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Sample records for aerosol light extinction

  1. Aerosol impacts on visible light extinction in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Eidels-Dubovoi, Silvia

    2002-03-27

    Eleven diurnal aerosol visible light absorption and scattering patterns were obtained from measurements done with an aethalometer and an integrating nephelometer during 28 February-10 March 1997 at two different sites in the Mexico City basin. Both measurement sites, the Merced site affected by regional and urban-scale aerosol and the Pedregal site dominated by regional-scale aerosol, showed a variety of diurnal light absorption and scattering patterns. For the majority of the 11 studied days, the highest absorption peaks appeared in the early morning, 07.00-09.30 h while those of scattering appeared later, 09.30-11.00 h. The earlier absorption peaks could be attributed to the elevated elemental carbon vehicular emissions during the heavy traffic hours whereas the later scattering peaks could be attributed to secondary aerosols formed photochemically in the atmosphere. During the period examined, the Pedregal site exhibited on the average a lower aerosol scattering and a higher aerosol absorption contribution to the total aerosol visible light extinction and a better visibility than that of the Merced site. Hence, the impact of aerosol absorption on the visibility degradation due to aerosols was greater at the less hazy Pedregal site. The overall 11-day aerosol visibility average of 20.9 km found at La Merced site, was only 9.4 km lower than that of 30.3 km found at the Pedregal site. This small aerosol visibility difference, of the order of the standard deviation, led to the conclusion that besides the regional-scale aerosol impact, the urban-scale aerosol impact on aerosol visible light extinction is very similar at La Merced and Pedregal sites.

  2. Examining the relationship among atmospheric aerosols and light scattering and extinction in the Grand Canyon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Molenar, John V.; Eldred, Robert A.; Sisler, James F.

    1996-08-01

    During the winter and summer months of 1990 a special study called Project MOHAVE (measurement of haze and visual effects) was carried out with the principle objective of attributing aerosol species to extinction and scattering and the aerosol species to sources and/or source regions. The study area included much of southern California and Nevada, Arizona, and Utah; however, the intensive monitoring sites and primary focus of the study was on the Colorado Plateau of northern Arizona, southern Nevada, and Utah. This paper reports on the apportionment of various aerosol species to measured fine and coarse mass concentrations and these species to scattering and extinction. The study is unique in that a number of "ambient" integrating nephelometers were operated to measure the ambient scattering coefficient, while transmissometers were used to measure atmospheric extinction. Comparison of measured scattering, extinction, and aerosol species concentration, both statistically and theoretically, allows for an estimate of scattering and absorption efficiencies. Analysis suggests that using elemental carbon, derived from thermal optical techniques, to estimate absorption may significantly underestimate absorption. Using elemental carbon, absorption is estimated to be 5% of extinction, while direct measurements of absorption suggest that it is about 30% of measured extinction. Furthermore, because light absorption by soil is usually not accounted for, soil extinction is underestimated by about 30%.

  3. Light extinction by aerosols during summer air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    In order to utilize satellite measurements of optical thickness over land for estimating aerosol properties during air pollution episodes, the optical thickness was measured from the surface and investigated. Aerosol optical thicknesses have been derived from solar transmission measurements in eight spectral bands within the band lambda 440-870 nm during the summers of 1980 and 1981 near Washington, DC. The optical thicknesses for the eight bands are strongly correlated. It was found that first eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of all observations accounts for 99 percent of the trace of the matrix. Since the measured aerosol optical thickness was closely proportional to the wavelength raised to a power, the aerosol size distribution derived from it is proportional to the diameter (d) raised to a power for the range of diameters between 0.1 to 1.0 micron. This power is insensitive to the total optical thickness. Changes in the aerosol optical thickness depend on several aerosol parameters, but it is difficult to identify the dominant one. The effects of relative humidity and accumulation mode concentration on the optical thickness are analyzed theoretically, and compared with the measurements.

  4. Modified cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) method for airborne aerosol light extinction measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perim de Faria, Julia; Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate requires the consideration of at least two major factors: the aerosol single-scattering albedo, defined as the relation between the amount of energy scattered and extinguished by an ensemble of aerosol particles; and the aerosol optical depth, calculated from the integral of the particle extinction coefficient over the thickness of the measured aerosol layer. Remote sensing networks for measuring these aerosol parameters on a regular basis are well in place (e.g., AERONET, ACTRIS), whereas the regular in situ measurement of vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol optical properties remains still an important challenge in quantifying climate change. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. Recently, a compact and robust family of optical instruments based on the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique has become available for measuring aerosol light extinction. In particular, the CAPS PMex particle optical extinction monitor has demonstrated sensitivity of less than 2 Mm-1 in 1 second sampling period; with a 60 s averaging time, a detection limit of less than 0.3 Mm-1 can be achieved. While this technique was successfully deployed for ground-based atmospheric measurements under various conditions, its suitability for operation aboard aircraft in the free and upper free troposphere still has to be demonstrated. Here, we report on the modifications of a CAPS PMex instrument for measuring aerosol light extinction on aircraft, and subsequent laboratory tests for evaluating the modified instrument prototype: (1) In a

  5. Optical and Physicochemical Properties of Brown Carbon Aerosol: Light Scattering, FTIR Extinction Spectroscopy, and Hygroscopic Growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Alexander, Jennifer M; Kwon, Deokhyeon; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Young, Mark A; Kleiber, Paul D; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-23

    A great deal of attention has been paid to brown carbon aerosol in the troposphere because it can both scatter and absorb solar radiation, thus affecting the Earth's climate. However, knowledge of the optical and chemical properties of brown carbon aerosol is still limited. In this study, we have investigated different aspects of the optical properties of brown carbon aerosol that have not been previously explored. These properties include extinction spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region and light scattering at two different visible wavelengths, 532 and 402 nm. A proxy for atmospheric brown carbon aerosol was formed from the aqueous reaction of ammonium sulfate with methylglyoxal. The different optical properties were measured as a function of reaction time for a period of up to 19 days. UV/vis absorption experiments of bulk solutions showed that the optical absorption of aqueous brown carbon solution significantly increases as a function of reaction time in the spectral range from 200 to 700 nm. The analysis of the light scattering data, however, showed no significant differences between ammonium sulfate and brown carbon aerosol particles in the measured scattering phase functions, linear polarization profiles, or the derived real parts of the refractive indices at either 532 or 402 nm, even for the longest reaction times with greatest visible extinction. The light scattering experiments are relatively insensitive to the imaginary part of the refractive index, and it was only possible to place an upper limit of k ≤ 0.01 on the imaginary index values. These results suggest that after the reaction with methylglyoxal the single scattering albedo of ammonium sulfate aerosol is significantly reduced but that the light scattering properties including the scattering asymmetry parameter, which is a measure of the relative amount of forward-to-backward scattering, remain essentially unchanged from that of unprocessed ammonium sulfate. The optical extinction properties

  6. Optical and Physicochemical Properties of Brown Carbon Aerosol: Light Scattering, FTIR Extinction Spectroscopy, and Hygroscopic Growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Alexander, Jennifer M; Kwon, Deokhyeon; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Young, Mark A; Kleiber, Paul D; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-23

    A great deal of attention has been paid to brown carbon aerosol in the troposphere because it can both scatter and absorb solar radiation, thus affecting the Earth's climate. However, knowledge of the optical and chemical properties of brown carbon aerosol is still limited. In this study, we have investigated different aspects of the optical properties of brown carbon aerosol that have not been previously explored. These properties include extinction spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region and light scattering at two different visible wavelengths, 532 and 402 nm. A proxy for atmospheric brown carbon aerosol was formed from the aqueous reaction of ammonium sulfate with methylglyoxal. The different optical properties were measured as a function of reaction time for a period of up to 19 days. UV/vis absorption experiments of bulk solutions showed that the optical absorption of aqueous brown carbon solution significantly increases as a function of reaction time in the spectral range from 200 to 700 nm. The analysis of the light scattering data, however, showed no significant differences between ammonium sulfate and brown carbon aerosol particles in the measured scattering phase functions, linear polarization profiles, or the derived real parts of the refractive indices at either 532 or 402 nm, even for the longest reaction times with greatest visible extinction. The light scattering experiments are relatively insensitive to the imaginary part of the refractive index, and it was only possible to place an upper limit of k ≤ 0.01 on the imaginary index values. These results suggest that after the reaction with methylglyoxal the single scattering albedo of ammonium sulfate aerosol is significantly reduced but that the light scattering properties including the scattering asymmetry parameter, which is a measure of the relative amount of forward-to-backward scattering, remain essentially unchanged from that of unprocessed ammonium sulfate. The optical extinction properties

  7. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Method for Airborne Aerosol Light Extinction Measurement: Instrument Validation and First Results from Field Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Perim de Faria, J.; Berg, M.; Bundke, U.; Freedman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate requires the continuous measurement of aerosol optical parameters like the aerosol extinction coefficient on a regular basis. Remote sensing and ground-based networks are well in place (e.g., AERONET, ACTRIS), whereas the regular in situ measurement of vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol optical properties remains still an important challenge in quantifying climate change. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. Recently, a compact and robust family of optical instruments based on the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique has become available for measuring aerosol light extinction. While this technique was successfully deployed for ground-based atmospheric measurements under various conditions, its suitability for operation aboard aircraft in the free and upper free troposphere still has to be demonstrated. In this work, the modifications of a CAPS PMex instrument for measuring aerosol light extinction on aircraft, the results from subsequent laboratory tests for evaluating the modified instrument prototype, and first results from a field deployment aboard a research aircraft will be covered. In laboratory studies, the instrument showed excellent agreement (deviation < 5%) with theoretical values calculated from Rayleigh scattering cross-sections, when operated on pressurized air and CO2 at ambient and low pressure (~200 hPa). For monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols, reference aerosol extinction coefficients were calculated from measured size distributions and agreed with the CAPS PMex instrument

  8. Light extinction by secondary organic aerosol: an intercomparison of three broadband cavity spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, R. M.; Ball, S. M.; Brauers, T.; Dorn, H.-P.; Heitmann, U.; Jones, R. L.; Platt, U.; Pöhler, D.; Ruth, A. A.; Shillings, A. J. L.; Thieser, J.; Wahner, A.; Venables, D. S.

    2013-11-01

    Broadband optical cavity spectrometers are maturing as a technology for trace-gas detection, but only recently have they been used to retrieve the extinction coefficient of aerosols. Sensitive broadband extinction measurements allow explicit separation of gas and particle phase spectral contributions, as well as continuous spectral measurements of aerosol extinction in favourable cases. In this work, we report an intercomparison study of the aerosol extinction coefficients measured by three such instruments: a broadband cavity ring-down spectrometer (BBCRDS), a cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectrometer (CE-DOAS), and an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS). Experiments were carried out in the SAPHIR atmospheric simulation chamber as part of the NO3Comp campaign to compare the measurement capabilities of NO3 and N2O5 instrumentation. Aerosol extinction coefficients between 655 and 690 nm are reported for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed by the NO3 oxidation of β-pinene under dry and humid conditions. Despite different measurement approaches and spectral analysis procedures, the three instruments retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients that were in close agreement. The refractive index of SOA formed from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction was 1.61, and was not measurably affected by the chamber humidity or by aging of the aerosol over several hours. This refractive index is significantly larger than SOA refractive indices observed in other studies of OH and ozone-initiated terpene oxidations, and may be caused by the large proportion of organic nitrates in the particle phase. In an experiment involving ammonium sulfate particles, the aerosol extinction coefficients as measured by IBBCEAS were found to be in reasonable agreement with those calculated using the Mie theory. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of broadband cavity spectrometers for determining the optical properties of aerosols.

  9. Light extinction by Secondary Organic Aerosol: an intercomparison of three broadband cavity spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, R. M.; Ball, S. M.; Brauers, T.; Dorn, H.-P.; Heitmann, U.; Jones, R. L.; Platt, U.; Pöhler, D.; Ruth, A. A.; Shillings, A. J. L.; Thieser, J.; Wahner, A.; Venables, D. S.

    2013-07-01

    Broadband optical cavity spectrometers are maturing as a technology for trace gas detection, but only recently have they been used to retrieve the extinction coefficient of aerosols. Sensitive broadband extinction measurements allow explicit separation of gas and particle phase spectral contributions, as well as continuous spectral measurements of aerosol extinction in favourable cases. In this work, we report an intercomparison study of the aerosol extinction coefficients measured by three such instruments: a broadband cavity ring-down spectrometer (BBCRDS), a cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectrometer (CE-DOAS), and an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS). Experiments were carried out in the SAPHIR atmospheric simulation chamber as part of the NO3Comp campaign to compare the measurement capabilities of NO3 and N2O5 instrumentation. Aerosol extinction coefficients between 655 and 690 nm are reported for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed by the NO3 oxidation of β-pinene under dry and humid conditions. Despite different measurement approaches and spectral analysis procedures, the three instruments retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients that were in close agreement. The refractive index of SOA formed from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction was 1.61, and was not measurably affected by the chamber humidity or by aging of the aerosol over several hours. This refractive index is significantly larger than SOA refractive indices observed in other studies of OH and ozone-initiated terpene oxidations, and may be caused by the large proportion of organic nitrates in the particle phase. In an experiment involving ammonium sulphate particles the aerosol extinction coefficients as measured by IBBCEAS were found to be in reasonable agreement with those calculated using Mie theory. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of broadband cavity spectrometers for determining the optical properties of aerosols.

  10. Chemical composition of aerosol particles and light extinction apportionment before and during the heating season in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Du, Wei; Sun, Chengzhu; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts into characterization of the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution in the megacity of Beijing, the response of aerosol composition and optical properties to coal combustion emissions in the heating season remain poorly understood. Here we conducted a 3 month real-time measurement of submicron aerosol (PM1) composition by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor and particle light extinction by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction monitor in Beijing, China, from 1 October to 31 December 2012. The average (±σ) PM1 concentration was 82.4 (±73.1) µg/m3 during the heating period (HP, 15 November to 31 December), which was nearly 50% higher than that before HP (1 October to 14 November). While nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed relatively small changes, organics, sulfate, and chloride were observed to have significant increases during HP, indicating the dominant impacts of coal combustion sources on these three species. The relative humidity-dependent composition further illustrated an important role of aqueous-phase processing for the sulfate enhancement during HP. We also observed great increases of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA) during HP, which was attributed to higher emissions at lower temperatures and coal combustion emissions, respectively. The relationship between light extinction and chemical composition was investigated using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed that the largest contributors to particle extinction were ammonium nitrate (32%) and ammonium sulfate (28%) before and during HP, respectively. In addition, the contributions of SOA and primary OA to particle light extinction were quantified. The results showed that the OA extinction was mainly caused by SOA before HP and by SOA and CCOA during HP, yet with small contributions from HOA and cooking aerosol for the entire study period. Our results elucidate substantial changes of aerosol

  11. Characterization and source apportionment of aerosol light extinction in Chengdu, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Cao, Junji; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Xia, Xiangao; Zhang, Zhisheng; Lin, Zejian; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renjian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate aerosol properties in the Sichuan Basin of China, field aerosol sampling was carried out in Chengdu, China during four one-month periods, each in a different season in 2011. Aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) at dry (RH<40%) and wet (40% < RH<90%) conditions and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) were measured. Additionally, daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were also collected. PM2.5 samples were subject to chemical analysis for various chemical components including major water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), trace elements, as well as anhydrosugar Levoglucosan (LG) and Mannosan (MN). A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to the measured dry bsp against (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, organic mass (OM), fine soil (FS), and coarse mass (CM, PM2.5-10), and to the measured bap against EC in all the four seasons to evaluate the impact of individual chemical components of PM2.5 and CM on aerosol light extinction (bext = bsp + bap). Mass scattering efficiency (MSE) and mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of the individual chemical components of PM2.5 were estimated based on seasonal regression equations and were then used for estimating bext. The annual bsp, bap and single scattering albedo (SSA) at dry conditions were 456 ± 237 Mm-1, 96 ± 48 Mm-1 and 0.82 ± 0.05, respectively. The annual average bsp at ambient conditions estimated through hygroscopic curve of aerosol (f(RH)) was 763 ± 415 Mm-1, which was 1.7 times of the dry bsp. The annual average SSA at ambient conditions also increased to 0.88 ± 0.04. The estimated dry bext was only 2 ± 9% higher than the measurements and the estimated ambient bext from individual chemical components was only 1 ± 10% lower, on an annual basis, than that estimated from using f(RH). Secondary inorganic aerosols, coal combustion, biomass burning, iron and steel industry, Mo-related industry, soil dust, and CM to bext were estimated to account for 41 ± 19%, 18 ± 12%, 14 ± 13%, 13 ± 11%, 5

  12. Characterization and source apportionment of aerosol light extinction with a coupled model of CMB-IMPROVE in Hangzhou, Yangtze River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Yu-fen; Feng, Yin-chang; Zheng, Xian-jue; Jiao, Li; Hong, Sheng-mao; Shen, Jian-dong; Zhu, Tan; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Qi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics and sources of aerosol light extinction in the Yangtze River Delta of China, a campaign was carried out in Hangzhou from December 2013 to November 2014. Hourly data for air pollutants including PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO, and aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficient and aerosol absorbing coefficient was obtained in the environmental air quality automatic monitoring station. Meteorological parameters were measured synchronously in the automated meteorology monitoring station. Additionally, around seven sets of ambient PM2.5 samples per month were collected and analyzed during the campaign. The annual mean aerosol scattering coefficient, aerosol absorbing coefficient and aerosol single scattering albedo measured in this study was 514 ± 284 Mm- 1, 35 ± 20 Mm- 1 and 94% respectively. The aerosol extinction coefficient reconstructed using the modified IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment) formula was compared to the measured extinction coefficient. Better correlations could be found between the measured and reconstructed extinction coefficient when RH was under 90%. A coupled model of CMB (chemical mass balance) and modified IMPROVE was used to apportion the sources of aerosol light extinction in Hangzhou. Vehicle exhaust, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate were identified as the most significant sources for aerosol light extinction, accounted for 30.2%, 24.1% and 15.8% respectively.

  13. New Approaches to Aerosol Optical Extinction Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Owano, T.; Moosmuller, H.; Atkinson, D.; Covert, D.; Ahlquist, N.; Schmid, B.

    2002-12-01

    Aerosols can have important influences on climate and the radiation balance of the atmosphere. However, the temporal and spatial variability of aerosols and our inadequate knowledge of aerosol optical properties have lead to large uncertainties in these effects. Thus improved in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties, in particular measurement of their extinction coefficients, are required. Recently, the relatively new technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy has been applied to the problem of making fast, accurate measurements of aerosol extinction coefficient. Typically, extinction measurements have been made by measuring the decrease in the intensity of a light beam that has passed through a particulate-laden cell. Often, the cell contains mirrors which reflect the beam several times increasing the optical path length thereby increasing the extinction. Path lengths of up to 400 m have been obtained, which is still insufficient to measure atmospheric extinction in the visible down to background values. In cavity ring-down, a light beam is reflected many thousands of times between two highly reflective mirrors, resulting in a path length of kilometers. The light exiting the cell decreases exponentially with time, and this exponential decay is related to the extinction of the aerosol inside the cell. The CRD instruments can routinely measure sub-Rayleigh equivalent extinction levels of a few Mm-^1 and are generally more rugged and portable than traditional extinction cells. Possible applications of CRD-based extinction cells include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellites such as MODIS, MISR, and CALYPSO. This paper will present the motivation for making improved aerosol extinction measurements and discuss the problems in making the measurement. The cavity ring-down technique will be described. In June, 2002, a calibration and methods intercomparison, the Reno Aerosol Optics Study

  14. Series cell light extinction monitor

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for using the light extinction measurements from two or more light cells positioned along a gasflow chamber in which the gas volumetric rate is known to determine particle number concentration and mass concentration of an aerosol independent of extinction coefficient and to determine estimates for particle size and mass concentrations. The invention is independent of particle size. This invention has application to measurements made during a severe nuclear reactor fuel damage test.

  15. Optical properties of urban aerosols, aircraft emissions, and heavy-duty diesel trucks using aerosol light extinction measurements by an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, A.; Massoli, P.; Wood, E. C.; Allan, J. D.; Fortner, E.; Yu, Z.; Herndon, S. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Onasch, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of optical property characterization of ambient particulate during several field deployments where measurements of aerosol light extinction (σep) are obtained using an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex). The CAPS PMex is able to provide extinction measurements with 3-σ detection limit of 3 Mm-1 for 1s integration time. The CAPS PMex (630 nm) is integrated in the Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory where a co-located Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) provides particle light absorption coefficient at 632 nm. The combination of the CAPS with the MAAP data allows estimating the single scattering albedo (ω) of the ambient aerosol particles. The ARI mobile laboratory was deployed in winter 2010 at the Chicago O’Hare International Airport to measure gas phase and particulate emissions from different aircraft engines, and during summer 2010 in Oakland, CA, to characterize vehicular gaseous and particulate emissions (mainly exhaust from heavy-duty diesel trucks) from the Caldecott Tunnel. We provide estimates of black carbon emission factors from individual aircraft engines and diesel trucks, in addition to characterizing the optical properties of these ambient samples studying fleet-average emissions for both light-duty passenger vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Two CAPS PMex instruments (measuring σep at 630 and 532 nm) were also deployed during the CalNex 2010 study (May 14 - June 16) at the CalTech ground site in Pasadena, CA. During the same time, a photo-acoustic spectrometer (PAS, DMT) and an aethalometer instrument (Magee Sci.) measured particle light absorption of submicron aerosol particles from the same sample line as the CAPS PMex monitors. We combine these data to provide multi-wavelength ω trends for the one-month campaign. Our results show the high potential of the CAPS as light weight, compact instrument to perform precise and accurate σep measurements of

  16. Light extinction in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Laulainen, N.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

  17. Influence of relative humidity on aerosol composition: Impacts on light extinction and visibility impairment at two sites in coastal area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. J.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, D.; Sheng, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    Investigation on the aerosol characteristics, surface visibility (Vis) and meteorology at BGS (Baguanshan, Qingdao) and LNA (Lin'an, Zhejiang) shows that the ambient aerosol chemical composition and light extinction are relative humidity (RH) dependent. At higher RH, both the strengthened hygroscopic growth and the more efficient oxidization (of the precursor gases and formation of the secondary sulfate and nitrate) contribute to the increase of the mass fraction of the hygroscopic species, which consequently results in the increase of the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and Vis reduction at the two Chinese coastal sites. MEE and chemical composition of the aerosol vary significantly under different regional transport ways; the airmasses from the ocean directions are associated with higher RH, higher sulfate mass fraction and greater MEE at BGS, while MEEs are smaller and associated with lower RH and lower sulfate fraction for the airmasses from the continent directions. Vis shows better correlation with PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations when RH effect on aerosol hygroscopic growth is considered. At BGS, the sulfate mass fraction in PM2.5 and PM10 (in average 32.4% and 27.4%) can explain about 60.7% and 74.3% of the variance of the aerosol MEE, respectively; sulfate and nitrate contribute to about 61% of the light extinction. RH plays a key role in aerosol extinction and visibility variation over this coastal area of China. Formation of the secondary aerosol (especially sulfate and nitrate) as well as hygroscopic growth under favorable (more stable and humid) meteorological conditions should be paid adequate attention in regulation of air quality and Vis improvement over eastern China in addition to the routine emission control measurements.

  18. Aerosol extinction measurements with CO2-lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagard, Arne; Persson, Rolf

    1992-01-01

    With the aim to develop a model for infrared extinction due to aerosols in slant paths in the lower atmosphere we perform measurements with a CO2-lidar. Earlier measurements with a transmissometer along horizontal paths have been used to develop relations between aerosol extinction and meteorological parameters. With the lidar measurements we hope to develop corresponding relations for altitude profiles of the aerosol extinction in the infrared. An important application is prediction of detection range for infrared imaging systems.

  19. Examining the relationship between atmospheric aerosols and light extinction at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, W. C.; Gebhart, K. A.; Molenar, J.; Cahill, T.; Eldred, R.; Huffman, D.

    During the summer of 1990, the National Park Service carried out a study in the state of Washington called the Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment using Natural Tracers (PREVENT). The goal of the study was to apportion atmospheric aerosols to scattering and extinction and to source types at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks. The study was designed to collect all necessary emissions, meteorology, ambient concentrations, and atmospheric optical data necessary to support a variety of source attribution techniques. This paper will report on the apportionment of various aerosol species to measured fine mass concentrations and ambient scattering coefficients. One highlight of this study was the near-ambient measurement of atmospheric scattering with a modified integrating nephelometer. It is therefore possible to explore the relationship between hygroscopic aerosols and scattering in the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Contributions of dust and smoke to aerosol extinction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavouras, I. G.; Xu, J.; Etyemezian, V.; Dubois, D.; Green, M.; Pitchford, M.

    2006-12-01

    Estimating scattering and absorption of light by atmospheric particles is critical for evaluating effects on regional and global climate. The magnitude of the interaction between aerosol and light is strongly related to the aerosol chemical composition among other factors. Dust and smoke are major sources of atmospheric aerosol, especially in the western United States. The importance of those sources has increased in recent decades due to the extensive man-made disturbance of natural ecosystems and land management practices. The objectives of this study were to specifically estimate the impact of dust and smoke on aerosol extinction coefficient measured in the Class I areas of the western states and identify the major causes of dust and types of smoke by using: (i) positive matrix factorization (PMF) to apportion ambient aerosols by source type; (ii) air mass backward trajectory analyses; (iii) land use/soil properties and; (iv) wildlife/prescribed fire data. The study included sites from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network located in western United States. For days with the worst reconstructed light extinction when dust was the major component, contributions from transcontinental transport from Asia, windblown dust from local sources and regional transport from upwind sources were identified. Based on the analysis for days with smoke being the major component of aerosol visibility extinction, the contributions of the following types of fires were determined: (a) wildfires near the site ("hot" emissions); (b) wildfires upwind of the site (aged smoke); (c) agricultural burn emissions; (d) rangeland fires.

  1. Humidity Dependent Extinction of Clay Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. E.; Attwood, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the Earth’s radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of aerosol forcing can be altered by changes in relative humidity which cause aerosol size, shape and refractive index to vary. To quantify these effects, a custom cavity ring down instrument operated at 532 nm with two sample channels measures aerosols extinction under dry conditions and at elevated humidity. The optical growth, fRH(ext), is determined as a ratio of the extinction cross section at high relative humidity to that under dry conditions. Three key clay components of mineral dust and mixtures of clay components with ammonium sulfate are investigated using this method. Experimentally obtained optical growth is compared with physical growth factors from the literature and our work determined using several different techniques. Further, Mie theory calculations based on published optical constants are compared with experimental results. Differences between theory and experiment will be discussed.

  2. Improvement of Raman lidar algorithm for quantifying aerosol extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Felicita; Whiteman, David; Demoz, Belay; Hoff, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Aerosols are particles of different composition and origin and influence the formation of clouds which are important in atmospheric radiative balance. At the present there is high uncertainty on the effect of aerosols on climate and this is mainly due to the fact that aerosol presence in the atmosphere can be highly variable in space and time. Monitoring of the aerosols in the atmosphere is necessary to better understanding many of these uncertainties. A lidar (an instrument that uses light to detect the extent of atmospheric aerosol loading) can be particularly useful to monitor aerosols in the atmosphere since it is capable to record the scattered intensity as a function of altitude from molecules and aerosols. One lidar method (the Raman lidar) makes use of the different wavelength changes that occur when light interacts with the varying chemistry and structure of atmospheric aerosols. One quantity that is indicative of aerosol presence is the aerosol extinction which quantifies the amount of attenuation (removal of photons), due to scattering, that light undergoes when propagating in the atmosphere. It can be directly measured with a Raman lidar using the wavelength dependence of the received signal. In order to calculate aerosol extinction from Raman scattering data it is necessary to evaluate the rate of change (derivative) of a Raman signal with respect to altitude. Since derivatives are defined for continuous functions, they cannot be performed directly on the experimental data which are not continuous. The most popular technique to find the functional behavior of experimental data is the least-square fit. This procedure allows finding a polynomial function which better approximate the experimental data. The typical approach in the lidar community is to make an a priori assumption about the functional behavior of the data in order to calculate the derivative. It has been shown in previous work that the use of the chi-square technique to determine the most

  3. Airborne Cavity Ring-Down Measurement of Aerosol Extinction and Scattering During the Aerosol IOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Ricci, K.; Provencal, R.; Schmid, B.; Covert, D.; Elleman, R.; Arnott, P.

    2003-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects of aerosols on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This paper describes preliminary results from Cadenza, a new continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) instrument designed to address these uncertainties. Cadenza measures the aerosol extinction coefficient for 675 nm and 1550 nm light, and simultaneously measures the scattering coefficient at 675 nm. In the past year Cadenza was deployed in the Asian Dust Above Monterey (ADAM) and DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period (IOP) field projects. During these flights Cadenza produced measurements of aerosol extinction in the range from 0.2 to 300 Mm-1 with an estimated precision of 0.1 Min-1 for 1550 nm light and 0.2 Mm-1 for 675 nm light. Cadenza data from the ADAM and Aerosol IOP missions compared favorably with data from the other instruments aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and participating in those projects.= We present comparisons between the Cadenza measurements and those friom a TSI nephelometer, Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), and the AATS 14 sun-photometer. Measurements of the optical properties of smoke and dust plumes sampled during these campaigns are presented and estimates of heating rates due to these plumes are made.

  4. Reconciliation and interpretation of the Big Bend National Park light extinction source apportionment: results from the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study--part II.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Marc L; Schichtel, Bret A; Gebhart, Kristi A; Barna, Michael G; Malm, William C; Tombach, Ivar H; Knipping, Eladio M

    2005-11-01

    The recently completed Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study focused on particulate sulfate source attribution for a 4-month period from July through October 1999. A companion paper in this issue by Schichtel et al. describes the methods evaluation and results reconciliation of the BRAVO Study sulfate attribution approaches. This paper summarizes the BRAVO Study extinction budget assessment and interprets the attribution results in the context of annual and multiyear causes of haze by drawing on long-term aerosol monitoring data and regional transport climatology, as well as results from other investigations. Particulate sulfates, organic carbon, and coarse mass are responsible for most of the haze at Big Bend National Park, whereas fine particles composed of light-absorbing carbon, fine soils, and nitrates are relatively minor contributors. Spring and late summer through fall are the two periods of high-haze levels at Big Bend. Particulate sulfate and carbonaceous compounds contribute in a similar magnitude to the spring haze period, whereas sulfates are the primary cause of haze during the late summer and fall period. Atmospheric transport patterns to Big Bend vary throughout the year, resulting in a seasonal cycle of different upwind source regions contributing to its haze levels. Important sources and source regions for haze at Big Bend include biomass smoke from Mexico and Central America in the spring and African dust during the summer. Sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in Mexico, Texas, and in the Eastern United States all contribute to Big Bend haze in varying amounts over different times of the year, with a higher contribution from Mexican sources in the spring and early summer, and a higher contribution from U.S. sources during late summer and fall. Some multiple-day haze episodes result from the influence of several source regions, whereas others are primarily because of emissions from a single source region.

  5. Photoacoustic determination of optical absorption to extinction ratio in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Roessler, D M; Faxvog, F R

    1980-02-15

    The photoacoustic technique has been used in conjunction with an optical transmission measurement to determine the fraction of light absorbed in cigarette and acetylene smoke aerosols. At 0.5145-microm wavelength,the absorption-to-extinction fraction is 0.01 +/- 0.003 for cigarette smoke and is in excellent agreement with predictions from Mie theory for smoke particles having a refractive index of 1.45-0.00133i and a median diameter in the 0.15-0.65-microm range. For acetylene smoke the absorbed fraction was 0.85 +/- 0.05. PMID:20216896

  6. Optical extinction of highly porous aerosol following atmospheric freeze drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Gabriela; Haspel, Carynelisa; Moise, Tamar; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-06-01

    Porous glassy particles are a potentially significant but unexplored component of atmospheric aerosol that can form by aerosol processing through the ice phase of high convective clouds. The optical properties of porous glassy aerosols formed from a freeze-dry cycle simulating freezing and sublimation of ice particles were measured using a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS) at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelength. The measured extinction efficiency was significantly reduced for porous organic and mixed organic-ammonium sulfate particles as compared to the extinction efficiency of the homogeneous aerosol of the same composition prior to the freeze-drying process. A number of theoretical approaches for modeling the optical extinction of porous aerosols were explored. These include effective medium approximations, extended effective medium approximations, multilayer concentric sphere models, Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory, and the discrete dipole approximation. Though such approaches are commonly used to describe porous particles in astrophysical and atmospheric contexts, in the current study, these approaches predicted an even lower extinction than the measured one. Rather, the best representation of the measured extinction was obtained with an effective refractive index retrieved from a fit to Mie scattering theory assuming spherical particles with a fixed void content. The single-scattering albedo of the porous glassy aerosols was derived using this effective refractive index and was found to be lower than that of the corresponding homogeneous aerosol, indicating stronger relative absorption at the wavelengths measured. The reduced extinction and increased absorption may be of significance in assessing direct, indirect, and semidirect forcing in regions where porous aerosols are expected to be prevalent.

  7. Optical closure study on light-absorbing aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Onasch, Timothy B.; Massoli, Paola; Andrews, Elizabeth; Hallar, Anna G.

    2014-05-01

    The in situ measurement of atmospheric aerosol optical properties is an important component of quantifying climate change. In particular, the in-situ measurement of the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA), which is the ratio of aerosol scattering to aerosol extinction, is identified as a key challenge in atmospheric sciences and climate change research. Ideally, the complete set of aerosol optical properties is measured through optical closure studies which simultaneous measure aerosol extinction, scattering and absorption coefficients. The recent development of new optical instruments have made real-time in situ optical closure studies attainable, however, many of these instruments are state-of-the-art but not practical for routine monitoring. In our studies we deployed a suit of well-established and recently developed instruments including the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) method for aerosol light extinction, multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) for aerosol light absorption, and an integrating nephelometer (NEPH) for aerosol light scattering measurements. From these directly measured optical properties we calculated light absorption from extinction minus scattering (difference method), light extinction from scattering plus absorption, and aerosol single-scattering albedo from combinations CAPS + MAAP, NEPH + PSAP, NEPH + MAAP, CAPS + NEPH. Closure studies were conducted for laboratory-generated aerosols composed of various mixtures of black carbon (Regal 400R pigment black, Cabot Corp.) and ammonium sulphate, urban aerosol (Billerica, MA), and background aerosol (Storm Peak Lab.). Key questions addressed in our closure studies are: (1) how well can we measure aerosol light absorption by various methods, and (2) how well can we measure the aerosol single-scattering albedo by various instrument combinations? In particular we investigated (3) whether the combination of a CAPS and NEPH provides a reasonable

  8. Simultaneous measurement of optical scattering and extinction on dispersed aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Dial, Kathy D; Hiemstra, Scott; Thompson, Jonathan E

    2010-10-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of light scattering and extinction by atmospheric particulate matter aid understanding of tropospheric photochemistry and are required for estimates of the direct climate effects of aerosols. In this work, we report on a second generation instrument to simultaneously measure light scattering (b(scat)) and extinction (b(ext)) coefficient by dispersed aerosols. The ratio of scattering to extinction is known as the single scatter albedo (SSA); thus, the instrument is referred to as the albedometer. Extinction is measured with the well-established cavity ring-down (CRD) technique, and the scattering coefficient is determined through collection of light scattered from the CRD beam. The improved instrument allows reduction in sample volume to <1% of the original design, and a reduction in response time by a factor of >30. Through using a commercially available condensation particle counter (CPC), we have measured scattering (σ(scat)) and extinction (σ(ext)) cross sections for size-selected ammonium sulfate and nigrosin aerosols. In most cases, the measured scattering and extinction cross section were within 1 standard deviation of the accepted values generated from Mie theory suggesting accurate measurements are made. While measurement standard deviations for b(ext) and b(scat) were generally <1 Mm(-1) when the measurement cell was sealed or purged with filtered air, relative standard deviations >0.1 for these variables were observed when the particle number density was low. It is inferred that statistical fluctuations of the absolute number of particles within the probe beam leads to this effect. However, measured relative precision in albedo is always superior to that which would be mathematically propagated assuming independent measurements of b(scat) and b(ext). Thus, this report characterizes the measurement precision achieved, evaluates the potential for systematic error to be introduced through light absorption by gases

  9. Recent Improvements to CALIOP Level 3 Aerosol Profile Product for Global 3-D Aerosol Extinction Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, J. L.; Getzewich, B. J.; Winker, D. M.; Vaughan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    With nine years of retrievals, the CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product provides an unprecedented synopsis of aerosol extinction in three dimensions and the potential to quantify changes in aerosol distributions over time. The CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product, initially released as a beta product in 2011, reports monthly averages of quality-screened aerosol extinction profiles on a uniform latitude/longitude grid for different cloud-cover scenarios, called "sky conditions". This presentation demonstrates improvements to the second version of the product which will be released in September 2015. The largest improvements are the new sky condition definitions which parse the atmosphere into "cloud-free" views accessible to passive remote sensors, "all-sky" views accessible to active remote sensors and "cloudy-sky" views for opaque and transparent clouds which were previously inaccessible to passive remote sensors. Taken together, the new sky conditions comprehensively summarize CALIOP aerosol extinction profiles for a broad range of scientific queries. In addition to dust-only extinction profiles, the new version will include polluted-dust and smoke-only extinction averages. A new method is adopted for averaging dust-only extinction profiles to reduce high biases which exist in the beta version of the level 3 aerosol profile product. This presentation justifies the new averaging methodology and demonstrates vertical profiles of dust and smoke extinction over Africa during the biomass burning season. Another crucial advancement demonstrated in this presentation is a new approach for computing monthly mean aerosol optical depth which removes low biases reported in the beta version - a scenario unique to lidar datasets.

  10. Applications of Sunphotometry to Aerosol Extinction and Surface Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, S.

    2002-09-30

    Support cost-sharing of a newly developed sunphotometer in field deployment for aerosol studies. This is a cost-sharing research to deploy a newly developed sun-sky-surface photometer for studying aerosol extinction and surface anisotropy at the ARM SGP, TWP, and NSA-AAO CART sites and in many field campaigns. Atmospheric aerosols affect the radiative energy balance of the Earth, both directly by perturbing the incoming/outgoing radiation fields and indirectly by influencing the properties/processes of clouds and reactive greenhouse gases. The surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) also plays a crucial role in the radiative energy balance, since the BRDF is required to determine (i) the spectral and spectrally-averaged surface albedo, and (ii) the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) angular distribution of radiance field. Therefore, the CART sites provide an excellent, albeit unique, opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy.

  11. Applications of Sunphotometry to Aerosol Extinction and Surface Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.; Privette, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Support cost-sharing of a newly developed sunphotometer in field deployment for aerosol studies. This is a cost-sharing research to deploy a newly developed sun-sky-surface photometer for studying aerosol extinction and surface anisotropy at the ARM SGP, TWP, and NSA-AAO CART sites and in many field campaigns. Atmospheric aerosols affect the radiative energy balance of the Earth, both directly by perturbing the incoming/outgoing radiation fields and indirectly by influencing the properties/processes of clouds and reactive greenhouse gases. The surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) also plays a crucial role in the radiative energy balance, since the BRDF is required to determine (1) the spectral and spectrally-averaged surface albedo, and (2) the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) angular distribution of radiance field. Therefore, the CART sites provide an excellent, albeit unique, opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy.

  12. [Ultraviolet Mie lidar observations of aerosol extinction in a dust storm case over Macao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiao-jun; Cheng, A Y S; Zhu, Jian-hua; Fong, S K; Chang, S W; Tam, K S; Viseu, A

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol over Macao was monitored by using a 355 nm Mie scattering lidar during the dust event on March 22nd, 2010. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients were obtained and correlated with local PM10 concentration. The near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients have good agreement with PM10 concentration values. The aerosol extinction vertical profiles showed that there were distinct layers of dust aerosol concentration. The source and tracks of dust aerosol were analyzed by back-trajectory simulation. Observations showed that this lidar could run well even in dust storm episode, and it would help to further the study on aerosol properties over Macao. PMID:22582620

  13. Infrared extinction spectra of some common liquid aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carlon, H R; Anderson, D H; Milham, M E; Tarnove, T L; Frickel, R H; Sindoni, I

    1977-06-01

    Infrared extinction spectra in the 3-5-microm and 7-13-microm atmospheric window regions have been obtained for smokes of petroleum oil, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid of varying droplet concentration and for water fogs. Spectra were also obtained at 0.36-2.35microm for petroleum oil and sulfuric acid smokes. Experimental results were compared, for sulfuric acid and water aerosols, to calculated values obtained from the Mie theory. Agreement was as good as +/-10%. When absorbing smoke droplets are small compared to wavelength, very useful approximations apply, and droplet clouds may be spectrally simulated by thin liquid films. In such cases, the imaginary component of refractive index may be approximated directly from aerosol spectra. At 12.5-microm wavelength, water fog extinction is nearly independent of droplet size distribution, suggesting a simple scheme for measurement of total liquid water content of an optical path.

  14. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.

    1999-01-01

    The direct-beam spectral extinction of solar radiation contains information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from the data analysis complexities that often arise from multiple scattering. Ground based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements provide such information for the vertical atmospheric column path, while solar occultation measurements from a satellite platform provide horizontal slices through the atmosphere. We describe application of a Multi-Spectral Atmospheric Column Extinction (MACE) analysis technique used to analyze MFRSR data also to occultation measurements made by SAGE II. For analysis, we select the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcanic eruption period to retrieve atmospheric profiles of ozone and NO2, and changes in the stratospheric aerosol size and optical depth. The time evolution of volcanic aerosol serves as a passive tracer to study stratospheric dynamics, and changes in particle size put constraints on the sulfur chemistry modeling of volcanic aerosols. Paper presented at The '99 Kyoto Aerosol-Cloud Workshop, held Dec 1-3, 1999, Kyoto, Japan

  15. Light extinction in polydisperse particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Casperson, L W

    1977-12-01

    Analytic methods are developed for determining the attenuation characteristics of light beams propagating through ensembles of scattering particles including those with complex index of refraction. The methods are applicable to a wide range of practical particulate systems, and the results are expressed explicitly in terms of elementary functions. Propagation through fog and clouds is considered as an example, and it is found that absorption by the liquid lengths. water in such ensembles affects strongly the extinction for ir wave-lengths.

  16. Importance of Raman Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements for Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zaw; Wu, Yonghua; Moshary, Fred; Gross, Barry; Gilerson, Alex

    2016-06-01

    Using a UV Raman Lidar for aerosol extinction, and combining Microwave Radiometer derived Liquid Water Path (LWP) with Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer derived Cloud Optical depth, to get cloud effective radius (Reff), we observe under certain specialized conditions, clear signatures of the Twomey Aerosol Indirect effect on cloud droplet properties which are consistent with the theoretical bounds. We also show that the measurement is very sensitive to how far the aerosol layer is from the cloud base and demonstrate that surface PM25 is far less useful. Measurements from both the DOE ARM site and new results at CCNY are presented.

  17. Comparison of vertical aerosol extinction coefficients from in-situ and LIDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Herrmann, E.; Bucci, S.; Fierli, F.; Cairo, F.; Gysel, M.; Tillmann, R.; Größ, J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Di Liberto, L.; Di Donfrancesco, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weingartner, E.; Virtanen, A.; Mentel, T. F.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ~ 50-800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective index of refraction and the light absorption coefficient. The first three parameters were used to retrieve the light scattering coefficient. Simultaneously, direct measurements of both the scattering and absorption coefficient were carried out at the SPC ground station. Additionally, a LIDAR system provided aerosol extinction coefficients for a vertically resolved comparison between in-situ and remote sensing results. First, the airborne results at low altitudes were validated with the ground measurements. Agreement within approximately ±25 and ±20% was found for the dry scattering and absorption coefficient, respectively. The single scattering albedo, ranged between 0.83 to 0.95, indicating the importance of the absorbing particles in the Po Valley region. A clear layering of the atmosphere was observed during the beginning of the flight (until ~ 10 local time) before the mixed layer (ML) was fully developed. Highest extinction coefficients were found at low altitudes, in the new ML, while values in the residual layer, which could be probed at the beginning of the flight at elevated altitudes, were lower. At the end of the flight (after ~ 12 local time) the ML was fully developed, resulting in constant extinction coefficients at all altitudes measured on the Zeppelin NT. LIDAR results captured these dynamic features well and good agreement was found for the extinction coefficients compared to the in-situ results, using fixed LIDAR ratios (LR) between 30 and 70 sr for the altitudes probed with the Zeppelin. These LR are

  18. Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parameswaran, K.; Rose, K. O.; Murthy, B. V. K.; Osborn, M. T.; Mcmaster, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    Aerosol extinction profiles obtained from lidar data at Trivandrum (8.6 deg N, 77 deg E) are compared with corresponding Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II extinction profiles. The agreement between the two is found to be satisfactory. The extinction profiles obtained by both the experiments showed a prominent peak at 23-24 km altitude in the stratosphere. The study revealed large variability in upper tropospheric extinction with location (latitude).

  19. A comparative study of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    SAM II and SAGE are two satellite experiments designed to measure stratospheric aerosol extinction using the technique of solar occultation or limb extinction. Although each sensor is mounted aboard a different satellite, there are occasions when their measurement locations are nearly coincident, thereby providing opportunities for a measurement comparison. In this paper, the aerosol extinction profiles and daily contour plots for some of these events in 1979 are reported. The comparisons shown in this paper demonstrate that SAM II and SAGE are producing similar aerosol extinction profiles within their measurement errors and that since SAM II has been previously validated, these results show the validity of the SAGE aerosol measurements.

  20. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  1. Miniature instruments for aerosol extinction at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol extinction is a fundamental parameter for the direct forcing of climate, visibility, and comparisons to remote sensing. Bringing air into an instrument "box" almost always changes the relative humidity and loses some dust or other large particles. I will show two techniques for miniature instruments that measure extinction at ambient conditions. One is a miniature sun photometer for vertical profiles. In the last year it has successfully gathered data on test flights with excellent performance and signal to noise. The second instrument is a miniature cavity ring down instrument open to the air. In both cases, small instruments require decisions about just what is necessary for the measurement rather than just scaling down larger designs. I will explore the rationale for some of these design choices.

  2. Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Retrieval for SCIAMACHY Measurements in Limb Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörner, S.; Pukite, J.; Penning de Vries, M.; Beirle, S.; Wagner, T.

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for retrieving height resolved information on stratospheric aerosol improved significantly in the past decade with the availability of satellites measurements in limb geometry. Instruments like OMPS, OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY provide height resolved radiance spectra with global coverage. Long term data sets of stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles are important for a detailed investigation of spatial and temporal variation and formation processes (e.g. after volcanic eruptions or in polar stratospheric clouds). Resulting data sets contain vital information for climate models (radiative effect) or chemistry models (reaction surface for heterogeneous chemistry). This study focuses on the SCIAMACHY instrument which measured scattered sunlight in the ultra violet, visible and near infra red spectral range between 2002 and 2012. SCIAMACHY's unique method of alternating measurements in limb and nadir geometry provides co-located profile and column information respectively that can be used to characterize plumes with small horizontal extents. The covered wavelength range potentially provides information on effective micro-physical properties of the aerosol particles. However, scattering on background aerosol constitutes only a small fraction of detected radiance and assumptions on particle characteristics (e.g., size distribution) have to be made which results in potential uncertainties especially for wavelengths below 700 nm and for measurements in backscatter geometry. Methods to reduce these uncertainties are investigated and applied to our newly developed retrieval algorithm. In addition, so called spatial straylight contamination of the measured signal was identified as a significant error source and an empirical correction scheme was developed. Comparisons with SAGE II measurement in occultation geometry and balloon borne measurements with an optical particle counter confirm the viability of our retrieval algorithm.

  3. Encapsulation effects on carbonaceous aerosol light absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Onasch, T.; Davidovits, P.; Cross, E.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2010-03-15

    The contribution of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering and, in part, because the primary absorbing aerosol of interest, soot, exhibits complex aging behavior that alters its optical properties. The consequences of this can be evidenced by the work of Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) who suggest that incorporating the atmospheric heating due to brown clouds (plumes containing soot byproducts from automobiles, biomass burning, wood-burning kitchen stoves, and coal-fired power plants) will increase black carbon (BC) radiative forcing from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change best estimate of 0.34 Wm-2 (±0.25 Wm-2) (IPCC 2007) to 0.9 Wm-2. This noteworthy degree of uncertainty is due largely to the interdependence of BC optical properties on particle mixing state and aggregate morphology, each of which changes as the particle ages in the atmosphere and becomes encapsulated within a coating of inorganic and/or organic substances. In July 2008, a laboratory-based measurement campaign, led by Boston College and Aerodyne, was initiated to begin addressing this interdependence. To achieve insights into the interdependence of BC optical properties on particle mixing state and aggregate morphology, measurements of both the optical and physical properties of flame-generated soot under nascent, coated, and denuded conditions were conducted. This poster presents data on black carbon (BC) light absorption measured by Photothermal Interferometry (Sedlacek and Lee 2007). In addition to examining nascent BC—to provide a baseline measurement—encapsulation with varying thicknesses of either dioctyl sebacate (DOS) or sulfuric acid was conducted to glean insights into the interplay between particle mixing state and optical properties. Additionally, some experiments were carried out where BC was coated and then denuded. In the case of DOS-coated soot, a

  4. Intercomparison of aerosol extinction profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieß, U.; Klein Baltink, H.; Beirle, S.; Clémer, K.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Irie, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Li, A.; Moerman, M. M.; van Roozendael, M.; Shaiganfar, R.; Wagner, T.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.

    2016-07-01

    A first direct intercomparison of aerosol vertical profiles from Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations, performed during the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) in summer 2009, is presented. Five out of 14 participants of the CINDI campaign reported aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) as deduced from observations of differential slant column densities of the oxygen collision complex (O4) at different elevation angles. Aerosol extinction vertical profiles and AOT are compared to backscatter profiles from a ceilometer instrument and to sun photometer measurements, respectively. Furthermore, the near-surface aerosol extinction coefficient is compared to in situ measurements of a humidity-controlled nephelometer and dry aerosol absorption measurements. The participants of this intercomparison exercise use different approaches for the retrieval of aerosol information, including the retrieval of the full vertical profile using optimal estimation and a parametrised approach with a prescribed profile shape. Despite these large conceptual differences, and also differences in the wavelength of the observed O4 absorption band, good agreement in terms of the vertical structure of aerosols within the boundary layer is achieved between the aerosol extinction profiles retrieved by the different groups and the backscatter profiles observed by the ceilometer instrument. AOTs from MAX-DOAS and sun photometer show a good correlation (R>0.8), but all participants systematically underestimate the AOT. Substantial differences between the near-surface aerosol extinction from MAX-DOAS and from the humidified nephelometer remain largely unresolved.

  5. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  6. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  7. Measurements of extinction by aerosol particles in the near-infrared using continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Daniel; King, Simon J; Kim, Jin; Reid, Jonathan P; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2011-02-10

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy using a fiber-coupled continuous wave distributed feedback laser at a wavelength of 1520 nm has been used to measure extinction of light by samples of nearly monodisperse aerosol particles <1 μm in diameter. A model is tested for the analysis of the sample extinction that is based on the Poisson statistics of the number of particles within the intracavity laser beam: variances of measured extinction are used to derive values of the scattering cross section for size-selected aerosol particles, without need for knowledge of the particle number density or sample length. Experimental parameters that influence the performance of the CRD system and the application and limitations of the statistical model are examined in detail. Determinations are reported of the scattering cross sections for polystyrene spheres (PSSs), sodium chloride, and ammonium sulfate, and, for particles greater than 500 nm in diameter, are shown to be in agreement with the corresponding values calculated using Mie theory or Discrete Dipole Approximation methods. For smaller particles, the experimentally derived values of the scattering cross section are larger than the theoretical predictions, and transmission of a small fraction of larger particles into the cavity is argued to be responsible for this discrepancy. The effects of cubic structure on the determination of optical extinction efficiencies of sodium chloride aerosol particles are examined. Values are reported for the real components of the refractive indices at 1520 nm of PSS, sodium chloride, and ammonium sulfate aerosol particles.

  8. Optical modeling of aerosol extinction for remote sensing in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    A microphysical model is presented for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles in different geographic sites. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH) are investigated. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro (Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles) are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained from the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) and the Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM). Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  9. Studying the vertical aerosol extinction coefficient by comparing in situ airborne data and elastic backscatter lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Herrmann, Erik; Bucci, Silvia; Fierli, Federico; Cairo, Francesco; Gysel, Martin; Tillmann, Ralf; Größ, Johannes; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Di Liberto, Luca; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weingartner, Ernest; Virtanen, Annele; Mentel, Thomas F.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol particle optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ˜ 50 and 800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol particle size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective index of refraction and the light absorption coefficient. The first three parameters were used to retrieve the light scattering coefficient. Simultaneously, direct measurements of both the scattering and absorption coefficient were carried out at the SPC ground station. Additionally, a single wavelength polarization diversity elastic lidar system provided estimates of aerosol extinction coefficients using the Klett method to accomplish the inversion of the signal, for a vertically resolved comparison between in situ and remote-sensing results. Note, however, that the comparison was for the most part done in the altitude range where the overlap function is incomplete and accordingly uncertainties are larger. First, the airborne results at low altitudes were validated with the ground measurements. Agreement within approximately ±25 and ±20 % was found for the dry scattering and absorption coefficient, respectively. The single scattering albedo, ranged between 0.83 and 0.95, indicating the importance of the absorbing particles in the Po Valley region. A clear layering of the atmosphere was observed during the beginning of the flight (until ˜ 10:00 LT - local time) before the mixing layer (ML) was fully developed. Highest extinction coefficients were found at low altitudes, in the new ML, while values in the residual layer, which could be probed at the beginning of the flight at elevated altitudes, were lower. At the end of the flight (after ˜ 12:00 LT) the ML was fully developed, resulting in

  10. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  11. Accuracy of near-surface aerosol extinction determined from columnar aerosol optical depth measurements in Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present work is a detailed analysis of aerosol columnar optical depth as a tool to determine near-surface aerosol extinction in Reno, Nevada, USA, during the summer of 2012. Ground and columnar aerosol optical properties were obtained by use of in situ Photoacoustic and Integrated Nephelometer and Cimel CE-318 Sun photometer instruments, respectively. Both techniques showed that seasonal weather changes and fire plumes had enormous influence on local aerosol optics. The apparent optical height followed the shape but not magnitude of the development of the convective boundary layer when fire conditions were not present. Back trajectory analysis demonstrated that a local flow known as the Washoe Zephyr circulation often induced aerosol transport from Northern California over the Sierra Nevada Mountains that increased the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm during afternoons when compared with mornings. Aerosol fine mode fraction indicated that afternoon aerosols in June and July and fire plumes in August were dominated by submicron particles, suggesting upwind urban plume biogenically enhanced evolution toward substantial secondary aerosol formation. This fine particle optical depth was inferred to be beyond the surface, thereby complicating use of remote sensing measurements for near-ground aerosol extinction measurements. It is likely that coarse mode depletes fine mode aerosol near the surface by coagulation and condensation of precursor gases.

