 is overpredicted by 38.9-76.0% due to the limitations in the O3 deposition scheme used in CESM and insufficient titration resulted from large underpredictions in NO2. Despite these limitations, CESM-NCSU reproduces reasonably well the current atmosphere in terms of

  20. Nucleation and growth of new particles in the rural atmosphere of Northern Italy—relationship to air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Van Dingenen, Rita; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Martins-Dos Santos, Sebastiao; Roselli, Davide

    This study investigates the relationship between aerosols number size distribution on the one hand, and air quality in terms of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations (as usually monitored in the air quality networks) on the other hand. For this purpose, time series of trace gases levels, submicron aerosol size distributions, both recorded at a rural site in Northern Italy (ISPRA), and of trace gas levels and PM mass concentrations, recorded in the air quality network operating in this region, have been compared and interpreted. Because of the regional nature of the PM pollution events, the daily mean levels of the aerosol volume ( V), surface area ( S) and black carbon (BC) concentrations at ISPRA rural site are well correlated with the daily mean levels of PM mass concentrations recorded at the other air quality monitoring sites. At ISPRA, the submicron aerosol size distribution is strongly influenced by two main competing processes: nucleation of new particles and condensation of gas-phase components onto pre-existing particles (resulting in particles growth). These processes influence on the daily, seasonal and day-to-day variations of the submicron aerosol features. Because increasing aerosol S concentrations favour condensation and hinder nucleation (and vice versa) the 'mean' particle size DpN (mode of the d N/dlog D size distribution) increases with increasing PM concentrations (e.g. 45 nm for V=4μmcm and 110 nm for V=45μmcm). Owing to this, time series of aerosol DpN and V, S, mass and BC concentrations are strongly anti-correlated with those of the smallest ultrafine particle number concentration ( N, 5-10 and 10-20 nm). Nucleation episodes occur under the clean air conditions prompted by the North-Föehn meteorology. This anti-correlation between submicron aerosol mass and N<20 nm concentrations (prompted by the low contribution of the ultrafine particles to the aerosol mass) has important implications for a proper air quality monitoring: the

  1. Profile and Remote Sensing Observation Datasets (Trace Gases and Aerosols) for Regional- Scale Model Evaluation under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII)- North American and European Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the vast majority of operational air-pollution networks across the world are designed to measure relevant metrics at the surface, the air pollution problem is a three-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of adequate observations aloft to routinely characterize the nature of ai...

  2. Impact of aerosol on air temperature in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, I.

    2010-08-01

    This work uses MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data observed over Kuwait during the 7-year interval 2000-2007. The values of AOT and the Ångström wavelength exponent ( α) show a clear annual cycle. These data are categorized into two catalogues in terms of the values of the AOT of the 870 nm channel ( τ870). One catalogue (71 days) includes days with high values of AOT ( τ870 ≥ 0.75). The most probable "modal" value of α for these days is 0.52. The other catalogue (1162 days) consists of the background days with a modal value ~ 1.1 for the exponent α. This analysis is extended to include water vapor content (WVC), surface wind speed (V), visibility (Vis) and the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Chree's method of superposed-epoch analysis is applied to these parameters in order to compare the variation in the daily averages during days with high AOT values with respect to background days. The high values of AOT during the 71 days are positively correlated with aerosol size, near-surface winds and poor visibility. This concludes that the aerosol particles during these days were mostly dust. The mean daily value of the DTR (Δ T) and visibility reduced significantly during these days. This reduction on DTR is a direct result of increasing the atmospheric opacity due to the presence of dust.

  3. ATTENUATION OF SOLAR UV RADIATION BY AEROSOLS DURING AIR POLLUTION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increase in the amount of solar UV radiation reaching the surface due to decrease in stratospheric ozone continues to be a major concern (WMO, 1998). However, recent studies show that absorption and smattering by aerosols during air pollution episode decreases the amount of radi...

