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Sample records for aerosol measurement techniques

  1. Improved Tandem Measurement Techniques for Aerosol Particle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Vivek Kumar

    Non-spherical, chemically inhomogeneous (complex) nanoparticles are encountered in a number of natural and engineered environments, including combustion systems (which produces highly non-spherical aggregates), reactors used in gas-phase materials synthesis of doped or multicomponent materials, and in ambient air. These nanoparticles are often highly diverse in size, composition and shape, and hence require determination of property distribution functions for accurate characterization. This thesis focuses on development of tandem mobility-mass measurement techniques coupled with appropriate data inversion routines to facilitate measurement of two dimensional size-mass distribution functions while correcting for the non-idealities of the instruments. Chapter 1 provides the detailed background and motivation for the studies performed in this thesis. In chapter 2, the development of an inversion routine is described which is employed to determine two dimensional size-mass distribution functions from Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer tandem measurements. Chapter 3 demonstrates the application of the two dimensional distribution function to compute cumulative mass distribution function and also evaluates the validity of this technique by comparing the calculated total mass concentrations to measured values for a variety of aerosols. In Chapter 4, this tandem measurement technique with the inversion routine is employed to analyze colloidal suspensions. Chapter 5 focuses on application of a transverse modulation ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a mass spectrometer to study the effect of vapor dopants on the mobility shifts of sub 2 nm peptide ion clusters. These mobility shifts are then compared to models based on vapor uptake theories. Finally, in Chapter 6, a conclusion of all the studies performed in this thesis is provided and future avenues of research are discussed.

  2. The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

  3. Measurements of Absorbing Aerosols Using in Situ and Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J. V.; Martins, J. V.; Kaufman, Y.; Artaxo, P.; Andrea, C.; Yamasoe, M.; Remer, L.

    2001-12-01

    Reliable measurements of light absorption by aerosol particles are essential for an accurate assessment of the climate radiative forcing by aerosol particles. Depending on the absorption properties, the radiative forcing of the aerosols may change from a cooling to a heating effect. New techniques for the remote sensing of aerosol absorption over land and ocean are developed and applied in combination with in situ measurements for validation and addition of complementary information. Spectral measurements show the effects of aerosols on absorption of light from the UV to the near infrared. Depending on particle size and structure, there is a significant absorption component that must be accounted for the radiative forcing in the near infrared. Remote sensing results from MODIS and from the CLAMS field experiment, as well as in situ validation data will be discussed.

  4. Apportionment of urban aerosol sources in Cork (Ireland) by synergistic measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Hellebust, Stig; Healy, Robert M; O'Connor, Ian P; Kourtchev, Ivan; Sodeau, John R; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin D; Wenger, John C

    2014-09-15

    The sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during wintertime at a background urban location in Cork city (Ireland) have been determined. Aerosol chemical analyses were performed by multiple techniques including on-line high resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS), on-line single particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TSI ATOFMS), on-line elemental carbon-organic carbon analysis (Sunset_EC-OC), and off-line gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion chromatography analysis of filter samples collected at 6-h resolution. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) has been carried out to better elucidate aerosol sources not clearly identified when analyzing results from individual aerosol techniques on their own. Two datasets have been considered: on-line measurements averaged over 2-h periods, and both on-line and off-line measurements averaged over 6-h periods. Five aerosol sources were identified by PMF in both datasets, with excellent agreement between the two solutions: (1) regional domestic solid fuel burning--"DSF_Regional," 24-27%; (2) local urban domestic solid fuel burning--"DSF_Urban," 22-23%; (3) road vehicle emissions--"Traffic," 15-20%; (4) secondary aerosols from regional anthropogenic sources--"SA_Regional" 9-13%; and (5) secondary aged/processed aerosols related to urban anthropogenic sources--"SA_Urban," 21-26%. The results indicate that, despite regulations for restricting the use of smoky fuels, solid fuel burning is the major source (46-50%) of PM2.5 in wintertime in Cork, and also likely other areas of Ireland. Whilst wood combustion is strongly associated with OC and EC, it was found that peat and coal combustion is linked mainly with OC and the aerosol from these latter sources appears to be more volatile than that produced by wood combustion. Ship emissions from the nearby port were found to be mixed with the SA_Regional factor. The PMF analysis allowed us to link the AMS cooking organic