  12. Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering 1. Methods and comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.; Evans, K.D.

    1998-08-01

    This paper examines the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured at night by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site in April 1994. These lidar data are used to derive aerosol profiles for altitudes between 0.015 and 5 km. Since this lidar detects Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen molecules as well as the elastic scattering from molecules and aerosols, it measures both aerosol backscattering and extinction simultaneously. The aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio varied between approximately 30 sr and 75 sr at 351 nm. Aerosol optical thicknesses derived by integrating the lidar profiles of aerosol extinction measured at night between 0.1 and 5 km are found to be about 10{endash}40{percent} lower than those measured by a Sun photometer during the day. This difference is attributed to the contribution by stratospheric aerosols not included in the lidar estimates as well as to diurnal differences in aerosol properties and concentrations. Aerosol profiles close to the surface were acquired by pointing the lidar nearly horizontally. Measurements of aerosol scattering from a tower-mounted nephelometer are found to be 40{percent} lower than lidar measurements of aerosol extinction over a wide range of relative humidities even after accounting for the difference in wavelengths. The reasons for this difference are not clear but may be due to the inability of the nephelometer to accurately measure scattering by large particles. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  13. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 1; Methods and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Leifer, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured at night by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site in April 1994. These lidar data are used to derive aerosol profiles for altitudes between 0.0 1 5 and 5 km. Since this lidar detects Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen molecules as well as the elastic scattering from molecules and aerosols, it measures both aerosol backscattering and extinction simultaneously. The aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio varied between approximately 30 sr and 75 sr at 351 nm. Aerosol optical thicknesses derived by integrating the lidar profiles of aerosol extinction measured at night between 0. I and 5 km are found to be about 10-40% lower than those measured by a Sun photometer during the day. This difference is attributed to the contribution by stratospheric aerosols not included in the lidar estimates as well as to diurnal differences in aerosol properties and concentrations. Aerosol profiles close to the surface were acquired by pointing the lidar nearly horizontally. Measurements of aerosol scattering from a tower-mounted nephelometer are found to be 40% lower than lidar measurements of aerosol extinction over a wide range of relative humidities even after accounting for the difference in wavelengths. The reasons for this difference are not clear but may be due to the inability of the nephelometer to accurately measure scattering by large particles.

  14. [Reconstructed ambient light extinction coefficient and its contribution factors in Beijing in January, 2010].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Tao, Jun; Chen, Zhong-Ming; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Ren-Jian; Cao, Jun-Ji

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol samples for PM2.5 were collected from 1st January to 31st January 2010, in Beijing. The concentrations of organic carbon, elemental carbon, water-solubile ions and soil elements of all particle samples were determined by thermal/optical carbon analyzer, ion chromatography and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, respectively. The scattering coefficients (b(sp)), absorbing coefficients (b(ap)) and meteorological parameters for this period were also measured. Ambient light extinction coefficients were reconstructed by IMPROVE formula and were compared with measured light extinction coefficients. The results showed that the average mass concentration of PM2.5 was (144.3 +/- 89.1) microg x m(-3) during campaigning period. The average values of measured b(ap), b(sp) and extinction coefficient (b(ext)) were (67.4 +/- 54.3), (328.5 +/- 353.8) and (395.9 +/- 405.2) Mm(-1), respectively. IMPROVE formula is suitable for source apportionment of light extinction coefficient in campaign period. The average value of calculated b'(ext) was (611 +/- 503) Mm(-1) in January, 2010. The major contributors to ambient light extinction coefficients included (NH4) 2SO4 (24.6%), NH4NO3 (11.6%), OM (45.5%), EC (11.9%) and FS (6.4%), respectively.

  15. Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx): A New Instrument for In situ Ambient Aerosol Extinction Measurements Across the UV/Visible Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C. A.; Dibb, J. E.; Greenslade, M. E.; Martin, R. F.; Moore, R. H.; Scheuer, E.; Shook, M. A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Troop, D.; Winstead, Edward L.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new instrument for the measurement of in situ ambient aerosol extinction over the 300-700 nm wavelength range, the Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx) instrument. This measurement capability is envisioned to complement existing in situ instrumentation, allowing for simultaneous measurement of the evolution of aerosol optical, chemical, and physical characteristics in the ambient environment. In this work, a detailed description of the instrument is provided along with characterization tests performed in the laboratory. Measured spectra of NO2 and polystyrene latex spheres agreed well with theoretical calculations. Good agreement was also found with simultaneous aerosol extinction measurements at 450, 530, and 630 nm using CAPS PMex instruments in a series of 22 tests including non-absorbing compounds, dusts, soot, and black and brown carbon analogs. SpEx can more accurately distinguish the presence of brown carbon from other absorbing aerosol due to its 300 nm lower wavelength limit compared to measurements limited to visible wavelengths. In addition, the spectra obtained by SpEx carry more information than can be conveyed by a simple power law fit that is typically defined by the use of Angstrom Exponents. Future improvements aim at lowering detection limits and ruggedizing the instrument for mobile operation.

  16. Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady A

    2011-05-10

    The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. PMID:21556113

  17. Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady A

    2011-05-10

    The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  18. Wavelength-resolved optical extinction measurements of aerosols using broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range of 445-480 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weixiong; Dong, Meili; Chen, Weidong; Gu, Xuejun; Hu, Changjin; Gao, Xiaoming; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2013-02-19

    Despite the significant progress in the measurements of aerosol extinction and absorption using spectroscopy approaches such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), the widely used single-wavelength instruments may suffer from the interferences of gases absorption present in the real environment. A second instrument for simultaneous measurement of absorbing gases is required to characterize the effect of light extinction resulted from gases absorption. We present in this paper the development of a blue light-emitting diode (LED)-based incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) approach for broad-band measurements of wavelength-resolved aerosol extinction over the spectral range of 445-480 nm. This method also allows for simultaneous measurement of trace gases absorption present in the air sample using the same instrument. On the basis of the measured wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction cross section, the real part of the refractive index (RI) can be directly retrieved in a case where the RI does not vary strongly with the wavelength over the relevant spectral region. Laboratory-generated monodispersed aerosols, polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) and ammonium sulfate (AS), were employed for validation of the RI determination by IBBCEAS measurements. On the basis of a Mie scattering model, the real parts of the aerosol RI were retrieved from the measured wavelength-resolved extinction cross sections for both aerosol samples, which are in good agreement with the reported values. The developed IBBCEAS instrument was deployed for simultaneous measurements of aerosol extinction coefficient and NO(2) concentration in ambient air in a suburban site during two representative days. PMID:23320530

  19. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Reagan, J. A.; Herman, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports on vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and backscatter in the troposphere which were obtained from multi zenith angle lidar measurements. It is reported that a direct slant path solution was found to be not possible due to horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere. Attention is given to the use of a regression analysis with respect to zenith angle for a layer integration of the angle dependent lidar equation in order to determine the optical thickness and aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio for defined atmospheric layers and the subsequent evaluation of cross-section profiles.

  1. In Situ Aerosol Profile Measurements and Comparisons with SAGE 3 Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Profiles at 68 deg North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal three in situ profile measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone were completed from balloon-borne platforms. The measured quantities are aerosol size resolved number concentration and ozone. The one derived product is aerosol size distribution, from which aerosol moments, such as surface area, volume, and extinction can be calculated for comparison with SAGE III measurements and SAGE III derived products, such as surface area. The analysis of these profiles and comparison with SAGE III extinction measurements and SAGE III derived surface areas are provided in Yongxiao (2005), which comprised the research thesis component of Mr. Jian Yongxiao's M.S. degree in Atmospheric Science at the University of Wyoming. In addition analysis continues on using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive aerosol surface area from the 9 wavelength extinction measurements available from SAGE III. Ths paper will present PCA components to calculate surface area from SAGE III measurements and compare these derived surface areas with those available directly from in situ size distribution measurements, as well as surface areas which would be derived from PCA and Thomason's algorithm applied to the four wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements.

  2. Using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data to Evaluate Combined Active Plus Passive Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kittaka, C.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R. R.; Cook, A. L.; Haper, D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol extinction profiles are derived from backscatter data by constraining the retrieval with column aerosol optical thickness (AOT), for example from coincident MODIS observations and without reliance on a priori assumptions about aerosol type or optical properties. The backscatter data were acquired with the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The HSRL also simultaneously measures extinction independently, thereby providing an ideal data set for evaluating the constrained retrieval of extinction from backscatter. We will show constrained extinction retrievals using various sources of column AOT, and examine comparisons with the HSRL extinction measurements and with a similar retrieval using data from the CALIOP lidar on the CALIPSO satellite.

  3. AerGOM, an improved algorithm for stratospheric aerosol extinction retrieval from GOMOS observations - Part 2: Intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Étienne Robert, Charles; Bingen, Christine; Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Tétard, Cédric; Fussen, Didier; Bourassa, Adam; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    and latitude of observation. A systematic analysis is carried out to identify biases in the dataset, using the various spaceborne instruments as references. The quality of the aerosol retrieval is mainly influenced by the star magnitude, as well as star temperature to a lesser degree. To ensure good-quality profiles, we suggest to select occultations performed with star magnitude M < 2.5 and star temperature T > 6 × 103 K. Stray-light contamination is negligible for extinction coefficients below 700 nm using occultations performed with a solar zenith angle > 110° but becomes important at larger wavelengths. Comparison of AerGOM results in the tropics shows an enhanced bias below 20 km that seem to confirm cirrus clouds as its cause. There are also differences between mid-latitude and tropical observations that cannot yet be explained, with a bias difference of up to 25 %.This bias characterization is extremely important for data users and might prove valuable for the production of unbiased long-term merged dataset.

  4. Raman Lidar Measurements of the Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Over the Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard; Turner, David D.; Brasseur, L. H.; Feltz, W. F.; Dubovik, O.; Tooman, Tim P.

    2001-09-16

    We derive profiles of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, Sa, at 355 nm using aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles measured during 1998 and 1999 by the operational Raman lidar at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Southern Great Plains site in north central Oklahoma. Data from this Raman/Rayleigh-Mie lidar, which measures Raman scattering from nitrogen as well as the combined molecular (Rayleigh) and aerosol (Mie) scattering at the laser wavelength, are used to derive aerosol extinction and backscattering independently as a function of altitude. Because this lidar operates at 355 nm, where molecular backscattering is comparable with aerosol backscattering, Sa retrievals are generally limited to conditions where the aerosol extinction at 355 nm is > 0.03 km-1. The mean value of Sa at 355 nm derived for this period was 60 sr with a standard deviation of 12 sr. Sa was generally about 5-10 sr higher during high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) (> 0.3) conditions than during low AOT (< 0.1). A similar increase in Sa was found when the relative humidity increased from 30 to 80%. Large (> 15%) variations in the vertical profile of Sa occurred about 30% of the time, which implies significant variability in the vertical distribution of aerosol size distribution, shape, and/or composition often occurs. The Raman lidar measurements of Sa were compared with estimates of particle size and refractive index derived from an algorithm that uses ground-based Sun photometer measurements of Sun and sky radiance. For 17 cases of coincident Raman lidar and Sun and sky radiance measurements, Sa was linearly correlated with the aerosol fine mode effective radius and the volume ratio of fine/coarse particles.

  5. SAGE 1 and SAM 2 measurements of 1 micron aerosol extinction in the free troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Farrukh, U. O.; Wang, P. H.; Deepak, A.

    1988-01-01

    The SAGE 1 and SAM 2 satellite sensors were designed to measure, with global coverage, the 1 micron extinction produced by the stratospheric aerosol. In the absence of high altitude cloud, similar measurements may be made for the free tropospheric aerosol. Median extinction values in the Northern Hemisphere, for altitudes between 5 and 10 km, are found to be one-half to one order of magnitude greater than values at corresponding latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, a seasonal increase by a factor of 1.5 yields 2 is observed in both hemispheres in local spring and summer. Following major volcanic eruptions, a long-lived enhancement of the aerosol extinction is observed for altitudes above 5 km.

  6. SAGE I and SAM II measurements of 1 micron aerosol extinction in the free troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Farrukh, U. O.; Wang, P. H.; Deepak, A.

    1988-01-01

    The SAGE-I and SAM-II satellite sensors were designed to measure, with global coverage, the 1 micron extinction produced by the stratospheric aerosol. In the absence of high altitude clouds, similar measurements may be made for the free tropospheric aerosol. Median extinction values at middle and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, for altitudes between 5 and 10 km, are found to be one-half to one order of magnitude greater than values at corresponding latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, a seasonal increase by a factor of 1.5-2 was observed in both hemispheres, in 1979-80, in local spring and summer. Following major volcanic eruptions, a long-lived enhancement of the aerosol extinction is observed for altitudes above 5 km.

  7. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-06-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Relative humidity is large in the mist-fog-mist cycle, and aerosols most efficient in interacting with visible radiation are hydrated and compose the accumulation mode. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of these hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 0.4 μm were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, under ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with a cumulated fog duration of 96 h, and a cumulated mist-fog-mist cycle duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down from 5 to a few kilometres, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and some aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the aerosol accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Nha also increased on average by 60 % after fog formation. Consequently, the mean contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% from hydrated aerosols smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% from larger aerosols. The standard deviation was large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or 3 times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1. We observed an influence of

  8. Frequency dependent complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid water and ice determined from aerosol extinction spectra.

    PubMed

    Zasetsky, A Y; Khalizov, A F; Earle, M E; Sloan, J J

    2005-03-31

    Complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid water at 240, 253, 263, and 273 K, and ice at 200, 210, and 235 K in the mid infrared from 460 to 4000 cm(-1) are reported. The results were obtained from the extinction spectra of small (micron-size) aerosol particles, recorded using the cryogenic flow tube technique. An improved iterative procedure for retrieving complex refractive indices from extinction measurements is described. The refractive indices of ice determined in the present study are in good agreement with data reported earlier. The temperature region and range of states covered in the present work are relevant to the study of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols and clouds.

  9. Improved stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles from SCIAMACHY: validation and sample results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Savigny, C.; Ernst, F.; Rozanov, A.; Hommel, R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Rozanov, V.; Burrows, J. P.; Thomason, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles have been retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat measurements of limb-scattered solar radiation. The retrieval is an improved version of an algorithm presented earlier. The retrieved aerosol extinction profiles are compared to co-located aerosol profile measurements from the SAGE II solar occultation instrument at a wavelength of 525 nm. Comparisons were carried out with two versions of the SAGE II data set (version 6.2 and the new version 7.0). In a global average sense the SCIAMACHY and the SAGE II version 7.0 extinction profiles agree to within about 10 % for altitudes above 15 km. Larger relative differences (up to 40 %) are observed at specific latitudes and altitudes. We also find differences between the two SAGE II data versions of up to 40 % for specific latitudes and altitudes, consistent with earlier reports. Sample results on the latitudinal and temporal variability of stratospheric aerosol extinction and optical depth during the SCIAMACHY mission period are presented. The results confirm earlier reports that a series of volcanic eruptions is responsible for the increase in stratospheric aerosol optical depth from 2002 to 2012. Above about an altitude of 28 km, volcanic eruptions are found to have negligible impact in the period 2002-2012.

  10. Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattrall, Christopher; Reagan, John; Thome, Kurt; Dubovik, Oleg

    2005-05-01

    The lidar (extinction-to-backscatter) ratios at 0.55 and 1.02 μm and the spectral lidar, extinction, and backscatter ratios of climatically relevant aerosol species are computed on the basis of selected retrievals of aerosol properties from 26 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites across the globe. The values, obtained indirectly from sky radiance and solar transmittance measurements, agree very well with values from direct observations. Low mean values of the lidar ratio, Sa, at 0.55 μm for maritime (27 sr) aerosols and desert dust (42 sr) are clearly distinguishable from biomass burning (60 sr) and urban/industrial pollution (71 sr). The effects of nonsphericity of mineral dust are shown, demonstrating that particle shape must be taken into account in any spaceborne lidar inversion scheme. A new aerosol model representing pollution over Southeast Asia is introduced since lidar (58 sr), color lidar, and extinction ratios in this region are distinct from those over other urban/industrial centers, owing to a greater number of large particles relative to fine particles. This discrimination promises improved estimates of regional climate forcing by aerosols containing black carbon and is expected to be of utility to climate modeling and remote sensing communities. The observed variability of the lidar parameters, combined with current validated aerosol data products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), will afford improved accuracy in the inversion of spaceborne lidar data over both land and ocean.

  11. Optical extinction due to aerosols in the upper haze of Venus: Four years of SOIR/VEX observations from 2006 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilquet, Valérie; Drummond, Rachel; Mahieux, Arnaud; Robert, Séverine; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2012-02-01

    The variability of the aerosol loading in the mesosphere of Venus is investigated from a large data set obtained with SOIR, a channel of the SPICAV instrument suite onboard Venus Express. Vertical profiles of the extinction due to light absorption by aerosols are retrieved from a spectral window around 3.0 μm recorded in many solar occultations (˜200) from September 2006 to September 2010. For this period, the continuum of light absorption is analyzed in terms of spatial and temporal variations of the upper haze of Venus. It is shown that there is a high short-term (a few Earth days) and a long-term (˜80 Earth days) variability of the extinction profiles within the data set. Latitudinal dependency of the aerosol loading is presented for the entire period considered and for shorter periods of time as well.

  12. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  13. Measurements of Stratospheric Pinatubo Aerosol Extinction Profiles by a Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abo, Makoto; Nagasawa, Chikao

    1992-01-01

    The Raman lidar has been used for remote measurements of water vapor, ozone and atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere because the Raman cross section is three orders smaller than the Rayleigh cross section. We estimated the extinction coefficients of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere using a Raman lidar. If the precise aerosol extinction coefficients are derived, the backscatter coefficient of a Mie scattering lidar will be more accurately estimated. The Raman lidar has performed to measure density profiles of some species using Raman scattering. Here we used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for transmitter and received nitrogen vibrational Q-branch Raman scattering signal. Ansmann et al. (1990) derived tropospherical aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. We think that this method can apply to dense stratospheric aerosols such as Pinatubo volcanic aerosols. As dense aerosols are now accumulated in the stratosphere by Pinatubo volcanic eruption, the error of Ramen lidar signal regarding the fluctuation of air density can be ignored.

  14. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 400 nm, composing the accumulation mode, which are the most efficient to interact with visible radiation, were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, in ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with cumulated fog duration of 95 h, and cumulated mist-fog-mist duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew up by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down to few km, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and a significant proportion of aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Moreover Nha increased on average by 60% after fog formation. Consequently the mean aerosol contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% for diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% beyond. The standard deviation is large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or three times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1). We observed an influence of the main formation process on Nha, but not on the contribution to fog extinction by aerosols

  15. Aerosol Backscatter and Extinction Retrieval from Airborne Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Groß, S.; Rahm, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Toledano, C.; Weinzierl, B.

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for coherent Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) calibration is shown in this work. Concurrent measurements of a ground based aerosol lidar operating at 532 nm and an airborne DWL at 2 μm are used in combination with sun photometer measurements for the retrieval of backscatter and extinction profiles. The presented method was successfully applied to the measurements obtained during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace), which aimed to characterize the Saharan dust long range transport between Africa and the Caribbean.

  16. Inter-Comparison of ILAS-II Version 1.4 Aerosol Extinction Coefficient at 780 nm with SAGE II, SAGE III, and POAM III Aerosol Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Hayashida, S.; Sugita, T.; Nakajima, H.; Yokota, T.; Hayashi, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kanzawa, H.; Ejiri, M. K.; Irie, H.; Tanaka, T.; Terao, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Sasano, Y.; Bevilacqua, R.; Randall, C.; Thomason, L.; Taha, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) II on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) II observed stratospheric aerosol in visible/near-infrared/infrared spectra over high latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Observations were taken intermittently from January to March, and continuously from April through October, 2003. We assessed the data quality of ILAS-II version 1.4 aerosol extinction coefficients at 780 nm from comparisons with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, SAGE III, and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III aerosol data. At heights below 20 km in the Northern Hemisphere, aerosol extinction coefficients from ILAS-II agreed with those from SAGE II and SAGE III within 10%, and with those from POAM III within 15%. From 20 to 26 km, ILAS-II aerosol extinction coefficients were smaller than extinction coefficients from the other sensors; differences between ILAS-II and SAGE II ranged from 10% at 20 km to 34% at 26 km. ILAS-II aerosol extinction coefficients from 20 to 25 km in February over the Southern Hemisphere had a negative bias (12-66%) relative to SAGE II aerosol data. The bias increased with increasing altitude. Comparisons between ILAS-II and POAM III aerosol extinction coefficients from January to May in the Southern Hemisphere (defined as the non-Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) season ) yielded qualitatively similar results. From June to October (defined as the PSC season ), aerosol extinction coefficients from ILAS-II were smaller than those from POAM III above 17 km, as in the case of the non-PSC season; however, ILAS-II and POAM III aerosol data were within 15% of each other from 12 to 17 km.

  17. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

  18. The impact of Pinatubo aerosol extinction on HALOE infrared occultation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gordley, L.L.; Thompson, R.E. Jr.; Beaver, G.M.; Russell, J.M. III; Deaver, L.E.; Hervig, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The use of limb radiation measurements to infer atmospheric parameters continues to be a popular technique. The HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) instrument is a gas correlation radiometer on board the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) that performs solar occultation measurements for inferring vertical profiles of HF, HCl, CH{sub 4}, NO, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, aerosol extinction and temperature. The first four gases and aerosol are inferred from gas correlation measurements. The remainder are inferred from broadband (>20 cm{sup {minus}1}) radiometer measurements. The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo before the UARS launch presented a number of challenges for HALOE data processing. Although ideally the gas correlation technique is insensitive to aerosol, in practice the aerosol signature induces optical effects that must be accurately addressed. The inference of extinction profiles for modeling aerosol signature in the radiometer channels was found to require high vertical resolution. The impact due to vertical resolution and other optical effects on the retrieved results will be discussed. Simulations and HALOE results will be presented to demonstrate and validate the effects. It is found that the Pinatubo layering demands a vertical resolution on the order of 2 km or less to accurately model aerosol effects on broadband limb viewing radiometers.

  19. Selection Algorithm for the CALIPSO Lidar Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Vaughan, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S(sub a)) is an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction and subsequently the optical depth from lidar backscatter measurements. We outline the algorithm used to determine Sa for the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) lidar. S(sub a) for the CALIPSO lidar will either be selected from a look-up table or calculated using the lidar measurements depending on the characteristics of aerosol layer. Whenever suitable lofted layers are encountered, S(sub a) is computed directly from the integrated backscatter and transmittance. In all other cases, the CALIPSO observables: the depolarization ratio, delta, the layer integrated attenuated backscatter, beta, and the mean layer total attenuated color ratio, gamma, together with the surface type, are used to aid in aerosol typing. Once the type is identified, a look-up-table developed primarily from worldwide observations, is used to determine the S(sub a) value. The CALIPSO aerosol models include desert dust, biomass burning, background, polluted continental, polluted dust, and marine aerosols.

  20. Latitudinal and altitudinal variation of size distribution of stratospheric aerosols inferred from SAGE aerosol extinction coefficient measurements at two wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Deepak, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method of retrieving aerosol size distribution from the measured extinction of solar radiation at wavelengths of 0.45 microns and 1.0 microns has recently been proposed. This method is utilized to obtain latitudinal and altitudinal variations of size distributions of stratospheric aerosols from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment data for March 1979. Small particles are found in the lower stratosphere of the tropical region, and large particles are found at higher altitudes and latitudes in both hemispheres. Results of this study are consistent with the suggestion that the upper troposphere in tropical regions is a source of condensation nuclei in the stratosphere, and they become mature as they move to higher altitudes and latitude.

  1. Light Absorption of Stratospheric Aerosols: Long-Term Trend and Contribution by Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel , R. F.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol light-absorption coefficients are useful for studies of radiative transfer and heating rates. Ogren appears to have published the first light- absorption coefficients in the stratosphere in 1981, followed by Clarke in 1983 and Pueschel in 1992. Because most stratospheric soot appears to be due to aircraft operations, application of an aircraft soot aerosol emission index to projected fuel consumption suggests a threefold increase of soot loading and light absorption by 2025. Together, those four data sets indicate an increase in mid-visible light extinction at a rate of 6 % per year. This trend is similar to the increase per year of sulfuric acid aerosol and of commercial fleet size. The proportionality between stepped-up aircraft operations above the tropopause and increases in stratospheric soot and sulfuric acid aerosol implicate aircraft as a source of stratospheric pollution. Because the strongly light-absorbing soot and the predominantly light-scattering sulfuric acid aerosol increase at similar rates, however, the mid-visible stratospheric aerosol single scatter albedo is expected to remain constant and not approach a critical value of 0.98 at which stratospheric cooling could change to warming.

  2. Measurement of wavelength-dependent extinction to distinguish between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portscht, R.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of spectral transmission factors in smoky optical transmission paths reveal a difference between wavelength exponents of the extinction cross section of high absorption capacity and those of low absorption capacity. A theoretical explanation of this behavior is presented. In certain cases, it is possible to obtain data on the absorption index of aerosol particles in the optical path by measuring the spectral decadic extinction coefficient at, at least, two wavelengths. In this manner it is possible, for instance, to distinguish smoke containing soot from water vapor.

  3. CART and GSFC raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Turner, D. D.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Schwenner, G.; Evans, K. D.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Tooman, T.

    1998-01-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, we have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), we have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and ,daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, we derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. We also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S(sub a) (i.e. 'lidar ratio'). Furthermore, we use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

  4. Inherent calibration of a novel LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first CEAS detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. A further innovation consists in the measurement of extinction losses from the cavity, e.g. due to aerosols, at two wavelengths by observing O4 (477 nm) and H2O (443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7×10-7 cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement in open cavity mode (mirrors facing the open atmosphere), and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, and/or keep the cavity enclosed and aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction at 477 nm and 443 nm. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation

  5. Use of Lidar Derived Optical Extinction and Backscattering Coefficients Near Cloud Base to Explore Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zaw; Wu, Yonhgua; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    Combination of microwave radiometer (MWR) and mutlifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurement data together with SBDART radiative transfer model to compute cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud droplet effective radius (Reff). Quantify the first aerosol indirect effect using calculated Reff and aerosol extinction from Raman lidar measurement in urban coastal region. Illustrate comparison between ground-based and satellite retrievals. Demonstrate relationship between surface aerosol (PM2.5) loading and Reff. We also explain the sensitivity of aerosol-cloud-index (ACI) depend on the aerosol layer from cloud base height. Potential used of less noisy elastic backscattering to calculate the ACI instead of using Raman extinction. We also present comparison of elastic backscattering and Raman extinction correlation to Reff.

  6. The impacts of aerosol loading, composition, and water uptake on aerosol extinction variability in the Baltimore-Washington, D.C. region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chen, G.; Corr, C. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Diskin, G. S.; Moore, R. H.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Anderson, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites) and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring) must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type - such as composition, size, and hygroscopicity - and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH), and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project, extensive in situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD-Washington, D.C. region was performed during 14 flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties, and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 %) and organics (57 %). A distinct difference in composition was observed, with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of sulfate due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity) such that higher relative contributions of inorganics increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity, causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low-aerosol-loading days had lower sulfate and higher black carbon contributions, causing lower single-scattering albedos (SSAs). The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m-3 in the lowest 1 km, decreasing to 35 ng m-3 in the free troposphere (above

  7. SAGE III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10-20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020-nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of approx. 30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  8. [Characteristics and Parameterization for Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-na; Zhao, Pu-sheng; He, Di; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Xiu-juan; Zhang, Xiao-ling

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the characteristics of atmospheric extinction coefficient in Beijing, systematic measurements had been carried out for atmospheric visibility, PM2.5 concentration, scattering coefficient, black carbon, reactive gases, and meteorological parameters from 2013 to 2014. Based on these data, we compared some published fitting schemes of aerosol light scattering enhancement factor [ f(RH)], and discussed the characteristics and the key influence factors for atmospheric extinction coefficient. Then a set of parameterization models of atmospheric extinction coefficient for different seasons and different polluted levels had been established. The results showed that aerosol scattering accounted for more than 94% of total light extinction. In the summer and autumn, the aerosol hygroscopic growth caused by high relative humidity had increased the aerosol scattering coefficient by 70 to 80 percent. The parameterization models could reflect the influencing mechanism of aerosol and relative humidity upon ambient light extinction, and describe the seasonal variations of aerosol light extinction ability. PMID:26841588

  9. [Characteristics and Parameterization for Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-na; Zhao, Pu-sheng; He, Di; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Xiu-juan; Zhang, Xiao-ling

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the characteristics of atmospheric extinction coefficient in Beijing, systematic measurements had been carried out for atmospheric visibility, PM2.5 concentration, scattering coefficient, black carbon, reactive gases, and meteorological parameters from 2013 to 2014. Based on these data, we compared some published fitting schemes of aerosol light scattering enhancement factor [ f(RH)], and discussed the characteristics and the key influence factors for atmospheric extinction coefficient. Then a set of parameterization models of atmospheric extinction coefficient for different seasons and different polluted levels had been established. The results showed that aerosol scattering accounted for more than 94% of total light extinction. In the summer and autumn, the aerosol hygroscopic growth caused by high relative humidity had increased the aerosol scattering coefficient by 70 to 80 percent. The parameterization models could reflect the influencing mechanism of aerosol and relative humidity upon ambient light extinction, and describe the seasonal variations of aerosol light extinction ability.

  10. Inherent calibration of a blue LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The instrument is further inherently calibrated for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7 × 10-7cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation chambers and in the open atmosphere.

  11. Light Scattering Study of Titania Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Choonghoon; Sorensen, Chris

    1997-03-01

    We studied the fractal morphology of titania aerosols by light scattering. Titania aerosols were generated by the thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a silica tube furnace. TTIP was evaporated at temperatures up to 80^circC and its vapor was carried by dry nitrogen to a furnace with temperature in the range of 400 - 600^circC. A TEM analysis of the generated particles showed a typical DLCA structure with a monomer diameter about 50 nm. The particles were then made to flow through a narrow outlet as a laminar stream. The light scattering from these particles was measured using a He-Ne laser as a light source. The measured structure factor clearly showed the Rayleigh, Guinier, and fractal regimes. The fractal morphological parameters, such as the cluster radius of gyration, the fractal dimension, and the fractal prefactor were studied from the structure factor as a function of particle generation conditions. The cluster radius of gyration was about 1 μm and showed a modest dependency on the generation conditions. The fractal dimension was about 1.7 in all cases. These results are in good agreement with the TEM analysis.

  12. Ultimate Limit of Light Extinction by Nanophotonic Structures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Verre, Ruggero; García de Abajo, F Javier; Apell, S Peter; Käll, Mikael

    2015-11-11

    Nanophotonic structures make it possible to precisely engineer the optical response at deep subwavelength scales. However, a fundamental understanding of the general performance limits remains a challenge. Here we use extensive electrodynamics simulations to demonstrate that the so-called f-sum rule sets a strict upper bound to the light extinction by nanostructures regardless their internal interactions and retardation effects. In particular, we show that the f-sum rule applies to arbitrarily complex plasmonic metal structures that exhibit an extraordinary spectral sensitivity to size, shape, near-field coupling effects, and incident polarization. The results may be used for benchmarking light scattering and absorption efficiencies, thus imposing fundamental limits on solar light harvesting, biomedical photonics, and optical communications. PMID:26478949

  13. Relationships between optical extinction, backscatter and aerosol surface and volume in the stratosphere following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, C.A.; Jonsson, H.H.; Wilson, J.C. ); Dye, J.E.; Baumgardner, D.; Borrmann, S.; Pitts, M.C.; Osborn, M.T.; DeCoursey, R.J.; Woods, D.C.

    1993-11-19

    The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines in June 1991 has resulted in increases in the surface and mass concentrations of aerosol particles in the lower stratosphere. Airborne measurements made at midlatitudes between 15 and 21 km from August 1991 to March 1992 show that, prior to December 1991, the Pinatubo aerosol cloud varied widely in microphysical properties such as size distribution, number, surface and volume concentration and was also spatially variable. Aerosol surface area concentration was found to be highly correlated to extinction at visible and near-infrared wavelengths throughout the measurement period. Similarly, backscatter at common lidar wavelengths was a good predictor of aerosol volume concentrations. These results support the use of satellite extinction measurements to estimate aerosol surface and of lidar measurements to estimate aerosol volume or mass if temporal changes in the relationships between the variables are considered. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Analysis of DIAL/HSRL aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles during the SEAC4RS campaign with an aerosol assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, C. J.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Randles, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We retrieve aerosol concentrations and optical information from vertical profiles of airborne 532 nm extinction and 532 and 1064 nm backscatter measurements made during the SEAC4RS summer 2013 campaign. The observations are from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) on board the NASA DC-8. Instead of retrieving information about aerosol microphysical properties such as indexes of refraction, we seek information more directly applicable to an aerosol transport model - in our case the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module used in the GEOS-5 Earth modeling system. A joint atmosphere/aerosol mini-reanalysis was performed for the SEAC4RS period using GEOS-5. The meteorological reanalysis followed the MERRA-2 atmospheric reanalysis protocol, and aerosol information from MODIS, MISR, and AERONET provided a constraint on the simulated aerosol optical depth (i.e., total column loading of aerosols). We focus on the simulated concentrations of 10 relevant aerosol species simulated by the GOCART module: dust, sulfate, and organic and black carbon. Our first retrieval algorithm starts with the SEAC4RS mini-reanalysis and adjusts the concentration of each GOCART aerosol species so that differences between the observed and simulated backscatter and extinction measurements are minimized. In this case, too often we are unable to simulate the observations by simple adjustment of the aerosol concentrations. A second retrieval approach adjusts both the aerosol concentrations and the optical parameters (i.e., assigned mass extinction efficiency) associated with each GOCART species. We present results from DC-8 flights over smoke from forest fires over the western US using both retrieval approaches. Finally, we compare our retrieved quantities with in-situ observations of aerosol absorption, scattering, and mass concentrations at flight altitude.

  15. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, Justin H.; Vu, Kennedy; Bahreini, Roya; Apel, Eric C.; Campos, Teresa L.; Flocke, Frank; Fried, Alan; Herndon, Scott; Hills, Alan J.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Huey, Greg; Kaser, Lisa; Montzka, Denise D.; Nowak, John B.; Reeves, Mike; Richter, Dirk; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Shertz, Stephen; Stell, Meghan; Tanner, David; Tyndall, Geoff; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) campaign during July-August 2014. An Aerodyne cavity attenuated phase shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure βext (at average relative humidity of 20 ± 7 %) of submicron aerosols at λ = 632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret βext behavior in various categories of air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios relative to CO (Δβext / ΔCO) were higher in aged urban air masses compared to fresh air masses by ˜ 50 %. The resulting increase in Δβext / ΔCO for highly aged air masses was accompanied by formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In addition, the impacts of aerosol composition on βext in air masses under the influence of urban, natural oil and gas operations (O&G), and agriculture and livestock operations were evaluated. Estimated non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) values for different air mass types ranged from 1.51 to 2.27 m2 g-1, with the minimum and maximum values observed in urban and agriculture-influenced air masses, respectively. The mass distribution for organic, nitrate, and sulfate aerosols presented distinct profiles in different air mass types. During 11-12 August, regional influence of a biomass burning event was observed, increasing the background βext and estimated MEE values in the Front Range.

  16. Using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data to Evaluate Combined Active Plus Passive Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Kittaka, C.; Vaughn, M. A.; Remer, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We derive aerosol extinction profiles from airborne and space-based lidar backscatter signals by constraining the retrieval with column aerosol optical thickness (AOT), with no need to rely on assumptions about aerosol type or lidar ratio. The backscatter data were acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. The HSRL also simultaneously measures aerosol extinction coefficients independently using the high spectral resolution lidar technique, thereby providing an ideal data set for evaluating the retrieval. We retrieve aerosol extinction profiles from both HSRL and CALIOP attenuated backscatter data constrained with HSRL, Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer column AOT. The resulting profiles are compared with the aerosol extinction measured by HSRL. Retrievals are limited to cases where the column aerosol thickness is greater than 0.2 over land and 0.15 over water. In the case of large AOT, the results using the Aqua MODIS constraint over water are poorer than Aqua MODIS over land or Terra MODIS. The poorer results relate to an apparent bias in Aqua MODIS AOT over water observed in August 2007. This apparent bias is still under investigation. Finally, aerosol extinction coefficients are derived from CALIPSO backscatter data using AOT from Aqua MODIS for 28 profiles over land and 9 over water. They agree with coincident measurements by the airborne HSRL to within +/-0.016/km +/- 20% for at least two-thirds of land points and within +/-0.028/km +/- 20% for at least two-thirds of ocean points.

  17. An effective inversion algorithm for retrieving bimodal aerosol particle size distribution from spectral extinction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhenzong; Qi, Hong; Yao, Yuchen; Ruan, Liming

    2014-12-01

    The Ant Colony Optimization algorithm based on the probability density function (PDF-ACO) is applied to estimate the bimodal aerosol particle size distribution (PSD). The direct problem is solved by the modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (ADA, as an approximation for optically large and soft spheres, i.e., χ≫1 and |m-1|≪1) and the Beer-Lambert law. First, a popular bimodal aerosol PSD and three other bimodal PSDs are retrieved in the dependent model by the multi-wavelength extinction technique. All the results reveal that the PDF-ACO algorithm can be used as an effective technique to investigate the bimodal PSD. Then, the Johnson's SB (J-SB) function and the modified beta (M-β) function are employed as the general distribution function to retrieve the bimodal PSDs under the independent model. Finally, the J-SB and M-β functions are applied to recover actual measurement aerosol PSDs over Beijing and Shanghai obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that these two general functions, especially the J-SB function, can be used as a versatile distribution function to retrieve the bimodal aerosol PSD when no priori information about the PSD is available.

  18. Modeling of growth and evaporation effects on the extinction of 1.0-micron solar radiation traversing stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Deepak, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of growth and evaporation of stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols on the extinction of solar radiation traversing such an aerosol medium are reported for the case of 1.0-micron solar radiation. Modeling results show that aerosol extinction is not very sensitive to the change of ambient water vapor concentration, but is sensitive to ambient temperature changes, especially at low ambient temperatures and high ambient water vapor concentration. A clarification is given of the effects of initial aerosol size distribution and composition on the change of aerosol extinction due to growth and evaporation processes. It is shown that experiments designed to observe solar radiation extinction of aerosols may also be applied to the determination of observed changes in aerosol optical properties, environmental parameters, or the physical and optical characteristics of sulfate aerosols.

  19. Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients.

    PubMed

    Esselborn, Michael; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas; Tesche, Matthias; Ehret, Gerhard

    2008-01-20

    An airborne high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on an iodine absorption filter and a high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser has been developed to measure backscatter and extinction coefficients of aerosols and clouds. The instrument was operated aboard the Falcon 20 research aircraft of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in May-June 2006 to measure optical properties of Saharan dust. A detailed description of the lidar system, the analysis of its data products, and measurements of backscatter and extinction coefficients of Saharan dust are presented. The system errors are discussed and airborne HSRL results are compared to ground-based Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements.

  20. Use of rotational Raman measurements in multiwavelength aerosol lidar for evaluation of particle backscattering and extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskii, I.; Whiteman, D. N.; Korenskiy, M.; Suvorina, A.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.

    2015-10-01

    Vibrational Raman scattering from nitrogen is commonly used in aerosol lidars for evaluation of particle backscattering (β) and extinction (α) coefficients. However, at mid-visible wavelengths, particularly in the daytime, previous measurements have possessed low signal-to-noise ratio. Also, vibrational scattering is characterized by a significant frequency shift of the Raman component, so for the calculation of α and β information about the extinction Ångström exponent is needed. Simulation results presented in this study demonstrate that ambiguity in the choice of Ångström exponent can be the a significant source of uncertainty in the calculation of backscattering coefficients when optically thick aerosol layers are considered. Both of these issues are addressed by the use of pure-rotational Raman (RR) scattering, which is characterized by a higher cross section compared to nitrogen vibrational scattering, and by a much smaller frequency shift, which essentially removes the sensitivity to changes in the Ångström exponent. We describe a practical implementation of rotational Raman measurements in an existing Mie-Raman lidar to obtain aerosol extinction and backscattering at 532 nm. A 2.3 nm width interference filter was used to select a spectral range characterized by low temperature sensitivity within the anti-Stokes branch of the RR spectrum. Simulations demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the scattering cross section does not exceed 1.5 % in the 230-300 K range, making correction for this dependence quite easy. With this upgrade, the NASA GSFC multiwavelength Raman lidar has demonstrated useful α532 measurements and was used for regular observations. Examples of lidar measurements and inversion of optical data to the particle microphysics are given.

  1. How well can we Measure the Vertical Profile of Tropospheric Aerosol Extinction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Flynn, C.; Elleman, R.; Covert, D.; Strawa, A.; Welton, E.; Turner, D.; Jonsson, H.; Redemann, J.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (MOP, May 2003) yielded one of the best measurement sets obtained to-date to assess our ability to measure the vertical profile of ambient aerosol extinction sigma(sub ep)(lambda) in the lower troposphere. During one month, a heavily instrumented aircraft with well characterized aerosol sampling ability carrying well proven and new aerosol instrumentation, devoted most of the 60 available flight hours to flying vertical profiles over the heavily instrumented ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF). This allowed us to compare vertical extinction profiles obtained from 6 different instuments: airborne Sun photometer (AATS-14), airborne nephelometer/absorption photometer, airborne cavity ring-down system, ground-based Raman lidar and 2 ground-based elastic backscatter lidars. We find the in-situ measured sigma(sub ep)(lambda) to be lower than the AATS-14 derived values. Bias differences are 0.002 - 0.004 K/m equivalent to 12-17% in the visible, or 45% in the near-infrared. On the other hand, we find that with respect to AATS-14, the lidar sigma(sub ep)(lambda) are higher. An unnoticed loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar had occurred leading up to AIOP and we expect better agreement from the recently restored system looking at the collective results from 6 field campaigns conducted since 1996, airborne in situ measurements of sigma(sub ep)(lambda) tend to be biased slightly low (17% at visible wavelengths) when compared to airborne Sun photometer sigma(sub ep)(lambda). On the other hand, sigma(sub ep)(lambda) values derived from lidars tend to have no or positive biases. From the bias differences we conclude that the typical systematic error associated with measuring the tropospheric vertical profile of the ambient aerosol extinction with current state of-the art instrumentation is 15-20% at visible wavelengths and potentially larger in

  2. Statistical Characteristics of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Profile in East Asia from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuejin; Zhou, Junhao; Zhou, Yongbo

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile (ECP) is important in radiative transfer modeling, however, knowledge of ECP in some area has not been clearly recognized. To get a full understanding of statistical characteristics of ECP in three Asian regions: the Mongolian Plateau, the North China Plain and the Yellow Sea, CALIPSO aerosol product in 2012 is processed by conventional statistical methods. Orbit averaged ECP turns out to be mainly exponential and Gaussian patterns. Curve fitting shows that the two ECP patterns account for more than 50 percent of all the samples, especially in the Yellow Sea where the frequency of occurrence even reaches over 80 percent. Parameters determining fitting curves are provided consequently. To be specific, Gaussian pattern is the main ECP distribution in the Mongolian Plateau and the Yellow Sea, and exponential pattern predominates in the North China Plain. Besides, aerosol scale height reaches its maximum in summer and in the Mongolian Plateau. Meanwhile, the uplifting and deposition of dust during transportation are potentially explanations to the occurrence of Gaussian ECP. The results have certain representativeness, and contribute to reducing uncertainties of aerosol model in relevant researches.

  3. Intercomparison Study of the CAPS PMex (Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Light Extinction Monitor) with the combination of an Integrating Nephelometer and a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Onasch, T.; Kebabian, P.; Freedman, A.

    2012-10-01

    An evaluation of the Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS PMex) by means of a combination of a 3-wavelength Integrating Nephelometer (NEPH; TSI Model 3563) and a 3-wavelength filter-based Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) was carried out using both laboratory generated test particles and ambient aerosols. An accurate determination of a fixed pathlength correction for the CAPS PMex was made by comparing extinction measurements using polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres in combination with Mie scattering calculations to account for the presence of PSL conglomerates. These studies yielded a linear instrument response over the investigated dynamical range from 20 to 450 M m-1 (10-6 m-1) with a linear correlation coefficient of R2 > 0.98. The adjustment factor was determined to be 1.05 times that previously reported. Correlating CAPS extinction to extinction measured by the NEPH-PSAP combination using laboratory-generated polydisperse mixtures of purely scattering ammonium sulfate and highly absorbing black carbon provided a linear regression line with slope m = 0.99 (R2 = 0.996) for single-scattering albedo values (λ = 630 nm) ranging from 0.35 (black carbon) to 1.00 (ammonium sulfate). For ambient aerosol, light extinction measured by CAPS PMex was highly correlated (R2 = 0.995) to extinction measured by the NEPH-PSAP combination with slope m = 0.95.

  4. Spectra Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Laboratory and Urban Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, Madhu S.

    Atmospheric aerosols considerably influence the climate, reduce visibility, and cause problems in human health. Aerosol light absorption and scattering are the important factors in the radiation transfer models. However, these properties are associated with large uncertainties in climate modeling. In addition, atmospheric aerosols widely vary in composition and size; their optical properties are highly wavelength dependent. This work presents the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering throughout the ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. Data were collected in Reno, NV from 2008 to 2010. Also presented in this study are the aerosol optical and physical properties during carbonaceous aerosols and radiative effects study (CARES) conducted in Sacramento area during 2010. Measurements were made using photoacoustic instruments (PA), including a novel UV 355 nm PA of our design and manufacture. Comparative analyses are presented for three main categories: (1) aerosols produced by wildfires and traffic emissions, (2) laboratory-generated and wintertime ambient urban aerosols, and (3) urban plume and biogenic emissions. In these categories, key questions regarding the light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA), so-called brown carbon (BrC), and black carbon (BC) will be discussed. An effort is made to model the emission and aging of urban and biomass burning aerosol by applying shell-core calculations. Multispectral PA measurements of aerosols light absorption and scattering coefficients were used to calculate the Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The AEA and SSA values were analyzed to differentiate the aerosol sources. The California wildfire aerosols exhibited strong wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption with AEA as lambda -1 for 405 and 870 nm, in contrast to the relatively weak wavelength dependence of traffic emissions aerosols for which AEA varied approximately as lambda-1. By using

  5. Extinction of Light during the Fog Life Cycle: a Result from the ParisFog Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, T.; Haeffelin, M.; Drobinski, P.

    2009-03-11

    Data set acquired by five particle-dedicated instruments set up on the SIRTA experimental site during the ParisFog field campaign are exploited to document microphysical properties of particles contributing to extinction of visible radiation in variable situations. The case study is a 48-hour period when atmospheric conditions are highly variable: relative humidity changes between 50 and 100%, visibility ranges between 35000 and 65 m, the site is either downwind Paris area either under maritime influence. A dense and homogeneous fog formed by radiative cooling during the 18-19 February night. In 7 hours, visibility decreases from 26 000 m to 65 m, because of transported pollution (factor 3 in visibility reduction), aerosol hydration (factor 20) and aerosol activation (factor 6). According to Mie theory, extinction in clear-sky polluted and unpolluted regimes is due equally to Aitken and accumulation modes. Extinction in haze is due to hydrated aerosols distributed in the accumulation mode, for diameter smaller than 2 {mu}m. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode still contribute to 20-30% extinction in the fog. Measurements show that fog droplets, with diameter included between 2 and 10 {mu}m, contribute to 40% extinction during the first hours of the fog.

  6. Retrieval of aerosol refractive index from extinction spectra with a damped harmonic-oscillator band model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gareth E; Bass, Stephen F; Grainger, Roy G; Lambert, Alyn

    2005-03-01

    A new method for the retrieval of the spectral refractive indices of micrometer-sized particles from infrared aerosol extinction spectra has been developed. With this method we use a classical damped harmonic-oscillator model of molecular absorption in conjunction with Mie scattering to model extinction spectra, which we then fit to the measurements using a numerical optimal estimation algorithm. The main advantage of this method over the more traditional Kramers-Kronig approach is that it allows the full complex refractive-index spectra, along with the parameters of the particle size distribution, to be retrieved from a single extinction spectrum. The retrieval scheme has been extensively characterized and has been found to provide refractive indices with a maximum uncertainty of approximately 10% (with a minimum of approximately 0.1%). Comparison of refractive indices calculated from measurements of a ternary solution of HNO3, H2SO4, and H2O with those published in J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783 (2000) show similar differences as found by other authors.

  7. LOAC: A light aerosol counter/sizer for atmospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Berthet, Gwenael; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Coute, Benoit

    The estimation of the total amount of aerosols in the upper troposphere and in lower -middle stratosphere is necessary to constraint the model calculations of the species that are sensi-tive to heterogeneous chemical reactions, to improve calculations on the atmospheric radiative transfer, and to better establish the sources of aerosols that are vertically transported up to the middle stratosphere. It is now known that different natures of aerosols can be found in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. These aerosols are made of liquid particles, and/or solid particles like soot, sands, meteoritic debris... The identification of the main nature of aerosols is not easily feasible using conventional aerosol counters, which perform in situ scat-tering measurements from a light source at a single angle typically in the 70-110 degrees range. Also, such counters are not very sensitive to soot particles that absorb the light but can be the main population of aerosols in the lower and middle stratosphere. In this work we describe a new generation of aerosol counters under development in the framework of the project LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) supported by the French ANR/Ecotech programme. LOAC will be a light particle counter/sizer, less than metricconverterProductID1 kg1 kg, designed to be mounted on the various kinds of tropospheric and stratospheric balloons. The measurements will be conducted at 2 scattering angles: the first one, at 10 degrees, is used to determine the aerosols concentration of several size classes within diameter range 0.3 and 20 micrometeres. At such low scattering angle close to forward scattering, the signal is much more intense and the measurements are not strongly sensitive to the nature of the aerosols. The second angle is at 60 degrees, where the light scattered is strongly dependent on the particle refractive index and thus on the nature of the aerosols. The ratio of the measurements at the 2 angles is used to determine the main

  8. Behavior of zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio and its relationship with zonal mean temperature during the winter 1978-1979 stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.-H.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio in the lower stratosphere near 75 deg N and its relationship with the zonal mean temperature during the January-February 1979 stratospheric sudden warming have been investigated based on the satellite sensor SAM II (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement) and auxiliary meteorological measurements. The results indicate that distinct changes in the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio occurred during this stratospheric sudden warming. It is also found that horizontal eddy transport due to planetary waves may have played a significant role in determining the distribution of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio.

  9. The effects of models of aerosol hygroscopicity on the apportionment of extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    The role that aerosols play in climate forcing and visibility issues has been the subject of research for several decades. Recent research efforts have focused on assessing the contribution of individual species to scattering and absorption under ambient conditions and on how scattering and absorption change as one or more species are removed from the atmosphere. A key concern is the distribution of water among aerosols as a function of mixing assumptions. As an illustrative and relevant example, we examine the roles of sulfates and organics in visibility and climate forcing, and in particular, the implications of assumptions regarding hygroscopic growth behavior upon the assignment of mass-scattering efficiencies to these species. We demonstrate that the total scattering computed for an aerosol sample is relatively insensitive to the choice of internal or external mixture, and can be insensitive to the exact formulation of the hygroscopic growth of the sample. Since the atmospheric aerosol is generally a complex mixture of chemical species, with the precise distribution of species on a particle-by-particle basis not known, the use of semi-empirical models of multicomponent aerosol hygroscopicity is appropriate for the calculation of atmospheric aerosol scattering and/or extinction, particularly since these details appear to be unimportant in most cases. In contrast, the apportionment of percentages of the total scattering to individual chemical species is quite sensitive to the choice of assumption regarding the aerosol microphysical structure. The use of semi-empirical hygroscopic growth models for computing the change in species scattering efficiency can lead to incorrect predictions in the limit of the complete removal of all but one chemical component. We propose a model that invokes the Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) assumptions for the water content of multicomponent mixtures, and demonstrate that this method both approximates the predictions of

  10. Aerosol Optical Extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) 2014 Summertime Field Campaign, Colorado U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, J. H.; Vu, K. K. T.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Ebben, C. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range Denver Metropolitan Area as part of the summertime air quality airborne field campaign to characterize the influence of sources, photochemical processing, and transport of pollution on local air quality. An Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure dry βext at λ=632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret the βext under various categories of aged air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios of Δβext/ΔCO were evaluated under 3 differently aged air mass categories (fresh, intermediately aged, and aged) to investigate impacts of photochemistry on βext. Δβext/ΔCO was significantly increased in heavily aged air masses compared to fresh air masses (0.17 Mm-1/ppbv and 0.094 Mm-1/ppbv respectively). The resulting increase in Δβext/ΔCO under heavily aged air masses was represented by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Aerosol composition and sources from urban, natural oil and gas wells (OG), and agriculture and livestock operations were also evaluated for their impacts on βext. Linear regression fits to βext vs. organic aerosol mass showed higher correlation coefficients under the urban and OG plumes (r=0.55 and r=0.71 respectively) and weakest under agricultural and livestock plumes (r=0.28). The correlation between βext and nitrate aerosol mass however was best under the agriculture and livestock plumes (r=0.81), followed by OG plumes (r=0.74), suggesting co-location of aerosol nitrate precursor sources with OG emissions. Finally, non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) was analyzed. MEE was observed to be 1.37 g/m2 and 1.30 g/m2 in OG and urban+OG plumes, respectively.

