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Sample records for aerosol layer products

  1. Aerosol production and growth in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1994-10-01

    The dependence of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production on the marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) flux is modeled with a dynamic description of the gas, aerosol, and aqueous phase processes in a closed air parcel. The results support the conclusion reached in previous work with a steady state model that an approximately linear dependence exists between CCN concentration and DMS flux under typical remote marine conditions. This linearity does not hold for low DMS fluxes (the threshold is typically near 2.5 micromol/sq m/day) because the sea-salt particles heterogeneously convert the available SO2 to sulfate inhibiting the creation of new particles. The conditions under which this linear relationship holds are investigated by a series of sensitivity studies, focusing particular attention on the impact of the timing and frequency of cloud events. We consider the regimes of the model's semiempirical parameters, showing that the uncertainty associated with two such parameters, namely, the nucleation rate scaling factor and the sulfuric acid accommodation coefficient, is sufficient to change the predicted CCN production due to DMS from over 300/cu cm/day to none. This sensitivity accounts for most of the range of results predicted by previous models of the DMS-CCN system.

  2. Aerosol-Cloud-Drizzle-Turbulence Interactions in Boundary Layer Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    understanding of the effects of aerosol-cloud interactions and drizzle and entrainment processes in boundary layer clouds for the purpose of developing...thickness, cloud turbulence intensity, and aerosols on precipitation production; 4) study the processing of aerosols by cloud processes ; 5) explore mass...drizzle processes to the artificial introduction of CCN and giant nuclei under differing aerosol backgrounds. In addition, a set of aerosol and cloud

  3. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Berntsen, Terje; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Gimoux, Paul; Gong, Sunling; Horowitz, Larry W.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevag, Alf; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, Gunnar; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z-alpha) is defined to quantitatively assess the models' performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z-alpha climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z-alpha than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z-alpha is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z-alpha is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  4. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schultz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, D.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Berntsen, T.; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, G.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.

    2012-05-19

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z{sub a}) is defined to quantitatively assess the models performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z{sub a} climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z{sub a} than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z{sub a} is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z{sub a} is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  5. Aerosol fluxes in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Tymon; Makuch, Przemysław; Kowalczyk, Jakub; Ponczkowska, Agnieszka; Drozdowska, Violetta; Piskozub, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    We present aerosol emission fluxes and concentrations calculated from in-situ measurement in the Nordic Sea from R/V Oceania. We compare vertical fluxes calculated with the eddy correlation and gradient methods. We use the results to test the hypothesis that marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clear the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. As the emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore marine aerosol has many features of rain meaning that the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. We have estimated the effectiveness of the process using our own measurements of vertical aerosol fluxes in the Nordic Seas. This process could explain observed phenomenon of lower Arctic aerosol optical thickness (AOT) when the air masses moved over open sea than over sea-ice. We show a negative correlation between the sea-ice coverage in the seas adjacent to Svalbard and monthly AOT values in Ny Alesund.

  6. BrCl production in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions representative of sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Chapman, E. G.; Barchet, W. R.; Colson, S. D.; Howd, C. D.

    Atomic bromine and chlorine liberated from sea-salt aerosol is thought to play an important role in chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Despite numerous modeling studies, no prior experimental investigations of the oxidation of halide species contained in simulated, or actual, sea-salt solutions have been performed. We present laboratory data that examines chemistry in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions at 290 K. Ozonation experiments were performed by flowing ozone in air through a nitric acid/salt solution and monitoring pH with time using an ion-sensitive electrode. The rate of oxidation was observed to be first order in ozone concentration and to have a non-first order bromide concentration dependence. Ion Chromatography was used to measure both bromide disappearance as well as oxidation products formed during the course of the reactions studied. Our measurements of the oxidation rate versus ion concentration indicate that the high ionic strength present in sea-salt aerosol will possess unique kinetics different from dilute solution behavior. In addition, our results are consistent with the reaction sequence O3 + H+ + Br- → O2 + HOBr and HOBr + Cl- + H+ → BrCl + H2O. These observations support the HOBr mediated Cl- oxidation process proposed previously (Vogt et al., 1996).

  7. Composition and physical properties of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer and the North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pengfei; Toon, Owen B; Neely, Ryan R; Martinsson, Bengt G; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed layers of enhanced aerosol scattering in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Asia (Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)) and North America (North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer (NATAL)). We use a sectional aerosol model (Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA)) coupled with the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) to explore the composition and optical properties of these aerosol layers. The observed aerosol extinction enhancement is reproduced by CESM1/CARMA. Both model and observations indicate a strong gradient of the sulfur-to-carbon ratio from Europe to the Asia on constant pressure surfaces. We found that the ATAL is mostly composed of sulfates, surface-emitted organics, and secondary organics; the NATAL is mostly composed of sulfates and secondary organics. The model also suggests that emission increases in Asia between 2000 and 2010 led to an increase of aerosol optical depth of the ATAL by 0.002 on average which is consistent with observations. Key Points The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer is composed of sulfate, primary organics, and secondary organics The North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer is mostly composed of sulfate and secondary organics Aerosol Optical Depth of Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer increases by 0.002 from 2000 to 2010 PMID:26709320

  8. Dust layer profiling using an aerosol dropsonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Kaye, Paul Henry; Hirst, Edwin; Wieser, Andreas; Stanley, Warren

    2015-04-01

    Routine meteorological data is obtained in the atmosphere using disposable radiosondes, giving temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed. Additional measurements are obtained from dropsondes, released from research aircraft. However, a crucial property not yet measured is the size and concentration of atmospheric particulates, including dust. Instead, indirect measurements are employed, relying on remote sensing, to meet the demands from areas such as climate research, air quality monitoring, civil emergencies etc. In addition, research aircraft can be used in situ, but airborne measurements are expensive, and aircraft use is restricted to near-horizontal profiling, which can be a limitation, as phenomena such as long-range transport depend on the vertical distribution of aerosol. The Centre for Atmospheric and Instrumentation Research at University of Hertfordshire develops light-scattering instruments for the characterization of aerosols and cloud particles. Recently a range of low-cost, miniature particle counters has been created, intended for use with systems such as disposable balloon-borne radiosondes, dropsondes, or in dense ground-based sensor networks. Versions for different particle size ranges exist. They have been used for vertical profiling of aerosols such as mineral dust or volcanic ash. A disadvantage of optical particle counters that sample through a narrow inlet is that they can become blocked, which can happen in cloud, for example. Hence, a different counter version has been developed, which can have open-path geometry, as the sensing zone is defined optically rather than being delimited by the flow system. This counter has been used for ground based air-quality monitoring around Heathrow airport. The counter has also been adapted for use with radiosondes or dropsondes. The dropsonde version has been successfully tested by launching it from research aircraft together with the so-called KITsonde, developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of

  9. Radiative Impacts of Elevated Aerosol Layers from Different Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. N.; Weinzierl, B.; Gasteiger, J.; Heimerl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles are omnipresent in the Earth's atmosphere and have important impacts on weather and climate by their effects on the atmospheric radiative balance. With the advent of more and more sophisticated representations of atmospheric processes in earth system models, the lack of reliable input data on aerosols leads to significant uncertainties in the prediction of future climate scenarios. In recent years large discrepancies in radiative forcing estimates from aerosol layers in modeling studies have been revealed emphasizing the need for detailed and systematic observations of aerosols. Airborne in-situ measurements represent an important pillar for validating both model results and retrievals of aerosol distributions and properties from remote sensing methods on global scales. However, detailed observations are challenging and therefore are subject to substantial uncertainties themselves. Here we use data from airborne in-situ measurements of elevated aerosol layers from various field experiments in different regions of the world. The data set includes Saharan mineral dust layers over Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean from the SALTRACE and the SAMUM campaigns as well as long-range transported biomass burning aerosol layers from wild fires in the Sahel region and North America measured over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Europe and the Arctic detected during SAMUM2, CONCERT2011, DC3 and ACCESS 2012. We aim to characterize the effects of the measured aerosol layers, in particular with respect to ageing, mixing state and vertical structure, on the overall atmospheric radiation budget as well as local heating and cooling rates. We use radiative transfer simulations of short and long-wave radiation and aerosol optical properties derived in a consistent way from the in-situ observations of microphysical properties using T-matrix calculations. The results of this characterization will help to improve the parameterization of the effects of elevated

  10. The MODIS Aerosol Algorithm, Products and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Mattoo, S.; Chu, D. A.; Martins, J. V.; Li, R.-R.; Ichoku, C.; Levy, R. C.; Kleidman, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard both NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites is making near global daily observations of the earth in a wide spectral range. These measurements are used to derive spectral aerosol optical thickness and aerosol size parameters over both land and ocean. The aerosol products available over land include aerosol optical thickness at three visible wavelengths, a measure of the fraction of aerosol optical thickness attributed to the fine mode and several derived parameters including reflected spectral solar flux at top of atmosphere. Over ocean, the aerosol optical thickness is provided in seven wavelengths from 0.47 microns to 2.13 microns. In addition, quantitative aerosol size information includes effective radius of the aerosol and quantitative fraction of optical thickness attributed to the fine mode. Spectral aerosol flux, mass concentration and number of cloud condensation nuclei round out the list of available aerosol products over the ocean. The spectral optical thickness and effective radius of the aerosol over the ocean are validated by comparison with two years of AERONET data gleaned from 133 AERONET stations. 8000 MODIS aerosol retrievals colocated with AERONET measurements confirm that one-standard deviation of MODIS optical thickness retrievals fall within the predicted uncertainty of delta tauapproximately equal to plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau over ocean and delta tay equal to plus or minus 0.05 plus or minus 0.15 tau over land. 271 MODIS aerosol retrievals co-located with AERONET inversions at island and coastal sites suggest that one-standard deviation of MODIS effective radius retrievals falls within delta r_eff approximately equal to 0.11 microns. The accuracy of the MODIS retrievals suggests that the product can be used to help narrow the uncertainties associated with aerosol radiative forcing of global climate.

  11. Effect of stratospheric aerosol layers on the TOMS/SBUV ozone retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahmad, Zia; Pan, L.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Mcpeters, R.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of the optical effects of stratospheric aerosol layers on total ozone retrieval from space by the TOMS/SBUV type instruments is presented here. Using the Dave radiative transfer model we estimate the magnitude of the errors in the retrieved ozone when polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) or volcanic aerosol layers interfere with the measurements. The largest errors are produced by optically thick water ice PSC's. Results of simulation experiments on the effect of the Pinatubo aerosol cloud on the Nimbus-7 and Meteor-3 TOMS products are presented.

  12. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  13. The Influence of Free Tropospheric Aerosol on the Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, A. L.; Ekman, A.; Leck, C.; Savre, J.; Tjernstrom, M. K. H.; Sedlar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Large-eddy simulations of the summertime high Arctic boundary layer with mixed-phase stratus clouds have been performed based on observations taken during the ASCOS[1] campaign. The model includes a prognostic aerosol scheme where accumulation mode aerosol particles can be activated into cloud droplets, impaction scavenged, and regenerated upon cloud droplet evaporation or ice crystal sublimation. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with a constant aerosol concentration in the boundary layer and free troposphere, and one with enhanced free tropospheric concentrations based on observed aerosol concentration profiles. We find that the rate of aerosol depletion in the boundary layer is an order of magnitude larger than the median surface emission rates measured over the open water, indicating that for the present case the surface emissions are unlikely to compensate for aerosol loss due to interactions with clouds. In this case study, when the enhanced free troposphere aerosol concentrations are included, the entrainment of these particles into the boundary layer is able to offset the loss of particles from aerosol-cloud interactions. These results suggest that enhanced levels of accumulation mode particles, if located at the cloud top, may be an important source of accumulation mode particles in the Arctic boundary layer. [1] The Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) was conducted in 2008 with the overall aim to improve our understanding of stratus cloud formation and possible climate feedback processes over the central Arctic Ocean. Tjernström et al., 2014 give more details.

  14. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  15. A one-dimensional sectional aerosol model integrated with mesoscale meteorological data to study marine boundary layer aerosol dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffrey, Peter F.; Hoppel, William A.; Shi, Jainn J.

    2006-12-01

    The dynamics of aerosols in the marine boundary layer are simulated with a one-dimensional, multicomponent, sectional aerosol model using vertical profiles of turbulence, relative humidity, temperature, vertical velocity, cloud cover, and precipitation provided by 3-D mesoscale meteorological model output. The Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) sectional aerosol model MARBLES (Fitzgerald et al., 1998a) was adapted to use hourly meteorological input taken from NRL's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS). COAMPS-generated turbulent mixing coefficients and large-scale vertical velocities determine vertical exchange within the marine boundary layer and exchange with the free troposphere. Air mass back trajectories were used to define the air column history along which the meteorology was retrieved for use with the aerosol model. Details on the integration of these models are described here, as well as a description of improvements made to the aerosol model, including transport by large-scale vertical motions (such as subsidence and lifting), a revised sea-salt aerosol source function, and separate tracking of sulfate mass from each of the five sources (free tropospheric, nucleated, condensed from gas phase oxidation products, cloud-processed, and produced from heterogeneous oxidation of S(IV) on sea-salt aerosol). Results from modeling air masses arriving at Oahu, Hawaii, are presented, and the relative contribution of free-tropospheric sulfate particles versus sea-salt aerosol from the surface to CCN concentrations is discussed. Limitations and benefits of the method are presented, as are sensitivity analyses of the effect of large-scale vertical motions versus turbulent mixing.

  16. Enhancement of atmospheric radiation by an aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelangeli, Diane V.; Yung, Yuk L.; Shia, Run-Lie; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Allen, Mark; Crisp, David

    1992-01-01

    The presence of a stratospheric haze layer may produce increases in both the actinic flux and the irradiance below this layer. Such haze layers result from the injection of aerosol-forming material into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions. Simple heuristic arguments show that the increase in flux below the haze layer, relative to a clear sky case, is a consequence of 'photon trapping'. The magnitude of these flux perturbations, as a function of aerosol properties and illumination conditions, is explored with a new radiative transfer model that can accurately compute fluxes in an inhomogeneous atmosphere with nonconservative scatterers having arbitrary phase function. One calculated consequence of the El Chichon volcanic eruption is an increase in the midday surface actinic flux at 20 deg N latitude, summer, by as much as 45 percent at 2900 A. This increase in flux in the UV-B wavelength range was caused entirely by aerosol scattering, without any reduction in the overhead ozone column.

  17. Variability of Biomass Burning Aerosols Layers and Near Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilescu, Jeni; Belegante, Livio; Marmureanu, Luminita; Toanca, Flori

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize aerosols from both chemical and optical point of view and to explore the conditions to sense the same particles in elevated layers and at the ground. Three days of continuous measurements using a multi-wavelength depolarization lidar(RALI) and a C-ToF-AMS aerosol mass spectrometer are analyzed. The presence of smoke particles was assessed in low level layers from RALI measurements. Chemical composition of submicronic volatile/semi-volatile aerosols at ground level was monitored by the CTOF AMS Several episodes of biomass burning aerosols have been identified by both techniques due to the presence of specific markers (f60, linear particle depolarization ratio, Ängström exponent).

  18. Secondary Aerosol Formation in the planetary boundary layer observed by aerosol mass spectrometry on a Zeppelin NT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubach, Florian; Trimborn, Achim; Mentel, Thomas; Wahner, Andreas; Zeppelin Pegasos-Team 2012

    2014-05-01

    The airship Zeppelin NT is an airborne platform capable of flying at low speed throughout the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL). In combination with the high scientific payload of more than 1 ton, the Zeppelin is an ideal platform to study regional processes in the lowest layers of the atmosphere with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric aerosol as a medium long lived tracer substance is of particular interest due to its influence on the global radiation budget. Due its lifetime of up to several days secondaray aerosol at a certain location can result from local production or from transport processes. For aerosol measurements on a Zeppelin, a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass spectrometer (DeCarlo et al, 2006) was adapted to the requirements posed by an airborne platform. A weight reduction of over 20 % compared to the commercial instrument was achieved, while space occupation and footprint were each reduced by over 25 %. Within the PEGASOS project, the instrument was part of 10 measurement flight days over the course of seven weeks. Three flights were starting from Rotterdam, NL, seven flights were starting from Ozzano in the Po Valley, IT. Flight patterns included vertical profiles to study the dynamics of the PBL and cross sections through regions of interest to shed light on local production and transport processes. Analysis of data from transects between the Apennin and San Pietro Capofiume in terms of "residence time of air masses in the Po valley" indicates that aerosol nitrate has only local sources while aerosol sulfate is dominated by transport. The organic aerosol component has significant contributions of both processes. The local prodcution yields are commensurable with imultaneously observed precursor concentrations and oxidant levels. The PEGASOS project is funded by the European Commission under the Framework Programme 7 (FP7-ENV-2010-265148). DeCarlo, P.F. et al (2006), Anal. Chem., 78, 8281-8289.

  19. Study of atmospheric aerosols and mixing layer by LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Federico; Barnaba, Francesca; Landi, Tony Christian; Caporaso, Luca; Gobbi, Gian Paolo

    2009-12-01

    The LIDAR (laser radar) is an active remote sensing technique, which allows for the altitude-resolved observation of several atmospheric constituents. A typical application is the measurement of the vertically resolved aerosol optical properties. By using aerosol particles as a marker, continuous determination of the mixing layer height (MLH) can also be obtained by LIDAR. Some examples of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles and MLH extracted from a 1-year LIDAR data set collected in Milan (Italy) are discussed and validated against in situ data (from a balloon-borne optical particle counter). Finally a comparison of the observation-based MLH with relevant numerical simulations (mesoscale model MM5) is provided.

  20. Quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Timmreck, C.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Graf, H. F.

    2015-05-01

    This study describes how aerosol in an aerosol-coupled climate model of the middle atmosphere is influenced by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) during times when the stratosphere is largely unperturbed by volcanic material. In accordance with satellite observations, the vertical extent of the stratospheric aerosol layer in the tropics is modulated by the QBO by up to 6 km, or ~ 35% of its mean vertical extent between 100-7 hPa (about 16-33 km). Its largest vertical extent lags behind the occurrence of strongest QBO westerlies. The largest reduction lags behind maximum QBO easterlies. Strongest QBO signals in the aerosol surface area (30 %) and number densities (up to 100% e.g. in the Aitken mode) are found in regions where aerosol evaporates, that is above the 10 hPa pressure level (~ 31 km). Positive modulations are found in the QBO easterly shear, negative modulations in the westerly shear. Below 10 hPa, in regions where the aerosol mixing ratio is largest (50-20 hPa, or ~ 20-26 km), in most of the analysed parameters only moderate statistically significant QBO signatures (< 10%) have been found. QBO signatures in the model prognostic aerosol mixing ratio are significant at the 95% confidence level throughout the tropical stratosphere where modelled mixing ratios exceed 0.1 ppbm. In some regions of the tropical lower stratosphere the QBO signatures in other analysed parameters are partly not statistically significant. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of the QBO signature in the prognostic mixing ratios are up to twice as large as seasonal variations in the region where aerosols evaporate and between 70-30 hPa. Between the tropical tropopause and 70 hPa the QBO signature is relatively weak and seasonal variations dominate the variability of the simulated Junge layer. QBO effects on the upper lid of the tropical aerosol layer turn the quasi-static balance between processes maintaining the layer's vertical extent into a cyclic balance when considering this dominant mode

  1. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I—Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, Kathleen; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail; Rogers, Ray R.; Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere between and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  2. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I-Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    DOE PAGES

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; ...

    2016-01-08

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere between and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facilitymore » (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). In addition, these layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. Lastly, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.« less

  3. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I-Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, Kathleen; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail; Rogers, Ray R.; Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek III, Arthur J.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-08

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere between and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). In addition, these layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. Lastly, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  4. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, K.; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rogers, Ray; Russell, P.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Art; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-08

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which was conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique field study that was designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere at a number of altitudes, from near the surface to as high as 8 km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. TCAP included the yearlong deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) that was located at the base of the Cape Cod column, as well as summer and winter aircraft intensive observation periods of the ARM Aerial Facility. One important finding from TCAP is the relatively common occurrence (on four of six nearly cloud-free flights) of elevated aerosol layers in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed in the column. Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning aerosol and nitrate compared to the aerosol found near the surface.

  5. Anthropogenic Aerosol Effects on Sea Surface Temperatures: Mixed-Layer Ocean Experiments with Explicit Aerosol Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Knutti, Reto

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols affect the Earth's radiative balance both through direct and indirect effects. These effects can lead to a reduction of the incoming solar radiation at the surface, i.e. dimming, which may lead to a change in sea surface temperatures (SST) or SST pattern. This, in turn, may affect precipitation patterns. The goal of the present work is to achieve an estimate of the equilibrium SST changes under anthropogenic aerosol forcing since industrialisation. We show preliminary results from mixed-layer ocean (MLO) experiments with explicit aerosol representation performed with ECHAM6-HAM. The (fixed) MLO heat flux into the deep ocean was derived from atmosphere only runs with fixed climatological SSTs (1961-1990 average) and present day (year 2000) aerosols and GHG burdens. Some experiments we repeated with an alternative MLO deep ocean heat flux (based on pre-industrial conditions) to test the robustness of our results with regard to this boundary condition. The maximum surface temperature responses towards anthropogenic aerosol and GHG forcing (separately and combined) were derived on a global and regional scale. The same set of experiments was performed with aerosol and GHG forcings representative of different decades over the past one and a half centuries. This allows to assess how SST patterns at equilibrium changed with changing aerosol (and GHG) forcing. Correlating SST responses with the change in downward clear-sky and all-sky shortwave radiation provides a first estimate of the response to anthropogenic aerosols. Our results show a clear contrast in hemispheric surface temperature response, as expected from the inter-hemispheric asymmetry of aerosol forcing The presented work is part of a project aiming at quantifying the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on SSTs and the consequences for global precipitation patterns. Results from this study will serve as a starting point for further experiments involving a dynamic ocean model, which

  6. Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C

    2012-07-19

    The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.

  7. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  8. Multi-year Cluster Analyses of CALIPSO Aerosol Layer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, A. H.; Sumner, A. J.; Vaughan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, a collaboration between NASA and Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), was launched in April 2006 to provide vertically resolved measurements of cloud and aerosol distributions. The primary instrument on the CALIPSO satellite is the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), a near-nadir viewing two-wavelength polarization-sensitive instrument. The unique nature of CALIOP measurements make it quite challenging to validate backscatter profiles, aerosol type, and cloud phase, all of which are used to retrieve extinction and optical depth. We exploit the large data set generated by CALIPSO between 2006 - 2013 to find groups in the data from which we can infer aerosol type. We use classical clustering analyses (k-means) to group the data based on five Level 2 data parameters: integrated attenuated backscatter (532 nm), volume depolarization ratio, integrated attenuated color ratio, layer base altitude, and layer top altitude. The data are screened using standard CALIPSO quality assurance flags, cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores, overlying features and layer properties. Furthermore, the data were standardized to a 'z score' in order to remove weighting bias due to arbitrary units. The k-means algorithm forms clusters by minimizing the Euclidian distance between each data point and its respective cluster centroid independently for each parameter. Silhouette coefficients, a dimensionless measure of internal cluster interrelation or consistency and external cluster separation or uniqueness were used to determine the validity of clusters. These investigations yielded optimally distinct clusters when six groups were formed similar to the result in Omar et al, 2005 which form the basis for the current CALIPSO aerosol subtypes. While the number of clusters in both studies coincide, the clusters do not match with all aerosol subtypes. Analysis of the data

  9. Laser radar observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Hirasawa, T.; Fukunishi, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Fujii, R.; Miyaoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The polar stratosphere has been speculated to be an active sink region of various stratospheric materials; ozone, water vapor, NOX, aerosol particles and so on, but this process is not theoretically and/or observationally made clear. The observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer using laser radar certainly contributes to the study of the global transport of these stratospheric minor constituents. In addition to this, from the viewpoint of aerosol science, there may be many interesting phenomena which cannot be found in the stratosphere at mid and low latitudes; the effect of precipitation of high energy molecules and atoms, of very cold winter stratosphere, of very cold mesopause in summer. Laser radar observation is one of the main activities of the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA) project at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica since May 1983. Laser radar measurement at Syowa Station is discussed in detail.

  10. Developments in the Aerosol Layer Height Retrieval Algorithm for the Copernicus Sentinel-4/UVN Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Swadhin; Sanders, Abram; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-4 mission is a part of the European Commission's Copernicus programme, the goal of which is to provide geo-information to manage environmental assets, and to observe, understand and mitigate the effects of the changing climate. The Sentinel-4/UVN instrument design is motivated by the need to monitor trace gas concentrations and aerosols in the atmosphere from a geostationary orbit. The on-board instrument is a high resolution UV-VIS-NIR (UVN) spectrometer system that provides hourly radiance measurements over Europe and northern Africa with a spatial sampling of 8 km. The main application area of Sentinel-4/UVN is air quality. One of the data products that is being developed for Sentinel-4/UVN is the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH). The goal is to determine the height of aerosol plumes with a resolution of better than 0.5 - 1 km. The ALH product thus targets aerosol layers in the free troposphere, such as desert dust, volcanic ash and biomass during plumes. KNMI is assigned with the development of the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH) algorithm. Its heritage is the ALH algorithm developed by Sanders and De Haan (ATBD, 2016) for the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission that is to be launched in June or July 2016 (tentative date). The retrieval algorithm designed so far for the aerosol height product is based on the absorption characteristics of the oxygen-A band (759-770 nm). The algorithm has heritage to the ALH algorithm developed for TROPOMI on the Sentinel 5 precursor satellite. New aspects for Sentinel-4/UVN include the higher resolution (0.116 nm compared to 0.4 for TROPOMI) and hourly observation from the geostationary orbit. The algorithm uses optimal estimation to obtain a spectral fit of the reflectance across absorption band, while assuming a single uniform layer with fixed width to represent the aerosol vertical distribution. The state vector includes amongst other elements the height of this layer and its aerosol optical

  11. Aerosol-Cloud-Drizzle-Turbulence Interactions in Boundary Layer Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    provide a means for evaluating and developing parameterizations for models that predict cloud microphysical processes. Observations of the...observed during BACEX was associated with African dust above the boundary layer. On two days when convection was completely suppressed, an African... dust event associated with record Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) for Barbados during this time of the year was observed. The vertical structure of the

  12. Silicon production in an aerosol reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. J.; Flagan, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    An aerosol reactor system was developed in which large particles of silicon can be grown by silane pyrolysis. To grow particles to sizes larger than one micron, vapor deposition must be used to grow a relatively small number of seed particles. Suppression of nucleation is achieved by limiting the rate of gas phase chemical reactions such that the condensible products of the gas phase chemical reactions diffuse to the surface of the seed particles as rapidly as they are produced. This prevents high degrees of supersaturation and runaway nucleation during the growth process. Particles on the order of 10 microns were grown repeatedly with the present aersol reactor. The nucleation controlled aerosol reactor is, therefore, a suitable system for the production of powders that can readily be separated from the gas by aerodynamic means.

  13. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  14. Aerosols optical properties in Titan's Detached Haze Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seignovert, Benoit; Rannou, Pascal; Lavvas, Panayotis; West, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Titan's Detached Haze Layer (DHL) was first observed in 1983 by Rages and Pollack during the Voyager 2 is a consistent spherical haze feature surrounding Titan's upper atmosphere and detached from the main haze. Since 2005, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) instrument on board the Cassini mission performs a continuous survey of the Titan's atmosphere and confirmed its persistence at 500 km up to the equinox (2009) before its drop and disappearance in 2012 (West et al. 2011). Previous analyses showed, that this layer corresponds to the transition area between small spherical aerosols and large fractal aggregates and play a key role in the aerosols formation in Titan's atmosphere (Rannou et al. 2000, Lavvas et al. 2009, Cours et al. 2011).In this talk we will present the UV photometric analyses based on radiative transfer inversion to retrieve aerosols particles properties in the DHL (bulk and monomer radius and local density) performed on ISS observations taken from 2005 to 2007.References:- Rages and Pollach, Icarus 55 (1983)- West, et al., Icarus 38 (2011)- Rannou, et al., Icarus 147 (2000)- Lavvas, et al., Icarus 201 (2009)- Cours, et al., ApJ Lett. 741 (2015)

  15. Defense mechanisms of the respiratory system and aerosol production systems.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Yarmus, Lonny; Spyratos, Dionysios; Secen, Nevena; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Huang, Haidong; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    Aerosolized therapies have been used in everyday clinical practice for decades. Experimentation with different delivery systems have led to the creation of aerosolized insulin, antibiotics, gene therapy and chemotherapy. Several of these therapies are already clinically available while others are being investigated in active clinical trials. The main factors affecting the efficiency and safety of the aerosolized therapies are the production of the aerosol, distribution/deposition of the aerosol throughout the lung parenchyma, respiratory defense mechanisms and tissue/pharmaceutical molecule interactions. Current methods of aerosol production and distribution will be presented along with an overview of the respiratory defense mechanisms. In addition, methods of aerosol evaluation in conjunction with a future perspective of the potential development of aerosol therapies will be presented.

  16. Impacts of elevated-aerosol-layer and aerosol type on the correlation of AOD and particulate matter with ground-based and satellite measurements in Nanjing, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Wu, Yonghua; Wang, Tijian; Zhuang, Bingliang; Li, Shu; Zhao, Kun

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of the correlation between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particulate matter (PM) is critical to satellite remote sensing of air quality, e.g. ground PM10 and ground PM2.5. This study evaluates the impacts of aloft-aerosol-plume and aerosol-type on the correlation of AOD-PM by using synergistic measurement of a polarization-sensitive Raman-Mie lidar, CIMEL sunphotometer (SP) and TEOM PM samplers, as well as the satellite MODIS and CALIPSO, during April to July 2011 in Nanjing city (32.05(○)N/118.77(○)E), southeast China. Aloft-aerosol-layer and aerosol types (e.g. dust and non-dust or urban aerosol) are identified with the range-resolved polarization lidar and SP measurements. The results indicate that the correlations for AOD-PM10 and AOD-PM2.5 can be much improved when screening out the aloft-aerosol-layer. The linear regression slopes show significant differences for the dust and non-dust dominant aerosols in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In addition, we evaluate the recent released MODIS-AOD product (Collection 6) from the "dark-target" (DT) and "deep-blue" (DB) algorithms and their correlation with the PM in Nanjing urban area. The results verify that the MODIS-DT AODs show a good correlation (R = 0.89) with the SP-AOD but with a systematic overestimate. In contrast, the MODIS-DB AOD shows a moderate correlation (R = 0.66) with the SP-AOD but with a smaller regression intercept (0.07). Furthermore, the moderately high correlations between the MODIS-AOD and PM10 (PM2.5) are indicated, which suggests the feasibility of PM estimate using the MODIS-AOD in Nanjing city.

  17. Determination of cloud and aerosol layers using CALIPSO and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, A. N.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-10-01

    The height of cloud and aerosol layers in the atmosphere is believed to affect climate change and air pollution because both of them have important direct effects on the radiation balance of the earth. In this paper, we study the ability of Cloud Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data to detect, locate and distinguish between cloud and aerosol layers in the atmosphere over Peninsula Malaysia. We also used image processing technique to differentiate between cloud and aerosol layers from the CALIPSO images. The cloud and aerosol layers mostly are seen at troposphere (>10 km) and lower stratosphere (>15km). The results shows that CALIPSO can be used to determine cloud and aerosol layers and image processing technique has successfully distinguished them in the atmosphere.

  18. Effective Lidar Ratios of Dense Dust Aerosol Layers over North Africa Observed by the CALIPSO Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Winker, D. M.; Omar, A. H.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Hu, Y.; Hostetler, C. A.; Sun, W.; Lin, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, a joint US and French mission, was launched three years ago to provide new insight into the role that clouds and aerosols play in regulating Earth's weather, climate, and air quality. A key instrument on board the CALIPSO payload is a two-wavelength, polarization-sensitive backscatter lidar. With its capabilities of depolarization ratio measurement and high resolution profiling, the CALIPSO lidar provides a unique opportunity to study the dust aerosol globally. Currently, a cloud and aerosol discrimination (CAD) algorithm that incorporates five-dimensional probability distribution function (5D-PDF) is being developed for implementation in future data releases. This new 5D-PDF approach allows nearly unambiguous identification of dense dust layers over/near their source regions and therefore enables the study of these layers using a large amount of the CALIPSO data. Lidar ratio (i.e., extinction-to-backscatter ratio) is an intrinsic optical property of aerosols and a key parameter necessary in the lidar signal inversion to retrieve profiles of aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients, which are two primary products of the CALIPSO level 2 data. This parameter is usually selected in the CALIPSO lidar level 2 data processing based on the aerosol type identified. (Six types of aerosols have been modeled: dust, polluted dust, marine, continental, polluted continental, and smoke.) As more data is being collected by the CALIPSO lidar, validation studies with the CALIPSO measurements are being performed and are now becoming available. For opaque dust layers, the effective lidar ratio (the product of lidar ratio and multiple scattering factor) can be determined easily from integrated attenuated backscatter over the layer top and apparent base. We have performed an extensive analysis based on the first two and a half years (June 2006 - December 2008) of the CALIPSO lidar nighttime

  19. Coherent Evaluation of Aerosol Data Products from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval from satellite has practically become routine, especially during the last decade. However, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, thereby leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus, and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood, there will be no way of developing reliable model inputs and climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is providing well-calibrated globally representative ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products. Through a recently developed web-based Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), we are utilizing the advantages offered by collocated AERONET and satellite products to characterize and evaluate aerosol retrieval from multiple sensors. Indeed, MAPSS and its companion statistical tool AeroStat are facilitating detailed comparative uncertainty analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MAPSS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainly analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  20. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Andreas, Edgar L.; Anguelova, Magdalena D.; Fairall, C. W.; Lewis, Ernie R.; O'Dowd, Colin; Schulz, Michael; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r80 (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 μm and as small as 0.01 μm. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r80 < 0.25 μm and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  1. Contribution to polar albedo from a mesospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An examination is made of the impact of a layer of particulate matter, assumed to be ice crystals, on the albedo of the polar region. The model is time dependent, includes the growth of the layer, and incorporates the diffuse nature of radiation reflected from the surface and atmosphere. Although the magnitude of the effect is about an order of magnitude less than previous results, the impact is one of heating instead of cooling. It is also shown that ignoring the diffuse nature of the radiation reflected from the underlying earth-atmosphere system, as has been done in many previous simple models, can result in overestimation of the climatological impact of aerosols in sign and magnitude by a factor of up to 4-6.

  2. Production Flux of Sea-Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Lewis, E. R.; O'Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea-spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea-spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux with emphasis on particles with r80 (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 µm and as small as 0.01 µm. Production of sea-spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics, and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r80 < 0.25 µm and in locations with high biological activity can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities, such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface, that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  3. Explicit numerical study of aerosol-cloud interactions in boundary layer clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunova, Irena T.

    parameterization and a bi-modal aerosol, including a coarse mode observed in particle spectra below cloud, showed high sensitivity of droplet concentration to the inclusion of the coarse mode. There was a significant reduction in droplet number relative to the simulation without the coarse mode. A similar change occurred in the precipitating system preceding the stratus formation, resulting in an enhancement of precipitation in the weaker (upstream) part of the system while the precipitation in the more vigorous (downstream) part of the system remained almost unaffected. Aerosol processing via collision-coalescence and aqueous chemistry in the non-drizzling stratocumulus case suggests that impact of the two mechanisms is of similar magnitude and can be as large as a 3-5 % increase in particle mean radius. A more detailed analysis reveals that the impact of chemical processing is oxidant-limited; beyond times when the oxidant (H 2O2) is depleted (˜ 40 minutes), the extent of processing is determined by supply of fresh oxidant from large-scale advection (fresh gaseous emissions are not considered). Aerosol processing via drop collision-coalescence alone suggests, as expected, sensitivity to the strength of the collection process in clouds. Larger particle growth, up to 5-10 %, is observed in the case of the frontal clouds, which exhibit stronger drop collection compared to that in the stratocumulus case. The processed aerosol exerted a measurable impact on droplet concentrations and precipitation production in the frontal clouds. For the case modeled here, contrary to expectations, the processed spectrum (via physical processing) produced higher droplet concentration than the unprocessed spectrum. The reasons explaining this phenomenon and the resulting impact on precipitation production are discussed. The current work illustrates the complexity of the coupled system at the cloud system scales, revealed earlier at much smaller large eddy scales. If future parameterizations of the

  4. Aerosol Production from the Great Lakes Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Mwaniki, G.; Bertman, S. B.; Vanreken, T. M.; Shepson, P. B.

    2009-12-01

    It is well understood that oceans generate airborne particulate matter from mechanical processes such as sea spray and bubble bursting. These particles are primarily composed of salts and other nonvolatile inorganic material; however, the organic mass fraction can vary by location and the extent of biological activity. The size distributions of aerosols in these environments depend greatly on relative humidity with diameters ranging from typically several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. There has been much less discussion of particle formation from fresh water ecosystems, a hub for organic activity, and thus a more likely medium for organic aerosol production. We investigated particle formation over the Great Lakes during the summer of 2009 as a part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiments (CABINEX) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) in Pellston, MI. With a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) aboard Purdue University’s Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) for size-distribution analysis of accumulation-mode aerosol, we conducted vertical profiles above Lake Michigan and the UMBS deciduous forest, and transects across the peninsula between Lakes Michigan and Huron to study particle formation, transport, and deposition. Preliminary results reveal a well-mixed troposphere above the forest with a mode ~0.1 μm, while in several cases, the total particle concentration over Lake Michigan is an order of magnitude greater than over the forest. There is a consistent bimodal distribution of particle sizes over Lake Michigan the lowest of which is centered at ~0.025 μm, suggesting the possibility of new particle formation. This mode is consistent with the presence of breaking waves on the lake’s surface, and this mode and the vertical structure depend greatly on wind speed. We present here evidence for new particle production from breaking waves on fresh water lakes, and discuss the results

  5. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Arthur; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, Manish; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-08-01

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and 2 days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher-resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser-resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  6. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Arthur; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, Manish; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-08-22

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and two days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  7. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Arthur; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, Manish; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-08-22

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and 2 days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher-resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser-resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. In conclusion, while a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  8. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    DOE PAGES

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; ...

    2016-08-22

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurementsmore » during July, and 2 days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher-resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser-resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. In conclusion, while a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.« less

  9. Assessment of aloft aerosol layers by ground-based lidar, satellite CALIPSO and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Cordero, L.; Nazmi, C.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aloft aerosol layers injected from dust storms and biomass burning are often transported over the long-distance, thus playing important roles in climate radiative forcing and air quality in the regional and continental scale. In particular, they are critical to satellite remote sensing of air quality, e.g. using satellite column aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate surface PM2.5 concentration, because the aloft aerosol layer can make a substantial contribution to total AOD. These aloft aerosol plumes have been extensively observed or identified by the ground-lidar and space-borne lidar CALIOP/CALIPSO, as well as the global aerosol transport such as NRL-NAAPS. In this study, the aloft aerosol layers are investigated with a regional NOAA-CREST Lidar Network (CLN) in the East Coast of U.S., spaceborne lidar CAIPSO observations and NAAPS model forecast. We first analyze the height distribution and seasonal occurrence of aloft aerosol plumes from the multi-year CLN-lidar dataset. We also explore specific aloft aerosol layers and type classifications between NAAPS-model and CLN-lidar observations to asses NAAPS with special attention to time slices when MODIS AOD assimilation is present or not. Moreover, we assess the potential of NAAPS to identify and separate between aloft aerosol layers ('unclear' sky) and the non-aloft-layer ('clear' sky). This identification is very important in filtering the use of satellite AOD retrievals in potential PM2.5 estimators.

  10. Uncertainty in Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) Doppler Lidar Products and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmer, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is both a high spectral resolution lidar and Doppler lidar currently being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as a demonstrator instrument for NASA’s Aerosol Cloud Ecosystem (ACE) Mission. CATS is intended to fly on NASA’s high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. CATS will be capable of measuring both aerosol properties and horizontal wind velocity as a function of altitude. The accuracy of these measurements is important to the success of the instrument and the ACE mission. Uncertainty equations for both the aerosol and wind products are derived. Initially the only sources of error are assumed to be instrument error in the spectral measurements. Using simulated CATS spectral measurements from simulated atmospheric profiles (an atmosphere with only a cirrus layer, an atmosphere with only a cumulus layer, an atmosphere with only an aerosol layer, and an atmosphere with no clouds or aerosols), the uncertainty in the aerosol and wind products are calculated. These calculated uncertainties are found to be within reason. Also worthy of consideration is the effect of aircraft motion on CATS’ wind measurements and products. An equation for the the nadir angle (assumed to be about 45 degrees for CATS), as well as the uncertainty in this angle, in terms of aircraft pitch and roll is derived. The effect of uncertainty in this angle on the uncertainty in CATS aerosol and wind products is calculated using the same simulated data previously mentioned, which is found to be insignificant for normal, steady flight.

  11. The MODIS Aerosol Algorithm, Products, Validation and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) currently aboard both the Terra and Aqua satellites produces a suite of products designed to characterize global aerosol distribution, optical thickness and particle size. Never before has a space-borne instrument been able to provide such detailed information, complementing field and modeling efforts to produce a comprehensive picture of aerosol characteristics. The three years of Terra-MODIS data have been validated by comparing with co-located AERONET observations of aerosol optical thickness and derivations of aerosol size parameters. Some 8000 comparison points located at 133 AERONET sites around the globe show that the MODIS aerosol optical thickness retrievals are accurate to within the pre-launch expectations. MODIS-derived size parameters are also compared with AERONET retrievals and found to agree well for fine-mode dominated aerosol regimes. Aerosol regimes dominated by dust aerosol are less accurate, attributed to what is thought to be nonsphericity. Errors due to nonsphericity will be reduced by introducing a new set of empirical phase functions, derived without any assumptions of particle shape. The major innovation that MODIS bring to the field of remote sensing of aerosol is the measure of particle size and the separation of finemode and coarsemode dominated aerosol regimes. Particle size can separate finemode man-made aerosols created during combustion, from larger natural aerosols originating from salt spray or wind erosion. This separation allows for the calculation of aerosol radiative effect and the estimation of the man-made aerosol radiative forcing. MODIS can also be used in regional studies of aerosol-cloud interaction that affect the global radiative and hydrological cycles.

  12. Elevated layers of BC aerosols over Indian region and its implications: Results from Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Satheesh, S.; Gogoi, M. M.; Nair, V. S.; Kompalli, S. K.; Chaubey, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the context of atmospheric warming by elevated layers of absorbing aerosols and its consequence on regional climate such as Indian monsoon, the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX) was formulated under Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) Project of Indian Space Research Organisation - Geosphere Biosphere Program (ISRO-GBP). As a part of RAWEX, an aerosol observatory was established at a high altitude Himalayan location (Hanle, 32.76°N, 78.95°E and 4520 m msl) to characterise the long term changes in columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), black carbon aerosols as well as ultra fine particles at free troposphere heights . In addition, extensive measurements of the vertical distribution of BC along with concurrent measurements of atmospheric parameters were also undertaken using high altitude balloons from central part of India. Seasonal variation of aerosol BC as well as AOD showed enhanced loading during pre- monsoon season at the high altitudes associated with the advection from west Asian region as well as due to vertical transport from the plains. However, the seasonal and annual mean BC over Hanle is found to be significantly lower than the corresponding values over other Himalayan stations. The altitude distribution of BC over central Indian region also showed enhanced concentration at free troposphere altitudes during the pre-monsoon season. The elevated layers of BC cause change in the environmental lapse rate due to heating by BC aerosols at an altitude region of 4 to 5 km. The change in environmental lapse rate and increase in atmospheric stability leads to further trapping of BC aerosols at higher altitudes, thus raises an interesting question : "Do BC layers build 'their own homes' up in the atmosphere?"

  13. A new method for estimating aerosol mass flux in the urban surface layer using LAS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Renmin; Luo, Tao; Sun, Jianning; Liu, Hao; Fu, Yunfei; Wang, Zhien

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol greatly influences human health and the natural environment, as well as the weather and climate system. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol has attracted significant attention from society. Despite consistent research efforts, there are still uncertainties in understanding its effects due to poor knowledge about aerosol vertical transport caused by the limited measurement capabilities of aerosol mass vertical transport flux. In this paper, a new method for measuring atmospheric aerosol vertical transport flux is developed based on the similarity theory of surface layer, the theory of light propagation in a turbulent atmosphere, and the observations and studies of the atmospheric equivalent refractive index (AERI). The results show that aerosol mass flux can be linked to the real and imaginary parts of the atmospheric equivalent refractive index structure parameter (AERISP) and the ratio of aerosol mass concentration to the imaginary part of the AERI. The real and imaginary parts of the AERISP can be measured based on the light-propagation theory. The ratio of the aerosol mass concentration to the imaginary part of the AERI can be measured based on the measurements of aerosol mass concentration and visibility. The observational results show that aerosol vertical transport flux varies diurnally and is related to the aerosol spatial distribution. The maximum aerosol flux during the experimental period in Hefei City was 0.017 mg m-2 s-1, and the mean value was 0.004 mg m-2 s-1. The new method offers an effective way to study aerosol vertical transport in complex environments.

  14. “Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties Over the ARM ACRF Sites”

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard; Turner, David

    2015-01-13

    Project goals; Characterize the aerosol and ice vertical distributions over the ARM NSA site, and in particular to discriminate between elevated aerosol layers and ice clouds in optically thin scattering layers; Characterize the water vapor and aerosol vertical distributions over the ARM Darwin site, how these distributions vary seasonally, and quantify the amount of water vapor and aerosol that is above the boundary layer; Use the high temporal resolution Raman lidar data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; Use the high temporal resolution Raman lidar and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds; and Use the high temporal Raman lidar data to continue to characterize the turbulence within the convective boundary layer and how the turbulence statistics (e.g., variance, skewness) is correlated with larger scale variables predicted by models.

  15. Measurements and determination of the marine coarse aerosol fluxes in near marine boundary layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Petelski, Tomasz; Zielinski, Tymon; Strzalkowska, Agata; Pakszys, Paulina; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Kowalczyk, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosols emitted from the sea surface help to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosols have many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. During a number of cruises conducted on board of r/v Oceania between 2008 and 2012 we collected much data which were further used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Measurements were carried out using a gradient method. For this method we used a Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one of the masts of the boat. Measurements were performed at five different levels above the sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. The vertical aerosol concentration gradient was obtained from a minimum of 4 measurement series. Thus each result consists of a 1 hour series with the average sampling time at each elevation equaling to 8 minutes. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, and using the Monin Obukhov theory, profiles of vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer were calculated. Using the results from those experiments the sea spray emission fluxes have been calculated for all particles of sizes at ranges from 0.5 μm to 8 μm, as well as for particles of sizes from fifteen channels of 0.5 μm width. Using these fluxes we calculated the Sea Salt Generation Function (SSGF) over the Baltic Sea. This function provides information on the emission of particles of different sizes, depending on environmental parameters. The emission of sea spray depends on the magnitude of energy lost by the wind waves in the process of their collapse. The support for this study

  16. The change of depolarization of backscattering light from the polar stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The change of polarization properties of scattered light strongly depends on the non-spherisity of target particles. It should be helpful information for the study of stratospheric aerosols to know the non-spherisity of stratospheric aerosol particles. The change of the total backscatter depolarization ratio of the stratospheric aerosol layer measured at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica is described.

  17. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  18. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer Through Satellite and Balloon-Borne Measurements Combined With Modeling Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, J.-P.; Fairlie, T. D.; Natarajan, M.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Crawford, J.; Moore, J.; Deshler, T.; Gadhavi, H.; Jayaraman, A.; Pandit, A.; Raj, A.; Kumar, H.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Vignelles, D.; Stenchikov, G.; Wiehold, F.; Bian, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer-ATAL is a confined area of enhanced aerosol associated Summer Asia Monsoon spanning from the E. Med Sea to W. China. It essentially extends from top of convective outflow over much of SE Asia Existence recognize through CALIPSO observations.