  4. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  5. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  6. Indoor Air Quality Basics for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This fact sheet details important information on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in school buildings, problems associated with IAQ, and various prevention and problem-solving strategies. Most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency ranks IAQ in the top four environmental risks to the public. The…

  7. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  8. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  9. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  10. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  11. Shuttle applications in tropospheric air quality observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Gupta, J.; Carmichael, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role which might be played by the space shuttle in obtaining data which describes the air quality of the north-eastern United States was investigated. The data requirements of users, a model for statistical interpretation of the observations, the influence of orbit parameters on the spatial and temporal sampling and an example of application of the the model were considered.

  12. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  13. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  14. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  15. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  16. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  18. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality rules identified in paragraph (a) of this section, and the Lane Regional Air Pollution...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (c)(1) Insofar as the Prevention of...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  2. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  5. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.302 Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303... secondary ambient air quality standards. Attainment area means, for any air pollutant, an area which...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  10. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  16. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. Aerosol filtration efficiency of in-duct air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, J.T.; Ensor, D.S.; Sparks, L.E.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the evaluation of the fractional efficiency of several common ventilation air cleaners. The air cleaners included fiberglass furnace filters, paper-media filters, and electrostatically charged fiber cleaners. Results showed that filtration efficiency is highly particle size dependent over a 0.01-10 micrometer size range. Filtration efficiency was also seen to be dependent upon flow rate and the dust load condition of the air cleaner.

  19. Fire Influences on Atmospheric Composition, Air Quality, and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Field, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Fires impact atmospheric composition through their emissions, which range from long-lived gases to short-lived gases and aerosols. Effects are typically larger in the tropics and boreal regions but can also be substantial in highly populated areas in the northern mid-latitudes. In all regions, fire can impact air quality and health. Similarly, its effect on large-scale atmospheric processes, including regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, can be substantial, but this remains largely unexplored. The impacts are primarily realised in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere but can also be noticeable in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, for the most intense fires. In this review, we summarise the recent literature on findings related to fire impact on atmospheric composition, air quality and climate. We explore both observational and modelling approaches and present information on key regions and on the globe as a whole. We also discuss the current and future directions in this area of research, focusing on the major advances in emission estimates, the emerging efforts to include fire as a component in Earth system modelling and the use of modelling to assess health impacts of fire emissions.

  20. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of −0.55 μgC/m3 was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (−0.46 μgC/m3 on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others. The National Exposure Research L

  1. THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS): BRIEFING TO THE MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  2. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  3. Air quality in North America's most populous city - overview of the MCMA-2003 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Kolb, C. E.; de Foy, B.; Lamb, B. K.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ramos-Villegas, R.; Sarmiento, J.; Paramo-Figueroa, V. H.; Cardenas, B.; Gutierrez-Avedoy, V.; Molina, M. J.

    2007-05-01

    Exploratory field measurements in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in February 2002 set the stage for a major air quality field measurement campaign in the spring of 2003 (MCMA-2003). Involving over 100 scientists from more than 30 institutions in Mexico, the United States and Europe, MCMA-2003 revealed important new insights into the meteorology, primary pollutant emissions, ambient secondary pollutant precursor concentrations, photochemical oxidant production and secondary aerosol particle formation in North America's most populated and polluted megacity. A description of meteorological and atmospheric chemistry and aerosol microphysics measurements performed during MCMA-2003 is presented. More than 40 published or submitted MCMA-2003 research papers are reviewed and key discoveries pertinent to understanding and improving air quality in Mexico City and similar megacities in the developing world are summarized.

  4. Interactions of air quality and climate: Consequences of US emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibensperger, Eric Michael

    2011-12-01

    This thesis applies global chemical transport (CTM) and general circulation models (GCM), along with chemical and meteorological observations, to investigate the interactions between US air quality and climate. The frequency of summertime mid-latitude cyclones tracking across eastern North America at 40--50°N is shown to be a strong predictor of ozone pollution days in the eastern US. Analyses of weather maps, assimilated meteorology, and NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM simulations show a long-term decline in the number of summertime cyclones in this track starting in 1980. Using observed correlations between ozone pollution days and cyclone frequency, it is shown that this trend has offset by half the ozone air quality gains expected in the northeastern US from reductions in anthropogenic emissions. Without this trend in cyclones the northeastern US would have been largely compliant with the ozone standard by 2001. Aerosol distributions derived from the GEOS-Chem CTM using historical and projected emissions are used with the NASA GISS GCM to estimate the climate effects of US anthropogenic aerosols. Aerosol forcing in the eastern US peaked in 1970--1990 (direct effect: -2.0 W m-2; indirect effects: -2.0 W m-2) and has strongly declined since due to air quality regulation. This regional radiative forcing elicits a strong regional climate response, cooling the central and eastern US by 0.5--1.0°C on average during 1970--1990. Observations over the eastern US show a lack of warming in 1960--1980 followed by rapid warming, which is attributed here to trends in US anthropogenic aerosols. It is shown that current US aerosol concentrations are sufficiently low that projected air quality regulations will cause little further warming. Most of the potential warming from US aerosol source controls has thus been realized. In an additional study, it is shown that anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡NO + NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) affect