  11. Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratios of Lofted Aerosol Layers Observed During the First Three Months of CALIPSO Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Hu, Yongxiang; Reagan, John A.; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Case studies from the first three months of the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) measurements of lofted aerosol layers are analyzed using transmittance [Young, 1995] and two-wavelength algorithms [Vaughan et al., 2004] to determine the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratios at 532 and 1064 nm. The transmittance method requires clear air below the layer so that the transmittance through the layer can be determined. Suitable scenes are selected from the browse images and clear air below features is identified by low 532 nm backscatter signal and confirmed by low depolarization and color ratios. The transmittance and two-wavelength techniques are applied to a number of lofted layers and the extinction-to-backscatter ratios are compared with values obtained from the CALIPSO aerosol models [Omar et al., 2004]. The results obtained from these studies are used to adjust the aerosol models and develop observations based extinction-to-backscatter ratio look-up tables and phase functions. Values obtained by these techniques are compared to Sa determinations using other independent methods with a goal of developing probability distribution functions of aerosol type-specific extinction to backscatter ratios. In particular, the results are compared to values determined directly by the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) during the CALIPSO CloudSat Validation Experiments (CCVEX) and Sa determined by the application of the two-wavelength lidar Constrained Ratio Aerosol Model-fit (CRAM) retrieval approach [Cattrall et al., 2005; Reagan et al., 2004] to the HSRL data. The results are also compared to values derived using the empirical relationship between the multiple-scattering fraction and the linear depolarization ratio by using Monte Carlo simulations of water clouds [Hu et al., 2006].

  12. Aerosol light scattering measurements as a function of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Day, D E; Malm, W C; Kreidenweis, S M

    2000-05-01

    The hygroscopic nature of atmospheric fine aerosol was investigated at a rural site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park during July and August 1995. Passing the sample aerosol through an inlet, which housed an array of Perma Pure diffusion dryers, controlled the sample aerosol's relative humidity (RH). After conditioning the aerosol sample in the inlet, the light scattering coefficient and the aerosol size distribution were simultaneously measured. During this study, the conditioned aerosol's humidity ranged between 5% < RH < 95%. Aerosol response curves were produced using the ratio bspw/bspd; where bspw is the scattering coefficient measured at some RH greater than 20% and bspd is the scattering coefficient of the "dry" aerosol. For this work, any sample RH values below 15% were considered dry. Results of this investigation showed that the light scattering ratio increased continuously and smoothly over the entire range of relative humidity. The magnitude of the ratio at a particular RH value, however, varied considerably in time, particularly for RH values greater than approximately 60%. Curves of the scattering coefficient ratios as a function of RH were generated for each day and compared to the average 12-hour chemical composition of the aerosol. This comparison showed that for any particular RH value the ratio was highest during time periods of high sulfate concentrations and lowest during time periods of high soil or high organic carbon concentrations.

  13. Light Absorbing Aerosols in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Kelley, K. L.; Kilaparty, P. S.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The direct effects of aerosol radiative forcing has been identified by the IPCC as a major uncertainty in climate modeling. The DOE Megacity Aerosol Experiment-Mexico City (MAX-Mex), as part of the MILAGRO study in March of 2006, was undertaken to reduce these uncertainties by characterization of the optical, chemical, and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols emitted from this megacity environment. Aerosol samples collected during this study using quartz filters were characterized in the uv-visible-infrared by using surface spectroscopic techniques. These included the use of an integrating sphere approach combined with the use of Kubelka-Munk theory to obtain aerosol absorption spectra. In past work black carbon has been assumed to be the only major absorbing species in atmospheric aerosols with an broad band spectral profile that follows a simple inverse wavelength dependence. Recent work has also identified a number of other absorbing species that can also add to the overall aerosol absorption. These include primary organics from biomass and trash burning and secondary organic aerosols including nitrated PAHs and humic-like substances, or HULIS. By using surface diffuse reflection spectroscopy we have also obtained spectra in the infrared that indicate significant IR absorption in the atmospheric window-region. These data will be presented and compared to spectra of model compounds that allow for evaluation of the potential importance of these species in adding strength to the direct radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64327 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  14. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with themore » OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.« less

  15. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with the OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.

  16. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ˜ 2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day-1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond differently

  17. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-01

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day-1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond differently

  18. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-18

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below  ∼  2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over Southmore » Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to −0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and

  19. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to

  20. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  1. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AODmore » and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  2. Influence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic water-soluble organic carbon fractions on light extinction at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung Shik; Kim, Kyung Won; Schauer, James J.

    2013-11-01

    Until now, quantitative contributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions to aerosol light extinction have not been studied. In this study, concentrations of chemical species in PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 µm), including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total WSOC, two fractionated WSOCs, water-soluble inorganic species, and metal species, were measured twice a day between December 27, 2010 and January 20, 2011, at an urban site in Seoul, Korea. A macro-porous XAD7HP resin column was used to separate the liquid extracts into hydrophilic and hydrophobic WSOC (WSOC HPI and WSOC HPO ) fractions. Water-insoluble OC (WIOC), WSOC HPI and WSOC HPO were used to estimate the aerosol light extinction from the original IMPROVE algorithm. Organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC) ratios of 1.6, 2.0, and 1.8 were applied to the WIOC, WSOC HPI , and WSOC HPO , respectively. Light extinctions for ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, POM (particulate organic matter = WIOM + WSOM HPI + WSOM HPO ), and EC (which is light absorbing) were determined as 38.9 ± 34.0, 64.7 ± 70.6, 69.5 ± 27.7, and 27.1 ± 11.0 Mm-1, respectively, and contributed 15.0% (range: 5.4-25.6), 22.2% (7.1-50.8), 30.8% (13.0-42.3) and 12.0% (5.1-21.3), respectively, to the total light extinction budgets. Light scattering due to the WIOM, WSOM HPI and WSOM HPO were 27.3 ± 13.1, 17.1 ± 8.7, and 24.1 ± 9.9 Mm-1, respectively, and accounted for 12.5, 7.5, and 10.7% of the total light extinction budget. The results indicate WSOC HPO has a greater impact on visibility reduction in wintertime than WSOC HPI at this site. Light scattering by total OC concentration (POM=1.6 × OC) was 62.2 ± 25.1 Mm-1, which was approximately 9.7% lower than the sum of light scattering due to each of the three OC components with different OM/OC ratios. As the relative humidity (RH) increased, light extinction was higher in the water-soluble inorganic

  3. Size segregated light absorption coefficient of the atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.

    The light absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols in the visible can be determined by depositing the particles on a filter and measuring its "transmission" in a special optical arrangement. With an impactor with rotating impaction plates producing a homogeneous deposit, it is possible to extend this technique to size segregated aerosol samples. A simultaneous determination of the mass size distribution is possible. Test measurements with black carbon aerosol have shown the feasibility of this method. Samples of the atmospheric aerosol have been taken in and near Vienna, in Naples and near Bologna. The light absorption of the aerosol is always highest for particle diameters between 0.1 and 0.2 μm. Only in the humid environment of the Po valley it had a slightly larger peak size, whereas the size of the nonabsorbing particles increased considerably. The light absorption of the atmospheric aerosol is always higher in an urban environment. 'The mass absorption coefficient of the aerosol at all four locations was very similar, and completely different from values which could be. expected using effective refractive indices which are frequently used in models. Using the data measured in this work two alternate models for the effective refractive index and black carbon content of the aerosol are suggested: (a) a size-dependent refractive index, where the imaginary part varies from -0.25 for particles smaller than 30 nm to - 0.003 for particles larger than 2 μm; this could especially be applied if an internal mixing of the aerosol is to be expected, or (2) a size-dependent fraction of elemental carbon in the case of external mixing with 43% of carbon particles for sizes below 30 nm decreasing to 10% for sizes up to 0.4 μm.

  4. The relationship of satellite-inferred stratospheric aerosol extinction to the position of the 50-mb north polar jet stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Endlich, Roy M.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between stratospheric aerosols and the location of the north polar night stratospheric jet stream was investigated for selected periods of four successive winters (1979-1982), using measurements from SAM II (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II) and SAGE I (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment I) satellite-borne sun photometers and corresponding meteorological observations. Each period investigated included a polar stratospheric warming during which major dynamic meteorological changes are known to have perturbed the structure of the polar vortex. The analysis of variations in aerosol extinction mixing ratio patterns among winters and during major stratospheric warming events within separate winters showed a well-defined positive gradient in extinction mixing ratio and temperature across the jet stream from the cyclonic side to the anticyclonic side at altitudes between 20 and 30 km during each winter period. Estimates of extinction mixing ratio profiles measured near the center of the polar vortex suggest that a gradual subsidence took place within the polar vortex during at least three of the four winter periods.

  5. How Well Do State-of-the-Art Techniques Measuring the Vertical Profile of Tropospheric Aerosol Extinction Compare?

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, Richard; Flynn, Connor M.; Elleman, Robert; Covert, David; Strawa, A.; Welton, E J.; Turner, David D.; Jonsson, Haf; Redemann, Jens; Eilers, J.; Ricci, K.; Hallar, A. G.; Clayton, M. B.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Barnard, James C.

    2006-02-01

    The recent U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP, May 2003) yielded one of the best measurement sets obtained to-date to assess our ability to measure the vertical profile of ambient aerosol extinction. During one month, a heavily instrumented aircraft with well characterized aerosol sampling ability carrying well proven and new aerosol instrumentation, devoted most of the 60 available flight hours to flying vertical profiles over the heavily instrumented ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF). This allowed us to compare vertical extinction profiles obtained from 6 different instruments: airborne Sun photometer, airborne nephelometer/absorption photometer, airborne cavity ring-down system, ground-based Raman lidar and two ground-based elastic backscatter lidars. We find the in situ measurements to be biased low (2 - 4 Mm 1 equivalent to 12-17% in the visible, or 45% in the near-infrared) when compared to airborne sunphotometer extinction. On the other hand, we find that with respect to AATS-14, the lidar ?ep(?) are biased high. Bias differences are 0.004 Km-1 (13%) and 0.007 Km-1 (24%) for the two elastic back-scatter lidars (MPLARM and MPLNET, ? = 523 nm) and 0.029 Km-1 (54%) for the Raman lidar (? = 355 nm). An unnoticed loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar had occurred leading up to AIOP and we expect better agreement from the recently restored system. Looking at the collective results from six field campaigns conducted since 1996, airborne in situ measurements of extinction tend to be biased slightly low (17% at visible wavelengths) when compared to airborne sunphotometer extinction. On the other hand, extinction derived from lidars tend to have no or positive biases. We conclude that the error associated with measuring the tropospheric vertical profile of the ambient aerosol extinction with current state-of-the art instrumentation is 15-20% at visible wavelengths

  6. Inversion of solar extinction data from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (ASTP/SAM) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The inversion methods are reported that have been used to determine the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient due to the stratospheric aerosols from data measured during the ASTP/SAM solar occultation experiment. Inversion methods include the onion skin peel technique and methods of solving the Fredholm equation for the problem subject to smoothing constraints. The latter of these approaches involves a double inversion scheme. Comparisons are made between the inverted results from the SAM experiment and near simultaneous measurements made by lidar and balloon born dustsonde. The results are used to demonstrate the assumptions required to perform the inversions for aerosols.

  7. Aerosol Optical Properties and Component Extinction from Measurements on the Ronald H. Brown During ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Coffman, D.; Miller, T.; Anderson, J.

    2002-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties were made onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program to characterize Asian aerosol as it was transported across the Pacific Ocean. The ship traveled across the Pacific from Hawaii to Japan and into the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan. Based on trajectory analysis, the aerosol has been categorized as remote marine, volcanic from the Miyakejima volcano, polluted from Korea and Japan, polluted from Beijing, polluted mixed with dust during post frontal conditions, and polluted mixed with dust from Shanghai and Korea. Presented here, for these different categories, are aerosol optical properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom Exponent, and aerosol optical depth), mass fractions of the major chemical components, and mass extinction efficiencies and extinction coefficients for individual aerosol components. Lowest scattering and absorption coefficients and highest single scattering albedos were measured in marine air masses encountered as the ship transited from Hawaii toward Japan (mean SSA = 0.97). Lowest SSA were measured in polluted air masses from Korea and Japan (mean SSA = 0.90). With dust mixed into the polluted air masses, SSA increased due to the high scattering levels associated with the dust (mean SSA ranged from 0.92 to 0.96 for different pollution/dust mixtures). These SSA are for the sub-10 micron aerosol at 55 percent RH. They were 1 to 4 percent lower for the sub-1 micron aerosol. Unique to the ACE Asia aerosol was the observation of significant absorption at 550 nm by supermicron aerosol. A correlation between supermicron elemental carbon concentrations and the ratio of absorption by sub-1 um aerosol to absorption by sub-10 um aerosol suggests that supermicron EC is responsible. As the mean concentration of supermicron EC increased from the marine to polluted to polluted with dust cases, the ratio

  8. Evaluating Nighttime CALIOP 0.532 micron Aerosol Optical Depth and Extinction Coefficient Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Tackett, J. L.; Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Curtis, C. A.; Hyer, E. J.; Sessions, W. R.; Westphal, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Welton, E. J.; Omar, A. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) Version 3.01 5-km nighttime 0.532 micron aerosol optical depth (AOD) datasets from 2007 are screened, averaged and evaluated at 1 deg X 1 deg resolution versus corresponding/co-incident 0.550 micron AOD derived using the US Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of quality-assured NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) AOD. In the absence of sunlight, since passive radiometric AOD retrievals rely overwhelmingly on scattered radiances, the model represents one of the few practical global estimates available from which to attempt such a validation. Daytime comparisons, though, provide useful context. Regional-mean CALIOP vertical profiles of night/day 0.532 micron extinction coefficient are compared with 0.523/0.532 micron ground-based lidar measurements to investigate representativeness and diurnal variability. In this analysis, mean nighttime CALIOP AOD are mostly lower than daytime (0.121 vs. 0.126 for all aggregated data points, and 0.099 vs. 0.102 when averaged globally per normalised 1 deg. X 1 deg. bin), though the relationship is reversed over land and coastal regions when the data are averaged per normalised bin (0.134/0.108 vs. 0140/0.112, respectively). Offsets assessed within single bins alone approach +/- 20 %. CALIOP AOD, both day and night, are higher than NAAPS over land (0.137 vs. 0.124) and equal over water (0.082 vs. 0.083) when averaged globally per normalised bin. However, for all data points inclusive, NAAPS exceeds CALIOP over land, coast and ocean, both day and night. Again, differences assessed within single bins approach 50% in extreme cases. Correlation between CALIOP and NAAPS AOD is comparable during both day and night. Higher correlation is found nearest the equator, both as a function of sample size and relative signal magnitudes inherent at

  9. On the Accuracy of Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Derived from in situ and Remote Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovilakam, Mahesh

    Measurements from University of Wyoming balloon-borne optical particle counters (OPCs) provide one of the longest stratospheric aerosol records in the world. In this study, University of Wyoming OPC measurements are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II) satellite measurements to uncover the reason for differences between SAGE II and OPC measurements during non-volcanic (background) periods. The surface area density (SAD) estimation from various stratospheric aerosol measurements is important, because of surface reactions which affect abundances of oxides of nitrogen and ozone, and thereby the chemistry of the stratosphere. It is therefore important to get an accurate estimation of surface area density, as many climate models use aerosol climatologies provided by satellites. OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for volcanic (1991-1996) and non-volcanic or background (1997-2004) periods. The extinction comparisons show that OPC extinctions calculated at SAGE II wavelengths are about a factor of 2 lower than SAGE II during the non-volcanic period. Under volcanic conditions the differences decrease; however, OPC extinction is still less than SAGE II extinction. This led to an investigation of the three most important systematic errors associated with the OPC measurements anisokineticity, evaporation of particles in the OPC inlet, and counting efficiency. The effect of anisokineticity is found to be negligible. For calculating the evaporation of particles in the OPC inlet, a heat transfer model is developed to calculate the mean air temperature inside the inlet, which is then coupled with a microphysical model to predict the evaporation of stratospheric aerosol particles. This evaporation increases OPC extinctions by 10-15% for both volcanic and non-volcanic cases; however, counting efficiency is the major source of error, which increases the extinction by 30-50% for the volcanic case, and 80-150% for the non-volcanic cases. These corrections

  10. Retrievals of Extensive and Intensive Aerosol Parameters from Vertical Profiles of Extinction Coefficient Acquired by the MAESTRO Occultation Spectrometer: Case Study of Sarychev Volcano Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, A.; O'Neill, N. T.; McElroy, C. T.; Sioris, C.; Zou, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Canadian MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) instrument aboard the SCISAT-1 Satellite is an aerosol profiling occultation device that is part of the ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission. This spectrometer produces spectra of aerosol extinction profiles above the upper troposphere. The extinction coefficient spectra permit the discrimination of sub-micron (fine mode) and super-micron (coarse mode) contributions and, in principle, the retrieval of fine mode effective radius. Retrievals applied to lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosol plumes resulting from the eruption of the Sarychev-peak volcano in June of 2009 are presented. Preliminary results indicate that the fine and coarse mode discrimination and the particle sizing capability are coherent with available information on Sarychev aerosols.

  11. Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering and its importance for the comparison of remote sensing with in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, Paul; Clemer, Katrijn; Yilmaz, Selami; Frieß, Udo; Irie, Hitoshi; Henzing, Bas; Fierz-Schmidhauser, Rahel; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, Ernest

    2010-05-01

    In the field, in-situ measurements of aerosol light scattering are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RH < 30-40%) which differ from the ambient ones. Since ambient aerosol particles experience a hygroscopic growth at enhanced RH, their micro physical and optical properties - especially the aerosol light scattering - are strongly dependent on RH. The knowledge of this RH effect is of eminent importance for climate forcing calculations or for the comparison of remote sensing with in-situ measurements. Here, we will present results from the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI, June-July 2009, Cabauw, The Netherlands). During this campaign different remote sensing and in-situ instruments were used to derive atmospheric parameters mainly NO2 but also aerosol properties. The aerosol in-situ measurements were performed in the basement of the Cabauw tower (inlet height 60 m). The aerosol scattering coefficient was measured dry and at various, predefined RH conditions between 20 and 95% with a recently developed humidified nephelometer (WetNeph) and with a second nephelometer measuring at dry conditions. In addition, the aerosol absorption coefficient was measured by a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP). This combination of measurements allows the determination of the aerosol extinction coefficient at ambient RH. Three MAX-DOAS (multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy) instruments retrieved vertical profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient during CINDI. The retrieved aerosol extinction corresponding to the lowest profile layer can now be directly compared to the in-situ value, which is now re-calculated to ambient RH.

  12. Estimating aerosol light-scattering enhancement from dry aerosol optical properties at different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, Gloria; Jefferson, Anne; Sheridan, Patrick; Andrews, Elisabeth; Lyamani, Hassan; Ogren, John; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles are strongly dependent on the relative humidity (RH). Knowledge of the effect of RH on aerosol optical properties is of great importance for climate forcing calculations and for comparison of in-situ measurements with satellite and remote sensing retrievals. The scattering enhancement factor, f(RH), is defined as the ratio of the scattering coefficient at a high and reference RH. Predictive capability of f(RH) for use in climate models would be enhanced if other aerosol parameters could be used as proxies to estimate hygroscopic growth. Toward this goal, we explore the relationship between aerosol light-scattering enhancement and dry aerosol optical properties such as the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) at multiple sites around the world. The measurements used in this study were conducted by the US Department of Energy at sites where different aerosol types predominate (pristine marine, polluted marine, dust dominated, agricultural and forest environments, among others). In all cases, the scattering enhancement decreases as the SSA decreases, that is, as the contribution of absorbing particles increases. On the other hand, for marine influenced environments the scattering enhancement clearly increases as the contribution of coarse particles increases (SAE decreases), evidence of the influence of hygroscopic coarse sea salt particles. For other aerosol types the relationship between f(RH) and SAE is not so straightforward. Combining all datasets, f(RH) was found to exponentially increase with SSA with a high correlation coefficient.

  13. Attribution of aerosol light absorption to black carbon and volatile aerosols.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rijana; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Ji-Hyoung

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the contribution of volatile aerosols in light-absorption measurement by three filter-based optical instruments [aethalometer, continuous light-absorption photometer (CLAP), and continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS)] at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO) from February to June 2012. The aerosol absorption coefficient (σ abs) and the equivalent black carbon (BC) mass concentration (M BC) measured by the aethalometer and CLAP showed good agreement with a difference of 9 %, which is likely due to the instrumental uncertainty. However, σ abs and M BC measured by the COSMOS with a heated inlet were found to be approximately 44 and 49 % lower than those measured by the aethalometer and CLAP under ambient conditions, respectively. This difference can be attributed to the light absorption by the volatile aerosols coexisting with the BC. Even considering inherent observational uncertainty, it suggests that approximately 35-40 % difference in the σ abs and M BC can be contributed by volatile aerosols. Increase in the difference of M BC measured by the aethalometer and COSMOS with the increasing thermal organic carbon (OC) measured by Sunset OC/EC analyzer further suggests that the filter-based optical instruments without the use of a heater are likely to enhance the value of σ abs and M BC, because this sample air may contain both BC and volatile aerosols.

  14. Extinction of polarized light in ferrofluids with different magnetic particle concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socoliuc, V.; Popescu, L. B.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic field intensity and nanoparticle concentration dependence of the polarized light extinction in a ferrofluid made of magnetite particles stabilized with technical grade oleic acid dispersed in transformer oil was experimentally investigated. The magnetically induced optical anisotropy, i.e. the dichroism divided by concentration, was found to decrease with increasing sample concentration from 2% to 8%. The magnetically induced change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74° with respect to the magnetic field direction was found to be positive for the less concentrated sample (2%) and negative for the samples with 4% and 8% magnetic nanoparticle concentrations, the more negative the higher the concentration and field intensity. Based on the theoretically proven fact [11] that the particle orientation mechanism has no effect on the extinction of light polarized at 54.74° with respect to the field direction, we analyzed the experimental findings in the frames of the agglomeration and long-range pair correlations theories for the magnetically induced optical anisotropy in ferrofluids. We developed a theoretical model in the approximation of single scattering for the optical extinction coefficient of a ferrofluid with magnetically induced particle agglomeration. The model predicts the existence of a polarization independent component of the optical extinction coefficient that is experimentally measurable at 54.74° polarization angle. The change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74° is positive if only the formation of straight n-particle chains is considered and may become negative in the hypothesis that the longer chains degenerate to more isotropic structures (polymer-like coils, globules or bundles of chains). The model for the influence on the light absorption of the long-range pair correlations, published elsewhere, predicts that the change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74° is always negative, the

  15. An Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Database Derived from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network: Applications for Space-based Lidar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Spinhime, James D.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Holben, Brent; Tsay, Si-Chee; Bucholtz, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Backscatter lidar signals are a function of both backscatter and extinction. Hence, these lidar observations alone cannot separate the two quantities. The aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, S, is the key parameter required to accurately retrieve extinction and optical depth from backscatter lidar observations of aerosol layers. S is commonly defined as 4*pi divided by the product of the single scatter albedo and the phase function at 180-degree scattering angle. Values of S for different aerosol types are not well known, and are even more difficult to determine when aerosols become mixed. Here we present a new lidar-sunphotometer S database derived from Observations of the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET). MPLNET is a growing worldwide network of eye-safe backscatter lidars co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Values of S for different aerosol species and geographic regions will be presented. A framework for constructing an S look-up table will be shown. Look-up tables of S are needed to calculate aerosol extinction and optical depth from space-based lidar observations in the absence of co-located AOD data. Applications for using the new S look-up table to reprocess aerosol products from NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) will be discussed.

  16. Does spatial arrangement of 3D plants affect light transmission and extinction coefficient within maize crops?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row spacing effects on light interception and extinction coefficient have been inconsistent for maize (Zea mays L.) when calculated with field measurements. To avoid inconsistencies due to variable light conditions and variable leaf canopies, we used a model to describe three-dimensional (3D) shoot ...

  17. Influence of refractive index on the accuracy of size determination of aerosol particles with light-scattering aerosol counters.

    PubMed

    Quenzel, H

    1969-01-01

    The scattering properties of single aerosol particles with different indices of refraction have been computed from the Mie theory considering the spectral response of light-scattering aerosol counters commercially available. It is demonstrated that high resolution of the aerosol size distribution is impossible, particularly because of the different refractive indices of the atmospheric aerosol particles. By using other ranges of scattering angle for the measurement, one may, in some cases, obtain better results.

  18. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and light extinction before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; He, Kebin; Li, Chengcai; Yang, Fumo; Zhao, Qing; Ma, Yongliang; Cheng, Yuan; Ouyang, Wenjuan; Chen, Gangcai

    2013-11-01

    contrast of air quality and visibility before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games provides a rare opportunity to investigate the links between PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and light extinction in this megacity. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected, and light scattering coefficients and the concentrations of black carbon were measured at urban Beijing for this purpose during a measurement campaign from 1 July to 20 September 2008, which was classed into four stages according to the levels of emission control measures. Daily PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 15.9 to 156.7 µg m-3 with an average of 66.0 ± 35.1 µg m-3. The average PM2.5 mass during the Olympics decreased by 49% from the second stage (20 July to 7 August), mainly due to the reduction of secondary inorganic aerosols (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA)). The counterintuitive increase of PM2.5 mass (by 27% on average) during the second stage with two most serious haze episodes, although more rigorous emission control measures were in place, compared to the first stage (1-19 July), was mainly explained by the unfavorable meteorology and input of sulfate aerosols. A daily PM2.5 mass threshold of 50 µg m-3 was extracted for frequent haze occurrence. The extinction fractions of SNA and organic material were each approximately 30% during the 20% best visibility days but changed to 81.7% and 8.4%, respectively, during the 20% worst visibility days. The results indicated that the role of SNA was magnified in haze formation during the 2008 summer in Beijing.

  19. Light absorption, optical and microphysical properties of trajectory-clustered aerosols at two AERONET sites in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawole, O. G.; Cai, X.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol remote sensing techniques and back-trajectory modeling can be combined to identify aerosol types. We have clustered 7 years of AERONET aerosol signals using trajectory analysis to identify dominant aerosol sources at two AERONET sites in West Africa: Ilorin (4.34 oE, 8.32 oN) and Djougou (1.60 oE, 9.76 oN). Of particular interest are air masses that have passed through the gas flaring region in the Niger Delta area, of Nigeria, en-route the AERONET sites. 7-day back trajectories were calculated using the UK UGAMP trajectory model driven by ECMWF wind analyses data. Dominant sources identified, using literature classifications, are desert dust (DD), Biomass burning (BB) and Urban-Industrial (UI). Below, we use a combination of synoptic trajectories and aerosol optical properties to distinguish a fourth source: that due to gas flaring. Gas flaring, (GF) the disposal of gas through stack in an open-air flame, is believed to be a prominent source of black carbon (BC) and greenhouse gases. For these different aerosol source signatures, single scattering albedo (SSA), refractive index , extinction Angstrom exponent (EEA) and absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) were used to classify the light absorption characteristics of the aerosols for λ = 440, 675, 870 and1020 nm. A total of 1625 daily averages of aerosol data were collected for the two sites. Of which 245 make up the GF cluster for both sites. For GF cluster, the range of fine-mode fraction is 0.4 - 0.7. Average values SSA(λ), for the total and GF clusters are 0.90(440), 0.93(675), 0.95(870) and 0.96(1020), and 0.93(440), 0.92(675), 0.9(870) and 0.9(1020), respectively. Values of for the GF clusters for both sites are 0.62 - 1.11, compared to 1.28 - 1.66 for the remainder of the clusters, which strongly indicates the dominance of carbonaceous particles (BC), typical of a highly industrial area. An average value of 1.58 for the real part of the refractive index at low SSA for aerosol in the GF cluster is also

  20. AerGOM, an improved algorithm for stratospheric aerosol extinction retrieval from GOMOS observations - Part 1: Algorithm description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Blanot, Laurent; Étienne Robert, Charles; Bingen, Christine; Sofieva, Viktoria; Dalaudier, Francis; Tétard, Cédric; Fussen, Didier; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Kyrölä, Erkki; Laine, Marko; Tamminen, Johanna; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    The GOMOS instrument on Envisat has successfully demonstrated that a UV-Vis-NIR spaceborne stellar occultation instrument is capable of delivering quality data on the gaseous and particulate composition of Earth's atmosphere. Still, some problems related to data inversion remained to be examined. In the past, it was found that the aerosol extinction profile retrievals in the upper troposphere and stratosphere are of good quality at a reference wavelength of 500 nm but suffer from anomalous, retrieval-related perturbations at other wavelengths. Identification of algorithmic problems and subsequent improvement was therefore necessary. This work has been carried out; the resulting AerGOM Level 2 retrieval algorithm together with the first data version AerGOMv1.0 forms the subject of this paper. The AerGOM algorithm differs from the standard GOMOS IPF processor in a number of important ways: more accurate physical laws have been implemented, all retrieval-related covariances are taken into account, and the aerosol extinction spectral model is strongly improved. Retrieval examples demonstrate that the previously observed profile perturbations have disappeared, and the obtained extinction spectra look in general more consistent. We present a detailed validation study in a companion paper; here, to give a first idea of the data quality, a worst-case comparison at 386 nm shows SAGE II-AerGOM correlation coefficients that are up to 1 order of magnitude larger than the ones obtained with the GOMOS IPFv6.01 data set.

  1. Spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Correia, A. L.; Artaxo, P.; Procópio, A. S.; Andreae, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    range of 450-880 nm. Further studies should be taken to assess the corresponding impact in the UV spectral range. The assumption that soot spectral properties represent all ambient light absorbing particles may cause a misjudgment of absorption towards the UV, especially in remote areas. Therefore, it is recommended to measure aerosol absorption at several wavelengths to accurately assess the impact of non-soot aerosols on climate and on photochemical atmospheric processes.

  2. In situ measurement of the infrared absorption and extinction of chemical and biologically derived aerosols using flow-through photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Gurton, Kristan P; Dahmani, Rachid; Ligon, David; Bronk, Burt V

    2005-07-01

    In an effort to establish a more reliable set of optical cross sections for a variety of chemical and biological aerosol simulants, we have developed a flow-through photoacoustic system that is capable of measuring absolute, mass-normalized extinction and absorption cross sections. By employing a flow-through design we avoid issues associated with closed aerosol photoacoustic systems and improve sensitivity. Although the results shown here were obtained for the tunable CO2 laser waveband region, i.e., 9.20-10.80 microm, application to other wavelengths is easily achievable. The aerosols considered are categorized as biological, chemical, and inorganic in origin, i.e., Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, dimethicone silicone oil (SF-96 grade 50), and kaolin clay powder (alumina and silicate), respectively. Results compare well with spectral extinction measured previously by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons with Mie theory calculations based on previously published complex indices of refraction and measured size distributions are also presented. PMID:16004057

  3. Four-year long-path monitoring of ambient aerosol extinction at a central European urban site: dependence on relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skupin, A.; Ansmann, A.; Engelmann, R.; Seifert, P.; Müller, T.

    2016-02-01

    The ambient aerosol particle extinction coefficient is measured with the Spectral Aerosol Extinction Monitoring System (SÆMS) along a 2.84 km horizontal path at 30-50 m height above ground in the urban environment of Leipzig (51.3° N, 12.4° E), Germany, since 2009. The dependence of the particle extinction coefficient (wavelength range from 300 to 1000 nm) on relative humidity up to almost 100 % was investigated. The main results are presented. For the wavelength of 550 nm, the mean extinction enhancement factor was found to be 1.75 ± 0.4 for an increase of relative humidity from 40 to 80 %. The respective 4-year mean extinction enhancement factor is 2.8 ± 0.6 for a relative-humidity increase from 40 to 95 %. A parameterization of the dependency of the urban particle extinction coefficient on relative humidity is presented. A mean hygroscopic exponent of 0.46 for the 2009-2012 period was determined. Based on a backward trajectory cluster analysis, the dependence of several aerosol optical properties for eight air flow regimes was investigated. Large differences were not found, indicating that local pollution sources widely control the aerosol conditions over the urban site. The comparison of the SÆMS extinction coefficient statistics with respective statistics from ambient AERONET sun photometer observations yields good agreement. Also, time series of the particle extinction coefficient computed from in situ-measured dry particle size distributions and humidity-corrected SÆMS extinction values (for 40 % relative humidity) were found in good overall consistency, which verifies the applicability of the developed humidity parameterization scheme. The analysis of the spectral dependence of particle extinction (Ångström exponent) revealed an increase of the 390-881 nm Ångström exponent from, on average, 0.3 (at 30 % relative humidity) to 1.3 (at 95 % relative humidity) for the 4-year period.

  4. Broadband optical extinction measurements and complex refractive indices in the ultraviolet spectral region for biogenic secondary organic aerosol exposed to ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Lee, H.; Segev, L.; Nizkorodov, S.; Brown, S. S.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between aerosols and sunlight plays an important role in the radiative balance of Earth's atmosphere. Aerosols can both scatter and absorb solar radiation causing surface cooling and heating of the atmosphere. These interactions depend on the optical properties of the aerosols (i.e., complex refractive index). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) account for a significant fraction of the tropospheric aerosol. However, their chemical, physical, and optical properties, especially as they are processed in the atmosphere (aging), are still poorly understood. In this study, SOA formed by the ozonolysis of various biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) precursors (α-pinene, limonene, and α-humulene) were exposed to humid air containing various concentrations of gaseous ammonia which has been shown to cause the biogenic SOA to ';brown' on filters. The extent of absorption of the SOA in the aerosol phase cause by the exposure to gaseous ammonia was measured by a newly developed instrument to measure aerosol extinction as a function of wavelength using Broadband Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy (BBCES) with a broadband light source. Size-selected measurements of the humid SOA exposed to NH3 for about 1.5 hours were used to derive complex refractive indices (RI) as a function of wavelength in the UV spectral region (from 360 - 420nm). The imaginary part of the refractive index did not exceed 0.05 in the 360 - 420 nm range for SOA formed from the three BVOCs even at high concentrations of NH3 (>1ppm), allowing to place an upper limit of k = 0.05. Furthermore, the small k values are consistent with bulk UV-VIS measurements. However, for the α-pinene SOA, the real part of the RI slightly increased from n = 1.49 to n = 1.55 with negligible spectral dependence. For limonene and α-humulene the real part remind constant within error calculations. Based on these observations, reactive uptake of gaseous ammonia is not expected to significantly affect absorption and

  5. Study of MPLNET-Derived Aerosol Climatology over Kanpur, India, and Validation of CALIPSO Level 2 Version 3 Backscatter and Extinction Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Amit; Tripathi, S. N.; Kaul, D. S.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2012-01-01

    The level 2 aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles from the NASA Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) at Kanpur, India, have been studied from May 2009 to September 2010. Monthly averaged extinction profiles from MPLNET shows high extinction values near the surface during October March. Higher extinction values at altitudes of 24 km are observed from April to June, a period marked by frequent dust episodes. Version 3 level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol profile products have been compared with corresponding data from MPLNET over Kanpur for the above-mentioned period. Out of the available backscatter profiles, the16 profiles used in this study have time differences less than 3 h and distances less than 130 km. Among these profiles, four cases show good comparison above 400 m with R2 greater than 0.7. Comparison with AERONET data shows that the aerosol type is properly identified by the CALIOP algorithm. Cloud contamination is a possible source of error in the remaining cases of poor comparison. Another source of error is the improper backscatter-to-extinction ratio, which further affects the accuracy of extinction coefficient retrieval.

  6. Light Absorption of Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holanda, B. A.; Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Saturno, J.; Pöhlker, C.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol absorption is a key issue in proper calculation of aerosol radiative forcing. Especially in the tropics with the dominance of natural biogenic aerosol and brown carbon, the so called anomalous absorption is of particular interest. A special experiment was designed to study the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption for PM2.5 as well as for PM10 particles in the wet season in Central Amazonia. Aerosol analysis occurred from May to August 2014, in the ZF2 ecological reservation, situated at about 55 km North of Manaus in very pristine conditions Two 7 wavelengths AE33 Aethalometers were deployed measuring in parallel, but with a PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Two MAAP (Multiangle Aerosol Absorption Photometer) were operated in parallel with the AE33 exactly at the same PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Organic and elemental carbon was analyzed using collection with quartz filters and analysis using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Aerosol light scattering for 3 wavelengths was measured using Air Photon and TSI Nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution was measured with one TSI SMPS and a GRIMM OPC to have the size range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers. Particles were measured under dry conditions using diffusion dryers. Aerosol optical depth and absorption was also measured with an AERONET sunphotometer operated close to the site. As the experiment was run in the wet season, very low equivalent black carbon (EBC) were measured, with average concentrations around 50 ng/m³ during May, increasing to 130 ng/m³ in June and July. The measurements adjusted for similar wavelengths shows excellent agreement between the MAAP and AE33 for both inlets (PM2.5 and PM10). It was not possible statistically infer absorption from the coarse mode biogenic particles, since the absorption was completely dominated by fine mode particles. AERONET measurements shows very low values of AOD, at 0.17 at 500 nm and 0.13 at 870 nm, with very low absorption AOD values at 0.00086 at 676 nm and 0.0068 at 872 nm

  7. Spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption over the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Correia, A. L.; Artaxo, P.; Procópio, A. S.; Andreae, M. O.

    2011-04-01

    assumption that soot spectral properties represent all ambient light absorbing particles may cause a misjudgment of absorption towards the UV, especially in remote areas. Therefore, it is recommended to measure aerosol absorption at several wavelengths from UV to near IR to accurately assess the impact of non-soot aerosols on climate and on photochemical atmospheric processes.

  8. Spectral Light Absorption and Scattering by Aerosol Particles in Central Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Holanda, B. A.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Cirino, G. G.; Andreae, M. O.; Saturno, J.; Pöhlker, C.; Martin, S. T.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the GoAmazon2014/5, a detailed characterization of spectral light absorption and light scattering was performed at four research sites located in the central Amazon forest at different distances upwind and downwind of Manaus. The sites ATTO (T0a) and Embrapa (T0e) are located upwind of Manaus where it is possible to observe very pristine atmospheric conditions in wet season. The site Tiwa (T2) is being operated under the direct influence of the Manaus plume at 5 km downwind of Manaus and, finally, the Manacapuru (T3) site is located at about 60 km downwind of Manaus. The spectral dependence of light absorption and light scattering were measured using Aethalometers (7-wavelengths) and Nephelometers (3-wavelengths), respectively. By calculating the Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE), it was possible to get information about the source of the aerosol whereas the Scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) gives information about its size distribution. Sunphotometers from the AERONET network were set up at T3 and T0e sites to measure column Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). For all the stations, much higher absorption and scattering coefficients were observed during the dry season in comparison to the wet season, as a result of the larger concentration of BC and OC present in the biomass burning events. Additionally, we also observed Manaus plume pollution that alters the BC signal. There is also an increase of the AAE during the dry season due to the larger amount of aerosols from biomass burning compared with urban pollution. High values of AAE are also observed during the wet season, attributed to the presence of long-range transport of aerosols from Africa. The SAE for all the sites are lower during the wet season, with the dominance of large biological particles, and increases during the dry season as a consequence of fine particles emitted from both biomass and fossil fuel burning. The AOD at T0e and T3 (Jan-Jun/2014) showed very similar values ranging from 0.05 to

  9. A broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for measuring the extinction of aerosols at blue and near-UV wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, Dean; Fullam, Donovan; Hoa Le, Phuoc; Chen, Jun; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for sensitive extinction measurements of aerosols. The instrument is distinguished by its broad and continuous spectral coverage from the near-UV to blue wavelengths (ca. 320 to 450 nm). The short wavelength region has been little explored compared to visible wavelengths, but is important because (1) brown carbon (BrC) absorbs strongly in this wavelength region, and (2) absorption of near-UV radiation in the atmosphere alters the photolysis rate of the key atmospheric species O3, NO2, and HONO, with implications for air quality and atmospheric oxidation capacity. The instrument performance and the effect of a switchable in-line filter are characterised. Early results using the instrument in the TROPOS atmospheric simulation chamber are presented. These experiments include studies of secondary organic aerosol formation (SOA), and biomass burning experiments of rice and wheat straw, followed by experiments simulating particle aging under daytime and nighttime conditions.

  10. Light absorption of organic aerosol from pyrolysis of corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-11-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) can absorb solar radiation in the low-visible and ultra-violet wavelengths thereby modifying radiative forcing. Agricultural waste burning emits a large quantity of organic carbon in many developing countries. In this work, we improved the extraction and analysis method developed by Chen and Bond, and extended the spectral range of OC absorption. We examined light absorbing properties of primary OA from pyrolysis of corn stalk, which is a major type of agricultural wastes. Light absorption of bulk liquid extracts of OA was measured using a UV-vis recording spectrophotometer. OA can be extracted by methanol at 95%, close to full extent, and shows polar character. Light absorption of organic aerosol has strong spectral dependence (Absorption Ångström exponent = 7.7) and is not negligible at ultra-violet and low-visible regions. Higher pyrolysis temperature produced OA with higher absorption. Imaginary refractive index of organic aerosol (kOA) is 0.041 at 400 nm wavelength and 0.005 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively.

  11. How Well do State-of-the-Art Techniques Measuring the Vertical Profile of Tropospheric Aerosol Extinction Compare?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Ferrare, R.; Flynn, C.; Elleman, R.; Covert, D.; Strawa, A.; Welton, E.; Turner, D.; Jonsson, H.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J.; Ricci, K.; Hallar, A. G.; Clayton, M.; Michalsky, J.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B.; Barnard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The recent Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (AIOP, May 2003) yielded one of the best measurement sets obtained to date to assess our ability to measure the vertical profile of ambient aerosol extinction sigma(ep)(lambda) in the lower troposphere. During one month, a heavily instrumented aircraft with well-characterized aerosol sampling ability carrying well-proven and new aerosol instrumentation devoted most of the 60 available flight hours to flying vertical profiles over the heavily instrumented ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF). This allowed us to compare vertical extinction profiles obtained from six different instruments: airborne Sun photometer (AATS-14), airborne nephelometer/absorption photometer, airborne cavity ring-down system, groundbased Raman lidar, and two ground-based elastic backscatter lidars. We find the in situ measured sigma(ep)(lambda) to be lower than the AATS-14 derived values. Bias differences are 0.002-0.004 Km!1 equivalent to 13-17% in the visible, or 45% in the near-infrared. On the other hand, we find that with respect to AATS-14, the lidar sigma(ep)(lambda) are higher: Bias differences are 0.004 Km(-1) (13%) and 0.007 Km(-1) (24%) for the two elastic backscatter lidars (MPLNET and MPLARM, lambda = 523 nm) and 0.029 Km(-1) (54%) for the Raman lidar (lambda = 355 nm). An unnoticed loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar had occurred leading up to AIOP, and we expect better agreement from the recently restored system. Looking at the collective results from six field campaigns conducted since 1996, airborne in situ measurements of sigma(ep)(lambda) tend to be biased slightly low (17% at visible wavelengths) when compared to airborne Sun photometer sigma(ep)(lambda). On the other hand, sigma(ep)(lambda) values derived from lidars tend to have no or positive biases. From the bias differences we conclude that the typical systematic error associated

  12. Switchgrass leaf area index and light extinction coefficients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass production simulation modeling for plant species is often dependent upon accurate simulation or measurement of canopy light interception and radiation use efficiency. With the recent interest in converting large tracts of land to biofuel species cropping, modeling vegetative yield with grea...

  13. Extinction coefficient (1 micrometer) properties of high-altitude clouds from solar occultation measurements (1985-1990): Evidence of volcanic aerosol effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Minnis, Patrick; Yue, Glenn K.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of the 1-micrometer volume extinction coefficient of two geographically different high-altitude cloud systems have been examined for the posteruption period (1985-1990) of the April 1982 El Chichon volcanic event with emphasis on the effect of volcanic aerosols on clouds. These two high-altitude cloud systems are the tropical clouds in the tropopause region observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 2 and the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) sighted by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) 2. The results indicate that volcanic aerosols alter the frequency distributions of these high-altitude clouds in such a manner that the occurrence of clouds having high extinction coefficients (6 x 10(exp -3) - 2 x 10(exp -2)/km) is suppressed, while that of clouds having low extinction coefficients (2 x 10(exp -3) - 6 x 10(exp -2)/km) is enhanced. This influence of the volcanic aerosols appears to be opposite to the increase in the extinction coefficient of optically thick clouds observed by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) during the initial posteruption period of the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption. A plausible explanation of this difference, based on the Mie theory, is presented. As a consequence of the Mie theory, the effective radius of most, if not all, of the high-altitude clouds, measured by the SAGE series of satellite instruments must be less than about 0.8 micrometers. This mean cloud particle size implied by the satellite extinction-coefficient data at a single wavelength (1 micrometer) is further substantiated by the particle size analysis based on cloud extinction coefficient at two wavelengths (0.525 and 1.02 micrometers) obtained by the SAGE 2 observations. Most of the radiation measured by ERBE is reflected by cloud systems comprised of particles having effective radii much greater than 1 micrometer. A reduction in the effective radius of these clouds due to volcanic aerosols is expected to increase their

  14. Relating Aerosol Mass and Optical Depth in the Summertime Continental Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Wagner, N.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Attwood, A. R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brown, S. S.; McComiskey, A. C.; Gordon, T. D.; Welti, A.; Carlton, A. G.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD), the column-integrated ambient aerosol light extinction, is determined from satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements. AOD is the parameter most often used to validate earth system model simulations of aerosol mass. Relating aerosol mass to AOD, however, is problematic due to issues including aerosol water uptake as a function of relative humidity (RH) and the complicated relationship between aerosol physicochemical properties and light extinction. Measurements of aerosol microphysical, chemical, and optical properties help to constrain the relationship between aerosol mass and optical depth because aerosol extinction at ambient RH is a function of the abundance, composition and size distribution of the aerosol. We use vertical profiles of humidity and dry aerosol extinction observed in the southeastern United States (U.S.) to examine the relationship between submicron aerosol mass concentration and extinction at ambient RH. We show that the κ-Köhler parameterization directly, and without additional Mie calculations, describes the change in extinction with varying RH as a function of composition for both aged aerosols typical of the polluted summertime continental boundary layer and the biomass burning aerosols we encountered. We calculate how AOD and the direct radiative effect in the eastern U.S. have likely changed due to trends in aerosol composition in recent decades. We also examine the sensitivity of AOD to the RH profile and to aerosol composition, size distribution and abundance.

  15. An Accuracy Assessment of the CALIOP/CALIPSO Version 2/Version 3 Daytime Aerosol Extinction Product Based on a Detailed Multi-Sensor, Multi-Platform Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Redemann, J.; Hoff, R. M.; Rogers, R. R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Russell, P. B.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), on board the CALIPSO platform, has measured profiles of total attenuated backscatter coefficient (level 1 products) since June 2006. CALIOP s level 2 products, such as the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles, are retrieved using a complex succession of automated algorithms. The goal of this study is to help identify potential shortcomings in the CALIOP version 2 level 2 aerosol extinction product and to illustrate some of the motivation for the changes that have been introduced in the next version of CALIOP data (version 3, released in June 2010). To help illustrate the potential factors contributing to the uncertainty of the CALIOP aerosol extinction retrieval, we focus on a one-day, multi-instrument, multiplatform comparison study during the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) validation campaign on 4 August 2007. On that day, we observe a consistency in the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values recorded by four different instruments (i.e. spaceborne MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS: 0.67 and POLarization and Directionality of Earth s Reflectances, POLDER: 0.58, airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar, HSRL: 0.52 and ground-based AErosol RObotic NETwork, AERONET: 0.48 to 0.73) while CALIOP AOD is a factor of two lower (0.32 at 532 nm). This case study illustrates the following potential sources of uncertainty in the CALIOP AOD: (i) CALIOP s low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) leading to the misclassification and/or lack of aerosol layer identification, especially close to the Earth s surface; (ii) the cloud contamination of CALIOP version 2 aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles; (iii) potentially erroneous assumptions of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa) used in CALIOP s extinction retrievals; and (iv) calibration coefficient biases in the CALIOP daytime attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles. The use of version 3 CALIOP extinction retrieval for our case

  16. Sizing highly-ordered buckyball-shaped aggregates of colloidal nanoparticles by light extinction spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofri, F. R. A.; Barbosa, S.; Touré, O.; Woźniak, M.; Grisolia, C.

    2013-09-01

    We produced self-assembled, densely-packed and highly-ordered aggregates of silica nanoparticles arranged in a rather regular hexagonal-pentagonal surface lattice. To investigate the formation of these aggregates, produced by means of a spray drying method, we developed a light extinction setup and all related models. It is shown that with a geodesic dome model, to describe their morphology, and a T-matrix method to calculate their extinction cross sections, the size distribution and concentration of these flowing aggregates may be recovered from the inversion of transmission spectra.

  17. Studies of toxic aerosols via elastic and inelastic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, W.; Li, W.; Allen, T.M.; Blair, D.S.; Davis, E.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Evaporation rates and chemical characteristics of potentially toxic aerosols have been determined by elastic and inelastic light-scattering measurements. The aerosol systems examined were a commercial catalyst consisting of a mixture of stannous octanoate (SNO) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA) and droplets emitted from open tanks of chromic acid solutions used for anodizing aluminum. The heavy metals contained in these aerosols represent a danger to the workplace if such materials are inhaled. Nanogram amounts of the solutions were studied by suspending single microdroplets in electrodynamic balances in a flow of air to measure evaporation rates and to obtain Raman spectra. Elastic scattering data include phase functions and morphological resonance spectra from which droplet sizes are determined. The inelastic light-scattering data or Raman spectra provide molecular vibrational bond information. It was found that EHA spectra agree with bulk data in the literature, and that SNO Raman spectra, which are not available in the literature, are consistent with infrared spectra for bulk SNO. At room temperature the vapor pressure of SNO is on the order of 0.01 Pa while that of EHA is on the order of 0.1 Pa. Raman data for the residue of evaporated chromic acid solutions show the presence of chromium oxides (Cr[sup 6+] compounds), surfactants, and bound (nonvolatile) water. 31 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Phase function, backscatter, extinction, and absorption for standard radiation atmosphere and El Chichon aerosol models at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Suttles, J. T.; Lecroy, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Tabular values of phase function, Legendre polynominal coefficients, 180 deg backscatter, and extinction cross section are given for eight wavelengths in the atmospheric windows between 0.4 and 2.2 microns. Also included are single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and refractive indices. These values are based on Mie theory calculations for the standard rediation atmospheres (continental, maritime, urban, unperturbed stratospheric, volcanic, upper atmospheric, soot, oceanic, dust, and water-soluble) assest measured volcanic aerosols at several time intervals following the El Chichon eruption. Comparisons of extinction to 180 deg backscatter for different aerosol models are presented and related to lidar data.

  19. Light absorption by secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene: Effects of oxidants, seed aerosol acidity, and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    2013-10-25

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532, and 870 nm. Significant light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed for the SOA formed from α-pinene + O3 + NO3 system only in the presence of highly acidic sulfate seed aerosols under dry conditions. In contrast, no absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27% or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. Organic nitrates in the SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols were found to be nonabsorbing, while the light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with nitroxy organosulfate groups that are formed in highly acidic sulfate aerosols. Finally and overall, these results suggest that dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems do not form light-absorbing SOA under typical atmospheric conditions.

  20. Application of modified Twomey techniques to invert lidar angular scatter and solar extinction data for determining aerosol size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Polarization properties of the angularly scattered laser light from a volume of air are used to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles within the volume by the use of appropriate inversion techniques. Similar techniques are employed to determine a mean size distribution of the particulates within a vertical column through the atmosphere from determinations of the aerosol optical depth as a function of wavelength. In both of these examples, a modification of an inversion technique originally described by Twomey has been employed. Details of this method are presented as well as results from actual measurements employing bistatic lidar and solar radiometer.

  1. Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

    2013-05-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from

  2. Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. I - Size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosols suspended in the atmosphere. II - Radiation flux measurements and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluisi, J. J.; Furukawa, F. M.; Gillette, D. A.; Schuster, B. G.; Charlson, R. J.; Porch, W. M.; Fegley, R. W.; Herman, B. M.; Rabinoff, R. A.; Twitty, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for a field test that was aimed at acquiring a sufficient set of measurements of aerosol properties required as input for radiative-transfer calculations relevant to the earth's radiation balance. These measurements include aerosol extinction and size distributions, vertical profiles of aerosols, and radiation fluxes. Physically consistent, vertically inhomogeneous models of the aerosol characteristics of a turbid atmosphere over a desert and an agricultural region are constructed by using direct and indirect sampling techniques. These results are applied for a theoretical interpretation of airborne radiation-flux measurements. The absorption term of the complex refractive index of aerosols is estimated, a regional variation in the refractive index is noted, and the magnitude of solar-radiation absorption by aerosols and atmospheric molecules is determined.

  3. Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Y; Browell, E V

    1989-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the potential of a multiple wavelength lidar for discriminating between several aerosol types such as maritime, continental, stratospheric, and desert aerosols on the basis of wavelength dependence of the aerosol backscatter coefficient. In the analysis of lidar signals, the two-component lidar equation was solved under the assumption of similarity in the derived profiles of backscatter coefficients for each wavelength, and this made it possible to reduce the uncertainty in the extinction/backscatter ratio, which is a key parameter in the lidar solution. It is shown that a three-wavelength lidar system operating at 300, 600, and 1064 nm can provide unique information for discriminating between various aerosol types such as continental, maritime, Saharan dust, stratospheric aerosols in a tropopause fold event, and tropical forest aerosols. Measurement error estimation was also made through numerical simulations. Mie calculations were made using in situ aerosol data and aerosol models to compare with the lidar results. There was disagreement between the theoretical and empirical results, which in some cases was substantial. These differences may be partly due to uncertainties in the lidar data analysis and aerosol characteristics and also due to the conventional assumption of aerosol sphericity for the aerosol Mie calculations. PMID:20548724

  4. Comparison of Aerosol Backscatter and Extinction Profiles Based on the Earlinet Database and the Single Calculus Chain for Thessaloniki Greece (2001-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voudouri, K.; Siomos, N.; Giannakaki, E.; Amiridis, V.; d'Amico, G.; Balis, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles derived by the Single Calculus Chain (SCC) algorithm, which was developed within the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) are compared with profiles derived by the operational inversion algorithm of Thessaloniki. Measurements performed during the period 2001-2014, that have already been uploaded in the EARLINET database, are considered in this study. The objective of this study is to verify, for the case of Thessaloniki, the consistency of the climatology of the aerosol profiles based on SCC and the EARLINET database data respectively. In this paper we show example comparisons for each lidar product submitted in the official database.

  5. Light extinction at agglomerates of spheres--a practical test on the submicroscale.

    PubMed

    Kätzel, Uwe; Gruy, Frederic; Babick, Frank; Klöden, Wolfgang

    2005-09-01

    Today's theories applied to the inversion of measurement data from optical measurement devices are restricted to single spherical particles. However, particles formed in industrial processes such as precipitation and crystallization are often nonspherical or agglomerates. Theoretical approaches to describe the optical behavior of such particle systems have already been proposed. The verification of these theories has mostly been done using microwave scattering experiments with agglomerates in the millimeter range. This paper provides a first but surely not all-embracing practical test for a general extension of the Mie theory to agglomerates of submicroscale spheres. For the sake of simplicity and from practical viewpoints of online-sensor development only light extinction of an agglomerated suspension has been examined. The required rigid agglomerates have been produced using a spray-drying method that generates particles with a much higher mechanical stability than can be obtained by the usual procedures. Subsequent fractionation of the suspension delivers systems with only a limited number of agglomerate configurations. Extinction measurements at multiple wavelengths using dynamic extinction spectroscopy have been conducted to determine the extinction cross section of the agglomerated dispersions. These data are compared with computations of agglomerates scattering.