  19. Recent Improvements to CALIOP Level 3 Aerosol Profile Product for Global 3-D Aerosol Extinction Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, J. L.; Getzewich, B. J.; Winker, D. M.; Vaughan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    With nine years of retrievals, the CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product provides an unprecedented synopsis of aerosol extinction in three dimensions and the potential to quantify changes in aerosol distributions over time. The CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product, initially released as a beta product in 2011, reports monthly averages of quality-screened aerosol extinction profiles on a uniform latitude/longitude grid for different cloud-cover scenarios, called "sky conditions". This presentation demonstrates improvements to the second version of the product which will be released in September 2015. The largest improvements are the new sky condition definitions which parse the atmosphere into "cloud-free" views accessible to passive remote sensors, "all-sky" views accessible to active remote sensors and "cloudy-sky" views for opaque and transparent clouds which were previously inaccessible to passive remote sensors. Taken together, the new sky conditions comprehensively summarize CALIOP aerosol extinction profiles for a broad range of scientific queries. In addition to dust-only extinction profiles, the new version will include polluted-dust and smoke-only extinction averages. A new method is adopted for averaging dust-only extinction profiles to reduce high biases which exist in the beta version of the level 3 aerosol profile product. This presentation justifies the new averaging methodology and demonstrates vertical profiles of dust and smoke extinction over Africa during the biomass burning season. Another crucial advancement demonstrated in this presentation is a new approach for computing monthly mean aerosol optical depth which removes low biases reported in the beta version - a scenario unique to lidar datasets.

  20. Variation of the vertical distribution of Nabro volcano aerosol layers in the stratosphere observed by LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Young Min; Shin, Dong Ho; Müller, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    We present results of the vertical distribution variation of volcanic aerosol layers in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The data were taken with our multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar at Gwangju (35.10° N, 126.53° E), Korea. The volcanic ash particles and gases were released around 12 June 2011 during the eruption of the Nabro volcano (13.37° N, 41.7° E) in Eritrea, east Africa. Forward trajectory computations show that the volcanic aerosols were advected from North Africa to East Asia. The first measurement of the aerosol layer over Korea was on 19 June 2011. The aerosol layers appeared between 15 km and 17 km height asl (above sea level). The maximum value of the aerosol layer of the particle backscatter coefficient (1.5 ± 0.3 Mm-1 sr-1) and the linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm (2.2%) were observed at 16.4 km height asl. We continuously probed the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for this volcanic aerosol layer during the following 6 months, until December 2011. The volcanic aerosol layer showed a single-peak of the particle backscatter coefficient and a comparably narrow vertical thickness at our observation site at the beginning of our observation period (i.e. comparably soon after the initial eruption period). After that initial period the vertical distribution of the plume changed. Multiple peaks and a comparably broad geometrical thickness developed with progressing observation time. The vertical thickness of the volcanic aerosol layer expanded up to 10 km by 3 August 2011. The linear particle depolarization ratios were larger in the lower part of the aerosol layer than the upper part of the aerosol layer. We observed a strong variation of the AOD (aerosol optical depth) in the first two months of our lidar observations. After these two months the AOD gradually decreased with time from September to December 20111 and the maximum particle backscatter coefficients consistently decreased. The corresponding e

  1. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  2. The Influence of High Aerosol Concentration on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Khaykin, M.N.; Kadygrove, E.N.; Golitsyn, G.S.

    2005-03-18

    Investigations of the changing in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) radiation balance as cased by natural and anthropogenic reasons is an important topic of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The influence of aerosol on temperature stratification of ABL while its concentration was extremely high within a long period of time was studied experimentally. The case was observed in Moscow region (Russia) with the transport of combustion products from peat-bog and forest fires in July-September, 2002. At this time the visibility was some times at about 100-300 m. Aerosol concentration measured by Moscow University Observatory and A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics field station in Zvenigorod (55.7 N; 36.6 E) for several days was in 50-100 times more than background one (Gorchakov at al 2003). The high aerosol concentration can change the radiation balance at ABL, and so to change thermal stratification in ABL above the mega lopolis. For the analysis the data were used of synchronous measurements by MTP-5 (Microwave Temperature Profiler operating at wavelength 5 mm) in two locations, namely: downtown Moscow and country-side which is 50 km apart to the West (Zvenigorod station). (Kadygrov and Pick 1998; Westwater at al 1999; Kadygrov at al 2002). Zvenigorod station is located in strongly continental climate zone which is in between of the climates of ARM sites (NSANorth Slope of Alaska and SGP-Southern Great Plains). The town of Zvenigorod has little industry, small traffic volume and topography conductive to a good air ventilation of the town. For these reasons Zvenigorod can be considered as an undisturbed rural site. For the analysis some days were chosen with close meteorological parameters (average temperature, humidity, wind, pressure and cloud form) but strongly differing in aerosol concentration level.

  3. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  4. Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in the trade wind boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunsil

    This dissertation includes an overview of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation properties associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed during the Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment (BACEX, March-April 2010) and a discussion of their interactions. The principal observing platform for the experiment was the Cooperative Institute for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter (TO) research aircraft that was equipped with aerosol, cloud, and precipitation probes, standard meteorological instruments, and a up-looking cloud radar. The temporal variations and vertical distributions of aerosols observed on the 15 flights show a wide range of aerosol conditions that include the most intense African dust event observed at the Barbados surface site during all of 2010. An average CCN varied from 50 cm-3 to 800 cm -3 at super-saturation of 0.6 %, for example. The 10-day backward trajectories show that three distinctive air masses (originality of air mass as well as the vertical structure) dominate over the Eastern Caribbean (e.g., typical maritime air mass, Saharan Air Layer (SAL), Middle latitude dry air) with characteristic aerosol vertical structures. Many clouds in various phases of growth during BACEX are sampled. The maximum cloud depth observed is about less than 3 km and in most of the clouds is less than 1 km. Two types of precipitation features were observed for the shallow marine cumulus clouds with different impacts on boundary layer. In one, precipitation shafts are observed to emanate from the cloud base with evaporation in the sub-cloud layer (stabilize the sub-cloud layer). In the other, precipitation shafts emanate mainly near the cloud top on the downshear side of the cloud and evaporate in the cloud layer, leading to destabilizing the cloud layer and providing moisture to the layer. Only 42-44 % of clouds sampled were purely non-precipitating throughout the clouds; the remainder of the clouds showed precipitation somewhere in the cloud

  5. Investigation the optical and radiative properties of aerosol vertical profile of boundary layer by lidar and ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Chou, C.; Lin, P.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer is the air layer near the ground directly affected by diurnal heat, moisture, aerosol, and cloud transfer to or from the surface. In the daytime solar radiation heats the surface, initiating thermal instability or convection. Whereas, the scattering and absorption of aerosols or clouds might decrease the surface radiation or heat atmosphere which induce feedbacks such as the enhanced stratification and change in relative humidity in the boundary layer. This study is aimed to understand the possible radiative effect of aerosols basing on ground based aerosol measurements and lidar installed in National Taiwan University in Taipei. The optical and radiative properties of aerosols are dominated by aerosol composition, particle size, hygroscopicity property, and shape. In this study, aerosol instruments including integrating nephelometer, open air nephelometer, aethalometer are applied to investigate the relationship between aerosol hygroscopicity properties and aerosol types. The aerosol hygroscopicity properties are further applied to investigate the effect of relative humidity on aerosol vertical profiles measured by a dual-wavelength and depolarization lidar. The possible radiative effect of aerosols are approached by vertical atmospheric extinction profiles measured by lidar. Calculated atmospheric and aerosol heating effects was compared with vertical meteorological parameters measured by radiosonde. The result shows light-absorbing aerosol has the potential to affect the stability of planetary boundary layer.

  6. Aerosols in the Convective Boundary Layer: Radiation Effects on the Coupled Land-Atmosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, E.; Vila-Guerau Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Schroter, J.; Donovan, D. P.; Krol, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the responses of the surface energy budget and the convective boundary-layer (CBL) dynamics to the presence of aerosols using a combination of observations and numerical simulations. A detailed observational dataset containing (thermo)dynamic variables observed at CESAR (Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research) and aerosol information from the European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud, Climate, and Air Quality Interactions (IMPACT/EUCAARI) campaign is employed to design numerical experiments reproducing two prototype clear-sky days characterized by: (i) a well-mixed residual layer above a ground inversion and (ii) a continuously growing CBL. A large-eddy simulation (LES) model and a mixed-layer (MXL) model, both coupled to a broadband radiative transfer code and a land-surface model, are used to study the impacts of aerosol scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation on the land-atmosphere system. We successfully validate our model results using the measurements of (thermo)dynamic variables and aerosol properties for the two different CBL prototypes studied here. Our findings indicate that in order to reproduce the observed surface energy budget and CBL dynamics, information of the vertical structure and temporal evolution of the aerosols is necessary. Given the good agreement between the LES and the MXL model results, we use the MXL model to explore the aerosol effect on the land-atmosphere system for a wide range of optical depths and single scattering albedos. Our results show that higher loads of aerosols decrease irradiance, imposing an energy restriction at the surface. Over the studied well-watered grassland, aerosols reduce the sensible heat flux more than the latent heat flux. As a result, aerosols increase the evaporative fraction. Moreover, aerosols also delay the CBL morning onset and anticipate its afternoon collapse. If also present above the CBL during the morning transition, aerosols maintain a persistent near

  7. Silicon production in an aerosol reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. J.; Alam, M. K.; Johnson, B. E.; Flagan, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    An aerosol reactor for the growth of large silicon particles by silane pyrolysis was shown to demonstrate the following properties: (1) generate seed particles by pyrolysis of a small amount of silane; (2) mix seed aerosol with primary silane flow, limiting number concentration such that the amount of silane is sufficient to grow the desired size of particles from the seed; and (3) react the silane at a rate which is controlled such that the seed particles scavenge the condensible vapors rapidly enough to inhibit further nucleation.

  8. Transformation of aerosol in Planetary Boundary Layer over the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, Przemyslaw; Petelski, Tomasz; Piskozub, Jacek; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon; Rozwadowska, Anna; Markuszewski, Piotr; Zawadzka, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols are one of the most important components of the atmosphere. The content and composition of aerosols in the atmosphere depends on their origin. In maritime areas transformation of aerosols in the atmosphere may occur. This depends on many factors, such as wind speed and direction, humidity and emission from the sea surface. The transformation of aerosols in the Planetary Boundary Layer over the Baltic Sea is replacing other sources of aerosols to aerosols composed of sea salt. When the air passing over the Baltic aerosol optical thickness (AOT) initially decreases and then increases in strong winds due to increase of the marine aerosol content in the layer. This type of change can be followed with use of many numerical experiments performed on the model of the transformation of aerosols in the Planetary Boundary Layer. This model consists of two parts, dynamic and optical. The dynamic part is based on the repeated numerical solution of the equation of diffusion for different particle size and optical properties. The result of the dynamic part provides vertical profiles of aerosol size distributions. Optical module to calculate the relative cross sections for the weakening used Mie single process. We compare data from numerical experiments with data from in situ experiments and with data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board of Terra and Aqua satellite. From the resulting comparisons received correlations are in order as 0.789 and 0.862. What indicates a good correlation between the data from numerical experiment and in situ data or MODIS data. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09

  9. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  10. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P. Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Methods Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (i.e. albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1–5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. Results At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~ 0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1 % w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. Conclusions The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs. PMID:25823649

  11. Enhanced water vapor in Asian dust layer: Entrainment processes and implication for aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Jiyoung; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Jefferson, Anne; Choi, Suk-Jin; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Anderson, Theodore L.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Weber, Rodney J.

    The entrainment process of water vapor into the dust layer during Asian dust events and the effect of water vapor associated with the Asian dust layer (ADL) on aerosol hygroscopic properties are investigated. The entrainment processes of water vapor into the ADL is examined by using a PSU/NCAR MM5 together with the backward trajectory model, radiosonde data, and remotely sensed aerosol vertical distribution data. Two dust events in the spring of 1998 and 2001 are examined in detail. The results reveal that the water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) derived by the MM5 fits in well with the WVMR observed by radiosonde, and is well coincident with the aerosol extinction coefficient ( σep) measured by the micro-pulse lidar. The temporal evolution of the vertical distributions of WVMR and σep exhibited similar features. On the basis of a well simulation of the enhanced water vapor within the dust layer by the MM5, we trace the dust storms to examine the entrainment mechanism. The enhancement of WVMR within the ADL was initiated over the mountainous areas. The relatively moist air mass in the well-developed mixing layer over the mountainous areas is advected upward from the boundary layer by an ascending motion. However, a large portion of the water vapor within the ADL is enhanced over the edge of a highland and the plains in China. This is well supported by the simulated WVMR and the wind vectors. Aircraft-based in situ measurements of the chemical and optical properties of aerosol enable a quantitative estimation of the effect of the enhanced WVMR on the aerosol hygroscopic properties. The submicron aerosol accompanied by the dust storm caused an increase of aerosol scattering through water uptakes during the transport. This increase could be explained by the chemical fact that water-soluble submicron pollution aerosols are enriched in the ADL.

  12. MISR Aerosol Product Attributes and Statistical Comparisons with MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Nelson, David L.; Garay, Michael J.; Levy, Robert C.; Bull, Michael A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Paradise, Susan R.; Hansen, Earl G.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol product attributes are described, including geometry and algorithm performance flags. Actual retrieval coverage is mapped and explained in detail using representative global monthly data. Statistical comparisons are made with coincident aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (ANG) retrieval results from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The relationship between these results and the ones previously obtained for MISR and MODIS individually, based on comparisons with coincident ground-truth observations, is established. For the data examined, MISR and MODIS each obtain successful aerosol retrievals about 15% of the time, and coincident MISR-MODIS aerosol retrievals are obtained for about 6%-7% of the total overlap region. Cloud avoidance, glint and oblique-Sun exclusions, and other algorithm physical limitations account for these results. For both MISR and MODIS, successful retrievals are obtained for over 75% of locations where attempts are made. Where coincident AOD retrievals are obtained over ocean, the MISR-MODIS correlation coefficient is about 0.9; over land, the correlation coefficient is about 0.7. Differences are traced to specific known algorithm issues or conditions. Over-ocean ANG comparisons yield a correlation of 0.67, showing consistency in distinguishing aerosol air masses dominated by coarse-mode versus fine-mode particles. Sampling considerations imply that care must be taken when assessing monthly global aerosol direct radiative forcing and AOD trends with these products, but they can be used directly for many other applications, such as regional AOD gradient and aerosol air mass type mapping and aerosol transport model validation. Users are urged to take seriously the published product data-quality statements.

  13. A New Stratospheric Aerosol Product from CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.; Vernier, J. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Young, S. A.; Liu, Z.; Lucker, P.; Tackett, J. L.; Omar, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are derived from precursor SO2 and OCS gases transported from the lower troposphere. Volcanic injections can also enhance aerosol loadings far above background levels. The latter can exert a significant influence on the Earth's radiation budget for major and even minor eruptions. Careful measurements are needed, therefore, to monitor the distribution and evolution of stratospheric aerosols for climate related studies. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission has been acquiring profile measurements of clouds and aerosols since 2006, leading to major advances in our understanding of tropospheric aerosol and cloud properties and the processes that control them. The CALIPSO products have also enabled new insights into polar stratospheric clouds and stratospheric aerosols. Vernier et al (2009,JGR,114,D00H10) reported on the construction of a modified CALIPSO lidar product that corrected minor artifacts with the original lidar calibration that affected stratospheric aerosol investigations. A significantly improved CALIPSO Lidar Version 4 Level 1 product has been recently released addressing these calibration issues and has resulted in enhanced signal levels and a highly stable record over the span of the mission. Based on this product, a new 3D gridded stratospheric CALIPSO data product is under development and being targeted for release in 2015. A key emphasis of this new product is to bridge the measurement gap between the SAGE II and SAGE III data record (1984-2005) and the start of measurements from the new SAGE III instrument to be deployed on the International Space Station in 2016. The primary parameters delivered in the CALIPSO stratospheric data products will be attenuated scattering ratio and aerosol extinction profiles, both averaged over one month intervals and binned into an equal angle grid of constant latitude and longitude with a vertical resolution of 900m. We will present the overall

  14. The persistently variable "background" stratospheric aerosol layer and global climate change.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; Daniel, J S; Neely, R R; Vernier, J-P; Dutton, E G; Thomason, L W

    2011-08-12

    Recent measurements demonstrate that the "background" stratospheric aerosol layer is persistently variable rather than constant, even in the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Several independent data sets show that stratospheric aerosols have increased in abundance since 2000. Near-global satellite aerosol data imply a negative radiative forcing due to stratospheric aerosol changes over this period of about -0.1 watt per square meter, reducing the recent global warming that would otherwise have occurred. Observations from earlier periods are limited but suggest an additional negative radiative forcing of about -0.1 watt per square meter from 1960 to 1990. Climate model projections neglecting these changes would continue to overestimate the radiative forcing and global warming in coming decades if these aerosols remain present at current values or increase.

  15. Susceptibility of stored-product psocids to aerosol insecticides.

    PubMed

    Opit, George P; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E; Payton, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    The efficacies of commercial methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols for control of stored-product psocid pests were evaluated in simulated field studies. The efficacies of methoprene, esfenvalerate EC, the carrier Isopar-M™, and a combination of methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols for control of Liposcelis decolor (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) nymphs were assessed, and the effects of direct and indirect exposure of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, L. decolor, and Liposcelis paeta Pearman adults to esfenvalerate EC aerosol were evaluated. The greatest nymphal mortality attained was 76%, indicating that the four aerosols tested were ineffective against L. decolor and L. entomophila nymphs. In the direct and indirect exposure studies, the greatest adult mortalities attained for the three psocid species were 62 and 32%, respectively. Based on these data, esfenvalerate aerosol is ineffective for control of L. bostrychophila, L. decolor, L. entomophila, and L. paeta psocid species. This study shows that methoprene, esfenvalerate EC, and a combination of methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols were ineffective against the four psocid species tested when applied at rates that are usually effective against other stored-product insect pests.

  16. Susceptibility of Stored-Product Psocids to Aerosol Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Opit, George P.; Arthur, Frank H.; Throne, James E.; Payton, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacies of commercial methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols for control of stored-product psocid pests were evaluated in simulated field studies. The efficacies of methoprene, esfenvalerate EC, the carrier Isopar-M™, and a combination of methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols for control of Liposcelis decolor (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) nymphs were assessed, and the effects of direct and indirect exposure of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, L. decolor, and Liposcelis paeta Pearman adults to esfenvalerate EC aerosol were evaluated. The greatest nymphal mortality attained was 76%, indicating that the four aerosols tested were ineffective against L. decolor and L. entomophila nymphs. In the direct and indirect exposure studies, the greatest adult mortalities attained for the three psocid species were 62 and 32%, respectively. Based on these data, esfenvalerate aerosol is ineffective for control of L. bostrychophila, L. decolor, L. entomophila, and L. paeta psocid species. This study shows that methoprene, esfenvalerate EC, and a combination of methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols were ineffective against the four psocid species tested when applied at rates that are usually effective against other stored-product insect pests. PMID:23463916

  17. Sources and Transport of Aerosol above the Boundary Layer over the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Veronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Dulac, François; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  18. Transport and Evolution of Aerosol Above/Below the Boundary Layer in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. C.; Corrigan, C.; Ritchie, J.; Pont, V.; Claeys, M.; Sciare, J.; Mallet, M.; Dulac, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities of the ChArMEx/ADRIMED summer 2013 campaign by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the

  19. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A T; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T

    2016-11-17

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  20. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-11-01

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  1. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. Lastly, this rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  2. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; ...

    2016-10-24

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- andmore » ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. Lastly, this rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.« less

  3. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Organic aerosol (OA, i.e., the organic fraction of particles) accounts for 10–90% of the fine aerosol mass globally and is a key determinant of aerosol radiative forcing. But atmospheric OA is poorly characterized and its life cycle insufficiently represented in models. As a result, current models are unable to simulate OA concentrations and properties accurately. This deficiency represents a large source of uncertainty in quantification of aerosol effects and prediction of future climate change. Evaluation and development of aerosol models require data products generated from field observations. Real-time, quantitative data acquired with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) (Canagaratna et al. 2007) are critical to this need. The AMS determines size-resolved concentrations of non-refractory (NR) species in submicrometer particles (PM1) with fast time resolution suitable for both ground-based and aircraft deployments. The high-resolution AMS (HR-AMS), which is equipped with a high mass resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer, can be used to determine the elemental composition and oxidation degrees of OA (DeCarlo et al. 2006).

  4. VIIRS Aerosol Products During the SEAC4RS Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, L. A.; Munchak, L. A.; Huang, J.; Martins, J. V.; Espinosa, R.; Orozco, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field experiment that took place during August and September 2013 offered an in depth portrait of the aerosol system over much of the continental United States. Heavily instrumented aircraft, including the NASA DC-8 sampled a wide variety of aerosol types including transported Saharan dust, both fresh and aged smoke from western wildfires, urban pollution plumes and also biogenic aerosol produced by the "green volcano" in the vegetated Ozarks. Complementing these aircraft measurements was an enhanced array of AERONET stations sprinkled across the country and also concentrated in a mesoscale array near the home base of Houston Texas. This rich collection of suborbital aerosol information permits a more comprehensive evaluation of the VIIRS aerosol product that includes validation of the products across the mesoscale and choices of case studies in which we can delve deeper into the VIIRS retrieval to test algorithm assumptions. We will compare VIIRS retrievals during SEAC4RS with MODIS retrievals, with AERONET observations and retrievals, and with measurements and retrievals from the Polar Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) that flew aboard the NASA DC-8.

  5. Retrieving the aerosol particle distribution in Titan's detached layer from ISS limb observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seignovert, B.; Rannou, P.; Lavvas, P.; Cours, T.; West, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    The study of the detached haze layer above Titan's thick atmosphere is one of the key elements to understand the growth of the aerosols in the upper atmosphere of Titan. In this work we will present the results of a radiative transfer inversion of the vertical profile distribution of aerosols in the detached haze layer (from 300 to 600 km) by using the I/F ratio ob- served by Cassini ISS camera. The analyses will focus on the derivation of the particle size distribution.

  6. Aerosol Composition in the Marine and Coastal Boundary Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    hysteresis effect. The deliquescence points of these samples are not precisely known because of the large RH-steps imposed by funding limitations...hence, the dashed portions of the curves for increasing RH connect the highest RH step achieved before deliquescence occurred and the lowest RH step...achieved after deliquescence ; the actual data points are shown in the figure. However, for these highly-mixed "natural" aerosol samples, deliquescence

  7. Snow and Ice Mask for the MODIS Aerosol Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Remer, Lorraine; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Mattoo, Shana; Gao, Bo-Cai; Vermote, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric products have been derived operationally from multichannel imaging data collected with the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometers (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. Preliminary validations of the products were previously reported. Through analysis of more extensive time-series of MODIS aerosol products (Collection 4), we have found that the aerosol products over land areas are slightly contaminated by snow and ice during the springtime snow-melting season. We have developed an empirical technique using MODIS near-IR channels centered near 0.86 and 1.24 pm and a thermal emission channel near 11 pm to mask out these snow-contaminated pixels over land. Improved aerosol retrievals over land have been obtained. Sample results from application of the technique to MODIS data acquired over North America, northern Europe, and northeastern Asia are presented. The technique has been implemented into the MODIS Collection 5 operational algorithm for retrieving aerosols over land from MODIS data.

  8. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM Mobile Facility Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-01-01

    Capsule: A 21-month deployment to Graciosa Island in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is providing an unprecedented record of the clouds, aerosols and meteorology in a poorly-sampled remote marine environment The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009- December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1- 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a

  9. Aerosol optical depth over complex topography: comparison of AVHRR, MERIS and MODIS aerosol products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffler, Michael; Popp, Christoph; Hauser, Adrian; Wunderle, Stefan

    Aerosols are a key component in the Earth's atmosphere, influencing the radiation budget due to scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation and changing cloud physics by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Furthermore, dispersed particles alter visibility and affect human health. Remote sensing techniques are a common means to monitor aerosol variability on large spatial scales. The accuracy of these retrievals is highest over surfaces with well known spectral properties and low reflectance (e.g. oceans). The retrieval over brighter and heterogeneous land surfaces is more demanding, since temporally unstable surface reflectance and a reduced aerosol signal may result in larger errors. Regions with highly complex topography, like the Alps, can exhibit even larger errors, basically due to directional effects caused by the topography, temporal snow coverage, and usually higher cloud amount. Ground validation of remote sensing aerosol products is generally performed using sun photometer measurements from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). However, the lack of such sites in the central parts of the Alps renders validation difficult. To study the potential of aerosol remote sensing in regions with complex topography, namely in the Alps, we make use of an unusual situation on one of the major trans-alpine traffic routes in June 2006: A fatal rock fall caused the nearly one month closure of the Gotthard route in the Central Swiss Reuss Valley. Large parts of the traffic were redirected to the San Bernardino route (eastern Switzerland), which had a large impact on the local traffic amount, and thereby on air quality. Herein we compare the performance of three different sensors (AVHRR, MERIS, MODIS) in detecting this obvious change in the aerosol optical depth of the two alpine valleys in summer 2006. First results from AVHRR show a clear reduction (47%) of the aerosol optical depth along the Gotthard route compared to the five year monthly mean (2003

  10. Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties Over the ARM ACRF Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    The systematic and routine measurements of aerosol, water vapor, and clouds in the vertical column above the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites from surface-based remote sensing systems provides a unique and comprehensive data source that can be used to characterize the boundary layer (i.e., the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere) and its evolution. New algorithms have been developed to provide critical datasets from ARM instruments, and these datasets have been used in long-term analyses to better understand the climatology of water vapor and aerosol over Darwin, the turbulent structure of the boundary layer and its statistical properties over Oklahoma, and to better determine the distribution of ice and aerosol particles over northern Alaska.

  11. DUAL ORIGIN OF AEROSOLS IN TITAN'S DETACHED HAZE LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Cours, T.; Burgalat, J.; Rannou, P.; Rodriguez, S.; Brahic, A.

    2011-11-10

    We have analyzed scattered light profiles from the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem, taken at the limb and at several large phase angles. We also used results from an occultation observed by Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph in the ultraviolet. We found that particles responsible for the scattering in the detached haze have an effective radius around 0.15 {mu}m and the aerosol size distribution follows a power law (exponent about -4.5). We discuss these results along with microphysical constraints and thermal equilibrium of the detached haze, and we conclude that only a strong interaction with atmospheric dynamics can explain such a structure.

  12. Elevated aerosol layers and their radiative impact over Kanpur during monsoon onset period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Chandan; Tripathi, S. N.; Mishra, A. K.; Goel, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Accurate information about aerosol vertical distribution is needed to reduce uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on atmospheric dynamics. The present study deals with synergistic analyses of aerosol vertical distribution and aerosol optical depth (AOD) with meteorological variables using multisatellite and ground-based remote sensors over Kanpur in central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Micro-Pulse Lidar Network-derived aerosol vertical extinction (σ) profiles are analyzed to quantify the interannual and daytime variations during monsoon onset period (May-June) for 2009-2011. The mean aerosol profile is broadly categorized into two layers viz., a surface layer (SL) extending up to 1.5 km (where σ decreased exponentially with height) and an elevated aerosol layer (EAL) extending between 1.5 and 5.5 km. The increase in total columnar aerosol loading is associated with relatively higher increase in contribution from EAL loading than that from SL. The mean contributions of EALs are about 60%, 51%, and 50% to total columnar AOD during 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. We observe distinct parabolic EALs during early morning and late evening but uniformly mixed EALs during midday. The interannual and daytime variations of EALs are mainly influenced by long-range transport and convective capacity of the local emissions, respectively. Radiative flux analysis shows that clear-sky incoming solar radiation at surface is reduced with increase in AOD, which indicates significant cooling at surface. Collocated analysis of atmospheric temperature and aerosol loading reveals that increase in AOD not only resulted in surface dimming but also reduced the temperature (˜2-3°C) of lower troposphere (below 3 km altitude). Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the reduction of incoming solar radiation at surface is mainly due to increased absorption by EALs (with increase in total AOD). The observed cooling in lower troposphere in high aerosol loading

  13. Radiative effects of tropospheric aerosols on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer and its feedback on the haze formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chao; Su, Hang; Cheng, Yafang

    2016-04-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) plays a key role in air pollution dispersion and influences day-to-day air quality. Some studies suggest that high aerosol loadings during severe haze events may modify PBL dynamics by radiative effects and hence enhance the development of haze. This study mainly investigates the radiative effects of tropospheric aerosols on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer by conducting simulations with Weather Research and Forecasting single-column model (WRF-SCM). We find that high aerosol loading in PBL depressed boundary layer height (PBLH). But the magnitude of the changes of PBLH after adding aerosol loadings in our simulations are small and can't explain extreme high aerosol concentrations observed. We also investigate the impacts of the initial temperature and moisture profiles on the evolution of PBL. Our studies show that the impact of the vertical profile of moisture is comparable with aerosol effects.

  14. Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... article title:  Aerosols over Central and Eastern Europe     View Larger Image ... last weeks of March 2003, widespread aerosol pollution over Europe was detected by several satellite-borne instruments. The Multi-angle ...

  15. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Gysel, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Goger, B.; Poulain, L.; Schlag, P.; Miettinen, P.; Pajunoja, A.; Virtanen, A.; Bialek, J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Henzing, J. S.; Größ, J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; O'Dowd, C.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-03-01

    Airborne measurements of the aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties as well as chemical composition were performed in the Netherlands and northern Italy on board of a Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaigns in 2012. The vertical changes in aerosol properties during the development of the mixing layer were studied. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 95% relative humidity were determined using the white-light humidified optical particles spectrometer (WHOPS) for dry diameters of 300 and 500 nm particles. These measurements were supplemented by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and an aethalometer providing information on the aerosol chemical composition. Several vertical profiles between 100 and 700 m a.g. were flown just after sunrise close to the San Pietro Capofiume ground station in the Po Valley, Italy. During the early morning hours the lowest layer (newly developing mixing layer) contained a high nitrate fraction (20%) which was coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth. In the layer above (residual layer) small nitrate fractions of ~ 2% were measured as well as low GFs. After full mixing of the layers, typically around noon and with increased temperature, the nitrate fraction decreased to 2% at all altitudes and led to similar hygroscopicity values as found in the residual layer. These distinct vertical and temporal changes underline the importance of airborne campaigns to study aerosol properties during the development of the mixed layer. The aerosol was externally mixed with 22 and 67% of the 500 nm particles in the range GF < 1.1 and GF > 1.5, respectively. Contributors to the non-hygroscopic mode in the observed size range are most likely mineral dust and biological material. Mean hygroscopicity parameters (κ) were 0.34, 0.19 and 0.18 for particles in the newly forming mixing layer, residual layer and fully mixed layer, respectively. These results agree well with those from chemical analysis which found values of κ = 0.27, 0.21 and 0

  16. Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An Arm Mobile Facility Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Rémillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O’Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-03-01

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 38 deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009-December 2010) 39 comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric 40 Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is 41 to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the 42 marine boundary layer. 43 Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the 44 Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and 45 cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus 46 occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar 47 echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-48 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide 49 range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of 50 sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way 51 interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation 52 and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. 53 The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety 54 of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they 55 reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, 56 but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to 57 be a long-term ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  17. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, Christine; Mann, Julia; O Connor, Ewan; Hogan, Robin; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palinkonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  18. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Chen, Gao; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  19. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; ...

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulusmore » and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.« less

  20. Mixed-layer ocean responses to anthropogenic aerosol dimming from 1870 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Knutti, Reto; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    It is still debated, to what extent anthropogenic aerosol-induced changes in surface solar radiation (SSR) since industrialization affected surface temperatures (tsurf). We use mixed-layer ocean (MLO) experiments with the general circulation model ECHAM6.1 and explicit aerosols (HAM2.2) to identify regions where this effect is discernible. For each decade from 1870 to 2000 we derive three equilibria: anthropogenic aerosol emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations at the respective decade's levels (ALL), either aerosols or greenhouse gases fixed at year 1850 levels (GHG and AERO). We duplicated parts of the experiments with different prescribed divergence of ocean heat transport (Q_ALL, Q_AERO, Q_GHG). Comparing year 2000 with year 1870 equilibria, we find global average cooling of -1.4K for AERO, and warming of 1.4K for GHG. ALL and Q_ALL warm by 0.6K and 0.4K, respectively. The way divergence of ocean heat transport is prescribed thus matters. Pattern correlations of year 2000 tsurf responses in ALL with the sum of AERO and GHG are higher (0.88) than with Q_ALL (0.71) confirming additivity of global patterns, but not of global means. The imprint of anthropogenic aerosols on tsurf response patterns in ALL is distinct, thus potentially detectable. Over the decades, ocean fractions affected by either changing aerosol optical depth or all-sky SSR vary in concert, supporting linkage between anthropogenic aerosols and all-sky SSR. SSR changes and tsurf responses are marginally collocated. Oceanic regions with strongest tsurf response to aerosol-induced SSR changes are the northern mid-latitudes and North Pacific with tsurf sensitivities up to -0.7K per Wm-2 SSR change. Results presented have been published under the same title in the Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 121, DOI 10.1002/2015JD024070.

  1. Mixed-layer ocean responses to anthropogenic aerosol dimming from 1870 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, T. N.; Folini, D.; Knutti, R.; Wild, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is debated to what extent surface solar radiation (SSR) changes through varying anthropogenic aerosol emissions since industrialization affected surface temperatures (tsurf). We use mixed-layer ocean experiments with the general circulation model ECHAM6.1 and explicit aerosols (HAM2.2) to identify regions where this effect is discernible. For each decade from 1870 to 2000 we derive three equilibria: anthropogenic aerosol emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations at the respective decade's levels (ALL), either aerosols or greenhouse gases fixed at year 1850 levels (GHG and AERO). We duplicated parts of the experiments with different prescribed divergence of ocean heat transport (Q_ALL, Q_AERO, and Q_GHG). Comparing year 2000 with year 1870 equilibria, we find global average cooling of -1.4 K for AERO and warming of 1.4 K for GHG. ALL and Q_ALL warm by 0.6 K and 0.4 K, respectively. The way divergence of ocean heat transport is prescribed thus matters. Pattern correlations of year 2000 tsurf responses in ALL with the sum of AERO and GHG are higher (0.88) than with Q_ALL (0.71) confirming additivity of global patterns, but not of global means. The imprint of anthropogenic aerosols on tsurf response patterns in ALL is distinct, thus potentially detectable. Over the decades, ocean fractions affected by either changing aerosol optical depth or all-sky SSR vary in concert, supporting linkage between anthropogenic aerosols and all-sky SSR. SSR changes and tsurf responses are marginally collocated. Oceanic regions with strongest tsurf response to aerosol-induced SSR changes are the northern midlatitudes and North Pacific with tsurf sensitivities up to -0.7 K W m-2 SSR change.

  2. Surface ozone-aerosol behaviour and atmospheric boundary layer structure in Saharan dusty scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, Jose; Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sorrribas, Mar; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel; Toledo, Daniel; Yela, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    A research campaign was performed for the AMISOC (Atmospheric Minor Species relevant to the Ozone Chemistry) project at El Arenosillo observatory (southwest Spain) in May-June 2012. The campaign focused on the impact of Saharan dust intrusions at the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and ozone-aerosol interactions. In-situ and remote-sensing techniques for gases and aerosols were used moreover to modelling analyses. Meteorology features, ABL structures and evolution, aerosol profiling distributions and aerosol-ozone interactions on the surface were analysed. Two four-day periods were selected according to non-dusty (clean conditions) and dusty (Saharan dust) situations. In both scenarios, sea-land breezes developed in the lower atmosphere, but differences were found in the upper levels. Results show that surface temperatures were greater than 3°C and humidity values were lower during dusty conditions than non-dusty conditions. Thermal structures on the surface layer (estimated using an instrument on a 100 m tower) show differences, mainly during nocturnal periods with less intense inversions under dusty conditions. The mixing layer during dusty days was 400-800 m thick, less than observed on non-dusty days. Dust also disturbed the typical daily ABL evolution. Stable conditions were observed during the early evening during intrusions. Aerosol extinction on dusty days was 2-3 times higher, and the dust was confined between 1500 and 5500 m. Back trajectory analyses confirmed that the dust had an African origin. On the surface, the particle concentration was approximately 3.5 times higher during dusty events, but the local ozone did not exhibit any change. The arrival of Saharan dust in the upper levels impacted the meteorological surface, inhibited the daily evolution of the ABL and caused an increase in aerosol loading on the surface and at higher altitudes; however, no dust influence was observed on surface ozone.

  3. Inclined lidar observations of boundary layer aerosol particles above the Kongsfjord, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Astrid; Ström, Johan; Ritter, Christoph; Neuber, Roland; Yoon, Young; Chae, Nam; Shiobara, Masataka

    2012-10-01

    An inclined lidar with vertical resolution of 0.4 m was used for detailed boundary layer studies and to link observations at Zeppelin Mountain (474 m) and Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. We report on the observation of aerosol layers directly above the Kongsfjord. On 29 April 2007, a layer of enhanced backscatter was observed in the lowest 25 m above the open water surface. The low depolarization ratio indicated spherical particles. In the afternoon, this layer disappeared. The ultrafine particle concentration at Zeppelin and Corbel station (close to the Kongsfjord) was low. On 1 May 2007, a drying process in the boundary layer was observed. In the morning, the atmosphere up to Zeppelin Mountain showed enhanced values of the backscatter coefficient. Around noon, the top of the highly reflecting boundary layer decreased from 350 to 250 m. The top of the boundary layer observed by lidar was confirmed by radiosonde data.

  4. Complex vertical layering and mixing of aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean: active and passive remote sensing at the Cyprus University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamouri, R.-E.; Nisantzi, A.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.; Ansmann, A.; Schwarz, A.; Basart, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosols can have a complicated influence on climate conditions, directly as well as indirectly via cloud formation. The southeastern Mediterranean region can be characterized as a cross road of aerosols originating from European, Asian and African continents. Complex vertical aerosol distributions are frequently detected over Cyprus by means of active remote sensing. Observations of such complex aerosol layering and comparison of the measurements with aerosol products of regional and global atmospheric transport models are required to improve our understanding of life cycles of aerosol mixtures and their impact on climate as well as on satellite remote sensing products. In this study, a case of an intense desert dust outbreak from Syria and Saudi Arabia towards the eastern Mediterranean in September 2011 is presented. The observations used in this study were performed with a 532-nm polarization Lidar and a sun/sky AERONET photometer operated at 8 channels from 340 to 1640 nm wavelength. Both instruments belong to remote sensing station of the Cyprus Technical University at Limassol, Cyprus (34°N, 33°E). The lofted dust plume was doped with air masses that crossed sources of biomass burning smoke and anthropogenic pollution. In addition, the shallow marine boundary layer over the Mediterranean Sea and over Limassol became mixed with the anthropogenic haze by sea breeze circulations. The case study demonstrates the potential of combined lidar/photometer observations to deliver detailed vertically resolved information of the aerosol characteristics in terms of particle optical and microphysical properties, separately for the spherical particle fraction as well as for the non-spherical aerosol mode.

  5. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Gysel, Martin; Rubach, Florian; Mentel, Thomas F.; Goger, Brigitta; Poulain, Laurent; Schlag, Patrick; Miettinen, Pasi; Pajunoja, Aki; Virtanen, Annele; Klein Baltink, Henk; Bas Henzing, J. S.; Größ, Johannes; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol particles hygroscopic properties, their mixing state as well as chemical composition were measured above northern Italy and the Netherlands. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; for chemical composition) and a white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS; for hygroscopic growth) were deployed on a Zeppelin NT airship within the PEGASOS project. This allowed one to investigate the development of the different layers within the planetary boundary layer (PBL), providing a unique in situ data set for airborne aerosol particles properties in the first kilometre of the atmosphere. Profiles measured during the morning hours on 20 June 2012 in the Po Valley, Italy, showed an increased nitrate fraction at ˜ 100 m above ground level (a.g.l.) coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth compared to ˜ 700 m a. g. l. This result was derived from both measurements of the aerosol composition and direct measurements of the hygroscopicity, yielding hygroscopicity parameters (κ) of 0.34 ± 0.12 and 0.19 ± 0.07 for 500 nm particles, at ˜ 100 and ˜ 700 m a. g. l., respectively. The difference is attributed to the structure of the PBL at this time of day which featured several independent sub-layers with different types of aerosols. Later in the day the vertical structures disappeared due to the mixing of the layers and similar aerosol particle properties were found at all probed altitudes (mean κ ≈ 0.18 ± 0.07). The aerosol properties observed at the lowest flight level (100 m a. g. l.) were consistent with parallel measurements at a ground site, both in the morning and afternoon. Overall, the aerosol particles were found to be externally mixed, with a prevailing hygroscopic fraction. The flights near Cabauw in the Netherlands in the fully mixed PBL did not feature altitude-dependent characteristics. Particles were also externally mixed and had an even larger hygroscopic fraction compared to the results in Italy. The mean κ from

  6. Influence of a high aerosol concentration on the thermal structure of the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikin, M. N.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Kadygrov, E. N.

    2006-12-01

    The influence of increased concentrations of submicron aerosol produced by forest fires on thermal characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in Moscow and its remote vicinity (the town of Zvenigorod) are analyzed on the basis of regular remote measurements of the ABL temperature profile with the use of MTP-5 profilers. In the air basin of a large city, additional aerosol and accompanying pollutants in early morning hours (at small heights of the Sun) most frequently did not cause substantial changes in the ABL thermal structure. In the locality remote from the megalopolis (Zvenigorod), the atmospheric pollution by aerosol led to noticeable changes in the ABL thermal characteristics. Especially strong changes were observed in the daytime, during the maximum supply of solar radiation. In morning hours, the heating rate of the lower 100-m layer of the polluted air exceeded the heating rate of a relatively pure air by more than one degree. In higher layers, the differences between the rates of temperature changes in a relatively clean atmosphere and in an atmosphere polluted by aerosol (in the suburb) were insignificant.

  7. Calmness of the aerosol layer in the atmosphere during biomass burning episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    The aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the atmosphere has been retrieved from direct Sun (DS) measurements by the application of the Beer law (BL). On the other hand, the Langley method (LM), an offspring of the BL, is inappropriate to the retrieval of the AOD since it requires a stable atmosphere during DS measurements, a condition hardly achieved in typical turbulent scenes of biomass burning sites owing to the aerosol layer variability. In this work, some events of calmness of the aerosol layer during biomass burning episodes in the central area of Brazil are identified. Such a condition can be identified by low variability in the AOD values, and it makes the BL and the LM application yield similar results. Intervals of almost 2 hours have been identified, characterizing a state of calmness in the aerosol layer according to the chosen parameters. Measurement restrictions and statistical criteria for the retrieval of the AOD are used in the identification of the calmness states, and as a spin-off the retrieval of the irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (the extrapolated value Ioλ) from the LM has been improved, reducing its uncertainty from 0.5988 × 107 to 0.1878 × 107 photons/s (p/s) at 306.3 nm and from 0.4002 × 107 to 0.1375 × 107 p/s at 320.1 nm. Consequently, the AOD uncertainty has also been reduced by 47 and 56%, respectively, on average.

  8. The Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products over land and ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.; Remer, L. A.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    The twin Moderate Imaging resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been flying on Terra since 2000 and Aqua since 2002, creating an incredible dataset of global Earth observations. Here, we introduce the Collection 6 (C6) algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size parameters from MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there is significant impact on the products and their interpretation. The C6 algorithm is comprised of three sub-algorithms for retrieving aerosol properties (1) over ocean (dark in visible and near-IR wavelengths), (2) over vegetated/dark-soiled land (dark in the visible) and (3) over desert/arid land (bright in the visible). Here, we focus on the changes to both "dark target" algorithms (#1 and #2; DT-ocean and DT-land). Affecting both DT algorithms, we have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, and relaxed the solar zenith angle limit (up to ≤ 84°) to increase pole-ward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season/location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence in the retrieval, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and additions of important diagnostic information. All together, the changes to the DT algorithms result in reduced global AOD (by 0.02) over ocean and increased AOD (by 0.01) over land, along with some changes in spatial coverage. Preliminary validation shows that compared to surface-based sunphotometer data, the C6 DT-products should compare at least as well as those from C5. However, at the same time as we

  9. The Collection 6 'dark-target' MODIS Aerosol Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Munchak, Leigh A.; Kleidman, Richard G.; Patadia, Falguni; Gupta, Pawan; Remer, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval algorithms are applied to Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on both Terra and Aqua, creating two streams of decade-plus aerosol information. Products of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size are used for many applications, but the primary concern is that these global products are comprehensive and consistent enough for use in climate studies. One of our major customers is the international modeling comparison study known as AEROCOM, which relies on the MODIS data as a benchmark. In order to keep up with the needs of AEROCOM and other MODIS data users, while utilizing new science and tools, we have improved the algorithms and products. The code, and the associated products, will be known as Collection 6 (C6). While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there are significant impacts to the products and their interpretation. In its entirety, the C6 algorithm is comprised of three sub-algorithms for retrieving aerosol properties over different surfaces: These include the dark-target DT algorithms to retrieve over (1) ocean and (2) vegetated-dark-soiled land, plus the (3) Deep Blue (DB) algorithm, originally developed to retrieve over desert-arid land. Focusing on the two DT algorithms, we have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, while relaxing the solar zenith angle limit (up to 84) to increase pole-ward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such as topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence in the retrieval, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and

  10. Isotopic constraints on the role of hypohalous acids in sulfate aerosol formation in the remote marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qianjie; Geng, Lei; Schmidt, Johan A.; Xie, Zhouqing; Kang, Hui; Dachs, Jordi; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Schauer, Andrew J.; Camp, Madeline G.; Alexander, Becky

    2016-09-01

    Sulfate is an important component of global atmospheric aerosol, and has partially compensated for greenhouse gas-induced warming during the industrial period. The magnitude of direct and indirect radiative forcing of aerosols since preindustrial times is a large uncertainty in climate models, which has been attributed largely to uncertainties in the preindustrial environment. Here, we report observations of the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O) of sulfate aerosol collected in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) in spring and summer in order to evaluate sulfate production mechanisms in pristine-like environments. Model-aided analysis of the observations suggests that 33-50 % of sulfate in the MBL is formed via oxidation by hypohalous acids (HOX = HOBr + HOCl), a production mechanism typically excluded in large-scale models due to uncertainties in the reaction rates, which are due mainly to uncertainties in reactive halogen concentrations. Based on the estimated fraction of sulfate formed via HOX oxidation, we further estimate that daily-averaged HOX mixing ratios on the order of 0.01-0.1 parts per trillion (ppt = pmol/mol) in the remote MBL during spring and summer are sufficient to explain the observations.

  11. The Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products over land and ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.; Remer, L. A.; Sayer, A. M.; Patadia, F.; Hsu, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    The twin Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been flying on Terra since 2000 and Aqua since 2002, creating an extensive data set of global Earth observations. Here, we introduce the Collection 6 (C6) algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size parameters from MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there are significant impacts to the products and their interpretation. The C6 aerosol data set will be created from three separate retrieval algorithms that operate over different surface types. These are the two "Dark Target" (DT) algorithms for retrieving (1) over ocean (dark in visible and longer wavelengths) and (2) over vegetated/dark-soiled land (dark in the visible), plus the "Deep Blue" (DB) algorithm developed originally for retrieving (3) over desert/arid land (bright in the visible). Here, we focus on DT-ocean and DT-land (#1 and #2). We have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, while relaxing the solar zenith angle limit (up to ≤ 84°) to increase poleward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season/location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence on the surface reflectance, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and additions of important diagnostic information. At the same time, we quantified how "upstream" changes to instrument calibration, land/sea masking and cloud masking will also impact the statistics of global AOD, and affect Terra and Aqua differently. For Aqua, all changes will result in reduced

  12. Planetary Boundary Layer and aerosol interactions over the Indian sub-continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, M. N.; Patil, S. D.; Waghmare, R. T.; Dharmaraj, T.

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols, both natural as well as anthropogenic, affect the radiative forcing of Earth's climate and reduce surface albedo. The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height, which depends upon surface heat budget, is analyzed considering the increase in green house gases (GHGs) from pre-industrial to post-industrial era. The PBL climatology shows deeper PBL during pre-monsoon and summer monsoon seasons as compared to post-monsoon and winter. The PBL height has decreased in post-industrial decade compared to pre-industrial decade. The PBL height reduction is due to increasing aerosol and GHGs' concentrations in the recent decades, which causes surface warming and upper tropospheric cooling. Similarly, due to higher loading of the volcanic aerosol injected from the low latitude eruptions, the atmospheric circulation has been affected.

  13. Dominance of pollutant aerosols over an urban region and its impact on boundary layer temperature profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Collocated measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and black carbon at different wavelengths over Kolkata, an urban region in eastern India, have been used to calculate aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). The wavelength dependence of SSA and AOD has been presented to discriminate the aerosol types over this highly populated metropolitan area. The spectral pattern shows that SSA decreases with wavelength for most of the time in a year and corresponding Ångström coefficient is greater than unity. These optical properties indicate the dominance of fine-mode pollutant particles over the city. The temperature lapse rate profile within the surface boundary layer has been found to be significantly influenced by the heating effect of fine-mode pollutants, and consequently, the growth of the convective processes in the lower troposphere is notably affected. In addition, a back trajectory analysis has also been presented to indicate that transported air masses can have significant impact on spectral pattern of SSA.