  5. Doppler Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Wind Profiles Using the Aerosol Double Edge Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Mathur, Savyasachee; Korb, C. Laurence; Chen, Huailin

    2000-01-01

    The development of a ground based direct detection Doppler lidar based on the recently described aerosol double edge technique is reported. A pulsed, injection seeded Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm is used to make range resolved measurements of atmospheric winds in the free troposphere. The wind measurements are determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the laser signal backscattered from atmospheric aerosols. The lidar instrument and double edge method are described and initial tropospheric wind profile measurements are presented. Wind profiles are reported for both day and night operation. The measurements extend to altitudes as high as 14 km and are compared to rawinsonde wind profile data from Dulles airport in Virginia. Vertical resolution of the lidar measurements is 330 m and the rms precision of the measurements is a low as 0.6 m/s.

  6. Influence of aerosols on surface reaching spectral irradiance and introduction to a new technique for estimating aerosol radiative forcing from spectral flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing estimates with high certainty are required in climate change studies. The approach in estimating the aerosol radiative forcing by using the chemical composition of aerosols is not effective as the chemical composition data with radiative properties are not widely available. In this study we look into the approach where ground based spectral radiation flux measurements along with an RT model is used to estimate radiative forcing. Measurements of spectral flux were made using an ASD spectroradiometer with 350 - 1050 nm wavelength range and 3nm resolution for around 54 clear-sky days during which AOD range was around 0.1 to 0.7. Simultaneous measurements of black carbon were also made using Aethalometer (Magee Scientific) which ranged from around 1.5 ug/m3 to 8 ug/m3. All the measurements were made in the campus of Indian Institute of Science which is in the heart of Bangalore city. The primary study involved in understanding the sensitivity of spectral flux to change in the mass concentration of individual aerosol species (Optical properties of Aerosols and Clouds -OPAC classified aerosol species) using the SBDART RT model. This made us clearly distinguish the region of influence of different aerosol species on the spectral flux. Following this, a new technique has been introduced to estimate an optically equivalent mixture of aerosol species for the given location. The new method involves an iterative process where the mixture of aerosol species are changed in OPAC model and RT model is run as long as the mixture which mimics the measured spectral flux within 2-3% deviation from measured spectral flux is obtained. Using the optically equivalent aerosol mixture and RT model aerosol radiative forcing is estimated. The new method is limited to clear sky scenes and its accuracy to derive an optically equivalent aerosol mixture reduces when diffuse component of flux increases. Our analysis also showed that direct component of spectral flux is

  7. Toward new techniques to measure heterogeneous oxidation of aerosol: Electrodynamic Balance-Mass Spectrometry (EDB-MS) and Aerosol X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, M. I.; Heine, N.; Xu, B.; Davies, J. F.; Kirk, B. B.; Kostko, O.; Alayoglu, S.; Wilson, K. R.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical composition and physical properties of aerosol can be changed via heterogeneous oxidation with the OH radical. However, the physical state of the aerosol influences the kinetics of this reaction; liquid particles with a high diffusion coefficient are expected to be well mixed and homogenously oxidized, while oxidation of solid, diffusion-limited aerosol is expected to occur primarily on the surface, creating steep chemical gradients within the particle. We are working to develop several new techniques to study the heterogeneous oxidation of different types of aerosol. We are developing a "modular" electrodynamic balance (EDB) that will enable us to study heterogeneous oxidation at aqueous interfaces using a mass-spectrometer (and potentially other detection techniques). Using a direct analysis in real time (DART) interface, preliminary droplet train measurements have demonstrated single-droplet mass spectrometry to be possible. With long reaction times in our EDB, we will be able to study heterogeneous oxidation of a wide variety of organic species in aqueous droplets. Additionally, we are working to use aerosol photoemission and velocity map imaging (VMI) to study the surface of aerosol particles as they undergo heterogeneous oxidation. With VMI, we're able to collect electrons with a 4π collection efficiency over conventional electron energy analyzers. Preliminary results looking at the ozonolysis of squalene using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) show that heterogeneous oxidation kinetic data can be extracted from photoelectron spectra. By moving to X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), we will determine elemental and chemical composition of the aerosol surface. Thus, aerosol XPS will provide information on the steep chemical gradients that form as diffusion-limited aerosol undergo heterogeneous oxidation.