  6. Altitude Differentiated Aerosol Extinction Over Tenerife (North Atlantic Coast) During ACE-2 by Means of Ground and Airborne Photometry and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formenti, P.; Elias, T.; Welton, J.; Diaz, J. P.; Exposito, F.; Schmid, B.; Powell, D.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Devaux, C.; Voss, K.; Lelieveld, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Durkee, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depths (tau(sub a)) by means of sun photometers have been undertaken in Tenerife (28 deg 16' N, 16 deg 36' W) during ACE-2 (June-July 1997). Five ground-based sites were located at four different altitudes in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, from 0 to 3570 m asl. The goal of the investigation was to provide estimates of the vertical aerosol extinction over the island, both under clean and turbid conditions. Inversion of spectral tau(sub a) allowed to retrieve size distributions, from which the single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) and the asymmetry factor g could be estimated as a function of altitude. These parameters were combined to calculate aerosol forcing in the column. Emphasis is put on episodes of increased turbidity, which were observed at different locations simultaneously, and attributed to outbreaks of mineral dust from North Africa. Differentiation of tau(sub a) as a function of altitude provided the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient sigma(sub e). For dust outbreaks, aerosol extinction is concentrated in two distinct layers above and below the strong subsidence inversion around 1200 m asl. Vertical profiles of tau(sub a) and sigma(sub e) are shown for July 8. In some occasions, vertical profiles are compared to LIDAR observations, performed both at sea level and in the low free troposphere, and to airborne measurements of aerosol optical depths.

  7. Changes in surface aerosol extinction trends over China during 1980-2013 inferred from quality-controlled visibility data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Li, Chengcai; Zhao, Chunsheng; Su, Tianning

    2016-08-01

    Pollution in China has been attracting extensive attention both globally and regionally, especially due to the perceptually worsening "smog" condition in recent years. We use routine visibility measurements from 1980 to 2013 at 272 World Meteorological Organization stations in China to assess the temporal changes in the magnitude and the sign of pollution trends. A strict and comprehensive quality control procedure is enforced by considering several issues not typically addressed in previous studies. Two methods are used to independently estimate the trend and its significance level. Results show that, in general, a strong increase in aerosol extinction coefficient over the majority of China is observed in the 1980s, followed by a moderate decrease in the 1990s, another increase in the 2000s, and a shift to decrease since around 2006 for some regions. Seasonally, winter and fall trends appear to be the strongest, while summer has the lowest trend.

  8. Implementation of Rotational Raman Channel in Multiwavelength Aerosol Lidar to Improve Measurements of Particle Extinction and Backscattering at 532 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskii, Igor; Whiteman, David N.; Korenskiy, Michael; Suvorina, A.; Perez-Ramirez, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We describe a practical implementation of rotational Raman (RR) measurements in an existing Mie-Raman lidar to obtain measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering at 532 nm. A 2.3 nm width interference filter was used to select a spectral range characterized by low temperature sensitivity within the anti-Stokes branch of the RR spectrum. Simulations demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the scattering cross section does not exceed 1.0% in the 230-300K range making accurate correction for this dependence quite easy. With this upgrade, the NASA/GSFC multiwavelength Raman lidar has demonstrated useful α532 measurements and was used for regular observations. Examples of lidar measurements and inversion of optical data to the particle microphysics will be given in presentation.

  9. Inter-comparison of MAX-DOAS Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Extinction, SO2 and NO2 in the Alberta Oil Sands with LIDAR Data and GEM-MACH Air Quality Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Zoe; Friess, Udo; Strawbridge, Kevin; Whiteway, James; Aggarwal, Monika; Makar, Paul; Li, Shao-Meng; O'Brien, Jason; Baray, Sabour; Schnitzler, Elijah; Olfert, Jason S.; Osthoff, Hans D.; Lobo, Akshay; McLaren, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Understanding industrial emissions of trace gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands is essential to maintaining air quality standards and informing public policy. Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of trace gases can improve knowledge of pollutant levels, vertical distribution and chemical transformation. During an intensive air measurement campaign to study emissions, transport, transformation and deposition of oil sands air pollutants from August to September of 2013, a MAX-DOAS instrument was deployed at a site north of Fort McMurray, Alberta to determine the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, NO2 and SO2 through retrieval from the MAX-DOAS spectral measurements using an optimal estimation method. The large complement of data collected from multiple instruments deployed during this field campaign provides a unique opportunity to validate and characterize the performance of the MAX-DOAS vertical profile retrievals. Aerosol extinction profiles determined from two Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments, one collocated and the other on a Twin Otter aircraft that flew over the site during the study, will be compared to the MAX-DOAS aerosol extinction profile retrievals. Vertical profiles of NO2 and SO2 retrieved from the MAX-DOAS measurements will be further compared with the composite vertical profiles measured from the flights of a second aircraft, the NRC-Convair 580, over the field site during the same measurement period. Finally, the MAX-DOAS retrieved tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of SO2 and NO2 will be compared to the predicted VCDs from Environment and Climate Change Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and Chemistry (GEM-MACH) air quality model over the grid cell containing the field site. Emission estimates of SO2 from the major oil mining facility Syncrude Mildred Lake using the MAX-DOAS VCD results, validated through the detailed characterization above

  10. Evaluation of Air Pollution Applications of AERONET and MODIS Aerosol Column Optical Depth by Comparison with In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria Salazar, S.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Colucci, D.

    2012-12-01

    Reno, Nevada, USA is subject to typical urban aerosol, wind-blown dust, and occasional biomass burning smoke from anthropogenic and natural fires. Reno has complex air flow at levels relevant for aerosol transport. At times recirculating mountain and urban flow arrives from the Sierra Nevada, San Francisco, CA and Sacramento, CA. The urban plumes are further modified by biogenic forest emissions and secondary aerosol formation during transport over the Sierra Nevada Mountains to Reno. This complicates the use of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) for air quality measurements in Reno. Our laboratory at the University of Nevada Reno has collocated multispectral photoacoustic instruments and reciprocal nephelometers to measure light absorption and light scattering coefficients as well as an AERONET operated CIMEL CE-318 ground-based sunphotometer. Preliminary measurements from August 2011 indicate substantially larger Cimel AOD than could be accounted for by use of the in situ aerosol extinction measurements combined with mixing height estimate. This poster presents new results comparing AERONET AOD and single scattering albedo and MODIS AOD with in situ measurements for summer and fall 2012, along with extensive back trajectory analysis, to evaluate conditions when satellite measurement may be useful for air pollution applications in Reno.

  11. [Pollution Characteristics and Light Extinction Effects of Water-soluble Ions in PM2.5 During Winter Hazy Days at North Suburban Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao-yao; Ma, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Cui, Fen-ping; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and their contribution to light extinction in haze days, on-line monitoring of PM2.5. was conducted at North Suburban Nanjing from 25 January through 3 February, 2013. Water-soluble components were collected with a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS), and analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) for the contents of SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ Simultaneously particle size distributions were measured using scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The absorption and scattering coefficients were measured by three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3). Trace gases (SO2, NO2 etc.) were also monitored. The results showed that the average concentrations of total water-soluble ions were 70.3 and 22.9 microg x m(-3) in haze and normal days, respectively. Secondary hygroscopic components including SO4(2-), NO3- and NH4+ were the major ionic pollutants. Hazy days favored the conversion of SO2 and NOx, to SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively, and in particular the oxidation of NOx. Using multiple linear regression statistical method, the empirical relationship between the dry aerosol extinction coefficient and the chemical composition was established. NH4NO3 was found to be the largest contributor to aerosol extinction in winter in Nanjing, followed by (NH4)2SO4, OC and EC. In two heavy pollution events, the increase of ion concentrations was influenced by the increase of primary emissions and secondary transformation. PMID:26387291

  12. [Pollution Characteristics and Light Extinction Effects of Water-soluble Ions in PM2.5 During Winter Hazy Days at North Suburban Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao-yao; Ma, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Cui, Fen-ping; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and their contribution to light extinction in haze days, on-line monitoring of PM2.5. was conducted at North Suburban Nanjing from 25 January through 3 February, 2013. Water-soluble components were collected with a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS), and analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) for the contents of SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ Simultaneously particle size distributions were measured using scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The absorption and scattering coefficients were measured by three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3). Trace gases (SO2, NO2 etc.) were also monitored. The results showed that the average concentrations of total water-soluble ions were 70.3 and 22.9 microg x m(-3) in haze and normal days, respectively. Secondary hygroscopic components including SO4(2-), NO3- and NH4+ were the major ionic pollutants. Hazy days favored the conversion of SO2 and NOx, to SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively, and in particular the oxidation of NOx. Using multiple linear regression statistical method, the empirical relationship between the dry aerosol extinction coefficient and the chemical composition was established. NH4NO3 was found to be the largest contributor to aerosol extinction in winter in Nanjing, followed by (NH4)2SO4, OC and EC. In two heavy pollution events, the increase of ion concentrations was influenced by the increase of primary emissions and secondary transformation.

  13. Characterizing the vertical profile of aerosol particle extinction and linear depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 view from CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; Winker, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 μm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (“lidar ratio”) necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolves more smoke over water than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of

  14. Characterizing the Vertical Profile of Aerosol Particle Extinction and Linear Depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 View from CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; Winker, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 µm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio") necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolvesmore smoke overwater than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of Bengal

  15. Measurement of dust particle size and density by a laser light scattering and extinction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Changrae; Chai, Kilbyoung; Park, Hoyong; Shin, Yonghyun; Chung, Kwanghwa; Choe, Wonho

    2006-10-01

    The measurement of dust particle density was performed using the laser light extinction method. Using two spherical mirrors, a multi-pass setup was used for lowering the measurement limit of the system. In parallel, the particle size was measured using the laser light scattering method. To self-consistently determine the time evolution of the particle size, in-situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering was used. Polarization light intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with the same polarization) were measured at 71 . Before applying the method to the dusty plasmas, the measurement accuracy was confirmed using a distilled water solution of the size-known particles. In addition, the size-known particles were injected into the argon plasma, and the particles trapped inside the plasma were used for the accurate measurement of the light scattering angle. The measured size of the dust particles in a Ar+SiH4 (5%) 13.56 MHz capacitively-coupled plasma (160 mTorr, 150 W, 10 s after plasma on) was about 118 nm, which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscope photographs. The time evolution of the particle size and its number density was studied by both methods.

  16. Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. 1. Analysis of aerosol extinction spectra from the AMON and SALOMON balloonborne spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Gwenaël; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Brogniez, Colette; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Pirre, Michel

    2002-12-20

    Aerosol extinction coefficients have been derived in the 375-700-nm spectral domain from measurement in the stratosphere since 1992, at night, at mid- and high latitudes from 15 to 40 km, by two balloonborne spectrometers, Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NO(chi) (AMON) and Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NO(chi) (SALOMON). Log-normal size distributions associated with the Mie-computed extinction spectra that best fit the measurements permit calculation of integrated properties of the distributions. Although measured extinction spectra that correspond to background aerosols can be reproduced by the Mie scattering model by use of monomodal log-normal size distributions, each flight reveals some large discrepancies between measurement and theory at several altitudes. The agreement between measured and Mie-calculated extinction spectra is significantly improved by use of bimodal log-normal distributions. Nevertheless, neither monomodal nor bimodal distributions permit correct reproduction of some of the measured extinction shapes, especially for the 26 February 1997 AMON flight, which exhibited spectral behavior attributed to particles from a polar stratospheric cloud event.

  17. Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosols on light scattering coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ignatius N.

    1996-08-01

    The extensive thermodynamic and optical properties recently reported [Tang and Munkelwitz, 1994a] for sulfate and nitrate solution droplets are incorporated into a visibility model for computing light scattering by hygroscopic aerosols. The following aerosol systems are considered: NH4HSO4, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)3H(SO4), NaHSO4, Na2SO4, NH4NO3, and NaNO3. In addition, H2SO4 and NaCl are included to represent freshly formed sulfate and background sea-salt aerosols, respectively. Scattering coefficients, based on 1 μg dry salt per cubic meter of air, are calculated as a function of relative humidity for aerosols of various chemical compositions and lognormal size distributions. For a given size distribution the light scattered by aerosol particles per unit dry-salt mass concentration is only weakly dependent on chemical constituents of the hygroscopic sulfate and nitrate aerosols. Sulfuric acid and sodium chloride aerosols, however, are exceptions and scatter light more efficiently than all other inorganic salt aerosols considered in this study. Both internal and external mixtures exhibit similar light-scattering properties. Thus for common sulfate and nitrate aerosols, since the chemical effect is outweighed by the size effect, it follows that observed light scattering by the ambient aerosol can be approximated, within practical measurement uncertainties, by assuming the aerosol being an external mixture. This has a definite advantage for either visibility degradation or climatic impact modeling calculations, because relevant data are now available for external mixtures but only very scarce for internal mixtures.

  18. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects (supplement)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A digest of technical papers is presented. Topics include aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation with scattering measurements; comparison of extinction and backscattering coefficients for measured and analytic stratospheric aerosol size distributions; using hybrid methods to solve problems in radiative transfer and in multiple scattering; blue moon phenomena; absorption refractive index of aerosols in the Denver pollution cloud; a two dimensional stratospheric model of the dispersion of aerosols from the Fuego volcanic eruption; the variation of the aerosol volume to light scattering coefficient; spectrophone in situ measurements of the absorption of visible light by aerosols; a reassessment of the Krakatoa volcanic turbidity, and multiple scattering in the sky radiance.

  19. Light extinction by fine atmospheric particles in the White Mountains region of New Hampshire and its relationship to air mass transport.

    PubMed

    Slater, John F; Dibb, Jack E; Keim, Barry D; Talbot, Robert W

    2002-03-27

    Chemical, optical, and physical measurements of fine aerosols (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) have been performed at a mountaintop location adjacent to the White Mountain National Forest in northern NH, USA. A 1-month long sampling campaign was conducted at Cranmore Mountain during spring 2000. We report on the apportionment of light extinction by fine aerosols into its major chemical components, and relationships between variations in aerosol parameters and changes in air mass origin. Filter-based, 24-h integrated samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic ions, as well as organic (OC), elemental (EC), and total carbon. Light scattering and light absorption coefficients were measured at 5-min intervals using an integrating nephelometer and a light absorption photometer. Fine particle number density was measured with a condensation particle counter. Air mass origins and transport patterns were investigated through the use of 3-day backward trajectories and a synoptic climate classification system. Two distinct transport regimes were observed: (1) flow from the north/northeast (N/NE) occurred during 9 out of 18 sample-days; and (2) flow from the west/southwest (W/SW) occurred 8 out of 18 sample-days. All measured and derived aerosol and meteorological parameters were separated into two categories based on these different flow scenarios. During W/SW flow, higher values of aerosol chemical concentration, absorption and scattering coefficients, number density, and haziness were observed compared to N/NE flow. The highest level of haziness was associated with the climate classification Frontal Atlantic Return, which brought polluted air into the region from the mid-Atlantic corridor. Fine particle mass scattering efficiencies of (NH4)2SO4 and OC were 5.35 +/- 0.42 m2 g(-1) and 1.56 +/- 0.40 m2 g(-1), respectively, when transport was out of the N/NE. When transport was from the W/SW the values were 4.94 +/- 0.68 m2 g(-1) for (NH4)2SO4 and 2.18 +/- 0

  20. Strong Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Light Absorption from Peat Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, M. S.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Yatavelli, R. L. N.; Chen, L. W. A. A.; Knue, J.; Samburova, V.; Watts, A.; Moosmüller, H.; Arnott, W. P.; Wang, X.; Zielinska, B.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Tsibart, A.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, organic soils and peats may store as much as 600 Gt of terrestrial carbon, representing 20 - 30% of the planet's terrestrial organic carbon mass. This is approximately the same carbon mass as that contained in Earth's atmosphere, despite peatlands occupying only 3% of its surface. Effects of fires in these ecosystems are of global concern due to their potential for enormous carbon release into the atmosphere. The implications for contributions of peat fires to the global carbon cycle and radiative forcing scenarios are significant. Combustion of peat mostly takes place in the low temperature, smoldering phase of a fire. It consumes carbon that may have accumulated over a period of hundreds to thousands of years. In comparison, combustion of aboveground biomass fuels releases carbon that has accumulated much more recently, generally over a period of years or decades. Here, we report our findings on characterization of emissions from laboratory combustion of peat soils from three locations representing the biomes in which these soils occur. Peat samples from Alaska and Florida (USA) and Siberia (Russia) were burned at two different fuel moisture levels. Burns were conducted in an 8-m3 volume combustion chamber located at the Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA. We report significant brown carbon production from combustion of all three peat soils. We used a multispectral (405, 532, 781 nm) photoacoustic instrument equipped with integrating nephelometer to measure the wavelength-dependent aerosol light absorption and scattering. Absorption Ångström exponents (between 405 and 532 nm) as high as ten were observed, revealing strongly enhanced aerosol light absorption in the violet and blue wavelengths. Single scattering albedos (SSA) of 0.94 and 0.99 were observed at 405 and 532 nm, respectively, for the same sample. Variability of these optical parameters will be discussed as a function of fuel and combustion conditions. Other real-time measurements

  1. Use of In Situ Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Extinction, and Aerosol Size Distribution Measurements to Test a Method for Retrieving Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profiles From Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Stephen J.; Rissman, Tracey A.; Ellman, Robert; Ferrare, Richard A.; Turner, David; Flynn, Connor; Wang, Jian; Ogren, John; Hudson, James; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; VanReken, Timothy; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-01-01

    If the aerosol composition and size distribution below cloud are uniform, the vertical profile of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be retrieved entirely from surface measurements of CCN concentration and particle humidification function and surface-based retrievals of relative humidity and aerosol extinction or backscatter. This provides the potential for long-term measurements of CCN concentrations near cloud base. We have used a combination of aircraft, surface in situ, and surface remote sensing measurements to test various aspects of the retrieval scheme. Our analysis leads us to the following conclusions. The retrieval works better for supersaturations of 0.1% than for 1% because CCN concentrations at 0.1% are controlled by the same particles that control extinction and backscatter. If in situ measurements of extinction are used, the retrieval explains a majority of the CCN variance at high supersaturation for at least two and perhaps five of the eight flights examined. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the humidification factor is not the major limitation of the CCN retrieval scheme. Vertical structure in the aerosol size distribution and composition is the dominant source of error in the CCN retrieval, but this vertical structure is difficult to measure from remote sensing at visible wavelengths.

  2. 1984-1995 Evolution of Stratospheric Aerosol Size, Surface Area, and Volume Derived by Combining SAGE II and CLAES Extinction Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    2000-01-01

    This SAGE II Science Team task focuses on the development of a multi-wavelength, multi- sensor Look-Up-Table (LUT) algorithm for retrieving information about stratospheric aerosols from global satellite-based observations of particulate extinction. The LUT algorithm combines the 4-wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements (0.385 <= lambda <= 1.02 microns) with the 7.96 micron and 12.82 micron extinction measurements from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instrument, thus increasing the information content available from either sensor alone. The algorithm uses the SAGE II/CLAES composite spectra in month-latitude-altitude bins to retrieve values and uncertainties of particle effective radius R(sub eff), surface area S, volume V and size distribution width sigma(sub g).

  3. The dependence of aerosol light-scattering on RH over the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegg, D. A.; Covert, D. S.; Crahan, K.; Jonssen, H.

    2002-04-01

    Measurements of the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light scattering are reported from three experimental venues over the Pacific Ocean. The measurement platform utilized was the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Results are compared with previous measurements at other locales and with theoretical models. The relatively low values of hygroscopicity obtained in marine air are consistent with a substantial organic component to the aerosol.

  4. Analysis of Venus Express optical extinction due to aerosols in the upper haze of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Christopher; Bougher, Stephen; Mahieux, Arnaud; Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin; Vandaele, Ann C.; Wilquet, Valérie; Schulte, Rick; Yung, Yuk; Gao, Peter; Bardeen, Charles

    Observations by the SPICAV/SOIR instruments aboard Venus Express (VEx) have revealed that the Upper Haze of Venus is populated by two particle modes, as reported by Wilquet et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00B42, 2009; Icarus 217, 2012). Gao et al. (In press, Icarus, 2013) posit that the large mode is made up of cloud particles that have diffused upwards from the cloud deck below, while the smaller mode is generated by the in situ nucleation of meteoric dust. They tested this hypothesis by using version 3.0 of the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres, first developed by Turco et al. (J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 699-717, 1979) and upgraded to version 3.0 by Bardeen et al. (The CARMA 3.0 microphysics package in CESM, Whole Atmosphere Working Group Meeting, 2011). Using the meteoric dust production profile of Kalashnikova et al. (Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3293-3296, 2000), the sulfur/sulfate condensation nuclei production profile of Imamura and Hashimoto (J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 3597-3612, 2001), and sulfuric acid vapor production profile of Zhang et al. (Icarus, 217, 714-739, 2012), they numerically simulate a column of the Venus atmosphere from 40 to 100 km above the surface. Their aerosol number density results agree well with Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) data from Knollenberg and Hunten (J. Geophys. Res., 85, 8039-8058, 1980), while their gas distribution results match that of Kolodner and Steffes below 55 km (Icarus, 132, 151-169, 1998). The resulting size distribution of cloud particles shows two distinct modes, qualitatively matching the observations of PVO. They also observe a third mode in their results with a size of a few microns at 48 km altitude, which appears to support the existence of the controversial third mode in the PVO data. This mode disappears if coagulation is not included in the simulation. The Upper Haze size distribution shows two lognormal-like distributions overlapping each other, possibly indicating the presence of the two distinct

  5. Temporal and spatial variations of the Vienna aerosol.

    PubMed

    Horvath, H; Habenreich, T A; Kreiner, I; Norek, C

    1989-07-01

    For several intensive sampling periods the mass concentration, light extinction, light scattering and light absorption coefficients, and the mass size distribution of the aerosol have been determined at up to eleven location in the non-industrial town of Vienna. Obviously, large variations of the measured values have been found. The following factors influenced the aerosol markedly: wind speed, wind direction, increased aerosol production such as by space heating or traffic and resuspension. Most of the variations in aerosol were found to be caused by these factors. A comparison of the mass concentration and light absorption of the aerosol upwind and downwind of Vienna permitted the estimation of locally produced aerosols: about 50% of the mass of the aerosol and 75% of the light-absorbing aerosol appears to be produced locally.

  6. Multi-wavelength aerosol light absorption measurements in the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturno, Jorge; Chi, Xuguang; Pöhlker, Christopher; Morán, Daniel; Ditas, Florian; Massabò, Dario; Prati, Paolo; Rizzo, Luciana; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat

    2015-04-01

    The most important light-absorbing aerosol is black carbon (BC), which is emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. BC is considered the second anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Beyond BC, other aerosols like some organics, dust, and primary biological aerosol particles are able to absorb radiation. In contrast to BC, the light absorption coefficient of these aerosols is wavelength dependent. Therefore, multi-wavelength measurements become important in environments where BC is not the predominant light-absorbing aerosol like in the Amazon. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site is located in the remote Amazon rainforest, one of the most pristine continental sites in the world during the wet season. In the dry season, winds coming from the southern hemisphere are loaded with biomass burning aerosol particles originated by farming-related deforestation. BC and aerosol number concentration data from the last two years indicate this is the most polluted period. Two different techniques have been implemented to measure the light absorption at different wavelengths; one of them is the 7-wavelengths Aethalometer, model AE30, an instrument that measures the light attenuation on a filter substrate and requires multiple scattering and filter-loading corrections to retrieve the light absorption coefficient. The other method is an offline technique, the Multi-Wavelength Absorbance Analysis (MWAA), which is able to measure reflectance and absorbance by aerosols collected on a filter and, by means of a radiative model, can retrieve the light absorption coefficient. Filters collected during May-September 2014, comprehending wet-to-dry transition and most of the dry season, were analyzed. The results indicate that the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE), a parameter that is directly proportional to the wavelength dependence of the aerosol light absorption, is close to 1.0 during the transition period and slightly decreases in the beginning of

  7. Quantum-mechanical diffraction theory of light from a small hole: Extinction-theorem approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jesper; Keller, Ole

    2015-07-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 90, 043830 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.043830] it was shown that the so-called aperture response tensor is the central concept in the microscopic quantum theory of light diffraction from a small hole in a flat screen. It was further shown that the quantum mechanical theory of diffraction only requires a preknowledge of the incident field plus the electronic properties of identical screens with and without a hole. Starting from the quantum mechanical expression for the linear conductivity tensor, we study the related causal conductivity tensor paying particular attention to diamagnetic electron dynamics. Using a nonlocal-potential separation assumption, we present a calculation of the diamagnetic causal surface conductivity for a jellium quantum-well screen using a two-dimensional Hartree-Fock model. In the diamagnetic case the difference between the light-unperturbed electron densities for screens with (n0) and without (n∞0) holes are the primary quantities for the diffraction theory. In a central part (Sec. IV) of this article we determine n0 via a quantum-mechanical two-dimensional extinction-theorem approach related to elastic electron scattering from a hole with an electronic selvedge. For heuristic purposes we illustrate aspects of the extinction-theorem theory by applying the approach for an infinitely high potential barrier to the vacuum hole. Finally, we calculate and discuss the aperture response tensor in the small hole limit and in the zeroth-order Born approximation. Our final result for the aperture response tensor establishes the bridge to the anisotropic electric dipole polarizability tensor of the hole. It turns out that the effective optical aperture (hole) size relates closely to the extension of the relevant electronic wave functions scattered from the hole.

  8. Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements.

    PubMed

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenaël; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Pirre, Michel; Brogniez, Colette; Herman, Maurice; Verwaerde, Christian; Balois, Jean-Yves; Ovarlez, Joëlle; Ovarlez, Henri; Crespin, Jacques; Deshler, Terry

    2002-12-20

    The physical properties of stratospheric aerosols can be retrieved from optical measurements involving extinction, radiance, polarization, and counting. We present here the results of measurements from the balloonborne instruments AMON, SALOMON, and RADIBAL, and from the French Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique and the University of Wyoming balloonborne particle counters. A cross comparison of the measurements was made for observations of background aerosols conducted during the polar winters of February 1997 and January-February 2000 for various altitudes from 13 to 19 km. On the one band, the effective radius and the total amount of background aerosols derived from the various sets of data are similar and are in agreement with pre-Pinatubo values. On the other hand, strong discrepancies occur in the shapes of the bimodal size distributions obtained from analysis of the raw measurement of the various instruments. It seems then that the log-normal assumption cannot fully reproduce the size distribution of background aerosols. The effect ofthe presence of particular aerosols on the measurements is discussed, and a new strategy for observations is proposed.

  9. Simultaneous retrieval of the complex refractive indices of the core and shell of coated aerosol particles from extinction measurements using simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Erlick, Carynelisa; Haspel, Mitch; Rudich, Yinon

    2011-08-01

    Simultaneously retrieving the complex refractive indices of the core and shell of coated aerosol particles given the measured extinction efficiency as a function of particle dimensions (core diameter and coated diameter) is much more difficult than retrieving the complex refractive index of homogeneous aerosol particles. Not only must the minimization be performed over a four-parameter space, making it less efficient, but in addition the absolute value of the difference between the measured extinction and the calculated extinction does not have an easily distinguished global minimum. Rather, there are a number of local minima to which almost all conventional retrieval algorithms converge. In this work, we develop a new (to our knowledge) retrieval algorithm that employs the numerical method known as simulated annealing with an innovative "temperature" schedule. This study is limited only to spherical particles with a concentric shell and to cases in which the diameter of both the core and the coated particle are known. We find that when the top ranking particle sizes according to their information content are combined from separate experiments to make up the particle size distribution, the simulated annealing retrieval algorithm is quite robust and by far superior to a greedy random perturbation approach often used.

  10. A Chronology of Annual-Mean Effective Radii of Stratospheric Aerosols from Volcanic Eruptions During the Twentieth Century as Derived From Ground-based Spectral Extinction Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric extinction can be derived from ground-based spectral photometric observations of the Sun and other stars (as well as from satellite and aircraft measurements, available since 1979), and is found to increase after large volcanic eruptions. This increased extinction shows a characteristic wavelength dependence that gives information about the chemical composition and the effective (or area weighted mean) radius of the particles responsible for it. Known to be tiny aerosols constituted of sulfuric acid in a water solution, the stratospheric particles at midlatitudes exhibit a remarkable uniformity of their column-averaged effective radii r(sub eff) in the first few months after the eruption. Considering the seven largest eruptions of the twentieth century, r(sub eff) at this phase of peak aerosol abundance is approx. 0.3 micrometers in all cases. A year later, r(sub eff) either has remained about the same size (almost certainly in the case of the Katmai eruption of 1912) or has increased to approx. 0.5 micrometers (definitely so for the Pinatubo eruption of 1991). The reasons for this divergence in aerosol growth are unknown.

  11. [Light scattering extinction properties of atmospheric particle and pollution characteristics in hazy weather in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Ye, Hui; Shen, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Liang; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Jiao, Li; Huang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle scattering on visibility, light scattering coefficient, particle concentrations and meteorological factor were simultaneously monitored from July 2011 to June 2012 in Hangzhou. Daily scattering coefficients ranged from 108.4 to 1 098.1 Mm(-1), with an annual average concentration of 428.6 Mm(-1) ± 200.2 Mm(-1). Seasonal variation of scattering coefficients was significant, with the highest concentrations observed in autumn and winter and the lowest in summer. It was found there were two peaks for the average diurnal variations of the scattering coefficient, which could be observed at 08:00 and 21:00. The scattering efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM10 were 7.6 m2 x g(-1) and 4.4 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The particle scattering was about 90.2 percent of the total light extinction. The scattering coefficients were 684.4 Mm(-1) ± 218.1 Mm(-1) and 1 095.4 Mm(-1) ± 397.7 Mm(-1) in hazy and heavy hazy days, respectively, which were 2.6 and 4.2 times as high as in non-hazy weather, indicating that particle scattering is the main factor for visibility degradation and the occurrence of hazy weather in Hangzhou.

  12. Light extinction and scattering by agarose based resin beads and applications in high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Jörg; Hämmerling, Frank; Ebeler, Moritz; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of chromatographic processes by high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies have become a critical part of downstream process development. Nevertheless there are still no non-invasive optical methods to characterize resin as well as protein-resin interaction on liquid-handling platforms available. Several approaches to automated resin screening in microplates are described in literature, yet all those methods involve indirect measurements by removal of, and sample quantification within, supernatant volumes. In this work, we introduce light extinction by light scattering to directly assess resin volume and bead density within microplates. Methods for this novel resin characterization are described for 96 and 384-well microplates. An example application demonstrates ligand concentration measurement in microplates with four commercial SP Sepharose™ Fast Flow batches. Further, direct quantification of adsorbent bound biomolecules is shown in an example with kinetic protein-resin interaction measurement in a batch screening process. This new approach is expected to promote batch-based resin characterization and monitoring on HTS platforms and further miniaturization and increase in throughput of chromatographic HTS processes.

  13. Lidar Ratios for Dust Aerosols Derived From Retrievals of CALIPSO Visible Extinction Profiles Constrained by Optical Depths from MODIS-Aqua and CALIPSO/CloudSat Ocean Surface Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Stuart A.; Josset, Damien B.; Vaughan, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    CALIPSO's (Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) analysis algorithms generally require the use of tabulated values of the lidar ratio in order to retrieve aerosol extinction and optical depth from measured profiles of attenuated backscatter. However, for any given time or location, the lidar ratio for a given aerosol type can differ from the tabulated value. To gain some insight as to the extent of the variability, we here calculate the lidar ratio for dust aerosols using aerosol optical depth constraints from two sources. Daytime measurements are constrained using Level 2, Collection 5, 550-nm aerosol optical depth measurements made over the ocean by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board the Aqua satellite, which flies in formation with CALIPSO. We also retrieve lidar ratios from night-time profiles constrained by aerosol column optical depths obtained by analysis of CALIPSO and CloudSat backscatter signals from the ocean surface.

  14. Effect of temperature, atmospheric condition, and particle size on extinction in a plume of volatile aerosol dispersed in the atmospheric surface layer.

    PubMed

    Tsang, T T; Pai, P; Korgaonkar, N V

    1988-02-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effects of ambient temperature, atmospheric condition, and particle size on the extinction coefficient of diesel fuel and fog oil smoke. A first-order closure model is used to describe the turbulent diffusion of the smoke in the atmospheric surface layer. Mean values of wind speed and diffusivity in the vertical direction are obtained by the use of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The 2-D crosswind line source model also includes the aerosol kinetic processes of evaporation, sedimentation, and deposition. Numerical results are obtained from simulations on a supercomputer.

  15. Critique of "Precipitation in light extinction reconstruction" by P.A. Ryan.

    PubMed

    Schichtel, Bret A; Malm, William C; Pitchford, Marc L

    2006-05-01

    The goal of the Regional Haze Rule (RHR) is to return visibility in class I areas (CIAs) to natural levels, excluding weather-related events, by 2064. Whereas visibility, the seeing of scenic vistas, is a near instantaneous and sight-path-dependent phenomenon, reasonable progress toward the RHR goal is assessed by tracking the incremental changes in 5-yr average visibility. Visibility is assessed using a haze metric estimated from 24-hr average aerosol measurements that are made at one location representative of the CIA. It is assumed that, over the 5-yr average, the aerosol loadings and relative humidity along all of the site paths are the same and can be estimated from the 24-hr measurements. It is further assumed that any time a site path may be obscured by weather (e.g., clouds and precipitation), there are other site paths within the CIA that are not. Therefore, when calculating the haze metric, sampling days are not filtered for weather conditions. This assumption was tested by examining precipitation data from multiple monitors for four CIAs. It is shown that, in general, precipitation did not concurrently occur at all monitors for a CIA, and precipitation typically occurred 3-8 hr or less in a day. In a recent paper in this journal, Ryan asserts that the haze metric should include contributions from precipitation and conducted a quantitative assessment incorrectly based on the assumption that the Optec NGN-2 nephelometer measurements include the effects of precipitation. However, these instruments are programmed to shut down during rain events, and any data logged are in error. He further assumes that precipitation occurs as often on the haziest days as the clearest days and that precipitation light scattering (bprecip) is independent of geographic location and applied an average bprecip derived for Great Smoky Mountains to diverse locations including the Grand Canyon. Both of these assumptions are shown to be in error.

  16. Critique of "Precipitation in light extinction reconstruction" by P.A. Ryan.

    PubMed

    Schichtel, Bret A; Malm, William C; Pitchford, Marc L

    2006-05-01

    The goal of the Regional Haze Rule (RHR) is to return visibility in class I areas (CIAs) to natural levels, excluding weather-related events, by 2064. Whereas visibility, the seeing of scenic vistas, is a near instantaneous and sight-path-dependent phenomenon, reasonable progress toward the RHR goal is assessed by tracking the incremental changes in 5-yr average visibility. Visibility is assessed using a haze metric estimated from 24-hr average aerosol measurements that are made at one location representative of the CIA. It is assumed that, over the 5-yr average, the aerosol loadings and relative humidity along all of the site paths are the same and can be estimated from the 24-hr measurements. It is further assumed that any time a site path may be obscured by weather (e.g., clouds and precipitation), there are other site paths within the CIA that are not. Therefore, when calculating the haze metric, sampling days are not filtered for weather conditions. This assumption was tested by examining precipitation data from multiple monitors for four CIAs. It is shown that, in general, precipitation did not concurrently occur at all monitors for a CIA, and precipitation typically occurred 3-8 hr or less in a day. In a recent paper in this journal, Ryan asserts that the haze metric should include contributions from precipitation and conducted a quantitative assessment incorrectly based on the assumption that the Optec NGN-2 nephelometer measurements include the effects of precipitation. However, these instruments are programmed to shut down during rain events, and any data logged are in error. He further assumes that precipitation occurs as often on the haziest days as the clearest days and that precipitation light scattering (bprecip) is independent of geographic location and applied an average bprecip derived for Great Smoky Mountains to diverse locations including the Grand Canyon. Both of these assumptions are shown to be in error. PMID:16739789

  17. A meta-analysis of the canopy light extinction coefficient in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangxia; Hu, Zhongmin; Fan, Jiangwen; Zhou, Decheng; Tang, Fengpei

    2014-12-01

    The canopy light extinction coefficient ( K) is a key factor in affecting ecosystem carbon, water, and energy processes. However, K is assumed as a constant in most biogeochemical models owing to lack of in-site measurements at diverse terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, by compiling data of K measured at 88 terrestrial ecosystems, we investigated the spatiotemporal variations of this index across main ecosystem types, including grassland, cropland, shrubland, broadleaf forest, and needleleaf forest. Our results indicated that the average K of all biome types during whole growing season was 0.56. However, this value in the peak growing season was 0.49, indicating a certain degree of seasonal variation. In addition, large variations in K exist within and among the plant functional types. Cropland had the highest value of K (0.62), followed by broadleaf forest (0.59), shrubland (0.56), grassland (0.50), and needleleaf forest (0.45). No significant spatial correlation was found between K and the major environmental factors, i.e., mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and leaf area index (LAI). Intra-annually, significant negative correlations between K and seasonal changes in LAI were found in the natural ecosystems. In cropland, however, the temporal relationship was site-specific. The ecosystem type specific values of K and its temporal relationship with LAI observed in this study may contribute to improved modeling of global biogeochemical cycles.

  18. Observations of relative humidity effects on aerosol light scattering in the Yangtze River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Sun, J. Y.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Che, H.; Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, Y. W.; Zhang, X. Y.; Ogren, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Scattering of solar radiation by aerosol particles is highly dependent on relative humidity (RH) as hygroscopic particles take up water with increasing RH. To achieve a better understanding of the effect of aerosol hygroscopic growth on light scattering properties and radiative forcing, the aerosol scattering coefficients at RH in the range of 40 to ~ 90 % were measured using a humidified nephelometer system in the Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. In addition, the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured. During the observation period, the mean and standard deviation (SD) of enhancement factors at RH = 85 % for the scattering coefficient (f(85 %)), backscattering coefficient (fb(85 %)), and hemispheric backscatter fraction (fβ(85 %)) were 1.58 ± 0.12, 1.25 ± 0.07, and 0.79 ± 0.04, respectively, i.e., aerosol scattering coefficient and backscattering coefficient increased by 58 and 25 % as the RH increased from 40 to 85 %. Concurrently, the aerosol hemispheric backscatter fraction decreased by 21 %. The relative amount of organic matter (OM) or inorganics in PM1 was found to be a main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH). The highest values of f(RH) corresponded to the aerosols with a small fraction of OM, and vice versa. The relative amount of NO3- in fine particles was strongly correlated with f(85 %), which suggests that NO3- played a vital role in aerosol hygroscopic growth during this study. The mass fraction of nitrate also had a close relationship to the curvature of the humidograms; higher mass fractions of nitrate were associated with humidograms that had the least curvature. Aerosol hygroscopic growth caused a 47 % increase in the calculated aerosol direct radiative forcing at 85 % RH, compared to the forcing at 40 % RH.

  19. Light Absorption of Brown Carbon Aerosol in the Pearl River Delta Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    X.F. Huang, J.F. Yuan, L.M. Cao, J. Cui, C.N. Huang, Z.J. Lan and L.Y. He Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, ChinaCorresponding author. Tel.: +86 755 26032532; fax: +86 755 26035332. E-mail address: huangxf@pku.edu.cn (X. F. Huang). Abstract: The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol has been recognized in recent decades. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) of ambient aerosol was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of brown carbon at shorter wavelengths, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to unit. In this study, the AAE method was improved by statistical extrapolation based on ambient measurements in the polluted seasons in typical urban and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the ambient measured AAE and the ratio of organic aerosol to BC aerosol, in order to extract the more realistic AAE by pure BC aerosol, which were found to be 0.86, 0.82 and 1.02 at 405nm and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532nm in the campaigns of urban-winter, urban-fall, and rural-fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiment results further supported the effectiveness of the obtained AAE for pure BC aerosol. In addition, biomass burning experiments proved higher spectral dependence of more-BrC environment and further verified the reliability of the instruments' response. Then, the average light absorption contribution of BrC aerosol was calculated to be 11.7, 6.3 and 12.1% (with total relative uncertainty of 7.5, 6.9 and 10.0%) at 405nm and 10.0, 4.1 and 5.5% (with total relative uncertainty of 6.5, 8.6 and 15.4%) at 532nm of the three campaigns, respectively. These results indicate that the

  20. Three-dimensional dust aerosol distribution and extinction climatology over northern Africa simulated with the ALADIN numerical prediction model from 2006 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, M.; Tulet, P.; Fischer, C.; Bouteloup, Y.; Bouyssel, F.; Brachemi, O.

    2015-08-01

    The seasonal cycle and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols in northern Africa were simulated for the period from 2006 to 2010 using the numerical atmospheric model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) coupled to the surface scheme SURFEX (SURFace EXternalisée). The particularity of the simulations is that the major physical processes responsible for dust emission and transport, as well as radiative effects, are taken into account on short timescales and at mesoscale resolution. The aim of these simulations is to quantify the dust emission and deposition, locate the major areas of dust emission and establish a climatology of aerosol optical properties in northern Africa. The mean monthly aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by ALADIN is compared with the AOTs derived from the standard Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms of the Aqua-MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products over northern Africa and with a set of sun photometer measurements located at Banizoumbou, Cinzana, Soroa, Mbour and Cape Verde. The vertical distribution of dust aerosol represented by extinction profiles is also analysed using CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) observations. The annual dust emission simulated by ALADIN over northern Africa is 878 Tg year-1. The Bodélé Depression appears to be the main area of dust emission in northern Africa, with an average estimate of about 21.6 Tg year-1. The simulated AOTs are in good agreement with satellite and sun photometer observations. The positions of the maxima of the modelled AOTs over northern Africa match the observed positions, and the ALADIN simulations satisfactorily reproduce the various dust events over the 2006-2010 period. The AOT climatology proposed in this paper provides a solid database of optical properties and consolidates the existing climatology over this region derived from satellites, the AERONET network and regional climate

  1. Impacts of nonrefractory material on light absorption by aerosols emitted from biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Fortner, E.; Onasch, T. B.; Taylor, J. W.; Flynn, M.; Coe, H.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    We present laboratory measurements of biomass-burning aerosol light-scattering and light absorption coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and investigate their relationship with aerosol composition and fuel type. Aerosol composition measurements included nonrefractory components measured by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), composition of refractory black carbon-containing particles by a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and refractory black carbon measured by a single-particle soot photometer (SP2). All measurements were performed downstream of a thermal denuder system to probe the effects of nonrefractory material on observed optical properties. The fires studied emitted aerosol with a wide range of optical properties with some producing more strongly light-absorbing particles (single-scattering albedo or SSA at 781 nm = 0.4) with a weak wavelength dependence of absorption (absorption Ångström exponent or AAE = 1-2) and others producing weakly light-absorbing particles (SSA at 781 nm ~1) with strong wavelength dependence of absorption (AAE ~7). Removal of nonrefractory material from the particles by the thermal denuder system led to substantial (20-80%) decreases in light absorption coefficients, particularly at shorter wavelengths, reflecting the removal of light-absorbing material that had enhanced black carbon absorption in internally mixed untreated samples. Observed enhancements of absorption by all mechanisms were at least factors of 1.2-1.5 at 532 nm and 781 nm as determined from the heated samples. A mass absorption cross-section-based approach indicated larger enhancements, particularly at shorter wavelengths.

  2. Effects of atmospheric aerosols on scattering reflected visible light from earth resource features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, K. E.; Tschantz, B. A.; Davis, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    The vertical variations in atmospheric light attenuation under ambient conditions were identified, and a method through which aerial photographs of earth features might be corrected to yield quantitative information about the actual features was provided. A theoretical equation was developed based on the Bouguer-Lambert extinction law and basic photographic theory.

  3. Comparison of three methods for measuring light absorption by collected aerosols.

    PubMed

    Ramsey-Bell, D C; Couture, G

    1985-08-01

    Three instruments for measuring absorption of visible light by atmospheric aerosols are compared: the visual comparator; plate diffuser; and photoacoustic spectrometer. Two versions of the photoacoustic spectrometer are tested, one built of acrylic plastic and the other of aluminum. One version of the visual comparator uses Millipore filters for a crucial reflective surface, another a mirror. Several materials collected on Nuclepore filters are used in the comparison. Laboratory generated samples consist of carbon and carbon overlaid with ammonium sulfate. Atmospheric aerosols were collected in Tucson and on an Arizona mountain peak. All methods give reasonably consistent results, even when applied to the lightly absorbing nonurban atmospheric samples. PMID:18223896

  4. Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Sisler, James F.; Huffman, Dale; Eldred, Robert A.; Cahill, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    In the spring of 1988 an interagency consortium of Federal Land Managers and the Environmental Protection Agency initiated a national visibility and aerosol monitoring network to track spatial and temporal trends of visibility and visibility-reducing particles. The monitoring network consists of 36 stations located mostly in the western United States. The major visibility-reducing aerosol species, sulfates, nitrates, organics, light-absorbing carbon, and wind-blown dust are monitored as well as light scattering and extinction. Sulfates and organics are responsible for most of the extinction at most locations throughout the United States, while at sites in southern California nitrates are dominant. In the eastern United States, sulfates contribute to about two thirds of the extinction. In almost all cases, extinction and the major aerosol types are highest in the summer and lowest during the winter months.

  5. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 2; Derivation of Aerosol Real Refractive Index, Single-Scattering Albedo, and Humidification Factor using Raman Lidar and Aircraft Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Poellot, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol size distribution measurements made by a PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe) optical particle counter flown on the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. We describe a technique which uses both lidar and PCASP measurements to derive the dependence of particle size on relative humidity, the aerosol real refractive index n, and estimate the effective single-scattering albedo Omega(sub 0). Values of n ranged between 1.4-1.5 (dry) and 1.37-1.47 (wet); Omega(sub 0) varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The single-scattering albedo derived from this technique is sensitive to the manner in which absorbing particles are represented in the aerosol mixture; representing the absorbing particles as an internal mixture rather than the external mixture assumed here results in generally higher values of Omega(sub 0). The lidar measurements indicate that the change in particle size with relative humidity as measured by the PCASP can be represented in the form discussed by Hattel with the exponent gamma = 0.3 + or - 0.05. The variations in aerosol optical and physical characteristics captured in the lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements are discussed in the context of the meteorological conditions observed during the experiment.

  6. Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Evans, K.D.

    1998-08-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol size distribution measurements made by a PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe) optical particle counter flown on the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. We describe a technique which uses both lidar and PCASP measurements to derive the dependence of particle size on relative humidity, the aerosol real refractive index {ital n}, and estimate the effective single-scattering albedo {omega}{sub 0}. Values of {ital n} ranged between 1.4{endash}1.5 (dry) and 1.37{endash}1.47 (wet); {omega}{sub 0} varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The single-scattering albedo derived from this technique is sensitive to the manner in which absorbing particles are represented in the aerosol mixture; representing the absorbing particles as an internal mixture rather than the external mixture assumed here results in generally higher values of {omega}{sub 0}. The lidar measurements indicate that the change in particle size with relative humidity as measured by the PCASP can be represented in the form discussed by {ital Hanel} [1976] with the exponent {gamma}=0.3{plus_minus}0.05. The variations in aerosol optical and physical characteristics captured in the lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements are discussed in the context of the meteorological conditions observed during the experiment. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  7. Light absorption of brown carbon aerosol in the PRD region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.-F.; Huang, X.-F.; Cao, L.-M.; Cui, J.; Zhu, Q.; Huang, C.-N.; Lan, Z.-J.; He, L.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol is regarded to influence aerosol's radiative forcing significantly. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) method was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of BrC at shorter wavelengths for ambient aerosol, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of "pure" black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to 1.0. In this study, the previous AAE method was improved by statistical analysis and applied in both urban and rural environments in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photo-acoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the measured AAE and the relative abundance of organic aerosol to BC. The regression and extrapolation analysis revealed that the more realistic AAE values for "pure" BC aerosol were 0.86, 0.82, and 1.02 at 405 nm, and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532 nm, in the campaigns of urban_winter, urban_fall, and rural_fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiments were also conducted, and the results further supported the representativeness of the obtained AAE values for "pure" BC aerosol in the urban environments. Finally, the average aerosol light absorption contribution of BrC was quantified to be 11.7, 6.3, and 12.1 % (with relative uncertainties of 4, 4, and 7 %) at 405 nm, and 10.0, 4.1, and 5.5 % (with relative uncertainties of 2, 2, and 5 %) at 532 nm, in the campaigns of urban_winter, urban_fall, and rural_fall, respectively. The relatively higher BrC absorption contribution at 405 nm in the rural_fall campaign was likely a result of the biomass burning events nearby, which was supported by the biomass burning simulation experiments performed in this study. The results of this paper indicate that the brown carbon contribution to aerosol light absorption at shorter wavelengths is not negligible in the highly urbanized and industrialized PRD region.

  8. The Influence of Light Absorbing Aerosols on the Radiation Balance Over Central Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strellis, B.; Bergin, M. H.; Sokolik, I. N.; Dibb, J. E.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic region has proven to be more responsive to recent changes in climate than other parts of the Earth. A key component of the Arctic climate is the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the potential to dramatically influence both sea level, depending on the amount of melting that occurs, and climate, through shifts in the regional radiation balance. Light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and dust sources can potentially have a significant impact on the radiation balance of the ice sheet, although at this time we lack the key measurements needed to accurately quantify aerosol forcing over the ice sheet. For this reason a field study was conducted at Summit, Greenland, from May-July of 2012. Our efforts included real-time measurements of aerosol physical and optical properties including size distribution, multi-wavelength scattering (σsp) and backscattering (σbsp) coefficients, and multi-wavelength absorption coefficient (σap), as well as measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth and spectral snow albedo. The measurements serve as inputs to a radiative transfer model to estimate the direct aerosol radiative forcing at both the surface and top of the atmosphere. Preliminary results indicate that the direct aerosol radiative forcing is often several Wm-2 and is at times greater than 10 Wm-2. The aerosol chemical composition (major ions, elements, and organic and elemental carbon compounds) was also determined through filter sampling and will be discussed in terms of the sources of light absorbing aerosols over central Greenland.

  9. Sunlight Transmission through Desert Dust and Marine Aerosols: Diffuse Light Corrections to Sun Photometry and Pyrheliometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Dubovik, O.; Ramirez, S. A.; Wang, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Box, M.; Holben, B. N.

    2003-01-01

    Desert dust and marine aerosols are receiving increased scientific attention because of their prevalence on intercontinental scales and their potentially large effects on Earth radiation and climate, as well as on other aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The relatively large size of desert dust and marine aerosols produces scattering phase functions that are strongly forward- peaked. Hence, Sun photometry and pyrheliometry of these aerosols are more subject to diffuse-light errors than is the case for smaller aerosols. Here we quantify these diffuse-light effects for common Sun photometer and pyrheliometer fields of view (FOV), using a data base on dust and marine aerosols derived from (1) AERONET measurements of sky radiance and solar beam transmission and (2) in situ measurements of aerosol layer size distribution and chemical composition. Accounting for particle non-sphericity is important when deriving dust size distribution from both AERONET and in situ aerodynamic measurements. We express our results in terms of correction factors that can be applied to Sun photometer and pyrheliometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD). We find that the corrections are negligible (less than approximately 1% of AOD) for Sun photometers with narrow FOV (half-angle eta less than degree), but that they can be as large as 10% of AOD at 354 nm wavelength for Sun photometers with eta = 1.85 degrees. For pyrheliometers (which can have eta up to approximately 2.8 degrees), corrections can be as large as 16% at 354 nm. We find that AOD correction factors are well correlated with AOD wavelength dependence (hence Angstrom exponent). We provide best-fit equations for determining correction factors from Angstrom exponents of uncorrected AOD spectra, and we demonstrate their application to vertical profiles of multiwavelength AOD.

  10. Speciation of Organic Aerosols in the Tropical Mid-Pacific and Their Relationship to Light Scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crahan, Kathleen K.; Hegg, Dean A.; Covert, David S.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Khelif, Djamal; Brooks, Barbara J.

    2004-11-01

    Although the importance of the aerosol contribution to the global radiative budget has been recognized, the forcings of aerosols in general, and specifically the role of the organic component in these forcings, still contain large uncertainties. In an attempt to better understand the relationship between the background forcings of aerosols and their chemical speciation, marine air samples were collected off the windward coast of Oahu, Hawaii, during the Rough Evaporation Duct project (RED) using filters mounted on both the Twin Otter aircraft and the Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) research platform. Laboratory analysis revealed a total of 17 species, including 4 carboxylic acids and 2 carbohydrates that accounted for 74% ± 20% of the mass gain observed on the shipboard filters, suggesting a possible significant unresolved organic component. The results were correlated with in situ measurements of particle light scattering (σsp) at 550 nm and with aerosol hygroscopicities. Principal component analysis revealed a small but ubiquitous pollution component affecting the σsp and aerosol hygroscopicity of the remote marine air. The Princeton Organic-Electrolyte Model (POEM) was used to predict the growth factor of the aerosols based upon the chemical composition. This output, coupled with measured aerosol size distributions, was used to attempt to reproduce the observed σsp. It was found that while the POEM model was able to reproduce the expected trends when the organic component of the aerosol was varied, due to large uncertainties especially in the aerosol sizing measurements, the σsp predicted by the POEM model was consistently higher than observed.


  11. Annual Patterns and Sources of Light-Absorbing Aerosols over Central Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Bergin, M. H.; Dibb, J. E.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region has proven to be more responsive to recent changes in climate than other parts of the Earth. A key component of the Arctic climate is the Greenland ice sheet (GIS), which has the potential to dramatically influence sea level, depending on the amount of melting that occurs, as well as climate, through shifts in the regional radiation balance. Light-absorbing aerosols from biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and dust sources can potentially have a significant impact on the radiation balance of the GIS; however, in order to better understand their impact, it is important to first understand the annual trends of light-absorbing aerosols and their sources over the ice sheet. With this in mind, aerosol properties including the wavelength dependent aerosol light scattering and absorption coefficients have been continuously measured at Summit, Greenland since the spring of 2011. These measurements will be used to calculate the multi-wavelength single-scattering albedo (ω0) and absorption Ångström exponent, identify annual patterns of aerosols over the GIS and how they vary from year to year, detect events of high absorption, and determine the sources of the aerosols. Preliminary findings indicate that the aerosols have an absorption Ångström exponent of approximately 1, which is characteristic of black carbon (BC). Absorption and scattering coefficients are higher in the spring and summer (March-September) and consequently lower in the fall and winter (September-March). Absorption and single-scattering albedo are averaged over the sunlit months of April-August and are found to be highest and lowest, respectively, in the year of 2012, corresponding to the year of record melt extent over the GIS.