  14. Airborne Sunphotometry of African Dust and Marine Boundary Layer Aerosols in PRIDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip; Schmid, Beat; Reid, Jeff; Pilewskie, Peter; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) was conducted during summer 2000 to study the radiative, microphysical and transport properties of Saharan dust in the Caribbean region. During PRIDE, NASA Ames Research Center's six-channel airborne autotracking sunphotometer (AATS-6) was operated aboard a Piper Navajo airplane based at Roosevelt Roads Naval Station on the northeast coast of Puerto Rico. AATS-6 measurements were taken during 21 science flights off the coast of Puerto Rico in the western Caribbean. Data were acquired within and above the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the Saharan Aerosol Layer (SAL) up to 5.5 km altitude tinder a wide range of dust loadings. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and columnar water vapor (CWV) values have been calculated from the AATS-6 measurements by using sunphotometer calibration data obtained at Mauna Loa Observatory (3A kin ASL) before (May) and after (October) PRIDE. Mid-visible AOD values measured near the surface during PRIDE ranged from 0.07 on the cleanest day to 0.55 on the most turbid day. Values measured above the MBL were as high as 0.35; values above the SAL were as low as 0.01. The fraction of total column AOD due to Saharan dust cannot be determined precisely from AATS-6 AOD data alone due to the uncertainty in the extent of vertical mixing of the dust down through the MBL. However, analyses of ground-based and airborne in-situ aerosol sampling measurements and ground-based aerosol lidar backscatter data should yield accurate characterization of the vertical mixing that will enable calculation of the Saharan dust AOD component from the sunphotometer data. Examples will be presented showing measured AATS-6 AOD spectra, calculated aerosol extinction and water vapor density vertical profiles, and aerosol size distributions retrieved by inversion of the AOD spectra. Near sea-surface AOD spectra acquired by AATS-6 during horizontal flight legs at 30 m ASL are available for validation of AOD derived from coincident

  15. Quality Screening Algorithms Implemented in the New CALIPSO Level 3 Aerosol Profile Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.; Getzewich, B. J.; Vaughan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol extinction profiles can improve the ability of climate models to properly account for aerosol radiative forcing in Earth's atmosphere. In response to this need, a new CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) level 3 aerosol profile product has been released which for the first time provides monthly, globally gridded and quality-screened aerosol extinction profiles within the troposphere for the entire 6-year mission. Level 3 aerosol extinction profiles are aggregated from CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar extinction retrievals reported in the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol profile product onto an equal-angle grid after quality screening algorithms are applied to reduce occurrences of failed retrievals, misclassified aerosol, surface contamination, and spurious outliers. Implementation of these quality screening algorithms is a substantial value to aerosol modeling groups who desire high confidence datasets without having to independently develop quality screening metrics. Furthermore, quality screening is paramount to understand the scientific content of the resultant CALIPSO level 3 aerosol profile product since classification and retrieval errors in level 2 aerosol data may lead to misinterpretation of the distribution and optical properties of aerosol in the troposphere. This presentation summarizes the averaging and quality screening algorithms implemented in the CALIPSO level 3 aerosol profile product, provides rationale for their implementation, and discusses averaging and filtering differences unique to CALIPSO data compared to level 3 products aggregated from passive satellite measurements. Examples are given that illustrate the benefits of quality screening and the dangers of improper screening CALIPSO level 2 aerosol extinction data. Sensitivity study results are presented to highlight the impact of quality screening on final level 3 statistics. Since overlying cloud

  16. Nature, Origin, Potential Composition, and Climate Impact of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Thomason, L. W.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wienhold, F.; Bian J.; Martinsson, B.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations from SAGE II and CALIPSO indicate that summertime aerosol extinction has more than doubled in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) since the late 1990s. Here we show remote and in-situ observations, together with results from a chemical transport model (CTM), to explore the likely composition, origin, and radiative forcing of the ATAL. We show in-situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter, which support the high levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. We also show in situ measurements from aircraft, which indicate a predominant carbonaceous contribution to the ATAL (Carbon/Sulfur ratios of 2- 10), which is supported by the CTM results. We show that the peak in ATAL aerosol lags by 1 month the peak in CO from MLS, associated with deep convection over Asia during the summer monsoon. This suggests that secondary formation and growth of aerosols in the upper troposphere on monthly timescales make a significant contribution to ATAL. Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations provide evidence that deep convection over India is a significant source for ATAL through the vertical transport of pollution to the upper troposphere.

  17. Radiosonde aerosol counter for vertical profiling of atmospheric dust layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Rogers, G.

    2010-05-01

    A low-cost, miniature aerosol particle counter has been developed, intended for use with balloon-borne meteorological radiosondes. It is particularly suitable for airborne mineral dust measurements. Ambient air is drawn into the counter using a diaphragm pump at a rate of 0.5 litre per minute. The counter detects particles in the airstream using a diode laser and a photodiode. Output from the photodiode is digitised into 5 size bins, with minimum particle diameters equivalent to 0.6, 1.4, 2.6, 5.4 and 10.6 micrometers. The counter is interfaced to a Vaisala RS92 radiosonde, which transmits data from the counter together with meteorological parameters and GPS-derived position to a ground based receiver at 1 Hz rate. Statistically significant particle size distributions can be obtained once a second for number concentrations down to about 100,000 particle per litre (within the measured size range), or correspondingly less at lower temporal resolutions. At the same time, the counter is capable of measuring dust number concentrations exceeding a million per litre without incurring significant errors. Soundings during the DREAME campaign in Kuwait (Ulanowski et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) and on Cape Verde Islands (Nicoll et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) provided dust concentration profiles with a typical vertical resolution of 4 m. Comparisons with integrated dust column size distribution measurements from AERONET sun photometers showed good agreement in two out of three cases where near-simultaneous retrievals were available. Optical thickness calculations based on the size distributions measured in Kuwait, with the assumption that the dust particles were prolate spheroids, agreed with the AERONET optical thickness at 675 nm to within 15%.

  18. Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  19. Lidar investigation of tropical nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, P. C. S.; Taraphdar, S.

    2013-10-01

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties over a tropical urban site is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  20. Retrievals of Effective Aerosol Layer Height and Single Scattering Albedo for Biomass-Burning Smoke and Mineral Dust Aerosols from A-Train Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M.; Hsu, C.

    2010-12-01

    Launches of state-of-the-art satellite sensors dedicated to aerosol remote sensing in recent years marked the beginning of a new era in aerosol-related studies by virtue of the well-coordinated observing system consisting of an array of satellites flown in formation, so called A-Train (Afternoon satellites constellation). The capabilities of the individual sensors aboard the A-Train satellites are complementary and overlapping in terms of retrievable aerosol parameters, sensitivity, spatial resolution and coverage. Thus, there is a great potential to gain value-added information about aerosols by merging observations from the A-Train sensors. In this study, we introduce a new algorithm, which can be utilized to derive aerosol layer height (ALH) and single scattering albedo (SSA) for biomass-burning smoke and airborne mineral dust aerosols by synthesizing observations from three A-Train satellite sensors: CALIOP, MODIS, and OMI. By using this algorithm, it is presented that ALH and SSA of biomass-burning smoke aerosols over North America, Southeast Asia, and Europe can be derived successfully. We show the retrieved values of SSA bear reasonable agreements with those from AERONET. The results of this study also reveal that the algorithm has a basic skill to estimate ALH by combining only MODIS and OMI observations, allowing us to separate smoke aerosols residing within the boundary layer from those elevated in the free troposphere. Currently, another version of the algorithm to be applicable for mineral dust aerosols is under development, and earlier results will be presented. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of transport and radiative effects of biomass-burning smoke and mineral dust aerosols.

  1. Resistance of Aerosolized Bacterial Viruses to Four Germicidal Products

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Nathalie; Michel, Kevin; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Viral diseases can spread through a variety of routes including aerosols. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of aerosolized chemicals to reduce viral loads in the air. Bacteriophages (phages) are often used as surrogates for hazardous viruses in aerosol studies because they are inexpensive, easy to handle, and safe for laboratory workers. Moreover, several of these bacterial viruses display physical characteristics similar to pathogenic human and animal viruses, like morphological size, type of nucleic acids, capsid morphology, and the presence of an envelope. In this study, the efficacy of four chemicals was evaluated on four airborne phages at two different relative humidity levels. Non-tailed bacteriophages MS2 (single-stranded RNA), ϕ6 (double-stranded RNA, enveloped), PR772 (double-stranded DNA), and ϕX174 (single-stranded DNA) were first aerosolized in a 55L rotative environmental chamber at 19°C with 25% and 50% relative humidity. Then, hydrogen peroxide, Eugenol (phenylpropene used in commercial perfumes and flavorings), Mist® (automobile disinfectant containing Triethylene glycol), and Pledge® (multisurface disinfectant containing Isopropanol, n-Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Amonium Chlorides, and n-Alkyl Dimethyl Ethylbenzyl Ammonium Chloride) were nebulized with the phages using a separate nebulizer. Aerosols were maintained in suspension during 10 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours. Viral aerosols were sampled using an SKC BioSampler and samples were analyzed using qPCR and plaque assays. The resistance levels of the four phages varied depending on the relative humidity (RH) and germicidal products tested. Phage MS2 was the most stable airborne virus under the environmental conditions tested while phage PR772 was the least stable. Pledge® and Eugenol reduced the infectivity of all airborne phages tested. At 25% RH, Pledge® and Eugenol were more effective at reducing infectivity of RNA phages ϕ6 and MS2. At 50% RH, Pledge® was the most effective

  2. Investigation of wintertime cold-air pools and aerosol layers in the Salt Lake Valley using a lidar ceilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Joseph Swyler

    This thesis investigates the utility of lidar ceilometers, a type of aerosol lidar, in improving the understanding of meteorology and air quality in persistent wintertime stable boundary layers, or cold-air pools, that form in urbanized valley and basin topography. This thesis reviews the scientific literature to survey the present knowledge of persistent cold-air pools, the operating principles of lidar ceilometers, and their demonstrated utility in meteorological investigations. Lidar ceilometer data from the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study (PCAPS) are then used with meteorological and air quality data from other in situ and remote sensing equipment to investigate cold-air pools that formed in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during the winter of 2010-2011. The lidar ceilometer is shown to accurately measure aerosol layer depth and aerosol loading, when compared to visual observations. A linear relationship is found between low-level lidar backscatter and surface particulate measurements. Convective boundary layer lidar analysis techniques applied to cold-air pool ceilometer profiles can detect useful layer characteristics. Fine-scale waves are observed and analyzed within the aerosol layer, with emphasis on Kelvin-Helmholz waves. Ceilometer aerosol backscatter profiles are analyzed to quantify and describe mixing processes in persistent cold-air pools. Overlays of other remote and in-situ observations are combined with ceilometer particle backscatter to describe specific events during PCAPS. This analysis describes the relationship between the aerosol layer and the valley inversion as well as interactions with large-scale meteorology. The ceilometer observations of hydrometers are used to quantify cloudiness and precipitation during the project, observing that 50% of hours when a PCAP was present had clouds or precipitation below 5 km above ground level (AGL). Then, combining an objective technique for determining hourly aerosol layer depths and correcting this

  3. Marine boundary layer cloud regimes and POC formation in a CRM coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A. H.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wood, R.; Muhlbauer, A.

    2013-12-01

    A cloud-resolving model (CRM) coupled to a new intermediate-complexity bulk aerosol scheme is used to study aerosol-boundary-layer-cloud-precipitation interactions and the development of pockets of open cells (POCs) in subtropical stratocumulus cloud layers. The aerosol scheme prognoses mass and number concentration of a single lognormal accumulation mode with surface and entrainment sources, evolving subject to processing of activated aerosol and scavenging of dry aerosol by clouds and rain. The CRM with the aerosol scheme is applied to a range of steadily forced cases idealized from a well-observed POC. The long-term system evolution is explored with extended two-dimensional (2-D) simulations of up to 20 days, mostly with diurnally averaged insolation and 24 km wide domains, and one 10 day three-dimensional (3-D) simulation. Both 2-D and 3-D simulations support the Baker-Charlson hypothesis of two distinct aerosol-cloud "regimes" (deep/high-aerosol/non-drizzling and shallow/low-aerosol/drizzling) that persist for days; transitions between these regimes, driven by either precipitation scavenging or aerosol entrainment from the free-troposphere (FT), occur on a timescale of ten hours. The system is analyzed using a two-dimensional phase plane with inversion height and boundary layer average aerosol concentrations as state variables; depending on the specified subsidence rate and availability of FT aerosol, these regimes are either stable equilibria or distinct legs of a slow limit cycle. The same steadily forced modeling framework is applied to the coupled development and evolution of a POC and the surrounding overcast boundary layer in a larger 192 km wide domain. An initial 50% aerosol reduction is applied to half of the model domain. This has little effect until the stratocumulus thickens enough to drizzle, at which time the low-aerosol portion transitions into open-cell convection, forming a POC. Reduced entrainment in the POC induces a negative feedback

  4. MISR Global Aerosol Product Assessment by Comparison with AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical approach is used to assess the quality of the MISR Version 22 (V22) aerosol products. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval results are improved relative to the early post- launch values reported by Kahn et al. [2005a], varying with particle type category. Overall, about 70% to 75% of MISR AOD retrievals fall within 0.05 or 20% AOD of the paired validation data, and about 50% to 55% are within 0.03 or 10% AOD, except at sites where dust, or mixed dust and smoke, are commonly found. Retrieved particle microphysical properties amount to categorical values, such as three groupings in size: "small," "medium," and "large." For particle size, ground-based AERONET sun photometer Angstrom Exponents are used to assess statistically the corresponding MISR values, which are interpreted in terms of retrieved size categories. Coincident Single-Scattering Albedo (SSA) and fraction AOD spherical data are too limited for statistical validation. V22 distinguishes two or three size bins, depending on aerosol type, and about two bins in SSA (absorbing vs. non-absorbing), as well as spherical vs. non-spherical particles, under good retrieval conditions. Particle type sensitivity varies considerably with conditions, and is diminished for mid-visible AOD below about 0.15 or 0.2. Based on these results, specific algorithm upgrades are proposed, and are being investigated by the MISR team for possible implementation in future versions of the product.

  5. Aerosol properties and their influences on marine boundary layer cloud condensation nuclei at the ARM mobile facility over the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Timothy; Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan

    2014-04-01

    A multiplatform data set from the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) Graciosa, Azores, 2009-2010 field campaign was used to investigate how continental aerosols can influence MBL cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN). The seasonal variations of aerosol properties have shown that the winter and early spring months had the highest mean surface wind speed (> 5 m s-1) and greatest contribution of sea salt to aerosol optical depth (AOD), while continental fine mode aerosols were the main contributors to AOD during the warm season months (May-September). Five aerosol events consisting of mineral dust, pollution, biomass smoke, and volcanic ash particles were selected as case studies using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility measurements. The aerosols in Case I were found to primarily consist of coarse mode, Saharan mineral dust. For Case II, the aerosols were also coarse mode but consisted of volcanic ash. Case III had fine mode biomass smoke and pollution aerosol influences while Cases IV and V consisted of mixtures of North American pollution and Saharan dust that was advected by an extratropical cyclone to the Azores. Cases I, IV, and V exhibited weak correlations between aerosol loading and NCCN due to mineral dust influences, while Cases II and III had a strong relationship with NCCN likely due to the sulfate content in the volcanic ash and pollution particles. The permanent Eastern North Atlantic ARM facility over the Azores will aid in a future long-term study of aerosol effects on NCCN.

  6. Aerosol Distribution in The Planetary Boundary Layer Aloft a Residential Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovorka, Jan; Leoni, Cecilia; Dočekalová, Veronika; Ondráček, Jakub; Zíková, Naděžda

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is an omnipresent component of the Earth atmosphere. Aerosol particle of diameters < 100 nm or > 1 μm defines ultrafine or coarse aerosol particles, respectively. Aerosol particle concentrations within the planetary boundary layer - PBL are measured at the ground level while their vertical profiles in the PBL are usually estimated by modelling. The aim of this study was to construct vertical concentration profiles of ultrafine and coarse aerosol particles from airborne and ground measurements conducted in an urban airshed. Airborne measurements were done by an unmanned airship, remotely controlled with GPS 10 Hz position tracking, and electrically powered with propulsion vectoring, which allows average cruising speed of 6 m.s-1. The airship carried three aerosol monitors and a temperature sensor. The monitors acquired 1 Hz data on mass concentration of coarse and number concentration of ultrafine particles. Four flight sequences were conducted on the 2nd of March 2014 above Plesna village, up-wind suburb of Ostrava in the Moravian-Silesian region of the Czech Republic. The region is a European air pollution hot-spot. Repeated flights were carried out in several height levels up to 570 m above ground level - a.g.l. Early morning flight revealed a temperature inversion in the PBL up to 70 m a.g.l. This lead to coarse particle concentrations of 50 μgm-3 below the inversion layer and 10 μgm-3 above it. Concurrently, air masses at 90-120 m a.g.l. were enriched with ultrafine particles up to 2.5x104 cm-3, which may indicate a fanning plume from a distant emission source with high emission height. During the course of the day, concentrations of ultrafine and coarse particle gradually decreased. Nevertheless, a sudden increase of ultrafine particle concentrations up to 3.7x104 cm-3 was registered at 400 m a.g.l. at noon and also after a lag of 20 min at the ground. This may indicate formation of new aerosol particles at higher altitudes, which are

  7. A merged aerosol dataset based on MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Gautam, Ritesh; Venkatachalam, Parvatham

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products available from MODIS and MISR observations are widely used for aerosol characterization, and global/environmental change studies. These products are based on different retrieval-algorithms, resolutions, sampling, and cloud-screening schemes, which have led to global/regional biases. Thus a merged product is desirable which bridges this gap by utilizing strengths from each of the sensors. In view of this, we have developed a "merged" AOD product based on MODIS and MISR AOD datasets, using Bayesian principles which takes error distributions from ground-based AOD measurements (from AERONET). Our methodology and resulting dataset are especially relevant in the scenario of combining multi-sensor retrievals for satellite-based climate data records; particularly for long-term studies involving AOD. Specifically for MISR AOD product, we also developed a methodology to produce a gap-filled dataset, using geostatistical methods (e.g. Kriging), taking advantage of available MODIS data. Merged and spatially-complete AOD datasets are inter-compared with other satellite products and with AERONET data at three stations- Kanpur, Jaipur and Gandhi College, in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The RMSE of merged AOD (0.08-0.09) is lower than MISR (0.11-0.20) and MODIS (0.15-0.27). It is found that merged AOD has higher correlation with AERONET data (r within 0.92-0.95), compared to MISR (0.74-0.86) and MODIS (0.69-0.84) data. In terms of Expected Error, the accuracy of valid merged AOD is found to be superior as percent of merged AOD within error envelope are larger (71-92%), compared to MISR (43-61%) and MODIS (50-70%).

  8. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.

  9. Classification of Dust Days by Satellite Remotely Sensed Aerosol Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorek-Hammer, M.; Cohen, A.; Levy, Robert C.; Ziv, B.; Broday, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress in satellite remote sensing (SRS) of dust particles has been seen in the last decade. From an environmental health perspective, such an event detection, after linking it to ground particulate matter (PM) concentrations, can proxy acute exposure to respirable particles of certain properties (i.e. size, composition, and toxicity). Being affected considerably by atmospheric dust, previous studies in the Eastern Mediterranean, and in Israel in particular, have focused on mechanistic and synoptic prediction, classification, and characterization of dust events. In particular, a scheme for identifying dust days (DD) in Israel based on ground PM10 (particulate matter of size smaller than 10 nm) measurements has been suggested, which has been validated by compositional analysis. This scheme requires information regarding ground PM10 levels, which is naturally limited in places with sparse ground-monitoring coverage. In such cases, SRS may be an efficient and cost-effective alternative to ground measurements. This work demonstrates a new model for identifying DD and non-DD (NDD) over Israel based on an integration of aerosol products from different satellite platforms (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)). Analysis of ground-monitoring data from 2007 to 2008 in southern Israel revealed 67 DD, with more than 88 percent occurring during winter and spring. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model that was applied to a database containing ground monitoring (the dependent variable) and SRS aerosol product (the independent variables) records revealed an optimal set of binary variables for the identification of DD. These variables are combinations of the following primary variables: the calendar month, ground-level relative humidity (RH), the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS, and the aerosol absorbing index (AAI) from OMI. A logistic regression that uses these variables, coded as binary

  10. Verification and application of the extended spectral deconvolution algorithm (SDA+) methodology to estimate aerosol fine and coarse mode extinction coefficients in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, K. C.; Reid, J. S.; O'Neill, N. T.; Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Eck, T. F.

    2014-10-01

    The spectral deconvolution algorithm (SDA) and SDA+ (extended SDA) methodologies can be employed to separate the fine and coarse mode extinction coefficients from measured total aerosol extinction coefficients, but their common use is currently limited to AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) aerosol optical depth (AOD). Here we provide the verification of the SDA+ methodology on a non-AERONET aerosol product, by applying it to fine and coarse mode nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) data sets collected in the marine boundary layer. Using data sets collected on research vessels by NOAA-PMEL(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory), we demonstrate that with accurate input, SDA+ is able to predict the fine and coarse mode scattering and extinction coefficient partition in global data sets representing a range of aerosol regimes. However, in low-extinction regimes commonly found in the clean marine boundary layer, SDA+ output accuracy is sensitive to instrumental calibration errors. This work was extended to the calculation of coarse and fine mode scattering coefficients with similar success. This effort not only verifies the application of the SDA+ method to in situ data, but by inference verifies the method as a whole for a host of applications, including AERONET. Study results open the door to much more extensive use of nephelometers and PSAPs, with the ability to calculate fine and coarse mode scattering and extinction coefficients in field campaigns that do not have the resources to explicitly measure these values.

  11. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne, and Ground-Based Measurements of Massive, Thick Aerosol Layers During the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J.; Torres, O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the dry-season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), unique coordinated observations were made of massive, thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda=354-1558 nm), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward-pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths from the Sunphotometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ATSR-2 (Along Track Scanning Radiometer)).

  12. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne and Ground-based Measurements of Massive Thick Aerosol Layers during the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Torres, O.

    2003-01-01

    During the dry season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), coordinated observations were made of massive thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda = 0.354- 1.557 microns), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data (MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths fiom the Sun photometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and ATSR-2).

  13. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive coverage of low clouds over the subtropical eastern oceans greatly impacts the current climate. In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future climate change. Low clouds are poorly simulated in climate models, partly due to inadequate long-term simultaneous observations of their macrophysical and microphysical structure, radiative effects, and associated aerosol distribution in regions where their impact is greatest. The thickness and extent of subtropical low clouds is dependent on tight couplings between surface fluxes of heat and moisture, radiative cooling, boundary layer turbulence, and precipitation (much of which evaporates before reaching the ocean surface and is closely connected to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei). These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding sufficient for developing parameterizations, which adequately predict aerosol indirect effects and low cloud response to climate perturbations. This is especially true of the interactions between clouds, aerosol, and precipitation. These processes take place in an ever-changing synoptic environment that can confound interpretation of short time period observations.

  14. Toward a Coherent Detailed Evaluation of Aerosol Data Products from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Petrenko, Maksym; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols represent one of the greatest uncertainties in climate research. Although satellite-based aerosol retrieval has practically become routine, especially during the last decade, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood, there will be no way of developing reliable climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the most globally representative well-calibrated ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products are available from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). To adequately utilize the advantages offered by this vital resource, an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) was recently developed. The aim of MAPSS is to facilitate detailed comparative analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from different sensors (Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, TerraMISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP) based on the collocation of these data products over AERONET stations. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MASS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainly analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  15. The Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) for Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrieval Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Petrenko, Maksym; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Among the known atmospheric constituents, aerosols represent the greatest uncertainty in climate research. Although satellite-based aerosol retrieval has practically become routine, especially during the last decade, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood ', there will be no way of developing reliable climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the most globally representative well-calibrated ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products are available from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). To adequately utilize the advantages offered by this vital resource,., an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) was recently developed. The aim of MAPSS is to facilitate detailed comparative analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from different sensors (Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP) based on the collocation of these data products over AERONET stations. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MAPSS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainty analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  16. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Cloud Processing of Glycolaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, M. J.; Seitzinger, S.; Turpin, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Organic particulate matter (PM) formed in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) is a substantial yet poorly understood contributor to atmospheric PM. Cloud processing is a newly recognized SOA formation pathway. This study investigates the potential for aqueous glycolaldehyde oxidation to produce low volatility products that are retained in the particle phase upon cloud droplet evaporation, increasing PM concentrations aloft. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation that aqueous oxidation of glycolaldehyde via the hydroxyl radical forms glyoxal and glycolic acid, as previously assumed. Subsequent reactions form formic acid, glyoxylic acid, and oxalic acid as expected. Unexpected products include malonic acid, succinic acid, and higher molecular weight compounds, including oligomers. Predictions of aerosol yields based on these bulk aqueous experiments are presented. Due to (1) the large source strength of glycolaldehyde from precursors such as isoprene and ethene, (2) its water solubility, and (3) the aqueous formation of low volatility products, we predict that cloud processing of glycolaldehyde is an important source of SOA and that incorporation of this SOA formation pathway in chemical transport models will help explain the current under- prediction of organic PM concentrations.

  17. Kinetics, products, and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Paul J; Atkinson, Roger

    2012-10-07

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed in the atmosphere when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources are oxidized by reactions with OH radicals, O(3), NO(3) radicals, or Cl atoms to form less volatile products that subsequently partition into aerosol particles. Once in particles, these organic compounds can undergo heterogenous/multiphase reactions to form more highly oxidized or oligomeric products. SOA comprises a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol mass and can have significant effects on atmospheric chemistry, visibility, human health, and climate. Previous articles have reviewed the kinetics, products, and mechanisms of atmospheric VOC reactions and the general chemistry and physics involved in SOA formation. In this article we present a detailed review of VOC and heterogeneous/multiphase chemistry as they apply to SOA formation, with a focus on the effects of VOC molecular structure on the kinetics of initial reactions with the major atmospheric oxidants, the subsequent reactions of alkyl, alkyl peroxy, and alkoxy radical intermediates, and the composition of the resulting products. Structural features of reactants and products discussed include compound carbon number; linear, branched, and cyclic configurations; the presence of C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bonds and aromatic rings; and functional groups such as carbonyl, hydroxyl, ester, hydroxperoxy, carboxyl, peroxycarboxyl, nitrate, and peroxynitrate. The intention of this review is to provide atmospheric chemists with sufficient information to understand the dominant pathways by which the major classes of atmospheric VOCs react to form SOA products, and the further reactions of these products in particles. This will allow reasonable predictions to be made, based on molecular structure, about the kinetics, products, and mechanisms of VOC and heterogeneous/multiphase reactions, including the effects of important variables such as VOC, oxidant, and NO

  18. Dust aerosol radiative effect and influence on urban atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, M.; Li, L.

    2007-11-01

    An 1.5-level-closure and 3-D non-stationary atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model and a radiation transfer model with the output of Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model and lidar AML-1 are employed to simulate the dust aerosol radiative effect and its influence on ABL in Beijing for the period of 23-26 January 2002 when a dust storm occurred. The simulation shows that daytime dust aerosol radiative effect heats up the ABL at the mean rate of about 0.68 K/h. The horizontal wind speed from ground to 900 m layer is also overall increased, and the value changes about 0.01 m/s at 14:00 LT near the ground. At night, the dust aerosol radiative effect cools the ABL at the mean rate of -0.21 K/h and the wind speed lowers down at about -0.19 m/s at 02:00 LT near the ground.

  19. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Browell, Edward; Kooi, Susan; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Dunion, Jason; Heymsfield, Gerry; Anderson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) onboard the NASA DC-8 was used to measure high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern Atlantic region during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment, which was conducted from August 15 to September 12, 2006. These measurements were made in conjunction with flights designed to study African Easterly Waves (AEW), Tropical Disturbances (TD), and Saharan Aerosol Layers (SALs) as well as flights performed in clear air and convective regions. As a consequence of their unique radiative properties and dynamics, SAL layers have a significant influence in the development of organized convection associated with TD. Interactions of the SAL with tropical air during early stages of the development of TD were observed. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on TDs and hurricanes. Seven AEWs were studied and four of these evolved into tropical storms and three did not. Three out of the four tropical storms evolved into hurricanes.

  20. Production of satellite-derived aerosol climate data records: current status of the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    and the Aerosol_cci team Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (Phase 1: 2010 -2014; Phase 2: 2014-2017) intensive work has been conducted to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors ATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Ångström coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. The cooperation between the project partners, including both the retrieval teams and independent validation teams, has resulted in a strong improvement of most algorithms. In particular the AATSR retrieved AOD is qualitatively similar to that from MODIS, usually taken as the standard, MISR and SeaWiFS. This conclusion has been reached form several different ways of validation of the L2 and L3 products, using AERONET sun photometer data as the common ground-truth for the application of both 'traditional' statistical techniques and a 'scoring' technique using spatial and temporal correlations. Quantitatively, the limited AATSR swath width of 500km results in a smaller amount of data. Nevertheless, the assimilation of AATSR-retrieved AOD, together with MODIS data, contributes to improving the in the ECMWF climate model results. In addition to the multi-spectral AOD, and thus the Ångström Exponent, also a per-pixel uncertainty is provided and validated. By the end of Aerosol_cci Phase 1 the ATSR algorithms have been applied to both ATSR-2 and AATSR resulting in an AOD time series of 17 years. In phase 2 this work is continued with a focus on the further improvement of the ATSR algorithms as well as those for the other instruments and algorithms, mentioned above, which in phase 1 were considered less mature. The first efforts are on the further characterization of the uncertainties and on better understanding of the

  1. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  2. Oxygenated products of sesquiterpenes in secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, A.; Kampf, C.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has a huge impact on air quality and climate change. It influences the Earth radiative budget through absorbing, scattering and reflecting radiation as well as the formation of clouds because the particulates can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Furthermore, it plays an important role for human health. SOA is formed from gaseous precursors which get oxidized by ozone, OH- and NO3-radicals in the atmosphere. Due to their low vapor pressure these degradation products can nucleate to form new particles or they can condense on existing aerosol particles. Despite the major progress in research during the last few years the actual chemical composition as well as the contribution of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the formation of secondary organic aerosol is still partially unknown. Recent studies indicate that sesquiterpenes play an important role in the formation of SOA because of the low volatility of their oxygenated products (Lee et al., 2006). Their emission is estimated to be about 14,8 Tg per year (Henze et al., 2008), however, these emission rates remain highly uncertain due to the lack of quantitative emission rate measurements. In addition, the knowledge about the actual atmospheric degradation mechanism and the main oxidation products of sesquiterpenes is quite limited. β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-farnesene and β-farnesene are the most abundant sequiterpenes in many sesquiterpene emission profiles. But also aromadendren, α-bergamotene and δ-cadinene and germacrene-D can contribute significantly to some emission profiles (Duhl et al., 2008). To determine the major oxygenated products of sesquiterpenes in SOA, reaction chamber experiments with different sesquiterpenes and ozone were performed in a 100 L reaction chamber. To measure the time dependent formation of initial oxidation products, an APCI-IT-MS was directly connected to the reaction chamber. After 2 hours the APCI-IT-MS was replaced by a

  3. Resolution and Content Improvements to MISR Aerosol and Land Surface Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Bull, M. A.; Diner, D. J.; Hansen, E. G.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has been providing operational Level 2 (swath-based) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property retrievals at 17.6 km spatial resolution and atmospherically corrected land surface products at 1.1 km resolution. The performance of the aerosol product has been validated against ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations, model comparisons, and climatological assessments. This product has played a major role in studies of the impacts of aerosols on climate and air quality. The surface product has found a variety of uses, particularly at regional scales for assessing vegetation and land surface change. A major development effort has led to the release of an update to the operational (Version 22) MISR Level 2 aerosol and land surface retrieval products, which has been in production since December 2007. The new release is designated Version 23. The resolution of the aerosol product has been increased to 4.4 km, allowing more detailed characterization of aerosol spatial variability, especially near local sources and in urban areas. The product content has been simplified and updated to include more robust measures of retrieval uncertainty and other fields to benefit users. The land surface product has also been updated to incorporate the Version 23 aerosol product as input and to improve spatial coverage, particularly over mountainous terrain and snow/ice-covered surfaces. We will describe the major upgrades incorporated in Version 23 and present validation of the aerosol product against both the standard AERONET historical database, as well as high spatial density AERONET-DRAGON deployments. Comparisons will also be shown relative to the Version 22 aerosol and land surface products. Applications enabled by these product updates will be discussed.

  4. Two MODIS Aerosol Products Over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2004-01-01

    Over ocean, two aerosol products are reported on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSFs. Both are derived from MODIS, but using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. This study briefly summarizes these products, and compares using 2 weeks of global Terra data from 15-21 December 2000, and 1-7 June 2001.

  5. Boundary layer aerosol chemistry during TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006: Insights into aerosol sources and transformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D.; Schulz, K.; Covert, D. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Angevine, W. M.; Tucker, S. C.; Brewer, W. A.; Stohl, A.

    2008-04-01

    The air quality and climate forcing impacts of atmospheric aerosols in a metropolitan region depend on the amount, composition, and size of the aerosol transported into the region; the input and removal of aerosols and aerosol precursors within the region; and the subsequent chemical processing in the atmosphere. These factors were studied in the Houston-Galveston-Gulf of Mexico region, aboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006). The aerosol measured in the Gulf of Mexico during onshore flow (low radon concentrations indicating no contact with land for several days) was highly impacted by Saharan dust and what appear to be ship emissions (acidic sulfate and nitrate). Mean (median) mass concentrations of the total submicrometer and supermicrometer aerosol were 6.5 (4.6) μg m-3 and 17.2 (8.7) μg m-3, respectively. These mass loadings of "background" aerosol are much higher than typically observed in the marine atmosphere and thus have a substantial impact on the radiative energy balance over the Gulf of Mexico and particulate matter (PM) loadings (air quality) in the Houston-Galveston area. As this background aerosol moved onshore, local urban and industrial sources added an organic rich submicrometer component (66% particulate organic matter (POM), 20% sulfate, 14% elemental carbon) but no significant supermicrometer aerosol. The resulting aerosol had mean (median) mass concentrations of the total submicrometer and supermicrometer aerosol of 10.0 (9.1) μg m-3 and 16.8 (11.2) μg m-3, respectively. These air masses, with minimal processing of urban emissions contained the highest SO2/(SO2 + SO4=) ratios and the highest hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol to total organic aerosol ratios (HOA/POM). In contrast, during periods of offshore flow, the aerosol was more processed and, therefore, much richer in oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). Mean (median) mass

  6. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer After the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser.

  7. Marine boundary layer cloud regimes and POC formation in an LES coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A. H.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wood, R.; Muhlbauer, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a new bulk aerosol scheme is used to study long-lived regimes of aerosol-boundary layer cloud-precipitation interaction and the development of pockets of open cells (POCs) in subtropical stratocumulus cloud layers. The aerosol scheme prognoses mass and number concentration of a single log-normal accumulation mode with surface and entrainment sources, evolving subject to processing of activated aerosol and scavenging of dry aerosol by cloud and rain. The LES with the aerosol scheme is applied to a range of steadily-forced simulations idealized from a well-observed POC case. The long-term system evolution is explored with extended two-dimensional simulations of up to 20 days, mostly with diurnally-averaged insolation. One three-dimensional two-day simulation confirms the initial development of the corresponding two-dimensional case. With weak mean subsidence, an initially aerosol-rich mixed layer deepens, the capping stratocumulus cloud slowly thickens and increasingly depletes aerosol via precipitation accretion, then the boundary layer transitions within a few hours into an open-cell regime with scattered precipitating cumuli, in which entrainment is much weaker. The inversion slowly collapses for several days until the cumulus clouds are too shallow to efficiently precipitate. Inversion cloud then reforms and radiatively drives renewed entrainment, allowing the boundary layer to deepen and become more aerosol-rich, until the stratocumulus layer thickens enough to undergo another cycle of open-cell formation. If mean subsidence is stronger, the stratocumulus never thickens enough to initiate drizzle and settles into a steady state. With lower initial aerosol concentrations, this system quickly transitions into open cells, collapses, and redevelops into a different steady state with a shallow, optically thin cloud layer. In these steady states, interstitial scavenging by cloud droplets is the main sink of aerosol number. The

  8. Secondary aerosol formation in the planetary boundary layer: observations on board on a Zeppelin and analysis by back plume approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanas, Konstantinos; Rubach, Florian; Tillmann, Ralf; Mentel, Thomas; Elbern, Hendrik; Wahner, Andreas; Zeppelin Pegasos-Team 2012

    2014-05-01

    The airship Zeppelin NT is an airborne platform capable of flying at low speed throughout the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL), thus the Zeppelin is an ideal platform to study regional processes in the lowest layers of the atmosphere with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric aerosol as a medium long lived tracer substance is of particular interest due to its influence on the global radiation budget. Due to its lifetime of up to several days secondary aerosol at a certain location can result from local production or from transport processes. Flight patterns during the PEGASOS campaign 2012 in the Po Valley included vertical profiles and transects through regions of interest We analysed one flight with North-South transects between the Apennin and San Pietro Capofiume and one flight with vertical profiles near the supersite San Pietro Capofiume to shed light on local production and transport processes. Model analyses were performed by using 12 hour back plumes for selected points of measurements to determine the regions which contributed to the air mass under observation. This analysis was done using the EURopean Air pollution Dispersion and Inverse Modelling (EURAD-IM) system. As a novel method, adjoint (backward) plumes are applied to identify the spread of originating air masses in terms of horizontal and vertical extension, and the influence of precursor species. Flight patterns include 5 points of measurement along the transect on 21.06.2012 and the lowest (ca. 80m), highest (ca. 708m), and medium height (299 to 464m) of 7 vertical profiles on the 20.06.2012.

  9. Influence of anthropogenic aerosol deposition on the relationship between oceanic productivity and warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Balkanski, Yves; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Gehlen, Marion; Peñuelas, Josep; Ethé, Christian; Hauglustaine, Didier; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Zhou, Feng; Tao, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Satellite data and models suggest that oceanic productivity is reduced in response to less nutrient supply under warming. In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols provide nutrients and exert a fertilizing effect, but its contribution to evolution of oceanic productivity is unknown. We simulate the response of oceanic biogeochemistry to anthropogenic aerosols deposition under varying climate from 1850 to 2010. We find a positive response of observed chlorophyll to deposition of anthropogenic aerosols. Our results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols reduce the sensitivity of oceanic productivity to warming from -15.2 ± 1.8 to -13.3 ± 1.6 Pg C yr-1 °C-1 in global stratified oceans during 1948-2007. The reducing percentage over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans reaches 40, 24, and 25%, respectively. We hypothesize that inevitable reduction of aerosol emissions in response to higher air quality standards in the future might accelerate the decline of oceanic productivity per unit warming.

  10. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    A necessary prerequisite of cloud formation, aerosol particles represent one of the largest uncertainties in computer simulations of climate change1,2, in part because of a poor understanding of processes under natural conditions3,4. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions5-7. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in clean Amazonia are mostly produced by the growth of smaller particles in the boundary layer8-10, whereas these smaller particles themselves 31 appear to be produced elsewhere5,11. Key questions are in what part of the atmosphere they might 32 be produced and what could be the transport processes that deliver them to the boundary layer, where they grow into CCN. Here, using recent aircraft measurements above central Amazonia, we show high concentrations of small particles in the lower free troposphere. The particle size spectrum shifts towards larger sizes with decreasing altitude, implying particle growth as air descends from the free troposphere towards Earth's surface. Complementary measurements at ground sites show that free tropospheric air having high concentrations of small particles (diameters of less than 50 nm) is transported into the boundary layer during precipitation events, both by strong convective downdrafts and by weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This vertical transport helps maintain the population of small particles and ultimately CCN in the boundary layer, thereby playing an important role in controlling the climate state under natural conditions. In contrast, this mechanism becomes masked under polluted conditions, which sometimes prevail at times in Amazonia as well as over other tropical continental regions5,12.

  11. Effects of inorganic seed aerosols on the particulate products of aged 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Hao, Liqing; Cai, Shunyou; Gu, Xuejun; Zhang, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Wang, Zhenya; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic aerosols such as (NH4)2SO4, NaNO3 and CaCl2 are commonly present in the Chinese urban atmosphere. They could significantly affect the formation and aging of ambient secondary organic aerosols (SOA), but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this work we studied SOA formation from the photooxidation reaction of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (135-TMB) with 100 μg/m3 of the above three types of inorganic aerosols as seeds in a laboratory chamber. We focused on the aging products of SOA particles by exposing them to high levels of oxidizing hydroxyl radicals (OH). The particulate products of SOA were measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) were applied to organic mass spectra for clustering. In the presence of (NH4)2SO4 seeds, 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-methyl-imidazole-2-acetaldehyde and other imidazole derivative compounds formed from reactions of NH4+ with methylglyoxal were detected as new aged products. We also observed aromatic nitrogen-containing organic compounds as the major aged products in the presence of NaNO3 seeds as a consequence of reaction with OH and NO2 radicals, which were generated by UV irradiation of acidic aqueous nitrate, inducing nitration reactions with phenolic compounds. As CaCl2 has the strongest hygroscopic properties of the three salt particles tested, the greater water content on the surface of the aerosol may facilitate the condensing of more gas-phase organic acid products to the hygroscopic CaCl2 seeds, forming H+ ions that catalyze the heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes, products of photooxidation of 135-TMB, and forming high-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds. These results provide new insight into the aromatic SOA aging mechanisms.

  12. Investigations of boundary layer structure, cloud characteristics and vertical mixing of aerosols at Barbados with large eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähn, Michael; Muñoz-Esparza, Domingo; Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Knoth, Oswald; Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Tegen, Ina

    2016-04-01

    Large eddy simulations (LESs) with ASAM (All Scale Atmospheric Model) are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude potential temperature perturbations. This method is now also validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE (Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment) field campaign is used for both model initialization and comparisons. Several sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to "gray zone modeling" or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Additional simulation cases deal with modified surface characteristics and their impacts on the simulation results. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ≈ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength) and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with lidar data show similarities in the downwind vertical wind structure and accurately reproduces the development of the daytime convective boundary layer measured by the Raman lidar.

  13. Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratios of Lofted Aerosol Layers Observed During the First Three Months of CALIPSO Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Hu, Yongxiang; Reagan, John A.; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Case studies from the first three months of the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) measurements of lofted aerosol layers are analyzed using transmittance [Young, 1995] and two-wavelength algorithms [Vaughan et al., 2004] to determine the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratios at 532 and 1064 nm. The transmittance method requires clear air below the layer so that the transmittance through the layer can be determined. Suitable scenes are selected from the browse images and clear air below features is identified by low 532 nm backscatter signal and confirmed by low depolarization and color ratios. The transmittance and two-wavelength techniques are applied to a number of lofted layers and the extinction-to-backscatter ratios are compared with values obtained from the CALIPSO aerosol models [Omar et al., 2004]. The results obtained from these studies are used to adjust the aerosol models and develop observations based extinction-to-backscatter ratio look-up tables and phase functions. Values obtained by these techniques are compared to Sa determinations using other independent methods with a goal of developing probability distribution functions of aerosol type-specific extinction to backscatter ratios. In particular, the results are compared to values determined directly by the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) during the CALIPSO CloudSat Validation Experiments (CCVEX) and Sa determined by the application of the two-wavelength lidar Constrained Ratio Aerosol Model-fit (CRAM) retrieval approach [Cattrall et al., 2005; Reagan et al., 2004] to the HSRL data. The results are also compared to values derived using the empirical relationship between the multiple-scattering fraction and the linear depolarization ratio by using Monte Carlo simulations of water clouds [Hu et al., 2006].

  14. Chemical analysis of aerosol in the Venusian cloud layer by reaction gas chromatography on board the Vega landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelman, B. G.; Drozdov, Y. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Rotin, V. A.; Khokhlov, V. N.; Bondarev, V. B.; Dolnikov, G. G.; Dyachkov, A. V.; Nenarokov, D. F.; Mukhin, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment on sulfuric acid aerosol determination in the Venusian cloud layer on board the Vega landers is described. An average content of sulfuric acid of approximately 1 mg/cu m was found for the samples taken from the atmosphere at heights from 63 to 48 km and analyzed with the SIGMA-3 chromatograph. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was revealed in the gaseous sample at the height of 48 km. From the experimental results and blank run measurements, a suggestion is made that the Venusian cloud layer aerosol consists of more complicated particles than the sulfuric acid water solution does.

  15. Characterizing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) Using Satellite Observations, Balloon Measurements and a Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Liu, H.; Deshler, T.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Gadhavi, H.; Ratnam, M. V.; Jayaraman, A.; Pandit, A.; Raj, A.; Kumar, H.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Stenchikov, G.; Wienhold, F.; Bian, J.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations and numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) provide a conduit for gas-phase pollutants in south Asia to reach the lower stratosphere. Now, observations from the CALIPSO satellite have revealed the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), associated with the ASM anticyclone. The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, climate, and chemical processes in the UTLS. Here, we show in situ measurements from balloon-borne instruments, aircraft, and satellite observations, together with trajectory and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations to explore the origin, composition, physical, and optical properties of aerosols in the ATAL. In particular, we show balloon-data from our BATAL-2015 field campaign to India and Saudi Arabia in summer 2015, which includes in situ backscatter measurements from COBALD instruments, and the first observations of size and volatility of aerosols in the ATAL layer using optical particle counters (OPCs). Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations point to deep convection over North India as a principal source of ATAL aerosols. Available aircraft observations suggest significant sulfur and carbonaceous components to the ATAL, which is supported by simulations using the GEOS-Chem CTM. Source elimination studies conducted with the GEOS-Chem indicate that ATAL aerosols originate primary from south Asian sources, in contrast with some earlier studies.

  16. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... in cosmetics and/or cosmetics that are also drugs, as, for example, aerosol antiperspirants....

  17. A Comparison of Aerosol-Layer and Convective Boundary-Layer Structure over a Mountain Range during STAAARTE '97

    SciTech Connect

    De Wekker, Stephan; Steyn, D. G.; Nyeki, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial structure of the aerosol layer (AL) height as observed with an airborne downlooking lidar over the Swiss Alps was investigated with a three dimensional mesoscale numerical model and a particle dispersion model. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights were derived from the mesoscale model output, and the behavior of surface-released particles was investigated with the particle dispersion model. While a previous investigation, using data from the same field study, equated the observed AL height with the CBL height, the results of the current investigation indicate that there is a considerable difference between AL and CBL heights caused by mixing and transport processes between the CBL and the free atmosphere. CBL heights show a more terrain-following behavior and are lower than AL heights. We argue that processes causing the difference between AL and CBL heights are common over mountainous terrain and that the AL height is a length scale that needs t o be considered in air pollution studies in mountainous terrain.

  18. Airship measurements of aerosol size distributions, cloud droplet spectra, and trace gas concentrations in the marine boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, G.M.; Hoppel, W.A. )

    1993-11-01

    The use of an airship as a platform to conduct atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, and cloud microphysical research is described, and results from demonstration flights made off the Oregon coast are presented. The slow speed of the airship makes it an ideal platform to do high-spatial resolution profiling both vertically and horizontally, and to measure large aerosol and cloud droplet distributions without the difficulties caused by high-speed aircraft sampling. A unique set of data obtained during the demonstration flights show the effect that processing marine boundary layer aerosol through stratus clouds has on the aerosol size distribution. Evidence of new particle formation (nucleation of particles) was also observed on about half the days on which flights were made. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The influence of cloud droplet heterogeneity on sulfate production mechanisms constrained by isotopic measurements of sulfate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, B.; Allman, D. J.; Amos, H. M.; Fairlie, T. D.; Dachs, J.; Hegg, D.; Sletten, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Observations and modeling studies have shown that heterogeneity in fog and cloud drop size and chemical composition can significantly impact in-cloud sulfate production rates due to the strong pH dependence of the ozone oxidation pathway. Averaging cloud water pH tends to underestimate the fraction of S(IV) that is SO32- leading to underestimates of in-cloud sulfate production rates. Large scale models typically do not account for this heterogeneity due to the large computational expense associated with this calculation, and instead employ bulk calculations or assumptions of cloud water pH. Modeling studies have consistently shown that calculated sulfate production rates using bulk cloud pH treatments tend to underestimate in-cloud sulfate production rates compared to more explicit treatment of cloud drop heterogeneity by underestimating the ozone oxidation pathway. Here, we utilize a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol collected during a ship cruise in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean to quantify sulfate formation pathways in the marine boundary layer. The oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol is particularly sensitive to the importance of the ozone oxidation pathway due to its large isotopic signature. We employ a model parameterization by Yuen et al. (1996) that accounts for the impact of alkaline, coarse-mode sea salt aerosols on in-cloud sulfate production rates. As sulfate formation in cloud droplets formed on alkaline coarse-mode sea salt aerosols is thought to be dominated by the ozone oxidation pathway, observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol provide a robust test of this parameterization. Including the Yuen et al. (1996) parameterization of cloud droplet heterogeneity improves the model's agreement with the observed sulfate oxygen isotopes. Accounting for the impact of cloud droplet heterogeneity on in-cloud sulfate production rates

  20. What is the "Clim-Likely" aerosol product?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... as an initial step in identifying a range of components and mixtures for the MISR Standard Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm climatology, and as ... (2001). The sensitivity of multi-angle imaging to natural mixtures of aerosols over ocean. J. Geophysical Res. , 106 (D16), ...