  8. A technique for rapid source apportionment applied to ambient organic aerosol measurements from a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaping; Williams, Brent J.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a rapid method for apportioning the sources of atmospheric organic aerosol composition measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Here, we specifically apply this new analysis method to data acquired on a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) system. Gas chromatograms are divided by retention time into evenly spaced bins, within which the mass spectra are summed. A previous chromatogram binning method was introduced for the purpose of chromatogram structure deconvolution (e.g., major compound classes) (Zhang et al., 2014). Here we extend the method development for the specific purpose of determining aerosol samples' sources. Chromatogram bins are arranged into an input data matrix for positive matrix factorization (PMF), where the sample number is the row dimension and the mass-spectra-resolved eluting time intervals (bins) are the column dimension. Then two-dimensional PMF can effectively do three-dimensional factorization on the three-dimensional TAG mass spectra data. The retention time shift of the chromatogram is corrected by applying the median values of the different peaks' shifts. Bin width affects chemical resolution but does not affect PMF retrieval of the sources' time variations for low-factor solutions. A bin width smaller than the maximum retention shift among all samples requires retention time shift correction. A six-factor PMF comparison among aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS), TAG binning, and conventional TAG compound integration methods shows that the TAG binning method performs similarly to the integration method. However, the new binning method incorporates the entirety of the data set and requires significantly less pre-processing of the data than conventional single compound identification and integration. In addition, while a fraction of the most oxygenated aerosol does not elute through an underivatized TAG analysis, the TAG binning method does have the ability to achieve molecular level resolution on

  9. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  10. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Castaneda, Rene; Owano, Thomas; Baer, Douglas S.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This paper describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5 M/m). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  11. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Owano, T.; Castaneda, R.; Baer, D. S.; Paldus, B. A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This abstract describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5/Mm). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  12. MULTI-TECHNIQUE APPROACH TO MEASURE SIZE AND TIME RESOLVED ATMOSPHERIC AND RADIONUCLIDE AEROSOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V; Xie, YuLong; Disselkamp, Robert S; Laulainen, Nels S; Smith, Edward A; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2008-12-01

    Accurate quantifications of aerosol components are crucial to predict global atmospheric transport models. Recently developed International Monitoring System (IMS) network represents an opportunity to enhance comprehensive systematic aerosol observations on a global scale because it provides a global infrastructure. As such, a local pilot study utilizing several state-of-the-art instruments has been conducted at the peak of Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington, USA, during three month periods (June-August) in 2003 to explore this opportunity. In this study, routine aerosol samples were collected using a 3-stage Cascade Impactor Beam Analyzer (0.07 to 2.5 µm) with time resolution about 6 hours on long Teflon strips while radionuclide aerosols were collected using Radionuclide aerosol sampler/analyzer (RASA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The elemental composition and hydrogen concentration were measured using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA), respectively. In addition, short and long-lived radionuclides that exist in nature were measured with same time resolution (6 hours) using RASA. In this method, high-resolution gamma-ray spectra were analyzed for radionuclide concentration. Combination of trace radioactive and non-radioactive element analysis in aerosols makes this investigation unique.