  12. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...

  13. Chemical compositions and reconstructed light extinction coefficients of particulate matter in a mega-city in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Yuan, Siyu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Ding, Aijun

    2014-02-01

    Ambient particulate matter was collected in a megacity, Nanjing in western YRD during the spring and summer periods. Chemical compositions of fine PM including organic carbon, elemental carbon, elements and water soluble ions were analyzed. The light extinction coefficients were reconstructed following the IMPROVE formula. Organic matter was the most abundant composition in PM2.5 (20-25% of total mass), followed by the inorganic ions. During the spring time, geological materials contributed 25% of the total PM2.5. Estimated light extinction coefficient ranged from 133 to 560 Mm-1 with the deciview haze index value of 26-40 dv, indicating strong light extinction by PM and subsequently low visibility in the city. Reconstructed ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, organic matter and light absorption carbon in fine PM contributed significantly (37 ± 10, 16 ± 6, 15 ± 4 and 10 ± 3%, respectively) to the total light extinction of PM, while soil (5-7%) and sea salt fractions (2-4%) in fine PM and coarse PM (6-11%) had relatively minor influences. The results of backward air trajectory showed that the site was strongly influenced by the air from the eastern (39%) and southeastern (29%) areas during the sampling period. Air plumes from the Southeastern had both high PM mass pollution and large light extinction, while the air mass originating from the Northwestern resulted in high PM mass loading but relatively lower light extinction.

  14. Light absorption of brown carbon aerosol in the PRD region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.-F.; Huang, X.-F.; Cao, L.-M.; Cui, J.; Zhu, Q.; Huang, C.-N.; Lan, Z.-J.; He, L.-Y.

    2016-02-01

    The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol is regarded to influence aerosol's radiative forcing significantly. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) method has been widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of BrC at shorter wavelengths for ambient aerosols, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of "pure" black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to 1.0. In this study, the AAE method was applied to both urban and rural environments in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China, with an improvement of constraining the realistic AAE of "pure" BC through statistical analysis of on-line measurement data. A three-wavelength photo-acoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the measured AAE and the relative abundance of organic aerosol to BC. The regression and extrapolation analysis revealed that more realistic AAE values for "pure" BC aerosol (AAEBC) were 0.86, 0.82, and 1.02 between 405 and 781 nm, and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 between 532 and 781 nm, in the campaigns of urbanwinter, urbanfall, and ruralfall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiments were conducted and the results further confirmed the representativeness of the obtained AAEBC values for the urban environment. Finally, the average light absorption contributions of BrC (± relative uncertainties) at 405 nm were quantified to be 11.7 % (±5 %), 6.3 % (±4 %), and 12.1 % (±7 %) in the campaigns of urbanwinter, urbanfall, and ruralfall, respectively, and those at 532 nm were 10.0 % (±2 %), 4.1 % (±3 %), and 5.5 % (±5 %), respectively. The relatively higher BrC absorption contribution at 405 nm in the ruralfall campaign could be reasonably attributed to the biomass burning events nearby, which was then directly supported by the biomass burning simulation experiments performed in this study. This paper indicates that the BrC contribution to total aerosol light absorption at shorter

  15. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  16. Attenuation and impulse response for multiple scattering of light in atmospheric clouds and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Selden, Adrian C

    2006-05-01

    Model phase functions for atmospheric clouds and aerosols typically comprise a narrow forward lobe (corona), a broad diffuse background, and a narrow backscattering peak (glory), which can reach relatively high values, especially for polyhedral scattering particles, such as hexagonal ice columns and plates. The influence of these three major components on the asymptotic and transient attenuation of the scattered light is compared for several analytic phase functions to assess the dependence of radiative transfer in clouds and aerosols on the choice of phase function. The impulse response (temporal evolution of the angular intensity distribution) is sensitive to the higher moments of the phase function and could prove to be a useful technique for inferring the optical scattering parameters of clouds and aerosols.

  17. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J Vanderlei

    2014-09-01

    Global satellite remote sensing of aerosols requires in situ measurements to enable the calibration and validation of algorithms. In order to improve our understanding of light scattering by aerosol particles, and to enable routine in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering, we have developed an instrument, called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). We designed and built the PI-Neph at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). This portable instrument directly measures the ambient scattering coefficient and phase matrix elements of aerosols, in the field or onboard an aircraft. The measured phase matrix elements are the P(11), phase function, and P(12). Lasers illuminate the sampled ambient air and aerosol, and a wide field of view camera detects scattered light in a scattering angle range of 3° to 176°. The PI-Neph measures an ensemble of particles, supplying the relevant quantity for satellite remote sensing, as opposed to particle-by-particle measurements that have other applications. Comparisons with remote sensing measurements will have to consider aircraft inlet effects. The PI-Neph first measured at a laser wavelength of 532nm, and was first deployed successfully in 2011 aboard the B200 aircraft of NASA Langley during the Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project. In 2013, we upgraded the PI-Neph to measure at 473nm, 532nm, and 671nm nearly simultaneously. LACO has deployed the PI-Neph on a number of airborne field campaigns aboard three different NASA aircraft. This paper describes the PI-Neph measurement approach and validation by comparing measurements of artificial spherical aerosols with Mie theory. We provide estimates of calibration uncertainties, which show agreement with the small residuals between measurements of P(11) and -P(12)/P(11) and Mie theory. We demonstrate the capability of the PI-Neph to measure

  18. The Aerosol Coarse Mode: Its Importance for Light Scattering Enhancement and Columnar Optical Closure Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, P.

    2015-12-01

    Ambient aerosol particles can take up water and thus change their optical properties depending on the hygroscopicity and the relative humidity (RH) of the surrounding air. Knowledge of the hygroscopicity effect is of importance for radiative forcing calculations but is also needed for the comparison or validation of remote sensing or model results with in situ measurements. Specifically, the particle light scattering depends on RH and can be described by the scattering enhancement factor f(RH), which is defined as the particle light scattering coefficient at defined RH divided by its dry value. Here, we will present insights from measurements of f(RH) across Europe (Zieger et al., 2013) and will demonstrate why the coarse mode is important when modeling or predicting f(RH) from auxiliary aerosol in-situ measurements. We will show the implications by presenting the results of a recently performed columnar optical closure study (Zieger et al., 2015). This study linked ground-based in-situ measurements (with the help of airborne aerosol size distribution measurements) to columnar aerosol optical properties derived by a co-located AERONET sun photometer. The in situ derived aerosol optical depths (AOD) were clearly correlated with the directly measured values of the AERONET sun photometer but were substantially lower compared to the directly measured values (factor of ˜ 2-3). Differences became greater for longer wavelengths. The disagreement between in situ derived and directly measured AOD was hypothesized to originate from losses of coarse and fine mode particles through dry deposition within the forest's canopy and losses in the in situ sampling lines. In addition, elevated aerosol layers from long-range transport were observed for parts of the campaign which could have explained some of the disagreement. Zieger, P., Fierz-Schmidhauser, R., Weingartner, E., and Baltensperger, U.: Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering: results from different

  19. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J Vanderlei

    2014-09-01

    Global satellite remote sensing of aerosols requires in situ measurements to enable the calibration and validation of algorithms. In order to improve our understanding of light scattering by aerosol particles, and to enable routine in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering, we have developed an instrument, called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). We designed and built the PI-Neph at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). This portable instrument directly measures the ambient scattering coefficient and phase matrix elements of aerosols, in the field or onboard an aircraft. The measured phase matrix elements are the P(11), phase function, and P(12). Lasers illuminate the sampled ambient air and aerosol, and a wide field of view camera detects scattered light in a scattering angle range of 3° to 176°. The PI-Neph measures an ensemble of particles, supplying the relevant quantity for satellite remote sensing, as opposed to particle-by-particle measurements that have other applications. Comparisons with remote sensing measurements will have to consider aircraft inlet effects. The PI-Neph first measured at a laser wavelength of 532nm, and was first deployed successfully in 2011 aboard the B200 aircraft of NASA Langley during the Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project. In 2013, we upgraded the PI-Neph to measure at 473nm, 532nm, and 671nm nearly simultaneously. LACO has deployed the PI-Neph on a number of airborne field campaigns aboard three different NASA aircraft. This paper describes the PI-Neph measurement approach and validation by comparing measurements of artificial spherical aerosols with Mie theory. We provide estimates of calibration uncertainties, which show agreement with the small residuals between measurements of P(11) and -P(12)/P(11) and Mie theory. We demonstrate the capability of the PI-Neph to measure

  20. Type I polar stratospheric cloud particles - Concentration, shape, size, light extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Ferry, G. V.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Goodman, J.; Hamill, P.; Livingston, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the flight on January 24, 1989 of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment during which the ER-2 aircraft transitioned from unsaturated to ice saturated air at 20 km altitude are presented. Aerosol particles were sampled by wire impactors and examined for number density as a function of particle size by taking photomicrographs in a scanning electron microscope and visually sizing and counting the particles. Differences in the chemical, physical and optical properties of stratospheric aerosol between ice-saturated and nonsaturated air are described.

  1. Light absorbing organic aerosols (brown carbon) over the tropical Indian Ocean: impact of biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The first field measurements of light absorbing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), referred as brown carbon (BrC), have been made in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during the continental outflow to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (ARS). The absorption signal measured at 365 nm in aqueous extracts of aerosols shows a systematic linear increase with WSOC concentration, suggesting a significant contribution from BrC to the absorption properties of organic aerosols. The mass absorption coefficient (babs) of BrC shows an inverse hyperbolic relation with wavelength (from ˜300 to 700 nm), providing an estimate of the Angstrom exponent (αP, range: 3-19 Av: 9 ± 3). The mass absorption efficiency of brown carbon (σabs-BrC) in the MABL varies from 0.17 to 0.72 m2 g-1 (Av: 0.45 ± 0.14 m2 g-1). The αP and σabs-BrC over the BoB are quite similar to that studied from a sampling site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), suggesting the dominant impact of organic aerosols associated with the continental outflow. A comparison of the mass absorption efficiency of BrC and elemental carbon (EC) brings to focus the significant role of light absorbing organic aerosols (from biomass burning emissions) in atmospheric radiative forcing over oceanic regions located downwind of the pollution sources.

  2. Laboratory measurements of light scattering by simulated atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Quiney, R G; Carswell, A I

    1972-07-01

    Using the Stokes vector formulation measurements are reported of the four principal components of the scattering matrix under controlled laboratory conditions. Two ranges of scattering conditions are considered: atmospheric air as a function of relative humidity (HAZE) and water droplet clouds (FOGS). A 50-mW (63284-A) He-Ne laser is used as the light source. A sensitive automated polar nephelometer, which has been developed for these measurements, records the scattered light as a function of scattering angle from 6 degrees to 174 degrees . A digital computer is used to calculate the matrix elements from the raw experimental data. The results may be compared with the theoretical computations of Deirmendjian and the field work of Rozenberg. The results of the experiments show pronounced dependence upon the relative humidity and the properties of the fogs that are explicable qualitatively. However, quantitative inversion of light scattering data to obtain such information as the size distribution requires comprehensive experiments of high precision and large amounts of computer time.

  3. Aerosol light-scattering enhancement due to water uptake during TCAP campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, G.; Jefferson, A.; Sheridan, P. J.; Andrews, E.; Lyamani, H.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured by the DOE/ARM (US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program Mobile Facility in the framework of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) deployed at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a~one year period (from summer 2012 to summer 2013). Measured optical properties included aerosol light-absorption coefficient (σap) at low relative humidity (RH) and aerosol light-scattering coefficient (σsp) at low and at RH values varying from 30 to 85%, approximately. Calculated variables included the single scattering albedo (SSA), the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) and the scattering enhancement factor (f(RH)). Over the period of measurement, f(RH = 80%) had a mean value of 1.9 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4 in the PM10 and PM1 fractions, respectively. Higher f(RH = 80%) values were observed for wind directions from 0-180° (marine sector) together with high SSA and low SAE values. The wind sector from 225 to 315° was identified as an anthropogenically-influenced sector, and it was characterized by smaller, darker and less hygroscopic aerosols. For the marine sector, f(RH = 80%) was 2.2 compared with a value of 1.8 obtained for the anthropogenically-influenced sector. The air-mass backward trajectory analysis agreed well with the wind sector analysis. It shows low cluster to cluster variability except for air-masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean that showed higher hygroscopicity. Knowledge of the effect of RH on aerosol optical properties is of great importance for climate forcing calculations and for comparison of in-situ measurements with satellite and remote sensing retrievals. In this sense, predictive capability of f(RH) for use in climate models would be enhanced if other aerosol parameters could be used as proxies to estimate hygroscopic growth. Toward this goal, we propose an exponential equation that successfully estimates aerosol hygroscopicity as a function of SSA at Cape Cod. Further work is needed to determine

  4. Aerosol light-scattering enhancement due to water uptake during the TCAP campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, G.; Jefferson, A.; Sheridan, P. J.; Andrews, E.; Lyamani, H.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured by the DOE/ARM (US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign deployed at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 1-year period (from summer 2012 to summer 2013). Measured optical properties included aerosol light-absorption coefficient (σap) at low relative humidity (RH) and aerosol light-scattering coefficient (σsp) at low and at RH values varying from 30 to 85%, approximately. Calculated variables included the single scattering albedo (SSA), the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) and the scattering enhancement factor (f(RH)). Over the period of measurement, f(RH = 80%) had a mean value of 1.9 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4 in the PM10 and PM1 fractions, respectively. Higher f(RH = 80%) values were observed for wind directions from 0 to 180° (marine sector) together with high SSA and low SAE values. The wind sector from 225 to 315° was identified as an anthropogenically influenced sector, and it was characterized by smaller, darker and less hygroscopic aerosols. For the marine sector, f(RH = 80%) was 2.2 compared with a value of 1.8 obtained for the anthropogenically influenced sector. The air-mass backward trajectory analysis agreed well with the wind sector analysis. It shows low cluster to cluster variability except for air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean that showed higher hygroscopicity. Knowledge of the effect of RH on aerosol optical properties is of great importance for climate forcing calculations and for comparison of in situ measurements with satellite and remote sensing retrievals. In this sense, predictive capability of f(RH) for use in climate models would be enhanced if other aerosol parameters could be used as proxies to estimate hygroscopic growth. Toward this goal, we propose an exponential equation that successfully estimates aerosol hygroscopicity as a function of SSA at Cape Cod. Further work is needed to determine if

  5. Sizing aerosolized fractal nanoparticle aggregates through Bayesian analysis of wide-angle light scattering (WALS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan; Daun, Kyle J.

    2016-11-01

    Inferring the size distribution of aerosolized fractal aggregates from the angular distribution of elastically scattered light is a mathematically ill-posed problem. This paper presents a procedure for analyzing Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS) data using Bayesian inference. The outcome is probability densities for the recovered size distribution and aggregate morphology parameters. This technique is applied to both synthetic data and experimental data collected on soot-laden aerosols, using a measurement equation derived from Rayleigh-Debye-Gans fractal aggregate (RDG-FA) theory. In the case of experimental data, the recovered aggregate size distribution parameters are generally consistent with TEM-derived values, but the accuracy is impaired by the well-known limited accuracy of RDG-FA theory. Finally, we show how this bias could potentially be avoided using the approximation error technique.

  6. Variations in the light extinction coefficient of elemental carbon in the Indian outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Krusâ, Martin; Kirillova, Elena; Budhavant, Krishnakant; Rao, P. S. P.; Praveen, P. S.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2010-05-01

    High wintertime concentrations of black carbon aerosols (BCA) over South Asia and the northern Indian Ocean are thought to have a large impact on the regional climate. Direct absorption of sunlight by BCAs causes heating of the atmosphere and cooling at the surface. To quantify such effects it is important to characterize a number of different properties of the aerosols. Here we report the concentrations of the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) as well as absorptive properties of these aerosols. Samples were collected during a continuous 14-month campaign Dec 2008 - Mar 2009 at Sinaghad in Western India and on Hanimaadhoo, the Northernmost Island in the Maldives. This data set suggests that the absorptive properties of the BCAs are variable, sometimes by a factor of 4 compared to the mean. This observation adds to the complexity of calculating the radiative forcing for BCAs, reinforcing previous observations that parameters such as internal mixing and knowledge about the sources need to be taken into account.

  7. The reconstruction of aerosol light absorption by particle measurements at remote sites: An independent analysis of data from the IMPROVE network — II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, H. Dale

    The author's mutual validation of the IMPROVE measures of light absorption — the light absorption coefficient σa and the TOR carbon measures — at remote sites in the western United States, has identified more light-absorbing carbon (LAC) than the current interpretation of TOR admits. Further comparison of σa with the new determination of LAC allows us to identify fine soil as the remaining significant contributor to light absorption at these remote sites, and thus to fully reconstruct σa there. This reconstruction also confirms the accuracy of the blank corrections to the carbon measurements. Using σa or the new reconstruction of it given herein as the appropriate measure of light absorption allows more correct reconstructions of aerosol light extinction σe and of organic mass; the latter provides evidence that the newly identified LAC is also essentially elemental carbon (EC). The new interpretation of the TOR carbons for the remote western sites also reveals apparently much less pyrolysis than previously though occurring during TOR analysis, for most of the aerosol samples collected at these sites. A very small minority population, comprising less than 5% of the samples and occurring mostly in the summer and autumn, is also identified, containing a larger proportion of supposed pyrolyzable organics. The differences in apparent makeup between the two populations strongly suggest that the majority population represents a widespread background of aerosol light absorption which averages 5 Mm -1 and is probably due primarily to diesel fuel emissions transported from urban areas and highways, while the minority population is probably due to wood fires. A number of possible explanations are offered for why the newly identified EC is not currently recognized in the TOR analysis. In particular, it is claimed that sample darkening during thermal analysis is not a reliable quantitative indication of pyrolyzable organics, particularly in the remote aerosols

  8. Light Scattering by Aerosols Over the Remote Ocean: Clear-Sky Point and Column Radiative Closure Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2001-12-01

    Field data gathered by ship and aircraft during leg 2 of the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) were used to study clear-sky radiative closure over the remote Southern Ocean. Closure was evaluated by comparing observations with modeled values of: (i) aerosol light scattering coefficients in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere, (ii) total aerosol optical depth, and (iii) total solar radiation at the ocean surface. Point modeling using the ship data benefited from an existing study of closure on the ship, expanding the number of data points considered in that study from 22 to 887. Point and column modeling using the aircraft data provide the first such studies to date. Aerosol light scattering coefficients were calculated from size-distributed measurements of aerosol chemical composition and number concentration, and were compared with observations at three wavelengths (450, 550, and 700 nm) on both ship and aircraft. Point closure on the ship could be achieved at all wavelengths for both total and hemispheric backscattering coefficients if the model accounted for experimental uncertainties in aerosol chemistry, nephelometer nonidealities, and the likely nonsphericity of dried sea salt aerosols. Point closure on the aircraft could be achieved at most wavelengths for total scattering coefficients, but could not be achieved at any wavelengths for hemispheric backscattering coefficients. Deviations between predicted and observed backscattering coefficients on the aircraft were widely scattered rather than biased, indicating that a low signal to noise ratio in observed backscattering coefficients was the likely cause for lack of closure. Aerosol optical depth and solar radiation at the ocean surface were calculated for the two days with clear-sky periods when the aircraft measured aerosol profiles near the ship. Input gas and meteorological data were the observed profiles of ozone, water vapor, temperature, and pressure from the surface to

  9. Development Of A Supercontinuum Based Photoacoustic Aerosol Light Absorption And Albedo Spectrometer (PALAAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Ian J.

    Aerosols are a major contributor to the global radiation budget because they modify the planetary albedo with their optical properties. These optical properties need to be measured and understood, ideally at multiple wavelengths. This thesis describes the ongoing development of a supercontinuum based multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument to measure the light absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosols. Collimation techniques for supercontinuum sources using lens-based and off-axis parabolic mirror-based collimators were evaluated and it was determined that the off-axis mirror had superior collimation abilities for multi-spectral beams. A proof of concept supercontinuum-based photoacoustic instrument was developed using sequential measurements at multiple wavelengths. The instrument data were in good agreement with those from a commercial 3-wavelength photoacoustic instrument and the novel instrument had minimum detectable absorption and scattering coefficients of better than 4 Mm-1 and 21 Mm-1, respectively. The instrument however suffered from poor temporal resolution due to the sequential measurement and required the development of an aerosol delivery system to deliver a slowly varying aerosol concentration. In response, a spectral modulator has been developed to frequency encode different wavelength bands for simultaneous measurement with a photoacoustic instrumen.

  10. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, K. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Hoerber, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Franke, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  11. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, K.; Hoerber, J.; Franke, J.

    2014-05-01

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  12. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Alexander S.; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Pors, Anders; Beermann, Jonas; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of two-dimensional high-aspect-ratio metal trenches acting as resonators for gap-surface plasmons and show that these resonators are highly efficient scatterers of free waves, reaching at resonance in the perfect-conductor limit the unitary dipolar limit for a two-dimensional scatterer. We construct a simple resonator model which predicts the wavelength-dependent extinction, scattering, and absorption cross section of the trench and compare the model findings with full numerical simulations. Both extinction and scattering cross sections are mainly determined by the wavelength and can reach highly supergeometric values. At wavelengths where the metal exhibits near perfect electrical conductor behavior, such trenches lend themselves to be used as self-normalizing scatterers, as their scattering cross section is independent of their geometry and depend only on the resonance wavelength. For real metals with nonzero absorption, efficient monomaterial absorbers and emitters can be fabricated. We extend the analysis to tapering trenches that can be readily fabricated employing common milling or etching techniques and verify by reflection spectroscopy and two-photon luminescence that the resonant behavior of the vertical trenches is preserved.

  13. TOMS Validation Based on Profiles of Aerosol Properties in the Lower Troposphere as Obtained with Light Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Maring, Hal; Savoie, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the University of Miami Aerosol Group (UMAG) in this project was to make measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol properties and aerosol optical depth using a light aircraft. The UMAG developed a light aircraft aerosol package (LAAP) that was used in light aircraft (Cessna 172) during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). This field campaign took place on Puerto Rico during July 2000. Design details and results from the use of the LAAP were presented at TOMS Science team meetings on April 1998, April 1999, and May 2000. Results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment were presented at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 2000. Some of the results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research in a "topical section" made up of papers from the PRIDE Program.

  14. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    The general problem of urban pollution and its relation to the city population is examined in this dissertation. A simple model suggests that pollutant concentrations should scale approximately with the square root of city population. This model and its experimental evaluation presented here serve as important guidelines for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards including the limits that air pollution places on city population. The model was evaluated using measurements of air pollution. Optical properties of aerosol pollutants such as light absorption and scattering plus chemical species mass concentrations were measured with a photoacoustic spectrometer, a reciprocal nephelometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer in Mexico City in the context of the multinational project "Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)" in March 2006. Aerosol light absorption and scattering measurements were also obtained for Reno and Las Vegas, NV USA in December 2008-March 2009 and January-February 2003, respectively. In all three cities, the morning scattering peak occurs a few hours later than the absorption peak due to the formation of secondary photochemically produced aerosols. In particular, for Mexico City we determined the fraction of photochemically generated secondary aerosols to be about 75% of total aerosol mass concentration at its peak near midday. The simple 2-d box model suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant (e.g., black carbon) mass concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population. This argument extends to the absorption coefficient, as it is approximately proportional to the black carbon mass concentration. Since urban secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary precursors, in linear approximation their mass concentration also should scale with the square root of population. Therefore, the scattering coefficient, a proxy for particulate matter

  15. Measuring and modeling twilight's purple light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Raymond L.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2003-01-01

    During many clear twilights, much of the solar sky is dominated by pastel purples. This purple light's red component has long been ascribed to transmission through and scattering by stratospheric dust and other aerosols. Clearly the vivid purples of post-volcanic twilights are related to increased stratospheric aerosol loading. Yet our time-series measurements of purple-light spectra, combined with radiative transfer modeling and satellite soundings, indicate that background stratospheric aerosols by themselves do not redden sunlight enough to cause the purple light's reds. Furthermore, scattering and extinction in both the troposphere and the stratosphere are needed to explain most purple lights.

  16. Measuring and modeling twilight's purple light.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2003-01-20

    During many clear twilights, much of the solar sky is dominated by pastel purples. This purple light's red component has long been ascribed to transmission through and scattering by stratospheric dust and other aerosols. Clearly the vivid purples of post-volcanic twilights are related to increased stratospheric aerosol loading. Yet our time-series measurements of purple-light spectra, combined with radiative transfer modeling and satellite soundings, indicate that background stratospheric aerosols by themselves do not redden sunlight enough to cause the purple light's reds. Furthermore, scattering and extinction in both the troposphere and the stratosphere are needed to explain most purple lights.

  17. Reflection and extinction of light by self-assembled monolayers of a quinque-thiophene derivative: A coherent scattering approach.

    PubMed

    Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; de Leeuw, Dago M; Meskers, Stefan C J

    2016-06-01

    Scattering matrix theory is used to describe resonant optical properties of molecular monolayers. Three types of coupling are included: exciton-exciton, exciton-photon, and exciton-phonon coupling. We use the K-matrix formalism, developed originally to describe neutron scattering spectra in nuclear physics to compute the scattering of polaritons by phonons. This perturbation approach takes into account the three couplings and allows one to go beyond molecular exciton theory without the need of introducing additional boundary conditions for the polariton. We demonstrate that reflection, absorption, and extinction of light by 2D self-assembled monolayers of molecules containing quinque-thiophene chromophoric groups can be calculated. The extracted coherence length of the Frenkel exciton is discussed. PMID:27276952

  18. Reflection and extinction of light by self-assembled monolayers of a quinque-thiophene derivative: A coherent scattering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.

    2016-06-01

    Scattering matrix theory is used to describe resonant optical properties of molecular monolayers. Three types of coupling are included: exciton-exciton, exciton-photon, and exciton-phonon coupling. We use the K-matrix formalism, developed originally to describe neutron scattering spectra in nuclear physics to compute the scattering of polaritons by phonons. This perturbation approach takes into account the three couplings and allows one to go beyond molecular exciton theory without the need of introducing additional boundary conditions for the polariton. We demonstrate that reflection, absorption, and extinction of light by 2D self-assembled monolayers of molecules containing quinque-thiophene chromophoric groups can be calculated. The extracted coherence length of the Frenkel exciton is discussed.

  19. Formation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing light-absorbing compounds accelerated by evaporation of water from secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Lee, Paula B.; Updyke, Katelyn M.; Bones, David L.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene were subjected to dissolution, evaporation, and re-dissolution in the presence and absence of ammonium sulfate (AS). Evaporation with AS at pH 4-9 produced chromophores that were stable with respect to hydrolysis and had a distinctive absorption band at 500 nm. Evaporation accelerated the rate of chromophore formation by at least three orders of magnitude compared to the reaction in aqueous solution, which produced similar compounds. Absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry experiments suggested that the molar fraction of the chromophores was small (<2%), and that they contained nitrogen atoms. Although the colored products represented only a small fraction of SOA, their large extinction coefficients (>105 L mol-1 cm-1 at 500 nm) increased the effective mass absorption coefficient of the residual organics in excess of 103 cm2 g-1 - a dramatic effect on the optical properties from minor constituents. Evaporation of SOA extracts in the absence of AS resulted in the production of colored compounds only when the SOA extract was acidified to pH ˜ 2 with sulfuric acid. These chromophores were produced by acid-catalyzed aldol condensation, followed by a conversion into organosulfates. The presence of organosulfates was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry experiments. Results of this study suggest that evaporation of cloud or fog droplets containing dissolved organics leads to significant modification of the molecular composition and serves as a potentially important source of light-absorbing compounds.

  20. Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Lee, Paula B.; Updyke, Katelyn M.; Bones, David L.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2012-01-14

    Aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of dlimonene were subjected to dissolution, evaporation, and re-dissolution in the presence and absence of ammonium sulfate (AS). Evaporation with AS at pH 4-9 produced chromophores that were stable with respect to hydrolysis and had a distinctive absorption band at 500 nm. Evaporation accelerated the rate of chromophore formation by at least three orders of magnitude compared to the reaction in aqueous solution, which produced similar compounds. Absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry experiments suggested that the molar fraction of the chromophores was small (< 2%), and that they contained nitrogen atoms. Although the colored products represented only a small fraction of SOA, their large extinction coefficients (>10{sup 5} L mol{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at 500 nm) increased the effective mass absorption coefficient of the residual organics in excess of 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} - a dramatic effect on the optical properties from minor constituents. Evaporation of SOA extracts in the absence of AS resulted in the production of colored compounds only when the SOA extract was acidified to pH {approx} 2 with sulfuric acid. These chromophores were produced by acid-catalyzed aldol condensation, followed by a conversion into organosulfates. The presence of organosulfates was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry experiments. Results of this study suggest that evaporation of cloud or fog droplets containing dissolved organics leads to significant modification of the molecular composition and serves as a potentially important source of light-absorbing compounds.

  1. Vertical columns of NO2, HONO, HCHO, CHOCHO and aerosol extinction: diurnal and seasonal variations in context of CalNex and CARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Coburn, S.; Oetjen, H.; Sinreich, R.; Thalman, R. M.; Waxman, E.; Volkamer, R.

    2011-12-01

    We present results from two ground-based University of Colorado Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU-MAX-DOAS) instruments that were deployed during the CALNEX and CARES 2010 field campaigns. Ground based CU-MAX-DOAS measurements were carried out through Dec 2010, and measured vertical column abundances of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HONO), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), and aerosol extinction, which is determined indirectly from observing the oxygen dimers (O4). The measurements were acquired on the top of Millikan library at Caltech, Pasadena, CA, at the Fontana Arrows site located 60 Km east of Caltech, and for a limited period also downwind of Sacramento at T1 site during CARES. In the South Coast Air Basin, the MAX-DOAS instruments at both sites collected an extended time series of use to test satellites, and atmospheric chemistry models. We determine the state of the planetary boundary layer by comparing the columns observations with in-situ sensors, and place the CALNEX and CARES measurements intensive into seasonal context.

  2. Optical properties and aging of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jiumeng; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Wise, Matthew; Caylor, Ryan; Imholt, Felisha; Selimovic, Vanessa; Shilling, John E.

    2016-10-14

    The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA) commonly referred to as “brown carbon” (BrC) has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various volatile organic carbon (VOC) precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time, and relative humidity (RH) on the light absorptionmore » of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Light absorption of chamber-generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficient (MAC) value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high-NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light-absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organic nitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible (Vis) and ultraviolet (UV) light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.« less

  3. Optical properties and aging of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiumeng; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Wise, Matthew; Caylor, Ryan; Imholt, Felisha; Selimovic, Vanessa; Shilling, John E.

    2016-10-01

    The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA) commonly referred to as "brown carbon" (BrC) has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various volatile organic carbon (VOC) precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time, and relative humidity (RH) on the light absorption of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Light absorption of chamber-generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficient (MAC) value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high-NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light-absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organic nitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible (Vis) and ultraviolet (UV) light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of light scattering in the atmosphere and effect of atmospheric aerosols on the point spread function.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Joshua; Louedec, Karim

    2013-11-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation for the scattering of light in the case of an isotropic light source. The scattering phase functions are studied particularly in detail to understand how they can affect the multiple light scattering in the atmosphere. We show that, although aerosols are usually in lower density than molecules in the atmosphere, they can have a non-negligible effect on the atmospheric point spread function. This effect is especially expected for ground-based detectors when large aerosols are present in the atmosphere.

  5. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2008-09-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aetholemeter, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in north east Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethelometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 7 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the same-day photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic) is approximately 40 percent of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA) indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  6. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2009-06-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic) is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA) indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  7. Light absorption by airborne aerosols: comparison of integrating plate and spectrophone techniques.

    PubMed

    Szkarlat, A C; Japar, S M

    1981-04-01

    An excellent correlation between the integrating plate (IP) and the photoacoustic methods for measuring aerosol light absorption has been found for airborne graphitic carbon in diesel vehicle exhaust. However, the regression coefficient depends on the orientation of the Teflon membrane filter during the IP analysis. With the collected particulates between the filter and the integrating plate, the IP response is 1.85 times that for the filter reversed. In either case the response ratio of the IP method to the photoacoustic method is >1.0, i.e., 2.43 vs 1.30. The IP calibration is also probably dependent on the nature of the filter medium. PMID:20309278

  8. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  9. Volatility of primary organic aerosol emitted from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Collier, Sonya; Forestieri, Sara; Brady, James M; Bertram, Timothy H; Cappa, Christopher D; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Primary organic aerosol (POA) emitted from light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) exhibits a semivolatile behavior in which heating the aerosol and/or diluting the aerosol leads to partial evaporation of the POA. A single volatility distribution can explain the median evaporation behavior of POA emitted from LDGVs but this approach is unable to capture the full range of measured POA volatility during thermodenuder (TD) experiments conducted at atmospherically relevant concentrations (2-5 μg m(-3)). Reanalysis of published TD data combined with analysis of new measurements suggest that POA emitted from gasoline vehicles is composed of two types of POA that have distinctly different volatility distributions: one low-volatility distribution and one medium-volatility distribution. These correspond to fuel combustion-derived POA and motor oil POA, respectively. Models that simultaneously incorporate both of these distributions are able to reproduce experimental results much better (R(2) = 0.94) than models that use a single average or median distribution (R(2) = 0.52). These results indicate that some fraction of POA emitted from LDGVs is essentially nonvolatile under typical atmospheric dilution levels. Roughly 50% of the vehicles tested in the current study had POA emissions dominated by fuel combustion products (essentially nonvolatile). Further testing is required to determine appropriate fleet-average emissions rates of the two POA types from LDGVs. PMID:25493342

  10. Urban light pollution: the effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J H; Kaufman, Y J; Mekler, Y

    1991-07-20

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth <0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made not as a function of the absolute aerosol amount but in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an rban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.

  11. Volatility of primary organic aerosol emitted from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Collier, Sonya; Forestieri, Sara; Brady, James M; Bertram, Timothy H; Cappa, Christopher D; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Primary organic aerosol (POA) emitted from light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) exhibits a semivolatile behavior in which heating the aerosol and/or diluting the aerosol leads to partial evaporation of the POA. A single volatility distribution can explain the median evaporation behavior of POA emitted from LDGVs but this approach is unable to capture the full range of measured POA volatility during thermodenuder (TD) experiments conducted at atmospherically relevant concentrations (2-5 μg m(-3)). Reanalysis of published TD data combined with analysis of new measurements suggest that POA emitted from gasoline vehicles is composed of two types of POA that have distinctly different volatility distributions: one low-volatility distribution and one medium-volatility distribution. These correspond to fuel combustion-derived POA and motor oil POA, respectively. Models that simultaneously incorporate both of these distributions are able to reproduce experimental results much better (R(2) = 0.94) than models that use a single average or median distribution (R(2) = 0.52). These results indicate that some fraction of POA emitted from LDGVs is essentially nonvolatile under typical atmospheric dilution levels. Roughly 50% of the vehicles tested in the current study had POA emissions dominated by fuel combustion products (essentially nonvolatile). Further testing is required to determine appropriate fleet-average emissions rates of the two POA types from LDGVs.

  12. Wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption in urban and biomass burning impacted conditions: An integrative perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Gyawali, M.; Lewis, K.; Moosmuller, H.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol light absorption depends on aerosol size, morphology, mixing state, and composition. The wavelength dependence is often characterized with use of the Angstrom coefficient for absorption (AAE) determined from measurements at two or more wavelengths. Low fractal dimension black carbon (BC) particles are often expected to have an AAE near unity. Values of AAE significantly larger than unity are often attributed to the presence of an organic coating that absorbs strongly at lower wavelengths, though we have found that even non absorbing coatings on small, biomass burning related BC cores can have large AAE. Values of AAE significantly less than unity are often ascribed to experimental errors or large particle sizes, however, we find that they are most commonly associated with modest absorbing or non absorbing organic coatings that collapse the fractal soot BC core in urban aerosol to a dimension near that of a sphere. Photoacoustic measurements at 405 nm, 532 nm, 870 nm, and 1047 nm in urban Reno and Las Vegas NV, and for biomass burning experiments are used presented to illustrate the range of AAE possible, and coated sphere modeling results are presented to interpret the measurements.

  13. Urban light pollution: the effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J H; Kaufman, Y J; Mekler, Y

    1991-07-20

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth <0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made not as a function of the absolute aerosol amount but in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an rban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy. PMID:20706354

  14. Application of laser light scattering for determination of the border aerosol-air in a specialized physical laboratory setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damov, K. S.; Iliev, M. T.

    2016-02-01

    The current article examines the application of laser light scattering in a specialized laboratory setup. It is used for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume (High Concentration Aerosols) by the method of free flow out. The measurement chamber is first filled with the investigated aerosol. After a predetermined delay time the aerosol is allowed to flow out through a calibrated pipe with fixed size located few centimetres above the chamber's bottom. The lowering of the upper border aerosol-air is continuously scanned using a laser beam directed along the axis of the cylindrical chamber. The kinematic viscosity and mass density of the investigated aerosol phase are calculated by formulas obtained by the authors. The suggested application of laser light scattering led to higher accuracy of the determination the position of aerosol-air border, thence the certainty of this method. This improvement allowed the use of computer controlled optoelectronic setting. The use of laser light scattering significantly improves the method for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume.

  15. Unified Theory of Surface-Plasmonic Enhancement and Extinction of Light Transmission through Metallic Nanoslit Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Jun Hyung; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Metallic nanostructures are of immense scientific interest owing to unexpectedly strong interaction with light in deep subwavelength scales. Resonant excitations of surface and cavity plasmonic modes mediate strong light localization in nanoscale objects. Nevertheless, the role of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPP) in light transmission through a simple one-dimensional system with metallic nanoslits has been the subject of longstanding debates. Here, we propose a unified theory that consistently explains the controversial effects of SPPs in metallic nanoslit arrays. We show that the SPPs excited on the entrance and exit interfaces induce near-total internal reflection and abrupt phase change of the slit-guided mode. These fundamental effects quantitatively describe positive and negative effects of SPP excitation in a self-consistent manner. Importantly, the theory shows excellent agreement with rigorous numerical calculations while providing profound physical insight into the properties of nanoplasmonic systems. PMID:25022910

  16. 3-D aluminum nanostructure with microhole array synthesized by femtosecond laser radiation for enhanced light extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Abdul Salam; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2013-11-01

    This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications.

  17. 3-D aluminum nanostructure with microhole array synthesized by femtosecond laser radiation for enhanced light extinction.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Abdul Salam; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications. PMID:24225364

  18. 3-D aluminum nanostructure with microhole array synthesized by femtosecond laser radiation for enhanced light extinction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications. PMID:24225364

  19. Single-particle light-scattering measurement: photochemical aerosols and atmospheric particulates.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D T; Wyatt, P J

    1972-09-01

    The use of single-particle light-scattering measurements to determine the origin of atmospheric hazes has been explored by measurement of laboratory aerosols, field samples, and computer analysis of the light-scattering data. The refractive index of measured spherical particles 800 nm to 1000 nm in diameter was determined within 2%. For particles of diameter less than 500 nm the measurement of absolute scattering intensity is required for complete analysis. Distinctive nonspherical and absorbing particles were observed both in automotive exhaust and atmospheric samples. Electrostatic suspension of atmospheric particulates is demonstrated to provide a practical approach to optical measurement of single particles. The technique may be used to calibrate optical particle counters or identify particles with unique shape or refractive index.

  20. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  1. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  2. The interplay between assumed morphology and the direct radiative effect of light-absorbing organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Rawad; Adams, Peter J.; Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2016-08-01

    Mie theory is widely employed in aerosol top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative effect (DRE) calculations and to retrieve the absorptivity of light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA) from measurements. However, when OA is internally mixed with black carbon, it may exhibit complex morphologies whose optical behavior is imperfectly predicted by Mie theory, introducing bias in the retrieved absorptivities. We performed numerical experiments and global radiative transfer modeling (RTM) to investigate the effect of this bias on the calculated absorption and thus the DRE. We show that using true OA absorptivity, retrieved with a realistic representation of the complex morphology, leads to significant errors in DRE when the RTM employs the simplified Mie theory. On the other hand, when Mie theory is consistently applied in both OA absorptivity retrieval and the RTM, the errors largely cancel out, yielding accurate DRE. As long as global RTMs use Mie theory, they should implement parametrizations of light-absorbing OA derived from retrievals based on Mie theory.

  3. Dependence of Aerosol Light Absorption and Single-Scattering Albedo On Ambient Relative Humidity for Sulfate Aerosols with Black Carbon Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip B.; Hamill, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols frequently contain hygroscopic sulfate species and black carbon (soot) inclusions. In this paper we report results of a modeling study to determine the change in aerosol absorption due to increases in ambient relative humidity (RH), for three common sulfate species, assuming that the soot mass fraction is present as a single concentric core within each particle. Because of the lack of detailed knowledge about various input parameters to models describing internally mixed aerosol particle optics, we focus on results that were aimed at determining the maximum effect that particle humidification may have on aerosol light absorption. In the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm, maximum absorption humidification factors (ratio of wet to 'dry=30% RH' absorption) for single aerosol particles are found to be as large as 1.75 when the RH changes from 30 to 99.5%. Upon lesser humidification from 30 to 80% RH, absorption humidification for single particles is only as much as 1.2, even for the most favorable combination of initial ('dry') soot mass fraction and particle size. Integrated over monomodal lognormal particle size distributions, maximum absorption humidification factors range between 1.07 and 1.15 for humidification from 30 to 80% and between 1.1 and 1.35 for humidification from 30 to 95% RH for all species considered. The largest humidification factors at a wavelength of 450 nm are obtained for 'dry' particle size distributions that peak at a radius of 0.05 microns, while the absorption humidification factors at 700 nm are largest for 'dry' size distributions that are dominated by particles in the radius range of 0.06 to 0.08 microns. Single-scattering albedo estimates at ambient conditions are often based on absorption measurements at low RH (approx. 30%) and the assumption that aerosol absorption does not change upon humidification (i.e., absorption humidification equal to unity). Our modeling study suggests that this assumption alone can

  4. Aerosol optical depth estimates based on nephelometer measurements at the SGP arm site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, M.H.; Ogren, J.A.; Halthore, R.

    1996-03-01

    The scattering of shortwave radiation by anthropogenic aerosols during clear-sky conditions, termed direct aerosol forcing, has been estimated to be roughly 1 W/m{sup 2} on a global annual average and may be as high as 50 W/m{sup 2} locally and instantaneously new source regions. The extent of the direct aerosol forcing effect at a given time and place depends primarily in the aerosol optical depth, {tau}, as well as on other factors including the solar zenith angle, aerosol upscatter fraction, and the single scatter albedo (ratio of light scattering to total extinction). The aerosol optical depth at a given wavelength ({tau}{sub {lambda}}) can be written as the integral with height to the top of the atmosphere (toa) of the aerosol extinction coefficient, b{sub ext,p}. Where b{sub ext,p} is the sum of the aerosol extinction (b{sub ap}) and scattering (b{sub sp}) coefficients. The objectives of this research are to use nephelometer measurements of the scattering coefficient to estimate the aerosol optical depth at a specific wavelength (530 nm), and to compare these results with optical depths measured by a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Cimel Sun Photometer. This comparison will used to determine if all of the key parameters related to aerosol optical depth are being measured at the SGP ARM site.

  5. Shedding new light on the K-Pg extinction event: application of modern fire science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Rory; Rein, Guillermo; Belcher, Claire

    2016-04-01

    intense, long duration pulse that occurred at locations far from the impact site. Not only has this resulted in new insights into building our understanding of the end Cretaceous mass extinction, but it has also yielded a simple experimental method that rapidly allows investigation of the ignition propensity of specific ecosystems of utility to the fossil record. Finally, by applying fire science techniques to this problem, the underlying physical phenomena can be investigated allowing greater confidence in extrapolation of data to other scenarios. It is clear that such collaborative approaches in developing new experimental procedures drawing on existing knowledge from diverse research fields has allowed for rapid progress in interpreting the fossil evidence of fire through earth history. In addition to advancing the state of the art in palaeontology, this work has resulted in new developments in fire safety science clearly indicating the benefits of cross-disciplinary experimental research methods.

  6. Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasano, Yasuhiro; Browell, Edward V.

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the potential of a multiple-wavelength lidar for discriminating between several aerosol types on the basis of the wavelength dependence of the aerosol backscatter coefficient. The two-component lidar equation was solved under the assumption of similarity in the derived profiles of backscatter coefficients for each wavelength. It is shown that a three-wavelength lidar system operating at 300, 600, and 1064nm can provide unique information for discriminating between various aerosol types (continental, maritime, Saharan-dust, stratospheric aerosols in a tropopause fold event, and tropical forest aerosols). Mie calculations were made using in situ aerosol data and aerosol models to compare with the lidar results. The disagreement between the theoretical and empirical results in some cases was substantial. These differences may be partly due to uncertainties in the lidar data analysis and aerosol characteristics and also due to the conventional assumption of aerosol sphericity for the aerosol Mie calculations.

  7. Multiple scattering of polarized light in atmosphere- ocean systems: Application to sensitivity analyses of aerosol polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, Jacek

    1999-09-01

    Sunlight scattered by small particles in the atmosphere becomes partially polarized, the degree and state of which are sensitive to the physical and chemical properties of these particles. The high accuracy with which these polarization quantities can be measured causes space-borne polarimetry to be a promising remote sensing tool for retrieving tropospheric aerosols, but it also imposes strong requirements on the accuracy and efficiency of the methods used to numerically study such data. Light reflected by the lower atmospheric boundary may, in addition, become highly polarized, necessitating a careful error analysis of the latter scattering contribution to the remotely sensed signal. Part I of this work focusses, on the former requirements for an atmosphere-ocean system, and discusses an approach for treating scattering of light by water body, ocean surface, and atmosphere together in one method while employing numerically efficient techniques for each of these three components. Benchmark results are provided with an accuracy of 5 decimals for the Stokes vectors of scattering contributions to internal and external fields, and we discuss typical features seen in the bidirectional behaviour of the latter contributions. In Part II, we investigate uncertainties in the reflection properties of the ocean system and the resulting variation in degree of linear polarization observed from space. Three sources of uncertainty are identified: oceanic foam, the ocean surface roughness, and underwater light scattering. The magnitude of the latter two sources are derived from current remote sensing capabilities to retrieve the surface windspeed and oceanic pigment concentration, respectively. Simulations are carried out for the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum and two aerosol models. Our analyses indicate that the use of a priori information on the state of the ocean can provide enough constraints for aerosol polarimetry to be sufficiently accurate for climate

  8. Urban light pollution - The effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Joachim H.; Mekler, Yuri; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth less than 0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert, and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an urban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.

  9. Light absorption properties and radiative effects of primary organic aerosol emissions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Yan, Fang; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C; Feng, Yan; Dubey, Manvendra K; Liu, Shang; Pinto, Joseph P; Carmichael, Gregory R

    2015-04-21

    Organic aerosols (OAs) in the atmosphere affect Earth's energy budget by not only scattering but also absorbing solar radiation due to the presence of the so-called "brown carbon" (BrC) component. However, the absorptivities of OAs are not represented or are poorly represented in current climate and chemical transport models. In this study, we provide a method to constrain the BrC absorptivity at the emission inventory level using recent laboratory and field observations. We review available measurements of the light-absorbing primary OA (POA), and quantify the wavelength-dependent imaginary refractive indices (kOA, the fundamental optical parameter determining the particle's absorptivity) and their uncertainties for the bulk POA emitted from biomass/biofuel, lignite, propane, and oil combustion sources. In particular, we parametrize the kOA of biomass/biofuel combustion sources as a function of the black carbon (BC)-to-OA ratio, indicating that the absorptive properties of POA depend strongly on burning conditions. The derived fuel-type-based kOA profiles are incorporated into a global carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory, and the integrated kOA values of sectoral and total POA emissions are presented. Results of a simple radiative transfer model show that the POA absorptivity warms the atmosphere significantly and leads to ∼27% reduction in the amount of the net global average POA cooling compared to results from the nonabsorbing assumption. PMID:25811601

  10. Light absorption properties and radiative effects of primary organic aerosol emissions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Yan, Fang; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C; Feng, Yan; Dubey, Manvendra K; Liu, Shang; Pinto, Joseph P; Carmichael, Gregory R

    2015-04-21

    Organic aerosols (OAs) in the atmosphere affect Earth's energy budget by not only scattering but also absorbing solar radiation due to the presence of the so-called "brown carbon" (BrC) component. However, the absorptivities of OAs are not represented or are poorly represented in current climate and chemical transport models. In this study, we provide a method to constrain the BrC absorptivity at the emission inventory level using recent laboratory and field observations. We review available measurements of the light-absorbing primary OA (POA), and quantify the wavelength-dependent imaginary refractive indices (kOA, the fundamental optical parameter determining the particle's absorptivity) and their uncertainties for the bulk POA emitted from biomass/biofuel, lignite, propane, and oil combustion sources. In particular, we parametrize the kOA of biomass/biofuel combustion sources as a function of the black carbon (BC)-to-OA ratio, indicating that the absorptive properties of POA depend strongly on burning conditions. The derived fuel-type-based kOA profiles are incorporated into a global carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory, and the integrated kOA values of sectoral and total POA emissions are presented. Results of a simple radiative transfer model show that the POA absorptivity warms the atmosphere significantly and leads to ∼27% reduction in the amount of the net global average POA cooling compared to results from the nonabsorbing assumption.

  11. Directional Light Extinction and Emission in a Metasurface of Tilted Plasmonic Nanopillars.

    PubMed

    Verre, R; Svedendahl, M; Odebo Länk, N; Yang, Z J; Zengin, G; Antosiewicz, T J; Käll, M

    2016-01-13

    Plasmonic optical antennas and metamaterials with an ability to boost light-matter interactions for particular incidence or emission angles could find widespread use in solar harvesting, biophotonics, and in improving photon source performance at optical frequencies. However, directional plasmonic structures have generally large footprints or require complicated geometries and costly nanofabrication technologies. Here, we present a directional metasurface realized by breaking the out-of-plane symmetry of its individual elements: tilted subwavelength plasmonic gold nanopillars. Directionality is caused by the complex charge oscillation induced in each individual nanopillar, which essentially acts as a tilted dipole above a dielectric interface. The metasurface is homogeneous over a macroscopic area and it is fabricated by a combination of facile colloidal lithography and off-normal metal deposition. Fluorescence excitation and emission from dye molecules deposited on the metasurface is enhanced in specific directions determined by the tilt angle of the nanopillars. We envisage that these directional metasurfaces can be used as cost-effective substrates for surface-enhanced spectroscopies and a variety of nanophotonic applications.

  12. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  13. Photoacoustic and filter-based ambient aerosol light absorption measurements: Instrument comparisons and the role of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.; Raspet, R.; Slaton, W. V.; Hand, J. L.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Ambient measurements are reported of aerosol light absorption from photoacoustic and filter-based instruments (aethalometer and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP)) to provide insight on the measurement science. Measurements were obtained during the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study at the Big Bend National Park in South Texas. The aethalometer measurements of black carbon concentration at this site correlate reasonably well with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption, with a slope of 8.1 m2/g and a small offset. Light absorption at this site never exceeded 2.1 Mm-1 during the month of collocated measurements. Measurements were also obtained, as a function of controlled relative humidity between 40% and 90%, during the Photoacoustic IOP in 2000 at the Department of Energy Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site (SGP). PSAP measurements of aerosol light absorption correlated very well with photoacoustic measurements, but the slope of the correlation indicated the PSAP values were larger by a factor of 1.61. The photoacoustic measurements of light absorption exhibited a systematic decrease when the RH increased beyond 70%. This apparent decrease in light absorption with RH may be due to the contribution of mass transfer to the photoacoustic signal. Model results for the limiting case of full water saturation are used to evaluate this hypothesis. A second PSAP measured the light absorption for the same humidified samples, and indicated very erratic response as the RH changed, suggesting caution when interpreting PSAP data under conditions of rapid relative humidity change.

  14. Relations Between Cloud Condensation Nuclei And Aerosol Optical Properties Relevant to Remote Sensing: Airborne Measurements in Biomass Burning, Pollution and Dust Aerosol Over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A.; Howell, S.; Kapustin, V.; McNaughton, C.; Zhou, J.; Decarlo, P.; Jimenez, J.; Roberts, G.; Tomlinson, J.; Collins, D.

    2008-12-01

    Remote sensing of the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help investigate the indirect effect of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. In order to assess its feasibility, this paper evaluates the spectral-based retrieval technique for aerosol number and seeks one for aerosol solubility, using in-situ aircraft measurements of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition, hygroscopicity, CCN activity and optical properties. Our statistical analysis reveals that the CCN concentration over Mexico can be optically determined to a relative error of <20%, smaller than that for the mainland US and the surrounding oceans (~a factor of 2). Mexico's advantage is four-fold. Firstly, many particles originating from the lightly regulated industrial combustion and biomass burning are large enough to significantly affect light extinction, elevating the correlation between extinction and CCN number in absence of substantial dust. Secondly, the generally low ambient humidity near the major aerosol sources limits the error in the estimated response of particle extinction to humidity changes. Thirdly, because many CCN contain black carbon, light absorption also provides a measure of the CCN concentration. Fourthly, the organic fraction of volatile mass of submicron particles (OMF) is anti-correlated with the wavelength dependence of extinction due to preferential anion uptake by coarse dust, which provides a potential tool for remote-sensing OMF and the particle solubility.

  15. Impossible Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2003-03-01

    Every 225 million years the Earth, and all the life on it, completes one revolution around the Milky Way Galaxy. During this remarkable journey, life is influenced by calamitous changes. Comets and asteroids strike the surface of the Earth, stars explode, enormous volcanoes erupt, and, more recently, humans litter the planet with waste. Many animals and plants become extinct during the voyage, but humble microbes, simple creatures made of a single cell, survive this journey. This book takes a tour of the microbial world, from the coldest and deepest places on Earth to the hottest and highest, and witnesses some of the most catastrophic events that life can face. Impossible Extinction tells this remarkable story to the general reader by explaining how microbes have survived on Earth for over three billion years. Charles Cockell received his doctorate from the University of Oxford, and is currently a microbiologist with rhe Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute (SETI), based at the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge, UK. His research focusses on astrobiology, life in the extremes and the human exploration of Mars. Cockell has been on expeditions to the Arctic, Antarctic, Mongolia, and in 1993 he piloted a modified insect-collecting ultra-light aircraft over the Indonesian rainforests. He is Chair of the Twenty-one Eleven Foundation for Exploration, a charity that supports expeditions that forge links between space exploration and environmentalism.