  5. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  7. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  8. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e)...

  9. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  10. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  14. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  15. Indoor air quality and health in schools*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations. PMID:25029649

  16. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  17. Determination of Air Quality. Proceedings of the ACS Symposium on Determination of Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamantov, Gleb, Ed.; Shults, W. D., Ed.

    Composed of data submitted by a variety of experts in the field, this book provides an introduction to air pollution control. It contains the proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium on Determination of Air Quality held in Los Angeles, California, April 1-2, 1971. Contributions from chemists, physicians, engineers, administrators,…

  18. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  19. Air quality in Moscow megacity: basic level and extreme cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratova, N.; Skorokhod, A.; Moiseenko, K.

    2012-04-01

    Moscow is one of the largest megacities in the world. Total annual emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere in Moscow is likely to be about 2,0 mln. t. More than 90% of pollutants are emitted by traffic. Problem of air quality assessment is very urgent for Moscow both to alarm population and to compare with other world megacities. To study contemporary structure of atmospheric pollution over Moscow megacity data on air composition (including CO, NO, NO2, O3, CH4, CO2, SO2, NMHC, aerosol) obtained since 2002 has been analyzed. The monitoring site is located at Moscow State University meteorological observatory on South-West of Moscow. All observations are provided by A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. Due to these continuous measurements typical (basic) level of pollution as well as extreme cases have been studied. The relationship between O3, NOx and VOCs were analyzed as well. Due to weather conditions (cyclonic regime is dominated) concentrations of pollutants usually do not reach dangerous levels but sometimes they are high. The case of abnormal hot and dry weather in the summer of 2010 was investigated. Many Russians were suffering from the record-breaking heat and the worst drought in 40 years. The heat was caused by very intensive and stable blocking anticyclone that established in Moscow since June, 18 till August, 18. Anticyclone of such strength has been never observed before. During 33 days in succession surface air temperature exceeded 30°C. During these 2 months troposphere over ETR was almost closed for western winds. Hot weather led to numerous forest and peat fires (about 29,000 cases) with total covered area about 12,000 km2. One of aftermaths was significant change of atmospheric composition. Many cities and settlements were covered by dense haze from fires. Evident presence of high amount of aerosol in the ambient air caused anxiety and application of safeguards. Meanwhile, less obvious increase of concentrations of

  20. LOCAL AIR: Local Aerosol monitoring combining in-situ and Remote Sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Caggiano, Rosa; Donvito, Angelo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Sarli, Valentina; Trippetta, Serena

    2015-04-01

    local sources, which in the troposphere, where there are aerosols transported over long distances by the phenomena of atmospheric circulation. The purpose of the LOCAL AIR project is the development of a methodology for using synergistic data at different resolutions (ground measurements, remote sensing from ground and satellite) as an effective tool for the characterization of tropospheric aerosols on a local scale. The backbone of the project is the long-term ground-based measurements collected at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory) plus the CALIPSO observations.. The location of the plethora of instruments and measurements of atmospheric interest available at CNR-IMAA makes it a sample site not only for the realization of the methodology, but also allows a feasibility study of this method in the absence of some by analysis of the measures considered in the scaling down of the algorithm developed. It will be evaluated the applicability and reliability of the algorithm implemented for the characterization of the aerosol content to the ground in other places of special interest. Acknowledgments: LOCAL AIR is supported by PO FSE Basilicata 2007-2013 Azione n. 45/AP/05/2013/REG - CUP: G53G13000300009.