  13. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  14. Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew S; Servantes, Brandon Lee

    2013-09-01

    A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

  15. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilge, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-11-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterised by a less dense urbanisation. We present here the results obtained at a background site in the Po Valley, Italy, in summer 2009. For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art spectrometric techniques were used in parallel: aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), two aerosol mass spectrometers (high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer - HR-ToF-AMS and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - SP-AMS), thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG), chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) and (offline) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that, under high-pressure conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC), secondary semivolatile compounds such as ammonium nitrate and amines and a class of monocarboxylic acids which correspond to the AMS cooking organic aerosol (COA) already identified in urban areas. In daytime, the entrainment of aged air masses in the mixing layer is responsible for the accumulation of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and also for the recycling of non-volatile primary species such as black carbon. According to organic aerosol source apportionment, anthropogenic aerosols accumulating in the lower layers overnight accounted for 38% of organic aerosol mass on average, another 21% was accounted for by aerosols recirculated in

  16. New technique for online measurement of water-soluble Fe(II) in atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Neeraj; Oakes, Michelle M; Schauer, James J; Shafer, Martin M; Majestic, Brian J; Weber, Rodney J

    2009-04-01

    A prototype instrument has been developed for online analysis of water-soluble Fe(II) (WS_Fe(II)) in atmospheric aerosols using a particle-into-liquid-sampler (PILS), which concentrates particles into a small flow of purified water, coupled with a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and absorbance spectrophotometryto detect iron-ferrozine colored complexes. The analytical method is highly precise (<3% RSD), and the overall measurement uncertainty and limit of detection for the complete PILS-LWCC system are estimated at 12% and 4.6 ng m(-3), respectively. The online measurements compared well with those of 24 h integrated filter samples collected at two different sampling sites (n=27, R2 = 0.82, slope 0.90 +/- 0.08, and intercept 3.08 +/- 1.99 ng m(-3)). In urban Atlanta, fine particle WS_Fe(II) concentrations measured every 12 min exhibited large variability, ranging from below the detection limit (4.6) to 370 ng m(-3) during a 24 day period in June 2008. This instrument provides new capabilities for investigating the sources and atmospheric processing of fine particle WS_Fe(II) and may prove useful in studies ranging from effects of particle WS_Fe(II) on human health to effects of particle WS_Fe(II) on atmospheric chemistry and ocean biogeochemistry.

  17. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilde, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-04-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterized by a less dense urbanization. We present here the results obtained in San Pietro Capofiume, which is located in a sparsely inhabited sector of the Po Valley, Italy. The experiment was carried out in summer 2009 in the framework of the EUCAARI project ("European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud Climate Aerosol Interaction"). For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art techniques were used in parallel: (1) on-line TSI aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), (2) on-line Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS), (3) soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), (4) on-line high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer-thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (HR-ToFMS-TAG), (5) off-line twelve-hour resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopy, and (6) chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) for the analysis of gas-phase precursors of secondary aerosol. Data from each aerosol spectroscopic method were analysed individually following ad-hoc tools (i.e. PMF for AMS, Art-2a for ATOFMS). The results obtained from each techniques are herein presented and compared. This allows us to clearly link the modifications in aerosol chemical composition to transitions in air mass origin and meteorological regimes. Under stagnant conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC

  18. Analytical techniques for ambient sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.A.; Graczyk, D.G.; Kumar, R.; Cunningham, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    Work done to further develop the infrared spectroscopic analytical method for the analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles, as well as some exploratory work on a new procedure for determining proton acidity in aerosol samples is described. Earlier work had led to the successful use of infrared (ir) spectrophotometry for the analysis of nitrate, ammonium, and neutral and acidic sulfates in aerosol samples collected by an impactor on a Mylar-film substrate. In this work, a filter-extraction method was developed to prepare filter-collected aerosol samples for ir analysis. A study was made comparing the ir analytical results on filter-collected samples with impactor-collected samples. Also, the infrared analytical technique was compared in field studies with light-scattering techniques for aerosol analysis. A highly sensitive instrument for aerosol analysis using attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy was designed, built, and tested. This instrument provides a measurement sensitivity much greater (by a factor of 6 for SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) than that obtainable using the KBr-pellet method. This instrument collect size- and time-resolved samples and is potentially capable of providing automated, near real-time aerosol analysis. Exploratory work on a novel approach to the determination of proton acidity in filter- or impactor-collected aerosol samples is also described. In this technique, the acidic sample is reacted with an access of a tagged, vapor-phase base. The unreacted base is flushed off and the amount of the tag retained by the sample is a direct measure of the proton acidity of the sample. The base was tagged with Ge, which can be conveniently determined by the x-ray fluorescence technique.