  1. Aerosol black carbon characteristics over Central India: Temporal variation and its dependence on mixed layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Manoj, M. R.; Kumar, N. V. P. Kiran; Shaeb, K. Hareef Baba; Joshi, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In a first of its kind study over the Indian region, concurrent and extensive measurements of black carbon (BC) concentration and atmospheric boundary layer parameters are used to quantify the role of atmospheric boundary layer in producing temporal changes in BC. During this study, 18 months (2011-12) data of continuous measurements of BC aerosols, made over a semi-urban location, Nagpur, in Central India are used along with concurrent measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric thermodynamics, made using weekly ascents of GPS aided Radiosonde for a period of 1 year. From the balloon data, mixed layer heights and ventilation coefficients are estimated, and the monthly and seasonal changes in BC mass concentration are examined in the light of the boundary layer changes. Seasonally, the BC mass concentration was highest (~ 4573 ± 1293 ng m- 3) in winter (December-February), and lowest (~ 1588 ± 897 ng m- 3) in monsoon (June-September), while remained moderate (~ 3137 ± 1446 ng m- 3) in pre-monsoon (March-May), and post-monsoon (~ 3634 ± 813 ng m- 3) (October-November) seasons. During the dry seasons, when the rainfall is scanty or insignificantly small, the seasonal variations in BC concentrations have a strong inverse relationship with mixed layer height and ventilation coefficient. However, the lowest BC concentrations do not occur during the season when the mixed layer height (MLH) is highest or the ventilation coefficient is the highest; rather it occurs when the rainfall is strong (during summer monsoon season) and airmass changes to primarily of marine origin.

  2. Elevated aerosol layers modify the O2–O2 absorption measured by ground-based MAX-DOAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Ivan; Berg, Larry K.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The oxygen collisional complex (O2-O2, or O4) is a greenhouse gas, and a calibration trace gas used to infer aerosol and cloud properties by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Recent reports suggest the need for an O4 correction factor (CFO4) when comparing simulated and measured O4 differential slant column densities (dSCD) by passive DOAS. We investigate the sensitivity of O4 dSCD simulations at ultraviolet (360 nm) and visible (477 nm) wavelengths towards separately measured aerosol extinction profiles. Measurements were conducted by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS instrument and NASA’s multispectral High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) during the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA in July 2012. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, AOD ~ 0.35 at 477 nm), and (2) near molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD < 0.10 at 477 nm) the measured and calculated O4 dSCDs agreed within 6.4±0.4% (360 nm) and 4.7±0.6% (477 nm) if the HSRL-2 profiles were used as input to the calculations. However, if in the calculations the aerosol is confined to the surface layer (while keeping AOD constant) we find 0.53aerosol layers, unless accounted for, can cause negative bias in the simulated O4 dSCDs that can explain CFO4. The air density and aerosol profile aloft needs to be taken into account when interpreting the O4 from ground-based MAX-DOAS. Opportunities to identify and better characterize these layers are also discussed.

  3. The relationship of boundary layer clouds in the tropical southeast Atlantic to absorbing aerosols, meteorology and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, P.; Adebiyi, A. A.; Ramajiguru, L.

    2015-12-01

    Ascension Island, a remote island located in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean within the trade-wind region oat 8S, 14.5W, experiences the outflow of biomass-burning aerosols from continental Africa, over 2000 km away, from July through November, peaking in August and September. The shortwave-absorbing free-tropospheric aerosols, located in a region of high solar irradiance, provide a climate warming that is poorly represented in global aerosol climate models. The low clouds can respond to the smoke layer in myriad possible ways that are not yet well-documented. The shortwave-warming can stabilize the free-troposphere, enhancing the low cloud fraction. The deepening boundary layer and subsiding smoke layer also increase the likelihood of aerosol-cloud microphysical interactions. Interest in this climate regime is supporting an observational strategy of a year-long DOE ARM Mobile Facility deployment to Ascension (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds, or LASIC), and an NSF aircraft campaign (ObservatioNs of Fire's Impact on the southeast atlantic REgion, or ONFIRE) based on Sao Tome Island. These campaigns will be integrated with NASA, UK and African activities sharing similar goals based further south in Namibia. Initial analysis is distinguishing meteorology from aerosol impacts on the boundary layer cloud fields. The forward trajectories of emissions from over 24,000 fire sources on continental Africa show that a free-tropospheric jet can advect aerosols to above Ascension island in just one-two days. The fast transport time encourages retention of signatures of the fire sources, in particular the radiatively-crucial single-scattering albedo value. Thereafter, a deep land-based anticyclonic high recirculates over one-third of these trajectories back to the African continent, explaining the widespread extent of the aerosol layer. The free-tropospheric jet also reduces the mean atmospheric subsidence independently of shortwave absorption by the aerosols

  4. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  5. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kanniah, K. D.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of aerosols and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of savannas in northern Australia using aerosol optical depth, clouds and radiation data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin and carbon flux data measured from eddy covariance techniques from a site at Howard Springs, 35km southeast of Darwin. Generally we found that the concentration of aerosols in this region was relatively low than observed at other sites, therefore the proportion of diffuse radiation reaching the earths surface was only ~ 30%. As a result, we observed only a modest change in carbon uptake under aerosol laden skies and there was no significant difference for dry season Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) between clear sky, aerosols or thin clouds. On the other hand thick clouds in the wet season produce much more diffuse radiation than aerosols or thin clouds and therefore the initial canopy quantum efficiency was seen to increase 45 and 2.5 times more than under thin clouds and aerosols respectively. The normalized carbon uptake under thick clouds is 57% and 50% higher than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively even though the total irradiance received under thick clouds was reduced 59% and 50% than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively. However, reduction in total irradiance decreases the mean absolute carbon uptake as much as 22% under heavy cloud cover compared to thin clouds or aerosols. Thus, any increase in aerosol concentration or cloud cover that can enhance the diffuse component may have large impacts on productivity in this region.

  6. Aerosol-Jet-Printing silicone layers and electrodes for stacked dielectric elastomer actuators in one processing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitelshöfer, Sebastian; Göttler, Michael; Schmidt, Philip; Treffer, Philipp; Landgraf, Maximilian; Franke, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present recent findings of our efforts to qualify the so called Aerosol-Jet-Printing process as an additive manufacturing approach for stacked dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA). With the presented system we are able to print the two essential structural elements dielectric layer and electrode in one machine. The system is capable of generating RTV-2 silicone layers made of Wacker Elastosil P 7670. Therefore, two aerosol streams of both precursor components A and B are generated in parallel and mixed in one printing nozzle that is attached to a 4-axis kinematic. At maximum speed the printing of one circular Elastosil layer with a calculated thickness of 10 μm and a diameter of 1 cm takes 12 seconds while the process keeps stable for 4.5 hours allowing a quite high overall material output and the generation of numerous silicone layers. By adding a second printing nozzle and the infrastructure to generate a third aerosol, the system is also capable of printing inks with conductive particles in parallel to the silicone. We have printed a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) ink prepared in our lab to generate electrodes on VHB 4905, Elastosil foils and finally on Aerosol-Jet-Printed Elastosil layers. With rGO ink printed on Elastosil foil, layers with a 4-point measured sheet resistance as low as 4 kΩ can be realized leaving room for improving the electrode printing time, which at the moment is not as good as the quite good time-frame for printing the silicone layers. Up to now we have used the system to print a fully functional two-layer stacked DEA to demonstrate the principle of continuously 3D printing actuators.

  7. High velocity electromagnetic particle launcher for aerosol production studies

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.A.; Rader, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the development of a new device for study of metal combustion, breakup and production of aerosols in a high velocity environment. Metal wires are heated and electromagnetically launched with this device to produce molten metal droplets moving at velocities ranging up to about Mach 1. Such tests are presently intended to simulate the behavior of metal streamers ejected from a high-explosive detonation. A numerical model of the launcher performance in terms of sample properties, sample geometry and pulser electrical parameters is presented which can be used as a tool for design of specific test conditions. Results from several tests showing the range of sample velocities accessible with this device are described and compared with the model. Photographic measurements showing the behavior of tungsten and zirconium metal droplets are presented. Estimates of the Weber breakup and drag on the droplets, as well as calculations of the droplet trajectories, are described. Such studies may ultimately be useful in assessing environmental hazards in the handling and storage of devices containing metallic plutonium.

  8. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  9. Controls on aerosol wet deposition from satellite-based (re-)analysis products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, P. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol wet deposition is the key aerosol loss mechanism globally, yet is not well-understood relative to aerosol sources and transformations. The difficulty in generating appropriate observational data sets is one important barrier to the study of aerosol wet removal. In this study, we combine two independent products based on satellite measurements. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is obtained from the ECMWF Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) project, which is a re-analysis product that assimilates MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depth. Rainfall is obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis version 7 (TMPA-7). The latter product is available only from 50°N to 50°S, which sets our region of study. The data used is from 2011-12, is averaged to 6-hr intervals and has a horizontal resolution of 0.25°x0.25°. Our approach involves constructing a Lagrangian advection scheme that predicts aerosol AOD at the next time step (i.e. 6 hr in the future) based on current time step AOD and winds, and neglecting all aerosol sources and sinks. Predicted AOD is then compared with MACC reanalysis AOD conditioned on Lagrangian parcels that experienced rainfall during that interval, with AOD decreases attributed to wet deposition. Aerosol wet deposition is often parameterized in models as a function of rainfall rate using a power law. We evaluate the validity of such a power law relationship, and, when valid, compute the power law exponent globally, and by region (including continental and maritime locations) to reveal seasonal and geographic variability. Assuming precipitation is modulated by aerosol, at least in some regimes, then it follows that wet deposition also depends on AOD, and we quantify the strength of this coupling. This same approach could be used to study wet deposition of trace gases such as CO and ozone, as these are also available from the MACC re-analysis.

  10. Characterization of particulate products for aging of ethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Jiahui; Cai, Shunyou; Liao, Yingmin; Zhao, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Gu, Xuejun; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-09-01

    Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles. Compared to the previous aromatic SOA aging studies, imidazole compounds, which can absorb solar radiation effectively, were newly detected in aged ethylbenzene SOA in the presence of high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol. These findings provide new information for discussing aromatic SOA aging mechanisms.

  11. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  12. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR), and a Suspended Matter (SM) EDR that provides aerosol type (dust, smoke, sea salt, and volcanic ash) information. An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. The accuracy of the SM product, however, is found to be very low (20 percent) when compared to Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and AERONET. Several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance have been developed for AOT retrieval. For dust aerosol type retrieval, a new approach that takes advantage of spectral dependence of Rayleigh scattering, surface reflectance, dust absorption in the deep blue (412 nm), blue (440 nm), and mid-IR (2.2 um) has been developed that detects dust with an accuracy of ~80 percent. For smoke plume identification, a source apportionment algorithm that combines fire hot spots with AOT imagery has been developed that provides smoke plume extent with an accuracy of ~70 percent. The VIIRS aerosol products will provide continuity to the current operational use of aerosol products from Aqua and Terra MODIS. These include aerosol data assimilation in Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) global aerosol model, verification of National Weather Service (NWS) dust and smoke forecasts, exceptional events monitoring by different states

  13. Role of updrafts in aerosol-cloud interactions: lidar observations of layered warm clouds over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; Ansmann, A.; Bühl, J.; Wandinger, U.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty nine cases of layered liquid-water cloud systems were observed with dual-field-of-view (dual-FOV) Raman lidar over the polluted central European site of Leipzig, Germany, between September 2010 and September 2012. For the first time, a detailed lidar-based study of aerosol-cloud-dynamics relationship was conducted. A collocated Doppler lidar provided information on vertical velocity and thus on updraft and downdraft occurrence. The novel dual-FOV lidar permits the retrieval of the particle extinction coefficient (used as aerosol proxy just below cloud base) and cloud properties such as droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration in the lower part of optically thin cloud layers. Here, we present the key results of our statistical analysis of the 2010-2012 observations. Besides a clear aerosol effect on cloud droplet number concentration in the lower part of the convectively weak cloud layers during updraft periods, meteorological effects (turbulent mixing, entrainment of dry air) were found to diminish the observable aerosol effect higher up in the clouds. The corresponding aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) parameter based on changes in cloud droplet number concentration with aerosol loading was found to be close to 0.8 at 30-70 m above cloud base during updraft periods which points to values around 1 at cloud base (0-30 m above cloud base). Our findings are extensively compared with literature values and agree well with airborne observations. As a conclusion, ACI studies over continental sites should include vertical wind observations to avoid a~bias (too low values) in the obtained ACI results.

  14. Fission product partitioning in aerosol release from simulated spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lemma, F. G.; Colle, J. Y.; Rasmussen, G.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2015-10-01

    Aerosols created by the vaporization of simulated spent nuclear fuel (simfuel) were produced by laser heating techniques and characterised by a wide range of post-analyses. In particular attention has been focused on determining the fission product behaviour in the aerosols, in order to improve the evaluation of the source term and consequently the risk associated with release from spent fuel sabotage or accidents. Different simulated spent fuels were tested with burn-up up to 8 at. %. The results from the aerosol characterisation were compared with studies of the vaporization process by Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry and thermochemical equilibrium calculations. These studies permit an understanding of the aerosol gaseous precursors and the gaseous reactions taking place during the aerosol formation process.

  15. The Remote Sensing of Mineral Aerosols and their Impact on Phytoplankton Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tindale, Neil W.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this experiment was to test the iron hypothesis does the addition of iron to nutrient rich surface waters enhance productivity? Our specific objectives in this experiment included sampling and studying the marine aerosol size and type (which are related to chemical reactivity) during the PlumEx cruise to determine the importance of local (Galapagos Islands) versus long-range sources of atmospheric material. Detailed results of single particle analysis of our samples are being prepared for publication in two papers. We collect aerosol samples and they have been analyzed for trace metals and other elements. We are mapped aerosol distribution and the desert source areas around the Arabian Sea region. We did record a clear relationship between the aerosol radiance and synoptic weather patterns with distinct signals over the ocean northwest and southwest of Australia. While the interpretation was limited an aerosol climatology pattern was presented.

  16. Science verification of operational aerosol and cloud products for TROPOMI on Sentinel-5 precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Luca; Gimeno-Garcia, Sebastian; Sanders, Abram; Sneep, Maarten; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Kokhanvosky, Alexander A.; Loyola, Diego; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    With the approaching launch of the Sentinel-5 precursor (S-5P) satellite, scheduled by mid 2016, one preparatory task of the L2 working group (composed by the Institute of Environmental Physics IUP Bremen, the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI De Bilt, and the German Aerospace Center DLR Oberpfaffenhofen) has been the assessment of biases among aerosol and cloud products, that are going to be inferred by the respective algorithms from measurements of the platform's payload TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). The instrument will measure terrestrial radiance with varying moderate spectral resolutions from the ultraviolet throughout the shortwave infrared. Specifically, all the operational and verification algorithms involved in this comparison exploit the sensitivity of molecular oxygen absorption (the A-band, 755-775 nm, with a resolution of 0.54 nm) to changes in optical and geometrical parameters of tropospheric scattering layers. Therefore, aerosol layer height (ALH) and thickness (AOT), cloud top height (CTH), thickness (COT) and albedo (CA) are the targeted properties. First, the verification of these properties has been accomplished upon synchronisation of the respective forward radiative transfer models for a variety of atmospheric scenarios. Then, biases against independent techniques have been evaluated with real measurements of selected GOME-2 orbits. Global seasonal bias assessment has been carried out for CTH, CA and COT, whereas the verification of ALH and AOT is based on the analysis of the ash plume emitted by the icelandic volcanic eruption Eyjafjallajökull in May 2010 and selected dust scenes off the Saharan west coast sensed by SCIAMACHY in year 2009.

  17. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Space-Borne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(sup 40) molecules (sup 2) per centimeters(sup -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nanometers, the O4 absorption band at 477 nanometers is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nanometers is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 meters for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80 percent of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 kilometer compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  18. Development and Applications of a New, High-Resolution, Operational MISR Aerosol Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.; Kalashnikova, O.

    2014-12-01

    Since early 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has been providing aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property retrievals at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Capitalizing on the capabilities provided by multi-angle viewing, the operational MISR algorithm performs well, with about 75% of MISR AOD retrievals falling within 0.05 or 20% × AOD of the paired validation data from the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), and is able to distinguish aerosol particles by size and sphericity, over both land and water. These attributes enable a variety of applications, including aerosol transport model validation and global air quality assessment. Motivated by the adverse impacts of aerosols on human health at the local level, and taking advantage of computational speed advances that have occurred since the launch of Terra, we have implemented an operational MISR aerosol product with 4.4 km spatial resolution that maintains, and sometimes improves upon, the quality of the 17.6 km resolution product. We will describe the performance of this product relative to the heritage 17.6 km product, the global AERONET validation network, and high spatial density AERONET-DRAGON sites. Other changes that simplify product content, and make working with the data much easier for users, will also be discussed. Examples of how the new product demonstrates finer spatial variability of aerosol fields than previously retrieved, and ways this new dataset can be used for studies of local aerosol effects, will be shown.

  19. Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Mark A.; Powell, Kathleen A.; Kuehn, Ralph E.; Young, Stuart A.; Winker, David M.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hunt, William H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; McGill, Matthew J.; Getzewich, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the vertical and horizontal extent of clouds and aerosols in the earth s atmosphere is critical in assessing the planet s radiation budget and for advancing human understanding of climate change issues. To retrieve this fundamental information from the elastic backscatter lidar data acquired during the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, a selective, iterated boundary location (SIBYL) algorithm has been developed and deployed. SIBYL accomplishes its goals by integrating an adaptive context-sensitive profile scanner into an iterated multiresolution spatial averaging scheme. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the architecture and performance of the SIBYL algorithm. It begins with a brief review of the theory of target detection in noise-contaminated signals, and an enumeration of the practical constraints levied on the retrieval scheme by the design of the lidar hardware, the geometry of a space-based remote sensing platform, and the spatial variability of the measurement targets. Detailed descriptions are then provided for both the adaptive threshold algorithm used to detect features of interest within individual lidar profiles and the fully automated multiresolution averaging engine within which this profile scanner functions. The resulting fusion of profile scanner and averaging engine is specifically designed to optimize the trade-offs between the widely varying signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements and the disparate spatial resolutions of the detection targets. Throughout the paper, specific algorithm performance details are illustrated using examples drawn from the existing CALIPSO dataset. Overall performance is established by comparisons to existing layer height distributions obtained by other airborne and space-based lidars.

  20. Volcanic aerosol layer formed in the tropical upper troposphere by the eruption of Mt. Merapi, Java, in November 2010 observed by the spaceborne lidar CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kinoshita, Taro

    2016-02-01

    Mt. Merapi in Java, Indonesia, erupted in November 2010. The eruption was proved to be the source of the aerosol layer observed by a ground-based lidar at Biak, Indonesia, in January 2011 using data on the global distribution of aerosols observed by the spaceborne cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP). These data were used to describe how the volcanic aerosols produced by the volcanic eruption diffused throughout the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The equivalent maximum total amount of volcanic SO2 estimated from the spatially integrated total amount of aerosols was 0.09 Tg, which is one-third to half that of gaseous SO2 after the eruption was observed by the ozone monitoring instrument satellite. The obtained cirrus-cloud-appearance frequency data exhibit a seasonal cycle having its maximum in winter and no detectable variations that are synchronized with the increase in TTL volcanic aerosols.

  1. Aerosol Production from Charbroiled and Wet-Fried Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work in our laboratory focused on the chemical and optical characterization of aerosols produced during the dry-frying of different meat samples. This method yielded a complex ensemble of particles composed of water and long-chain fatty acids with the latter dominated by oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids. The present study examines how wet-frying and charbroiling cooking methods affect the physical and chemical properties of their derived aerosols. Samples of ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork were subject to both cooking methods in the laboratory, with their respective aerosols swept into a laminar flow cell where they were optically analyzed in the mid-infrared and collected through a gas chromatography probe for chemical characterization. This presentation will compare and contrast the nature of the aerosols generated in each cooking method, particularly those produced during charbroiling which exposes the samples, and their drippings, to significantly higher temperatures. Characterization of such cooking-related aerosols is important because of the potential impact of these particles on air quality, particularly in urban areas.

  2. Dimers and organosulfates derived from biogenic oxidation products in aerosols during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) in California 2007 and 2009 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, M.; Worton, D. R.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q.; Surratt, J.; Enggrob, K. L.; Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Farmer, D.; Docherty, K. S.; Platt, S.; Bilde, M.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Seinfeld, J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Goldstein, A.

    2010-12-01

    Oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds, such as monoterpenes and isoprene, contribute to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA). The organosulfate derivatives of these compounds are formed through heterogeneous reactions involving sulphur compounds, with a considerable contribution from anthropogenic sources. Organosulfate derivatives of biogenic oxidation products thus belong to a new group of anthropogenic enhanced biogenic SOA (ABSOA). The Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) during summers of 2007 and 2009 provided an excellent platform at Blodgett Forest, California (a ponderosa pine plantation) for studying ABSOA. Typically, polluted air masses were transported upslope from the California Central Valley during day, while night conditions were influenced by downslope transport of air masses, low local atmospheric mixing and formation of a shallow boundary layer. We collected particle samples (PM2.5) as one nighttime and two daytime samples per day. After extraction of filters in polar organic solvents (i.e. acetonitrile or methanol), organic aerosol constituents were analyzed by HPLC coupled through an electrospray inlet to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (qTOF-MS). Organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates derived from oxidation products of α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and isoprene were identified based on their molecular mass and MS fragmentation patterns. Measurements by High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) show high mass loadings of nitrate in the night and morning samples with highest levels of the nitrooxy organosulfates with MW 295 and MW 297. This may indicate that elevated levels of nitrate and nitrooxy organosulfates are formed in the same polluted air mass, probably through nitrate radical reactions. Terpenylic acid, diterpenylic acid acetate, and methylbutane tricarboxylic acid were found at concentrations comparable to pinic acid. A dimer of

  3. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  4. Application of Earth Sciences Products for use in Next Generation Numerical Aerosol Prediction Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    J. S. Reid, D. W. Breed, A. L. Walker, A. Al Mandoos (2008), Haboob dust storms of the southern Arabian Peninsula, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D01202...fields from the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System ( COAMPS ®) with near real time...Mesoscale Prediction System ( COAMPS ?) with near real time satellite surface and aerosol products via a high resolution radiative transfer model, angular

  5. Winter monsoon variation of lower tropospheric aerosol layers at a tropical coastal station, Trivandrum (8°33' N, 77°E), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, M.; Veerabuthiran, S.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Presennakumar, B.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Muraleedharan Nair, S.; Sreeja, R.

    Tropospheric aerosols play an important role in cloud physics and radiative transfer process. They show a high degree of variability in their characteristics both in space and time. The features of the background aerosol at any location or region depend to a large extent on the local source regions and various meteorological parameters at the time of measurement. Apart from the natural sources in and around the observatory station, anthropogenic additions of aerosols also affect the radiation budget and chemical composition. Besides this, it is realized in recent years that aerosols generated at one place could be transported over long distances by the wind systems and produce consequent effects at locations much farther away from the source. Such transported aerosols may settle as stratified layers in the atmosphere typically in the altitude of 1 to 4 km. These aerosol layers will have important effect in the local climate and atmospheric environment because of their role in radiative transfer process and cloud physics. Lidar observations had been conducted to study the long-range transport of aerosol and their effect at tropical station, Trivandrum during the northern winter period of 2002-2004. The presence of aerosol layers was observed on many days below 4 km during the above period. The high extinction coefficient is observed in the layer region and typically it is found to be 3.4 x 10-4 m-1. The aerosol optical depth is calculated by integrating the extinction values in the aerosol layer region and it is found to be between 0.25 and 0.35. The plausible reasons for the formation of these layers were explained using the wind circulation pattern and air back trajectories.

  6. Aerosol and cloud microphysics covariability in the northeast Pacific boundary layer estimated with ship-based and satellite remote sensing observations: NE Pacific Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Painemal, David; Chiu, J. -Y. Christine; Minnis, Patrick; ...

    2017-02-27

    We utilized ship measurements collected over the northeast Pacific along transects between the port of Los Angeles (33.7°N, 118.2°W) and Honolulu (21.3°N, 157.8°W) during May to August 2013 in order to investigate the covariability between marine low cloud microphysical and aerosol properties. Ship-based retrievals of cloud optical depth (τ) from a Sun photometer and liquid water path (LWP) from a microwave radiometer were combined to derive cloud droplet number concentration Nd and compute a cloud-aerosol interaction (ACI) metric defined as ACICCN=∂ ln(Nd)/∂ ln(CCN), with CCN denoting the cloud condensation nuclei concentration measured at 0.4% (CCN0.4) and 0.3% (CCN0.3) supersaturation. Analysismore » of CCN0.4, accumulation mode aerosol concentration (Na), and extinction coefficient (σext) indicates that Na and σext can be used as CCN0.4 proxies for estimating ACI. ACICCN derived from 10 min averaged Nd and CCN0.4 and CCN0.3, and CCN0.4 regressions using Na and σext, produce high ACICCN: near 1.0, that is, a fractional change in aerosols is associated with an equivalent fractional change in Nd. ACICCN computed in deep boundary layers was small (ACICCN=0.60), indicating that surface aerosol measurements inadequately represent the aerosol variability below clouds. Satellite cloud retrievals from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and GOES-15 data were compared against ship-based retrievals and further analyzed to compute a satellite-based ACICCN. We found that the satellite data correlated well with their ship-based counterparts with linear correlation coefficients equal to or greater than 0.78. Combined satellite Nd and ship-based CCN0.4 and Na yielded a maximum ACICCN=0.88–0.92, a value slightly less than the ship-based ACICCN, but still consistent with aircraft-based studies in the eastern Pacific.« less

  7. Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Flora, Jason W; Meruva, Naren; Huang, Chorng B; Wilkinson, Celeste T; Ballentine, Regina; Smith, Donna C; Werley, Michael S; McKinney, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits.

  8. Ozone and aerosol distributions measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to O3 and aerosol distributions measured from an aircraft using a DIAL system in order to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during summer 1988. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere.

  9. If the MODIS Aerosol Product is so Infested with Cloud Contamination, Why Does Everybody Use the Product?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remeer, Lorraine A.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS aerosol cloud mask is based on a spatial variability test, using the assumption that aerosols are more homogeneous than clouds. On top of this first line of defense are a series of additional tests based on threshold values and ratios of various MODIS channels. The goal is to eliminate clouds and keep the aerosol. How well have we succeeded? There have been several studies showing cloud contamination in the MODIS aerosol product and several alternative cloud masks proposed. There are even "competing" MODIS aerosol products that offer an alternative "cloud free" world. Are these alternative products an improvement to the old standard product? We find there is a trade-off between retrieval availability and cloud contamination, and for many applications it is better to have a little bit of cloud in the product than to not have enough product. I will review the decisions that led us to the present MODIS cloud mask, and show how it is simultaneously too liberal and too conservative, some ideas on how to make it better and why in the end it doesn't matter. I hope to inspire a spirited discussion and will be very willing to take your complaints and suggestions.

  10. Summertime carbonaceous aerosols collected in the marine boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhouqing; Blum, Joel D.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ewing, R. C.; Wang, Xinming; Sun, Liguang

    2007-01-01

    The chemistry, morphology, and microscale to nanoscale structures of carbonaceous aerosols from the marine boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean were investigated by a variety of electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The relative levels of particles of black carbon (BC) were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorbed onto BC particles were extracted by the soxhlet extraction method and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that the dominant particles of BC are char particles with spherical shape, porous structure, and high sulfur content, which are typically derived from residual oil combustion on ships. The spatial distribution of BC from ship emissions was found to be concentrated around the periphery of the Arctic Ocean, suggesting relatively intensive contamination by ships in the Russian and Canadian Arctic. The abundance of PAHs on BC particles ranges from 142 to 2672 pg/m3 (mean = 702 pg/m3), which is significantly higher than values previously measured by land-based observation. Thus we find that ship emissions are a potentially important contributor to the PAH levels at some locations in the Arctic Ocean during the summer.

  11. The study of aerosol and ozone measurements in lower boundary layer with UAV helicopter platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-hsiung; Chen, Wen-nai

    2013-04-01

    This study describes the aerosol and ozone measurement in the lower atmospheric boundary layer of highly polluted region at Kao-hsiung, Taiwan with a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) helicopter platform. This UAV helicopter, modified from Gaui-X7 electronic-power model helicopter with autopilot AHRS (Altitude-Head-Reference System) kit, has fast climb speed up to 700 m height and keeps stable status for atmospheric measurements in five-minute fly leg. Several quick-replaced battery packages are ready on ground for field intensive observation. The payload rack under this UAV helicopter carries a micro-Aethalometer (black carbon concentration), ozone meter, temperature-humidity sensor, barometer and a time-lapse digital camera. The field measurement site closes to Linyuan Petrochemical Industrial Park, where is one of the heavy polluted regions in Taiwan. Balloon-borne Vaisala RS-92 radiosonde and CL31 Lidar Ceilometer are used to provide the background of the atmosphere at the same time. More data analysis measured by UAV helicopter and its potential application will be discussed.

  12. Preparation of active layers in polymer solar cells by aerosol jet printing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunhe; Zhou, Erjun; Miyanishi, Shoji; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Tajima, Keisuke

    2011-10-01

    Active layers of polymer solar cells were prepared by aerosol jet printing of organic inks. Various solvents and additives with high boiling points were screened for the preparation of high-quality polymer films. The effects on device performance of treating the films by thermal and solvent vapor annealing were also investigated. The components of the solvent were important for controlling the drying rate of the liquid films, reducing the number of particle-like protrusions on the film surface, and realizing high molecular ordering in the polymer phases. The optimized solar cell device with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and a C(60) derivative showed a high fill factor of 67% and power conversion efficiency of 2.53% without thermal annealing. The combination of poly[N-9-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-3,6-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,5-diethylhexyl-2,5-dihydropyrrolo-[3,4-]pyrrole-1,4-dione] and a C(70) derivative led to power conversion efficiency of 3.92 and 3.14% for device areas of 0.03 and 1 cm(2), respectively.

  13. Aerosol Lidar and MODIS Satellite Comparisons for Future Aerosol Loading Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell; Szykman, James; Severance, Kurt; Chu, D. Allen; Rosen, Rebecca; Al-Saadi, Jassim

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the concentration and distribution of atmospheric aerosols using both airborne lidar and satellite instruments is a field of active research. An aircraft based aerosol lidar has been used to study the distribution of atmospheric aerosols in the California Central Valley and eastern US coast. Concurrently, satellite aerosol retrievals, from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, were take over the Central Valley. The MODIS Level 2 aerosol data product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical depth (AOD) and size distribution) globally over ocean and land at a spatial resolution of 10 km. The Central Valley topography was overlaid with MODIS AOD (5x5 sq km resolution) and the aerosol scattering vertical profiles from a lidar flight. Backward air parcel trajectories for the lidar data show that air from the Pacific and northern part of the Central Valley converge confining the aerosols to the lower valley region and below the mixed layer. Below an altitude of 1 km, the lidar aerosol and MODIS AOD exhibit good agreement. Both data sets indicate a high presence of aerosols near Bakersfield and the Tehachapi Mountains. These and other results to be presented indicate that the majority of the aerosols are below the mixed layer such that the MODIS AOD should correspond well with surface measurements. Lidar measurements will help interpret satellite AOD retrievals so that one day they can be used on a routine basis for prediction of boundary layer aerosol pollution events.

  14. Massive-scale aircraft observations of giant sea-salt aerosol particle size distributions in atmospheric marine boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    iant sea-salt aerosol particles (dry radius, rd > 0.5 μm) occur nearly everywhere in the marine boundary layer and frequently above. This study presents observations of atmospheric sea-salt size distributions in the range 0.7 < rd < 14 μm based on external impaction of sea-spray aerosol particles onto microscope polycarbonate microscope slides. The slides have very large sample volumes, typically about 250 L over a 10-second sampling period. This provides unprecedented sampling of giant sea-salt particles for flights in marine boundary layer air. The slides were subsequently analyzed in a humidified chamber using dual optical digital microscopy. At a relative humidity of 90% the sea-salt aerosol particles form spherical cap drops. Based on measurement the volume of the spherical cap drop and assuming NaCl composition, the Kohler equation is used to derive the dry salt mass of tens of thousands of individual aerosol particles on each slide. Size distributions are given with a 0.2 μm resolution. The slides were exposed from the NSF/NCAR C-130 research aircraft during the 2008 VOCALS project off the coast of northern Chile and the 2011 ICE-T in the Caribbean. In each deployment, size distributions using hundreds of slides are used to relate fitted log-normal size distributions parameters to wind speed, altitude and other atmospheric conditions. The size distributions provide a unique observational set for initializing cloud models with coarse-mode aerosol particle observations for marine atmospheres.

  15. Rethinking the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget: stronger production, faster removal, shorter lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, Alma; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Jo, Duseong S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Madronich, Sasha; Park, Rokjin J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent laboratory studies suggest that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates are higher than assumed in current models. There is also evidence that SOA removal by dry and wet deposition occurs more efficiently than some current models suggest and that photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation may be important (but currently ignored) SOA sinks. Here, we have updated the global GEOS-Chem model to include this new information on formation (i.e., wall-corrected yields and emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds) and on removal processes (photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation). We compare simulated SOA from various model configurations against ground, aircraft and satellite measurements to assess the extent to which these improved representations of SOA formation and removal processes are consistent with observed characteristics of the SOA distribution. The updated model presents a more dynamic picture of the life cycle of atmospheric SOA, with production rates 3.9 times higher and sinks a factor of 3.6 more efficient than in the base model. In particular, the updated model predicts larger SOA concentrations in the boundary layer and lower concentrations in the upper troposphere, leading to better agreement with surface and aircraft measurements of organic aerosol compared to the base model. Our analysis thus suggests that the long-standing discrepancy in model predictions of the vertical SOA distribution can now be resolved, at least in part, by a stronger source and stronger sinks leading to a shorter lifetime. The predicted global SOA burden in the updated model is 0.88 Tg and the corresponding direct radiative effect at top of the atmosphere is -0.33 W m-2, which is comparable to recent model estimates constrained by observations. The updated model predicts a population-weighed global mean surface SOA concentration that is a factor of 2 higher than in the base model, suggesting the need for a reanalysis of the contribution of

  16. Remote express analysis of ground-layer aerosol based on laser-induced spark spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuev, V. E.; Kopytin, Y. D.; Korolkov, V. A.; Levitskii, M. E.; Nebolsin, M. F.; Sidorov, B. G.; Soldatkin, N. P.

    1986-01-01

    The creation of high-power pulsed CO2 and Nd-glass lasers enables the realization of the method for remote spectro-chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosols based on excitation of the emission spectrum of the aerosol particle atoms. A description of construction and characteristics of a spectrochemical lidar based on both Nd-glass and CO2 lasers is presented.

  17. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  18. Influence of anthropogenic aerosol deposition on the relationship between oceanic productivity and warming

    PubMed Central

    Balkanski, Yves; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Gehlen, Marion; Peñuelas, Josep; Ethé, Christian; Hauglustaine, Didier; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Zhou, Feng; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Satellite data and models suggest that oceanic productivity is reduced in response to less nutrient supply under warming. In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols provide nutrients and exert a fertilizing effect, but its contribution to evolution of oceanic productivity is unknown. We simulate the response of oceanic biogeochemistry to anthropogenic aerosols deposition under varying climate from 1850 to 2010. We find a positive response of observed chlorophyll to deposition of anthropogenic aerosols. Our results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols reduce the sensitivity of oceanic productivity to warming from −15.2 ± 1.8 to −13.3 ± 1.6 Pg C yr−1 °C−1 in global stratified oceans during 1948–2007. The reducing percentage over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans reaches 40, 24, and 25%, respectively. We hypothesize that inevitable reduction of aerosol emissions in response to higher air quality standards in the future might accelerate the decline of oceanic productivity per unit warming. PMID:27867233

  19. Influence of anthropogenic aerosol deposition on the relationship between oceanic productivity and warming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Balkanski, Yves; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Gehlen, Marion; Peñuelas, Josep; Ethé, Christian; Hauglustaine, Didier; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Zhou, Feng; Tao, Shu

    2015-12-28

    Satellite data and models suggest that oceanic productivity is reduced in response to less nutrient supply under warming. In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols provide nutrients and exert a fertilizing effect, but its contribution to evolution of oceanic productivity is unknown. We simulate the response of oceanic biogeochemistry to anthropogenic aerosols deposition under varying climate from 1850 to 2010. We find a positive response of observed chlorophyll to deposition of anthropogenic aerosols. Our results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols reduce the sensitivity of oceanic productivity to warming from -15.2 ± 1.8 to -13.3 ± 1.6 Pg C yr(-1) °C(-1) in global stratified oceans during 1948-2007. The reducing percentage over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans reaches 40, 24, and 25%, respectively. We hypothesize that inevitable reduction of aerosol emissions in response to higher air quality standards in the future might accelerate the decline of oceanic productivity per unit warming.

  20. Aerosol Products from The Future Space Lidar AEOLUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinet, Pauline; Dabas, Alain; Lever, Vincent; Flamant, Pierre; Huber, Dorit

    2016-06-01

    Ready for launch by the end of 2016, the Doppler lidar mission AEOLUS from the European Space Agency (ESA) will be the first High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) in space. Operating in the UV, it implements two detection channels for aerosol and molecular backscatter. The system is primarily designed for the measurement of winds, but the HSRL capability enables the measurement of the particulate backscatter and extinction coefficients without any a priori assumption on the aerosol type. The level-2A (L2A) processor has been developed for these measurements and tested with synthetic data. The results show good aerosol backscatter profiles can be retrieved. Extinction coefficients are reasonable but do not reach the quality of backscatter coefficients. A precise, full, radiometric calibration of the lidar is required. A major limitation of the system is a single polarization component of the light is detected leading to an underestimation of backscatter coefficients when the atmospheric particles are depolarizing. The vertical resolution goes from 250 meters in the lowest part of the atmosphere, to 2 km in the lower stratosphere. The maximum altitude can reach above 20km. The basic horizontal averaging is 90km. Averaging on shorter distances (down to a few km) are possible but require a sufficient signal to noise ratio.

  1. Analysis of reversibility and reaction products of glyoxal uptake onto ammonium sulfate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M. M.; Chhabra, P. S.; Chan, A. W.; Surratt, J. D.; Kwan, A. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2009-04-01

    Glyoxal, the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl, is an oxidation product of both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (Fu et al. JGR 113, D15303, 2008). Despite its low molecular weight, its role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has gained interest and a recent study suggested that it accounts for more than 15% of SOA in Mexico City (Volkamer et al. GRL 34, L19807, 2007). Despite numerous previous studies, questions remain regarding the processes controlling glyoxal uptake onto aerosol, including the role of acid catalysis, degree of reversibility, and identity of aerosol phase reaction products. We present results of chamber aerosol studies (Galloway et al. ACPD 8, 20799, 2008) and laboratory studies of bulk samples aimed at improving the understanding of these processes, in particular formation of oligomers and organosulfates of glyoxal, as well as the formation of imidazoles (carbon-nitrogen containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds) under dark and irradiated conditions. The relevance of these classes of reaction products extends beyond glyoxal, as evidence of oligomers and organosulfates other than those of glyoxal have been found in ambient aerosol (Surratt et al. JPCA 112, 8345, 2008; Denkenberger et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 5439, 2007). Experiments in which a chamber air mass was diluted after equilibration of glyoxal uptake onto ammonium sulfate seed aerosol (relative humidity 60% and glyoxal mixing ratios of 25-200 ppbv) shows that under these conditions uptake is reversible. The most important condensed phase products are hydrated oligomers of glyoxal, which are also formed reversibly under these conditions. Our studies show that organosulfates were not formed under dark conditions for neutral or acidified aerosol; similarly, Minerath et al. have recently shown that formation of a different class of organosulfates (alkyl sulfates) also proceeds very slowly even under acidic conditions (Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 4410, 2008). The

  2. Modeling the chemistry of the marine boundary layer: Sulphate formation and the role of sea-salt aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ad; Dentener, Frank; Lelieveld, Jos

    2000-05-01

    A one-dimensional model is presented that interactively simulates the dynamics and the gas-aqueous phase chemistry of the cloud-topped marine boundary layer. The model is described and tested using observations from the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment/Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (ASTEX/MAGE) measurement campaign. The comparison generally indicates satisfactory agreement for dynamical properties and chemical species, except for SO2. We present several explanations for this discrepancy. However, a conclusive account is dependent on quantitative information about free tropospheric SO2 and H2O2 that is not available. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity runs is presented to explain the large quantities of non-sea-salt sulphate associated with sea-salt particles, as observed during ASTEX/MAGE. The main conclusions are that most sulphate associated with sea-salt particles is formed in cloud droplets that subsequently evaporate and that only a small amount is formed in deliquesced aerosol particles. The model results are sensitive to changes in the assumed sea-salt emission rate and the overall aerosol size distribution. The latter indicates that a shift in the sea-salt aerosol distribution toward the smaller particle sizes might explain the observed amount of sulphate associated with sea-salt particles.

  3. Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

  4. An Accuracy Assessment of the CALIOP/CALIPSO Version 2/Version 3 Daytime Aerosol Extinction Product Based on a Detailed Multi-Sensor, Multi-Platform Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Redemann, J.; Hoff, R. M.; Rogers, R. R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Russell, P. B.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), on board the CALIPSO platform, has measured profiles of total attenuated backscatter coefficient (level 1 products) since June 2006. CALIOP s level 2 products, such as the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles, are retrieved using a complex succession of automated algorithms. The goal of this study is to help identify potential shortcomings in the CALIOP version 2 level 2 aerosol extinction product and to illustrate some of the motivation for the changes that have been introduced in the next version of CALIOP data (version 3, released in June 2010). To help illustrate the potential factors contributing to the uncertainty of the CALIOP aerosol extinction retrieval, we focus on a one-day, multi-instrument, multiplatform comparison study during the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) validation campaign on 4 August 2007. On that day, we observe a consistency in the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values recorded by four different instruments (i.e. spaceborne MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS: 0.67 and POLarization and Directionality of Earth s Reflectances, POLDER: 0.58, airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar, HSRL: 0.52 and ground-based AErosol RObotic NETwork, AERONET: 0.48 to 0.73) while CALIOP AOD is a factor of two lower (0.32 at 532 nm). This case study illustrates the following potential sources of uncertainty in the CALIOP AOD: (i) CALIOP s low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) leading to the misclassification and/or lack of aerosol layer identification, especially close to the Earth s surface; (ii) the cloud contamination of CALIOP version 2 aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles; (iii) potentially erroneous assumptions of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa) used in CALIOP s extinction retrievals; and (iv) calibration coefficient biases in the CALIOP daytime attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles. The use of version 3 CALIOP extinction retrieval for our case

  5. An accuracy assessment of the CALIOP/CALIPSO version 2/version 3 daytime aerosol extinction product based on a detailed multi-sensor, multi-platform case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Redemann, J.; Hoff, R. M.; Rogers, R. R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Russell, P. B.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-04-01

    The Cloud Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), on board the CALIPSO platform, has measured profiles of total attenuated backscatter coefficient (level 1 products) since June 2006. CALIOP's level 2 products, such as the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles, are retrieved using a complex succession of automated algorithms. The goal of this study is to help identify potential shortcomings in the CALIOP version 2 level 2 aerosol extinction product and to illustrate some of the motivation for the changes that have been introduced in the next version of CALIOP data (version 3, released in June 2010). To help illustrate the potential factors contributing to the uncertainty of the CALIOP aerosol extinction retrieval, we focus on a one-day, multi-instrument, multiplatform comparison study during the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) validation campaign on 4 August 2007. On that day, we observe a consistency in the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values recorded by four different instruments (i.e. space-borne MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS: 0.67 and POLarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances, POLDER: 0.58, airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar, HSRL: 0.52 and ground-based AErosol RObotic NETwork, AERONET: 0.48 to 0.73) while CALIOP AOD is a factor of two lower (0.32 at 532 nm). This case study illustrates the following potential sources of uncertainty in the CALIOP AOD: (i) CALIOP's low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) leading to the misclassification and/or lack of aerosol layer identification, especially close to the Earth's surface; (ii) the cloud contamination of CALIOP version 2 aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles; (iii) potentially erroneous assumptions of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa) used in CALIOP's extinction retrievals; and (iv) calibration coefficient biases in the CALIOP daytime attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles. The use of version 3 CALIOP extinction retrieval for our case

  6. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  7. Near-cloud aerosol properties from the 1 km resolution MODIS ocean product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Várnai, Tamás.; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds—on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550 nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8 W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  8. Contribution of airborne microbes to bacterial production and N2 fixation in seawater upon aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahav, Eyal; Ovadia, Galit; Paytan, Adina; Herut, Barak

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol deposition may supply a high diversity of airborne microbes, which can affect surface microbial composition and biological production. This study reports a diverse microbial community associated with dust and other aerosol particles, which differed significantly according to their geographical air mass origin. Microcosm bioassay experiments, in which aerosols were added to sterile (0.2 µm filtered and autoclaved) SE Mediterranean Sea (SEMS) water, were performed to assess the potential impact of airborne bacteria on bacterial abundance, production, and N2 fixation. Significant increase was observed in all parameters within a few hours, and calculations suggest that airborne microbes can account for one third in bacterial abundance and 50-100% in bacterial production and N2-fixation rates following dust/aerosol amendments in the surface SEMS. We show that dust/aerosol deposition can be a potential source of a wide array of microorganisms, which may impact microbial composition and food web dynamics in oligotrophic marine systems such as the SEMS.

  9. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodier, Sharon; Palm, Steve; Vaughan, Mark; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Jensen, Mike; Murray, Tim; Trepte, Chip

    2016-06-01

    With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.

  10. The Houston Urban Heat Island: Surface Temperature, Aerosol Mixing Layer Height, and Surface Wind Field Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, L. S.; Senff, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Both Dallas and Houston, Texas have comprehensive networks of surface meteorology and chemistry sensors. The similarities of the networks and lack of terrain in Dallas and Houston allow for the comparison of their urban heat islands (UHI). The Dallas UHI, unperturbed by thermal flows driven by the land/sea temperature difference, is a well-defined phenomenon over the summers of 2000-2006. Including all weather conditions, the average nighttime T(urban) - T(rural) temperature difference was between 1.5° and 2.0° C and the average daytime difference was ~ 1.0° C. Analysis of Houston temperature data, however, revealed a different picture due to the bay and gulf breezes. While the Houston UHI was a distinct phenomenon, even when including all weather conditions, the bay or gulf breeze modified the Houston UHI by cooling the city. Average nighttime T(urban) - T(rural) temperature differences in Houston were between 1.75° and 2.75° C. However, during the day, the rural areas to the north and west of the city were often warmer than the downtown area during afternoon hours as a result of the sea breeze. Averaging the Houston T(urban) - T(rural) temperature differences over the summers of 2000-2006 indicated a very small urban-rural temperature difference between 1400 to 1600 LST. In some individual years, such as 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2006, the urban areas were actually cooler than the rural areas, on average, in the mid-afternoon. These years had more bay breeze/gulf breeze activity to cool the urban area. We will also look at how land use, the UHI, and boundary-layer winds impact the horizontal distribution of boundary layer heights over the Houston area, as calculated from backscatter measurements from TOPAZ, an ozone and aerosol profiling lidar deployed on a NOAA Twin Otter in the summer of 2006 during the Texas Air Quality Study II.