  16. Aerosol chemical composition and light scattering during a winter season in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Gao, Jian; Wang, Han; Chai, Faihe; Wang, Shulan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate PM2.5 contributions to light scattering under different air pollution levels, PM2.5 and its major chemical components, PM10, size-segregated water-soluble ions, and aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) under dry conditions were measured at an urban site in Beijing in January 2013 when heavy pollution events frequently occurred. Measurements were categorized into three pollution levels including heavy-polluted (Air Quality Index (AQI) ≥ 200), light-polluted (200 > AQI ≥ 100) and clean periods (AQI < 100). The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 248 μg m-3 during the heavy-polluted period, which was 2.4 and 5.6 times of those during the light-polluted (104 μg m-3) and clean (44 μg m-3) periods, respectively. The concentrations of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ increased much more than those of OC and EC during the heavy-polluted period compared with those during the light-polluted and clean periods. Good correlations between PM2.5 and bsp were found (R2 > 0.95) during the different pollution levels. The mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM2.5 was 4.9 m2 g-1 during the heavy-polluted period, which was higher than those during the light-polluted (4.3 m2 g-1) and clean periods (3.6 m2 g-1). To further evaluate the impact of individual chemical components of PM2.5 on light scattering, a multiple linear regression equation of measured bsp against the mass concentration of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, Organic Matter (OM), EC, Fine Soil (FS), Coarse Matter (CM) and Other chemical compounds were performed. (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and OM were the dominant species contributing to bsp under both dry and ambient conditions. OM contributed more to bsp than the sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 did under the dry condition during all the pollution periods and this was also the case under the ambient condition during the light-polluted and clean periods. However, the total contributions of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 to bsp under the ambient condition was 55%, much more than the 29% contribution

  17. Organic Carbon and Light Absorption Analysis of Los Angeles Aerosols through an Online Sampling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, M. K.; Hawkins, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Brown carbon is a comprehensive term for organic compounds with wavelength dependent light absorption. Common sources of brown carbon include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and aqueous reactions in cloud and fog water. Nitrophenols have been proposed as one source of brown carbon in the Los Angeles area. In this work, we are interested in the relative strengths of each of these sources within Los Angeles. We have implemented a continuous online system of collection and analysis within our lab. The system consists of a particle into liquid sampler (PILS), a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a total organic carbon analyzer (TOC). Online analysis of organic carbon content and UV-Vis absorption has allowed us to study the ratio of the two as an intrinsic property of the aerosol particles, called the 'absorption coefficient.' Using a rearrangement of Beer's Law, we have analyzed the relationship: ɛ = A / C (where ɛ is the absorption coefficient, A is the light absorption of the sample and C is the concentration of organic carbon in the sample). Using our continuous online system, we have collected absorption spectra and total organic carbon measurements over several weeks and in varying environmental conditions. Our work has shown that different weather conditions, along with fog or cloud formation, can affect the absorption coefficient of the brown carbon compounds in the air.

  18. Carbonaceous aerosols emitted from light-duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Hays, Michael D; Preston, William; George, Barbara J; Schmid, Judy; Baldauf, Richard; Snow, Richard; Robinson, James R; Long, Thomas; Faircloth, James

    2013-12-17

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the three-phase LA-92 unified driving cycle (UDC). Effects of LDV operating conditions and ambient temperature (-7 and 24 °C) on particle-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) emissions were investigated. SVOC concentrations and OC and EC fractions were determined with thermal extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TE-GC-MS) and thermal-optical analysis (TOA), respectively. LDV aerosol emissions were predominantly carbonaceous, and EC/PM (w/w) decreased linearly with increasing fuel ethanol content. TE-GC-MS analysis accounted for up to 4% of the fine particle (PM2.5) mass, showing the UDC phase-integrated sum of identified SVOC emissions ranging from 0.703 μg km(-1) to 18.8 μg km(-1). Generally, higher SVOC emissions were associated with low temperature (-7 °C) and engine ignition; mixed regression models suggest these emissions rate differences are significant. Use of e85 significantly reduced the emissions of lower molecular weight PAH. However, a reduction in higher molecular weight PAH entities in PM was not observed. Individual SVOC emissions from the Tier 2 LDVs and fuel technologies tested are substantially lower and distributed differently than those values populating the United States emissions inventories currently. Hence, this study is likely to influence future apportionment, climate, and air quality model predictions that rely on source combustion measurements of SVOCs in PM.

  19. Detection of Biomass in New York City Aerosols: Light Scattering and Optical Fluorescence Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebauer, M.; Alimova, A.; Katz, A.; Xu, M.; Rudolph, E.; Steiner, J.; Alfano, R. R.

    2005-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy is an ideal method for detecting bacteria and spores in real time. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy examination of New York City aerosols is used to quantify the mass of bacteria spores present in air masses collected at 14 liters/minute onto silica fiber filters, and on silica fiber ribbons using an Environmental Beta Attenuation Monitor manufactured by MetOne Instruments configured for the PM2.5 fraction. Dipicolinic acid (DPA), a molecule found primarily in bacterial spores, is the most characteristic component of spores in trial experiments on over 200 collected aerosol samples. DPA is extracted from the spores using a heat bath and chelated with Terbium. The DPA:Tb is detected by measuring its characteristic fluorescence with emission bands at 490, 545 and 585 nm for 270 nm excitation. Light scattering also measures the size distribution for a number of a variety of bacteria - Bacillus subtilis (rod shaped), Staphylococcus aureus (spherical) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (short rods) establishing that optical techniques satisfactorily distinguish populations based on their variable morphology. Size and morphology are obtained by applying a variation of the Gaussian Ray Approximation theory of anomalous diffraction theory to an analysis of the transmission spectra in the range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns. In test experiments, the refractive index of the inner spore core of Bacillus subtilis decreases from 1.51 to 1.39 while the spore radius enlarges from 0.38 to 0.6 micrometers. Optical determinations are verified by oil-immersion techniques and by scanning electron microscope measurements. Characterization of spores, germinating spore materials, and bacteria is considered vital to tracing bacteria in the environment, for the development of life-detection systems for planetary exploration, monitoring pathogens in environmental systems, and for the preparation of anti-terrorism strategies.

  20. Rapid formation of molecular bromine from deliquesced NaBr aerosol in the presence of ozone and UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissenson, Paul; Wingen, Lisa M.; Hunt, Sherri W.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.; Dabdub, Donald

    2014-06-01

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals produced by ozone irradiated by UV light. The mechanisms responsible for the “bromine explosion” are examined using a comprehensive chemical kinetics Model of Aqueous, Gaseous, and Interfacial Chemistry (MAGIC). A sensitivity analysis on the model confirms that a complex mechanism involving gas-phase chemistry, aqueous-phase chemistry, and mass transfer is responsible for most of the observed bromine. However, the rate-limiting steps in the bromine explosion pathway vary, depending on the availability of ozone and bromide in the system. Interface reactions, an important source of bromine production under dark conditions, account for only a small fraction of total bromine under irradiation. Simulations performed with gaseous ozone and aerosol bromide concentrations typical of the marine boundary layer also show Br2(g) production, with BrO(g) and HOBr(g) as the dominant Br-containing products through this mechanism. Aerosol bromide is depleted after several hours of daylight, with photolysis of BrO(g) and HOBr(g) becoming major sources of Br atoms that continue generating Br2(g) after aerosol bromide is depleted.

  1. Dominance of organic aerosols in the marine boundary layer over the Gulf of Maine during NEAQS 2002 and their role in aerosol light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2005-09-01

    Aerosol chemical, physical, and optical measurements were made aboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown off the coast of New England from July 12 through August 10, 2002, as part of the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS). Measurements (generally 20 to 100 km from the coast) were made downwind of urban centers (New York City, Boston) and rural areas, and in air masses that had not been in contact with land for several days. On average during NEAQS, 75 ± 8% of the sub-10 μm aerodynamic diameter dry aerosol mass sampled 18 m above the sea surface was in the sub-1 μm fraction (size cut at 55% RH). The major submicrometer aerosol components were ammonium sulfate and particulate organic matter (POM, defined here as 1.6 times the mass concentration of organic carbon) comprising more than 92 ± 4% of the total mass. Under northwesterly flow with an average submicrometer total mass concentrations of 11 ± 4.5 μg m-3, POM was the dominant component (68 ± 8%) followed by (NH4)xHySO4 (23 ± 8%), inorganic oxidized material (IOM) (6 ± 4%), and EC (3 ± 1%). Under southwesterly flow with an average submicrometer total mass concentrations of 30 ± 11 μg m-3, (NH4)xHySO4 was the dominant component (54 ± 9%) followed by POM (41 ± 9%), IOM (3 ± 2%), and EC (2 ± 1%). Mie calculations using submicrometer nonrefractory (NR) POM and NR (NH4)xHySO4 + H2O size distributions to calculate submicrometer light scattering (σsp) at a wavelength of 550 nm suggest that POM was a dominant chemical component contributing to aerosol light scattering (haze) during NEAQS 2002, and contributed 60 ± 6 % and 57 ± 11 % to σsp at 55% RH during two pollution episodes off the New England Coast. These results are similar to those from the mid-Atlantic states during TARFOX but contrary to the long-term monitoring measurements over the continental northeast United States that show the New England haze is primarily a result of sulfate aerosol.

  2. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering in Mexico City: Comparison With Las Vegas, NV, and Los Angeles, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The primary site in Mexico City was an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP). Similar campaigns were held in Las Vegas, NV in January-February, 2003; and Los Angeles, CA at numerous sites during all seasons from 2003 through 2007. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions. The photoacoustic instrument (PAS) used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In Mexico City the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of Mexico City resulted in more direct solar radiation. Further insight on the meteorological connections and population dynamics will be discussed.

  3. LOAC (Light Optical Particle Counter): a new small aerosol counter with particle characterization capabilities for surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Jégou, Fabrice; Jeannot, Matthieu; Jourdain, Line; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Thaury, Claire; Tonnelier, Thierry; Verdier, Nicolas; Charpentier, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The determination of the size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols with conventional optical counters is difficult when different natures of particles are present (droplets, soot, mineral dust, secondary organic or mineral particles...). Also, a light and cheap aerosol counter that can be used at ground, onboard drones or launched under all kinds of atmospheric balloons can be very useful during specific events as volcanic plumes, desert dust transport or local pollution episodes. These goals can be achieved thanks to a new generation of aerosol counter, called LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter). The instrument was developed in the frame of a cooperation between French scientific laboratories (CNRS), the Environnement-SA and MeteoModem companies and the French Space Agency (CNES). LOAC is a small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams, having a low electrical power consumption. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles. The first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of 0.3-100 micrometerers. At such an angle close to forward scattering, the signal is much more intense and the measurements are the least sensitive to the particle nature. The second angle is at 60°, where the scattered light is strongly dependent on the particle refractive index and thus on the nature of the aerosols. The ratio of the measurements at the two angles is used to discriminate between the different types of particles dominating the nature of the aerosol particles in the different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, soil dust and soot. Since 2011, we have operated LOAC in various environments (Arctic, Mediterranean, urban and peri-urban…) under different kinds of balloons including zero pressure stratospheric, tethered, drifting tropospheric, and meteorological sounding balloons. For the last case, the total weight of the gondola

  4. Source Attribution of Light-absorbing Aerosols in Arctic Snow (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegg, D.; Warren, S. G.; Grenfell, T. C.; Doherty, S. J.; Larson, T. V.; Clarke, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) deposited on the arctic snow pack, in particular black carbon (BC), contribute appreciably to the arctic radiation budget and their reduction has been suggested as a means to attenuate warming in the arctic. Effective prediction and mitigation of Arctic snow LAA requires that the sources of the LAA be elucidated. To this end, receptor modeling in the form of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) has been exercised on a data set of chemical concentrations in snow of various species (including inorganic and organic acids, carbohydrates and selected other organics as well as LAA) derived from an extensive set of snow samples from locations in Russia (including Siberia), Canada, Greenland, the Arctic Ocean and Svalbard. The data were obtained in three distinct periods: spring of 2007, spring of 2008, and spring of 2009. Data from each period were analyzed separately (note that the Svalbard data were analyzed only recently and were not included in the published 2007 analysis). Aerosol light absorption was determined spectrophotometrically at multiple wavelengths on filters through which melted snow was filtered. Based on the Angstrom exponent of the light absorption, partitioning of the absorption between BC and other LAA species was estimated. Statistics of the LAA concentrations for the Arctic as a whole and the geographic distribution of BC and other LAA species are presented. PMF analysis of the filtrate and filters from the 2007 data set from western Siberia, the Canadian lower arctic and Greenland revealed four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources together accounting for > 90% of the black carbon. Geographically, the biomass sources were dominant for all regions except the Arctic Ocean near the North Pole. For the 2008 and 2009 data sets, from eastern Siberia and

  5. Wind-driven influences on aerosol light scattering in north-east Atlantic air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishya, Aditya; Jennings, S. Gerard; O'Dowd, Colin

    2012-03-01

    Ten years (2001-2010) of aerosol light-scattering measurements in N.E. Atlantic marine air are analysed to determine wind-speed related influences on scattering properties. The scattering coefficient and the backscattering coefficient dependency on wind speed (U) was determined for the winter (Low Biological Activity-LBA) and the summer seasons (High Biological Activity-HBA), and was found to be dependent on ˜U2. In spite of having a U2 dependency, scattering properties for the LBA-period are approximately twice those of the HBA-period. 96% of the LBA-HBA scattering difference can be explained by the combined effects of size distribution and refractive index differences while 70% of the scattering difference can be attributed to a difference in refractive index alone resulting from organic-matter enrichment during the HBA period. The 550 nm scattering coefficient was ˜70 Mm-1 for ˜25 ms-1 wind speeds, which is considerably higher than that encountered under polluted air masses in the same region.

  6. Ultraviolet broadband light scattering for optically-trapped submicron-sized aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Ritsch, Irina; Signorell, Ruth

    2016-02-21

    We describe a broadband light scattering setup for the characterization of size and refractive index of single submicron-to-micron sized aerosol particles. Individual particles are isolated in air by a quadruple Bessel beam optical trap or a counter-propagating optical tweezer. The use of very broadband radiation in the wavelength range from 320 to 700 nm covering the ultraviolet region allows to size submicron particles. We show that a broad wavelength range is required to determine the particle radius and the refractive index with an uncertainty of several nanometers and ∼ 0.01, respectively. The smallest particle radius that can be accurately determined lies around 300 nm. Wavelength-dependent refractive index data over a broad range are obtained, including the ultraviolet region where corresponding data are rare. Four different applications are discussed: (1) the sizing of submicron polystyrene latex spheres, (2) the evaporation of binary glycerol water droplets, (3) hydration/dehydration cycling of aqueous potassium carbonate droplets, and (4) photochemical reactions of oleic acid droplets. PMID:26863396

  7. Parameter sensitivity study of Arctic aerosol vertical distribution in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic surface temperature response to light-absorbing aerosols (black carbon, brown carbon and dust) depends strongly on their vertical distributions. Improving model simulations of three dimensional aerosol fields in the remote Arctic region will therefore lead to improved projections of the climate change caused by aerosol emissions. In this study, we investigate how different physical parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) influence the simulated vertical distribution of Arctic aerosols. We design experiments to test the sensitivity of the simulated aerosol fields to perturbations of selected aerosol process-related parameters in the Modal Aerosol Module with seven lognormal modes (MAM7), such as those govern aerosol aging, in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging, aerosol hygroscopicity and so on. The simulations are compared with observed aerosol vertical distributions and total optical depth to assess model performance and quantify uncertainties associated with these model parameterizations. Observations applied here include Arctic aircraft measurements of black carbon and sulfate vertical profiles, along with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) optical depth measurements. We also assess the utility of using High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements from the ARM Barrow site to infer vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. The sensitivity study explored here will provide guidance for optimizing global aerosol simulations.

  8. Synthesis of Spherical Carbon Nitride-Based Polymer Composites by Continuous Aerosol-Photopolymerization with Efficient Light Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Poostforooshan, Jalal; Badiei, Alireza; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Weber, Alfred P

    2016-08-24

    Here we report a novel, facile, and sustainable approach for the preparation of spherical submicrometer carbon nitride-based polymer composites by a continuous aerosol-photopolymerization process. In this regard, spherical mesoporous carbon nitride (SMCN) nanoparticles were initially prepared via a nanocasting approach using spray-drying synthesized spherical mesoporous silica (SMS) nanoparticles as hard templates. In addition to experimental characterization, the effect of porosity on the light absorption enhancement and consequently the generation rate of electron-hole pairs inside the SMCN was simulated using a three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. To produce the carbon nitride-based polymer composite, SMCN nanoparticles exhibit excellent performance in photopolymerization of butyl acrylate (PBuA) monomer in the presence of n-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as a co-initiator in a continuous aerosol-based process. In this one-pot synthesis, SMCN nanoparticles act not only as photoinitiators but at the same time as fillers and templates. The average aerosol residence time in the photoreactor is about 90 s. The presented aerosol-photopolymerization process avoids the need for solvent and surfactant, operates at room temperature, and, more importantly, is suitable to produce the spherical composite with hydrophobic polymers. Furthermore, we simulated the condition of SMCN nanoparticles during illumination in the gas phase process, which can freely rotate. The results demonstrated that the hole (h(+)) density is almost equally distributed in the whole part of the SMCN nanoparticles due to their rotation, leading to efficient light harvesting and more homogeneous photoreaction. The combination of the outstanding features of environmentally friendly SMCN, photopolymerization, and aerosol processing might open new avenues, especially in green chemistry, to produce novel polymer composites with multifunctional properties. PMID:27483090

  9. Synthesis of Spherical Carbon Nitride-Based Polymer Composites by Continuous Aerosol-Photopolymerization with Efficient Light Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Poostforooshan, Jalal; Badiei, Alireza; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Weber, Alfred P

    2016-08-24

    Here we report a novel, facile, and sustainable approach for the preparation of spherical submicrometer carbon nitride-based polymer composites by a continuous aerosol-photopolymerization process. In this regard, spherical mesoporous carbon nitride (SMCN) nanoparticles were initially prepared via a nanocasting approach using spray-drying synthesized spherical mesoporous silica (SMS) nanoparticles as hard templates. In addition to experimental characterization, the effect of porosity on the light absorption enhancement and consequently the generation rate of electron-hole pairs inside the SMCN was simulated using a three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. To produce the carbon nitride-based polymer composite, SMCN nanoparticles exhibit excellent performance in photopolymerization of butyl acrylate (PBuA) monomer in the presence of n-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as a co-initiator in a continuous aerosol-based process. In this one-pot synthesis, SMCN nanoparticles act not only as photoinitiators but at the same time as fillers and templates. The average aerosol residence time in the photoreactor is about 90 s. The presented aerosol-photopolymerization process avoids the need for solvent and surfactant, operates at room temperature, and, more importantly, is suitable to produce the spherical composite with hydrophobic polymers. Furthermore, we simulated the condition of SMCN nanoparticles during illumination in the gas phase process, which can freely rotate. The results demonstrated that the hole (h(+)) density is almost equally distributed in the whole part of the SMCN nanoparticles due to their rotation, leading to efficient light harvesting and more homogeneous photoreaction. The combination of the outstanding features of environmentally friendly SMCN, photopolymerization, and aerosol processing might open new avenues, especially in green chemistry, to produce novel polymer composites with multifunctional properties.

  10. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter after three hours of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels. Therefore, the contribution of light duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photo-oxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV1 and LEV2) vehicles was only modestly lower (38%) than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions in non-methane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and non-linear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the time scale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors emitted by newer vehicles appear to be more efficient (higher yielding) in producing SOA than

  11. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter (PM) after 3 h of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels (and 5 times the amount of SOA as primary PM after 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h of OH exposure). Therefore, the contribution of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photooxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV2) vehicles was a factor of 3 lower than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions (a factor of 11-15) in nonmethane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and nonlinear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the timescale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors

  12. Light absorption of black and brown carbon aerosols: comparison of an inventory-based model estimate and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Spectrally resolved absorption measurements have been used to attribute the absorption and radiative effects due to brown carbon (BrC), and suggest a significant contribution. Since black carbon (BC) and BrC are co-emitted from combustion and burning processes, BrC absorption in global models has either been implicitly included in absorption by BC or more recently, characterized by a global constant refractive index. An inventory-based optical treatment for the brown carbon absorption has been developed for primary organic aerosol emissions. Results of a simple radiative transfer model with a global emission inventory show that the BrC absorptivity leads to a ˜27% reduction in the cooling effect by organic aerosols compared to the non-absorbing assumption. Here we implement the wavelength-dependent absorption properties of brown carbon parameterized as a function of BC to organic carbon ratio into a global climate model (CAM5) for different fuel emission sectors and biomass burning. This version of CAM5 also simulates the aging of freshly emitted BC and BrC into the aged accumulation-mode aerosols due to condensation of sulfate and organics. The calculated aerosol light absorption properties and spectral dependence will be compared with ground-based AERONET measurements and field observations available. Sensitivity studies of BrC radiative effects based on a global constant refractive index and the inventory-based method in this study will be discussed.

  13. Using aerosol light absorption measurements for the quantitative determination of wood burning and traffic emission contributions to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Sandradewi, Jisca; Prévôt, Andre S H; Szidat, Sönke; Perron, Nolwenn; Alfarra, M Rami; Lanz, Valentin A; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2008-05-01

    A source apportionment study was performed for particulate matter in the small village of Roveredo, Switzerland, where more than 70% of the households use wood burning for heating purposes. A two-lane trans-Alpine highway passes through the village and contributes to the total aerosol burden in the area. The village is located in a steep Alpine valley characterized by strong and persistent temperature inversions during winter, especially from December to February. During two winter and one early spring campaigns, a seven-wavelength aethalometer, high volume (HIVOL) samplers, an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), an optical particle counter (OPC), and a Sunset Laboratory OCEC analyzer were deployed to study the contribution of wood burning and traffic aerosols to particulate matter. A linear regression model of the carbonaceous particulate mass in the submicrometer size range CM(PM1) as a function of aerosol light absorption properties measured by the aethalometer is introduced to estimate the particulate mass from wood burning and traffic (PM(wb), PM(traffic)). This model was calibrated with analyses from the 14C method using HIVOL filter measurements. These results indicate that light absorption exponents of 1.1 for traffic and 1.8-1.9 for wood burning calculated from the light absorption at 470 and 950 nanometers should be used to obtain agreement of the two methods regarding the relative wood burning and traffic emission contributions to CM(PM1) and also to black carbon. The resulting PM(wb) and PM(traffic) values explain 86% of the variance of the CM(PM1) and contribute, on average, 88 and 12% to CM(PM1), respectively. The black carbon is estimated to be 51% due to wood burning and 49% due to traffic emissions. The average organic carbon/total carbon (OC/TC) values were estimated to be 0.52 for traffic and 0.88 for wood burning particulate emissions.

  14. Rethinking Extinction.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Niv, Yael; Daw, Nathaniel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-01

    Extinction serves as the leading theoretical framework and experimental model to describe how learned behaviors diminish through absence of anticipated reinforcement. In the past decade, extinction has moved beyond the realm of associative learning theory and behavioral experimentation in animals and has become a topic of considerable interest in the neuroscience of learning, memory, and emotion. Here, we review research and theories of extinction, both as a learning process and as a behavioral technique, and consider whether traditional understandings warrant a re-examination. We discuss the neurobiology, cognitive factors, and major computational theories, and revisit the predominant view that extinction results in new learning that interferes with expression of the original memory. Additionally, we reconsider the limitations of extinction as a technique to prevent the relapse of maladaptive behavior and discuss novel approaches, informed by contemporary theoretical advances, that augment traditional extinction methods to target and potentially alter maladaptive memories. PMID:26447572

  15. Rethinking Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Niv, Yael; Daw, Nathaniel; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Extinction serves as the leading theoretical framework and experimental model to describe how learned behaviors diminish through absence of anticipated reinforcement. In the past decade, extinction has moved beyond the realm of associative learning theory and behavioral experimentation in animals and has become a topic of considerable interest in the neuroscience of learning, memory, and emotion. Here, we review research and theories of extinction, both as a learning process and as a behavioral technique, and consider whether traditional understandings warrant a re-examination. We discuss the neurobiology, cognitive factors, and major computational theories, and revisit the predominant view that extinction results in new learning that interferes with expression of the original memory. Additionally, we reconsider the limitations of extinction as a technique to prevent the relapse of maladaptive behavior, and discuss novel approaches, informed by contemporary theoretical advances, that augment traditional extinction methods to target and potentially alter maladaptive memories. PMID:26447572

  16. Rethinking Extinction.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Niv, Yael; Daw, Nathaniel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-01

    Extinction serves as the leading theoretical framework and experimental model to describe how learned behaviors diminish through absence of anticipated reinforcement. In the past decade, extinction has moved beyond the realm of associative learning theory and behavioral experimentation in animals and has become a topic of considerable interest in the neuroscience of learning, memory, and emotion. Here, we review research and theories of extinction, both as a learning process and as a behavioral technique, and consider whether traditional understandings warrant a re-examination. We discuss the neurobiology, cognitive factors, and major computational theories, and revisit the predominant view that extinction results in new learning that interferes with expression of the original memory. Additionally, we reconsider the limitations of extinction as a technique to prevent the relapse of maladaptive behavior and discuss novel approaches, informed by contemporary theoretical advances, that augment traditional extinction methods to target and potentially alter maladaptive memories.

  17. Light scattering and absorption properties of aerosol particles in the urban environment of Granada, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    Surface measurements of optical and physical aerosol properties were made at an urban site, Granada (Spain) (37.18°N, 3.58°W, 680 m a.s.l), during winter 2005-2006. Measurements included the aerosol scattering, σsca, and backscattering coefficients, σbsca, at three wavelengths (450, 550 and 700 nm) measured at low relative humidity (RH<50%) by an integrating nephelometer, the absorption coefficient at 670 nm, σabs, measured with a multi-angle absorption photometer, and aerosol size distribution in the 0.5-20 μm aerodynamic diameter range registered by an aerodynamic aerosol sizer (APS-3321, TSI). The hourly average of σsca (550 nm) ranged from 2 to 424 M m -1 with an average value of 84±62 M m -1 (±S.D.). The Angstrom exponent presented an average value of 1.8±0.3, suggesting a large fraction of fine particles at the site, an observation confirmed by aerosol size distribution measurements. The hourly average of σabs (670 nm) ranged from 1.7 to 120.5 M m -1 with an average value of 28±20 M m -1. The results indicate that the aerosol absorption coefficient in Granada was relatively large. The largest σsca value was associated with air masses that passed over heavily polluted European areas and local stagnation conditions. High absorbing aerosol level was obtained during dust transport from North Africa probably due to the presence of hematite. Based on the measured scattering and absorption coefficients, a very low average value of the single scattering albedo of 0.66±0.11 at 670 nm was calculated, suggesting that urban aerosols in this region contain a large fraction of absorbing material. A clear diurnal pattern was observed in scattering and absorption coefficients and particle concentrations with two local maxima occurring in early morning and late evening. This behavior can be explained in terms of local conditions that control the particle sources associated with traffic and upward mixing of the aerosol during the daytime development of a

  18. Comparison of Aerosol Classification From Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Ferrare, Rich A.; Omar, Ali H.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Hostetler, Chris a.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of aerosol composition and vertical distribution is crucial for assessing the impact of aerosols on climate. In addition, aerosol classification is a key input to CALIOP aerosol retrievals, since CALIOP requires an inference of the lidar ratio in order to estimate the effects of aerosol extinction and backscattering. In contrast, the NASA airborne HSRL-1 directly measures both aerosol extinction and backscatter, and therefore the lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio). Four aerosol intensive properties from HSRL-1 are combined to infer aerosol type. Aerosol classification results from HSRL-1 are used here to validate the CALIOP aerosol type inferences.

  19. Aerosol light absorption, black carbon, and elemental carbon at the Fresno Supersite, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Doraiswamy, Prakash; Chen, Lung-Wen Antony; Sodeman, David A.; Lowenthal, Douglas H.; Park, Kihong; Arnott, W. Patrick; Motallebi, Nehzat

    2009-08-01

    Particle light absorption ( bap), black carbon (BC), and elemental carbon (EC) measurements at the Fresno Supersite during the summer of 2005 were compared to examine the equivalency of current techniques, evaluate filter-based bap correction methods, and determine the EC mass absorption efficiency (σ ap) and the spectral dependence of bap. The photoacoustic analyzer (PA) was used as a benchmark for in-situ bap. Most bap measurement techniques were well correlated ( r ≥ 0.95). Unadjusted Aethalometer (AE) and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) bap were up to seven times higher than PA bap at similar wavelengths because of absorption enhancement by backscattering and multiple scattering. Applying published algorithms to correct for these effects reduced the differences to 24 and 17% for the AE and PSAP, respectively, at 532 nm. The Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), which accounts for backscattering effects, overestimated bap relative to the PA by 51%. BC concentrations determined by the AE, MAAP, and Sunset Laboratory semi-continuous carbon analyzer were also highly correlated ( r ≥ 0.93) but differed by up to 57%. EC measured with the IMPROVE/STN thermal/optical protocols, and the French two-step thermal protocol agreed to within 29%. Absorption efficiencies determined from PA bap and EC measured with different analytical protocols averaged 7.9 ± 1.5, 5.4 ± 1.1, and 2.8 ± 0.6 m 2/g at 532, 670, and 1047 nm, respectively. The Angström exponent (α) determined from adjusted AE and PA bap ranged from 1.19 to 1.46. The largest values of α occurred during the afternoon hours when the organic fraction of total carbon was highest. Significant biases associated with filter-based measurements of bap, BC, and EC are method-specific. Correcting for these biases must take into account differences in aerosol concentration, composition, and sources.

  20. Optical characteristics of the aerosol in Spain and Austria and its effect on radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.; Alados Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Jovanović, O.; Gangl, M.; Kaller, W.; SáNchez, C.; Sauerzopf, H.; Seidl, S.

    2002-10-01

    The horizontal and vertical attenuation of the aerosol, the sky radiance, and the light absorption coefficient of the aerosol have been determined at wavelengths in the visible. From this set of data the following optical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol could be derived: vertical optical depth, horizontal extinction and absorption coefficient, scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, and single scattering albedo. Campaigns have been performed in Almería, Spain, and Vienna, Austria. The aerosol undergoes a considerable variation, as experienced by many other studies. Sometimes the vertical and the horizontal measurements gave similar data; on other days the aerosol at the surface and the aerosol aloft were completely different. The "clearest" aerosol always had the smallest single scattering albedo and thus relatively the highest light absorption. The optical characteristics of the aerosol in the two very different locations were very similar. Using the measured optical data, a radiative transfer calculation was performed, and the radiation reaching the ground was calculated. Comparing the values for the clear aerosol and the days with higher aerosol load, the radiative forcing due to the additional aerosol particles could be determined. The forcing of the aerosol at the ground is always negative, and at the top of the atmosphere it is close to zero or slightly negative. Its dependence on wavelength and zenith angle is presented. The preindustrial aerosol in Europe was estimated, and the forcing due to the present-day aerosol was determined. At the surface it is negative, but at the top of the atmosphere it is close to zero or positive. This is caused by the light absorption of the European aerosol, which is higher than in most other locations.

  1. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic

  2. Variations in hygroscopic growth of sub- and super-micron sea spray aerosols during a phytoplankton bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, S.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Stone, E. A.; Laskina, O.; Grassian, V. H.; Lee, C.; Sultana, C. M.; Moore, K.; Cornwell, G.; Novak, G.; Bertram, T. H.; Prather, K. A.; Cappa, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Marine sea spray aerosols (SSA) make up an important portion of natural aerosols (prior to anthropogenic influence) and are therefore important in establishing the baseline for anthropogenic aerosol climate impacts. One way aerosols impact climate is by scattering solar radiation, and how much light is scattered depends upon the size of aerosols. Aerosols grow larger via water uptake and thus scatter more light at elevated relative humidities. This growth depends on composition. SSA can become enriched in organics during phytoplankton blooms, becoming less salty and therefore less hygroscopic. Aerosol hygroscopicity of SSA sampled during an in-lab phytoplankton bloom were measured during the CAICE-IMPACTS 2014 study. SSA were generated via breaking waves in an enclosed 33 m wave channel filled with natural seawater. Aerosol hygroscopicity was characterized by measuring light extinction at 532 nm of dry aerosols and of aerosols humidified to 85% relative humidity using a Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer. These optical growth factors (humidified extinction/dry extinction) were converted to physical growth factors using Mie Theory calculations and aerosol size distributions measured with a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Growth factors for super- and sub-micron SSA were quantified separately through the use of a PM2.5 cyclone or PM1 impactor. The observed SSA growth factors will be linked to SSA and source water chemical composition determined by both offline and online analysis of samples. The SSA bulk growth factors will also be compared with concurrent measurements of the efficiency with which SSA act as cloud condensation nuclei. Observed SSA growth factors will also be compared to offline hygroscopic growth measurements.

  3. A new approach for retrieving the UV-vis optical properties of ambient aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluvshtein, Nir; Flores, J. Michel; Segev, Lior; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important part in the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. To quantify the effective radiative forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions, researchers must obtain a detailed understanding of the spectrally dependent intensive and extensive optical properties of different aerosol types. Our new approach retrieves the optical coefficients and the single-scattering albedo of the total aerosol population over 300 to 650 nm wavelength, using extinction measurements from a broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer at 315 to 345 nm and 390 to 420 nm, extinction and absorption measurements at 404 nm from a photoacoustic cell coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer, and scattering measurements from a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer. By combining these measurements with aerosol size distribution data, we retrieved the time- and wavelength-dependent effective complex refractive index of the aerosols. Retrieval simulations and laboratory measurements of brown carbon proxies showed low absolute errors and good agreement with expected and reported values. Finally, we implemented this new broadband method to achieve continuous spectral- and time-dependent monitoring of ambient aerosol population, including, for the first time, extinction measurements using cavity-enhanced spectrometry in the 315 to 345 nm UV range, in which significant light absorption may occur.

  4. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  5. Discrimination of water, ice and aerosols by light polarisation in the CLOUD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichman, L.; Fuchs, C.; Järvinen, E.; Ignatius, K.; Höppel, N. F.; Dias, A.; Heinritzi, M.; Simon, M.; Tröstl, J.; Wagner, A. C.; Wagner, R.; Williamson, C.; Yan, C.; Bianchi, F.; Connolly, P. J.; Dorsey, J. R.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Frege, C.; Gordon, H.; Hoyle, C. R.; Kristensen, T. B.; Steiner, G.; Donahue, N. M.; Flagan, R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kirkby, J.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Stratmann, F.; Tomé, A.

    2015-11-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather and General Circulation Models (GCMs). The simultaneous detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud-particle size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable ice-water phase environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure their effects on the backscatter polarisation state. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics-Leaving-OUtdoor-Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed phase clouds and viscous Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) are presented. We report observations of significant liquid - viscous SOA particle polarisation transitions under dry conditions using CASPOL. Cluster analysis techniques were subsequently used to classify different types of particles according to their polarisation ratios during phase transition. A classification map is presented for water droplets, organic aerosol (e.g., SOA and oxalic acid), crystalline substances such as ammonium sulphate, and volcanic ash. Finally, we discuss the benefits and limitations of this classification approach for atmospherically relevant concentration and mixtures with respect to the CLOUD 8-9 campaigns and its potential contribution to Tropical Troposphere Layer (TTL) analysis.

  6. Implications of using transmitted vs. reflected light for determining cloud properties, cloud radiative effects and aerosol-cloud-interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, S. E.; Redemann, J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Flynn, C. J.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.; Woods, S.; Lawson, P.; Nenes, A.; Lin, J. J.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Light transmitted through clouds is sensitive to a different cloud volume than reflected light at cloud top. This difference in sampling volumes has implications when calculating the radiative effects of clouds (CRE) and aerosol-cloud-interactions (ACI). We present a comparison of retrieved cloud properties and the corresponding CRE and ACI based on transmitted and reflected light for a cloud sampled during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, 2013) field campaign. Measurements of zenith radiances were obtained from the NASA DC-8 aircraft using the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument. 4STAR was deployed on an airborne platform during SEAC4RS alongside the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR). To retrieve cloud properties from transmitted shortwave radiation, we use a retrieval utilizing spectrally resolved measurements. Spectral features in shortwave radiation transmitted through clouds are sensitive to changes in cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase. The spectral features due to absorption and scattering processes by liquid water and ice cloud particles include shifts in spectral slopes, curvatures, maxima, and minima of cloud-transmitted radiance. These spectral features have been quantified by 15 parameters used to retrieve cloud properties from the 4STAR zenith radiances. Retrieved cloud optical thicknesses and effective radii based on transmitted shortwave radiation are compared to their counterparts obtained from reflected shortwave radiation measured above cloud with MODIS and with the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), and SSFR operating aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Remotely sensed cloud particle effective radius are combined with in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol particles from the NASA Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) CCN Counter

  7. Two chemically distinct light-absorbing pools of urban organic aerosols: A comprehensive multidimensional analysis of trends.

    PubMed

    Paula, Andreia S; Matos, João T V; Duarte, Regina M B O; Duarte, Armando C

    2016-02-01

    The chemical and light-absorption dynamics of organic aerosols (OAs), a master variable in the atmosphere, have yet to be resolved. This study uses a comprehensive multidimensional analysis approach for exploiting simultaneously the compositional changes over a molecular size continuum and associated light-absorption (ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence) properties of two chemically distinct pools of urban OAs chromophores. Up to 45% of aerosol organic carbon (OC) is soluble in water and consists of a complex mixture of fluorescent and UV-absorbing constituents, with diverse relative abundances, hydrophobic, and molecular weight (Mw) characteristics between warm and cold periods. In contrast, the refractory alkaline-soluble OC pool (up to 18%) is represented along a similar Mw and light-absorption continuum throughout the different seasons. Results suggest that these alkaline-soluble chromophores may actually originate from primary OAs sources in the urban site. This work shows that the comprehensive multidimensional analysis method is a powerful and complementary tool for the characterization of OAs fractions. The great diversity in the chemical composition and optical properties of OAs chromophores, including both water-soluble and alkaline-soluble OC, may be an important contribution to explain the contrasting photo-reactivity and atmospheric behavior of OAs.

  8. Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Mueller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Hu Min; Zhang Yuanghang

    2007-09-01

    Aerosol Raman lidar observations of profiles of the particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and the respective extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) were performed under highly polluted conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China in October 2004 and at Beijing during a clear period with moderately polluted to background aerosol conditions in January 2005. The anthropogenic haze in the PRD is characterized by volume light-extinction coefficients of particles ranging from approximately 200 to800 Mm-1 and lidar ratios mostly between 40 and 55 sr (average of47{+-}6 sr). Almost clean air masses were observed throughout the measurements of the Beijing campaign. These air masses originated from arid desert-steppe-like regions (greater Gobi area).Extinction values usually varied between 100 and300 Mm-1, and the lidar ratios were considerably lower (compared with PRD values) with values mostly from 30 to 45 sr (average of38{+-}7 sr). Gobi dust partly influenced the observations. Unexpectedly low lidar ratios of approximately 25 sr were found for a case of background aerosol with a low optical depth of 0.05. The low lidar ratios are consistent with Mie-scattering calculations applied to ground-based observations of particle size distributions.

  9. Aerosol model development for environmental monitoring in the coastal atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady A.; Matvienko, Gennady G.

    2007-06-01

    Extinction of radiation in the marine boundary layer is dominated by scattering and absorption due to atmospheric aerosol. It is known, that the extinction of optical radiation visible and near IR spectra in the marine surface layer is determined mainly by scattering and absorption atmospheric aerosol. It influences on a dependence of spectral transmission and extinction both natural, and artificial light that is of interest for a wide range of problems, in particular for radiating problems at studying laws of climate formation, and for lines of the applications connected to the forecast of a signal power in coastal conditions at an estimation of EO systems characteristics. This is important to optical retrievals from satellite, remote sensing at environmental monitoring, backscatter of light to space (including climate forcing), cloud properties etc. In unpolluted regions the greatest effects on near shore scattering extinction will be a result of sea-salt from breaking waves and variations in relative humidity. The role of breaking waves appears to be modulated by wind, tide, swell, wave spectra and coastal conditions. These influences will be superimposed upon aerosol generated by open ocean sea-salt aerosol that varies with wind speed. The focus of our study is the extinction and optical effects due to aerosol in a specific coastal region. This involves linking coastal physical properties to oceanic and meteorological parameters in order to develop predictive algorithms that describe 3-D aerosol structure and variability. The aerosol microphysical model of the marine and coastal atmosphere surface layer is considered. The model distinctive feature is parameterization of amplitude and width of the modes as functions of fetch and wind speed. In the paper the dN/dr behavior depending at change meteorological parameters, heights above sea level, fetch, wind speed and RH is show. On the basis of the developed model with usage of Mie theory for spheres the

  10. Aerosol characterization with lidar methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Aerosol component analysis methods for characterizing aerosols were developed for various types of lidars including polarization-sensitive Mie scattering lidars, multi-wavelength Raman scattering lidars, and multi-wavelength highspectral- resolution lidars. From the multi-parameter lidar data, the extinction coefficients for four aerosol components can be derived. The microphysical parameters such as single scattering albedo and effective radius can be also estimated from the derived aerosol component distributions.

  11. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    lewis, Kristen A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Chakrabarti, Raj; Carrico, Christian M.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Day, Derek E.; Malm, William C.; Laskin, Alexander; Jimenez, Jose L.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Trimborn, Achim; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.

    2009-11-27

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used are Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients reveal a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: 1. Shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; 2. The contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  12. Identifying Aerosol Type/Mixture from Aerosol Absorption Properties Using AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Slutsker, I.; Li, Z.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Zibordi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols are generated in the atmosphere through anthropogenic and natural mechanisms. These sources have signatures in the aerosol optical and microphysical properties that can be used to identify the aerosol type/mixture. Spectral aerosol absorption information (absorption Angstrom exponent; AAE) used in conjunction with the particle size parameterization (extinction Angstrom exponent; EAE) can only identify the dominant absorbing aerosol type in the sample volume (e.g., black carbon vs. iron oxides in dust). This AAE/EAE relationship can be expanded to also identify non-absorbing aerosol types/mixtures by applying an absorption weighting. This new relationship provides improved aerosol type distinction when the magnitude of absorption is not equal (e.g, black carbon vs. sulfates). The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data provide spectral aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo - key parameters used to determine EAE and AAE. The proposed aerosol type/mixture relationship is demonstrated using the long-term data archive acquired at AERONET sites within various source regions. The preliminary analysis has found that dust, sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosol types/mixtures can be determined from this AAE/EAE relationship when applying the absorption weighting for each available wavelength (Le., 440, 675, 870nm). Large, non-spherical dust particles absorb in the shorter wavelengths and the application of 440nm wavelength absorption weighting produced the best particle type definition. Sulfate particles scatter light efficiently and organic carbon particles are small near the source and aggregate over time to form larger less absorbing particles. Both sulfates and organic carbon showed generally better definition using the 870nm wavelength absorption weighting. Black carbon generation results from varying combustion rates from a number of sources including industrial processes and biomass burning. Cases with primarily black carbon showed

  13. Development of an improved data analysis approach for combined laser extinction and two-angle elastic light scattering diagnostics of soot aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongfeng; Thomson, Murray J

    2016-02-01

    An improved data analysis approach has been developed for the combined laser extinction and two-angle elastic light scattering diagnostics to relate the various measured optical cross sections to soot aggregate properties. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed using the comprehensive dataset of Santoro ethylene-air co-flow diffusion flame. Compared to previously reported studies, the proposed approach can be applied to a wider range of soot sources by removing the assumption made to the scattering regime or moment ratio of aggregate size distribution. The proposed approach also considers the contribution of scattering to extinction in determining the soot volume fraction, and this contribution is shown to increase as soot aggregate size becomes larger. The sensitivity of the calculation to the assumed parameters of the approach is examined and discussed. The mean radius of gyration of soot aggregates and the ratio of scattering intensities at the two measurement angles are shown to be independent of soot refractive index and are therefore recommended for soot model validation purposes. PMID:26836101

  14. Aircraft measurements of BrO, IO, glyoxal, NO2, H2O, O2-O2 and aerosol extinction profiles in the tropics: comparison with aircraft-/ship-based in situ and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Campos, T. L.; Coburn, S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Dix, B.; Eloranta, E. W.; Koenig, T. K.; Morley, B.; Ortega, I.; Pierce, B. R.; Reeves, M.; Sinreich, R.; Wang, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Romashkin, P. A.

    2015-05-01

    Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO) and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO) in the tropical troposphere. BrO, IO, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O) and O2-O2 collision complexes (O4) were measured by the University of Colorado Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument, aerosol extinction by high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), in situ aerosol size distributions by an ultra high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer (UHSAS) and in situ H2O by vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) hygrometer. Data are presented from two research flights (RF12, RF17) aboard the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft over the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean (tEPO) as part of the "Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated hydrocarbons" (TORERO) project (January/February 2012). We assess the accuracy of O4 slant column density (SCD) measurements in the presence and absence of aerosols. Our O4-inferred aerosol extinction profiles at 477 nm agree within 6% with HSRL in the boundary layer and closely resemble the renormalized profile shape of Mie calculations constrained by UHSAS at low (sub-Rayleigh) aerosol extinction in the free troposphere. CU AMAX-DOAS provides a flexible choice of geometry, which we exploit to minimize the SCD in the reference spectrum (SCDREF, maximize signal-to-noise ratio) and to test the robustness of BrO, IO and glyoxal differential SCDs. The RF12 case study was conducted in pristine marine and free tropospheric air. The RF17 case study was conducted above the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana (TORERO cruise, KA-12-01) and provides independent validation data from ship-based in situ cavity

  15. Aircraft Measurements of BrO, IO, Glyoxal, NO2, H2O, O2-O2 and Aerosol Extinction Profiles in the Tropics: Comparison with Aircraft-/Ship-Based in Situ and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Campos, T. L.; Coburn, S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Dix, B.; Eloranta, E. W.; Koenig, T. K.; Morley, B.; Ortega, I.; Pierce, B. R.; Reeves, M.; Sinreich, R.; Wang, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Romashkin, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO) and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO) in the tropical troposphere. BrO, IO, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O) and O2-O2 collision complexes (O4/ were measured by the University of Colorado Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAXDOAS) instrument, aerosol extinction by high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), in situ aerosol size distributions by an ultra high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer (UHSAS) and in situ H2O by vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) hygrometer. Data are presented from two research flights (RF12, RF17) aboard the National Science Foundation/ National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft over the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean (tEPO) as part of the "Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated hydrocarbons" (TORERO) project (January/February 2012). We assess the accuracy of O4 slant column density (SCD) measurements in the presence and absence of aerosols. Our O4-inferred aerosol extinction profiles at 477 nm agree within 6% with HSRL in the boundary layer and closely resemble the renormalized profile shape of Mie calculations constrained by UHSAS at low (sub-Rayleigh) aerosol extinction in the free troposphere. CU AMAX-DOAS provides a flexible choice of geometry, which we exploit to minimize the SCD in the reference spectrum (SCDREF, maximize signal-to-noise ratio) and to test the robustness of BrO, IO and glyoxal differential SCDs. The RF12 case study was conducted in pristine marine and free tropospheric air. The RF17 case study was conducted above the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana (TORERO cruise, KA-12-01) and provides independent validation data from ship-based in situ cavity

  16. Light Absorption Properties and Radiative Effects of Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic aerosols (OA) in the atmosphere affect Earth’s energy budget by not only scattering but also absorbing solar radiation due to the presence of the so-called “brown carbon” (BrC) component. However, the absorptivities of OA are not or poorly represented in current climate m...

  17. Light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in two remote stations of the southern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Hu, Zhaofu; Gao, Shaopeng; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-10-01

    Light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols are key considerations in climate forcing research. However, in situ measurement data are limited, especially on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) - the Third Pole of the world. In this study, the mass absorption cross section (MAC) of elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of total suspended particles at two high-altitude stations (Lulang station and Everest station) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were investigated. The mean MACEC values at 632 nm were 6.85 ± 1.39 m2 g-1 and 6.49 ± 2.81 m2 g-1 at these two stations, both of which showed little seasonal variations and were slightly higher than those of EC of uncoated particles, indicating that the enhancement of MACEC by factors such as coating with organic aerosols was not significant. The mean MACWSOC values at 365 nm were 0.84 ± 0.40 m2 g-1 and 1.18 ± 0.64 m2 g-1 at the two stations. Obvious seasonal variations of high and low MACWSOC values appeared in winter and summer, respectively, mainly reflecting photobleaching of light absorption components of WSOC caused by fluctuations in sunlight intensity. Therefore, this phenomenon might also exists in other remote areas of the world. The relative contributions of radiative forcing of WSOC to EC were 6.03 ± 3.62% and 11.41 ± 7.08% at these two stations, with a higher ratio in winter. As a result, both the contribution of WSOC to radiative forcing of carbonaceous aerosols and its seasonal variation need to be considered in radiative forcing related study.

  18. View From a Megacity: Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering at Four Sites in and Near Mexico City.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments, MIRAGE-Mex deployment to Mexico City in the period of 30 days, March 2006, a suite of photoacoustic spectrometers (PAS) were installed to measure at ground level the light absorption and scattering by aerosols at four sites: an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP), a suburban site at the Technological University of Tecamac, a rural site at "La Biznaga" ranch, and a site at the Paseo de Cortes (altitude 3,810 meters ASL) in the rural area above Amecameca in the State of Mexico, on the saddle between the volcanoes Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions while the other sites provided characterization of the plume, mixed in with any local sources. The second and third sites are north of Mexico City, and the fourth site is south. The PAS used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Instruments at the second and third sites operate at 870 nm, and the one at the fourth site at 780 nm. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In the urban site the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 40 and 250 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed. Comparisons with TSI nephelometer scattering and Aetholemeter absorption measurements at the T0 site will be presented. We will present a broad overview of the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site. Insight on the dynamical connections will be discussed.

  19. Determining Extinction Ratio Of A Laser Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Glenn L.

    1992-01-01

    Improved technique to determine extinction ratio of pulsed laser diode based partly on definition of extinction ratio applicable to nonideal laser pulses. Heretofore, determinations involved assumption of ideal laser pulses, and neglected optical power from background light. Because power fluctuates during real pulse, more realistic to define extinction ratio in terms of energy obtained.

  20. Aerosol Classification from High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kahnert, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Berkoff, T.; Seaman, S. T.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Fenn, M. A.; Rogers, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars, HSRL-1 and HSRL-2, have acquired large datasets of vertically resolved aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization during >30 airborne field missions since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters like lidar ratio and color ratio embed information about intrinsic aerosol properties, and are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into aerosol types. Knowledge of aerosol type is important for assessing aerosol radiative forcing, and can provide useful information for source attribution studies. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead is a mixture, which affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. We show that aerosol intensive parameters measured by lidar can be understood using mixing rules for cases of external mixing. Beyond coarse classification and mixing between classes, variations in the lidar aerosol intensive parameters provide additional insight into aerosol processes and composition. This is illustrated by depolarization measurements at three wavelengths, 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, made by HSRL-2. Particle depolarization ratio is an indicator of non-spherical particles. Three cases each have a significantly different spectral dependence of the depolarization ratio, related to the size of the depolarizing particles. For two dust cases, large non-spherical particles account for the depolarization of the lidar light. The spectral dependence reflects the size distribution of these particles and reveals differences in the transport histories of the two plumes. For a smoke case, the depolarization is inferred to be due to the presence of small coated soot aggregates. Interestingly, the depolarization at 355 nm is similar for this smoke case compared to the dust cases, having potential implications for the upcoming EarthCARE satellite, which will measure particle depolarization ratio only at 355 nm.

  1. Aging of secondary organic aerosol generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene: effects of ozone, light and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Camredon, M.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Katrib, Y.; Giorio, C.; Tapparo, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Monod, A.; Aumont, B.; Doussin, J. F.

    2014-09-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in the CESAM simulation chamber to investigate the evolution of the physical and chemical properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) during different forcing. The present experiments represent a first attempt to comprehensively investigate the influence of oxidative processing, photochemistry, and diurnal temperature cycling upon SOA properties. SOA generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene were exposed to (1) elevated ozone concentrations, (2) light (under controlled temperature conditions), or (3) light and heat (6 °C light-induced temperature increase), and the resultant changes in SOA optical properties (i.e. absorption and scattering), hygroscopicity and chemical composition were measured using a suite of instrumentation interfaced to the CESAM chamber. The complex refractive index (CRI) was derived from integrated nephelometer measurements at 525 nm wavelength, using Mie scattering calculations and measured number size distributions. The particle size growth factor (GF) was measured with a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was used for the determination of the f44 / f43 and O : C ratio of the particles bulk. No change in SOA size or chemical composition was observed during O3 and light exposure at constant temperature; in addition, GF and CRI of the SOA remained constant with forcing. By contrast, illumination of the SOA in the absence of temperature control led to an increase in the real part of the CRI from 1.35 (±0.03) to 1.49 (±0.03), an increase of the GF from 1.04 (±0.02) to 1.14 (±0.02) and an increase of the f44 / f43 ratio from 1.73 (±0.03) to 2.23 (±0.03). These surprising results suggest that SOA properties may be governed more by local temperature fluctuations than by oxidative processing and photochemistry.