  19. Sesquiterpene Emissions from Vegetation - Chemical Analysis Technique for Ambient Measurements of the Contribution to the Formation of Ozone and Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revermann, T.; Revermann, T.; Helmig, D.

    2001-12-01

    An analytical technique for the measurement of sesquiterpenoid compounds (SQT; C15H24 and oxygenated isomers) emitted from vegetation is developed. SQT are suspected to contribute in aerosol-forming processes and heterogeneous reactions in the lower troposphere. SQT have been identified in plant emissions in numerous studies. However, their role in atmospheric processes remains uncertain. This uncertainty is mainly due to the lack of analytical capabilities for research of their ambient concentrations, surface-atmosphere fluxes and atmospheric reactions. SQT pose a challenge to the analytical chemist, and many questions regarding their reliable analysis remain unresolved. In this project, several analytical methodologies for the measurement of SQT such as whole air sampling techniques into bags and canisters and analysis by solid adsorption methods are being investigated and characterized. A calibration system has been built to generate well-defined gas-phase concentrations of individual SQT and SQT mixtures. This system is based on capillary diffusion and delivers steady output concentrations of SQT. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detection instrument provides automated and continuous on-line monitoring of the output concentrations. Potential analytical interferences, such as water and ozone, can be added to the analytes in order to study their effects on the SQT recovery rate and the analytical precision and accuracy. This research contributes towards improving the quality of SQT data from 1) measurements in experimental enclosure systems such as cuevettes, branch enclosures and chamber experiments, 2) monitoring at the ambient level and 3) studies of surface-atmosphere fluxes by tower gradient or relaxed eddy correlation methods. Furthermore, this project delivers a platform to research the non-isoprene portion of BVOC fluxes and it provides further insight how BVOC participate in the atmospheric formation of oxidants and aerosols.

  20. Development of an Aerosol Loading Technique for Ignition Time Measurements in Shock Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    initial pressure. For the present ignition study a 21% oxygen-79% argon mixture was used. Poppet valves in the endwall are then opened as well as a...the pressure in the driven section of the tube constant. The narrow flow passage past the poppet valves serves to accelerate the flow and generate... valve near the diaphragm connected to a vacuum pump, and a steady-state flow of aerosol/carrier gas mixture is feed into the shock tube while keeping

  1. Combined use of optical and electron microscopic techniques for the measurement of hygroscopic property, chemical composition, and morphology of individual aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kang-Ho; Kim, Sun-Man; Jung, Hae-Jin; Lee, Mi-Jung; Eom, Hyo-Jin; Maskey, Shila; Ro, Chul-Un

    2010-10-01

    In this work, an analytical method for the characterization of the hygroscopic property, chemical composition, and morphology of individual aerosol particles is introduced. The method, which is based on the combined use of optical and electron microscopic techniques, is simple and easy to apply. An optical microscopic technique was used to perform the visual observation of the phase transformation and hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles on a single particle level. A quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis, named low-Z particle EPMA, was used to perform a quantitative chemical speciation of the same individual particles after the measurement of the hygroscopic property. To validate the analytical methodology, the hygroscopic properties of artificially generated NaCl, KCl, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and Na(2)SO(4) aerosol particles of micrometer size were investigated. The practical applicability of the analytical method for studying the hygroscopic property, chemical composition, and morphology of ambient aerosol particles is demonstrated.