  11. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  12. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  13. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  14. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  15. Uncertainty Analysis And Synergy Of Aerosol Products From Multiple Satellite Sensors For Advanced Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Petrenko, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air, and can be made up of wind-blown dust, smoke from fires, and particulate emissions from automobiles, industries, and other natural and man-made sources. Aerosols can have significant impacts on the air quality, and can interact with clouds and solar radiation in such a way as to affect the water cycle and climate. However, the extent and scale of these impacts are still poorly understood, and this represents one of the greatest uncertainties in climate research to date. To fill this gap in our knowledge, the global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols are being extensively observed and measured, especially during the last decade, using both satellite and ground-based instruments, including such spaceborne sensors as MODIS on the Terra and Aqua satellites, MISR on Terra, OMI on Aura, POLDER on PARASOL, CALIOP on CALIPSO, SeaWiFS on SeaStar, and the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of sunphotometers. The aerosol measurements collected by these instruments over the last decade contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. Still, to be able to utilize these measurements synergistically, they have to be carefully and uniformly analyzed and inter-compared, in order to understand the uncertainties and limitations of the products - a process that is greatly complicated by the diversity of differences that exist among them. In this presentation, we will show results of a coherent comparative uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from the above-named satellite sensors relative to AERONET. We use these results to demonstrate how these sensors perform in different parts of the world over different landcover types as well as their performance relative to one another, thereby facilitating product selection and integration for specific research and applications needs.

  16. SeaWiFS Aerosol Product Compared to Coastal and Island in situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Pietras, C.; Knobelspiesse, K.; Fargion, G.; McClain, C.

    2002-05-01

    The Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS, http://simbios.gsfc.nasa.gov) Project is assisting the ocean color community to cross calibrate and merge data products from multiple ocean color missions. The atmospheric contribution plays an essential role in the analysis of the ocean color imagery. The correction of the atmospheric contribution is a crucial procedure that requires in situ measurements of atmospheric and bio-optical components to compare and validate satellite measurements. The SIMBIOS Project is using in situ atmospheric data for several purposes including validation of the SeaWiFS and other ocean color missions aerosol optical product, evaluation of the aerosol models currently used for atmospheric correction, and development of vicarious sensor calibration methodologies. The principal source of in situ aerosol observations is the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) that provides globally distributed, near-real time, observations of spectral aerosol optical depths, aerosol size distributions and precipitable water. Since 1997 the SIMBIOS Project has augmented the AERONET network with 12 additional island and coastal sites, including the Hawaiian Islands (Lanai and Oahu), Ascension Island, Bahrain, Tahiti, Wallops Island (US East Coast), South Korea, Turkey, Argentina, Azores, and Australia and more recently Morocco. The AERONET and SIMBIOS Projects have invested considerable effort to deploy and maintain the instruments to ensure the quality of the data for more than 4 years. Match-ups between aerosol optical thickness obtained for various sites from in situ and satellite-derived observations are presented and discussed. Match-up analysis methods and uncertainties are also discussed.

  17. Continuous measurements of Arctic boundary layer aerosol physical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Lihavainen, H.; Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Reshetnikov, A.; Ivakhov, V.; Uttal, T.; Makshtas, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded on the shore of the Arctic Ocean, in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71_360N; 128_530E) has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol particle physical and optical properties. Measurements were initiated in summer 2010 and further extended in summer 2013. Together with the FMI measurements in Pallas GAW station in northern Finland since 1999

  18. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  19. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  20. Aerus-GEO: newly available satellite-derived aerosol optical depth product over Europe and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrer, D.; Roujean, J. L.; Ceamanos, X.; Six, B.; Suman, S.

    2015-12-01

    The major difficulty in detecting the aerosol signal from visible and near-infrared remote sensing observations is to reach the proper separation of the components related to the atmosphere and the surface. A method is proposed to circumvent this issue by exploiting the directional and temporal dimensions of the satellite signal through the use of a semi-empirical kernel-driven model for the surface/atmosphere coupled system. This algorithm was implemented by the ICARE Data Center (http://www.icare.univ-lille1.fr), which operationally disseminates a daily AOD product at 670 nm over the MSG disk since 2014. The proposed method referred to as AERUS-GEO (Aerosol and surface albEdo Retrieval Using a directional Splitting method - application to GEO data) is applied to three spectral bands (0.6 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1.6 mm) of MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) observations, which scan Europe, Africa, and the Eastern part of South America every 15 minutes. The daily AOD estimates at 0.63μm has been extensively validated. In contrast, the Angstrom coefficient is still going through validation and we will show the differences between the MSG derived Angstrom exponent with that of CAMS (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) near-real time aerosol product. The impact of aerosol type on the aerosol radiative forcing will be presented as a part of future development plan.

  1. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; Lin, Yanluan; Morcrette, J. -J.; Mulcahay, Jane; Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar to observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL

  2. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    DOE PAGES

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; ...

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar tomore » observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds

  3. Experimental Protocol to Investigate Particle Aerosolization of a Product Under Abrasion and Under Environmental Weathering.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Neeraj; Le Bihan, Olivier Louis; Bressot, Christophe; Morgeneyer, Martin

    2016-09-16

    The present article presents an experimental protocol to investigate particle aerosolization of a product under abrasion and under environmental weathering, which is a fundamental element to the approach of nanosafety-by-design of nanostructured products for their durable development. This approach is basically a preemptive one in which the focus is put on minimizing the emission of engineered nanomaterials' aerosols during the usage phase of the product's life cycle. This can be attained by altering its material properties during its design phase without compromising with any of its added benefits. In this article, an experimental protocol is presented to investigate the nanosafety-by-design of three commercial nanostructured products with respect to their mechanical solicitation and environmental weathering. The means chosen for applying the mechanical solicitation is an abrasion process and for the environmental weathering, it is an accelerated UV exposure in the presence of humidity and heat. The eventual emission of engineered nanomaterials is studied in terms of their number concentration, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition. The purpose of the protocol is to study the emission for test samples and experimental conditions which are corresponding to real life situations. It was found that the application of the mechanical stresses alone emits the engineered nanomaterials' aerosols in which the engineered nanomaterial is always embedded inside the product matrix, thus, a representative product element. In such a case, the emitted aerosols comprise of both nanoparticles as well as microparticles. But if the mechanical stresses are coupled with the environmental weathering, the experimental protocol reveals then the eventual deterioration of the product, after a certain weathering duration, may lead to the emission of the free engineered nanomaterial aerosols too.

  4. A new method of satellite-based haze aerosol monitoring over the North China Plain and a comparison with MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wenzhong; Luo, Nana; Zhao, Wenji

    2016-05-01

    With worldwide urbanization, hazy weather has been increasingly frequent, especially in the North China Plain. However, haze aerosol monitoring remains a challenge. In this paper, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements were used to develop an enhanced haze aerosol retrieval algorithm (EHARA). This method can work not only on hazy days but also on normal weather days. Based on 12-year (2002-2014) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol property data, empirical single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (AF) values were chosen to assist haze aerosol retrieval. For validation, EHARA aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values, along with MODIS Collection 6 (C6) dark-pixel and deep blue aerosol products, were compared with AERONET data. The results show that the EHARA can achieve greater AOT spatial coverage under hazy conditions with a high accuracy (73% within error range) and work a higher resolution (1-km). Additionally, this paper presents a comprehensive discussion of the differences between and limitations of the EHARA and the MODIS C6 DT land algorithms.

  5. Classification of summertime synoptic patterns in Beijing and their associations with boundary layer structure affecting aerosol pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Liu, Huan; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Wanchun; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-02-01

    Meteorological conditions within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are closely governed by large-scale synoptic patterns and play important roles in air quality by directly and indirectly affecting the emission, transport, formation, and deposition of air pollutants. Partly due to the lack of long-term fine-resolution observations of the PBL, the relationships between synoptic patterns, PBL structure, and aerosol pollution in Beijing have not been well understood. This study applied the obliquely rotated principal component analysis in T-mode to classify the summertime synoptic conditions over Beijing using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis from 2011 to 2014, and investigated their relationships with PBL structure and aerosol pollution by combining numerical simulations, measurements of surface meteorological variables, fine-resolution soundings, the concentration of particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 µm, total cloud cover (CLD), and reanalysis data. Among the seven identified synoptic patterns, three types accounted for 67 % of the total number of cases studied and were associated with heavy aerosol pollution events. These particular synoptic patterns were characterized by high-pressure systems located to the east or southeast of Beijing at the 925 hPa level, which blocked the air flow seaward, and southerly PBL winds that brought in polluted air from the southern industrial zone. The horizontal transport of pollutants induced by the synoptic forcings may be the most important factor affecting the air quality of Beijing in summer. In the vertical dimension, these three synoptic patterns featured a relatively low boundary layer height (BLH) in the afternoon, accompanied by high CLD and southerly cold advection from the seas within the PBL. The high CLD reduced the solar radiation reaching the surface, and suppressed the thermal turbulence, leading to lower BLH. Besides, the numerical sensitive experiments show that cold

  6. Long-Term Global Aerosol Products from NASA Reanalysis MERRA-2 Available at GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.

    2015-12-01

    Over 35 years of model simulated global aerosol products from NASA atmospheric reanalysis, second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) are published in summer 2015 at NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The MERRA-2 covers the period 1980-present, continuing as an ongoing climate analysis. Aerosol assimilation is included throughout the period, using MODIS, MISR, AERONET, and AVHRR (in the pre-EOS period). The aerosols are assimilated by using the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, which interact directly with the radiation parameterization, and radiatively coupled with atmospheric model dynamics in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The data have been grouped into five datasets, including variables such as: dust column mass density, dust column mass density - PM 2.5, dust deposition, SO2 column mass density, aerosol optical depth analysis, total aerosol extinction AOT 550nm, black carbon emission etc. The data are available at hourly or 3-hourly and monthly at horizontal spatial resolution of 0.5x0.625 degrees (latitude x longitude) and 72 eta coordinate levels extending to 0.01 hPa for 3-dimensional variables. This presentation will document data access services at GES DISC and how to explore the data through the online visualization tool (Giovanni). As use cases, aerosol transportation of selected events will be demonstrated: a) SO2 column mass density from volcano Sierra Negra (Oct 2005), stayed in the tropical atmosphere for about 20 days; b) dust column mass density from a Asian dust storm in April 2001, transported dust from Asia across Pacific to North America in about one week; and c) black carbon column mass density from a wildfire late July to early September 2010 in Russia.

  7. On the Physics of Fizziness: How liquid properties control bursting bubble aerosol production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Josserand, Christophe; Seon, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Either in a champagne glass or at the oceanic scales, the tiny capillary bubbles rising at the surface burst in ejecting myriads of droplets. Focusing on the ejected droplets produced by a single bubble, we investigate experimentally how liquid properties and bubble size affect their characteristics: number, ejection velocities, sizes and ejection heights. These results allow us to finely tune the bursting bubble aerosol production. In the context of champagne industry, aerosols play a major role by spreading wine aroma above the glass. We demonstrate that this champagne fizz can be enhanced by selecting the wine viscosity and the bubble size, thanks to specially designed glass.

  8. Enhanced air pollution via aerosol-boundary layer feedback in China.

    PubMed

    Petäjä, T; Järvi, L; Kerminen, V-M; Ding, A J; Sun, J N; Nie, W; Kujansuu, J; Virkkula, A; Yang, X-Q; Fu, C B; Zilitinkevich, S; Kulmala, M

    2016-01-12

    Severe air pollution episodes have been frequent in China during the recent years. While high emissions are the primary reason for increasing pollutant concentrations, the ultimate cause for the most severe pollution episodes has remained unclear. Here we show that a high concentration of particulate matter (PM) will enhance the stability of an urban boundary layer, which in turn decreases the boundary layer height and consequently cause further increases in PM concentrations. We estimate the strength of this positive feedback mechanism by combining a new theoretical framework with ambient observations. We show that the feedback remains moderate at fine PM concentrations lower than about 200 μg m(-3), but that it becomes increasingly effective at higher PM loadings resulting from the combined effect of high surface PM emissions and massive secondary PM production within the boundary layer. Our analysis explains why air pollution episodes are particularly serious and severe in megacities and during the days when synoptic weather conditions stay constant.

  9. PRN 93-4: Ban on Aerosol Products Containing CFCs and HCFCs under the Clean Air Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice alerts pesticide registrants to a rule under the Clean Air Act banning distribution and sale of aerosol and pressurized products, including pesticide products, that contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

  10. Aerosol-cloud interactions in the ECHAM6-HAM2 GCM and Aerosol_cci/Cloud_cci satellite products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    The first indirect aerosol effect or cloud albedo effect can be estimated as a radiative forcing. While the sign of this forcing is agreed to be negative, model-based estimates of its magnitude show a large variability. The responses of cloud liquid water content and cloud cover to aerosol increases also referred to as secondary indirect aerosol effects or fast adjustments are uncertain as well. In studies that use the variability in the present day satellite data to infer aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI), or that constrain model parameterizations to better agree with satellite observations a less negative ACI radiative forcing is found. The projects of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme of ESA aim at producing long time series of satellite data of essential climate variables with specific information on errors and uncertainties. The quantification of uncertainty in satellite retrievals provides an opportunity to get insights in the discrepancy between model based and satellite based estimates of ACI. Within the Aerosol_cci project susceptibilities of cloud properties from Cloud_cci to aerosol properties from Aerosol_cci datasets are to be compared to susceptibilities from the aerosol climate model ECHAM6-HAM2. Particularly interesting relationships for the first indirect aerosol effect and the second aerosol indirect effect will be investigated. Satellite studies show a strong effect of aerosol on cloud amount, which could be a methodological artefact such as aerosol swelling or meteorological covariation. The immediate vicinity of clouds needs to be excluded due to these potential cloud contaminations although it would be the most interesting region for associations between aerosol and clouds. As the resolution of the data can have an impact on statistical correlations between cloud and aerosol properties, the assessment will be done on different scales. First results will be presented at the conference.

  11. UV lidar measurements of the stratospheric aerosol layer and comparison with other optical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.

    1985-12-01

    After the violent volcanic eruptions of El Chichon in Mexico (17.33 deg. N, 93.20 deg. W) in late March and early April 1982, enhanced stratospheric aerosols have been monitored by ruby (lasing wavelength lambda=694.3 nm) or Nd:YAG lidars (lambda=1064 or 532 nm). By these lidars, visible or near-infrared optical informations of stratospheric aerosols and their space-time variations can be obtained. It is usually difficult to measure the background level of stratospheric aerosols by an ultraviolet (UV) lidar, since Rayleigh scattering prevails over Mie scattering in the stratosphere. However, after the large volcanic eruptions, UV lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols are possible. In order to obtain UV optical properties of stratospheric aerosols, measurements have been made at Fukuoka (33.65 deg. N, 130.35 deg. E) by a p-terphenyl dye laser at a wavelength of 340.5 nm. Observational results during October 1982, through May 1983, are shown and are compared with the results obtained by a ruby lidar at Tsukuba (36.05 deg. N, 140.13 deg. E).

  12. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F. J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M. A.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-11-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2-8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%.

  13. Contribution of dissolved organic matter to submicron water-soluble organic aerosols in the marine boundary layer over the eastern equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Coburn, Sean; Ono, Kaori; Ho, David T.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and organic molecular markers were measured to investigate the relative contributions of the sea surface sources to the water-soluble fraction of submicron organic aerosols collected over the eastern equatorial Pacific during the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated VOCs (TORERO)/KA-12-01 cruise. On average, the water-soluble organic fraction of the total carbon (TC) mass in submicron aerosols was ˜ 30-35 % in the oceans with the low chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, whereas it was ˜ 60 % in the high-Chl a regions. The average stable carbon isotope ratio of WSOC (δ13CWSOC) was -19.8 ± 2.0 ‰, which was systematically higher than that of TC (δ13CTC) (-21.8 ± 1.4 ‰). We found that in the oceans with both high and low Chl a concentrations the δ13CWSOC was close to the typical values of δ13C for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ranging from -22 to -20 ‰ in surface seawater of the tropical Pacific Ocean. This suggests an enrichment of marine biological products in WSOC aerosols in the study region regardless of the oceanic area. In particular, enhanced levels of WSOC and biogenic organic marker compounds together with high values of WSOC / TC ( ˜ 60 %) and δ13CWSOC were observed over upwelling areas and phytoplankton blooms, which was attributed to planktonic tissues being more enriched in δ13C. The δ13C analysis estimated that, on average, marine sources contribute ˜ 90 ± 25 % of the aerosol carbon, indicating the predominance of marine-derived carbon in the submicron WSOC. This conclusion is supported by Lagrangian trajectory analysis, which suggests that the majority of the sampling points on the ship had been exposed to marine boundary layer (MBL) air for more than 80 % of the time during the previous 7 days. The combined analysis of the δ13C and monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, demonstrated that DOC concentration was

  14. Decay of the El Chichon perturbation to the stratospheric aerosol layer - Multispectral ground-based radiometric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, E. W.; Lebaron, B. A.; Michalsky, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    A 9-yr time series of multispectral radiometric observations taken at Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory is analyzed to determine the long-term behavior of the El Chichon-induced perturbation to the stratospheric aerosol layer. A technique for determining the volcanic enhancement is described. Time series data for the volcanic enhancement in stratospheric optical depth at wavelengths of 1010, 785, 535, 486, and 428 nm are presented. The main features of the results, slight wavelength dependence and a seasonal oscillation superimposed on the expected exponential decay at all wavelengths, are discussed.

  15. Observed aerosol-induced radiative effect on plant productivity in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, S.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    We apply satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in conjunction with flux tower-derived estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) to probe the relationship between atmospheric aerosol loading and carbon uptake rate at 10 select sites (4 deciduous broadleaf, 3 cropland, 1 evergreen needle leaf, 1 mixed forest and 1 grassland) on hourly time scales in the growing season in the eastern United States. For deciduous and mixed forests, the aerosol light scattering increases GPP with a maximum effect observed under polluted conditions (AOD >0.6), when diffuse radiation is 40-60%. During midday hours, high AOD conditions (>0.4) enhance plant productivity by ∼13% in deciduous forests. In contrast, we find that high diffuse light fraction does not increase the carbon uptake rate in croplands and grasslands; for these ecosystems, we estimate that high AOD conditions reduce GPP by ∼17% during midday hours. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that have attributed these contrasting response sensitivities to the complex and closed canopy architecture of forests versus crops and grasslands. C4 but not C3 crops may benefit from pollution-induced changes in diffuse and direct light. Further research is needed to investigate the role of local meteorology as a possible confounder in the connection between atmospheric aerosols and plant productivity.

  16. Hygroscopicity of dicarbonyl-amine secondary organic aerosol products investigated with HTDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, L. N.; de Haan, D. O.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of amine-dicarbonyl chemistry as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation pathway, producing imines, imidazoles, and N-containing oligomers. Preliminary work in our group has suggested that some of these products may be surface active. Therefore, the presence of these products may result in important changes to submicron particle hygroscopicity that affect aerosol scattering and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, especially in regions with significant amine-containing particles. To investigate their hygroscopicity, we have designed a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system around a 300 L Teflon chamber that allows for longer humidification times needed for some organic aerosol components that are only slightly hygroscopic. This modification provides a range of residence times from 2.5 minutes up to 1 hour, unlike previously published systems that vary from 2-30 seconds. Using the modified hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA), we have measured the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of SOA formed from reactions of glyoxal (and methylglyoxal) with methylamine, ammonium sulfate, and several amino acids. Changes to inorganic aerosol HGF in response to the presence of SOA products are also investigated.

  17. Aircraft measurements of ozone, NOx, CO, and aerosol concentrations in biomass burning smoke over Indonesia and Australia in October 1997: Depleted ozone layer at low altitude over Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Sawa, Yousuke; Makino, Yukio; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Gras, John L.; Ryan, Brian F.; Diharto, Sri; Harjanto, Hery

    The 1997 El Niño unfolded as one of the most sever El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in this century and it coincided with massive biomass burning in the equatorial western Pacific region. To assess the influence on the atmosphere, aircraft observations of trace gases and aerosol were conducted over Kalimantan in Indonesia and Australia. Over Kalimantan in Indonesia, high concentrations of O3, NOx, CO, and aerosols were observed during the flight. Although the aerosol and NOx decreased with altitude, the O3 had the maximum concentration (80.5 ppbv) in the middle layer of the smoke haze and recorded very low concentrations (˜20 ppbv) in the lower smoke layer. This feature was not observed in the Australian smoke. We proposed several hypotheses for the low O3 concentration at low levels over Kalimantan. The most likely are lack of solar radiation and losses at the surface of aerosol particles.

  18. Modifications of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation by a Geoengineering Perturbation of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30-year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0 degree longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5Tg per year and 2.5 Tg per year) and the altitude of the injection (16km-25km and 22km-25km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e. highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase. This locked QBO westerly phase is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  19. Entropy production in relativistic jet boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2015-01-01

    Hot relativistic jets, passing through a background medium with a pressure gradient p ∝ r-η where 2 < η ≤ 8/3, develop a shocked boundary layer containing a significant fraction of the jet power. In previous work, we developed a self-similar description of the boundary layer assuming isentropic flow, but we found that such models respect global energy conservation only for the special case η = 8/3. Here, we demonstrate that models with η < 8/3 can be made self-consistent if we relax the assumption of constant specific entropy. Instead, the entropy must increase with increasing r along the boundary layer, presumably due to multiple shocks driven into the flow as it gradually collimates. The increase in specific entropy slows the acceleration rate of the flow and provides a source of internal energy that could be channelled into radiation. We suggest that this process may be important for determining the radiative characteristics of tidal disruption events and gamma-ray bursts from collapsars.

  20. Investigations of boundary layer structure, cloud characteristics and vertical mixing of aerosols at Barbados with large eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähn, M.; Muñoz-Esparza, D.; Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.

    2015-08-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. Due to the presence of a topographically structured island surface in the domain center, the model setup has to be designed with open lateral boundaries. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude perturbations. In this work, this method is for the first time tested and validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE field campaign is used for both model initialization and a comparison with Doppler wind lidar data. Several numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to "gray zone modeling" when using coarser spatial grid spacings beyond the inertial subrange of three-dimensional turbulence or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Especially cloud properties in the downwind area west of Barbados are markedly affected in these kinds of simulations. Results of an additional simulation with a strong trade-wind inversion reveal its effect on cloud layer depth and location. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ~ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength) and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with wind lidar data show similarities in the formation of the daytime convective plume and the mean vertical wind structure.

  1. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  2. Modelling non-equilibrium secondary organic aerosol formation and evaporation with the aerosol dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multi-layer model ADCHAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Eriksson, A. C.; Nordin, E. Z.; Hermansson, E.; Mogensen, D.; Rusanen, A.; Boy, M.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Zelenyuk, A.; Pagels, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the novel Aerosol Dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM). The model combines the detailed gas phase Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2, an aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module (which considers acid catalysed oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation reactions in the particle phase and non-ideal interactions between organic compounds, water and inorganic ions) and a kinetic multilayer module for diffusion limited transport of compounds between the gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk phase. In this article we describe and use ADCHAM to study: (1) the mass transfer limited uptake of ammonia (NH3) and formation of organic salts between ammonium (NH4+) and carboxylic acids (RCOOH), (2) the slow and almost particle size independent evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, and (3) the influence of chamber wall effects on the observed SOA formation in smog chambers. ADCHAM is able to capture the observed α-pinene SOA mass increase in the presence of NH3(g). Organic salts of ammonium and carboxylic acids predominantly form during the early stage of SOA formation. These salts contribute substantially to the initial growth of the homogeneously nucleated particles. The model simulations of evaporating α-pinene SOA particles support the recent experimental findings that these particles have a semi-solid tar like amorphous phase state. ADCHAM is able to reproduce the main features of the observed slow evaporation rates if low-volatility and viscous oligomerized SOA material accumulates in the particle surface layer upon evaporation. The evaporation rate is mainly governed by the reversible decomposition of oligomers back to monomers. Finally, we demonstrate that the mass transfer limited uptake of condensable organic compounds onto wall deposited particles or directly onto the Teflon chamber walls of smog chambers can have profound influence on the

  3. Formation and evolution of molecular products in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; McVay, Renee C; Huang, Dan D; Dalleska, Nathan F; Aumont, Bernard; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-11-17

    Much of our understanding of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from volatile organic compounds derives from laboratory chamber measurements, including mass yield and elemental composition. These measurements alone are insufficient to identify the chemical mechanisms of SOA production. We present here a comprehensive dataset on the molecular identity, abundance, and kinetics of α-pinene SOA, a canonical system that has received much attention owing to its importance as an organic aerosol source in the pristine atmosphere. Identified organic species account for ∼58-72% of the α-pinene SOA mass, and are characterized as semivolatile/low-volatility monomers and extremely low volatility dimers, which exhibit comparable oxidation states yet different functionalities. Features of the α-pinene SOA formation process are revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, from the dynamics of individual particle-phase components. Although monomeric products dominate the overall aerosol mass, rapid production of dimers plays a key role in initiating particle growth. Continuous production of monomers is observed after the parent α-pinene is consumed, which cannot be explained solely by gas-phase photochemical production. Additionally, distinct responses of monomers and dimers to α-pinene oxidation by ozone vs. hydroxyl radicals, temperature, and relative humidity are observed. Gas-phase radical combination reactions together with condensed phase rearrangement of labile molecules potentially explain the newly characterized SOA features, thereby opening up further avenues for understanding formation and evolution mechanisms of α-pinene SOA.

  4. Formation and evolution of molecular products in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; McVay, Renee C.; Huang, Dan D.; Dalleska, Nathan F.; Aumont, Bernard; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from volatile organic compounds derives from laboratory chamber measurements, including mass yield and elemental composition. These measurements alone are insufficient to identify the chemical mechanisms of SOA production. We present here a comprehensive dataset on the molecular identity, abundance, and kinetics of α-pinene SOA, a canonical system that has received much attention owing to its importance as an organic aerosol source in the pristine atmosphere. Identified organic species account for ∼58–72% of the α-pinene SOA mass, and are characterized as semivolatile/low-volatility monomers and extremely low volatility dimers, which exhibit comparable oxidation states yet different functionalities. Features of the α-pinene SOA formation process are revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, from the dynamics of individual particle-phase components. Although monomeric products dominate the overall aerosol mass, rapid production of dimers plays a key role in initiating particle growth. Continuous production of monomers is observed after the parent α-pinene is consumed, which cannot be explained solely by gas-phase photochemical production. Additionally, distinct responses of monomers and dimers to α-pinene oxidation by ozone vs. hydroxyl radicals, temperature, and relative humidity are observed. Gas-phase radical combination reactions together with condensed phase rearrangement of labile molecules potentially explain the newly characterized SOA features, thereby opening up further avenues for understanding formation and evolution mechanisms of α-pinene SOA. PMID:26578760

  5. Optical and microphysical characterization of aerosol layers over South Africa by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, Elina; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Müller, Detlef; Balis, Dimitris; Komppula, Mika

    2016-07-01

    Optical and microphysical properties of different aerosol types over South Africa measured with a multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar are presented. This study could assist in bridging existing gaps relating to aerosol properties over South Africa, since limited long-term data of this type are available for this region. The observations were performed under the framework of the EUCAARI campaign in Elandsfontein. The multi-wavelength PollyXT Raman lidar system was used to determine vertical profiles of the aerosol optical properties, i.e. extinction and backscatter coefficients, Ångström exponents, lidar ratio and depolarization ratio. The mean microphysical aerosol properties, i.e. effective radius and single-scattering albedo, were retrieved with an advanced inversion algorithm. Clear differences were observed for the intensive optical properties of atmospheric layers of biomass burning and urban/industrial aerosols. Our results reveal a wide range of optical and microphysical parameters for biomass burning aerosols. This indicates probable mixing of biomass burning aerosols with desert dust particles, as well as the possible continuous influence of urban/industrial aerosol load in the region. The lidar ratio at 355 nm, the lidar ratio at 532 nm, the linear particle depolarization ratio at 355 nm and the extinction-related Ångström exponent from 355 to 532 nm were 52 ± 7 sr, 41 ± 13 sr, 0.9 ± 0.4 % and 2.3 ± 0.5, respectively, for urban/industrial aerosols, while these values were 92 ± 10 sr, 75 ± 14 sr, 3.2 ± 1.3 % and 1.7 ± 0.3, respectively, for biomass burning aerosol layers. Biomass burning particles are larger and slightly less absorbing compared to urban/industrial aerosols. The particle effective radius were found to be 0.10 ± 0.03, 0.17 ± 0.04 and 0.13 ± 0.03 µm for urban/industrial, biomass burning, and mixed aerosols, respectively, while the single-scattering albedo at 532 nm was 0.87 ± 0.06, 0.90 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.07 (at 532

  6. Optical and microphysical characterization of aerosol layers over South Africa by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, E.; van Zyl, P. G.; Müller, D.; Balis, D.; Komppula, M.

    2015-12-01

    Optical and microphysical properties of different aerosol types over South Africa measured with a multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar are presented. This study could assist in bridging existing gaps relating to aerosol properties over South Africa, since limited long-term data of this type is available for this region. The observations were performed under the framework of the EUCAARI campaign in Elandsfontein. The multi-wavelength PollyXT Raman lidar system was used to determine vertical profiles of the aerosol optical properties, i.e. extinction and backscatter coefficients, Ångström exponents, lidar ratio and depolarization ratio. The mean microphysical aerosol proper ties, i.e. effective radius and single scattering, albedo were retrieved with an advanced inversion algorithm. Clear differences were observed for the intensive optical properties of atmospheric layers of biomass burning and urban/industrial aerosols. Our results reveal a wide range of optical and microphysical parameters for biomass burning aerosols. This indicates probable mixing of biomass burning aerosols with desert dust particles, as well as the possible continuous influence of urban/industrial aerosol load in the region. The lidar ratio at 355 nm, the linear particle depolarization ratio at 355 nm and the extinction-related Ångström exponent from 355 to 532 nm were 52 ± 7 sr; 0.9 ± 0.4 % and 2.3 ± 0.5, respectively for urban/industrial aerosols, while these values were 92 ± 10 sr; 3.2 ± 1.3 %; 2.0 ± 0.4 respectively for biomass burning aerosols layers. Biomass burning particles are larger and slightly less absorbing compared to urban/industrial aerosols. The particle effective radius were found to be 0.10 ± 0.03, 0.17 ± 0.04 and 0.13 ± 0.03 μm for urban/industrial, biomass burning, and mixed biomass burning and desert dust aerosols, respectively, while the single scattering albedo at 532 nm were 0.87 ± 0.06, 0.90 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.07 (at 532 nm), respectively for

  7. Industrial-scale spray layer-by-layer assembly for production of biomimetic photonic systems.

    PubMed

    Krogman, K C; Cohen, R E; Hammond, P T; Rubner, M F; Wang, B N

    2013-12-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly is a powerful and flexible thin film process that has successfully reproduced biomimetic photonic systems such as structural colour. While most of the seminal work has been carried out using slow and ultimately unscalable immersion assembly, recent developments using spray layer-by-layer assembly provide a platform for addressing challenges to scale-up and manufacturability. A series of manufacturing systems has been developed to increase production throughput by orders of magnitude, making commercialized structural colour possible. Inspired by biomimetic photonic structures we developed and demonstrated a heat management system that relies on constructive reflection of near infrared radiation to bring about dramatic reductions in heat content.

  8. Monoterpene oxidation products and organosulfates in aerosols during BEARPEX 2007 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Worton, David R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2010-05-01

    Organosulfate esters of oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have been identified in aerosols from both laboratory and field studies. While the exact route of formation of organosulfates is still ambiguous, these compounds pose an interesting coupling between anthropogenic emissions and biogenic oxidation products in secondary organic aerosols (SOA). We present measurements of monoterpene oxidation products, organosulfates and nitroxy organosulfates in aerosols collected during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) in California during late summer 2007 and summer 2009. The study site was located in a Ponderosa pine plantation affected by regional transport of air pollutants. Particles (PM2.5) were collected as one night-time and two daytime samples per day using a high volume sampler. After extraction of filters, polar organic compounds were analysed by HPLC coupled through an electrospray inlet to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (qTOF-MS). Standards of adipic, cis-pinic and pinonic acids were used for quantification, while camphor sulphonic acid was used as a surrogate standard for organosulfate compounds. Organosulfate esters can be identified from their MS-fragments (HSO4- and SO3-) and the isotopic pattern of sulphur. Concentrations of adipic acid and the terpene oxidation products cis-pinic acid and pinonic acid (from α- and β-pinene) were quantified. The relative concentrations between samples of terpenylic acid, diterpenylic acid and 2-hydroxyterpenylic acid were also investigated. Organosulfate esters and nitroxy organosulfate esters of α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and isoprene, as well as their oxidation products, were identified based on their molecular mass and fragmentation patterns. Concentrations of some nitroxy organosulfate esters generally increased during night compared to day-time. Their formation thus seems to be related to reactions involving nitrate radicals at night-time.

  9. Improving Aerosol and Visibility Forecasting Capabilities Using Current and Future Generations of Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol and cloud layer products, as well as collocated Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aerosol Index (Al) data and...radiance assimilation capability by: 1) improving forecast performance over cloudy regions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aerosol Index...only CALIOP layer products. Both OMI-MODIS and CALIOP-based daytime spatial distributions of ACA events show similar patterns during both periods

  10. United role of radon decay products and nano-aerosols in radon dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerajec, M.; Vaupotič, J.

    2012-04-01

    The major part of human exposure to natural radiation originates from inhalation of radon (Rn) and radon short-lived decay products (RnDP: 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po). RnDP are formed as a result of α-transformation of radon. In the beginning they are positive ions which neutralize and form clusters with air molecules, and later partly attach to background aerosol particles in indoor air. Eventually, they appear as radioactive nano-aerosols with a bimodal size distribution in ranges of 1-10 nm (unattached RnDP) and of 200-800 nm (attached RnDP). When inhaled, they are deposited in the respiratory tract. Deposition is more efficient for smaller particles. Therefore, the fraction (fun) of the unattached RnDP, which appears to be influenced by the number concentration and size distribution of general (background) aerosols in the ambient air, has a crucial role in radon dosimetry. Radon, radon decay products and general aerosols have been monitored simultaneously in the kitchen of a typical rural house under real living conditions, also comprising four human activities generating particular matter: cooking and baking, as two typical activities in kitchen, and cigarette smoking and candle burning. In periods without any human activity, the total number concentration of general aerosol ranged from 1000 to 3000 cm-3,with the geometric mean of particle diameter in the range of 60-68 nm and with 0.1-1 % of particles smaller than 10 nm. Preparation of coffee changed the concentration to 193,000 cm-3, the geometric mean of diameter to 20 nm and fraction of particles smaller than 10 nm to 11 %. The respective changes were for baking cake: 503,000 cm-3, 17 nm and 19 %, for smoking:423,000 cm-3, 83 nm and 0.4 %, and forcandle burning: 945,000 cm-3, 8 nm and 85 %. While, as expected, a reduction of fun was observed during cooking, baking and smoking, when larger particles were emitted, fun did not increase during candle burning with mostly particles smaller than 10 nm

  11. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: the CATS-CALIPSO Cloud and Aerosol Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodier, S. D.; Palm, S. P.; Jensen, M. H.; Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a dual-beam, multi-wavelength (1064, 532 and 355 nm), polarization sensitive (1064 and 532 nm) lidar developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2014. CATS will be mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module's Exposed Facility and will provide near-continuous, altitude-resolved measurements of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere. The ISS orbit path provides a unique opportunity to capture the full diurnal cycle of cloud and aerosol development and transport, allowing for studies that are not possible with the lidar aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, which flies in the sun-synchronous A-Train orbit. One of the primary objectives of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO data record to provide continuity of aerosol and cloud lidar observations during the transition from CALIPSO to EarthCARE. To accomplish this, the CATS project at GSFC and the CALIPSO project at NASA's Langley Research Center are closely collaborating to develop and deliver a full suite of CALIPSO-like level 2 data products generated from the newly acquired CATS level 1B data. Now in its eighth year of on-orbit operations, the CALIPSO project has developed a robust set of mature and well-validated science algorithms to retrieve the spatial and optical properties of clouds and aerosols from multi-wavelength lidar backscatter signal. By leveraging both new and existing NASA technical resources, this joint effort by the CATS-CALIPSO team will enable rapid delivery of high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this work we outline the development of the CALIPSO- CATS level 2 software and data products and describe the modifications made to the input CATS data stream and the CALIPSO processing algorithms in order to successfully interface two disparate data processing

  12. Aerosol Characteristics in the Marine Boundary Layer Over the Straits of Gibraltar - June 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    low relative humidity inhibited the growth of aerosols into the 1 um diameter range, particularly NaCl nuclei with their 75% deliquescence threshold...wind direction. The chemical composition of the nuclei for the 24th appeared to be mostly non-oceanic type nuclei with perhaps higher deliquescence RH...3 concentration (27 cm ). The chemistry data suggest less oceanic nuclei and perhaps more continental nuclei with higher deliquescence thresholds, and

  13. Trace Gases and Aerosol in the Boundary Layer of the Northern Asia: TROICA Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elanksy, N. F.; Aloyan, A. E.; Berezina, E. V.; Elokhov, A. S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Kopeikin, V. M.; Moeseenko, K. B.; Lavrova, O. V.; Pankratova, N. V.; Safronov, A. N.; Shumsky, R. A.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Tarasova, O. A.; Vivchar, A. V.; Grisenko, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    The TROICA experiment (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) started in 1995. A mobile railroad laboratory is being used for measurements of atmospheric gases, aerosol, solar radiation and meteorological parameters. The laboratory wagon is directly coupled to the locomotive of a passenger train traveling along electrified railroads of Russia. Eleven expeditions have been conducted to the moment of which nine were performed along the Trans-Siberian railroad from Moscow to Vladivostok (around 9300 km). One expedition was North-South between Murmansk and Kislovodsk, and one was around the mega-city of Moscow. The huge coverage of the continental regions and the repetition of the expeditions provide unique information on processes controlling variability of the key trace gases (O3, NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, some VOCs) and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution over different scales from continental to local (hundreds meters). Multiple crossings of settlements allowed determining typical variations of surface gases and aerosol concentrations within cities and their plumes. 222Rn concentration data were used for estimates of CO, CH4 and CO2 nocturnal fluxes from the soil and vegetation. Impacts of different factors, like Western Siberian gas and oil industry, forest fires, transboundary air pollution transport and some other can be evaluated based on the measurement data by comparing them with results of model output and hence can be used for model validation. Emissions of the atmospheric CO and CH4 were studied in several expeditions using isotopes analysis.

  14. Major Influence of Tropical Volcanic Eruptions on the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer During the Last Decade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Jean-Paul; Thomason, Larry W.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Bourassa, Adam; Pelon, Jacques; Garnier, Anne; Hauchecorne, A.; Blanot, L.; Trepte, Charles R.; Degenstein, Doug; Vargas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The variability of stratospheric aerosol loading between 1985 and 2010 is explored with measurements from SAGE II, CALIPSO, GOMOS/ENVISAT, and OSIRIS/Odin space-based instruments. We find that, following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, stratospheric aerosol levels increased by as much as two orders of magnitude and only reached background levels between 1998 and 2002. From 2002 onwards, a systematic increase has been reported by a number of investigators. Recently, the trend, based on ground-based lidar measurements, has been tentatively attributed to an increase of SO2 entering the stratosphere associated with coal burning in Southeast Asia. However, we demonstrate with these satellite measurements that the observed trend is mainly driven by a series of moderate but increasingly intense volcanic eruptions primarily at tropical latitudes. These events injected sulfur directly to altitudes between 18 and 20 km. The resulting aerosol particles are slowly lofted into the middle stratosphere by the Brewer-Dobson circulation and are eventually transported to higher latitudes.

  15. A new operational EUMETSAT product for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over land (PMAp v2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Munro, Rosemary; Poli, Gabriele; Holdak, Andriy; Lang, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol optical properties is an important task to provide data for industry and climate forecasting. An ideal instrument should include observations with moderate spectral and high spatial resolution for a wide range of wavelengths (from the UV to the TIR), measurements of the polarization state at different wavelengths and measurements of the same scene for different observation geometries. As such an ideal instrument is currently unavailable the usage of different instruments on one satellite platform is an alternative choice. Since February 2014, the Polar Multi sensor Aerosol product (PMAp) has been delivered as an operational GOME product to our customers. The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical properties over ocean (AOD, volcanic ash, aerosol type) using a multi-sensor approach (GOME, AVHRR, IASI). The product is now extended to pixels over land using a new release of the operational PMAp processor (PMAp v2). The pre-operational data dissemination of the new PMAp v2 data to our users is scheduled for March 2016. This presentation gives an overview on the new operational product PMAp v2 with a focus on the validation of the PMAp aerosol optical depth over land. The impact of different error sources on the results (e.g. surface contribution to the TOA reflectance) is discussed. We also show first results of upcoming extensions of our PMAp processor, in particular the improvement of the cloud/aerosol discrimination of thick aerosol events (e.g. volcanic ash plumes, desert dust outbreaks).

  16. Development of a double-layered ceramic filter for aerosol filtration at high-temperatures: the filter collection efficiency.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Normanda L; Gonçalves, José A S; Innocentini, Murilo D M; Coury, José R

    2006-08-25

    The performance of double-layered ceramic filters for aerosol filtration at high temperatures was evaluated in this work. The filtering structure was composed of two layers: a thin granular membrane deposited on a reticulate ceramic support of high porosity. The goal was to minimize the high pressure drop inherent of granular structures, without decreasing their high collection efficiency for small particles. The reticulate support was developed using the technique of ceramic replication of polyurethane foam substrates of 45 and 75 pores per inch (ppi). The filtering membrane was prepared by depositing a thin layer of granular alumina-clay paste on one face of the support. Filters had their permeability and fractional collection efficiency analyzed for filtration of an airborne suspension of phosphatic rock in temperatures ranging from ambient to 700 degrees C. Results revealed that collection efficiency decreased with gas temperature and was enhanced with filtration time. Also, the support layer influenced the collection efficiency: the 75 ppi support was more effective than the 45 ppi. Particle collection efficiency dropped considerably for particles below 2 microm in diameter. The maximum collection occurred for particle diameters of approximately 3 microm, and decreased again for diameters between 4 and 8 microm. Such trend was successfully represented by the proposed correlation, which is based on the classical mechanisms acting on particle collection. Inertial impaction seems to be the predominant collection mechanism, with particle bouncing/re-entrainment acting as detachment mechanisms.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL PRODUCTS FROM THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF TOLUENE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN AMBIENT PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the secondary organic aerosol products from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene/NOX/air mixtures in a smog chamber operated in the dynamic mode...

  18. AERUS-GEO: A newly available satellite-derived aerosol optical depth product over Europe and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrer, D.; Ceamanos, X.; Six, B.; Roujean, J.-L.

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a new aerosol optical depth (AOD) product delivered in near real time by the ICARE Data and Services Center to the scientific community. The AERUS-GEO (Aerosol and surface albEdo Retrieval Using a directional Splitting method-application to GEOstationary data) product is derived from observations from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite covering Europe, Africa, and part of Asia and South America. The retrieval method exploits the directional information contained in the series of 96 MSG observations per day of the Earth's disk to derive a daily averaged AOD. The performances of this product are similar to those of other widely used satellite-derived AOD. This article illustrates the advantages of the spatial (3 km at best) and temporal (daily) resolution of the AERUS-GEO product to monitor particular aerosol activity (e.g., volcanic eruptions) or to study given phenomena (e.g., the impact of topography on aerosol loading).

  19. Secondary organic aerosol production from aqueous photooxidation of glycolaldehyde: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Mark J.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Turpin, Barbara J.

    Organic particulate matter (PM) formed in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) is a substantial yet poorly understood contributor to atmospheric PM. Aqueous photooxidation in clouds, fogs and aerosols is a newly recognized SOA formation pathway. This study investigates the potential for aqueous glycolaldehyde oxidation to produce low volatility products that contribute SOA mass. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation that aqueous oxidation of glycolaldehyde via the hydroxyl radical forms glyoxal and glycolic acid, as previously assumed. Subsequent reactions form formic acid, glyoxylic acid, and oxalic acid as expected. Unexpected products include malonic acid, succinic acid, and higher molecular weight compounds, including oligomers. Due to (1) the large source strength of glycolaldehyde from precursors such as isoprene and ethene, (2) its water solubility, and (3) the aqueous formation of low volatility products (organic acids and oligomers), we predict that aqueous photooxidation of glycolaldehyde and other aldehydes in cloud, fog, and aerosol water is an important source of SOA and that incorporation of this SOA formation pathway in chemical transport models will help explain the current under-prediction of organic PM concentrations.

  20. The influence of marine microbial activities on aerosol production: A laboratory mesocosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.; Kilthau, Wendy P.; Bothe, Dylan W.; Radway, JoAnn C.; Aller, Josephine Y.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    The oceans cover most of the Earth's surface, contain nearly half the total global primary biomass productivity, and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. Here we experimentally investigate links between biological activity in seawater and sea spray aerosol (SSA) flux, a relationship of potential significance for organic aerosol loading and cloud formation over the oceans and thus for climate globally. Bubbles were generated in laboratory mesocosm experiments either by recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Experiments were conducted with Atlantic Ocean seawater collected off the eastern end of Long Island, NY, and with artificial seawater containing cultures of bacteria and phytoplankton Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Changes in SSA size distributions occurred during all phases of bacterial and phytoplankton growth, as characterized by cell concentrations, dissolved organic carbon, total particulate carbon, and transparent exopolymer particles (gel-forming polysaccharides representing a major component of biogenic exudate material). Over a 2 week growth period, SSA particle concentrations increased by a factor of less than 2 when only bacteria were present and by a factor of about 3 when bacteria and phytoplankton were present. Production of jet-generated SSA particles of diameter less than 200 nm increased with time, while production of all particle diameters increased with time when frits were used. The implications of a marine biological activity dependent SSA flux are discussed.

  1. [Analysis of phthalates in aromatic and deodorant aerosol products and evaluation of exposure risk].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshiki; Sugaya, Naeko; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Morita, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We established an analytical method for the detection of seven phthalates, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate, di-i-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octhyl phthalate, using an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a photodiode array detector. This method is quick, with minimal contamination, and was applied to the analysis of aromatic and deodorant aerosol products. Phthalates were detected in 15 of 52 samples purchased from 1999 to 2012 in Yokohama. Three types of phthalate (DEP, DBP, DEHP) were detected, and their concentrations ranged from 0.0085-0.23% DEP in nine samples, 0.012-0.045% DBP in four samples, and 0.012-0.033% DEHP in four samples. No other phthalate esters were detected. Furthermore, we estimated phthalate exposure via breathing in commonly used aromatic and deodorant aerosol products, then evaluated the associated risk. The estimated levels of phthalate exposure were lower than the tolerated daily limit, but the results indicated that aromatic and deodorant aerosol products could be a significant source of phthalate exposure.

  2. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies.

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  3. Evaluating the Role of Boundary Layer Processes on Diurnal Aerosol Concentrations in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. R.; de Wekker, S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasting air quality in mountainous terrain is a challenging topic. In this study, we aim to understand the diurnal variability of particulate matter, CO, and CO2 in the Shenandoah National Park (SNP) located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. We focus on the effect of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics on the diurnal aerosol variability using a combination of observations and numerical modeling. Boundary layer dynamics in mountainous terrain is complicated by a variety of factors such as terrain-induced wind flows. These flows can have a significant impact on atmospheric chemistry but are not well resolved in current air quality forecasting models. In this research, we seek to 1) measure and simulate the diurnal evolution of the ABL at a mountaintop site in the Blue Ridge Mountains, 2) investigate the effect of ABL dynamics on aerosol and CO concentrations on clear days, and 3) investigate the transport of aerosols and pollutants by local, regional, and synoptic-scale flows to the mountaintop using the FLEXPART particle dispersion model and WRF-CHEM model. WRF-CHEM will be run with and without chemistry to isolate the effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol formation on diurnal aerosol variability. The results of this study will be incorporated into a diagnostic air quality forecast model for SNP. Measurements come from a 17-m walkup tower that was established in May 2008 along a ridgeline at an elevation of 1037m (38.61°N, 78.35°W) at Pinnacles in the north-central section of SNP. The tower is outfitted with a suite of instruments, including temperature/humidity sensors, cup and sonic anemometers, radiation sensors, a closed-path CO/CO2 gas analyzer, and particle counter. Also, a portable eye-safe LIDAR system is located on-site. In addition, ozone data are collected at a site located nearby. Preliminary results from select clear days in fall, 2008 indicate that ABL height is an important factor governing CO and CO2 concentrations at

  4. Mechanism for production of secondary organic aerosols and their representation in atmospheric models. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seinfeld, J.H.; Flagan, R.C.