  2. Systematic Relationships among Background SE U.S. Aerosol Optical, Micro-physical, and Chemical Properties-Development of an Optically-based Aerosol Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. P.; Link, M. F.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing-based retrievals of aerosol composition require known or assumed relationships between aerosol optical properties and types. Most optically-based aerosol classification schemes apply some combination of the spectral dependence of aerosol light scattering and absorption-using the absorption and either scattering or extinction Angstrom exponents (AAE, SAE and EAE), along with single-scattering albedo (SSA). These schemes can differentiate between such aerosol types as dust, biomass burning, and urban/industrial but no such studies have been conducted in the SE U.S., where a large fraction of the background aerosol is a variable mixture of biogenic SOA, sulfates, and black carbon. In addition, AERONET retrievals of SSA are often highly uncertain due to low AOD in the region during most months. The high-elevation, semi-rural AppalAIR facility at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (1090m ASL, 36.210N, 81.690W) is home to the only co-located NOAA-ESRL and AERONET monitoring sites in the eastern U.S. Aerosol chemistry measured at AppalAIR is representative of the background SE U.S (Link et al. 2014) Dried aerosol light absorption and dried and humidified aerosol light scattering and hemispheric backscattering at 3 visible wavelengths and 2 particle size cuts (sub-1μm and sub-10μm) are measured continuously. Measurements of size-resolved, non-refractory sub-1μm aerosol composition were made by a co-located AMS during the 2012-2013 summers and 2013 winter. Systematic relationships among aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical properties were developed to better understand aerosol sources and processes and for use in higher-dimension aerosol classification schemes. The hygroscopic dependence of visible light scattering is sensitive to the ratio of sulfate to organic aerosol(OA), as are SSA and AAE. SAE is a less sensitive indicator of fine-mode aerosol size than hemispheric backscatter fraction (b) and is more sensitive to fine-mode aerosol

  3. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Paul

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  4. Attribution of aerosol light absorption to black carbon, brown carbon, and dust in China - interpretations of atmospheric measurements during EAST-AIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Howell, S. G.; Zhuang, J.; Huebert, B. J.

    2009-03-01

    Black carbon, brown carbon, and mineral dust are three of the most important light absorbing aerosols. Their optical properties differ greatly and are distinctive functions of the wavelength of light. Most optical instruments that quantify light absorption, however, are unable to distinguish one type of absorbing aerosol from another. It is thus instructive to separate total absorption from these different light absorbers to gain a better understanding of the optical characteristics of each aerosol type. During the EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) campaign near Beijing, we measured light scattering using a nephelometer, and light absorption using an aethalometer and a particulate soot absorption photometer. We also measured the total mass concentrations of carbonaceous (elemental and organic carbon) and inorganic particulates, as well as aerosol number and mass distributions. We were able to identify periods during the campaign that were dominated by dust, biomass burning, fresh (industrial) chimney plumes, other coal burning pollution, and relatively clean (background) air for Northern China. Each of these air masses possessed distinct intensive optical properties, including the single scatter albedo and Ångstrom exponents. Based on the wavelength-dependence and particle size distribution, we apportioned total light absorption to black carbon, brown carbon, and dust; their mass absorption efficiencies at 550 nm were estimated to be 9.5, 0.5 (a lower limit value), and 0.03 m2/g, respectively. While agreeing with the common consensus that black carbon is the most important light absorber in the mid-visible, we demonstrated that brown carbon and dust could also cause significant absorption, especially at shorter wavelengths.

  5. Attribution of aerosol light absorption to black carbon, brown carbon, and dust in China - interpretations of atmospheric measurements during EAST-AIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Howell, S. G.; Zhuang, J.; Huebert, B. J.

    2008-06-01

    Black carbon, brown carbon, and mineral dust are three of the most important light absorbing aerosols. Their optical properties differ greatly and are distinctive functions of the wavelength of light. Most optical instruments that quantify light absorption, however, are unable to distinguish one type of absorbing aerosol from another. It is thus instructive to separate total absorption from these different light absorbers to gain a better understanding of the optical characteristics of each aerosol type. During the EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) campaign near Beijing, we measured light scattering using a nephelometer, and light absorption using an aethalometer and a particulate soot absorption photometer. We also measured the total mass concentrations of carbonaceous (elemental and organic carbon) and inorganic particulates, as well as aerosol number and mass distributions. We were able to identify periods during the campaign that were dominated by dust, biomass burning, fresh (industrial) chimney plumes, other coal burning pollution, and relatively clean (background) air for Northern China. Each of these air masses possessed distinct intensive optical properties, including the single scatter albedo and Ångstrom exponents. Based on the wavelength-dependence and particle size distribution, we apportioned total light absorption to black carbon, brown carbon, and dust; their mass absorption efficiencies at 550 nm were estimated to be 9.5, 0.5, and 0.03 m2/g, respectively. While agreeing with the common consensus that BC is the most important light absorber in the mid-visible, we demonstrated that brown carbon and dust could also cause significant absorption, especially at shorter wavelengths.

  6. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering at Four Sites in and Near Mexico City: Comparison with Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Miranda, G. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    Four photoacoustic spectrometers (PAS) for aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The four sites included: an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP); a suburban site at the Technological University of Tecamac; a rural site at "La Biznaga" ranch; and a site at the Paseo de Cortes (altitude 3,810 meters ASL) in the rural area above Amecameca in the State of Mexico, on the saddle between the volcanoes Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl. A similar campaign was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA in January-February, 2003. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions while the other sites provided characterization of the plume, mixed in with any local sources. The second and third sites are north of Mexico City, and the fourth site is south. The PAS used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Instruments at the second and third sites operate at 870 nm, and the one at the fourth site at 780 nm. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In the urban site the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. Comparisons with TSI nephelometer scattering at the T0 site will be presented. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of

  7. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to aerosol correlative measurements experiments for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, conducted between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative measurements were taken with an impactor/laser probe, a dustsonde, and an airborne 36-cm lidar system. The primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments are compared with those calculated from the aerosol size distributions from SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. Good agreement is found between the two sets of measurements.

  8. Extinctions of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

  9. Evaluating the Use of MODIS AOD for Air Quality Determination by Comparison with the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Light Scattering Coefficient Obtained with a Balloon-Borne Nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumlin, B.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites provide aerosol optical depth information for the entire Earth on a daily basis. Ideally, satellite measurements should correlate with ground-based measurements in order to be useful for air quality applications. Reno, Nevada, USA is a high desert city situated in the Great Basin. Its unique geography and proximity to urban and biomass burning aerosol sources make it an ideal candidate for aerosol research. In August 2011, the Reno Aerosol Characterization Experiment measured atmospheric aerosols with a ground-based Cimel CE-318 sun-photometer and in situ photoacoustic instrumentation to quantify aerosol concentrations at the surface and in the column. However, the results of these measurements indicated the existence of a more complex system of aerosol mixing above the atmospheric boundary layer than previously thought. In order to validate these measurements, an autonomous suite of instrumentation has been developed. This device is carried aloft by a weather balloon and utilizes a reciprocal nephelometer to obtain a high-resolution profile of the vertical distribution of aerosol light scattering coefficient, as well as instrumentation to record atmospheric variables such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and dew point. Position, course, speed, and altitude are logged with an onboard GPS module and correlated with atmospheric and aerosol measurements. Presented is the design and development of this new instrument, its comparison with proven laboratory instruments, data gathered from flights during August-November 2012, and its comparison to ground-based measurements and satellite data from the MODIS instruments.

  10. Intercomparison of a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift-based extinction monitor (CAPS PMex) with an integrating nephelometer and a filter-based absorption monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Onasch, T.; Kebabian, P.; Freedman, A.

    2013-05-01

    An evaluation of the Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS PMex) using a combination of a 3-wavelength Integrating Nephelometer (NEPH) and a 3-wavelength filter-based Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) was carried out using both laboratory-generated test particles and ambient aerosols. An accurate determination of a fixed pathlength correction for the CAPS PMex was made by comparing extinction measurements using monodisperse PSL spheres in combination with Mie scattering calculations to account for the presence of PSL conglomerates. These studies yielded a linear instrument response over the investigated dynamical range from 20 to 450 Mm-1 (10-6 m-1) with a linear correlation coefficient of R2 > 0.98. The adjustment factor was determined to be 1.05 times that previously reported. Correlating CAPS extinction to extinction measured by the NEPH + PSAP combination using laboratory-generated polydisperse mixtures of purely scattering ammonium sulfate and highly absorbing black carbon provided a linear regression line with slope m = 1.00 (R2 = 0.994) for single-scattering albedo values (λ = 630 nm) ranging from 0.35 (black carbon) to 1.00 (ammonium sulfate). For ambient aerosol, light extinction measured by CAPS was highly correlated (R2 = 0.995) to extinction measured by the NEPH + PSAP combination with slope m = 0.95.

  11. Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study.

  12. SAGE Aerosol Measurements. Volume 2: 1 January - 31 December 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite system, launched on February 18, 1979, provides profiles of aerosol extinction at wavelengths of 1.00 and 0.45 micron, ozone concentration, and nitrogen dioxide concentration. Data taken during sunset events in the form of zonal averages and seasonal averages of the aerosol extinction at 1.00 and 0.45 micron, ratios of the aerosol extinction to the molecular extinction at 1.00 micron, and ratios of the aerosol extinction at 0.45 micron to the aerosol extinction at 1.00 micron are presented. The averages for l980 are shown in tables and in profile and contour plots (as a function of altitude and latitude). In addition, temperature data provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the time and location of each SAGE measurement are averaged and shown in a similar format.

  13. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  14. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  15. SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.

  16. Secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical aging of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhausts in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Hu, Q.; Ding, X.; Zhang, Y.; He, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Yu, J.

    2015-08-01

    In China, a rapid increase in passenger vehicles has led to the growing concern of vehicle exhaust as an important source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities hard hit by haze. In this study, the SOA formation of emissions from two idling light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) (Euro 1 and Euro 4) operated in China was investigated in a 30 m3 smog chamber. Five photo-oxidation experiments were carried out at 25 °C with relative humidity at around 50 %. After aging at an OH exposure of 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 12-259 times as high as primary organic aerosol (POA). The SOA production factors (PF) were 0.001-0.044 g kg-1 fuel, comparable with those from the previous studies at comparable OH exposure. This quite lower OH exposure than that in typical atmospheric conditions might however lead to the underestimation of the SOA formation potential from LDGVs. Effective SOA yields in this study were well fit by a one-product gas-particle partitioning model but quite lower than those of a previous study investigating SOA formation from three idling passenger vehicles (Euro 2-4). Traditional single-ring aromatic precursors and naphthalene could explain 51-90 % of the formed SOA. Unspeciated species such as branched and cyclic alkanes might be the possible precursors for the unexplained SOA. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize the chemical composition of SOA. The relationship between f43 (ratio of m/z 43, mostly C2H3O+, to the total signal in mass spectrum) and f44 (mostly CO2+) of the gasoline vehicle exhaust SOA is similar to the ambient semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). We plot the O : C and H : C molar ratios of SOA in a Van Krevelen diagram. The slopes of ΔH : C / ΔO : C ranged from -0.59 to -0.36, suggesting that the oxidation chemistry in these experiments was a combination of carboxylic acid and alcohol/peroxide formation.

  17. Regional aerosol properties: Comparisons of boundary layer measurements from ACE 1, ACE 2, Aerosols99, INDOEX, ACE Asia, TARFOX, and NEAQS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2005-07-01

    Means and variability of aerosol chemical composition and optical properties are compared for the first and second Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE 1 and ACE 2), a cruise across the Atlantic (Aerosols99), the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), the Asian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE Asia), the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX), and the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS). These experiments were focused either on the remote marine atmosphere (ACE 1) or areas downwind of continental aerosol source regions including western Europe, North America, Africa, India, and Asia. Presented here are size-segregated concentrations of aerosol mass, sea salt, non-sea-salt (nss) SO4=, NH4+, NO3-, dust, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and nss K+, as well as mass ratios that are commonly used to identify aerosol sources and to assess aerosol processing (Cl- to Na+, OC to nss SO4=, EC to total carbon (TC), EC to nss SO4=, nss K+ to EC, Fe to Al, and Si to Al). Optical properties that are compared include size-segregated scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients, and single-scattering albedo at 550 nm. Size-segregated mass scattering and mass absorption efficiencies for the total aerosol and mass extinction efficiencies for the dominant chemical components also are compared. In addition, we present the contribution to light extinction by the dominant chemical components for each region. All data are based on shipboard measurements performed at a relative humidity of 55 ± 5%. Scattering coefficients and single-scattering albedos also are reported at ambient relative humidity (RH) using published values of f(RH). Finally, aerosol optical depths from each region are compared. Identical sampling protocols were used in all experiments in order to eliminate sampling biases and to make the data directly comparable. Major findings include (1) nss SO4= makes up only 16 to 46% of the submicron aerosol mass

  18. Atmospheric aerosol characterization combining multi-wavelength Raman lidar and MAX-DOAS measurements in Gwanjgu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Kwang Chul; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Shin, Sungkyun; Noh, Young M.; Müller, Detlef; Kim, Young J.

    2011-11-01

    Integrated approach has been adopted at the ADvanced Environmental Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. Various active and passive optical remote sensing techniques such as multi-wavelength (3β+2α+1δ) Raman LIDAR, sun-photometry, MAX-DOAS, and satellite retrieval have been utilized. This integrated monitoring system approach combined with in-situ surface measurement is to allow better characterization of physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol. Information on the vertical distribution and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol is important for understanding its transport characteristics as well as radiative effect. The GIST multi-wavelength (3β + 2α+1δ) Raman lidar system can measure vertical profiles of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols such as extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and depolarization ratio at 532nm. The incomplete overlap between the telescope field-of-view and beam divergence of the transmitting laser significantly affects lidar measurement, resulting in higher uncertainty near the surface where atmospheric aerosols of interest are concentrated. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique is applied as a complementary tool for the detection of atmospheric aerosols near the surface. The passive Multi-Axis DOAS (MAX-DOAS) technique uses scattered sunlight as a light source from several viewing directions. Recently developed aerosol retrieval algorithm based on O4 slant column densities (SCDs) measured at UV and visible wavelengths has been utilized to derive aerosol information (e.g., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol extinction coefficients (AECs)) in the lower troposphere. The aerosol extinction coefficient at 356 nm was retrieved for the 0-1 and 1-2 km layers based on the MAX-DOAS measurements using the retrieval algorithm

  19. Light absorption properties of water soluble organic aerosol from Residential Wood Burning in Fresno, CA: Results from 2013 NASA DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.; Young, D. E.; Parworth, C.

    2015-12-01

    Light absorption properties of water soluble organic aerosol were investigated at Fresno, CA from 13 January to 11 February, 2013 as part of the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The light absorption spectra of water soluble organic aerosol in PM2.5 was measured using a UV/vis diode array detector (DAD) coupled with a particle into liquid sampler (PILS) that sampled downstream of a PM2.5 cyclone (URG). The PILS was also coupled with two ion chromatographs (IC) to measure inorganic and organic ionic species in PM2.5. In addition, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at the same site to measure size-resolved chemical composition of submicrometer aerosol (PM1) in real time during this study. Light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy of water-soluble brown carbon (BrC), showed strong enhancement during night time and appeared to correlate well (r = 0.71) with biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) from residential wood burning for heating in the Fresno area. The tight correlations between Abs365 and biomass burning relevant tracers such as acetonitrile (r = 0.69), AMS-signature ions for phenolic compounds (r = 0.52-0.71), PAH (r = 0.74), and potassium (r = 0.67) further confirm that biomass burning contributed significantly to water soluble brown carbon during this study. The absorption angstrom exponent (Åa) values fitted between 300 and 700 nm wavelength were 3.3 ± 1.1, 2.0 ± 0.9 and 4.0 ± 0.8, respectively, in the morning, afternoon and nighttime, indicating that BrC is prevalent at night in Fresno during wintertime. However, there are also indications that small amount of BrC existed during the daytime as well, likely due to daytime wood burning and other sources such as the formation of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Finally, light absorption at 300 nm, 330 nm, and 390 nm were found to correlate tightly with BBOA, which indicate that biomass burning also emits

  20. Constraints on Enhanced Extinction Resulting from Extinction Treatment in the Presence of an Added Excitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Lipatova, Olga; Miller, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    Three Pavlovian fear conditioning experiments with rats as subjects explored the effect of extinction in the presence of a concurrent excitor. Our aim was to explore this particular treatment, documented in previous studies to deepen extinction, with novel control groups to shed light on the processes involved in extinction. Relative to subjects…

  1. Rainfall-aerosol relationships explained by wet scavenging and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandey, Benjamin S.; Gururaj, Anisha; Stier, Philip; Wagner, Till M.

    2014-08-01

    Relationships between precipitation rate and aerosol optical depth, the extinction of light by aerosol in an atmospheric column, have been observed in satellite-retrieved data. What are the reasons for these precipitation-aerosol relationships? We investigate relationships between convective precipitation rate (Rconv) and aerosol optical depth (τtot) using the ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model. We show that negative Rconv-τtot relationships arise due to wet scavenging of aerosol. The apparent lack of negative Rconv-τtot relationships in satellite-retrieved data is likely because the satellite data do not sample wet scavenging events. When convective wet scavenging is excluded in the model, we find positive Rconv-τtot relationships in regions where convective precipitation is the dominant form of model precipitation. The spatial distribution of these relationships is in good agreement with satellite-based results. We further demonstrate that a substantial component of these positive relationships arises due to covariation with large-scale relative humidity. Although the interpretation of precipitation-aerosol relationships remains a challenging question, we suggest that progress can be made through a synergy between observations and models.

  2. Single-Particle Measurements of Midlatitude Black Carbon and Light-Scattering Aerosols from the Boundary Layer to the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, J. P.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Thomson, D. S.; Watts, L. A.; Wilson, J. C.; Reeves, J. M.; Darbeheshti, M.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Kok, G. L.; Chung, S. H.; Schulz, M.; Hendricks, J.; Lauer, A.; Kaercher, B.; Slowik, J. G.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Thompson, T. L.; Langford, A. O.; Loewenstein, M.; Aikin, K. C.

    2006-01-01

    A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) was flown on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft in November 2004 from Houston, Texas. The SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence to detect individual black carbon (BC) particles in an air sample in the mass range of approx.3-300 fg (approx.0.15-0.7 microns volume equivalent diameter). Scattered light is used to size the remaining non-BC aerosols in the range of approx.0.17-0.7 microns diameter. We present profiles of both aerosol types from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere from two midlatitude flights. Results for total aerosol amounts in the size range detected by the SP2 are in good agreement with typical particle spectrometer measurements in the same region. All ambient incandescing particles were identified as BC because their incandescence properties matched those of laboratory-generated BC aerosol. Approximately 40% of these BC particles showed evidence of internal mixing (e.g., coating). Throughout profiles between 5 and 18.7 km, BC particles were less than a few percent of total aerosol number, and black carbon aerosol (BCA) mass mixing ratio showed a constant gradient with altitude above 5 km. SP2 data was compared to results from the ECHAM4/MADE and LmDzT-INCA global aerosol models. The comparison will help resolve the important systematic differences in model aerosol processes that determine BCA loadings. Further intercomparisons of models and measurements as presented here will improve the accuracy of the radiative forcing contribution from BCA.

  3. Seasonal variations in the light-absorbing properties of water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Jin, Hyoun Cher; Lee, Ji Yi; Lee, Se Pyo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral properties of light-absorbing organic aerosol extractions were investigated using 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from October 2012 to September 2013 in Seoul, Korea. The light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts exhibited strong evidence of brown carbon with Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE; fitted between 300 and 700 nm) ranges of 5.84-9.17 and 4.08-5.75, with averages of 7.23 ± 1.58 and 5.05 ± 0.67, respectively. The light absorption of both extracts at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy for brown carbon (BrC), displayed strong seasonal variations and was well correlated with both water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC; r = 0.81) and organic carbon (OC; r = 0.85), indicating that both primary and secondary organics were sources of BrC in this region. Normalizing the Abs365 of water and methanol extracts to the mass of WSOC and OC yielded average solution mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of 0.28-1.18 and 0.44-1.45 m2 g-1 C, respectively. MAE365 in Korea were in the same range or slightly lower than those in China, however, despite the same ranges, the seasonal variations were different, suggesting that the sources of light absorbers could be different. Combining the AAE, Abs365, and MAE365 of both extracts and a detailed chemical speciation of filter extracts identified the compounds responsible for the temporal variations of BrC in Korea. During summer, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), photochemically generated from anthropogenic emissions, was the major source; however, during winter, long range transported organics or transported BrC seem to be a source of BrC in Korea, a downwind site of China, where severe smog and BrC were observed during this season. Biomass burning was also an important source; however, unlike in previous studies, where it was identified as a major source during winter, here, it contributed during the whole year. Although many of its properties, sources, and potential

  4. Aging of secondary organic aerosol generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene: effects of ozone, light and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Camredon, M.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Katrib, Y.; Giorio, C.; Tapparo, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Monod, A.; Aumont, B.; Doussin, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in the CESAM (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber) simulation chamber to investigate the evolution of the physical and chemical properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) during different forcings. The present experiments represent a first attempt to comprehensively investigate the influence of oxidative processing, photochemistry, and diurnal temperature cycling upon SOA properties. SOAs generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene were exposed under dry conditions (< 1% relative humidity) to (1) elevated ozone concentrations, (2) light (under controlled temperature conditions) or (3) light and heat (6 °C light-induced temperature increase), and the resultant changes in SOA optical properties (i.e. absorption and scattering), hygroscopicity and chemical composition were measured using a suite of instrumentation interfaced to the CESAM chamber. The complex refractive index (CRI) was derived from integrated nephelometer measurements of 525 nm wavelength, using Mie scattering calculations and measured number size distributions. The particle size growth factor (GF) was measured with a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was used for the determination of the f44 / f43 and O : C ratio of the particles bulk. No change in SOA size or chemical composition was observed during O3 and light exposure at constant temperature; in addition, GF and CRI of the SOA remained constant with forcing. On the contrary, illumination of SOAs in the absence of temperature control led to an increase in the real part of the CRI from 1.35 (±0.03) to 1.49 (±0.03), an increase of the GF from 1.04 (±0.02) to 1.14 (±0.02) and an increase of the f44 / f43 ratio from 1.73 (±0.03) to 2.23 (±0.03). The simulation of the experiments using the master chemical mechanism (MCM) and the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere

  5. Continuous and automatic measurement of atmospheric structures and aerosols optical properties with R-Man510 nitrogen Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, P.; Renaudier, M.; Sauvage, L.; Boquet, M.; Thobois, L.; Bizard, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new compact and light nitrogen Raman lidar (R-Man510) has recently been developed by Leosphere company. This UV-lidar system is based on a low energy diode pumped Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm and has been developed to be operated unmanly for the meteorological and airport needs. Measurements are typically performed with a vertical resolution between 15 and 60 m and a temporal resolution between 30 seconds (for elastic channel) and 10 minutes (for Raman channel). The elastic channel of the lidar is used to automatically detect up to 9 atmospheric structures (Plantery Boundary Layer height, aerosol and cloud layers) in quasi real-time. Aerosols are classified in 6 types (pollution aerosols, desert dusts, volcanic ashes, marine aerosols, biomass burning and no aerosols) considering informations on depolarization ratio determined with the two cross-polarized elastic channels and on aerosols optical properties (extinction-to-backscatter ratio, aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients) determined thanks to the nitrogen Raman channel at 387 nm. Aerosols optical properties can then been used for the assessment of mass concentrations which is crucial in case of hypothetical volcanic eruption. We will present the first results obtained with this new commercial lidar system. Daytime and nighttime performances of the system will be analyzed and compared with simulations from an instrumental model.

  6. Direct measurements of the optical cross sections and refractive indices of individual volatile and hygroscopic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Mason, B J; Cotterell, M I; Preston, T C; Orr-Ewing, A J; Reid, J P

    2015-06-01

    We present measurements of the evolving extinction cross sections of individual aerosol particles (spanning 700-2500 nm in radius) during the evaporation of volatile components or hygroscopic growth using a combination of a single particle trap formed from a Bessel light beam and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. For single component organic aerosol droplets of 1,2,6-hexanetriol, polyethylene glycol 400, and glycerol, the slow evaporation of the organic component (over time scales of 1000 to 10,000 s) leads to a time-varying size and extinction cross section that can be used to estimate the refractive index of the droplet. Measurements on binary aqueous-inorganic aerosol droplets containing one of the inorganic solutes ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate, or sodium chloride (over time scales of 1000 to 15,000 s) under conditions of changing relative humidity show that extinction cross-section measurements are consistent with expectations from accepted models for the variation in droplet refractive index with hygroscopic growth. In addition, we use these systems to establish an experimental protocol for future single particle extinction measurements. The advantages of mapping out the evolving light extinction cross-section of an individual particle over extended time frames accompanied by hygroscopic cycling or component evaporation are discussed.

  7. Comparison of in situ and columnar aerosol spectral measurements during TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006: testing parameterizations for estimating aerosol fine mode properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Massoli, P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Quinn, P. K.; Brooks, S.; Lefer, B.

    2009-08-01

    During the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006), the optical, chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on multiple mobile platforms and at ground based stations. In situ measurements of the aerosol light extinction coefficient (σep) were performed by two multi-wavelength cavity ring-down (CRD) instruments, one located on board the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown (RHB) and the other located at the University of Houston, Moody Tower (UHMT). An AERONET sunphotometer was also located at the UHMT to measure the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). The σep data were used to extract the extinction Ångström exponent (åep), a measure of the wavelength dependence of σep. There was general agreement between the åep (and to a lesser degree σep measurements by the two spatially separated CRD instruments during multi-day periods, suggesting a regional scale consistency of the sampled aerosols. Two spectral models are applied to the σep and AOD data to extract the fine mode fraction of extinction (η) and the fine mode effective radius (Reff f). These two parameters are robust measures of the fine mode contribution to total extinction and the fine mode size distribution respectively. The results of the analysis are compared to Reff f values extracted using AERONET V2 retrievals and calculated from in situ particle size measurements on the RHB and at UHMT. During a time period when fine mode aerosols dominated the extinction over a large area extending from Houston/Galveston Bay and out into the Gulf of Mexico, the various methods for obtaining Reff f agree qualitatively (showing the same temporal trend) and quantitatively (pooled standard deviation=28 nm).

  8. Comparison of in situ and columnar aerosol spectral measurements during TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006: testing parameterizations for estimating aerosol fine mode properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Massoli, P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Quinn, P. K.; Brooks, S. D.; Lefer, B.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006), the optical, chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on multiple mobile platforms and at ground based stations. In situ measurements of the aerosol light extinction coefficient (σep) were performed by two multi-wavelength cavity ring-down (CRD) instruments, one located on board the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown (RHB) and the other located at the University of Houston, Moody Tower (UHMT). An AERONET sunphotometer was also located at the UHMT to measure the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). The σep data were used to extract the extinction Ångström exponent (åep), a measure of the wavelength dependence of σep. There was general agreement between the åep (and to a lesser degree σep) measurements by the two spatially separated CRD instruments during multi-day periods, suggesting a regional scale consistency of the sampled aerosols. Two spectral models are applied to the σep and AOD data to extract the fine mode fraction of extinction (η) and the fine mode effective radius (Reff,f). These two parameters are robust measures of the fine mode contribution to total extinction and the fine mode size distribution, respectively. The results of the analysis are compared to Reff,f values extracted using AERONET V2 retrievals and calculated from in situ particle size measurements on the RHB and at UHMT. During a time period when fine mode aerosols dominated the extinction over a large area extending from Houston/Galveston Bay and out into the Gulf of Mexico, the various methods for obtaining Reff,f agree qualitatively (showing the same temporal trend) and quantitatively (pooled standard deviation = 28 nm).

  9. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective. PMID:26561964

  10. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective.

  11. Results of ACE 1, ACE 2, AEROSOLS99, INDOEX, TARFOX, and NEAQS: What Have We Learned? Where Do We Go From Here?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2003-12-01

    Since 1995, a series of international field experiments has focused on the measurement of aerosol properties in marine regions downwind of continental emissions. A goal of these experiments has been the characterization of regional aerosol properties and their controlling processes in order to improve estimates of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing. The first Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) purposefully steered clear of any continental plumes in order to characterize the "background" aerosol upon which anthropogenic perturbations could be imposed. ACE 2 focused on the European plume, INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment) on the plume emanating from the Indian subcontinent, ACE Asia on the Asian plume, and TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment) and NEAQS (New England Air Quality Study) on the eastern U.S. plume. In addition, measurements of dust and biomass burning aerosols from Africa were made the Atlantic Aerosols99 cruise. With the exception of TARFOX, all experiments included the shipboard sampling of aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties. The shipboard sampling was done with standardized protocols to minimize sampling biases and to make the data from the different regions directly comparable. Regional aerosol properties from the North American, European, African, Asian, and Indian plumes will be compared and the major findings from these experiments will be presented. Properties that will be compared include the relative contribution of the dominant chemical components to aerosol mass and light extinction, the absolute concentrations of the chemical components, light scattering and absorption by the aerosol, single scattering albedo, and aerosol optical depth. Since TARFOX was an aircraft study we include only data collected at altitudes less than 300 m. In addition to using standardized sampling protocols on the ship, over-determined data sets were collected so that a measured aerosol property

  12. Relationship of extinction coefficient, air pollution, and meteorological parameters in an urban area during 2007 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Sabetghadam, Samaneh; Ahmadi-Givi, Farhang

    2014-01-01

    Light extinction, which is the extent of attenuation of light signal for every distance traveled by light in the absence of special weather conditions (e.g., fog and rain), can be expressed as the sum of scattering and absorption effects of aerosols. In this paper, diurnal and seasonal variations of the extinction coefficient are investigated for the urban areas of Tehran from 2007 to 2009. Cases of visibility impairment that were concurrent with reports of fog, mist, precipitation, or relative humidity above 90% are filtered. The mean value and standard deviation of daily extinction are 0.49 and 0.39 km(-1), respectively. The average is much higher than that in many other large cities in the world, indicating the rather poor air quality over Tehran. The extinction coefficient shows obvious diurnal variations in each season, with a peak in the morning that is more pronounced in the wintertime. Also, there is a very slight increasing trend in the annual variations of atmospheric extinction coefficient, which suggests that air quality has regressed since 2007. The horizontal extinction coefficient decreased from January to July in each year and then increased between July and December, with the maximum value in the winter. Diurnal variation of extinction is often associated with small values for low relative humidity (RH), but increases significantly at higher RH. Annual correlation analysis shows that there is a positive correlation between the extinction coefficient and RH, CO, PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentration, while negative correlation exists between the extinction and T, WS, and O3, implying their unfavorable impact on extinction variation. The extinction budget was derived from multiple regression equations using the regression coefficients. On average, 44% of the extinction is from suspended particles, 3% is from air molecules, about 5% is from NO2 absorption, 0.35% is from RH, and approximately 48% is unaccounted for, which may represent errors in the data as

  13. Measuring black carbon spectral extinction in the visible and infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. J. A.; Peters, D. M.; McPheat, R.; Lukanihins, S.; Grainger, R. G.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents measurements of the spectral extinction of black carbon aerosol from 400 nm to 15 μm. The aerosol was generated using a Miniature Combustion Aerosol Standard soot generator and then allowed to circulate in an aerosol cell where its extinction was measured using a grating spectrometer in the visible and a Fourier transform spectrometer in the infrared. Size distribution, number concentration, and mass extinction cross sections have also been obtained using single-particle aerosol samplers. A mean mass extinction cross section at 550 nm of 8.3 ± 1.6 m2 g-1 is found which, assuming a reasonable single scatter albedo of 0.2, corresponds to a mass absorption cross section of 6.6 ± 1.3 m2 g-1. This compares well with previously reported literature values. Computer analysis of electron microscope images of the particles provides independent confirmation of the size distribution as well as fractal parameters of the black carbon aerosol. The aerosol properties presented in this work are representative of very fresh, uncoated black carbon aerosol. After atmospheric processing of such aerosols (which could include mixing with other constituents and structural changes), different optical properties would be expected.

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical aging of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhausts in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Hu, Q.; Ding, X.; Zhang, Y.; He, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Yu, J.

    2015-04-01

    In China, fast increase in passenger vehicles has procured the growing concern about vehicle exhausts as an important source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in megacities hard-hit by haze. However, there are still no chamber simulation studies in China on SOA formation from vehicle exhausts. In this study, the SOA formation of emissions from two idling light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) (Euro 1 and Euro 4) in China was investigated in a 30 m3 smog chamber. Five photo-oxidation experiments were carried out at 25 °C with the relative humidity around 50%. After aging at an OH exposure of 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 12-259 times as high as primary OA (POA). The SOA production factors (PF) were 0.001-0.044 g kg-1 fuel, comparable with those from the previous studies at the quite similar OH exposure. This quite lower OH exposure than that in typical atmospheric condition might however lead to the underestimation of the SOA formation potential from LDGVs. Effective SOA yield data in this study were well fit by a one-product gas-particle partitioning model and quite lower than those of a previous study investigating SOA formation form three idling passenger vehicles (Euro 2-Euro 4). Traditional single-ring aromatic precursors and naphthalene could explain 51-90% of the formed SOA. Unspeciated species such as branched and cyclic alkanes might be the possible precursors for the unexplained SOA. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize the chemical composition of SOA. The relationship between f43 (ratio of m/z 43, mostly C2H3O+, to the total signal in mass spectrum) and f44 (mostly CO2+) of the gasoline vehicle exhaust SOA is similar to the ambient semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). We plot the O : C and H : C molar ratios of SOA in a Van Krevelen diagram. The slopes of ΔH : C/ΔO : C ranged from -0.59 to -0.36, suggesting that the oxidation chemistry in these experiments was a

  15. The AERONET network: atmospheric aerosol research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The AERONET network is one of the most developed ground-based networks for aerosol monitoring. Solar radiance extinction, aureole brightness and sky light polarization measurements are used by the AERONET inversion retrieval algorithm to derive a variety of aerosol particle properties and parameters that are important for estimations of aerosol influences on air quality and climate change. In 2008 the AERONET has been extended in Ukraine: in addition to Sevastopol site (operated since 2006) the sunphotometer CIMEL CE318-2 has been installed at Kyiv site. New generation of sunphotometer (CE318N) has been used widely since 2011 in various sites of Ukraine as mobile station together with portable sunphotometer Microtops II. This article presents a short description of the AERONET, its development in Ukraine and prospects for future atmospheric research.

  16. Laboratory measurements of the angular light-scattering properties of internally mixed organic and sea-salt aerosol particles using polar nephelometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, D. B.; Tinilau, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol particles play an important, but relatively poorly understood, role in Earth's climate. Sea-salt aerosol is one of the most prevalent naturally occurring aerosols and is therefore expected to have a large effect on climate by scattering incoming solar radiation back to space. While sea-salt aerosol has been thought to be mainly composed of sodium chloride and other salts, measurements have shown the presence of biogenic organic compounds, such as glucose, in primary sea-salt aerosol particles. In addition, the sea-salt aerosol particles can become coated by secondary organics from anthropogenic activities. In order to better understand the potential climate effects of internally mixed organic and sea-salt particles, the angular scattering properties of laboratory-generated aerosols were measured at a wavelength of 532 nm using polar nephelometry. The polar nephelometer collected scattered light with an elliptical mirror and focused it across a linear CCD detector. The instrument was therefore capable of measuring the scattering intensity as a function of scattering angle (the phase function). Two incident polarizations were studied, parallel and perpendicular to the scattering plane, which were then used to calculate the degree of linear polarization. The scattering measurements along with size distribution measurements were used to retrieve the refractive index of the particles by comparison with Mie theory. Particles were generated from solutions of sodium chloride with varying concentrations of organics such as glucose and oxalic acid. In addition, particles generated from authentic sea-water were studied for comparison. Preliminary results indicate that the effective refractive indices of the mixed particles differ significantly from pure sodium chloride and do not follow simple mixing rules used to calculate refractive index from individual components.

  17. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, S.; Nakayama, T.; Taketani, F.; Adachi, K.; Matsuki, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory-BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a heater maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the heater and was found to be 22-23 %. The largest enhancements (> 30 %) were observed under high absorption coefficient conditions when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption coefficient events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with spherical sulfate or as clusters of sulfate spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 30 %) of BC light absorption, TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be embedded into the sulfate. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly-coated soot was

  18. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Sayako; Nakayama, Tomoki; Taketani, Fumikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD) maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30) were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30) of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly coated

  19. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2015, using CESM1(WACCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Michael; Schmidt, Anja; Easter, Richard; Solomon, Susan; Kinnison, Douglas; Ghan, Steven; Neely, Ryan; Marsh, Daniel; Conley, Andrew; Bardeen, Charles; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosols from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-losses that may be linked to volcanic activity. Attribution of climate variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the rate of global average temperature increases. We have compiled a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions from 1990 to 2015, and developed a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We combined these with other non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources to reconstruct global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2015. Our calculations show remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of stratospheric aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD calculations represent a clear improvement over available satellite-based analyses, which generally ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD calculations greatly improve on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses about 60% of the SAD measured in situ on average during both volcanically active and volcanically quiescent periods. The stark differences in SAOD and SAD compared to other data sets will have significant effects on calculations of the radiative forcing of climate and global stratospheric chemistry over the period 2005-2015. In light of these results, the impact of volcanic aerosols in reducing the rate of global average temperature increases since the year 2000 should be revisited. We have made our calculated aerosol properties from January 1990 to

  20. Seasonal variations in light scattering in the New York region and their relation to sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaderer, Brain P.; Tanner, Roger L.; Lioy, Paul J.; Stolwijk, Jan A. J.

    Light scattering data collected during two periods of intensive sampling in New York City (one during summer months and one during winter months) are discussed and analyzed for diurnal patterns, their relationship to pollutant emission sources, meteorological parameters, and the size distribution and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol. The lack of a diurnal pattern for light scattering in summer in combination with a strong positive association with ozone and wind direction dependency suggests that in summer the transport of an aged aerosol in photochemically rich air masses rather than local emissions of primary pollutants is largely responsible for the observed levels of light scattering in New York City. Winter levels of light scattering observed in New York City, while approx. 50% lower than summer levels, were much less dependant on wind direction and closely related to pollutant emissions from local sources. This suggests that locally generated aerosol dominates light scattering in the winter. Particles 0.1-1.3 μm in diameter were strongly correlated with light scattering in New York City during both summer and winter periods. However, a given volume of aerosol between 0.1 and 1.3 μm scattered more light in summer than in winter, indicating the fresher nature of the winter aerosol. Variance in dry particulate light scattering was found to principally account for light extinction variance (calculated from airport visibility observations) in summer and winter. Sulfate aerosol was strongly correlated with light scattering during both summer and winter periods.

  1. Calibration method for a photoacoustic system for real time source apportionment of light absorbing carbonaceous aerosol based on size distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, Noemi; Ajtai, Tibor; Pinter, Mate; Orvos, Peter I.; Szabo, Gabor; Bozoki, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we introduce a calibration method with which sources of light absorbing carbonaceous particulate matter (LAC) can be apportioned in real time based on multi wavelength optical absorption measurements with a photoacoustic system. The method is primary applicable in wintry urban conditions when LAC is dominated by traffic and biomass burning. The proposed method was successfully tested in a field campaign in the city center of Szeged, Hungary during winter time where the dominance of traffic and wood burning aerosol has been experimentally demonstrated earlier. With the help of the proposed calibration method a relationship between the measured Aerosol Angström Exponent (AAE) and the number size distribution can be deduced. Once the calibration curve is determined, the relative strength of the two pollution sources can be deduced in real time as long as the light absorbing fraction of PM is exclusively related to traffic and wood burning. This assumption is indirectly confirmed in the presented measurement campaign by the fact that the measured size distribution is composed of two unimodal size distributions identified to correspond to traffic and wood burning aerosols. The proposed method offers the possibility of replacing laborious chemical analysis with simple in-situ measurement of aerosol size distribution data.

  2. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, J.; Yu, X.-Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first single particle results obtained using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The instrument was operated as a standard AMS from 12-30 March, acquiring average chemical composition and size distributions for the ambient aerosol, and in single particle mode from 27-30 March. Over a 75-h sampling period, 12 853 single particle mass spectra were optically triggered, saved, and analyzed. The correlated optical and chemical detection allowed detailed examination of single particle collection and quantification within the LS-ToF-AMS. The single particle data enabled the mixing states of the ambient aerosol to be characterized within the context of the size-resolved ensemble chemical information. The particulate mixing states were examined as a function of sampling time and most of the particles were found to be internal mixtures containing many of the organic and inorganic species identified in the ensemble analysis. The single particle mass spectra were deconvolved, using techniques developed for ensemble AMS data analysis, into HOA, OOA, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4Cl fractions. Average single particle mass and chemistry measurements are shown to be in agreement with ensemble MS and PTOF measurements. While a significant fraction of ambient particles were internal mixtures of varying degrees, single particle measurements of chemical composition allowed the identification of time periods during which the ambient ensemble was externally mixed. In some cases the chemical composition of the particles suggested a likely source. Throughout the full sampling period, the ambient ensemble was an external mixture of combustion-generated HOA particles from local sources (e.g. traffic), with number concentrations peaking

  3. Evolution of macromolecular dust: Far-ultraviolet spectral dust extinction and gas absorption of stellar light as measured with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, Richard H., Jr.; Allen, Marsha; McCandliss, Stephan; Kruk, Jeffrey; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Brown, Tom

    1994-08-01

    From far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of B stars taken with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) and Voyager space observations, we determine the far-ultraviolet extinction by Galactic dust and hydrogen absorption in the local spiral-arm clouds towards HD 25443 (B0.5 III), HD 37903 (B1.5 V), and HD 200775 (B3 Ve). We find that the (n (H)) = 1.3 cu cm and number fraction (f = 0.31) of H atoms in molecular hydrogen relative to the total hydrogen indicates a mostly diffuse medium toward HD 25443. We also determine f = 0.56 for the gas in the photodissociation region (PDR) in front of HD 37903 and f approximately equals 0.36 for the HD 200775 PDR. The inferred ratios of N(H2)/I(CO) = 2.4 to 2.8 x 1020/K(km/s)/sq cm for cool gas in dark clouds agree with previous canonical estimates of N(H2)/I(CO) = 2 to 3 x 1020/K(km/s)/sq cm and support the use of the ratio for determining masses of molecular clouds. We find that the shape and strength of the HD 25443 FUV extinction is the same as a diffuse-medium mean extinction (Rnu = 2.95) extrapolated from mid-UV wavelengths (normal). The HD 37903 FUV extinction through a bright H2 photodissociation region is higher than a mean FUV extinction(Rnu = 4.11), as is the HD 200775 extinction. Another star from the literature rho Oph, probes the dense medium and exhibits an FUV extinction of normal mean strength (Rnu = 4.55) but steeper shape. The normal FUV -extinction of HD 25443 implies that the small FUV-extinction dust in the diffuse medium forms in p art from larger grains as the grains shatter under shocks. The normal strength of the rho Oph FUV-extinction indicates that the minute dust condenses onto or coagulates into larger grains in the dense medium. The high extinction deviation of the HD 37903 PDR (and HD 200775 PDR) shows that FUV radiation from hot stars with Teff approximately equals 20,000 to 23,000 K in PDRs can evaporate some of the FUV-extinction dust from grain surfaces. In contrast, previously measured extinctions

  4. Evolution of macromolecular dust: Far-ultraviolet spectral dust extinction and gas absorption of stellar light as measured with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buss, Richard H., Jr.; Allen, Marsha; Mccandliss, Stephan; Kruk, Jeffrey; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Brown, Tom

    1994-01-01

    From far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of B stars taken with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) and Voyager space observations, we determine the far-ultraviolet extinction by Galactic dust and hydrogen absorption in the local spiral-arm clouds towards HD 25443 (B0.5 III), HD 37903 (B1.5 V), and HD 200775 (B3 Ve). We find that the (n (H)) = 1.3 cu cm and number fraction (f = 0.31) of H atoms in molecular hydrogen relative to the total hydrogen indicates a mostly diffuse medium toward HD 25443. We also determine f = 0.56 for the gas in the photodissociation region (PDR) in front of HD 37903 and f approximately equals 0.36 for the HD 200775 PDR. The inferred ratios of N(H2)/I(CO) = 2.4 to 2.8 x 10(exp 20)/K(km/s)/sq cm for cool gas in dark clouds agree with previous canonical estimates of N(H2)/I(CO) = 2 to 3 x 10(exp 20)/K(km/s)/sq cm and support the use of the ratio for determining masses of molecular clouds. We find that the shape and strength of the HD 25443 FUV extinction is the same as a diffuse-medium mean extinction (R(sub nu) = 2.95) extrapolated from mid-UV wavelengths (normal). The HD 37903 FUV extinction through a bright H2 photodissociation region is higher than a mean FUV extinction(R(sub nu) = 4.11), as is the HD 200775 extinction. Another star from the literature rho Oph, probes the dense medium and exhibits an FUV extinction of normal mean strength (R(sub nu) = 4.55) but steeper shape. The normal FUV -extinction of HD 25443 implies that the small FUV-extinction dust in the diffuse medium forms in p art from larger grains as the grains shatter under shocks. The normal strength of the rho Oph FUV-extinction indicates that the minute dust condenses onto or coagulates into larger grains in the dense medium. The high extinction deviation of the HD 37903 PDR (and HD 200775 PDR) shows that FUV radiation from hot stars with T(sub eff) approximately equals 20,000 to 23,000 K in PDRs can evaporate some of the FUV-extinction dust from grain surfaces. In

  5. A new stochastic algorithm for inversion of dust aerosol size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Li, Feng; Yang, Ma-ying

    2015-08-01

    Dust aerosol size distribution is an important source of information about atmospheric aerosols, and it can be determined from multiwavelength extinction measurements. This paper describes a stochastic inverse technique based on artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to invert the dust aerosol size distribution by light extinction method. The direct problems for the size distribution of water drop and dust particle, which are the main elements of atmospheric aerosols, are solved by the Mie theory and the Lambert-Beer Law in multispectral region. And then, the parameters of three widely used functions, i.e. the log normal distribution (L-N), the Junge distribution (J-J), and the normal distribution (N-N), which can provide the most useful representation of aerosol size distributions, are inversed by the ABC algorithm in the dependent model. Numerical results show that the ABC algorithm can be successfully applied to recover the aerosol size distribution with high feasibility and reliability even in the presence of random noise.

  6. Vertical Profiles of Light Scattering, Light Absorption, and Single Scattering Albedo during the Dry, Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa and Comparisons of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Schmid, Beat; Redermann, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0)) are presented for a number of locations in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season. Features of the profiles include haze layers, clean air slots, and marked decreases in light scattering in passing from the boundary layer into the free troposphere. Frequency distributions of omega (sub 0) reflect the strong influence of smoke from biomass burning. For example, during a period when heavy smoke was advected into the region from the north, the mean value of omega (sub 0) in the boundary layer was 0.81 +/- 0.02 compared to 0.89 +/- 0.03 prior to this intrusion. Comparisons of layer aerosol optical depths derived from the in situ measurements with those measured by a Sun photometer aboard the aircraft show excellent agreement.

  7. Vertical Profiles of Light-Absorbing Aerosol: A Combination of In-situ and AERONET Observations during NASA DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Corr, C.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Hudgins, C.; Martin, R.; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols plays a vital role in utilizing spaceborne, column-integrated satellite observations. The properties and distribution of light-absorbing aerosol are particularly uncertain despite significant air quality and climate ramifications. Advanced retrieval algorithms are able to derive complex aerosol properties (e.g., wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient and single scattering albedo) from remote-sensing measurements, but quantitative relationships to surface conditions remain a challenge. Highly systematic atmospheric profiling during four unique deployments for the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project (Baltimore, MD, 2011; San Joaquin Valley, CA, 2013; Houston, TX, 2013; Denver, CO, 2014) allow statistical assessment of spatial, temporal, and source-related variability for light-absorbing aerosol properties in these distinct regions. In-situ sampling in conjunction with a dense network of AERONET sensors also allows evaluation of the sensitivity, limitations, and advantages of remote-sensing data products over a wide range of conditions. In-situ aerosol and gas-phase observations were made during DISCOVER-AQ aboard the NASA P-3B aircraft. Aerosol absorption coefficients were measured by a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). Approximately 200 profiles for each of the four deployments were obtained, from the surface (25-300m altitude) to 5 km, and are used to calculate absorption aerosol optical depths (AAODs). These are quantitatively compared to AAOD derived from AERONET Level 1.5 retrievals to 1) explore discrepancies between measurements, 2) quantify the fraction of AAOD that exists directly at the surface and is often missed by airborne sampling, and 3) evaluate the potential for deriving ground-level black carbon (BC) concentrations for air quality prediction. Aerosol size distributions are used to assess absorption contributions from mineral dust, both at the surface and aloft. SP2 (Single Particle Soot

  8. Aerosol sensing technologies in the mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janisko, Samuel J.; Noll, James D.; Cauda, Emanuele E.

    2011-06-01

    Recent health, safety and environmental regulations are causing an increased demand for monitoring of aerosols in the mining industry. Of particular concern are airborne concentrations of combustible and toxic rock dusts as well as particulate matter generated from diesel engines in underground mines. In response, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been evaluating a number of real time sensing technologies for potential use in underground mines. In particular, extensive evaluation has been done on filter-based light extinction using elemental carbon (EC) as a surrogate measurement of total diesel particulate matter (DPM) mass concentration as well as mechanical tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) technology for measurement of both DPM and rock dust mass concentrations. Although these technologies are promising in their ability to accurately measure mine aerosols for their respective applications, there are opportunities for design improvements or alternative technologies that may significantly enhance the monitoring of mine aerosols. Such alterations can lead to increases in sensitivity or a reduction in the size and cost of these devices. This paper provides a brief overview of current practices and presents results of NIOSH research in this area. It concludes with a short discussion of future directions in mine aerosol sensing research.

  9. Rapid Formation of Molecular Bromine from Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol in the Presence of Ozone and UV Light

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals prod...

  10. Scanning tropospheric ozone and aerosol lidar with double-gated photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Machol, Janet L; Marchbanks, Richard D; Senff, Christoph J; McCarty, Brandi J; Eberhard, Wynn L; Brewer, William A; Richter, Ronald A; Alvarez, Raul J; Law, Daniel C; Weickmann, Ann M; Sandberg, Scott P

    2009-01-20

    The Ozone Profiling Atmospheric Lidar is a scanning four-wavelength ultraviolet differential absorption lidar that measures tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Derived profiles from the lidar data include ozone concentration, aerosol extinction, and calibrated aerosol backscatter. Aerosol calibrations assume a clear air region aloft. Other products include cloud base heights, aerosol layer heights, and scans of particulate plumes from aircraft. The aerosol data range from 280 m to 12 km with 5 m range resolution, while the ozone data ranges from 280 m to about 1.2 km with 100 m resolution. In horizontally homogeneous atmospheres, data from multiple-elevation angles is combined to reduce the minimum altitude of the aerosol and ozone profiles to about 20 m. The lidar design, the characterization of the photomultiplier tubes, ozone and aerosol analysis techniques, and sample data are described. Also discussed is a double-gating technique to shorten the gated turn-on time of the photomultiplier tubes, and thereby reduce the detection of background light and the outgoing laser pulse.

  11. Two years of free-tropospheric aerosol layers observed over Portugal by lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PreißLer, J.; Wagner, F.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Silva, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Multi-wavelength Raman light detection and ranging (lidar) observations were analyzed, which were performed in Évora, Portugal, during more than 2 years on a regular basis in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). An aerosol characterization in terms of the lidar ratios at 355 and 532 nm and the extinction and backscatter related Ångström exponents is presented. Aerosol layers in the free troposphere were classified according to their origin. Clear differences in the intensive optical properties were found for layers of mineral dust from the Sahara and from Asia, of anthropogenic aerosol from Europe and from North America, as well as of biomass burning smoke from the Iberian Peninsula and from North America, respectively. In general, the mean Ångström exponents of aerosol layers of the same type, but from closer source regions, were smaller than those from aerosol layers transported over a longer distance. This hints at the deposition of large particles along the transportation path, especially for anthropogenic aerosol and mineral dust. Besides, the seasonal behavior of aerosol in the free troposphere over Évora was studied. Seventy-three percent of the detected layers were observed during spring and summer. On average, the layers were highest in summer with an overall mean layer height of (3.8 ±1.9) km above sea level (asl), and lowest in winter with (2.3 ±0.9) km asl.