  2. Effect of hygroscopic growth on the aerosol light-scattering coefficient: A review of measurements, techniques and error sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, G.; Cazorla, A.; Zieger, P.; Andrews, E.; Lyamani, H.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the scattering enhancement factor, f(RH), is important for an accurate description of direct aerosol radiative forcing. This factor is defined as the ratio between the scattering coefficient at enhanced relative humidity, RH, to a reference (dry) scattering coefficient. Here, we review the different experimental designs used to measure the scattering coefficient at dry and humidified conditions as well as the procedures followed to analyze the measurements. Several empirical parameterizations for the relationship between f(RH) and RH have been proposed in the literature. These parameterizations have been reviewed and tested using experimental data representative of different hygroscopic growth behavior and a new parameterization is presented. The potential sources of error in f(RH) are discussed. A Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the overall measurement uncertainty, which is found to be around 20-40% for moderately hygroscopic aerosols. The main factors contributing to this uncertainty are the uncertainty in RH measurement, the dry reference state and the nephelometer uncertainty. A literature survey of nephelometry-based f(RH) measurements is presented as a function of aerosol type. In general, the highest f(RH) values were measured in clean marine environments, with pollution having a major influence on f(RH). Dust aerosol tended to have the lowest reported hygroscopicity of any of the aerosol types studied. Major open questions and suggestions for future research priorities are outlined.

  3. Deriving simple empirical relationships between aerodynamic and optical aerosol measurements and their application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different measurement techniques for aerosol characterization and quantification either directly or indirectly measure different aerosol properties (i.e. count, mass, speciation, etc.). Comparisons and combinations of multiple measurement techniques sampling the same aerosol can provide insight into...

  4. Assessment of the impact of forest fires on aerosols distribution in the atmosphere over Kyiv based on AERONET and satellites measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galytska, Evgenia; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Snizhko, Sergiy

    2015-04-01

    on the aerosol optical properties were studied using synoptic analysis and back-trajectories techniques. The fires localization and intensity were detected from MODIS measurements on board of Terra and Aqua satellites.

  5. Detection of biological aerosols by luminescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Peter J.; Tieman, Darlene; Coon, Phillip A.; Paterno, Dorothea A.; Milton, Maurice M.

    1999-12-01

    Luciferin-Luciferase (L-L) luminescence techniques were used to successfully measure adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (pg/ml) in concentrated aerosol samples containing either vegetative bacterial cells or spores. Aerosols were collected with wet and dry sampling devices. Evaluation for the presence of total bio-mass from bacterial and non-bacterial sources of ATP was achieved by suspending the collected aerosol samples in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pipeting a 50-(mu) l aliquot of the PBS suspension into a FiltravetteTM, and then adding bacterial releasing agent (BRA). The sample was then reacted with L-L, and the resulting Relative Luminescence Units (RLU's), indicative of ATP from all sources, were measured. Bacterial cells were enumerated with the additional application of a wash with somatic cell releasing agent (SRA) to remove any interferences and non-bacterial sources of ATP prior to BRA application. This step removes interfering substances and non-bacterial sources of ATP. For spore analysis, an equi-volume sample of the PBS suspension was added to an equi-volume of trypticase soy broth (TSB), incubated at 37 C for 15 minutes, and processed using methods identical to bacterial cell analysis. Using these technique we were able to detect Bacillus subtilin variation niger, formerly known as Bacillus globigii (BG), in aerosol samples at concentrations greater than or equal to 105 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Results of field and chamber trials show that one can detect the presence of bacterial and non-bacterial sources of ATP. One can also differentiate spore and vegetative bacterial cells. These techniques may be appropriate to situations where the measurement of bacterial aerosols is needed.