    1999-06-07

    This document contains the following: organic aerosol formation from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons; gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds to model inorganic, organic, and ambient smog aerosols; and representation of secondary organic aerosol formation in atmospheric models.

  5. Heterogeneous OH Oxidation of Two Structure Isomers of Dimethylsuccinic Acid Aerosol: Reactivity and Oxidation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. N.; Cheng, C. T.; Wilson, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Organic aerosol contribute a significant mass fraction of ambient aerosol carbon and can continuously undergo oxidation by colliding with gas phase OH radicals. Although heterogeneous oxidation plays a significant role in the chemical transformation of organic aerosol, the effect of molecular structure on the reactivity and oxidation products remains unclear. We investigate the effect of branched methyl groups on the reactivity of two dimethylsuccinic acids (2,2-dimethylsuccinic acid (2,2-DMSA) and 2,3-dimethylsuccinic acid (2,3-DMSA)) toward gas phase OH radicals in an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The oxidation products formed upon oxidation is characterized in real time by the Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), an ambient soft ionization source. The 2,2-DMSA and 2,3-DMSA are structural isomers with the same oxidation state (OSC = -0.33) and carbon number (NC = 6), but different branching characteristics (2,2-DMSA has one secondary carbon and 2,3-DMSA has two tertiary carbons). The difference in molecular distribution of oxidation products observed in these two structural isomers would allow one to assess the sensitivity of kinetics and chemistry to the position of branched methyl group in the DMSA upon oxidation. We observe that the reactivity of 2,3-DMSA toward OH radicals is about 2 times faster than that of 2,2-DMSA. This difference in OH reactivity may attribute to the stability of the carbon-centered radical generated after hydrogen abstraction because an alkyl radical formed from the hydrogen abstraction on a tertiary carbon in 2,3-DMSA is more stable than on a secondary carbon in 2,2-DMSA. For both 2,2-DMSA and 2,3-DMSA, the molecular distribution and evolution of oxidation products is characterized by a predominance of functionalization products at the early oxidation stages. When the oxidation further proceeds, the fragmentation becomes more favorable and the oxidation mainly leads to the reduction of the carbon chain length through

  6. Development, Application, and Transition of Aerosol and Trace Gas Products Derived from Next-Generation Satellite Observations to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Naeger, Aaron; Zavodsky, Bradley; McGrath, Kevin; LaFontaine, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a history of successfully transitioning unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community to improve short-term forecasts. SPoRTstrives to bridge the gap between research and operations by maintaining interactive partnerships with end users to develop products that match specific forecast challenges, provide training, and assess the products in the operational environment. This presentation focuses on recent product development, application, and transition of aerosol and trace gas products to operations for specific forecasting applications. Recent activities relating to the SPoRT ozone products, aerosol optical depth composite product, sulfur dioxide, and aerosol index products are discussed.

  7. Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using a ground-based lidar in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Berthier, S.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Dulac, F.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2008-07-01

    We present initial validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite using coincidental observations from a ground-based lidar in Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea (37.46° N, 126.95° E). We analyze six selected cases between September 2006 and February 2007, including 3 daytime and 3 night-time observations and covering different types of clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Apparent scattering ratios calculated from the two lidar measurements of total attenuated backscatter at 532 nm show similar aerosol and cloud layer structures both under cloud-free conditions and in cases of multiple aerosol layers underlying semi-transparent cirrus clouds. Agreement on top and base heights of cloud and aerosol layers is generally within 0.10 km, particularly during night-time. This result confirms that the CALIPSO science team algorithms for the discrimination of cloud and aerosol as well as for the detection of layer top and base altitude provide reliable information in such atmospheric conditions. This accuracy of the planetary boundary layer top height under cirrus cloud appears, however, limited during daytime. Under thick cloud conditions, however, information on the cloud top (bottom) height only is reliable from CALIOP (ground-based lidar) due to strong signal attenuations. However, simultaneous space-borne CALIOP and ground-based SNU lidar (SNU-L) measurements complement each other and can be combined to provide full information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. An aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) estimated from lidar and sunphotometer synergy at the SNU site during the CALIOP overpass is assessed to be 0.023±0.004 sr-1 (i.e. a lidar ratio of 43.2±6.2 sr) from CALIOP and 0.027±0.006 sr-1 (37.4±7.2 sr) from SNU-L. For aerosols within the planetary boundary layer under cloud-free conditions, the aerosol extinction profiles from both lidars are in agreement within about 0.02 km-1. Under semi

  8. Impact of climate change on the production and transport of sea salt aerosol on European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Joana; Sofiev, Mikhail; Geels, Camilla; Christensen, Jens H.; Andersson, Camilla; Tsyro, Svetlana; Langner, Joakim

    2016-10-01

    The impact of climate change on sea salt aerosol production, dispersion, and fate over Europe is studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models driven by the climate scenario SRES A1B over two periods: 1990-2009 and 2040-2059. This study is focused mainly on European seas: Baltic, Black, North, and Mediterranean. The differences and similarities between the individual models' predictions of the impact on sea salt emission, concentration, and deposition due to changes in wind gusts and seawater temperature are analysed. The results show that the major driver for the sea salt flux changes will be the seawater temperature, as wind speed is projected to stay nearly the same. There are, however, substantial differences between the model predictions and their sensitivity to changing seawater temperature, which demonstrates substantial lack of current understanding of the sea salt flux predictions. Although seawater salinity changes are not evaluated in this study, sensitivity of sea salt aerosol production to salinity is similarly analysed, showing once more the differences between the different models. An assessment of the impact of sea salt aerosol on the radiative balance is presented.

  9. A Simple Apparatus for the Injection of Lithium Aerosol into the Scrape-Off Layer of Fusion Research Devices

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Mansfield, A.L Roquemore, H. Schneider, J. Timberlake, H. Kugel, M.G. Bell and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-10-11

    A simple device has been developed to deposit elemental lithium onto plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Deposition is accomplished by dropping lithium powder into the plasma column. Once introduced, lithium particles quickly become entrained in scrape-off layer flow as an evaporating aerosol. Particles are delivered through a small central aperture in a computer-controlled resonating piezoelectric disk on which the powder is supported. The device has been used to deposit lithium both during discharges as well as prior to plasma breakdown. Clear improvements to plasma performance have been demonstrated. The use of this apparatus provides flexibility in the amount and timing of lithium deposition and, therefore, may benefit future fusion research devices.

  10. Airborne Lidar measurements of aerosols, mixed layer heights, and ozone during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS summer field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Shipley, S. T.; Butler, C. F.; Ismail, S.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed summary of the NASA Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV DIAL) data archive obtained during the EPA Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode/Northeast Regional Oxidant Study (PEPE/NEROS) Summer Field Experiment Program (July through August 1980) is presented. The UV dial data set consists of remote measurements of mixed layer heights, aerosol backscatter cross sections, and sequential ozone profiles taken during 14 long-range flights onboard the NASA Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft. These data are presented in graphic and tabular form, and they have been submitted to the PEPE/NEROS data archive on digital magnetic tape. The derivation of mixing heights and ozone profiles from UV Dial signals is discussed, and detailed intercomparisons with measurements obtained by in situ sensors are presented.

  11. The weather dependence of particle size distribution of indoor radioactive aerosol associated with radon decay products.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, A M A; Tamaki, K; Moriizumi, J; Yamazawa, H; Iida, T

    2011-07-01

    This study was performed to measure the activity size distribution of aerosol particles associated with short-lived radon decay products in indoor air at Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. The measurements were performed using a low pressure Andersen cascade impactor under variable meteorological conditions. The results showed that the greatest activity fraction was associated with aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with a small fraction of nucleation mode (10-100 nm). Regarding the influence of the weather conditions, the decrease in the number of accumulation particles was observed clearly after rainfall without significant change in nucleation particles, which may be due to a washout process for the large particles.

  12. The VOCALS Regional Experiment: Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in Marine Boundary Layer Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R.

    2012-12-01

    Robert Wood, C.S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, R. A. Weller, B. J. Huebert, H. Coe, B. A. Albrecht, P. H. Daum, D. Leon, A. Clarke, P. Zuidema, C. W. Fairall, G. Allen, S. deSzoeke, G. Feingold, J. Kazil, S. Yuter, R. George, A. Berner, C. Terai, G. Painter, H. Wang, M. Wyant, D. Mechem The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) is an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific (SEP), a region dominated by strong coastal upwelling, extensive cold SSTs, and home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northen Chile. A central theme of VOCALS-REx is the improved understanding of links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties. In this presentation, we will present a synthesis of results from VOCALS-REx focusing on the following questions: (a) how are aerosols, clouds and precipitation inter-related in the SEP region? (b) what microphysical-macrophysical interactions are necessary for the formation and maintenance of open cells? (c) how do cloud and MBL properties change across the strong microphysical gradients from the South American coast to the remote ocean?

  13. Laser Remote Sensing From ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Palm, Steve; Jensen, Mike; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Trepte, Chip; Murray, Tim; Lee, Kam-Pui

    2015-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) instrument was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) on 10 January 2015. CATS is mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module's Exposed Facility (JEM_EF) and will provide near-continuous, altitude-resolved measurements of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere. The CATS ISS orbit path provides a unique opportunity to capture the full diurnal cycle of cloud and aerosol development and transport, allowing for studies that are not possible with the lidar aboard the CALIPSO platform, which flies in the sun-synchronous A-Train orbit." " One of the primary science objectives of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record to provide continuity of lidar climate observations during the transition from CALIPSO to EarthCARE. To accomplish this, the CATS project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the CALIPSO project at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) are closely collaborating to develop and deliver a full suite of CALIPSO-like level 2 data products that will be produced using the newly acquired CATS level 1B data whenever CATS is operating in science modes 1. The CALIPSO mission is now well into its ninth year of on-orbit operations, and has developed a robust set of mature and well-validated science algorithms to retrieve the spatial and optical properties of clouds and aerosols from multi-wavelength lidar backscatter signals. By leveraging both new and existing NASA technical resources, this joint effort by the CATS and CALIPSO teams will deliver validated lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. The science community will have access to two sets of CATS Level 2 data products. The "Operational" data products will be produced by the GSFC CATS team utilizing the new instrument capabilities (e.g., multiple FOVs and 1064 nm depolarization), while the "Heritage" data products created

  14. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: Analysis of Results from the ARM Mobile Facility Deployment to the Azores (2009/2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert

    2013-05-31

    The project focuses upon dataset analysis and synthesis of datasets from the AMF deployment entitled “Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL)” at Graciosa Island in the Azores. Wood is serving a PI for this AMF deployment.

  15. New Global Deep Blue Aerosol Product over Land and Ocean from VIIRS, and Its comparisons with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, N. Y. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Sayer, A. M.; Lee, J.; Tsay, S. C.; Carletta, N.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution on climate and human health have continued to gain attention from the scientific community. In order to facilitate these effects, high quality consistent long-term global aerosol data records from satellites are essential. Several EOS-era instruments (e.g., SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MISR) are able to provide such information with a high degree of fidelity. However, with the aging MODIS sensors and the launch of the VIIRS instrument on Suomi NPP in late 2011, the continuation of long-term aerosol data records suitable for climate studies from MODIS to VIIRS is needed urgently. VIIRS was designed to have similar capabilities to MODIS, with similar visible/infrared spectral channels, and spatial/ temporal resolution. However, small but significant differences in several key channels used in aerosol retrievals between MODIS and VIIRS mean that significant effort is required to revise aerosol models and surface reflectance determination modules previously developed using MODIS data. In this study, we will show the global (land and ocean) distribution of aerosols from Version 1 of the VIIRS Deep Blue data set. The preliminary validation results of these new VIIRS Deep Blue aerosol products using data from AERONET sunphotometers over land and ocean will be discussed. We will also compare the monthly averaged Deep Blue aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from VIIRS with the MODIS C6 products to investigate if any systematic biases may exist between MODIS C6 and VIIRS AOT.

  16. The role of cloud contamination, aerosol layer height and aerosol model in the assessment of the OMI near-UV retrievals over the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassó, Santiago; Torres, Omar

    2016-07-01

    Retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 388 nm over the ocean from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) two-channel near-UV algorithm (OMAERUV) have been compared with independent AOD measurements. The analysis was carried out over the open ocean (OMI and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) AOD comparisons) and over coastal and island sites (OMI and AERONET, the AErosol RObotic NETwork). Additionally, a research version of the retrieval algorithm (using MODIS and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) information as constraints) was utilized to evaluate the sensitivity of the retrieval to different assumed aerosol properties. Overall, the comparison resulted in differences (OMI minus independent measurements) within the expected levels of uncertainty for the OMI AOD retrievals (0.1 for AOD < 0.3, 30 % for AOD > 0.3). Using examples from case studies with outliers, the reasons that led to the observed differences were examined with specific purpose to determine whether they are related to instrument limitations (i.e., pixel size, calibration) or algorithm assumptions (such as aerosol shape, aerosol height). The analysis confirms that OMAERUV does an adequate job at rejecting cloudy scenes within the instrument's capabilities. There is a residual cloud contamination in OMI pixels with quality flag 0 (the best conditions for aerosol retrieval according to the algorithm), resulting in a bias towards high AODs in OMAERUV. This bias is more pronounced at low concentrations of absorbing aerosols (AOD 388 nm ˜ < 0.5). For higher aerosol loadings, the bias remains within OMI's AOD uncertainties. In pixels where OMAERUV assigned a dust aerosol model, a fraction of them (< 20 %) had retrieved AODs significantly lower than AERONET and MODIS AODs. In a case study, a detailed examination of the aerosol height from CALIOP and the AODs from MODIS, along with sensitivity tests, was carried out by varying the different assumed parameters in the

  17. The Role of Cloud Contamination, Aerosol Layer Height and Aerosol Model in the Assessment of the OMI Near-UV Retrievals Over the Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; Torres, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 388 nm over the ocean from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) two-channel near-UV algorithm (OMAERUV) have been compared with independent AOD measurements. The analysis was carried out over the open ocean (OMI and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) AOD comparisons) and over coastal and island sites (OMI and AERONET, the AErosol RObotic NETwork). Additionally, a research version of the retrieval algorithm (using MODIS and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) information as constraints) was utilized to evaluate the sensitivity of the retrieval to different assumed aerosol properties. Overall, the comparison resulted in differences (OMI minus independent measurements) within the expected levels of uncertainty for the OMI AOD retrievals (0.1 for AOD less than 0.3, 30% for AOD greater than 0.3). Using examples from case studies with outliers, the reasons that led to the observed differences were examined with specific purpose to determine whether they are related to instrument limitations (i.e., pixel size, calibration) or algorithm assumptions (such as aerosol shape, aerosol height). The analysis confirms that OMAERUV does an adequate job at rejecting cloudy scenes within the instrument's capabilities. There is a residual cloud contamination in OMI pixels with quality flag 0 (the best conditions for aerosol retrieval according to the algorithm), resulting in a bias towards high AODs in OMAERUV. This bias is more pronounced at low concentrations of absorbing aerosols (AOD 388 nm approximately less than 0.5). For higher aerosol loadings, the bias remains within OMI's AOD uncertainties. In pixels where OMAERUV assigned a dust aerosol model, a fraction of them (less than 20 %) had retrieved AODs significantly lower than AERONET and MODIS AODs. In a case study, a detailed examination of the aerosol height from CALIOP and the AODs from MODIS, along with sensitivity tests, was carried out by

  18. A Novel Aerosol Method for the Production of Hydrogel Particles

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of generating hydrogel particles for various applications including drug delivery purposes was developed. This method is based on the production of hydrogel particles from sprayed polymeric nano/microdroplets obtained by a nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. In this study, particle synthesis parameters such as type of nebulizer, type of crosslinker, air pressure, and polymer concentration were investigated for their impact on the mean particle size, swelling behavior, and morphology of the developed particles. Spherical alginate-based hydrogel particles with a mean particle size in the range from 842 to 886 nm were obtained. Using statistical analysis of the factorial design of experiment it was found that the main factors influencing the size and swelling values of the particles are the alginate concentration and the air pressure. Thus, it was demonstrated that the method described in the current study is promising for the generation of hydrogel particles and it constitutes a relatively simple and low-cost system. PMID:23687513

  19. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE PAGES

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; ...

    2014-07-03

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for several days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (∼50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction products ofmore » both aromatics and alkanes. In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  20. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2014-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for several days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (∼50%) and of shorter duration (1-2 days). The production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction products of both aromatics and alkanes. In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.

  1. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for multiple days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (~50%) and of shorter duration (1-2 days). The multiday production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction products of both aromatics and alkanes, especially those with relatively low carbon numbers (C4-15). In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions and different vapor pressure schemes, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.

  2. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing

  3. Indoor/outdoor radon decay products associated aerosol particle-size distributions and their relation to total number concentrations.

    PubMed

    Moriizumi, Jun; Yamada, Shinya; Xu, Yang; Matsuki, Satoru; Hirao, Shigekazu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2014-07-01

    The activity size distributions of indoor and outdoor radioactive aerosol associated with short-lived radon decay products were observed at Nagoya, Japan, for some periods from 2010 to 2012, following the indoor observation by Mostafa et al. [Mostafa, A. M. A., Tamaki, K., Moriizumi, J., Yamazawa, H. and Iida, T. The weather dependence of particle size distribution of indoor radioactive aerosol associated with radon decay products. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 146: (1-3), 19-22 (2011)]. The tendency of smaller indoor activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) after rainfalls showed in the previous study was not consistently obtained, while the consistent tendency of less indoor radioactive particles with diameters in the accumulation mode was observed again after rainfalls. The indoor aerosols showed activity size distributions similar to the outdoor ones. Non-radioactive aerosol particle concentrations measured with a laser particle counter suggested a somewhat liner relationship with AMAD.

  4. Single-Particle Measurements of Midlatitude Black Carbon and Light-Scattering Aerosols from the Boundary Layer to the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, J. P.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Thomson, D. S.; Watts, L. A.; Wilson, J. C.; Reeves, J. M.; Darbeheshti, M.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Kok, G. L.; Chung, S. H.; Schulz, M.; Hendricks, J.; Lauer, A.; Kaercher, B.; Slowik, J. G.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Thompson, T. L.; Langford, A. O.; Loewenstein, M.; Aikin, K. C.

    2006-01-01

    A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) was flown on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft in November 2004 from Houston, Texas. The SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence to detect individual black carbon (BC) particles in an air sample in the mass range of approx.3-300 fg (approx.0.15-0.7 microns volume equivalent diameter). Scattered light is used to size the remaining non-BC aerosols in the range of approx.0.17-0.7 microns diameter. We present profiles of both aerosol types from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere from two midlatitude flights. Results for total aerosol amounts in the size range detected by the SP2 are in good agreement with typical particle spectrometer measurements in the same region. All ambient incandescing particles were identified as BC because their incandescence properties matched those of laboratory-generated BC aerosol. Approximately 40% of these BC particles showed evidence of internal mixing (e.g., coating). Throughout profiles between 5 and 18.7 km, BC particles were less than a few percent of total aerosol number, and black carbon aerosol (BCA) mass mixing ratio showed a constant gradient with altitude above 5 km. SP2 data was compared to results from the ECHAM4/MADE and LmDzT-INCA global aerosol models. The comparison will help resolve the important systematic differences in model aerosol processes that determine BCA loadings. Further intercomparisons of models and measurements as presented here will improve the accuracy of the radiative forcing contribution from BCA.

  5. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  6. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    Long before the industrial evolution and the era of fossil fuels, high concentrations of aerosol particles were alluded to in heavily populated areas, including ancient Rome and medieval London. Recent radiocarbon measurements (14C) conducted in modern megacities came as a surprise: carbonaceous aerosol (mainly organic aerosol, OA), a predominant fraction of particulate matter (PM), remains overwhelmingly non-fossil despite extensive fossil fuel combustion. Such particles are directly emitted (primary OA, POA) or formed in-situ in the atmosphere (secondary OA, SOA) via photochemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Urban levels of non-fossil OA greatly exceed the levels measured in pristine environments strongly impacted by biogenic emissions, suggesting a contribution from unidentified anthropogenic non-fossil sources to urban OA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) techniques applied to ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne) data identify primary cooking emissions (COA) as one of the main sources of primary non-fossil OA in major cities like London (Allan et al., 2010), New York (Sun et al., 2011) and Beijing (Huang et al., 2010). Cooking processes can also emit VOCs that can act as SOA precursors, potentially explaining in part the high levels of oxygenated OA (OOA) identified by the AMS in urban areas. However, at present, the chemical nature of these VOCs and their secondary aerosol production potential (SAPP) remain virtually unknown. The approach adopted here involves laboratory quantification of PM and VOC emission factors from the main primary COA emitting processes and their SAPP. Primary emissions from deep-fat frying, vegetable boiling, vegetable frying and meat cooking for different oils, meats and vegetables were analysed under controlled conditions after ~100 times dilution. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR

  7. Impact of cloud processes on aerosol particle properties: results from two ATR-42 flights in an extended stratocumulus cloud layer during the EUCAARI campaign (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumeyrolle, S.; Weigel, R.; Sellegri, K.; Roberts, G.; Gomes, L.; Stohl, A.; Laj, P.; Bourianne, T.; Etcheberry, J. M.; Villani, P.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.

    2011-12-01

    Within the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) project, the Meteo France research aircraft ATR-42 was operated from Rotterdam airport during May 2008, to perform scientific flights dedicated to the investigation of aerosol-cloud interactions. Therein, the objective of this study is to illustrate the impact of cloud processing on the aerosol particles physical and chemical properties. The presented results are retrieved from measurements during a double-flight mission from Rotterdam (Netherlands) to Newcastle (UK) and back using data measured with compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (cToF-AMS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Cloud-related measurements during these flights were performed over the North Sea within as well as in close vicinity of a marine stratocumulus cloud layer. Particle physical and chemical properties observed in the close vicinity (V), below and above the stratocumulus cloud show strong differences. Firstly, measurements at constant altitude above the cloud layer show decreasing mass concentrations with decreasing horizontal distance (210-0 km) to the cloud layer by a factor up to 7, whereas below the cloud and by same means of distance, the mass concentrations merely decrease by a factor of 2 on average. Secondly, the averaged aerosol size distributions, observed above and below the cloud layer, are of bimodal character with pronounced minima between Aitken and accumulation mode which is potentially the consequence of cloud processing. Finally, the chemical composition of aerosol particles is strongly dependent on the location relative to the cloud layer (vicinity or below/above cloud). In general, the nitrate and organic fractions decrease with decreasing distance to the cloud, in the transit from cloud-free conditions towards the cloud boundaries. The decrease of nitrate and organic compounds ranges at a factor of three to ten, affecting sulfate and ammonium compounds to be

  8. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE PAGES

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; ...

    2015-01-16

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for multiple days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (~50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The multiday production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction productsmore » of both aromatics and alkanes, especially those with relatively low carbon numbers (C4–15). In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions and different vapor pressure schemes, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  9. Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: chemical characterization of the products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran; Kroflič, Ana; Čusak, Alen

    2014-05-01

    One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosol in the atmosphere is biomass burning (BB) (Laskin et al. 2009); in Europe its contribution to annual mean of PM10 is between 3 and 14 % (Maenhaut et al. 2012). During the process of wood burning many different products are formed via thermal degradation of wood lignin. Hardwood burning produces mainly syringol (2,6-dimetoxyphenol) derivatives, while softwood burning exclusively guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives. Taking into account physical properties of methoxyphenols only, their concentrations in atmospheric waters might be underestimated. So, their aqueous phase reactions can be an additional source of SOA, especially in regions under significant influence of wood combustion. An important class of compounds formed during physical and chemical aging of the primary BBA in the atmosphere is nitrocatechols, known as strong absorbers of UV and Vis light (Claeys et al. 2012). Very recently, methyl-nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable markers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al. 2010, Kitanovski et al. 2012). In the present work, the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photooxidation and nitration of guaiacol was examined. The key objective was to chemically characterize the main low-volatility products and further to check their possible presence in the urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous phase reactions were performed in a thermostated reactor under simulated sunlight in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. Guaiacol reaction products were first concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then subjected to semi-preparative liquid chromatography.The main product compounds were fractionated and isolated as pure solids and their structure was further elucidated by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C and 2D NMR) and direct infusion negative ion electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (( )ESI-MS/MS). The main photonitration products of guaiacol (4

  10. Solar thermal decomposition of zinc oxide in aerosol flow for renewable hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Christopher Michael

    Hydrogen could be a clean replacement for fossil fuels. The Zn/ZnO solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle provides a renewable path to this fuel. Thermodynamic simulations showed that the Zn/ZnO cycle has the lowest temperature of all two-step metal oxide cycles, and the prediction of relatively high efficiency based on its lower temperature and number of steps led to its selection for further study. A rapid aerosol configuration for ZnO decomposition was chosen based on expectation of high reaction rates and small product particle production, and proof-of-concept experiments confirmed this assumption. Thermogravimetric studies of the thermal decomposition kinetics of ZnO showed that the rate followed a 2/3 order L'vov kinetic expression. The activation energy was found to be 353 +/- 25.9 kJ/mol, and a simple electrostatic model was used to describe the reaction mechanism. The pre-exponential factor was found, as expected, to vary inversely with the distance to a product concentration sink. Investigation of the aerosol decomposition of ZnO showed high forward conversion (˜60%) but low net yield (18%) of zinc due to recombination of product oxygen with nucleated zinc particles. Products that were initially converted had high surface area (15.5 +/- 0.13 g/m2), small particle size (5-70 nm), and relatively spherical morphology, properties desirable when considering the hydrolysis step of the water-splitting cycle. Rates in the aerosol reactor were found to be three orders of magnitude greater than those in a stationary configuration. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the aerosol reaction showed rapid particle heating and high forward conversion (>90%) in short residence times (<1.5s). Results could be used to scale a commercial size reactor, and the recommended particle size based on conversion and handling considerations was 1 mum. Reactor materials sensitive to oxidation were shown to be inappropriate for application due to high corrosion rates

  11. Quantifying VOC-Reaction Tracers, Ozone Production, and Continuing Aerosol Production Rates in Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Ren, X.; Brune, W.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have found a surprisingly informative decomposition of the complex question of smoggy ozone production (basically, [HO2] in a more locally determined field of [NO]) in the process of linked investigations of modestly smoggy Eastern North America (by NASA aircraft, July 2004) and rather polluted Flushing, NYC (Queens College, July, 2001). In both rural and very polluted situations, we find that a simple contour graph parameterization of the local principal ozone production rate can be estimated using only the variables [NO] and j(sub rads) [HCHO]: Po(O3) = c (j(sub rads) [HCHO])(sup a) [HCHO](sup b). Here j(sub rads) is the photolysis of HCHO to radicals, presumably capturing many harder-UV photolytic processes and the principle ozone production is that due to HO2; mechanisms suggest that ozone production due to RO2 is closely correlated, often suggesting a limited range of different proportionality factors. The method immediately suggests a local interpretation for concepts of VOC limitation and NOx limitation. We believe that the product j(sub rads) [HCHO] guages the oxidation rate of observed VOC mixtures in a way that also provides [HO2] useful for the principle ozone production rate k [HO2] [NO], and indeed, all ozone chemical production. The success of the method suggests that dominant urban primary-HCHO sources may transition to secondary plume-HCHO sources in a convenient way. Are there other, simple, near-terminal oxidized VOC's which help guage ozone production and aerosol particle formation? Regarding particles, we report on, to the extent NASA Research resources allow, on appealing relationships between far-downwind (Atlantic PBL) HCHO and very fine aerosol (including sulfate. Since j(sub rads) [HCHO] provides a time-scale, we may understand distant-plume particle production in a more quantitative manner. Additionally we report on a statistical search in the nearer field for relationships between glyoxals (important near-terminal aromatic and isoprene

  12. Observational and numerical studies of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xue

    This dissertation investigates the impacts of meteorological factors and aerosol indirect effects on the costal marine stratocumulus (Sc) variations in the southeast Pacific, a region that has been largely unexplored and is a major challenge of the modeling community, through both observational and numerical studies. This study provides a unique dataset for documenting the characteristics of the marine Sc-topped BL off the coast of Northern Chile. The observational study shows that the boundary layer (BL) over this region was well mixed and topped by a thin and non-drizzling Sc layer on days synoptically-quiescent with little variability between this region and the coast. The surface wind, the surface fluxes and the BL turbulence appeared to be weaker than those over other ocean regions where stratocumulus clouds exist. The weaker turbulence in the BL may contribute to a relatively low entrainment rate calculated from the near cloud top fluxes. This in-situ data set can help us better understand cloud processes within this coastal regime, and also be valuable for the calibration of the satellite retrievals and the evaluation of numerical models operating at a variety of scales. A strong positive correlation between the liquid water path (LWP) and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was observed under similar boundary layer conditions. This correlation cannot be explained by some of the hypotheses based on previous modeling studies. The satellite retrievals obtained upstream one day prior to the flight observations reveal some sign that the clouds under the high CCN concentrations have minimal LWP loss due to precipitation suppression effects. The results from large eddy simulations with a two-momentum bulk microphysics scheme under different idealized environment scenarios based on aircraft observations indicate that (1) the simulated Sc responds more quickly to changes in large-scale subsidence than to those changes in surface fluxes, free-tropospheric humidity

  13. HCHO Activity Gauges Ozone Production and Aerosol Production Rates in Both Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Ren, X.; Brune, W. H.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.; Shetter, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    We have found a surprisingly informative decomposition of the complex question of smoggy ozone production in a set of of expanding investigations starting from modestly smoggy Eastern North America (by NASA aircraft, INTEX, July 2004) to rather polluted Flushing, NYC (Queens College, CAPTEX, July, 2001). In both rural and very polluted situations, we find that a simple "contour graph" parameterization of the local principal ozone production rate can be estimated using only the variables [NO] and jrads [HCHO]: Po(O3) = c (jrads [HCHO])a [NO]b. The method immediately suggests a local interpretation for concepts of VOC limitation and NOx limitation. We believe that the product jrads [HCHO] gauges the oxidation rate of observed VOC mixtures in a way that also provides [HO2] useful for the principle ozone production rate k [HO2] [NO], Mechanisms suggest that ozone production due to RO2 is proportional to the HO2 process, hence we may capture all ozone chemical production. The success of the method suggests that dominant urban primary-HCHO sources may transition to secondary plume-HCHO sources, so that HCHO is never too far away from an evolving steady state with VOC reactivity. Are there other, simple, near-terminal oxidized VOC's which help gauge ozone production and aerosol particle formation? Regarding particles, we report on suggestive relationships between far-downwind (Atlantic PBL) HCHO and very fine aerosol. Since jrads [HCHO] provides a reactive-flux rate, we may understand distant-plume particle production in a more quantitative manner. Additionally, we report on a statistical search in the nearer field for relationships between glyoxals (important penultimate aromatic and isoprene reaction products) with ozone and aerosol production, looking for VOC's that might be most implicated, e.g., aromatics and biogenics. Note that all three of our variables jrads, [HCHO], and [NO] are relatively easily measured in widespread air pollution networks, and all are

  14. AERUS-GEO: a MSG/SEVIRI satellite-based aerosol product allowing to capture dust events for the last 10 years over Europe and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrer, Dominique; Roujean, Jean-Louis; Ceamanos, Xavier; Six, Bruno; Moparthy, Suman

    2016-04-01

    The aerosol signal derived from visible and near-infrared remote sensing observations can now be isolated thanks to a method allowing a proper separation of the atmosphere and surface components. This product is called AERUS-Geo (Aerosol and surface albEdo Retrieval Using a directional Splitting method - application to Geo data) and covers Europe, Africa, and the Eastern part of South America. It fully exploits the directional and temporal dimensions of the MSG/SEVIRI satellite signal through the use of a semi-empirical kernel-driven BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) model mimicking the radiative anisotropy for the surface/atmosphere coupled system. The AOD values estimated at 0.63 μm and 1.64 μm serve to calculate an Ångström coefficient that is further used to classify the aerosol layer into a continental, maritime, or a desert type. The AERUS-GEO product compares favourably with measurements of several AERONET stations, MODIS-derived (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), and MISR-derived (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) products within a 20% of accuracy. The method proves to be competitive, not only in tracking anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the troposphere but also in estimating dust events. In addition, the higher frequency of AOD products with AERUS-GEO provides the means to quantify the aerosol radiative forcing in a more accurate manner than using low-orbit satellite data. The AERUS-GEO algorithm was implemented by the ICARE Data Center (http://www.icare.univ-lille1.fr), which operationally disseminates in near real time (NRT) a daily AOD product at 0.63 μm over the MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) disk since 2014. In addition to an NRT AOD product, also a long term reprocessing of satellite derived AOD still based on MSG/SEVIRI observations has been implemented. This allows to perform a thorough monitoring of the dust events over Europe and Africa for the last 10 years (2005 to 2015) for the benefit of a

  15. Impact of Manaus City on the Amazon Green Ocean atmosphere: ozone production, precursor sensitivity and aerosol load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.; Thielmann, A.; Dindorf, T.; Schebeske, G.; Welling, M.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Meixner, F. X.; Kesselmeier, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Kolle, O.; Ciccioli, P.; Lloyd, J.; Trentmann, J.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.

    2010-10-01

    As a contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001) field campaign in the heart of the Amazon Basin, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the urban plume of Manaus City during the wet-to-dry season transition period in July 2001. During the flights, we performed vertical stacks of crosswind transects in the urban outflow downwind of Manaus City, measuring a comprehensive set of trace constituents including O3, NO, NO2, CO, VOC, CO2, and H2O. Aerosol loads were characterized by concentrations of total aerosol number (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and by light scattering properties. Measurements over pristine rainforest areas during the campaign showed low levels of pollution from biomass burning or industrial emissions, representative of wet season background conditions. The urban plume of Manaus City was found to be joined by plumes from power plants south of the city, all showing evidence of very strong photochemical ozone formation. One episode is discussed in detail, where a threefold increase in ozone mixing ratios within the atmospheric boundary layer occurred within a 100 km travel distance downwind of Manaus. Observation-based estimates of the ozone production rates in the plume reached 15 ppb h-1. Within the plume core, aerosol concentrations were strongly enhanced, with ΔCN/ΔCO ratios about one order of magnitude higher than observed in Amazon biomass burning plumes. ΔCN/ΔCO ratios tended to decrease with increasing transport time, indicative of a significant reduction in particle number by coagulation, and without substantial new particle nucleation occurring within the time/space observed. While in the background atmosphere a large fraction of the total particle number served as CCN (about 60-80% at 0.6% supersaturation), the CCN/CN ratios within the plume indicated that only a small fraction (16±12%) of the plume particles were CCN

  16. Impact of Manaus City on the Amazon Green Ocean atmosphere: ozone production, precursor sensitivity and aerosol load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.; Thielmann, A.; Dindorf, T.; Schebeske, G.; Welling, M.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Meixner, F. X.; Kesselmeier, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Kolle, O.; Ciccioli, P.; Lloyd, J.; Trentmann, J.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    As a contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001) field campaign in the heart of the Amazon Basin, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the urban plume of Manaus City during the wet-to-dry season transition period in July 2001. During the flights, we performed vertical stacks of crosswind transects in the urban outflow downwind of Manaus City, measuring a comprehensive set of trace constituents including O3, NO, NO2, CO, VOC, CO2, and H2O. Aerosol loads were characterized by total aerosol number concentration (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, and light scattering properties. Measurements over pristine rainforest areas during the campaign showed low levels of pollution from biomass burning or industrial emissions, representative of wet season background conditions. The urban plume of Manaus City was found to be joined by plumes from power plants south of the city, all showing evidence of very strong photochemical ozone formation. One episode is discussed in detail, where a threefold increase in ozone mixing ratios in the atmospheric boundary layer occurred within a 100 km travel distance downwind of Manaus. Observation-based estimates of the ozone production rates in the plume reached 15 ppb h-1. Within the plume core, aerosol concentrations were strongly enhanced, with ΔCN/ΔCO ratios about one order of magnitude higher than observed in Amazon biomass burning plumes. ΔCN/ΔCO ratios tended to decrease with increasing transport time, indicative of a significant reduction in particle number by coagulation, and without substantial new particle nucleation occurring within the time/space observed. While in the background atmosphere a large fraction of the total particle number served as CCN (about 60-80% at 0.6% supersaturation), the CCN/CN ratios within the plume indicated that only a small fraction (16 ± 12%) of the plume particles were

  17. Comparison of Aerosol Classification from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Omar, A. H.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    applications. The HSRL products are used to apportion AOT by type and vertical location in the column, and to characterize the frequency of cases where multiple types are present in the column. Resolving scenes with multiple types in the column is not possible with passive imaging radiometer and polarimeter measurements. The HSRL aerosol type also has higher resolution than the CALIPSO layer-wise product and provides insight into the performance of CALIPSO layer separation. Information about the vertical distribution of aerosol types is useful for estimating radiative forcing, understanding aerosol lifetime and transport, and assessing the predictions of transport models. CALIPSO has been a pathfinder, providing the first long-term global data set of aerosol vertical distribution. Based on our results, a future satellite lidar similar to CALIPSO, but with the addition of polarization sensitivity at 1064 nm and the HSRL technique at 532 nm, could provide a significant advance in characterizing the vertical distribution of aerosol.

  18. Midlatitude Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Feedbacks in Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    research is based on the CIMMS high-resolution large eddy simulation (LES) model of marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds with explicit formulation...the CIMMS LES explicit microphysics model (SAMEX) in simulations of cases observed during the ASTEX and DYCOMS-II projects. Fig 1. The vertical

  19. Size distribution, composition and origin of the submicron aerosol in the marine boundary layer during the eastern Mediterranean "SUB-AERO" experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, K.; Colbeck, I.; Housiadas, C.; Lazaridis, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Mitsakou, C.; Smolík, J.; Ždímal, V.

    A period of intensive physical and chemical aerosol characterisation measurements was held over 5 days during July 2000 as part of the European SUB-AERO experiment.. Concurrent measurements were performed at the Finokalia remote coastal site on the island of Crete (Greece) and onboard the R/V " Aegaeon" which cruised in south part of the Aegean Sea northwards of Crete. The objective of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of microphysical parameters of the submicron aerosol and their dependence on airmass origin and chemical composition. The results reflect the submicron aerosol properties during airmass transport from the north including Europe and the Balkans and are in line with other studies on the aerosol properties of polluted continental air entering the marine boundary layer (MBL). Concentrations of submicron particulate matter (PM) mass were relatively higher at sea (20 μg m -3) compared to the coastal site (16 μg m -3). Concentrations of both organic carbon and sulphate, being the major water soluble component, were also higher at sea than at land. The high concentrations of ammonium and those of the water soluble organics, such as oxalate, can be attributed to emissions from mainland forest fires. The submicron aerosol number size distribution was unimodal with mobility mean diameters ( dg) ranging from 98 to 144 μm and standard deviations ( σg) from 1.56 to 1.9. Aerosol number concentrations at Finokalia were at least 50% lower especially when R/V Aegaeon sampled polluted air, but the modal parameters of the size distribution were very similar ( dg: 111-120, σg: 1.55-1.91). The surface MBL, under these conditions, was an aerosol rich environment where aerosol particles were transported both by the surface wind, advected from higher layers, chemically processed by interactions with gaseous precursors and physically altered by water vapour. The number to volume ratio for the submicrometer aerosol fraction reflected the

  20. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  1. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Lewis, A. C.; Carey, T. J.; Wenger, J. C.; Garcia, E. Borrás. I.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1-5 TgC yr-1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  2. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Lewis, A. C.; Carey, T. J.; Wenger, J. C.; Garcia, E. Borrás. I.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-06-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1-5 TgC yr-1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  3. Mass spectrometry of interfacial layers during fast aqueous aerosol/ozone gas reactions of atmospheric interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enami, S.; Vecitis, C. D.; Cheng, J.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

    2008-04-01

    The oxidations of sulfite and iodide in the interfacial layers of aqueous microdroplets exposed to O 3(g) for 1 ms are investigated by online mass spectrometry of the electrostatically ejected anions. S(IV) oxidation losses in Na 2SO 3 microdroplets are proportional to [S(IV)] [O 3(g)] up to ˜90% conversion. I - is more abundant than HSO3- in the interfacial layers of equimolar (Na 2SO 3 + NaI) microdroplets and ˜3 times more reactive than HSO3- toward O 3(aq) in bulk solution, but it is converted withminimalloss to I3- and IO3- plus a persistent ISO3- intermediate. These observations reveal unanticipated interfacial gradients, reactivity patterns and transport phenomena that had not been taken into account in previous treatments of fast gas-liquid reactions.

  4. Viscous dissipation effects on thermophoretically augmented aerosol particle transport across laminar boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of viscous dissipation on mass transport across nonisothermal low-mass-loading laminar boundary layers of dusty gas is investigated theoretically by means of numerical simulations. The derivation of the model is outlined, and numerical results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. The dissipation effects are found to be significant, increasing total particle-deposition rates; the intensity of the effects depends on the ratio of wall temperature to mainstream static temperature.

  5. Global Long-Term SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Products available at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Sayer, A. M.; Bettenhausen, C.; Wei, J. C.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Hsu, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term climate data records of aerosols are needed in order to study regional air quality and the uncertainty of aerosol radiative forcing with numerical models. Recently, global long-term (over 13 years from 1997 to 2010) SeaWiFS Deep Blue (SWDB) aerosol products have become available. The SWDB aerosol dataset has been produced by the "Consistent Long-Term Aerosol Data Records over Land and Ocean from SeaWIFS" project led by Dr. N. Christina Hsu as part of the Making Earth Science data records for Use in Research for Earth Science (MEaSUREs) program. The latest Deep Blue algorithm retrieves aerosol properties not only over bright desert surfaces, but also vegetated surfaces, oceans, and inland water bodies. Comparisons with AERONET observations have shown that the data are suitable for quantitative scientific use. The resolution of the Level 2 pixels is 13.5x13.5 km2 at the center of the swath. The Level 3 daily and monthly data are composed by using best quality level 2 pixels at resolution of both 0.5x0.5 and 1.0x1.0 degrees. This presentation, focusing over the south Asia region, will show sample higher resolution Level 2 images of dust events and the Level 3 monthly climatology at large scale. The data are compared with the widely-used MODIS (Deep Blue and Dark Target) aerosol dataset. The SWDB aerosol data are available from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through a number of data services, such as FTP; the data search system, Mirador; OPeNDAP; and online subsetting services. The global daily and monthly Level 3 products are also available in the innovative online visualization and analysis system, Giovanni. More information about SWBD aerosol products can be found from the project portal: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/dust. Seasonal climatology of SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nm for the period from 1997.09 to 2010.12.

  6. Effect of Wildfire Aerosols on NO2 Photolysis and Ozone Production at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylon, P.; Jaffe, D. A.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have two goals: to quantify the effect of biomass burning aerosols on jNO2 photolysis and to look at O3 formation in biomass burning plumes as it relates to jNO2 photolysis. Wildfire plumes were observed during the summer of 2015 at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory, a high-elevation (2.8 km a.s.l.) mountaintop site located in central Oregon. These plumes were identified using the following criteria: (1) 5-minute ambient aerosol scattering σsp ≥ 20 Mm-1 for at least two hours, (2) 5-minute CO ≥ 150 ppbv for at least two hours, (3) strong correlation (r2 ≥ 0.70) between σsp and CO, and (4) consistent air mass back trajectories indicating transport over known fire locations. We measure nitrogen oxides using a chemiluminescence detector and jNO2 photolysis using a diode array actinic flux spectroradiometer. We also measure O3 using two techniques: (a) UV method with a cavity ring-down spectrometer and (b) chemiluminescence method with a custom-made instrument. We compare fire event observations between these two procedures to prove consistency. Based on these measurements, we quantify a lower bound for the HO2 and RO2 radical concentrations in wildfire plumes. We then look at plume and non-plume data and examine deviations from the photostationary state. Finally, we use the TUV model v5.2 to simulate clear-sky conditions and therefore quantify the reduction/enhancement in jNO2 values and O3 production due to wildfire aerosols. This gives us insight into the photochemical environment in biomass burning plumes, which until now, remains poorly understood.

  7. Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer and Free Troposphere: Vertical Transport and Chemical Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P. K.; Murphy, D. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Thomson, D. S.

    2002-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission (Monterey, CA, spring 2002) nearly 400,000 positive and negative mass spectra of single atmospheric aerosols were acquired using the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry) instrument. The primary focus of the mission was to investigate the composition of air masses along the western coast of the United States. Of particular interest to the mission was to study the influence of anthropogenic emissions from Asia on aerosol composition. To accomplish these goals, the WP-3 aircraft, equipped with a suite of instruments including PALMS, covered a large spatial area flying from 0 - 8000 m altitude covering most of the western coastline from Canada to southern California including flights over the San Francisco and Los Angeles metropolitan areas. The in situ measurements of single particle aerosol mass spectra by PALMS allow for good spatial and vertical resolution of the aerosol composition. By observing the changes in aerosol composition as a function of altitude, the vertical transport of sea salt aerosols over marine and urban environments is examined. Using measurements of other chemical tracers along with the aerosol composition, the chemical processing of these aerosols during transport both vertically and inland can be discerned. These results add insight into the transport and chemical evolution of sea salt aerosol.

  8. Assessing the use of VIIRS Aerosol Intermediate Product for AOD retrieval and PM25 concentrations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, B.; Nazmi, C.; Moshary, F.; Lightstone, S.

    2015-12-01

    In previous work, it was shown that MODIS AOD retreivals over urban areas have overbiases that can be removed if proper account is made of the surface land classification. In fact, both direct methods where improvements to urban model albedos were implemented as well as post processing approaches using Neural Networks (NN's) were shown to be useful in reducing biases and retreival uncertainty. In this paper, we make a preliminary study of these approaches to the VIIRS Intermediate Aerosol Optical Depth Product and demonstrate that VIIRS Biases can also be substantially reduced. Comparisons with MODIS will be made and direct use of the high resolution product will be used to assess potential PM25 estimation.

  9. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Molecular-Weight Building Reactions of Biogenic Oxidation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, K.; Guenther, A.; Matsunaga, S.; Smith, J.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) remains one of the significant challenges to accurately representing OA in air quality and climate models. Meeting this challenge will require further understanding of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), of which biogenic emissions are thought to be major precursors. Of recent interest is the significance of higher-molecular weight (MW) compounds (i.e., "oligomers"). Theoretical, laboratory, and field study results suggest that relatively volatile oxidation products may contribute to SOA formation through multi-phase MW- building reactions. The significance of such reactions for biogenic SOA formation, including for newly considered precursors such as isoprene, is explored in this work. Theoretical and field studies are employed to: 1) identify MW-building reactions that may contribute to SOA formation in the atmosphere, 2) identify MW-building reaction products in ambient samples, and 3) parameterize atmospheric SOA formation by MW-building reactions of biogenic oxidation products. Likely reactions of biogenic oxidation products include ester, amide, and peroxyhemiacetal formation. Each of the proposed reactions involves known oxidation productions of biogenic precursors (e.g., carboxylic acids and aldehydes) reacting with one another and/or other atmospheric constituents (e.g., sulfuric acid and ammonia) to form higher-MW/lower-volatility products that can condense to form SOA. It has been suggested that products of MW-building reactions can revert to the parent reactants during sampling and analysis. Thus, relatively volatile compounds detected in ambient particle samples in fact may be decomposition products of higher-MW products. The contribution of relatively volatile biogenic oxidation products to SOA via ester, amide, and peroxyhemiacetal formation, as determined by studies based on fundamental thermodynamics and gas/particle partitioning theory, will be discussed; in addition to

  10. A Comparison of Parameterizations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production: Global Budget and Spatiotemporal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Z.; Horowitz, L. W.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Fan, S.; Cheng, Y.; Ervens, B.; Fu, T. M.; He, C.; Tao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have a profound influence on air quality and climate, but large uncertainties exist in modeling SOA on the global scale. In this study, five SOA parameterization schemes, including a two-product model (TPM), volatility basis-set (VBS) and three cloud SOA schemes (Ervens et al. (2008, 2014), Fu et al. (2008) , and He et al. (2013)), are implemented into the global chemical transport model (MOZART-4). For each scheme, model simulations are conducted with identical boundary and initial conditions. The VBS scheme produces the highest global annual SOA production (close to 35 Tg·y-1), followed by three cloud schemes (26-30 Tg·y-1) and TPM (23 Tg·y-1). Though sharing a similar partitioning theory to the TPM scheme, the VBS approach simulates the chemical aging of multiple generations of VOCs oxidation products, resulting in a much larger SOA source, particularly from aromatic species, over Europe, the Middle East and Eastern America. The formation of SOA in VBS, which represents the net partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds from vapor to condensed phase, is highly sensitivity to the aging and wet removal processes of vapor-phase organic compounds. The production of SOA from cloud processes (SOAcld) is constrained by the coincidence of liquid cloud water and water-soluble organic compounds. Therefore, all cloud schemes resolve a fairly similar spatial pattern over the tropical and the mid-latitude continents. The spatiotemporal diversity among SOA parameterizations is largely driven by differences in precursor inputs. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the evolution, wet removal, and phase partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds, particularly above remote land and oceanic areas, is critical to better constrain the global-scale distribution and related climate forcing of secondary organic aerosols.