  12. Scanning tropospheric ozone and aerosol lidar with double-gated photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Machol, Janet L; Marchbanks, Richard D; Senff, Christoph J; McCarty, Brandi J; Eberhard, Wynn L; Brewer, William A; Richter, Ronald A; Alvarez, Raul J; Law, Daniel C; Weickmann, Ann M; Sandberg, Scott P

    2009-01-20

    The Ozone Profiling Atmospheric Lidar is a scanning four-wavelength ultraviolet differential absorption lidar that measures tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Derived profiles from the lidar data include ozone concentration, aerosol extinction, and calibrated aerosol backscatter. Aerosol calibrations assume a clear air region aloft. Other products include cloud base heights, aerosol layer heights, and scans of particulate plumes from aircraft. The aerosol data range from 280 m to 12 km with 5 m range resolution, while the ozone data ranges from 280 m to about 1.2 km with 100 m resolution. In horizontally homogeneous atmospheres, data from multiple-elevation angles is combined to reduce the minimum altitude of the aerosol and ozone profiles to about 20 m. The lidar design, the characterization of the photomultiplier tubes, ozone and aerosol analysis techniques, and sample data are described. Also discussed is a double-gating technique to shorten the gated turn-on time of the photomultiplier tubes, and thereby reduce the detection of background light and the outgoing laser pulse. PMID:19151820

  13. Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    m, PM10=1.1 μg m-3; estimated coefficient of light scattering by particulate matter, σep, at 570 nm=12 Mm-1). (b) High aerosol concentration (PM2.5=43.9 μg m-3; PM10=83.4 μg m-3; estimated σep at 570 nm=245 Mm-1) (reproduced by permission of National Park Service, 2002). Although comprising only a small fraction of the mass of Earth's atmosphere, aerosol particles are highly important constituents of the atmosphere. Special interest has focused on aerosols in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, extending from the land or ocean surface typically to ˜8 km at high latitudes, ˜12 km in mid-latitudes, and ˜16 km at low latitudes. That interest arises in large part because of the importance of aerosol particles in geophysical processes, human health impairment through inhalation, environmental effects through deposition, visibility degradation, and influences on atmospheric radiation and climate.Anthropogenic aerosols are thought to exert a substantial influence on Earth's climate, and the need to quantify this influence has sparked much of the current interest in and research on tropospheric aerosols. The principal mechanisms by which aerosols influence the Earth radiation budget are scattering and absorbing solar radiation (the so-called "direct effects") and modifying clouds and precipitation, thereby affecting both radiation and hydrology (the so-called "indirect effects"). Light scattering by aerosols increases the brightness of the planet, producing a cooling influence. Light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon exert a warming influence. Aerosols increase the reflectivity of clouds, another cooling influence. These radiative influences are quantified as forcings, where a forcing is a perturbation to the energy balance of the atmosphere-Earth system, expressed in units of watts per square meter, W m-2. A warming influence is denoted a positive forcing, and a cooling influence, negative. The radiative direct and indirect forcings by

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biomass-burning emissions and their contribution to light absorption and aerosol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Samburova, Vera; Connolly, Jessica; Gyawali, Madhu; Yatavelli, Reddy L N; Watts, Adam C; Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Zielinska, Barbara; Moosmüller, Hans; Khlystov, Andrey

    2016-10-15

    In recent years, brown carbon (BrC) has been shown to be an important contributor to light absorption by biomass-burning atmospheric aerosols in the blue and near-ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar spectrum. Emission factors and optical properties of 113 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for combustion of five globally important fuels: Alaskan, Siberian, and Florida swamp peat, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles. The emission factors of total analyzed PAHs were between 1.9±0.43.0±0.6 and 9.6±1.2-42.2±5.4mgPAHkg(-1)fuel for particle- and gas phase, respectively. Spectrophotometric analysis of the identified PAHs showed that perinaphthenone, methylpyrenes, and pyrene contributed the most to the total PAH light absorption with 17.2%, 3.3 to 10.5%, and 7.6% of the total particle-phase PAH absorptivity averaged over analyzed emissions from the fuels. In the gas phase, the top three PAH contributors to BrC were acenaphthylene (32.6%), anthracene (8.2%), and 2,4,5-trimethylnaphthalene (8.0%). Overall, the identified PAHs were responsible for 0.087-0.16% (0.13% on average) and 0.033-0.15% (0.11% on average) of the total light absorption by dichloromethane-acetone extracts of particle and gas emissions, respectively. Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) analysis of 16 PAHs prioritized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) showed that benzo(a)pyrene contributed the most to the PAH carcinogenic potency of particle phase emissions (61.8-67.4% to the total carcinogenic potency of Σ16EPA PAHs), while naphthalene played the major role in carcinogenicity of the gas phase PAHs in the biomass-burning emission analyzed here (35.4-46.0% to the total carcinogenic potency of Σ16EPA PAHs). The 16 EPA-prioritized PAHs contributed only 22.1±6.2% to total particle and 23.4±11% to total gas phase PAH mass, thus toxic properties of biomass-burning PAH emissions are most likely underestimated.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biomass-burning emissions and their contribution to light absorption and aerosol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Samburova, Vera; Connolly, Jessica; Gyawali, Madhu; Yatavelli, Reddy L N; Watts, Adam C; Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Zielinska, Barbara; Moosmüller, Hans; Khlystov, Andrey

    2016-10-15

    In recent years, brown carbon (BrC) has been shown to be an important contributor to light absorption by biomass-burning atmospheric aerosols in the blue and near-ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar spectrum. Emission factors and optical properties of 113 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for combustion of five globally important fuels: Alaskan, Siberian, and Florida swamp peat, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles. The emission factors of total analyzed PAHs were between 1.9±0.43.0±0.6 and 9.6±1.2-42.2±5.4mgPAHkg(-1)fuel for particle- and gas phase, respectively. Spectrophotometric analysis of the identified PAHs showed that perinaphthenone, methylpyrenes, and pyrene contributed the most to the total PAH light absorption with 17.2%, 3.3 to 10.5%, and 7.6% of the total particle-phase PAH absorptivity averaged over analyzed emissions from the fuels. In the gas phase, the top three PAH contributors to BrC were acenaphthylene (32.6%), anthracene (8.2%), and 2,4,5-trimethylnaphthalene (8.0%). Overall, the identified PAHs were responsible for 0.087-0.16% (0.13% on average) and 0.033-0.15% (0.11% on average) of the total light absorption by dichloromethane-acetone extracts of particle and gas emissions, respectively. Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) analysis of 16 PAHs prioritized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) showed that benzo(a)pyrene contributed the most to the PAH carcinogenic potency of particle phase emissions (61.8-67.4% to the total carcinogenic potency of Σ16EPA PAHs), while naphthalene played the major role in carcinogenicity of the gas phase PAHs in the biomass-burning emission analyzed here (35.4-46.0% to the total carcinogenic potency of Σ16EPA PAHs). The 16 EPA-prioritized PAHs contributed only 22.1±6.2% to total particle and 23.4±11% to total gas phase PAH mass, thus toxic properties of biomass-burning PAH emissions are most likely underestimated. PMID:27304373

  16. Basic optics, aerosol optics, and the role of scattering for sky radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Helmuth

    2014-05-01

    The radiance of the night sky is determined by the available light and the scattering properties of the atmosphere (particles and gases). The scattering phase function of the aerosol has a strong dependence on the scattering angle, and depending on the viewing direction different parts of the atmosphere and the ground reflectivity give the most important contribution. The atmospheric radiance cannot be altered by optical instruments. On the other hand the light flux of a distant star increases with the size of the telescope, thus fainter stars become visible. Light extinction, scattering function, atmospheric radiance, ground reflectivity, color effects and others are discussed in detail and a simple theoretical treatment is given.

  17. Cooling enhancement of aerosol particles due to surfactant precipitation.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Melinda R; Freedman, Miriam A; Hasenkopf, Christa A; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2010-07-01

    Light extinction by particles in Earth's atmosphere is strongly dependent on the particle size, chemical composition, and ability to take up water. In this work, we have measured the optical growth factors, fRH(ext)(RH, dry), for complex particles composed of an inorganic salt, sodium nitrate, and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate. In contrast with previous studies using soluble and slightly soluble organic compounds, optical growth in excess to that expected based on the volume weighted water uptake of the individual components is observed. We explored the relationship between optical growth and concentration of surfactant by investigating the role of particle density, the effect of a surfactant monolayer, and increased light extinction by surfactant aggregates and precipitates. For our experimental conditions, it is likely that surfactant precipitates are responsible for the observed increase in light scattering. The contribution of surfactant precipitates to light scattering of aerosol particles has not been previously explored and has significant implications for characterizing the aerosol direct effect.

  18. Aqueous aerosol SOA formation: impact on aerosol physical properties.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joseph L; Kim, Derek D; Schwier, Allison N; Li, Ruizhi; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry in aerosol water has recently been recognized as a potentially important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material. This SOA material may be surface-active, therefore potentially affecting aerosol heterogeneous activity, ice nucleation, and CCN activity. Aqueous aerosol chemistry has also been shown to be a potential source of light-absorbing products ("brown carbon"). We present results on the formation of secondary organic aerosol material in aerosol water and the associated changes in aerosol physical properties from GAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis), a photochemical box model with coupled gas and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. The detailed aerosol composition output from GAMMA was coupled with two recently developed modules for predicting a) aerosol surface tension and b) the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the aerosol, based on our previous laboratory observations. The simulation results suggest that the formation of oligomers and organic acids in bulk aerosol water is unlikely to perturb aerosol surface tension significantly. Isoprene-derived organosulfates are formed in high concentrations in acidic aerosols under low-NO(x) conditions, but more experimental data are needed before the potential impact of these species on aerosol surface tension may be evaluated. Adsorption of surfactants from the gas phase may further suppress aerosol surface tension. Light absorption by aqueous aerosol SOA material is driven by dark glyoxal chemistry and is highest under high-NO(x) conditions, at high relative humidity, in the early morning hours. The wavelength dependence of the predicted absorption spectra is comparable to field observations and the predicted mass absorption efficiencies suggest that aqueous aerosol chemistry can be a significant source of aerosol brown carbon under urban conditions. PMID:24601011

  19. Efficient visible light driven photocatalytic removal of NO with aerosol flow synthesized B, N-codoped TiO2 hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xing; Song, Xiao; Li, Pengna; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2011-06-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that aerosol assisted flow synthesized B, N-codoped TiO(2) photocatalyst possesses superior photocatalytic activity to pure and single element doped counterparts on the degradation of NO in a flow system under both simulated solar light and visible light irradiation. Characterization results revealed that B, N-codoped TiO(2) photocatalyst was composed of hollow microspheres. Boron and nitrogen were in the form of Ti-O-B and N-Ti-O structures, respectively. The introduction of B and N into the TiO(2) lattice could effectively tune the band gap of TiO(2) and extend its optical response to the visible-light region. The synergistic effect of B and N codoping on visible light driven photocatalytic activity enhancement of TiO(2) was discussed on the basis of experimental results. PMID:21514043

  20. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  1. Martian upper atmospheric aerosol properties from Phobos eclipse observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, Mark T.

    2015-11-01

    Solar occultation photometry is a useful method for probing upper atmospheric aerosols, using a long atmospheric path for direct extinction measurements. During April-June 2015, the Mars Science Laboratory’s Mastcam was used for solar occultation photometry by proxy: 3 eclipse ingresses by Phobos into Mars’ shadow were observed, as were 3 egresses from the shadow. The observations occurred in late Southern summer, at LS 331-352°. The observations of the moon’s brightness sample the Martian atmosphere along the lines of site from the Sun to Phobos. The ingresses and egresses sampled longitudes up to 1000s of km west or east of the rover’s position, respectively; sampled latitudes from 30° S to 7° S over time; and sampled local sunset or sunrise, respectively. Each eclipse was imaged with both Mastcam cameras, M-100 with an RGB filter (638, 551, and 493 nm) and M-34 with an 867-nm filter. Light-curves for the eclipses were derived from the images and interpreted via a geometric model of the event, accounting for the full range of lines of sight through the atmosphere. The altitude of 50% extinction was found to vary within the 40-60 km range. Extinction varied with wavelength: four events showed significantly higher extinction in the blue, with a monotonic decrease with wavelength, interpreted as a result of 0.3-0.4 μm dust aerosols. Two events (one of each type) showed no significant wavelength variation of extinction, interpreted as a result of large (>1 μm) aerosols. One of these, probing local sunrise conditions, may suggest a thin layer of CO2 ice cloud. Future work may allow retrieval of vertical gradients in aerosol size near the mid-point of the sensitive region (i.e., altitudes near that of 50% transmission and/or path optical depth unity) and/or identification of discrete layers vs. well-mixed aerosols (for instance, clouds vs. dust)

  2. Light scattering characteristics of aerosols at ambient and as a function of relative humidity: Part II--A comparison of measured scattering and aerosol concentrations using statistical models.

    PubMed

    Malm, W C; Day, D E; Kreidenweis, S M

    2000-05-01

    The eastern United States national parks experience some of the worst visibility conditions in the nation. To study these conditions, the Southeastern Aerosol and Visibility Study (SEAVS) was undertaken to characterize the size-dependent composition, thermodynamic properties, and optical characteristics of the ambient atmospheric particles. It is a cooperative three-year study that is sponsored by the National Park Service and the Electric Power Research Institute and its member utilities. The field portion of the study was carried out from July 15 to August 25, 1995. The study design, instrumental configuration, and estimation of aerosol types from particle measurements is presented in a companion paper. In the companion paper, we compare measurements of scattering at ambient conditions and as functions of relative humidity to theoretical predictions of scattering. In this paper, we make similar comparisons, but using statistical techniques. Statistically derived specific scattering associated with sulfates suggest that a reasonable estimate of sulfate scattering can be arrived at by assuming nominal dry specific scattering and treating the aerosols as an external mixture with ammoniation of sulfate accounted for and by the use of Tang's growth curves to predict water absorption. However, the regressions suggest that the sulfate scattering may be underestimated by about 10%. Regression coefficients on organics, to within the statistical uncertainty of the model, suggest that a reasonable estimate of organic scattering is about 4.0 m2/g. A new analysis technique is presented, which does not rely on comparing measured to model estimates of scattering to evoke an understanding of ambient aerosol growth properties, but rather relies on measurements of scattering as a function of relative humidity to develop actual estimates of f(RH) curves. The estimates of the study average f(RH) curve for sulfates compares favorably with the theoretical f(RH) curve for ammonium

  3. Atmospheric extinction in solar tower plants: the Absorption and Broadband Correction for MOR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrieder, N.; Wilbert, S.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Emde, C.; Gasteiger, J.; Mayer, B.; Polo, J.

    2015-05-01

    Losses of reflected Direct Normal Irradiance due to atmospheric extinction in concentrating solar tower plants can vary significantly with site and time. The losses of the direct normal irradiance between the heliostat field and receiver in a solar tower plant are mainly caused by atmospheric scattering and absorption by aerosol and water vapor concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer. Due to a high aerosol particle number, radiation losses can be significantly larger in desert environments compared to the standard atmospheric conditions which are usually considered in raytracing or plant optimization tools. Information about on-site atmospheric extinction is only rarely available. To measure these radiation losses, two different commercially available instruments were tested and more than 19 months of measurements were collected at the Plataforma Solar de Almería and compared. Both instruments are primarily used to determine the meteorological optical range (MOR). The Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is based on a monochromatic near-infrared light source emission and measures the strength of scattering processes in a small air volume mainly caused by aerosol particles. The Optec LPV4 long-path visibility transmissometer determines the monochromatic attenuation between a light-emitting diode (LED) light source at 532 nm and a receiver and therefore also accounts for absorption processes. As the broadband solar attenuation is of interest for solar resource assessment for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), a correction procedure for these two instruments is developed and tested. This procedure includes a spectral correction of both instruments from monochromatic to broadband attenuation. That means the attenuation is corrected for the actual, time-dependent by the collector reflected solar spectrum. Further, an absorption correction for the Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is implemented. To optimize the Absorption and Broadband Correction (ABC) procedure, additional

  4. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Canagaratna, Manjula; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, Joel; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Davidovits, Paul

    2009-10-01

    To accurately model the radiative forcing of aerosol particles, one must measure in real-time the size, shape, density, chemical composition, and mixing state of ambient particles. This is a formidable challenge because the chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles are highly complex, dependent on the emission sources, the geography and meteorology of the surroundings, and the gas phase composition of the regional atmosphere.

  5. Properties of light-absorbing aerosols in the Nagoya urban area, Japan, in August 2011 and January 2012: Contributions of brown carbon and lensing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Ikeda, Yuka; Sawada, Yuuki; Setoguchi, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Shuhei; Kawana, Kaori; Mochida, Michihiro; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2014-11-01

    The optical properties of aerosols at 405 and 781 nm were measured in an urban site in Nagoya, Japan, in August 2011 and in January 2012 using a photoacoustic spectrometer. Comparison of the absorption coefficient at 781 nm of aerosols that did and did not pass through a thermo-denuder showed that an increase in black carbon (BC) light absorption due to the coating of non-refractory materials (i.e., the lensing effect) was small (on average, 10%) in August and negligible in January. The effective density distributions for the particles that did and did not pass through the thermo-denuder, which were measured simultaneously in August, suggested that the majority of BC particles sampled had a minimal coating. The small lensing effect observed can be explained partly by assuming that a large portion of non-refractory materials was mixed externally with BC. The contribution of direct light absorption by organic matter (OM) that vaporized at temperatures below 300°C to the total light absorption at 405 nm was negligible in August, but those by OM that vaporized below 300 and 400°C averaged 11 and 17%, respectively, in January. The larger contribution of light-absorbing OM in January is likely due to the greater contribution of OM originating from the burning of biomass, including biofuel and agricultural residue, in Japan, northern China, or Siberia, during the winter.

  6. A new broadly tunable (7.4-10.2 eV) laser based VUV light source and its first application to aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S. J.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Simpson, E. A.; Robb, D. B.; Burak, I.; Blades, M. W.; Hepburn, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    A laser based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source using resonance enhanced four wave difference mixing in xenon gas was developed for near threshold ionization of organics in atmospheric aerosol particles. The source delivers high intensity pulses of VUV light (in the range of 1010 to 1013 photons/pulse depending on wavelength, 5 ns FWHM) with a continuously tunable wavelength from 122 nm (10.2 eV) to 168 nm (7.4 eV)E The setup allows for tight (<1 mm2) and precise focusing ([mu]rad pointing angle adjustability), attributes required for single particle detection. The generated VUV is separated from the pump wavelengths by a custom monochromator which ensures high spectral purity and minimizes absorptive losses. The performance of the source was characterized using organic molecules in the gas phase and optimal working conditions are reported. In the gas phase measurements, photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves were collected for seven different organic species with ionization energies spanning the full wavelength range of the VUV source. The measured appearance energies are very close to the literature values of the ionization energies for all seven species. The effectiveness of the source for single particle studies was demonstrated by analysis of individual caffeine aerosols vaporized by a pulsed CO2 laser in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Mass spectra from single particles down to 300 nm in diameter were collected. Excellent signal to noise characteristics for these small particles give a caffeine detection limit of 8 × 105 molecules which is equivalent to a single 75 nm aerosol, or approximately 1.5% of a 300 nm particleE The appearance energy of caffeine originating from the aerosol was also measured and found to be 7.91 ± 0.05 eV, in good agreement with literature values.

  7. Evaluation of MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals by coincident observations using CRDS, lidar, and sky radiometer in Tsukuba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Nakayama, T.; Shimizu, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Nagai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Zaizen, Y.; Kagamitani, S.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coincident aerosol observations of Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), lidar, and sky radiometer were conducted in Tsukuba, Japan on 5-18 October 2010. MAX-DOAS aerosol retrieval (for aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth at 476 nm) was evaluated from the viewpoint of the need for a correction factor for oxygen collision complexes (O4 or O2-O2) absorption. The present study strongly supports this need, as systematic residuals at relatively high elevation angles (20 and 30°) were evident in MAX-DOAS profile retrievals conducted without the correction. However, adopting a single number for the correction factor (fO4 = 1.25) for all of the elevation angles led to systematic overestimation of near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, as reported in the literature. To achieve agreement with all three observations, we limited the set of elevation angles to ≤ 10° and adopted an elevation-angle-dependent correction factor for practical profile retrievals with scattered light observations by a ground-based MAX-DOAS. With these modifications, we expect to minimize the possible effects of temperature-dependent O4 absorption cross section and uncertainty in DOAS fit on an aerosol profile retrieval, although more efforts are encouraged to quantitatively identify a physical explanation for the need of a correction factor.

  8. Evaluation of MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals by coincident observations using CRDS, lidar, and sky radiometer inTsukuba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Nakayama, T.; Shimizu, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Nagai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Zaizen, Y.; Kagamitani, S.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Coincident aerosol observations of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), lidar, and sky radiometer were conducted in Tsukuba, Japan, on 5-18 October 2010. MAX-DOAS aerosol retrieval (for aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth at 476 nm) was evaluated from the viewpoint of the need for a correction factor for oxygen collision complexes (O4 or O2-O2) absorption. The present study strongly supports this need, as systematic residuals at relatively high elevation angles (20 and 30°) were evident in MAX-DOAS profile retrievals conducted without the correction. However, adopting a single number for the correction factor (fO4 = 1.25) for all of the elevation angles led to systematic overestimation of near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, as reported in the literature. To achieve agreement with all three observations, we limited the set of elevation angles to ≤10° and adopted an elevation-angle-dependent correction factor for practical profile retrievals with scattered light observations by a ground-based MAX-DOAS. With these modifications, we expect to minimize the possible effects of temperature-dependent O4 absorption cross section and uncertainty in DOAS fit on an aerosol profile retrieval, although more efforts are encouraged to quantitatively identify a physical explanation for the need of a correction factor.

  9. Validation studies using multiwavelength Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) observations of stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Steven T.; Gille, John C.; Edwards, David P.; Bailey, Paul L.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.; Craig, Cheryl A.; Cavanaugh, Charles P.; Mergenthaler, John L.; Roche, Aidan E.; Kumer, John B.; Lambert, Alyn; Grainger, Roy G.; Rodgers, Clive D.; Taylor, Frederic W.; Russell, James M.; Park, Jae H.; Deshler, Terry; Hervig, Mark E.; Fishbein, Evan F.; Waters, Joe W.; Lahoz, William A.

    1996-04-01

    Validation studies of multiwavelength Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) observations of stratospheric aerosol are discussed. An error analysis of the CLAES aerosol extinction data is presented. Aerosol extinction precision values are estimated at latitudes and times at which consecutive Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) orbits overlap. Comparisons of CLAES aerosol data with theoretical Mie calculations, based upon in situ particle size measurements at Laramie, Wyoming, are presented. CLAES aerosol data are also compared to scaled aerosol extinction measured by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) and Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiments. Observed and calculated extinction spectra, from CLAES, Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS), and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) data, are compared. CLAES extinction data have precisions between 10 and 25%, instrumental biases near 30%, and accuracies between 33 and 43%.

  10. Implications of extinction due to meteoritic smoke in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Ryan R., III; English, Jason M.; Toon, Owen B.; Solomon, Susan; Mills, Michael; Thayer, Jeffery P.

    2011-12-01

    Recent optical observations of aerosols in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere show significant amounts of extinction at altitudes above about 40 km where the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer ends. Recent modeling of this region reveals that meteoritic smoke settling from the mesosphere and its interaction with the upper part of the sulfate aerosol layer is the origin of the observed extinction. Extinction in this region has major implications for the interpretation and analysis of several kinds of aerosol data (satellite and lidar). We compare observations from the SAGE II satellite and from NOAA's lidar located at Mauna Loa, Hawaii to extinction profiles derived from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) coupled with the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Our results show that a major source of extinction exists in the region above about 30 km that must be addressed by all remote sensing instruments that have traditionally used the stratosphere above about 30 km as an aerosol free region to estimate the molecular component of their total extinction. It is also shown that meteoritic smoke not only contributes to but also becomes the dominant source of aerosol extinction above 35 km and poleward of 30 degrees in latitude, as well as above 40 km in the tropics. After addressing the concerns described here, current and past observations of this region could be reanalyzed to further our understanding of meteoritic dust in the upper stratosphere.

  11. Extinction cross section measurements for a single optically trapped particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterell, Michael I.; Preston, Thomas C.; Mason, Bernard J.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    Bessel beam (BB) optical traps have become widely used to confine single and multiple aerosol particles across a broad range of sizes, from a few microns to < 200 nm in radius. The radiation pressure force exerted by the core of a single, zeroth-order BB incident on a particle can be balanced by a counter-propagating gas flow, allowing a single particle to be trapped indefinitely. The pseudo non-diffracting nature of BBs enables particles to be confined over macroscopic distances along the BB core propagation length; the position of the particle along this length can be finely controlled by variation of the BB laser power. This latter property is exploited to optimize the particle position at the center of the TEM00 mode of a high finesse optical cavity, allowing cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) to be performed on single aerosol particles and their optical extinction cross section, σext, measured. Further, the variation in the light from the illuminating BB elastically scattered by the particle is recorded as a function of scattering angle. Such intensity distributions are fitted to Lorenz-Mie theory to determine the particle radius. The trends in σext with particle radius are modelled using cavity standing wave Mie simulations and a particle's varying refractive index with changing relative humidity is determined. We demonstrate σext measurements on individual sub-micrometer aerosol particles and determine the lowest limit in particle size that can be probed by this technique. The BB-CRDS method will play a key role in reducing the uncertainty associated with atmospheric aerosol radiative forcing, which remains among the largest uncertainties in climate modelling.

  12. Measurements of the absorption coefficient of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogren, J. A.; Ahlquist, N. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Charlson, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of stratospheric aerosols are measured using a variation on the integrating plate method. The technique is based on the decrease in the transparency of a substrate when an absorbing aerosol is deposited on it. A Lambert scatterer is placed behind the substrate to integrate forward scattered light and minimize the effect of scattering on the measurement. The low pressure in the stratosphere is used for the direct impaction of particles onto a narrow strip of opal glass. The eight samples collected had a median value of 4 x 10 to the -9th m with an uncertainty of + or - 5 x 10 to the -9th m. If this absorption is due to graphitic carbon, then its concentration is estimated at about 0.4 ng/cu m, or about 0.25% of the total aerosol mass concentration. Estimates of the aerosol scattering coefficients based on satellite extinction inversions result in an aerosol single-scattering albedo in the range of 0.96-1.0.

  13. The stratigraphy of mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Steven

    2015-04-01

    positions, and that these clusters arise even when extinction rates are constant through time. Many interpretations of the tempo of extinction based on stratigraphic patterns of last occurrences need to be reinterpreted in light of the sequence stratigraphic record. In particular, double-pulsed extinctions are a common result of prolonged elevated extinction, with clusters of last occurrences produced by subaerial unconformities, flooding surfaces surfaces of forced regression, and condensed horizons.

  14. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  15. Aerosol profiling by Raman lidar in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Nianwen; Yang, Shaobo; Xie, Yinhai; Zhu, Cunxiong

    2015-10-01

    Aerosol profiles at 607 nm over ranges from 2 to 20 km were obtained using Raman lidar in Nanjing, China. The measured aerosol extinction coefficient was largely stable at about 1.5-2.5 × 10-4 m-1 after noise and Rayleigh corrections were applied. The noise effect in Raman lidar aerosol measurements is analyzed, and a formula relating aerosol extinction coefficient error and noise is presented in detail. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement, indicating that the noise-related calculation for the Raman lidar aerosol measurement error is reasonable.

  16. Characteristics of aerosol at a lower atmospheric layer in DRAGON field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUJI, M.; Azuma, Y.; Kitakoga, S.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution arises severely over East Asia with the rapid economic development nowadays. Monitoring the atmospheric environment, as one of the purposes, an intensive field campaign, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON), was carried out in the spring of year 2012, led by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At that time, atmospheric phenomena such as Yellow sand and haze events were observed at Nara in the western part of Japan, as one of the DRAGON observation sites. The atmospheric events were characterized with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. As a result of the data analysis, it was found that more light-absorbing and smaller particles dominated at the lower than upper atmospheric layer for the Kosa event in particular. A backward trajectory analysis suggested that the Yellow sand event traveled over the East Asian industrial cities, which could lead to a mixture of sand and air pollutants with moderate particle size and light-absorptivity. In addition, visibility observation was evaluated quantitatively with AERONET data in the DRAGON campaign since eye observation was inherently semi-quantitative. The extinction coefficient estimated from visibility was compared to that from AERONET. As a result, it was found that the extinction coefficients were generally consistent to each other. But there were some discrepancies, which could be caused with the atmospheric phenomena or aerosol types. It is confirmed that visibility is strongly influenced with aerosols in the case of severe atmospheric phenomena in particular.

  17. Intercomparison of satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms based on the simulated measurements of the intensity and polarization of reflected solar light for various types of underlying surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol has a profound influence on climate, the global cloud field, and human health. Therefore, the microphysical (size and shape of particles, chemical composition, and concentration) and optical (optical thickness, single scattering albedo) properties of atmospheric aerosol have been thoroughly studied using the ground-based and satellite observation systems. The main optical parameter is aerosol optical thickness (AOT). AOT can be derived from measurements of direct solar light by a sun-photometer positioned on the ground, a ship, or an aircraft. Simultaneously, AOT can be derived using an optical instrument orbiting the planet. The ground measurements provide the most accurate values of the AOT, as they provide a direct measure of the attenuation of solar radiation. Satellite measurements require the development of the complex retrieval software, because the satellite signal contains both contribution from the surface and atmospheric aerosol. The contributions of molecular scattering and absorption must be accounted for as well. There have been numerous attempts to compare the spectral AOT derived from the ground and satellite measurements, with the accuracy of satellite retrievals is usually checked against ground measurements collocated in time and space. However, such inter-comparisons cannot be perfect because the direct solar light beam attenuation measurements from the ground and reflected solar light measurements provide different spatial sampling of atmosphere. This is not a big issue in the ideal case of a cloudless sky with homogeneously distributed aerosol particles. However, in practice, some residual clouds (e.g., Cirrus) or contrails can influence the signal measured on the ground and also from orbit. Moreover, atmospheric aerosol is not always homogeneously distributed in space. This will make the direct inter-comparison of both techniques difficult. Yet another possibility is to compare results of retrievals from different

  18. Effect of hygroscopic growth on the aerosol light-scattering coefficient: A review of measurements, techniques and error sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, G.; Cazorla, A.; Zieger, P.; Andrews, E.; Lyamani, H.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the scattering enhancement factor, f(RH), is important for an accurate description of direct aerosol radiative forcing. This factor is defined as the ratio between the scattering coefficient at enhanced relative humidity, RH, to a reference (dry) scattering coefficient. Here, we review the different experimental designs used to measure the scattering coefficient at dry and humidified conditions as well as the procedures followed to analyze the measurements. Several empirical parameterizations for the relationship between f(RH) and RH have been proposed in the literature. These parameterizations have been reviewed and tested using experimental data representative of different hygroscopic growth behavior and a new parameterization is presented. The potential sources of error in f(RH) are discussed. A Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the overall measurement uncertainty, which is found to be around 20-40% for moderately hygroscopic aerosols. The main factors contributing to this uncertainty are the uncertainty in RH measurement, the dry reference state and the nephelometer uncertainty. A literature survey of nephelometry-based f(RH) measurements is presented as a function of aerosol type. In general, the highest f(RH) values were measured in clean marine environments, with pollution having a major influence on f(RH). Dust aerosol tended to have the lowest reported hygroscopicity of any of the aerosol types studied. Major open questions and suggestions for future research priorities are outlined.

  19. Phanerozoic Biodiversity Mass Extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambach, Richard K.

    2006-05-01

    Recent analyses of Sepkoski's genus-level compendium show that only three events form a statistically separate class of high extinction intensities when only post-Early Ordovician intervals are considered, but geologists have called numerous events mass extinctions. Is this a conflict? A review of different methods of tabulating data from the Sepkoski database reveals 18 intervals during the Phanerozoic have peaks of both magnitude and rate of extinction that appear in each tabulating scheme. These intervals all fit Sepkoski's definition of mass extinction. However, they vary widely in timing and effect of extinction, demonstrating that mass extinctions are not a homogeneous group of events. No consensus has been reached on the kill mechanism for any marine mass extinction. In fact, adequate data on timing in ecologic, rather than geologic, time and on geographic and environmental distribution of extinction have not yet been systematically compiled for any extinction event.

  20. Absorption Ångström exponents of aerosols and light absorbing carbon (LAC) obtained from in situ data in Covilhã, central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mogo, S; Cachorro, V E; de Frutos, A; Rodrigues, A

    2012-12-01

    A field campaign was conducted from October 2009 to July 2010 at Covilhã, a small town located in the region of Beira Interior (Portugal) in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. The ambient light-absorption coefficient, σ(a) (522 nm), obtained from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), presented a daily mean value of 12.1 Mm⁻¹ (StD = 7.3 Mm⁻¹). The wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption is investigated through the Ångström parameter, α(a). The α(a) values for the pair of wavelengths 470-660 nm ranged from 0.86 to 1.47 during the period of measurements. The PSAP data were used to infer the mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC) and the daily mean varied from 0.1 to 6.8 μg m⁻³. A detailed study of special events with different aerosol characteristics is carried out and, to support data interpretation, air masses trajectory analysis is performed.

  1. Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H.; Yue, G. K.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for inferring stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from the water vapor concentration and aerosol extinction measurements obtained in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and the associated temperature from the NMC. The aerosols are assumed to be sulfuric acid-water droplets. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to determine model size distribution parameters based on the SAGE II multiwavelength aerosol extinctions. It is found that the best aerosol size information is contained in the aerosol radius range between about 0.25 and 0.80 micron.

  2. Composition and Particle Size Retrievals for Homogeneous Binary Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Argon, P.; Bejcek, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric aerosols have widely varying compositions, shapes, and sizes. The ability to measure these physical characteristics, coupled with knowledge about their optical properties, can provide insight as to how these particles might participate in atmospheric processes, including their interaction with light. Over the past several years, our laboratory has been involved in developing methods to determine basic physical properties of laboratory-generated particles based on the analysis of infrared extinction spectra of multi-component aerosols. Here we report the results of a complete study on the applicability of well-known refractive index mixing rules to homogeneous binary liquid organic aerosols in an effort to yield in situ measurements of particle size and composition. In particular, we present results for terpenoid (carvone/nopinone) and long-chain hydrocarbon (squalane/squalene) mixtures. The included image shows model carvone/nopinone extinction spectra that were computed using the Lorentz-Lorenz mixing rule on complex refractive index data for the pure components.

  3. Aerosol Products from The Future Space Lidar AEOLUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinet, Pauline; Dabas, Alain; Lever, Vincent; Flamant, Pierre; Huber, Dorit

    2016-06-01

    Ready for launch by the end of 2016, the Doppler lidar mission AEOLUS from the European Space Agency (ESA) will be the first High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) in space. Operating in the UV, it implements two detection channels for aerosol and molecular backscatter. The system is primarily designed for the measurement of winds, but the HSRL capability enables the measurement of the particulate backscatter and extinction coefficients without any a priori assumption on the aerosol type. The level-2A (L2A) processor has been developed for these measurements and tested with synthetic data. The results show good aerosol backscatter profiles can be retrieved. Extinction coefficients are reasonable but do not reach the quality of backscatter coefficients. A precise, full, radiometric calibration of the lidar is required. A major limitation of the system is a single polarization component of the light is detected leading to an underestimation of backscatter coefficients when the atmospheric particles are depolarizing. The vertical resolution goes from 250 meters in the lowest part of the atmosphere, to 2 km in the lower stratosphere. The maximum altitude can reach above 20km. The basic horizontal averaging is 90km. Averaging on shorter distances (down to a few km) are possible but require a sufficient signal to noise ratio.

  4. Multiple Types of Light Absorbing Carbon Aerosol in East Asian Outflow: Variatons in Morphology and Internal Structure as Characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Alexander, D. T.; Crozier, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The importance of light absorbing carbon (LAC) aerosols to climate forcing is well established, but such aerosols are typically treated in climate models as uniform in optical properties. When examined by electron microscopy, however, LAC aerosols from regions with significant anthropogenic pollution show a wide variety of morphologies and internal structures. Electron energy loss spectral analysis to date on brown carbon and black carbon, albeit limited, suggests a linkage between internal structure and fundamental optical properties. Some of these LAC varieties can be easily defined as distinct “types” and other varieties show a continuum of variation within which general “types” can be defined. The data discussed here are from a research flight of the NCAR C-130 aircraft flown in April 2001 above the Yellow Sea during the ACE-Asia project. Perhaps the most common LAC type is “soot”, branched and chainlike aggregates of carbonaceous spherules. The spherule size in East Asian soot particles is 20-60 nm in many cases, but soot with large spherules (100 nm or larger) are also present. Spherule size is a “source effect” and not something altered during transport and aging. Some laboratory studies have suggested that as soot ages, the aggregates become more compact, but in these aerosols both compact and open soot particles coexist and compact soot is known to be the initial LAC product under some combustion conditions. In cases where the spherule size of the compact soot is different from that of open-structured soot, clearly the compact soot is not an aged form of the latter. Variability of ordering of the graphene sheets that make up the spherules is also a source effect. The more ordered soot particles consist of graphene sheets that curve concentrically, onion-like, around the spherule center, probably indicative of a high degree of carbonization that accompanies high temperature combustion. There is a range of ordering from highly ordered down to

  5. Impacts of sources and aging on submicrometer aerosol properties in the marine boundary layer across the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Coffman, D.; Onasch, T. B.; Worsnop, D.; Baynard, T.; de Gouw, J. A.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E.; Roberts, J. M.; Lerner, B.; Stohl, A.; Pettersson, A.; Lovejoy, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements were made on board the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown during the second New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS 2004) to determine the source of the aerosol in the region and how sources and aging processes affect submicrometer aerosol chemical composition and optical properties. Using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART in combination with gas phase tracer compounds, local (urban), regional (NE U.S. urban corridor of Washington, D.C.; New York; and Boston), and distant (midwest industries and North American forest fires) sources were identified. Submicrometer aerosol measured near the source region (Boston Harbor) had a molar equivalence ratio near one with respect to NH4+, NO3-, and SO4=, had a large mass fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) relative to SO4=, and had relatively unoxidized POM. As distance from the source region increased, the submicrometer aerosol measured in the marine boundary layer became more acidic and had a lower POM mass fraction, and the POM became more oxidized. The relative humidity dependence of light extinction reflected the change in aerosol composition being lower for the near-source aerosol and higher for the more processed aerosol. A factor analysis performed on a combined data set of aerosol and gas phase parameters showed that the POM measured during the experiment was predominantly of secondary anthropogenic origin.

  6. Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Shilling, John E.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mei, Fan; Jefferson, Anne

    2014-10-01

    We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define “weakly absorbing” as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49±0.02) and effective density (1.68±0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the

  7. Simultaneous retrieval of effective refractive index and density from size distribution and light scattering data: weakly absorbing aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.; Pekour, M.; Berg, L. K.; Shilling, J.; Flynn, C.; Mei, F.; Jefferson, A.

    2014-05-01

    We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define "weakly absorbing" as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 μm. The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE ~ 3%) and reasonable (RMSE ~ 28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49 ± 0.02) and effective density (1.68 ± 0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10

  8. OMI tropospheric NO2 air mass factors over South America: effects of biomass burning aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, K. F.; Torres, O.; de Haan, J. F.

    2015-03-01

    Biomass burning is an important and uncertain source of aerosols and NOx (NO + NO2) to the atmosphere. OMI observations of tropospheric NO2 are essential for characterizing this emissions source, but inaccuracies in the retrieval of NO2 tropospheric columns due to the radiative effects of aerosols, especially light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, are not well understood. It has been shown that the O2-O2 effective cloud fraction and pressure retrieval is sensitive to aerosol optical and physical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD). Aerosols implicitly influence the tropospheric air mass factor (AMF) calculations used in the NO2 retrieval through the effective cloud parameters used in the independent pixel approximation. In this work, we explicitly account for the effects of biomass burning aerosols in the tropospheric NO2 AMF calculation by including collocated aerosol extinction vertical profile observations from the CALIOP instrument, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved by the OMI near-UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) in the DISAMAR radiative transfer model for cloud-free scenes. Tropospheric AMFs calculated with DISAMAR were benchmarked against AMFs reported in the Dutch OMI NO2 (DOMINO) retrieval; the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the difference was 0.6 ± 8%. Averaged over three successive South American biomass burning seasons (2006-2008), the spatial correlation in the 500 nm AOD retrieved by OMI and the 532 nm AOD retrieved by CALIOP was 0.6, and 72% of the daily OMAERUV AOD observations were within 0.3 of the CALIOP observations. Overall, tropospheric AMFs calculated with observed aerosol parameters were on average 10% higher than AMFs calculated with effective cloud parameters. For effective cloud radiance fractions less than 30%, or effective cloud pressures greater than 800 hPa, the difference between tropospheric AMFs based on implicit and explicit aerosol parameters is on average 6 and 3

  9. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A A

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms.

  10. Fossil Worm Burrows Reveal Very Early Terrestrial Animal Activity and Shed Light on Trophic Resources after the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

  11. Discrimination of cloud and aerosol in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III occultation data.

    PubMed

    Kent, G S; Wang, P H; Skeens, K M

    1997-11-20

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III, scheduled for a first launch in mid-1998, will be making measurements of the extinction that is due to aerosols and gases at many wavelengths between 385 and 1550 nm. In the troposphere and wintertime polar stratosphere, extinction will also occur because of the presence of cloud along the optical path from the Sun to the satellite instrument. We describe a method for separating the effects of aerosol and cloud using the extinction at 525, 1020, and 1550 nm and present the results of simulation studies. These studies show that the new method will work well under background nonvolcanic aerosol conditions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Under conditions of severe volcanic contamination, the error rate for the separation of aerosol and cloud may rise as high as 30%.

  12. Influence of the vertical absorption profile of mixed Asian dust plumes on aerosol direct radiative forcing over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Young Min; Lee, Kwonho; Kim, Kwanchul; Shin, Sung-Kyun; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) and heating rate profiles of mixed East Asian dust plumes in the solar wavelength region ranging from 0.25 to 4.0 μm using the Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients and single-scattering albedos (SSA) were derived from measurements with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system. The data are used as input parameters for our radiative transfer calculations. We considered four cases of radiative forcing in SBDART: 1. dust, 2. pollution, 3. mixed dust plume and the use of vertical profiles of SSA, and 4. mixed dust plumes and the use of column-averaged values of SSA. In our sensitivity study we examined the influence of SSA and aerosol layer height on our results. The ADRF at the surface and in the atmosphere shows a small dependence on the specific shape of the aerosol extinction vertical profile and its light-absorption property for all four cases. In contrast, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the ADRF is largely affected by the vertical distribution of the aerosols extinction. This effect increases if the light-absorption capacity (decrease of SSA) of the aerosols increases. We find different radiative effects in situations in which two layers of aerosols had different light-absorption properties. The largest difference was observed at the TOA for an absorbing aerosol layer at high altitude in which we considered in one case the vertical profile of SSA and in another case the column-averaged SSA only. The ADRF at the TOA increases when the light-absorbing aerosol layer is located above 3 km altitude. The differences between height-resolved SSA, which can be obtained from lidar data, and total layer-mean SSA indicates that the use of a layer-mean SSA can be rather misleading as it can induce a large error in the calculation of the ADRF at the TOA, which in turn may cause errors in the vertical profiles of heating rates.

  13. Interrelationships Between Aerosol Characteristics and Light Scattering During Late-winter in a Eastern Mediterranean Arid Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.; Schebeske, G.; Formenti, P.; Maenhaut, W.; Cafmeyer, J.; Ptasinski, J.; Karnieli, A.; Orlovsky, L.

    1999-01-01

    An intensive field campaign involving measurement of various aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative properties was conducted at Sde Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel, from 18 February to 15 March 1997. Nephelometer measurements gave average background scattering coefficient values of about 25 M/m at 550 nm wavelength, but strong dust events caused the value of this parameter to rise up to about 800 M/m Backscattering fractions did not depend on aerosol loading, and generally fell in the range of 0.1 to 0.25, comparable to values reported for marine and Arctic environments. Chemical analysis of the aerosol revealed that, in the coarse size range (2 - 10 micrometer equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD)), calcium (Ca) was by far the most abundant element followed by silicon (Si), both of which are indicators for mineral dust. In the fine size fraction (< 2 micrometers EAD), sulfur (S) generally was the dominant element, except during high dust episodes when Ca and Si were again the most abundant. Furthermore, fine black carbon (BC) correlates with S, suggesting that they may have originated from the same sources or source regions. An indication of the short-term effect of aerosol loading on radiative forcing was provided by measurements of global and diffuse solar radiation, which showed that during high turbidity periods (strong dust events) almost all of the solar radiation reaching the area is scattered or absorbed.

  14. Aerosol light scattering measurements as a function of relative humidity: a comparison between measurements made at three different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Derek E.; Malm, William C.

    The water uptake by fine aerosol particles in the atmosphere has been investigated at three rural National Parks in the United States (Great Smoky Mountains, Grand Canyon and Big Bend National Parks). The relative humidity (RH) of sample aerosols was varied from less than 20% to greater than 90% using Perma Pure drying tubes as the scattering coefficient of the aerosol was measured with a Radiance Research M903 nephelometer. Data from these studies show that growth curves at all the three sites are similar in shape but the magnitude of growth can vary considerably from day to day. The growth curves from Great Smoky Mountains show smooth continuous growth over the entire range of RH, while the growth curves from the Grand Canyon and Big Bend show smooth and continuous growth on some days and deliquescence on other days. Comparing 12-h filter samples of chemical composition data with the aerosol growth curves, we find that higher fractions of soluble inorganic compounds (sulfate and nitrate) produce growth curves of greater magnitude than do higher concentrations of either organic carbon or soil material.

  15. Light emitting diode cavity enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LED-CE-DOAS): a novel technique for monitoring atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalman, Ryan M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.

    2009-08-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light- Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced DOAS (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e., does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), iodine monoxide (IO), water (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). Aerosol extinction is retrieved at two wavelengths by means of observing water and O4 and measuring pressure, temperature and relative humidity independently. The instrument components are presented, and the approach to measure aerosol extinction is demonstrated by means of a set of experiments where laboratory generated monodisperse aerosols are added to the cavity. The aerosol extinction cross section agrees well with Mie calculations, demonstrating that our setup enables measurements of the above gases in open cavity mode.

  16. Using holography to measure extinction.

    PubMed

    Berg, Matthew J; Subedi, Nava R; Anderson, Peter A; Fowler, Nicholas B

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a new concept to measure the extinction cross section for a single particle in situ. The concept involves recording the hologram produced by the interference of a particle's forward-scattered light with the incident light. This interference pattern is fundamentally connected to the energy flow that gives rise to extinction, and, by integrating this measured pattern, one obtains an approximation for the cross section. Mie theory is used to show that this approximation can be as little as 1% in error of the true value for many cases of practical interest. Moreover, since an image of the particle can be computationally reconstructed from a measured hologram using the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory, one can obtain the cross section simultaneously with the particle shape and size.

  17. Simultaneous retrieval of effective refractive index and density from size distribution and light-scattering data: weakly absorbing aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.; Pekour, M.; Berg, L. K.; Shilling, J.; Flynn, C.; Mei, F.; Jefferson, A.

    2014-10-01

    We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define "weakly absorbing" as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 μm. The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from mobility and aerodynamic particle size spectrometers commonly referred to as a scanning mobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE ~ 3%) and reasonable (RMSE ~ 28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49 ± 0.02) and effective density (1.68 ± 0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the

  18. Immediate extinction promotes the return of fear.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that immediate extinction is less effective than delayed extinction in attenuating the return of fear. This line of fear conditioning research impacts the proposed onset of psychological interventions after threatening situations. In the present study, forty healthy men were investigated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with fear acquisition in context A, extinction in context B, followed by retrieval testing in both contexts 24h later to test fear renewal. Differently coloured lights served as conditioned stimuli (CS): two CS (CS+) were paired with an electrical stimulation that served as unconditioned stimulus, the third CS was never paired (CS-). Extinction took place immediately after fear acquisition or 24h later. One CS+ was extinguished whereas the second CS+ remained unextinguished to control for different time intervals between fear acquisition and retrieval testing. Immediate extinction led to larger skin conductance responses during fear retrieval to both the extinguished and unextinguished CS relative to the CS-, indicating a stronger return of fear compared to delayed extinction. Taken together, immediate extinction is less potent than delayed extinction and is associated with a stronger renewal effect. Thus, the time-point of psychological interventions relative to the offset of threatening situations needs to be carefully considered to prevent relapses.

  19. Global aerosol typing from a combination of A-Train satellite observations in clear-sky and above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Russell, P. B.; Vaughan, M.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Livingston, J. M.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    According to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the model estimates of Radiative Forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari) for individual aerosol types are less certain than the total RFari [Boucher et al., 2013]. For example, the RFari specific to Black Carbon (BC) is uncertain due to an underestimation of its mass concentration near source regions [Koch et al., 2009]. Several recent studies have evaluated chemical transport model (CTM) predictions using observations of aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) or Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) from satellite or ground-based instruments (e.g., Huneeus et al., [2010]). However, most passive remote sensing instruments fail to provide a comprehensive assessment of the particle type without further analysis and combination of measurements. To improve the predictions of aerosol composition in CTMs, we have developed an aerosol classification algorithm (called Specified Clustering and Mahalanobis Classification, SCMC) that assigns an aerosol type to multi-parameter retrievals by spaceborne, airborne or ground based passive remote sensing instruments [Russell et al., 2014]. The aerosol types identified by our scheme are pure dust, polluted dust, urban-industrial/developed economy, urban-industrial/developing economy, dark biomass smoke, light biomass smoke and pure marine. First, we apply the SCMC method to five years of clear-sky space-borne POLDER observations over Greece. We then use the aerosol extinction and SSA spectra retrieved from a combination of MODIS, OMI and CALIOP clear-sky observations to infer the aerosol type over the globe in 2007. Finally, we will extend the spaceborne aerosol classification from clear-sky to above low opaque water clouds using a combination of CALIOP AOD and backscatter observations and OMI absorption AOD values from near-by clear-sky pixels.

  20. Influences of relative humidity and particle chemical composition on aerosol scattering properties during the 2006 PRD campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Yafang; Zhang, Yuanhang; Jung, Jinsang; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Chang, Shih-Yu; Kim, Young J.; Fan, Shaojia; Zeng, Limin

    In situ measurements of the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols were carried out in Guangzhou city, China, from 1 to 31 July 2006 during the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Campaign. The light extinction coefficient of the ambient atmosphere, the aerosol scattering coefficient under dry conditions, the aerosol absorption coefficient under ambient conditions, NO 2 concentration, and relative humidity (RH) were measured by transmissionmeter, an integrating nephelometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), a NO X analyzer, and an automatic meteorological station, respectively. Meanwhile, the molecular scattering coefficient was calculated by the Rayleigh scattering function using the US Standard Atmosphere. A method to calculate the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor f(RH), defined as the ratio of the aerosol scattering coefficient under a wet condition to that under a dry condition (40% RH), is proposed based on these optical parameters. The mean and standard deviation aerosol hygroscopic growth factors at 80% RH ( f(RH)=80%) in Ganzhou were 2.04±0.28, 2.29±0.28, and 2.68±0.59 for urban aerosols, mixed aerosols, and marine aerosols, respectively, with the air mass classification being based on the air mass source region. The relationship between f(RH) and RH is fitted by empirical equations and the fitting parameters are calculated. The relationships between f(RH)=80% and total carbon mass fraction (TCF) in PM 2.5, the water-soluble mass fraction (WSF) in PM 10, and the sea-salt aerosol mass fraction (SSF) in PM 10 reveal that the hygroscopic properties of the observed aerosol have a good positive correlation with the WSF and SSF, but have a negative correlation with the TCF.

  1. Is extinction forever?

    PubMed

    Smith-Patten, Brenda D; Bridge, Eli S; Crawford, Priscilla H C; Hough, Daniel J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Patten, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Mistrust of science has seeped into public perception of the most fundamental aspect of conservation-extinction. The term ought to be straightforward, and yet, there is a disconnect between scientific discussion and public views. This is not a mere semantic issue, rather one of communication. Within a population dynamics context, we say that a species went locally extinct, later to document its return. Conveying our findings matters, for when we use local extinction, an essentially nonsensical phrase, rather than extirpation, which is what is meant, then we contribute to, if not create outright, a problem for public understanding of conservation, particularly as local extinction is often shortened to extinction in media sources. The public that receives the message of our research void of context and modifiers comes away with the idea that extinction is not forever or, worse for conservation as a whole, that an extinction crisis has been invented.

  2. Is extinction forever?

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Eli S.; Crawford, Priscilla H. C.; Hough, Daniel J.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Patten, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Mistrust of science has seeped into public perception of the most fundamental aspect of conservation—extinction. The term ought to be straightforward, and yet, there is a disconnect between scientific discussion and public views. This is not a mere semantic issue, rather one of communication. Within a population dynamics context, we say that a species went locally extinct, later to document its return. Conveying our findings matters, for when we use local extinction, an essentially nonsensical phrase, rather than extirpation, which is what is meant, then we contribute to, if not create outright, a problem for public understanding of conservation, particularly as local extinction is often shortened to extinction in media sources. The public that receives the message of our research void of context and modifiers comes away with the idea that extinction is not forever or, worse for conservation as a whole, that an extinction crisis has been invented. PMID:25711479

  3. Nocturnal Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements with a Small-Aperture Automated Photometer Using the Moon as a Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Timothy A.; Sorokin, Mikail; Stone, Tom; Eck, Thomas F.; Hoff, Raymond; Welton, Ellsworth; Holben, Brent

    2011-01-01

    A method is described that enables the use of lunar irradiance to obtain nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements using a small-aperture photometer. In this approach, the U.S. Geological Survey lunar calibration system was utilized to provide high-precision lunar exoatmospheric spectral irradiance predictions for a ground-based sensor location, and when combined with ground measurement viewing geometry, provided the column optical transmittance for retrievals of AOD. Automated multiwavelength lunar measurements were obtained using an unmodified Cimel-318 sunphotometer sensor to assess existing capabilities and enhancements needed for day/night operation in NASA s Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Results show that even existing photometers can provide the ability for retrievals of aerosol optical depths at night near full moon. With an additional photodetector signal-to-noise improvement of 10-100, routine use over the bright half of the lunar phase and a much wider range of wavelengths and conditions can be achieved. Although the lunar cycle is expected to limit the frequency of observations to 30%-40% compared to solar measurements, nevertheless this is an attractive extension of AERONET capabilities.

  4. Nocturnal aerosol optical depth measurements with a small-aperture automated photometer using the moon as a light source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkoff, T.A.; Sorokin, M.; Stone, T.; Eck, T.F.; Hoff, R.; Welton, E.; Holben, B.

    2011-01-01

    A method is described that enables the use of lunar irradiance to obtain nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements using a small-aperture photometer. In this approach, the U.S. Geological Survey lunar calibration system was utilized to provide high-precision lunar exoatmospheric spectral irradiance predictions for a ground-based sensor location, and when combined with ground measurement viewing geometry, provided the column optical transmittance for retrievals of AOD. Automated multiwavelength lunar measurements were obtained using an unmodified Cimel-318 sunphotometer sensor to assess existing capabilities and enhancements needed for day/night operation in NASA's Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Results show that even existing photometers can provide the ability for retrievals of aerosol optical depths at night near full moon. With an additional photodetector signal-to-noise improvement of 10-100, routine use over the bright half of the lunar phase and a much wider range of wavelengths and conditions can be achieved. Although the lunar cycle is expected to limit the frequency of observations to 30%-40% compared to solar measurements, nevertheless this is an attractive extension of AERONET capabilities. ?? 2011 American Meteorological Society.

  5. Bimodal extinction without cross-modal extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Inhoff, A W; Rafal, R D; Posner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Three patients with unilateral neurological injury were clinically examined. All showed consistent unilateral extinction in the tactile and visual modalities on simultaneous intramodal stimulation. There was virtually no evidence for cross-modal extinction, however, so that contralateral stimulation of one modality would have extinguished perception of ipsilateral stimuli in the other modality. It is concluded that the attentional system controlling the encoding of tactile and visual stimuli is not unified across the two sensory domains. PMID:1548496

  6. Measuring Extinction with ALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Gimmestad, G. G.; Roberts, D.; Stewart, J.; Smith, J.; Fitch, J.

    2007-12-01

    ALE (Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction) is deployed at the University of New Mexico's (UNM) Campus Observatory in Albuquerque, NM. It has begun a year-long testing phase prior deployment at McDonald Observatory in support of the CCD/Transit Instrument II (CTI-II). ALE is designed to produce a high-precision measurement of atmospheric absorption and scattering above the observatory site every ten minutes of every moderately clear night. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) is the VIS/UV/IR analog of radar, using a laser, telescope and time-gated photodetector instead of a radio transmitter, dish and receiver. In the case of ALE -- an elastic backscatter LIDAR -- 20ns-long, eye-safe laser pulses are launched 2500 times per second from a 0.32m transmitting telescope co-mounted with a 50mm short-range receiver on an alt-az mounted 0.67m long-range receiver. Photons from the laser pulse are scattered and absorbed as the pulse propagates through the atmosphere, a portion of which are scattered into the field of view of the short- and long-range receiver telescopes and detected by a photomultiplier. The properties of a given volume of atmosphere along the LIDAR pa