  6. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  7. Application of Spectral Analysis Techniques in the Intercomparison of Aerosol Data. Part II: Using Maximum Covariance Analysis to Effectively Compare Spatiotemporal Variability of Satellite and AERONET Measured Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiomater (MISR) provide regular aerosol observations with global coverage. It is essential to examine the coherency between space- and ground-measured aerosol parameters in representing aerosol spatial and temporal variability, especially in the climate forcing and model validation context. In this paper, we introduce Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA), also known as Singular Value Decomposition analysis as an effective way to compare correlated aerosol spatial and temporal patterns between satellite measurements and AERONET data. This technique not only successfully extracts the variability of major aerosol regimes but also allows the simultaneous examination of the aerosol variability both spatially and temporally. More importantly, it well accommodates the sparsely distributed AERONET data, for which other spectral decomposition methods, such as Principal Component Analysis, do not yield satisfactory results. The comparison shows overall good agreement between MODIS/MISR and AERONET AOD variability. The correlations between the first three modes of MCA results for both MODIS/AERONET and MISR/ AERONET are above 0.8 for the full data set and above 0.75 for the AOD anomaly data. The correlations between MODIS and MISR modes are also quite high (greater than 0.9). We also examine the extent of spatial agreement between satellite and AERONET AOD data at the selected stations. Some sites with disagreements in the MCA results, such as Kanpur, also have low spatial coherency. This should be associated partly with high AOD spatial variability and partly with uncertainties in satellite retrievals due to the seasonally varying aerosol types and surface properties.

  8. How Well do State-of-the-Art Techniques Measuring the Vertical Profile of Tropospheric Aerosol Extinction Compare?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Ferrare, R.; Flynn, C.; Elleman, R.; Covert, D.; Strawa, A.; Welton, E.; Turner, D.; Jonsson, H.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J.; Ricci, K.; Hallar, A. G.; Clayton, M.; Michalsky, J.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B.; Barnard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The recent Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (AIOP, May 2003) yielded one of the best measurement sets obtained to date to assess our ability to measure the vertical profile of ambient aerosol extinction sigma(ep)(lambda) in the lower troposphere. During one month, a heavily instrumented aircraft with well-characterized aerosol sampling ability carrying well-proven and new aerosol instrumentation devoted most of the 60 available flight hours to flying vertical profiles over the heavily instrumented ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF). This allowed us to compare vertical extinction profiles obtained from six different instruments: airborne Sun photometer (AATS-14), airborne nephelometer/absorption photometer, airborne cavity ring-down system, groundbased Raman lidar, and two ground-based elastic backscatter lidars. We find the in situ measured sigma(ep)(lambda) to be lower than the AATS-14 derived values. Bias differences are 0.002-0.004 Km!1 equivalent to 13-17% in the visible, or 45% in the near-infrared. On the other hand, we find that with respect to AATS-14, the lidar sigma(ep)(lambda) are higher: Bias differences are 0.004 Km(-1) (13%) and 0.007 Km(-1) (24%) for the two elastic backscatter lidars (MPLNET and MPLARM, lambda = 523 nm) and 0.029 Km(-1) (54%) for the Raman lidar (lambda = 355 nm). An unnoticed loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar had occurred leading up to AIOP, and we expect better agreement from the recently restored system. Looking at the collective results from six field campaigns conducted since 1996, airborne in situ measurements of sigma(ep)(lambda) tend to be biased slightly low (17% at visible wavelengths) when compared to airborne Sun photometer sigma(ep)(lambda). On the other hand, sigma(ep)(lambda) values derived from lidars tend to have no or positive biases. From the bias differences we conclude that the typical systematic error associated

  9. Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D. J.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) can contribute significantly to the coarse particle burden in many environments. PBAPs can thus influence climate and precipitation systems as cloud nuclei and can spread disease to humans, animals, and plants. Measurement data and techniques for PBAPs in natural environments at high time- and size resolution are, however, sparse, and so large uncertainties remain in the role that biological particles play in the Earth system. In this study two commercial real-time fluorescence particle sensors and a Sporewatch single-stage particle impactor were operated continuously from 2 August to 2 September 2010 at a rural sampling location in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland. A cascade impactor was operated periodically to collect size-resolved particles during exemplary periods. Here we report the first ambient comparison of a waveband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4) with a ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) and also compare these real-time fluorescence techniques with results of fluorescence and optical microscopy of impacted samples. Both real-time instruments showed qualitatively similar behavior, with increased fluorescent bioparticle concentrations at night, when relative humidity was highest and temperature was lowest. The fluorescent particle number from the FL3 channel of the WIBS-4 and from the UV-APS were strongly correlated and dominated by a 3 μm mode in the particle size distribution. The WIBS FL2 channel exhibited particle modes at approx. 1 and 3 μm, and each was correlated with the concentration of fungal spores commonly observed in air samples collected at the site (ascospores, basidiospores, Ganoderma spp.). The WIBS FL1 channel exhibited variable multimodal distributions turning into a broad featureless single mode after averaging, and exhibited poor correlation with fungal spore concentrations, which may be due to the detection of bacterial and non-biological fluorescent