  11. Lidar measurements of boundary layers, aerosol scattering and clouds during project FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, Edwin W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A detailed account of progress achieved under this grant funding is contained in five journal papers. The titles of these papers are: The calculation of area-averaged vertical profiles of the horizontal wind velocity using volume imaging lidar data; Volume imaging lidar observation of the convective structure surrounding the flight path of an instrumented aircraft; Convective boundary layer mean depths, cloud base altitudes, cloud top altitudes, cloud coverages, and cloud shadows obtained from Volume Imaging Lidar data; An accuracy analysis of the wind profiles calculated from Volume Imaging Lidar data; and Calculation of divergence and vertical motion from volume-imaging lidar data. Copies of these papers form the body of this report.

  12. Aerosol-assisted self-assembly of hybrid Layered Double Hydroxide particles into spherical architectures.

    PubMed

    Prevot, Vanessa; Szczepaniak, Claire; Jaber, Maguy

    2011-04-15

    Acetate intercalated NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxide nanoparticles were prepared by polyol process and further used as building blocks to form hybrid LDH spheres by a spray drying technique. The spherical aggregated LDH particles display a polydispersed size with a diameter ranging from 47 nm to 2 μm. The analysis of the thermal behavior evidenced that the spherical form was maintained upon calcination up to 1100°C, giving rise to derived mixed oxide (NiO+NiAl(2)O(4)) nanospheres. Interestingly, the spherical morphology of the LDH materials was also retained during anion exchange process. The replacement of the intercalated acetate anion by of a voluminous anion such as dodecylsulfate induces an increase of the nanosphere mean diameter of 65%. The different materials were deeply characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, dynamic light scattering, thermal analysis and nitrogen sorption.

  13. Formation and occurrence of dimer esters of pinene oxidation products in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, K.; Enggrob, K. L.; King, S. M.; Worton, D. R.; Platt, S. M.; Mortensen, R.; Rosenoern, T.; Surratt, J. D.; Bilde, M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Glasius, M.

    2013-04-01

    The formation of carboxylic acids and dimer esters from α-pinene oxidation was investigated in a smog chamber and in ambient aerosol samples collected during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX). Chamber experiments of α-pinene ozonolysis in dry air and at low NOx concentrations demonstrated formation of two dimer esters, pinyl-diaterpenyl (MW 358) and pinonyl-pinyl dimer ester (MW 368), under both low- and high-temperature conditions. Concentration levels of the pinyl-diaterpenyl dimer ester were lower than the assumed first-generation oxidation products cis-pinic and terpenylic acids, but similar to the second-generation oxidation products 3-methyl-1,2,3-butane tricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA). Dimer esters were observed within the first 30 min, indicating rapid production simultaneous to their structural precursors. However, the sampling time resolution precluded conclusive evidence regarding formation from gas- or particle-phase processes. CCN activities of the particles formed in the smog chamber displayed a modest variation during the course of experiments, with κ values in the range 0.06-0.09 (derived at a supersaturation of 0.19%). The pinyl-diaterpenyl dimer ester was also observed in ambient aerosol samples collected above a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California during two seasonally distinct field campaigns in September 2007 and July 2009. The pinonyl-pinyl ester was observed for the first time in ambient air during the 2009 campaign, and although present at much lower concentrations, it was correlated with the abundance of the pinyl-diaterpenyl ester, suggesting similarities in their formation. The maximum concentration of the pinyl-diaterpenyl ester was almost 10 times higher during the warmer 2009 campaign relative to 2007, while the concentration of cis-pinic acid was approximately the same during both periods, and lack of correlation with levels of

  14. Using the OMI Aerosol Index and Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2014-12-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV Aerosol Index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the South African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  15. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  16. Simulated consumer exposure to propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) in aerosol personal products.

    PubMed

    Hartop, P J; Adams, M G

    1989-02-01

    Summary The potential human exposure to the aerosol propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) arising from its use in personal products has been assessed. HCFC 22 concentrations were measured in the 'breathing zone' of an experimental manikin and an 'accompanying child' designed to simulate human use of hairsprays, body sprays and antiperspirants in a closed room. Results were expressed as the 10-min time-weighted average concentration in the air (TWA 10) and as the peak concentration in the 'breathing zone' of the 'user'. Following a 10-s use of hairspray containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22, TWA10 values for an adult user and child were 64-116 ppm and 44-100 ppm, respectively. Use of an aerosol body spray containing 20-65% HCFC 22 for 5-20 s gave rise to TWA10 values of 32-411 ppm for an adult user and 20-395 ppm for a child. A 4-s use of an antiperspirant containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22 sprayed at a distance of 10-30 cm from the breathing zone of the adult user generated TWA 10 values in the range of 14-34 ppm for both the adult user and child. Opening the door of the room prior to hairspray and antiperspirant spraying slightly reduced these TWA 10 values. The peak values recorded in these studies for the adult user were 208 ppm for hairspray, 1415 ppm for body sprays and 82 ppm for antiperspirants.

  17. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K; Pieber, Simone M; Slowik, Jay G; Tuthill, Rosemary N; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-10

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg(-1)Herbs min(-1). These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  18. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  19. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air. PMID:27830718

  20. A Process-Modeling Study of Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in Response to Controlled Seawater Spray in Marine Boundary Layer (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Rasch, P. J.; Feingold, G.

    2010-12-01

    Vast areas of the oceanic surface are covered by stratocumulus (Sc) clouds. They significantly enhance the reflection of incoming solar radiation back to space, leading to a considerable cooling of the Earth-atmosphere system. It has been argued that a 4% increase in the areal coverage or a 0.06 increase in cloud albedo of Sc clouds can offset the warming by atmospheric CO2 doubling (Randall et al. 1984; Latham et al. 2008). Acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), aerosol particles can modify cloud albedo, cloud longevity and precipitation efficiency. Recent observational and modeling studies have suggested that aerosol, through its effect on precipitation, can alter cloud cellular structures in marine Sc region, representing a powerful modification of clouds by aerosol. The possibility of mitigating global warming by spraying sea-salt particles into marine boundary layer to brighten Sc clouds was raised by Latham (1990). The idea has been evaluated by several global climate model studies but their inability to represent cloud-scale dynamics and microphysics raises questions about the validity of the results. Using a high-resolution version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we investigate the impact of seawater spray on the formation and evolution of marine Sc through aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and dynamical feedback. We will demonstrate how injected aerosol particles are transported from the ocean surface into clouds and affect cloud microphysics and macrophysics under various meteorological conditions. We will also use simulation results to explore whether the influx of sea-salt aerosols always enhances cloud albedo and how the performance depends on the distribution of sprayers.

  1. Estimating the Direct Radiative Effect of Absorbing Aerosols Overlying Marine Boundary Layer Clouds in the Southeast Atlantic Using MODIS and CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin

    2013-01-01

    Absorbing aerosols such as smoke strongly absorb solar radiation, particularly at ultraviolet and visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) wavelengths, and their presence above clouds can have considerable implications. It has been previously shown that they have a positive (i.e., warming) direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) when overlying bright clouds. Additionally, they can cause biased passive instrument satellite retrievals in techniques that rely on VIS/NIR wavelengths for inferring the cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (re) of underlying clouds, which can in turn yield biased above-cloud DARE estimates. Here we investigate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical property retrieval biases due to overlying absorbing aerosols observed by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and examine the impact of these biases on above-cloud DARE estimates. The investigation focuses on a region in the southeast Atlantic Ocean during August and September (2006-2011), where smoke from biomass burning in southern Africa overlies persistent marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds. Adjusting for above-cloud aerosol attenuation yields increases in the regional mean liquid COT (averaged over all ocean-only liquid clouds) by roughly 6%; mean re increases by roughly 2.6%, almost exclusively due to the COT adjustment in the non-orthogonal retrieval space. It is found that these two biases lead to an underestimate of DARE. For liquid cloud Aqua MODIS pixels with CALIOP-observed above-cloud smoke, the regional mean above-cloud radiative forcing efficiency (DARE per unit aerosol optical depth (AOD)) at time of observation (near local noon for Aqua overpass) increases from 50.9Wm(sup-2)AOD(sup-1) to 65.1Wm(sup-2)AOD(sup -1) when using bias-adjusted instead of nonadjusted MODIS cloud retrievals.

  2. Kinetics, Mechanism, and Secondary Organic Aerosol Yield of Aqueous Phase Photo-oxidation of α-Pinene Oxidation Products.

    PubMed

    Aljawhary, Dana; Zhao, Ran; Lee, Alex K Y; Wang, Chen; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-03-10

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) involves atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the majority of which are emitted from biogenic sources. Oxidation can occur not only in the gas-phase but also in atmospheric aqueous phases such as cloudwater and aerosol liquid water. This study explores for the first time the aqueous-phase OH oxidation chemistry of oxidation products of α-pinene, a major biogenic VOC species emitted to the atmosphere. The kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and formation of SOA compounds in the aqueous phase of two model compounds, cis-pinonic acid (PIN) and tricarballylic acid (TCA), were investigated in the laboratory; TCA was used as a surrogate for 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA), a known α-pinene oxidation product. Aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS) was used to follow the kinetics and reaction mechanisms at the molecular level. Room-temperature second-order rate constants of PIN and TCA were determined to be 3.3 (± 0.5) × 10(9) and 3.1 (± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, from which were estimated their condensed-phase atmospheric lifetimes. Aerosol-ToF-CIMS detected a large number of products leading to detailed reaction mechanisms for PIN and MBTCA. By monitoring the particle size distribution after drying, the amount of SOA material remaining in the particle phase was determined. An aqueous SOA yield of 40 to 60% was determined for PIN OH oxidation. Although recent laboratory studies have focused primarily on aqueous-phase processing of isoprene-related compounds, we demonstrate that aqueous formation of SOA materials also occurs from monoterpene oxidation products, thus representing an additional source of biogenically driven aerosol formation.

  3. oVOC production from tropospheric alkyne oxidation and contribution to aerosol formation and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Ethyne (C2H2) is one of the simplest volatile organic compounds (VOC) and is predominantly emitted via anthropogenic processes and reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of sunlight to form tropospheric ozone (O3). The dominant oxidation product of ethyne is the dicarbonyl species glyoxal (CHOCHO), which is thought to be a significant contributor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via irreversible oligomerisation reactions upon the surface of hydrated aerosol particulates and within cloud droplets. A series of chamber experiments were performed at the EUPHORE facility (Valencia, Spain) to study the atmospheric oxidation of ethyne, to determine oxidation product yields and to monitor SOA formation and growth by dicarbonyl oligomerisation. A Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight- Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) was deployed by the University of Leicester to monitor precursor decay and the subsequent evolution of any gas-phase oxidised volatile organic compounds (oVOC). This was further complemented by a Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer (BBCEAS) for specific dicarbonyl and NO2 measurements. Aqueous extracts of chamber SOA were taken from filters collected during the experiments and subsequently analysed offline. The work explores the yields of low molecular weight products of ethyne oxidation for light and dark reactions, with varying levels of NOx and OH. Novel experiments were performed under atmospherically relevant conditions utilising natural lighting rather than artificial lighting. Reaction yields have been assessed with the aim of contributing to the ethyne and glyoxal mechanisms in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM; http://mcm.leeds.ac.uk/MCM), and have been compared with previously reported values determined from experiments performed under artificial lighting conditions.

  4. Observational constraints on glyoxal production from isoprene oxidation and its contribution to organic aerosol over the Southeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyi; Mao, Jingqiu; Min, Kyung-Eun; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Brown, Steven S.; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank N.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Graus, Martin; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Warneke, Carsten; Gouw, Joost A.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Liao, Jin; Welti, André; Henderson, Barron H.; McNeill, V. Faye; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Donner, Leo J.; Paulot, Fabien; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2016-08-01

    We use a 0-D photochemical box model and a 3-D global chemistry-climate model, combined with observations from the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) aircraft campaign, to understand the sources and sinks of glyoxal over the Southeast United States. Box model simulations suggest a large difference in glyoxal production among three isoprene oxidation mechanisms (AM3ST, AM3B, and Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) v3.3.1). These mechanisms are then implemented into a 3-D global chemistry-climate model. Comparison with field observations shows that the average vertical profile of glyoxal is best reproduced by AM3ST with an effective reactive uptake coefficient γglyx of 2 × 10-3 and AM3B without heterogeneous loss of glyoxal. The two mechanisms lead to 0-0.8 µg m-3 secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from glyoxal in the boundary layer of the Southeast U.S. in summer. We consider this to be the lower limit for the contribution of glyoxal to SOA, as other sources of glyoxal other than isoprene are not included in our model. In addition, we find that AM3B shows better agreement on both formaldehyde and the correlation between glyoxal and formaldehyde (RGF = [GLYX]/[HCHO]), resulting from the suppression of δ-isoprene peroxy radicals. We also find that MCM v3.3.1 may underestimate glyoxal production from isoprene oxidation, in part due to an underestimated yield from the reaction of isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) peroxy radicals with HO2. Our work highlights that the gas-phase production of glyoxal represents a large uncertainty in quantifying its contribution to SOA.

  5. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  6. Strategies for Improved CALIPSO Aerosol Optical Depth Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Mark A.; Kuehn, Ralph E.; Tackett, Jason L.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, A.; Getzewich, Brian J.; Powell, Kathleen A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Young, Stuart A.; Avery, Melody A.; Winker, David M.; Trepte, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) project will be releasing version 3 of its level 2 data products. In this paper we describe several changes to the algorithms and code that yield substantial improvements in CALIPSO's retrieval of aerosol optical depths (AOD). Among these are a retooled cloud-clearing procedure and a new approach to determining the base altitudes of aerosol layers in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The results derived from these modifications are illustrated using case studies prepared using a late beta version of the level 2 version 3 processing code.

  7. 76 FR 60530 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Plastic Aerosol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Plastic...''), Plastic Aerosol Research Group, L.L.C. (``PARG'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... are: Aerofil Technology Inc, Sullivan, MO; Aptar Beauty & Home, Cary, IL; Berry Plastics...

  8. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... inhaled at high concentrations. Studies also demonstrate carcinogenic effects in animals as a result...

  9. Production of cromolyn sodium microparticles for aerosol delivery by supercritical assisted atomization.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Ernesto; Adami, Renata; Caputo, Giuseppe

    2007-12-21

    The purpose of this study was to produce cromolyn sodium (CS) micrometric particles with controlled particle size (PS) and PS distribution (PSD) suitable for aerosol delivery, using a supercritical fluids-based process. CS was micronized using the supercritical assisted atomization (SAA) technique at different solute concentrations in water and different precipitation temperatures. Two techniques were used to measure PS and PSD of produced particles: scanning electron microscopy image analysis and laser scattering analysis. The 2 techniques were compared to provide a complete description of the powder obtained. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to verify the absence of degradation of CS after micronization; differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray analysis were performed to study the effect of operative conditions on the crystalline structure and on the water content of SAA micronized particles. The CS particles obtained were spherical, with a volumetric percentage of particles with a diameter ranging between 1 and 5 microm of 50% to 66%. The precipitation temperature had no significant effect on PSD, but high drying temperatures led to product degradation. Increasing the concentration of CS in water solution produced an increase in PS of the micronized particles. TGA showed that the micronized CS had a different hydration state than the untreated CS did. The micronized product was stable after 12 months of storage, and no modifications in structure, morphology, or crystallinity were detected. In conclusion, SAA is an efficient technique for micronization of CS, and stable spherical amorphous particles suitable for aerosol delivery can be produced.

  10. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  11. Characteristics of aerosol and cloud particle size distributions in the tropical tropopause layer measured with optical particle counter and lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Maruyama, K.; Hayashi, M.; Ogino, S.-Y.; Ishimoto, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Matsui, I.; Sugimoto, N.; Yamashita, K.; Saga, K.; Iwamoto, K.; Kamiakito, Y.; Chabangborn, A.; Thana, B.; Hashizume, M.; Koike, T.; Oki, T.

    2007-07-01

    An optical particle counter (OPC) is used in conjunction with lidar measurements to examine the characteristics of the particle size distribution in cirrus cloud in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over Thailand where the TTL is defined as the height at which temperature is lower than -75°C in this paper. Of 11 OPC launches, cirrus cloud was detected at 10-15 km high on 7 occasions, cirrus was detected in the TTL in 6 cases, and simultaneous OPC and lidar measurements were made on two occasions. Comparison of lidar and OPC measurements reveal that the cloud heights of cirrus in the TTL varies by several hundred meters over distances of tens kilometers; hence the height is not always horizontally uniform. The mode radii of particles constituting the clouds are estimated by lidar and OPC measurements to be less than approximately 10 μm. The regression lines of the particle size distribution with and without cirrus cloud exhibit similar features at equivalent radii of <0.8 μm. Enhancement in the integrated number concentration at radii greater than 0.8 μm indicates that liquid particles tend to be frozen at a radius of 0.8 μm, with cirrus clouds above 10 km exhibiting similar features. On the other hand, enhancement in the particle size distribution at radii greater than 0.9 μm and a peak at around 0.8 μm in the ratio of the standard deviation of count values to that of the Poisson distribution of the averaged count values are common features of cirrus clouds in the TTL, where the ratio shows the vertical homogeneity of the particle number. These typical features suggest that the transition from liquid, sulfuric acid aerosol, to ice is more observable in the TTL and the timing of freezing may vary with height in the TTL.

  12. Airborne measurements of hygroscopicity and mixing state of aerosols in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Weingartner, Ernest; Gysel, Martin; Rubach, Florian; Mentel, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols interact directly with the incident solar radiation by scattering or absorbing the light. The optical properties of an aerosol particle can strongly be altered at enhanced relative humidity (RH). Depending on the particle's chemical composition, it can experience hygroscopic growth, leading to a change in size and index of refraction compared to the dry particle (Zieger et al., 2011). Besides, aerosols can exist in different mixing states which are usually divided into internal and external mixtures. If all particles of a certain size have the same chemical composition, they are described as internally mixed, whereas if particles of equal size have different chemical composition, they are defined as externally mixed. Depending on the mixture the hygroscopic behavior will change: internally mixed aerosols will grow uniformly with increasing RH, while the different substances in external mixtures will experience different growing behaviors leading to a mode-splitting or broadened size distribution. Laboratory studies are commonly performed at dry conditions but it is known that temperature and RH as well as chemical composition are changing with altitude (Morgan et al., 2010). This further leads to the conclusion that the in-situ measurements of optical properties at different heights are crucial for climate forcing calculations. Within the Pan-European Gas-Aerosols-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) the white- light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS) was developed and installed on the Zeppelin to investigate changes of light scattering with regard to water uptake and altitude. This instrument firstly selects a dry monodisperse aerosol by its electrical mobility and then exposes it to a well-defined RH (typically 95%). Alternately, the dry and humidified particles are measured in a white-light optical particle spectrometer (WELAS). In this way it is possible to infer the effective index of refraction of the dry particles, their hygroscopic

  13. Irreversible Entropy Production in Two-Phase Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a study of dissipation (irreversible production of entropy) in three-dimensional, temporal mixing layers laden with evaporating liquid drops. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of evaporating drops on the development of turbulent features in flows. Direct numerical simulations were performed to analyze transitional states of three mixing layers: one without drops, and two that included drops at different initial mass loadings. Without drops, the dissipation is essentially due to viscous effects. It was found that in the presence of drops, the largest contribution to dissipation was made by heating and evaporation of the drops, and that at large length scales, this contribution is positive (signifying that the drops reduce turbulence), while at small scales, this contribution is negative (the drops increase turbulence). The second largest contribution to dissipation was found to be associated with the chemical potential, which leads to an increase in turbulence at large scales and a decrease in turbulence at small scales. The next smaller contribution was found to be that of viscosity. The fact that viscosity effects are only third in order of magnitude in the dissipation is in sharp contrast to the situation for the mixing layer without the drops. The next smaller contribution - that of the drag and momentum of the vapor from the drops - was found to be negative at lower mass loading but to become positive at higher mass loading.

  14. Aerosol Remote Sensing from OMI Observations: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo; Jethva, Hiren T.

    2014-01-01

    The unique advantage of OMI observations for the characterization of aerosol properties is the availability of radiance measurement at near UV wavelengths. In spite of its coarse spatial resolution, OMI's near UV observations make possible the characterization of aerosol absorption properties. This capability is unavailable in any of the currently operational high spatial resolution aerosol sensors. A unique decadal record of aerosol absorption optical depth and single scattering albedo from near UV observations has been produced from OMI observations. In this presentation we will review the evolution of OMI's aerosol retrieval capability over the past ten years including retrieval algorithm improvements, assessment of retrieved products, and development of new retrieval capabilities to infer the optical depth of aerosol layers located above clouds.

  15. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  16. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I; Morcrette, J. J.; Solomon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F; Collins, W.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, V.; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, D.; Skeie, R.

    2013-01-01

    aerosols showing a large vertical spread, and other continental and marine aerosols which are confined in the boundary layer. From this compilation, we propose a 4-D blended product from model and satellite data, consisting in monthly time series of 3-D aerosol distribution at a 50 km horizontal resolution over the Euro-Mediterranean marine and continental region for the 2003-2009 period. The product is based on the total AOD from AQUA/MODIS, apportioned into sulfates, black and organic carbon from the MACC reanalysis, and into dust and sea-salt aerosols from RegCM-4 simulations, which are distributed vertically based on CALIOP climatology.We extend the 2003-2009 reconstruction to the past up to 1979 using the 2003-2009 average and applying the decreasing trend in sulfate aerosols from LMDz-OR-INCA, whose AOD trends over Europe and the Mediterranean are median among the ACCMIP models. Finally optical properties of the different aerosol types in this region are proposed from Mie calculations so that this reconstruction can be included in regional climate models for aerosol radiative forcing and aerosol-climate studies.

  17. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  18. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  19. Temporal and spectral cloud screening of polar winter aerosol optical depth (AOD): impact of homogeneous and inhomogeneous clouds and crystal layers on climatological-scale AODs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Norman T.; Baibakov, Konstantin; Hesaraki, Sareh; Ivanescu, Liviu; Martin, Randall V.; Perro, Chris; Chaubey, Jai P.; Herber, Andreas; Duck, Thomas J.

    2016-10-01

    We compared star-photometry-derived, polar winter aerosol optical depths (AODs), acquired at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, and Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, with GEOS-Chem (GC) simulations as well as ground-based lidar and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) retrievals over a sampling period of two polar winters. The results indicate significant cloud and/or low-altitude ice crystal (LIC) contamination which is only partially corrected using temporal cloud screening. Spatially homogeneous clouds and LICs that remain after temporal cloud screening represent an inevitable systematic error in the estimation of AOD: this error was estimated to vary from 78 to 210 % at Eureka and from 2 to 157 % at Ny-Ålesund. Lidar analysis indicated that LICs appeared to have a disproportionately large influence on the homogeneous coarse-mode optical depths that escape temporal cloud screening. In principle, spectral cloud screening (to yield fine-mode or submicron AODs) reduces pre-cloud-screened AODs to the aerosol contribution if one assumes that coarse-mode (super-micron) aerosols are a minor part of the AOD. Large, low-frequency differences between these retrieved values and their GC analogue appeared to be often linked to strong, spatially extensive planetary boundary layer events whose presence at either site was inferred from CALIOP profiles. These events were either not captured or significantly underestimated by the GC simulations. High-frequency AOD variations of GC fine-mode aerosols at Ny-Ålesund were attributed to sea salt, while low-frequency GC variations at Eureka and Ny-Ålesund were attributable to sulfates. CALIOP profiles and AODs were invaluable as spatial and temporal redundancy support (or, alternatively, as insightful points of contention) for star photometry retrievals and GC estimates of AOD.

  20. Optical properties of mixed aerosol layers over Japan derived with multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Yukari; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Pan, Xiaole; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Osada, Kazuo; Uno, Itsushi

    2017-02-01

    Mixing state of aerosols and optical properties including lidar ratio, particle depolarization ratio, and Ångström exponent were investigated at Fukuoka in western Japan using a multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar (MMRL), various aerosol mass-concentration measurements, and a polarization optical particle counter during Winter-Spring 2015. Aerosol extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and depolarization at 355 and 532 nm and attenuated backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm are obtained from the MMRL measurements. Ten aerosol episodes were classified into three categories (air pollution, mineral dust, and marine aerosol) based on aerosol mass-concentration measurements in the fine-mode (particle diameter Dp<2.5 μm) and coarse-mode (2.5 μmaerosols. The lowest lidar ratio was obtained for marine case. Classification of aerosol types using the lidar ratio and particle depolarization ratio was conducted based on the results obtained in this study. The classified aerosol types almost corresponded to aerosol category obtained by previous studies. We found no remarkable correlation between the fraction of black carbon and the lidar ratio: this might be due to the complexity of the mixing state among various aerosols. The obtained lidar ratio was rather correlated with the ratio of PMf to PM10, representing the mixing state of fine- and coarse-mode particles.

  1. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting similar behavior to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established, reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10-400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1-2.0 μm) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM 1.1) ranged from 10 to >300 μg m -3 and yields ranged from 5% to 37%. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were ˜10 cm -3 s -1 and ˜10 μg m -3 min -1, respectively.

  2. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.

  3. Ozone, Aerosols and other Atmospheric Products from Version-8 TOMS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Herman, J. R.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Torres, O.; Krueger, A. J.; Johnson, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    NASA has provided scientists with high resolution daily global maps of total column ozone obtained from a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer(TOMS) instruments flown on Nimbus-7 in 1978, Meteor-3 in 1991, the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and Earth Probe (EP) satellites in 1996. EP-TOMS (launched a few months prior to ADEOS-TOMS), is the currently operating TOMS instrument providing the ozone data continuity and key information on ozone trends. TOMS instruments have also been used for monitoring dust plumes, smoke from biomass burning, and ash and sulfur dioxide from volcanoes. The V8 TOMS algorithm is the most recent version of the buv (backscattered ultraviolet) radiance based total ozone retrieval algorithms. The TOMS algorithm has undergone more than two decades of progressive refinement. It enhances the previous version (V7) ozone retrievals by taking care of several small errors that were discovered by extensive error studies using radiative transfer models and by comparison with ground-based instruments. We estimate that the new TOMS algorithm is capable of producing total ozone with rms error of about 2 percent. This algorithm will also be used for retrieval of total column ozone from the buv measurements of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be flown on the Aura spacecraft (early 2004) that will provide continuity to the long time series of total column ozone retrieved using almost the same algorithm (to be consistent) for the study of ozone trend. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data Active Archive Center(GES DAAC) has been responsible for archiving the high quality ozone and other related products derived from the TOMS UV radiances and making it available to users. Additional products include effective Lambertian surface reflectivity, effective cloud fraction, a sun glint index, aerosol characteristics, an SO2 index, surface spectral UV and erythemal weighted irradiance. This presentation will provide some highlights of the standard

  4. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas

  5. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1997-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included pollution haze layer from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core.

  6. Impact of atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and wind reversal on the diurnal variability of aerosol concentration at a valley site.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Lee, T R; Phelps, S; De Wekker, S F J

    2014-10-15

    The development of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in affecting the variability of atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, greenhouse gases, water vapor, and ozone. In general, the concentration of any tracers within the ABL varies due to the changes in the mixing volume (i.e. ABL depth). In this study, we investigate the impact on the near-surface aerosol concentration in a valley site of 1) the boundary layer dilution due to vertical mixing and 2) changes in the wind patterns. We use a data set obtained during a 10-day field campaign in which a number of remote sensing and in-situ instruments were deployed, including a ground-based aerosol lidar system for monitoring of the ABL top height (zi), a particle counter to determine the number concentration of aerosol particles at eight different size ranges, and tower-based standard meteorological instruments. Results show a clearly visible decreasing trend of the mean daytime zi from 2900 m AGL (above ground level) to 2200 m AGL during a three-day period which resulted in increased near-surface pollutant concentrations. An inverse relationship exists between the zi and the fine fraction (0.3-0.7 μm) accumulation mode particles (AMP) on some days due to the dilution effect in a well-mixed ABL. These days are characterized by the absence of daytime upvalley winds and the presence of northwesterly synoptic-driven winds. In contrast, on the days with an onset of an upvalley wind circulation after the morning transition, the wind-driven local transport mechanism outweighs the ABL-dilution effect in determining the variability of AMP concentration. The interplay between the ABL depth evolution and the onset of the upvalley wind during the morning transition period significantly governs the air quality in a valley and could be an important component in the studies of mountain meteorology and air quality.

  7. Initial assessment of space-based lidar CALIOP aerosol and cloud layer structures through inter-comparison with a ground-based back-scattering lidar and CloudSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Yoon, S.-C.; Chung, E.-S.; Sohn, B.-J.; Berthier, S.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Dulac, F.

    2009-03-01

    This study presents results of the intercomparison of aerosol/cloud top and bottom heights obtained from a space-borne active sensor Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO, and the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) onboard CloudSat, and the space-borne passive sensor Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua, and ground-based 2-wavelenght polarization lidar system (532 and 1064 nm) at Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, South Korea. This result confirms that the CALIPSO science team algorithms for the discrimination of cloud and aerosol as well as for the detection of layer top and base altitude provide reliable information both under cloud-free conditions and in cases of multiple aerosol layers underlying semi-transparent cirrus clouds. Simultaneous space-borne CALIOP, CPR and ground-based SNU lidar (SNU-L) measurements complement each other and can be combined to provide full information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, especially for thick opaque clouds. The aerosol extinction profiles from both lidars show good agreement for aerosols within the planetary boundary layer under cloud-free conditions and for the night-time CALIOP flight.

  8. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) and MODIS to AERONET AOD and IMPROVE PM2.5 Mass at Bondville, Illinois Stratified by Chemical Composition, RH, Particle Size, and Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. C.; Kondragunta, S.; Ciren, P.

    2008-05-01

    The USEPA is interested in using satellite remote sensing data to estimate levels of PM2.5. Here we report on comparisons of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to IMPROVE network PM2.5 mass and AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) ground-based AOD. Before we compare GASP and MODIS AOD to PM2.5, we first evaluate satellite AOD using the ground-based AERONET measurements and how it varies by aerosol chemical composition and size distribution. We focus attention on the Bondville, Illinois site because there is collocated IMPROVE sampling and an AERONET site. GASP provides aerosol optical depth at 0.55 um using top of atmosphere visible channel radiance measured from GOES east and GOES west. Time resolution is typically every 30 minutes during daylight hours. MODIS provides typically once per day AOD for any given location. The IMPROVE sampler provides a 24-hour integrated sample of PM10 mass, and PM2.5 mass and elemental composition on a one day in three schedule. AERONET provides aerosol optical depth at multiple wavelengths and aerosol size distribution as well as other derived parameters such as Angstrom exponent from ground based daytime measurements. We stratified cases by RH group, major chemical component, size distribution, and season. GOES AOD correlated best with PM2.5 mass during periods with mainly small particles, moderate RH, and sulfate dominated aerosol. It correlated poorly when RH is very high or low, aerosol is primarily organic, and when coarse to fine mass ratio is high. GASP AOD also correlated best with AERONET AOD when particles are mainly fine, suggesting the aerosol model assumptions (e.g. size distribution) may need to be varied geographically for GASP to achieve better AOD results.

  9. Aerosol Number-size Distributions and Hygroscopic Growth in the Marine Boundary Layer during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, D. S.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.

    2001-12-01

    As part of the Aerosol Chemistry Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia), measurements of the physical and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles were made on the NOAA Research Vessel Ron Brown in the experiment's study area around southern Japan, the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea from 30 March through 19 April, 2001 (Day of Year 90 through 109). The number-size distribution from 3 nm to 10 um diameter was measured with a combination of differential mobility analyzers and aerodynamic particle sizers. The system was operated at 55% relative humidity (RH) for consistency with optical measurements and size dependent chemical sampling on the ship. A separate system consisting of three differential mobility analyzers and humidity conditioners measured the change in hydration of the accumulation mode particles from an initial condition of 55% RH to humidities of 20% and 90% RH. The result is a distribution of hygroscopic growth factors at the end RH relative to the initial humidity. The size distributions varied widely depending on the location of the ship, the source of the air mass and the local meteorological conditions. The dominant features included ultrafine particles (less than 20 nm), soil dust particulate mass (greater than 2 um) and Aitken, accumulation mode number and mass (40 to 600 nm). The results are limited to case studies rather than any statistical or time-space average due to the limited data base and the few sources and air mass types encountered in the 21 day period. The results have been analyzed and categorized according to specific air mass trajectories and chemical analysis and are considered representative of those air masses at the marine boundary layer level. Soil dust dominated distributions were observed on days 101 through 103 with volume concentrations of 50 to 100 um3/cm3 and a volume mean diameter of 3 um. High concentrations of ultrafine particles were observed on the later two of these days from early morning through mid-afternoon in spite

  10. Production of Inhalable Submicrometer Aerosols from Conventional Mesh Nebulizers for Improved Respiratory Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Longest, P Worth; Spence, Benjamin M; Holbrook, Landon T; Mossi, Karla M; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Submicrometer and nanoparticle aerosols may significantly improve the delivery efficiency, dissolution characteristics, and bioavailability of inhaled pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to explore the formation of submicrometer and nanometer aerosols from mesh nebulizers suitable for respiratory drug delivery using experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Mesh nebulizers were coupled with add-on devices to promote aerosol drying and the formation of submicrometer particles, as well as to control the inhaled aerosol temperature and relative humidity. Cascade impaction experiments were used to determine the initial mass median aerodynamic diameters of 0.1% albuterol aerosols produced by the AeroNeb commercial (4.69 μm) and lab (3.90 μm) nebulizers and to validate the CFD model in terms of droplet evaporation. Through an appropriate selection of flow rates, nebulizers, and model drug concentrations, submicrometer and nanometer aerosols could be formed with the three devices considered. Based on CFD simulations, a wire heated design was shown to overheat the airstream producing unsafe conditions for inhalation if the aerosol was not uniformly distributed in the tube cross-section or if the nebulizer stopped producing droplets. In comparison, a counter-flow heated design provided sufficient thermal energy to produce submicrometer particles, but also automatically limited the maximum aerosol outlet temperature based on the physics of heat transfer. With the counter-flow design, submicrometer aerosols were produced at flow rates of 5, 15, and 30 LPM, which may be suitable for various forms of oral and nasal aerosol delivery. Thermodynamic conditions of the aerosol stream exiting the counter-flow design were found be in a range of 21-45 °C with relative humidity greater than 40% in some cases, which was considered safe for direct inhalation and advantageous for condensational growth delivery.

  11. Production of Inhalable Submicrometer Aerosols from Conventional Mesh Nebulizers for Improved Respiratory Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Spence, Benjamin M.; Holbrook, Landon T.; Mossi, Karla M.; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Submicrometer and nanoparticle aerosols may significantly improve the delivery efficiency, dissolution characteristics, and bioavailability of inhaled pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to explore the formation of submicrometer and nanometer aerosols from mesh nebulizers suitable for respiratory drug delivery using experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Mesh nebulizers were coupled with add-on devices to promote aerosol drying and the formation of submicrometer particles, as well as to control the inhaled aerosol temperature and relative humidity. Cascade impaction experiments were used to determine the initial mass median aerodynamic diameters of 0.1% albuterol aerosols produced by the AeroNeb commercial (4.69 μm) and lab (3.90 μm) nebulizers and to validate the CFD model in terms of droplet evaporation. Through an appropriate selection of flow rates, nebulizers, and model drug concentrations, submicrometer and nanometer aerosols could be formed with the three devices considered. Based on CFD simulations, a wire heated design was shown to overheat the airstream producing unsafe conditions for inhalation if the aerosol was not uniformly distributed in the tube cross-section or if the nebulizer stopped producing droplets. In comparison, a counter-flow heated design provided sufficient thermal energy to produce submicrometer particles, but also automatically limited the maximum aerosol outlet temperature based on the physics of heat transfer. With the counter-flow design, submicrometer aerosols were produced at flow rates of 5, 15, and 30 LPM, which may be suitable for various forms of oral and nasal aerosol delivery. Thermodynamic conditions of the aerosol stream exiting the counter-flow design were found be in a range of 21-45 °C with relative humidity greater than 40% in some cases, which was considered safe for direct inhalation and advantageous for condensational growth delivery. PMID:22707794

  12. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    SciTech Connect

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Solmon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F.; Collins, W.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, Vaishali; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.

    2013-05-17

    showing a large vertical spread, and other continental and marine aerosols which are confined in the boundary layer. From this compilation, we propose a 4-D blended product from model and satellite data, consisting in monthly time series of 3-D aerosol distribution at a 50 km horizontal resolution over the Euro-Mediterranean marine and continental region for the 2003–2009 period. The product is based on the total AOD from AQUA/MODIS, apportioned into sulfates, black and organic carbon from the MACC reanalysis, and into dust and sea-salt aerosols from RegCM-4 simulations, which are distributed vertically based on CALIOP climatology.We extend the 2003–2009 reconstruction to the past up to 1979 using the 2003–2009 average and applying the decreasing trend in sulfate aerosols from LMDz-OR-INCA, whose AOD trends over Europe and the Mediterranean are median among the ACCMIP models. Finally optical properties of the different aerosol types in this region are proposed from Mie calculations so that this reconstruction can be included in regional climate models for aerosol radiative forcing and aerosolclimate studies.

  13. New X-ray testing methods of aerosol products for industrial radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozydar Knyziak, Adrian; Rzodkiewicz, Witold; Kaczorowska, Ewa; Derlacinski, Michal

    2017-02-01

    An amount of product in e.g. an aerosol canister is not difficult to estimate by weighing a filled can and subtracting the tare of packaging. In this way, we can obtain the net weight of the ingredients present in the can. Although, this does not indicate the volumetric content. Therefore, in the paper, the fundamental (the weight method and given by FEICA) and new methods (given by authors) related to the determination of the volumetric content of canister filled with aeorosol products are presented. The new methods are based on direct digital radiography (DR) using X-ray radiation. For the needs of new methods, the X-ray CCD-DR imaging system was built and developed in our Laboratory in Department of Radiation and Vibration at the Central Office of Measures. For comparison purposes, with regard to the volumetric content, a lot of metal cans of capacities 140, 185, 450, 700 ml were inspected. In future, computed tomography (CT) for industrial radiography in our laboratory will be used. Currently, an algorithm for CT is being tested. It will give us possibility for very precise measurements to determine volumetric content of examined canisters.

  14. Effect of heavy haze and aerosol pollution on rice and wheat productions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Dai, Wenting; Cao, Junji; Long, Xin; Su, Xiaoli; Zhao, Shuyu; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui

    2016-07-01

    In China, regional haze pollution is a serious environmental problem. The impact on ecosystem, however, is not clearly understood. This study investigates the effect of regional haze pollution on the yields of rice and wheat in China. The spatial and temporal distributions of aerosol optical depth (AOD) show high particulate pollution in the North China Plain region, Yangtze River Delta region, the central eastern China, and the Si Chuan Basin, coexisted largely with crop growth in time and space. The solar irradiance reaching these regions is estimated to reduce by up to 28–49%, calculated using the AOD distributions and tropospheric ultraviolet-visible (TUV) model. Reduction of solar irradiance in these regions can depress optimal yields of about 45% of rice and 75% of wheat growth in China, leading to 2% reduction in total rice production and 8% reduction in total wheat production in China. However, there are large uncertainties of the estimate related to the diffuse solar radiation. For high diffuse radiation case, the estimate reductions of rice and wheat decrease to 1% and 4.5%, respectively. A further detailed study is needed to clearly understand this effect to meet the growing food demand in the nation in the coming decades.

  15. An improved whitecap timescale for sea spray aerosol production flux modeling using the discrete whitecap method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Adrian H.

    2013-09-01

    The discrete whitecap method (DWM) to model the sea spray aerosol (SSA) production flux explicitly requires a whitecap timescale, which up to now has only considered a whitecap decay timescale, τdecay. A reevaluation of the DWM suggests that the whitecap timescale should account for the total whitecap lifetime (τwcap), which consists of both the formation timescale (τform) and the decay timescale (timescale definitions are given in the text). Here values of τform for 552 oceanic whitecaps measured at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory on the east coast of the USA are presented, and added to the corresponding values of τdecay to form 552 whitecap timescales. For the majority of whitecaps, τform makes up about 20-25% of τwcap, but this can be as large as 70% depending on the value of τdecay. Furthermore, an area-weighted mean whitecap timescale for use in the DWM (τDWM) is defined that encompasses the variable nature of individual whitecap lifetimes within a given time period, and is calculated to be 5.3 s for this entire data set. This value is combined with previously published whitecap coverage parameterizations and estimates of SSA particle production per whitecap area to form a size-resolved SSA production flux parameterization (dF(r80)/dlog10r80). This parameterization yields integrated sea-salt mass fluxes that are largely within the range of uncertainty of recent measurements over the size range 0.029 µm < r80 < 0.580 µm. Physical factors controlling whitecap lifetime such as bubble plume lifetime and surfactant stabilization are discussed in the context of SSA production from whitecaps.

  16. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  17. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  18. High-time resolved measurements of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol precursors and products in urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2016-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are present in the atmosphere entirely in the gas phase are directly emitted by biogenic (~1089 Tg yr-1) and anthropogenic sources (~185 Tg yr-1). However, the sources and molecular speciation of intermediate VOCs (IVOCs), which are for the most part also present almost entirely in the gas phase, are not well characterized. The VOCs and IVOCs participate in reactions that form ozone and semivolatile OC (SVOC) that partition into the aerosol phase. Formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are part of a complex dynamic process that depends on the molecular speciation and concentration of VOCs, IVOCs, primary organic aerosol (POA), and the level of oxidants (NO3, OH, O3). The current lack of understanding of OA properties and their impact on radiative forcing, ecosystems, and human health is partly due to limitations of models to predict SOA production on local, regional, and global scales. More accurate forecasting of SOA production requires high-temporal resolution measurement and molecular characterization of SOA precursors and products. For the subject study, the IVOCs and aerosol-phase organic matter were collected using the high-volume sampling technique and were analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The IVOCs included terpenes, terpenoids, n-alkanes, branched alkanes, isoprenoids, alkylbenzenes, cycloalkylbenzenes, PAH, alkyl PAH, and an unresolved complex mixture (UCM). Diurnal variations of OA species containing multiple oxygenated functionalities and selected SOA tracers of isorprene, α-pinene, toluene, cyclohexene, and n-dodecane oxidation were also quantified. The data for SOA precursor and oxidation products presented here will be useful for evaluating the ability of molecular-specific SOA models to forecast SOA production in and downwind of urban areas.

  19. Relationships between aerosol optical depth and surface-layer extinction in the central part of the Upper Silesia industrial region over the period of 1983-1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztyler, Apoloniusz

    The subject of analysis is the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the visible part of the solar spectrum (τ) (wavelength λ=0.295-0.695μ m). Calculation of τ-values was based on pyrheliometric observation data performed from 1983 to 1994 at IEIA's station (Katowice-Załęże). This paper examines the dependence of τ and its relation to surface-layer extinction coefficient σ (Koschmider quotient of 3.912 and visibility V) on meteorological and anthropological factors during the observation period. Knowledge of the relationship between columnar aerosol turbidity (which can be expressed by τ) and σ allows a more precise and accurate estimation of the aerosol effect on the radiative composition of climate. This work offers some contributions to solving this problem. Therefore, the relations have been described in the form of mathematical/statistical models of AOD (based on "momentary" and mean seasonal values), in which meteorological (and astronomical) parameters as well as the amount of industry dust emission were used as independent variables to improve exactness and credibility in the models.

  20. Comparison Between NPP-VIIRS Aerosol Data Products and the MODIS AQUA Deep Blue Collection 6 Dataset Over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, Andrew M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Kondragunta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are small particles suspended in the atmosphere and have a variety of natural and man-made sources. Knowledge of aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is a measure of the amount of aerosol in the atmosphere, and its change over time, is important for multiple reasons. These include climate change, air quality (pollution) monitoring, monitoring hazards such as dust storms and volcanic ash, monitoring smoke from biomass burning, determining potential energy yields from solar plants, determining visibility at sea, estimating fertilization of oceans and rainforests by transported mineral dust, understanding changes in weather brought upon by the interaction of aerosols and clouds, and more. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine AOD. This study compares the VIIRS dataset to ground-based measurements of AOD, along with a state-of-the-art satellite AOD dataset (the new version of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Deep Blue algorithm) to assess its reliability. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011, carrying several instruments designed to continue the biogeophysical data records of current and previous satellite sensors. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine aerosol optical depth (AOD), and related activities since launch have been focused towards validating and understanding this new dataset through comparisons with other satellite and ground-based products. The operational VIIRS AOD product is compared over land with AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations using the Deep Blue (DB) algorithm from the forthcoming Collection 6 of MODIS data

  1. Aerosol assisted self-assembly as a route to synthesize solid and hollow spherical lignin colloids and its utilization in layer by layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Mishra, P K; Wimmer, R

    2017-03-01

    Lignin, a major constituent of plant cell-wall and by-product of paper based industries is traditionally used for low value applications (heat or electricity generation), but its potential in high value utilization has also been widely reported. In this work, we synthesized lignin colloidal particles using ultrasonic spray-freezing route without any chemical functionalization of material, and stabilized it by electrostatic route. As per our knowledge, this technique is the first reported method which yields hollow/solid lignin colloids having good particle size control without any chemical functionalization of material. Dioxane soluble fraction of Alkali lignin (d-lignin) was used without any further chemical functionalization. d-lignin dissolved in DMSO was sprayed upon liquid nitrogen cooled copper plate using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting frozen droplets were collected and found to possess hollow and solid morphology. Particles thus obtained were characterized for their size distribution and morphology, and compared to theoretically anticipated values. Size tunability of particles in relation to concentration of sprayed lignin solution was also studied. In addition to that, six layers of lignin colloids were deposited on quartz slide with the aid of negligible UV absorbing polyelectrolyte aqueous solution PDADMAC [Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)]. Gradation in UV absorbing ability of lignin with increase in number of layers could be clearly observed. Hollow and solid lignin colloids, apart from their application in sunscreen cosmetics owing to their UV absorbing ability, show potential applications in drug delivery also.

  2. Shortwave and longwave radiative forcings of aerosols depending on the vertical stratification of aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Nishizawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    We investigate four scenarios for estimating shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) using the global data set of the vertical distributions for aerosols and clouds of CALIPSO and CloudSat Level 2 products. One scenario is clear-sky (cloud-free) condition and three scenarios are cloudy-sky condition: the case that aerosols exists above clouds (AAC case), and the case that aerosols exist below high clouds such as cirrus, but without clouds below the aerosol layers (ABC case), and the case that aerosols are not observed in cloudy-sky condition. In clear-sky and ABC cases, aerosols mainly scatter sunlight and SWDARFs show negative values, except for bright surfaces, such as desert regions and the North and South Poles. In AAC case, aerosols absorb the reflected light from underlying low-level clouds to TOA, so that SWDARF at TOA shows positive value. Mineral dust absorbs the Earth's radiation and LWDARF indicates strong positive over Saharan and Arabian deserts. The global mean values of SW plus LW DARFs are -2.77, -0.77, and -1.40 Wm-2 under clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky conditions.

  3. Aerosol and cloud microphysics covariability in the northeast Pacific boundary layer estimated with ship-based and satellite remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painemal, David; Chiu, J.-Y. Christine; Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Christopher; Zhou, Xiaoli; Cadeddu, Maria; Eloranta, Edwin; Lewis, Ernie R.; Ferrare, Richard; Kollias, Pavlos

    2017-02-01

    Ship measurements collected over the northeast Pacific along transects between the port of Los Angeles (33.7°N, 118.2°W) and Honolulu (21.3°N, 157.8°W) during May to August 2013 were utilized to investigate the covariability between marine low cloud microphysical and aerosol properties. Ship-based retrievals of cloud optical depth (τ) from a Sun photometer and liquid water path (LWP) from a microwave radiometer were combined to derive cloud droplet number concentration Nd and compute a cloud-aerosol interaction (ACI) metric defined as ACICCN = ∂ ln(Nd)/∂ ln(CCN), with CCN denoting the cloud condensation nuclei concentration measured at 0.4% (CCN0.4) and 0.3% (CCN0.3) supersaturation. Analysis of CCN0.4, accumulation mode aerosol concentration (Na), and extinction coefficient (σext) indicates that Na and σext can be used as CCN0.4 proxies for estimating ACI. ACICCN derived from 10 min averaged Nd and CCN0.4 and CCN0.3, and CCN0.4 regressions using Na and σext, produce high ACICCN: near 1.0, that is, a fractional change in aerosols is associated with an equivalent fractional change in Nd. ACICCN computed in deep boundary layers was small (ACICCN = 0.60), indicating that surface aerosol measurements inadequately represent the aerosol variability below clouds. Satellite cloud retrievals from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and GOES-15 data were compared against ship-based retrievals and further analyzed to compute a satellite-based ACICCN. Satellite data correlated well with their ship-based counterparts with linear correlation coefficients equal to or greater than 0.78. Combined satellite Nd and ship-based CCN0.4 and Na yielded a maximum ACICCN = 0.88-0.92, a value slightly less than the ship-based ACICCN, but still consistent with aircraft-based studies in the eastern Pacific.

  4. Satellite assessment of sea spray aerosol productivity: Southern Ocean case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Marcin L.; Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite many years of observations by multiple sensors, there is still substantial ambiguity regarding aerosol optical depths (AOD) over remote oceans, in particular, over the pristine Southern Ocean. Passive satellite retrievals (e.g., Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and global aerosol transport models show a distinct AOD maximum around the 60°S latitude band. Sun photometer measurements performed by the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), on the other hand, indicate no increased AODs over the Southern Ocean. In this study elevated Southern Ocean AODs are examined from the modeling perspective. The primary aerosol component over the Southern Ocean is sea spray aerosol (SSA). Multiple simulations of SSA concentrations and optical depths are carried out using a single modeling framework, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) model. Several SSA emission functions are examined, including recently proposed formulations with sea surface temperature corrections. The differences between NAAPS simulations are primarily due to different SSA emission formulations. The results are compared against satellite-derived AODs from the MISR and MODIS instruments. MISR and MODIS AOD retrievals are further filtered to eliminate retrievals potentially affected by cloud contamination and cloud adjacency effects. The results indicate a very large impact of SSA emission parameterization on the simulated AODs. For some scenarios, the Southern Ocean AOD maximum almost completely disappears. Further MISR and MODIS AOD quality screening substantially improves model/satellite agreement. Based on these comparisons, an optimal SSA emission function for global aerosol transport models is recommended.

  5. A Spatio-Temporal Approach for Global Validation and Analysis of MODIS Aerosol Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Tanre, Didier; Slutsker, Ilya; Holben, Brent N.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the launch of the MODIS sensor on the Terra spacecraft, new data sets of the global distribution and properties of aerosol are being retrieved, and need to be validated and analyzed. A system has been put in place to generate spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of the MODIS aerosol parameters over more than 100 validation sites spread around the globe. Corresponding statistics are also computed from temporal subsets of AERONET-derived aerosol data. The means and standard deviations of identical parameters from MOMS and AERONET are compared. Although, their means compare favorably, their standard deviations reveal some influence of surface effects on the MODIS aerosol retrievals over land, especially at low aerosol loading. The direction and rate of spatial variation from MODIS are used to study the spatial distribution of aerosols at various locations either individually or comparatively. This paper introduces the methodology for generating and analyzing the data sets used by the two MODIS aerosol validation papers in this issue.

  6. The Remote Sensing of Mineral Aerosols and Their Impact on Phytoplankton Productivity using Sea WiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, Petra M.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal was to use SeaWiFs data to study the relationship between aerosols found in aeollan dust and photosynthesis of phytoplankton in open ocean surface waters. This project was a collaborative effort between myself and Dr. Neil Tindale at Texas A&M University and followed on our earlier funded proposal which had been designed as a proof-of-concept study to determine if ocean color sensors such as the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) could be used to detect and map large-scale mineral aerosol plumes. Despite the large spatial and temporal gaps inherent in the CZCS data coverage, our results from this initial study indicated that an ocean color sensor could indeed be used to detect aerosols. These encouraging results led us to propose in this proposal the use of SeaWiFS data to study mineral aerosol transport and its impact on phytoplankton production. This proposal orignally intended to make use of SeaWiFS images, but as the launch delay of SeaWiFS dragged on, we had to make do with other satellite data sets. Thus, the focus of this proposal became the CSCS image archive instead. I detail my results and accomplishments with this data set.

  7. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ommen, J. Ruud van Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min{sup −1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s{sup −1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  8. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins have not been detached from...

  9. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins have not been detached from...

  10. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with... Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  11. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins have not been detached from...

  12. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with... Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  13. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  14. Assessing Aerosol Mixed Layer Heights from the NASA Larc Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) during the Discover-AQ Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Sawamura, P.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Seaman, S. T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; daSilva, A.; Randles, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD, during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley of California, during September 2013 over Houston, TX and during July and August 2014 over Denver, CO. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the mixed layer (ML) height. Analysis of the ML height at these four locations is presented, including temporal and horizontal variability and comparisons between land and water, including the Chesapeake Bay and Galveston Bay. Using the ML heights, the distribution of AOT relative to the ML heights is determined, which is relevant for assessing the long-range transport of aerosols. The ML heights are also used to help relate column AOT measurements and extinction profiles to surface PM2.5 concentrations. The HSRL ML heights are also used to evaluate the performance in simulating the temporal and spatial variability of ML heights from both chemical regional models and global forecast models.

  15. Preliminary results for salt aerosol production intended for marine cloud brightening, using effervescent spray atomization

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Gary; Foster, Jack; Galbraith, Lee; Jain, Sudhanshu; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale production of vast numbers of suitable salt nuclei and their upward launch is one of the main technological barriers to the experimental testing of marine cloud brightening (MCB). Very promising, though not definitive, results have been obtained using an adapted version of effervescent spray atomization. The process is simple, robust and inexpensive. This form of effervescent spraying uses only pressurized water and air sprayed from small nozzles to obtain very fine distributions. While it is far from optimized, and may not be the best method if full deployment is ever desired, we believe that even in its present form the process would lend itself well to preliminary field test investigations of MCB. Measurements obtained using standard aerosol instrumentation show approximately lognormal distributions of salt nuclei with median diameters of approximately 65 nm and geometric standard deviations slightly less than 2. However, these measurements are not in agreement with those based on scanning electron microscopy imaging of collected particles, an observation that has not yet been explained. Assuming the above distribution, 1015 particles per second could be made with 21 kW of spray power, using approximately 200 nozzles. It is envisioned that existing snow making equipment can be adapted to launch the nuclei 60–100 m into the air, requiring approximately 20 kW of additional power. PMID:25404673

  16. Preliminary results for salt aerosol production intended for marine cloud brightening, using effervescent spray atomization.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gary; Foster, Jack; Galbraith, Lee; Jain, Sudhanshu; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob

    2014-12-28

    The large-scale production of vast numbers of suitable salt nuclei and their upward launch is one of the main technological barriers to the experimental testing of marine cloud brightening (MCB). Very promising, though not definitive, results have been obtained using an adapted version of effervescent spray atomization. The process is simple, robust and inexpensive. This form of effervescent spraying uses only pressurized water and air sprayed from small nozzles to obtain very fine distributions. While it is far from optimized, and may not be the best method if full deployment is ever desired, we believe that even in its present form the process would lend itself well to preliminary field test investigations of MCB. Measurements obtained using standard aerosol instrumentation show approximately lognormal distributions of salt nuclei with median diameters of approximately 65 nm and geometric standard deviations slightly less than 2. However, these measurements are not in agreement with those based on scanning electron microscopy imaging of collected particles, an observation that has not yet been explained. Assuming the above distribution, 10(15) particles per second could be made with 21 kW of spray power, using approximately 200 nozzles. It is envisioned that existing snow making equipment can be adapted to launch the nuclei 60-100 m into the air, requiring approximately 20 kW of additional power.

  17. Aerosol and product yields from NO{sub 3} radical-initiated oxidation o/f selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, M.; Ljungstroem, E.; Waengberg, I.; Barnes, I.; Becker, K.H.

    1999-02-15

    Atmospheric transformation of monoterpenes gives products that may cause environmental consequences. In this work the NO{sub 3} radical-initiated oxidation of the monoterpenes {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, {Delta}{sup 3}-carene, and limonene has been investigated. All experiments were conducted in EUPHORE, the EUropean PHOto REactor facility in Valencia, Spain. The aerosol and product yields were measured in experiments with a conversion of the terpenes in the interval from 7 to 400 ppb. The lower end of the concentrations used are close to those measured in ambient pine forest air. Products were measured using long path in situ FTIR. Aerosol yields were obtained using a DMA-CPC system. The aerosol mass yields measured at low concentrations were <1, 10, 15, and 17% for {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, {Delta}{sup 3}-carene, and limonene, respectively. The total molar alkylnitrate yields were calculated to be 19, 61, 66, and 48%, and molar carbonyl compound yields were estimated to be 71, 14, 29, and 69% for {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, {Delta}{sup 3}-carene, and limonene, respectively. The aerosol yields were strongly dependent on the amounts of terpene reacted, whereas the nitrate and carbonyl yields do not depend on the amount of terpene converted. The principal carbonyl compound from {alpha}pinene oxidation was pinonaldehyde. In the case of limonene, endolim was tentatively identified and appears to be a major product. The reactions with {beta}-pinene and {Delta}{sup 3}-carene yielded 1--2% of nopinone and 2--3% caronaldehyde, respectively. The results show that it is not possible to use generalized descriptions of terpene chemistry, e.g., in mathematical models.

  18. The generation of aerosols by accidents which may occur during plant-scale production of micro-organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, J.; Pomeroy, N. P.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to simulate accidents which may occur during large-scale production of micro-organisms. Four types of accident, which were considered to be the most likely to result in the greatest hazard to health, were simulated using a bacterial model. The accidents were all concerned with faults occurring in the operation of the microbial fermenter. Gross contamination of surfaces occurred in all experiments, but only three types of accident produced a measurable aerosol. PMID:6350448

  19. Study of a CCP RF Dusty Plasma for the Production of Titan's Aerosols Analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, G.; Cernogora, G.; Ouni, F.; Correia, J. J.; Cavarroc, M.; Boufendi, L.; Szopa, C.

    2008-09-07

    The CCP-RF discharge PAMPRE experiment produces analogues of Titan's aerosols. Here are presented the plasma characteristics as a function of gas mixtures and dust formation. Electronic density, optical emission spectroscopy, and self-bias voltage measurements are presented.

  20. Operational Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean using INSAT-3D/Imager product validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M. K.; Rastogi, G.; Chauhan, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean region is derived operationally for the first time from the geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite INSAT-3D Imager data at 0.65 μm wavelength. Single visible channel algorithm based on clear sky composites gives larger retrieval error in AOD than other multiple channel algorithms due to errors in estimating surface reflectance and atmospheric property. However, since MIR channel signal is insensitive to the presence of most aerosols, therefore in present study, AOD retrieval algorithm employs both visible (centred at 0.65 μm) and mid-infrared (MIR) band (centred at 3.9 μm) measurements, and allows us to monitor transport of aerosols at higher temporal resolution. Comparisons made between INSAT-3D derived AOD (τI) and MODIS derived AOD (τM) co-located in space (at 1° resolution) and time during January, February and March (JFM) 2014 encompasses 1165, 1052 and 900 pixels, respectively. Good agreement found between τI and τM during JFM 2014 with linear correlation coefficients (R) of 0.87, 0.81 and 0.76, respectively. The extensive validation made during JFM 2014 encompasses 215 co-located AOD in space and time derived by INSAT 3D (τI) and 10 sun-photometers (τA) that includes 9 AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) and 1 handheld sun-photometer site. INSAT-3D derived AOD i.e. τI, is found within the retrieval errors of τI = ±0.07 ±0.15τA with linear correlation coefficient (R) of 0.90 and root mean square error equal (RMSE) to 0.06. Present work shows that INSAT-3D aerosol products can be used quantitatively in many applications with caution for possible residual clouds, snow/ice, and water contamination.

  1. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution.

  2. Daytime aerosol extinction profiles from the combination of CALIOP profiles and AERONET products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, C.; Pedrós, R.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Sicard, M.; Utrillas, M. P.; Muñoz, C.; Comerón, A.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.

    2013-04-01

    The solar background illumination has a strong effect on CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) measurements, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio of the lidar signal. Because of this, CALIOP level 2 data algorithms might be limited in the retrieval of the properties of the aerosols in the atmosphere. In this work, we present a methodology that combines CALIOP level 1 data with AERONET (Aerosol RObotic NETwork) measurements to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles and lidar ratios in daytime conditions. In this way, we fulfill a two-fold objective: first, we obtain more accurate daytime aerosol information; second, we supplement column integrated measurements from AERONET sun photometers with information about the vertical distribution of aerosols. The methodology has been applied to Burjassot (39.30° N, 0.25° W) and Barcelona (41.39° N, 2.11° E) AERONET stations in the Mediterranean coast of Spain in the period from June 2006 to September 2011. We have found good agreement for the extinction profiles in several study cases of ground lidar measurements in Barcelona, coincident with CALIOP overpasses. Finally, the methodology has proved to be useful for the study of special episodes such as Saharan dust outbreaks.

  3. Thin layer chromatographic determination of deoxynivalenol in processed grain products.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, M W; Flood, M T; Page, S W

    1986-01-01

    The thin layer chromatographic (TLC) method of Trucksess et al. (J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. (1984) 67, 40-43) was modified for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in high-sugar breakfast cereals, corn syrup, and beer. Celite was added to the substrate before extraction with acetonitrile-water (84 + 16). After filtration through an alumina-charcoal-Celite (0.5 + 0.7 + 0.3) column, the filtrate was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in water, which was passed through an octylsilyl reverse phase column. DON was eluted with anhydrous ethyl ether. The residue remaining after the eluate was evaporated to dryness was dissolved in CHCl3-acetonitrile (4 + 1) and chromatographed on AlCl3-impregnated silica gel TLC plates. The blue fluorescent DON spot was quantitated fluorodensitometrically after the TLC plate was heated at 120 degrees C for 7 min. Recoveries of DON added to breakfast cereals at 100, 200, and 400 ng/g levels and to syrup and beer at 50, 100, and 200 ng/g levels averaged 86%. The limit of determination in these products was about 50 ng/g.

  4. An Airborne Investigation of Boundary Layer Dynamics, Entrainment, and Ozone Photochemical Production During DISCOVER-AQ in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, S. A.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2014-12-01

    During the California deployment of NASA's DISCOVER-AQ project of January/February 2013, our team flew a Mooney TLS research aircraft instrumented with an in-house wind measurement system, a UV absorption ozone instrument, temperature probe, and a Picarro methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor analyzer. Flights were focused on the lowest 1000 m across the Central Valley axis just north of Fresno in order to characterize the wintertime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For seven flights we report the observed ABL growth rates, and compare these with a simple mixed layer model driven by surface heat flux estimates from the North American Regional Reanalysis data set. By enforcing a mixed layer budget closure of the observed water vapor trend and the differential across the ABL top, we derive midday entrainment velocities for the region that average 1.2 (± 0.4) cm s-1. A similar budgeting method is used for ozone to estimate wintertime photochemical production rates that ranged from 0.5 to 7.0 ppb h-1, and exhibited a strong correlation with ambient temperature (see Figure) and total ozone abundance. Finally, the gross emissions of methane for this heavily agricultural region are estimated and compared to existing inventories. These results can provide important constraints on ABL growth and entrainment to aid surface studies of aerosol composition and other trace gases that are being conducted for DISCOVER-AQ.

  5. The Impact of Monthly Variation of the Pacific-North America (PNA) Teleconnection Pattern on Wintertime Surface-layer Aerosol Concentrations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J.; Liao, H.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific-North America teleconnection (PNA) is the leading general circulation pattern in the troposphere over the region of North Pacific to North America during wintertime. The PNA exhibits positive (negative) phases with positive (negative) anomalies in geopotential height in the vicinity of Hawaii and over the intermountain region of North America, and negative (positive) anomalies in geopotential height over south of the Aleutian Islands and the Gulf Coast region of the United States. This study examined the impacts of monthly variation of the PNA phase on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States by analyzing observations during 1999-2013 from the Air Quality System of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-AQS) and the model results for 1986-2006 from the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The composite analyses on the EPA-AQS observations over 1999-2003 showed that the average PM2.5 concentrations were higher in the PNA positive phases than in the PNA negative phases by 1.0 μg m-3 (8.6%), 2.1μg m-3 (24.1%), and 1.1 μg m-3 (10.6%) in the eastern, western, and whole of United States, respectively. Relative to the PNA negative phases, the number of exceedance days (days with the PM2.5 concentrations exceeding 35 μg m-3) in the PNA positive phases increased by 5-8 days month-1 in California and the contiguous Great Salt Lake and by 2-3 days month-1 in Iowa. The simulated geographical patterns of the differences in concentrations of PM2.5, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, OC, and BC between the PNA positive and negative phases were similar to observations. The PNA influences surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States by changing meteorological variables such as temperature, precipitation, planetary boundary layer height, relative humidity, and wind speed. We found that that the PNA-induced variation in planetary boundary layer height was the most dominant

  6. Activation of the Solid Silica Layer of Aerosol-Based C/SiO₂ Particles for Preparation of Various Functional Multishelled Hollow Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangcun; Luo, Fan; He, Gaohong

    2015-05-12

    Double-shelled C/SiO2 hollow microspheres with an outer nanosheet-like silica shell and an inner carbon shell were reported. C/SiO2 aerosol particles were synthesized first by a one-step rapid aerosol process. Then the solid silica layer of the aerosol particles was dissolved and regrown on the carbon surface to obtain novel C/SiO2 double-shelled hollow microspheres. The new microspheres prepared by the facile approach possess high surface area and pore volume (226.3 m(2) g(-1), 0.51 cm(3) g(-1)) compared with the original aerosol particles (64.3 m(2) g(-1), 0.176 cm(3) g(-1)), providing its enhanced enzyme loading capacity. The nanosheet-like silica shell of the hollow microspheres favors the fixation of Au NPs (C/SiO2/Au) and prevents them from growing and migrating at 500 °C. Novel C/C and C/Au/C (C/Pt/C) hollow microspheres were also prepared based on the hollow nanostructure. C/C microspheres (482.0 m(2) g(-1), 0.92 cm(3) g(-1)) were ideal electrode materials. In particular, the Au NPs embedded into the two carbon layers (C/Au/C, 431.2 m(2) g(-1), 0.774 cm(3) g(-1)) show a high catalytic activity and extremely chemical stability even at 850 °C. Moreover, C/SiO2/Au, C/Au/C microspheres can be easily recycled and reused by an external magnetic field because of the presence of Fe3O4 species in the inner carbon shell. The synthetic route reported here is expected to simplify the fabrication process of double-shelled or yolk-shell microspheres, which usually entails multiple steps and a previously synthesized hard template. Such a capability can facilitate the preparation of various functional hollow microspheres by interfacial design.

  7. The impact of monthly variation of the Pacific-North America (PNA) teleconnection pattern on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jin; Liao, Hong; Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    The Pacific-North America teleconnection (PNA) is the leading general circulation pattern in the troposphere over the region of North Pacific to North America during wintertime. This study examined the impacts of monthly variations of the PNA phase (positive or negative phase) on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States (US) by analyzing observations during 1999-2013 from the Air Quality System of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-AQS) and the model results for 1986-2006 from the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The composite analyses on the EPA-AQS observations over 1999-2013 showed that the average concentrations of PM2.5, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosols over the US were higher in the PNA positive phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest positive PNA index values) than in the PNA negative phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest negative PNA index values) by 1.0 µg m-3 (8.7 %), 0.01 µg m-3 (0.5 %), 0.3 µg m-3 (29.1 %), 0.1 µg m-3 (11.9 %), 0.6 µg m-3 (13.5 %), and 0.2 µg m-3 (27.8 %), respectively. The simulated geographical patterns of the differences in concentrations of all aerosol species between the PNA positive and negative phases were similar to observations. Based on the GEOS-Chem simulation, the pattern correlation coefficients were calculated to show the impacts of PNA-induced variations in meteorological fields on aerosol concentrations. The PNA phase was found (i) to influence sulfate concentrations mainly through changes in planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), precipitation (PR), and temperature; (ii) to influence nitrate concentrations mainly through changes in temperature; and (iii) to influence concentrations of ammonium, organic carbon, and black carbon mainly through changes in PR and PBLH. Results from

  8. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.

  9. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their

  10. Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter κ (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter κ featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median κ-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The κ-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, κ was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with κ-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low κ-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

  11. Validation of radiolabeling of drug formulations for aerosol deposition assessment of orally inhaled products.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Sunalene G; Chan, Hak-Kim; Haeussermann, Sabine; Kietzig, Claudius; Kuehl, Philip J; Newman, Stephen; Sommerer, Knut; Taylor, Glyn

    2012-12-01

    Radiolabeling of inhaler formulations for imaging studies is an indirect method of determining lung deposition and regional distribution of drug in human subjects. Hence, ensuring that the radiotracer and drug exhibit similar aerodynamic characteristics when aerosolized, and that addition of the radiotracer has not significantly altered the characteristics of the formulation, are critical steps in the development of a radiolabeling method. The validation phase should occur during development of the radiolabeling method, prior to commencement of in vivo studies. The validation process involves characterization of the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of drug in the reference formulation, and of both drug and radiotracer in the radiolabeled formulation, using multistage cascade impaction. We propose the adoption of acceptance criteria similar to those recommended by the EMA and ISAM/IPAC-RS for determination of therapeutic equivalence of orally inhaled products: (a) if only total lung deposition is being quantified, the fine particle fraction ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to that of the reference drug should fall between 0.85 and 1.18, and (b) if regional lung deposition (e.g., outer and inner lung regions) is to be quantified, the ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to reference drug on each impactor stage or group of stages should fall between 0.85 and 1.18. If impactor stages are grouped together, at least four separate groups should be provided. In addition, while conducting in vivo studies, measurement of the APSD of the inhaler used on each study day is recommended to check its suitability for use in man.

  12. Predicting the dry deposition of atmospheric aerosol particles onto forests using a size-resolved multi-layer second-order closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Launianen, S.; Gronholm, T.; Katul, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Biological aerosol particles are now receiving significant attention given their role in air quality, climate change, and spreading of allergens and other communicable diseases. A major uncertainty in their quantification is associated with complex transport processes governing their generation and removal inside canopies. It has been known for some time now that the commonly used first-order closure to link mean concentration gradients with turbulent fluxes is problematic. The presence of a mean counter-gradient momentum transport in an open trunk space exemplifies such failure. Here, instead of employing K-theory, a size-resolved second-order multilayer model for dry particle deposition is proposed. The starting point of the proposed model is a particle flux budget in which the production, transport, and dissipation terms are modeled. Because these terms require higher-order velocity statistics, this flux budget is coupled with a conventional second-order closure scheme for the flow field within the canopy sub-layer. The failure of conventional K-theory for particle fluxes are explicitly linked to the onset of a mean counter or zero - gradient flow attributed to a significant particle flux transport term. The relative importance of these terms in the particle flux budget and their effects on the foliage particle collection terms for also discussed for each particle size. The proposed model is evaluated against published multi-level measurements of sized-resolved particle fluxes and mean concentration profiles collected within and above a tall Scots pine forest in Hyytiala, Southern Finland. The main findings are that (1) first-order closure schemes may be still plausible for modeling particle deposition velocity, especially in the particle size range smaller than 1 μm when the turbulent particle diffusivity is estimated from higher order flow statistics; (2) the mechanisms leading to the increased trend of particle deposition velocity with increasing friction

  13. Chemical characterization of the main secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products formed through aqueous-phase photonitration of guaiacol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanovski, Z.; Čusak, A.; Grgić, I.; Claeys, M.

    2014-04-01

    Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives can be emitted into the atmosphere by thermal degradation (i.e. burning) of wood lignins. Due to its volatility, guaiacol is predominantly distributed in the atmospheric gaseous phase. Recent studies have shown the importance of aqueous-phase reactions in addition to the dominant gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of guaiacol, in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. The main objectives of the present study were to chemically characterize the low-volatility SOA products of the aqueous-phase photonitration of guaiacol and examine their possible presence in urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous-phase reactions were carried out under simulated sunlight and in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. The formed guaiacol reaction products were concentrated by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then purified by means of semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fractionated individual compounds were isolated as pure solids and further analyzed with liquid-state 1H, 13C and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and direct infusion negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry ((-)ESI-MS/MS). The NMR and product ion (MS2) spectra were used for unambiguous product structure elucidation. The main products of guaiacol photonitration are 4-nitroguaiacol (4NG), 6-nitroguaiacol (6NG), and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol (4,6DNG). Using the isolated compounds as standards, 4NG and 4,6DNG were unambiguously identified in winter PM10 aerosols from the city of Ljubljana (Slovenia) by means of HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS. Owing to the strong absorption of UV and visible light, 4,6DNG could be an important constituent of atmospheric "brown" carbon, especially in regions affected by biomass burning.

  14. Laboratory studies of oxidation of primary emissions: Oxidation of organic molecular markers and secondary organic aerosol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitkamp, Emily A.

    vehicle markers. Aerosol composition is a key influence on reaction rate constants, perhaps more significant than external influences. Alkenoic acid concentrations in the meat grease particles appear to influence cholesterol oxidation rates. Also, the reaction rate constants for new motor oil were faster than those of the more viscous used motor oil. The measured reaction rate constants were used to oxidize source profiles that were subsequently run in the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model. Oxidizing the molecular markers in the meat-cooking profile led to unrealistically high meat-cooking aerosol contributions to the total organic carbon (OC), often more than 100%. This suggests that there is either unaccounted for sources of meat-cooking molecular markers in the ambient samples, or there is some property of atmospheric aerosols that significantly inhibits reaction that was not captured in this study. Oxidation of motor vehicle profiles led to both higher estimates of total vehicle OC and a quadrupling of gasoline OC, while the diesel contribution changed very little. The increase in gasoline OC changes gasoline vehicle emissions from a relatively minor source to a major one. Thus, oxidation of molecular markers can have a significant impact on receptor model predictions. The second objective was to investigate SOA formation from the photo-oxidation of whole diesel exhaust. Diluted exhaust from a diesel engine was photo-oxidized in a smog chamber to investigate SOA production. Photochemical oxidation rapidly produced significant SOA, almost doubling the organic aerosol contribution of primary emissions after several hours of processing. Less than 10% of the SOA mass could be explained using a SOA model and the measured oxidation of known precursors, such as light aromatics. However, the ultimate yield of SOA is uncertain because it is sensitive to treatment of particle and vapor losses to the chamber walls. Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) mass spectra reveal that the

  15. Exploring a geophysical process-based attribution technique for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer depth using aerosol lidar and near-surface meteorological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sandip; Haeffelin, Martial; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2013-08-01

    A new objective method for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth using routine vertically pointing aerosol lidar measurements is presented. A geophysical process-based analysis is introduced to improve the attribution of the lidar-derived aerosol gradients, which is so far the most challenging part in any gradient-based technique. Using micrometeorological measurements of Obukhov length scale, both early morning and evening transition periods are determined which help separate the turbulence regimes during well-mixed convective ABL and nocturnal/stable ABL. The lidar-derived aerosol backscatter signal intensity is used to determine the hourly-averaged vertical profiles of variance of the fluctuations of particle backscatter signal providing the location of maximum turbulent mixing within the ABL; thus, obtained mean ABL depth guides the attribution by searching for the appropriate minimum of the gradients. An empirical classification of the ABL stratification patterns into three different types is proposed by determining the changes in the near-surface stability scenarios. First results using the lidar observations obtained between March and July in 2011 at SIRTA atmospheric observatory near Palaiseau (Paris suburb) in France demonstrate that the new attribution technique makes the lidar estimations of ABL depth more physically reliable under a wide spectrum of meteorological conditions. While comparing lidar and nearby radiosonde measurements of ABL depths, an excellent concordance was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.968 and 0.927 for daytime and nighttime measurements, respectively. A brief climatology of the characteristics of the ABL depth, its diurnal cycle, a detailed discussion of the morning and evening transitions are presented.

  16. Effect of phytoplankton-released organic matter on the production and properties of the primary marine aerosol (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, E.; Coe, H.; Green, D.; de Leeuw, G.; McFiggans, G.

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of the biogenic matter exuded by marine biota on the production and properties of the submicron primary sea-spray, based on the laboratory simulation of marine aerosol formation from seawater enriched with organic matter released by laboratory-grown algal cultures. Primary aerosol formation by bubble bursting was reproduced by using a plunging water jet generation system. Particle production experiments with seawater enriched in marine exudate <0.2 μm at organic carbon concentrations (OC) representative of biologically active oceanic waters were conducted and compared with blanks performed with artificial seawater devoid of marine organics. An increase in the production of particles <100 nm and a shift of the size distribution toward smaller sizes were observed with increasing amounts of diatomaceous exudate in the source seawater. A novel sub-micrometric size-resolved parameterisation for deriving primary particle fluxes as a function of the seawater diatomaceous OC concentration was inferred from the production experiments. Estimations of the relationship between Chl-a biomass and seawater OC concentration indicated that effects on particle fluxes due to biological activity are likely to occur in diatom blooms with Chl-a diatom biomass >0.35-2 mg/m3 (OC>175 µM), depending on the primary organic production conditions in the algal bloom. Analysis of the hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of the organics-enriched primary aerosol indicated both a suppression of the water uptake and the CCN activity with increasing amount of organic exudate in the source seawater. The increase in the CCN number likely to occur in algal bloom areas due to the potential increase in particle production would therefore be counteracted by the reduction of the particle CCN activity induced by the incorporation of organic matter. Calculations of the primary particle composition using a mixing rule yielded organic mass fractions in

  17. NASA's New 'Deep Blue' Aerosol Products From The NPP-VIIRS Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Carletta, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue algorithm family has been used to determine spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite measurements from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), from 1997 onwards. However, these sensors are now either ageing or no longer functional. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the first of which was launched on the Suomi-NPP satellite in late 2011, has similar capabilities to these sensors, and so is also suitable for AOD retrieval. This presentation introduces the new NASA VIIRS 'Deep Blue' aerosol data set over land and ocean.

  18. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  19. Development of an improved aerosol product over the Indian subcontinent: Blending model, satellite, and ground-based estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Randhir; Singh, Charu; Ojha, Satya P.; Kumar, A. Senthil; Kumar, A. S. Kiran

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) has been performed with respect to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements at 35 locations over the Indian subcontinent. For all of the stations, the mean relative errors for the collocated ECMWF, MODIS, and MISR AOD are 46.15%, 41.81%, and 39.98%, respectively. Compared with AERONET, ECMWF estimates suffer from a negative bias, whereas MODIS and MISR estimates suffer from a positive bias. The correlation of ECMWF, MODIS, and MISR AOD with AERONET observation is 0.73, 0.80, and 0.78, respectively. Analysis shows that approximately 52.12% of ECMWF, 60.51% of MODIS, and 62.63% of MISR AOD fall within the error envelopes (± 0.05 ± 0.15AODAERONET) of validation data from AERONET. This analysis indicates that both modeled and space-based AOD measurements have large discrepancies over the Indian subcontinent. Due to the aerosol's significant role in altering the Earth radiation budget, there is an urgent need to develop an AOD product with reduced error. Therefore, a new AOD product at 550 nm has been developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. For this purpose, a model-derived AOD from ECMWF, remotely sensed AOD from MODIS, MISR, and in situ measured AOD from AERONET have been blended using the OI technique. A new product has been generated for 13 years (2003 to 2015) at 0.25° by 0.25° latitude/longitude and daily temporal resolution over the Indian subcontinent. When compared with AERONET observations, the new product has a negligible bias, with a mean relative error of 12.31% and a correlation of 0.99.

  20. Validation of MODIS aerosol product with in-situ AERONET data (a study case in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, M.; Leyva-Contreras, A.; Bonifaz, R.; Llamas, R.

    2009-12-01

    The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is known as blocking particles which avoid the transmission of solar radiation coming from the Sun, and is defined as the integral of the coefficient of extinction over a vertical column of the Atmosphere. This coefficient of extinction is also defined as the limited fraction of the irradiance over the trajectory at a specific wavelength. The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor provides aerosol data products all over the planet. However this data requires constant evaluation and validation using in-situ data such as the provided by the network of photometers managed by AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network). In this work, the procedure of validation of the MODIS AOT data using AERONET data in the wavelengths of 660 and 675 nm is presented. It is expected that using validate remote sensing data which provides spatial and temporal information about the AOT will help to a better understanding of the behavior of the complex atmospheric conditions which characterize the NW of Mexico and SW of the US such as the Mexican monsoon.

  1. A Critical Examination of Spatial Biases Between MODIS and MISR Aerosol Products - Application for Potential AERONET Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Y.; Zhang, J.; Reid, J. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Kahn, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data are the primary benchmark for evaluating satellite-retrieved aerosol properties. However, despite its extensive coverage, the representativeness of the AERONET data is rarely discussed. Indeed, many studies have shown that satellite retrieval biases have a significant degree of spatial correlation that may be problematic for higher-level processes or inverse-emissions-modeling studies. To consider these issues and evaluate relative performance in regions of few surface observations, cross-comparisons between the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of operational MODIS Collection 5.1 Dark Target (DT) and operational MODIS Collection 5.1 Deep Blue (DB) with MISR version 22 were conducted. Through such comparisons, we can observe coherent spatial features of the AOD bias while side-stepping the full analysis required for determining when or where either retrieval is more correct. We identify regions where MODIS to MISR AOD ratios were found to be above 1.4 and below 0.7. Regions where lower boundary condition uncertainty is likely to be a dominant factor include portions of Western North America, the Andes mountains, Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Central Asia. Similarly, microphysical biases may be an issue in South America, and specific parts of Southern Africa, India Asia, East Asia, and Indonesia. These results help identify high-priority locations for possible future deployments of both in situ and ground based remote sensing measurements. The Supplement includes a km1 file.

  2. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  3. Global Long-Term SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Products available at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Sayer, A. M.; Bettenhausen, Corey; Wei, Jennifer C.; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Vollmer, Bruce E.; Hsu, Nai-Yung; Kempler, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term climate data records about aerosols are needed in order to improve understanding of air quality, radiative forcing, and for many other applications. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) provides a global well-calibrated 13- year (1997-2010) record of top-of-atmosphere radiance, suitable for use in retrieval of atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD). Recently, global aerosol products derived from SeaWiFS with Deep Blue algorithm (SWDB) have become available for the entire mission, as part of the NASA Making Earth Science data records for Use in Research for Earth Science (MEaSUREs) program. The latest Deep Blue algorithm retrieves aerosol properties not only over bright desert surfaces, but also vegetated surfaces, oceans, and inland water bodies. Comparisons with AERONET observations have shown that the data are suitable for quantitative scientific use [1],[2]. The resolution of Level 2 pixels is 13.5x13.5 km2 at the center of the swath. Level 3 daily and monthly data are composed by using best quality level 2 pixels at resolution of both 0.5ox0.5o and 1.0ox1.0o. Focusing on the southwest Asia region, this presentation shows seasonal variations of AOD, and the result of comparisons of 5-years (2003- 2007) of AOD from SWDB (Version 3) and MODIS Aqua (Version 5.1) for Dark Target (MYD-DT) and Deep Blue (MYD-DB) algorithms.

  4. Aerosol algorithm evaluation within aerosol-CCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael; Griesfeller, Jan

    Properties of aerosol retrievals from space are difficult. Even data from dedicated satellite sensors face contaminations which limit the accuracy of aerosol retrieval products. Issues are the identification of complete cloud-free scenes, the need to assume aerosol compositional features in an underdetermined solution space and the requirement to characterize the background at high accuracy. Usually the development of aerosol is a slow process, requiring continuous feedback from evaluations. To demonstrate maturity, these evaluations need to cover different regions and seasons and many different aerosol properties, because aerosol composition is quite diverse and highly variable in space and time, as atmospheric aerosol lifetimes are only a few days. Three years ago the ESA Climate Change Initiative started to support aerosol retrieval efforts in order to develop aerosol retrieval products for the climate community from underutilized ESA satellite sensors. The initial focus was on retrievals of AOD (a measure for the atmospheric column amount) and of Angstrom (a proxy for aerosol size) from the ATSR and MERIS sensors on ENVISAT. The goal was to offer retrieval products that are comparable or better in accuracy than commonly used NASA products of MODIS or MISR. Fortunately, accurate reference data of ground based sun-/sky-photometry networks exist. Thus, retrieval assessments could and were conducted independently by different evaluation groups. Here, results of these evaluations for the year 2008 are summarized. The capability of these newly developed retrievals is analyzed and quantified in scores. These scores allowed a ranking of competing efforts and also allow skill comparisons of these new retrievals against existing and commonly used retrievals.

  5. Linking Load, Fuel, and Emission Controls to Photochemical Production of Secondary Organic Aerosol from a Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Jathar, Shantanu H; Friedman, Beth; Galang, Abril A; Link, Michael F; Brophy, Patrick; Volckens, John; Eluri, Sailaja; Farmer, Delphine K

    2017-02-07

    Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments, but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10. The only exception was that the retrofitted aftertreatment did not reduce SOA production at idle loads where exhaust temperatures were low enough to limit removal of SOA precursors in the oxidation catalyst. Use of biodiesel resulted in nearly identical POA and SOA compared to diesel. The effective SOA yield of diesel exhaust was similar to that of unburned diesel fuel. While OFRs can help study the multiday evolution, at low particle concentrations OFRs may not allow for complete gas/particle partitioning and bias the potential of precursors to form SOA.

  6. Aerosol Spectral Radiative Forcing Efficiency from Airborne Measurements During Multiple Field Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Leblanc, S. E.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of shortwave spectral irradiance in conjunction with measurements of aerosol optical depth are used to determine the direct aerosol radiative forcing for various different regions and missions. To better compare cases with different air masses and solar geometry, we use the concept of top-of-layer and bottom-of-layer relative forcing efficiency. The aerosol layers were sampled from aircraft during several field campaigns, including the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO, Mexico, 2006); the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, Alaska and Alberta, 2008), Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex, California, 2010); and the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3, central US, 2012). We show that the spectral shape of the relative forcing efficiency is similar for these aerosol layers regardless of the aerosol type. The spectral relative forcing efficiency at any one wavelength for the majority of the cases is constrained within a span of 20% per unit of midvisible aerosol optical depth. Single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and surface albedo are secondary products for the various methods used to determine aerosol radiative forcing. Using these, we determine the diurnally averaged spectral and broadband top-of-atmosphere and surface radiative forcing efficiency for the various different aerosol types and surface conditions.

  7. Aqueous aerosol SOA formation: impact on aerosol physical properties.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joseph L; Kim, Derek D; Schwier, Allison N; Li, Ruizhi; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry in aerosol water has recently been recognized as a potentially important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material. This SOA material may be surface-active, therefore potentially affecting aerosol heterogeneous activity, ice nucleation, and CCN activity. Aqueous aerosol chemistry has also been shown to be a potential source of light-absorbing products ("brown carbon"). We present results on the formation of secondary organic aerosol material in aerosol water and the associated changes in aerosol physical properties from GAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis), a photochemical box model with coupled gas and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. The detailed aerosol composition output from GAMMA was coupled with two recently developed modules for predicting a) aerosol surface tension and b) the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the aerosol, based on our previous laboratory observations. The simulation results suggest that the formation of oligomers and organic acids in bulk aerosol water is unlikely to perturb aerosol surface tension significantly. Isoprene-derived organosulfates are formed in high concentrations in acidic aerosols under low-NO(x) conditions, but more experimental data are needed before the potential impact of these species on aerosol surface tension may be evaluated. Adsorption of surfactants from the gas phase may further suppress aerosol surface tension. Light absorption by aqueous aerosol SOA material is driven by dark glyoxal chemistry and is highest under high-NO(x) conditions, at high relative humidity, in the early morning hours. The wavelength dependence of the predicted absorption spectra is comparable to field observations and the predicted mass absorption efficiencies suggest that aqueous aerosol chemistry can be a significant source of aerosol brown carbon under urban conditions.

  8. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research project to develop tools and methodologies to measure aerosol chemical and particle dispersion through space. These tools can be used to devise pollution prevention strategies that could reduce occupant chemical exposures and guide manufactu...

  9. ENCAPSULATED AEROSOLS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    materials determine the range of applicability of each method. A useful microencapsulation method, based on coagulation by inertial force was developed...The generation apparatus, consisting of two aerosol generators in series, was utilized to produce many kinds of microcapsules . A fluid energy mill...was found useful for the production of some microcapsules . The permeability of microcapsule films and the effect of exposure time and humidity were

  10. Black carbon in aerosol during BIBLE B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liley, J. Ben; Baumgardner, D.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Koike, M.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) A and B campaigns over the tropical western Pacific during springtime deployed a Gulfstream-II aircraft with systems to measure ozone and numerous precursor species. Aerosol measuring systems included a MASP optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus (CN) counter, and an absorption spectrometer for black carbon. Aerosol volume was very low in the middle and upper troposphere during both campaigns, and during BIBLE A, there was little aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer away from urban areas. In BIBLE B, there was marked aerosol enhancement in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Mixing ratios of CN in cloud-free conditions in the upper troposphere were in general higher than in the boundary layer, indicating new particle formation from gaseous precursors. High concentrations of black carbon were observed during BIBLE B, with mass loadings up to 40 μg m-3 representing as much as one quarter of total aerosol mass. Strong correlations with hydrocarbon enhancement allow the determination of a black carbon emission ratio for the fires at that time. Expressed as elemental carbon, it is about 0.5% of carbon dioxide and 6% of carbon monoxide emissions from the same fires, comparable to methane production, and greater than that of other hydrocarbons.

  11. Black carbon in aerosol during BIBLE B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liley, J. Ben; Baumgardner, D.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Koike, M.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2002-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) A and B campaigns over the tropical western Pacific during springtime deployed a Gulfstream-II aircraft with systems to measure ozone and numerous precursor species. Aerosol measuring systems included a MASP optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus (CN) counter, and an absorption spectrometer for black carbon. Aerosol volume was very low in the middle and upper troposphere during both campaigns, and during BIBLE A, there was little aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer away from urban areas. In BIBLE B, there was marked aerosol enhancement in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Mixing ratios of CN in cloud-free conditions in the upper troposphere were in general higher than in the boundary layer, indicating new particle formation from gaseous precursors. High concentrations of black carbon were observed during BIBLE B, with mass loadings up to 40 μg m-3 representing as much as one quarter of total aerosol mass. Strong correlations with hydrocarbon enhancement allow the determination of a black carbon emission ratio for the fires at that time. Expressed as elemental carbon, it is about 0.5% of carbon dioxide and 6% of carbon monoxide emissions from the same fires, comparable to methane production, and greater than that of other hydrocarbons.

  12. Comparative Study of Aerosol and Cloud Detected by CALIPSO and OMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhong; Torres, Omar; McCormick, M. Patrick; Smith, William; Ahn, Changwoo

    2012-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura Satellite detects the presence of desert dust and smoke particles (also known as aerosols) in terms of a parameter known as the UV Aerosol Index (UV AI). The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission measures the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. Aerosols and clouds play important roles in the atmosphere and climate system. Accurately detecting their presence, altitude, and properties using satellite radiance measurements is a very important task. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the CALIPSO Version 2 Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) product with the (OMI) UV Aerosol Index (UV AI) and reflectivity datasets for a full year of 2007. The comparison is done at regional and global scales. Based on CALIPSO arid OMI observations, the vertical and horizontal extent of clouds and aerosols are determined and the effects of aerosol type selection, load, cloud fraction on aerosol identification are discussed. It was found that the spatial-temporal correlation found between CALIPSO and OMI observations, is strongly dependent on aerosol types and cloud contamination. CALIPSO is more sensitivity to cloud and often misidentifies desert dust aerosols as cloud, while some small scale aerosol layers as well as some pollution aerosols are unidentified by OMI UV AI. Large differences in aerosol distribution patterns between CALIPSO and OMI are observed, especially for the smoke and pollution aerosol dominated areas. In addition, the results found a significant correlation between CALIPSO lidar 1064 nm backscatter and the OMI UV AI over the study regions.

  13. Boundary Layer Observations of Water Vapor and Aerosol Profiles with an Eye-Safe Micro-Pulse Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J.; Ismail, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of real-time high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of combined water vapor and aerosols in the boundary layer have been a long standing observational challenge to the meteorological, weather forecasting, and climate science communities. To overcome the high reoccurring costs associated with radiosondes as well as the lack of sufficient water vapor measurements over the continental united states, a compact and low cost eye-safe all semiconductor-based micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been developed for water vapor and aerosol profiling in the lower troposphere. The laser transmitter utilizes two continuous wave external cavity diode lasers operating in the 830 nm absorption band as the online and offline seed laser sources. An optical switch is used to sequentially injection seed a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA) with the two seed laser sources in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The TSOA is actively current pulsed to produce up to 7 μJ of output energy over a 1 μs pulse duration (150 m vertical resolution) at a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. The measured laser transmitter spectral linewidth is less than 500 kHz while the long term frequency stability of the stabilized on-line wavelength is ± 55 MHz. The laser transmitter spectral purity was measured to be greater than 0.9996, allowing for simultaneous measurements of water vapor in the lower and upper troposphere. The DIAL receiver utilizes a commercially available full sky-scanning capable 35 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect the scattered light from the laser transmitter. Light collected by the telescope is spectrally filtered to suppress background noise and is coupled into a fiber optic cable which acts as the system field stop and limits the full angle field of view to 140 μrad. The light is sampled by a fiber coupled APD operated in a Geiger mode. The DIAL instrument is operated autonomously where water vapor and

  14. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Triggered by Strong Aerosol Emissions in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.; Morrison, H.; Solomon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Previous process-oriented modeling studies have highlighted the dependence of effectiveness of cloud brightening by aerosols on cloud regimes in warm marine boundary layer. Cloud microphysical processes in clouds that contain ice, and hence the mechanisms that drive aerosol-cloud interactions, are more complicated than in warm clouds. Interactions between ice particles and liquid drops add additional levels of complexity to aerosol effects. A cloud-resolving model is used to study aerosol-cloud interactions in the Arctic triggered by strong aerosol emissions, through either geoengineering injection or concentrated sources such as shipping and fires. An updated cloud microphysical scheme with prognostic aerosol and cloud particle numbers is employed. Model simulations are performed in pure super-cooled liquid and mixed-phase clouds, separately, with or without an injection of aerosols into either a clean or a more polluted Arctic boundary layer. Vertical mixing and cloud scavenging of particles injected from the surface is still quite efficient in the less turbulent cold environment. Overall, the injection of aerosols into the Arctic boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. The pure liquid clouds are more susceptible to the increase in aerosol number concentration than the mixed-phase clouds. Rain production processes are more effectively suppressed by aerosol injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. Aerosol injection into a clean boundary layer results in a greater cloud albedo increase than injection into a polluted one, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol-cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, the impact of dynamical feedback due to precipitation changes is small. According to these results, which are dependent upon the representation of ice nucleation

  15. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photooxidation under a range of controlled conditions (RH ∼65-89%, VOC/NOx ∼3-9 and NOx ∼2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line, chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene, but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measureable amounts of SOA via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e., in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photooxidation products of the minor VOCs co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally-isoprene emitting landscapes in Southeast Asia. Moreover, in general the amount of aerosol mass produced from the emissions of the principally

  16. Aldol Condensation Products and Polyacetals in Organic Films Formed from Reactions of Propanal in Sulfuric Acid at Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS) Aerosol Acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, J. V. H.; Perez-Montano, S.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.; Van Wyngarden, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt. %) which is highly reflective towards UV and visible radiation. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles may also contain a significant amount of organic material. Experiments combining organics (propanal, glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal) with sulfuric acid at concentrations typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that have the potential to impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols. In order to assess the potential for such films to impact aerosol chemistry or climate properties, experiments were performed to identify the chemical processes responsible for film formation. Surface films were analyzed via Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies and are shown to consist primarily of aldol condensation products and cyclic and linear polyacetals, the latter of which are likely responsible for separation from the aqueous phase.

  17. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, M; Rap, A; Reddington, C L; Spracklen, D V; Gloor, M; Buermann, W

    2016-08-16

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998-2010. Hereby, the substantial increases in fossil fuel aerosol emissions and plant carbon uptake over East Asia were effectively canceled by opposing trends across Europe and North America. This suggests that if the recent increase in the land carbon sink would be causally linked to fossil fuel emissions, it is unlikely via the effect of aerosols but due to other factors such as nitrogen deposition or nitrogen-carbon interactions.

  18. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions fr