  10. Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D. J.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) can contribute significantly to the coarse particle burden in many environments, may thus influence climate and precipitation systems as cloud nuclei, and can spread disease to humans, animals, and plants. Measurements of PBAP in natural environments taken at high time- and size- resolution are, however, sparse and so large uncertainties remain in the role that biological particles play in the Earth system. In this study two commercial real-time fluorescence particle sensors and a Sporewatch single-stage particle impactor were operated continuously from 2 August to 2 September 2010 at a rural sampling location in Killarney National Park in south western Ireland. A cascade impactor was operated periodically to collect size-resolved particles during exemplary periods. Here we report the first ambient comparison of the waveband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4) with the ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) and also compare these real-time fluorescence techniques with results of fluorescence and optical microscopy of impacted samples. Both real-time instruments showed qualitatively similar behaviour, with increased fluorescent bioparticle concentrations at night when relative humidity was highest and temperature was lowest. The fluorescent particle number from the FL3 channel of the WIBS-4 and from the UV-APS were strongly correlated and dominated by a 3 μm mode in the particle size distribution. The WIBS FL2 channel exhibited particle modes at approx. 1 and 3 μm, and each were correlated with the concentration of fungal spores commonly observed in air samples collected at the site (ascospores, basidiospores, Ganoderma spp.). The WIBS FL1 channel exhibited variable multi-modal distributions turning into a broad featureless single mode after averaging and exhibited poor correlation with fungal spore concentrations, which may be due to the detection of bacterial and non-biological fluorescent particles

  11. Retrievals of aerosol optical depth and total column ozone from Ultraviolet Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measurements based on an optimal estimation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A Bayesian optimal estimation (OE) retrieval technique was used to retreive aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), and an asymmetry factor ( g) at seven ultraviolet wavelengths, along with total column ozone (TOC), from the measurements of the UltraViolet Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during March through November in 2009. The OE technique specifies appropriate error covariance matrices and optimizes a forward model (Tropospheric ultraviolet radiative transfer model, TUV), and thus provides a supplemental method for use across the network of the Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (USDA UVMRP) for the retrieval of aerosol properties and TOC with reasonable accuracy in the UV spectral range under various atmospheric conditions. In order to assess the accuracy of the OE technique, we compared the AOD retreivals from this method with those from Beer's Law and the AErosol RObotic Network (AERONET) AOD product. We also examine the OE retrieved TOC in comparison with the TOC from the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (USDA UVMRP) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite data. The scatterplots of the estimated AOD from the OE method agree well with those derived from Beer's law and the collocated AERONETAOD product, showing high values of correlation coefficients, generally 0.98 and 0.99, and large slopes, ranging from 0.95 to 1.0, as well as small offsets, less than 0.02 especially at 368 nm. The comparison of TOC retrievals also indicates the promising accuracy of the OE method in that the standard deviations of the difference between the OE derived TOC and other TOC products are about 5 to 6 Dobson Units (DU). Validation of the OE retrievals on these selected dates suggested that the OE technique has its merits and can serve as a supplemental tool in further analyzing UVMRP data.

  12. Synchronised Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitz, Eiko

    2010-05-01

    Up to twelve Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMSs) were operated simultaneously at rural and background stations (EMEP and EUSAAR sites) across Europe. Measurements took place during three intensive periods, in collaboration between the European EUCAARI IP and the EMEP monitoring activities under the UNECE Convention for Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) during three contrasting months (May 2008, Sep/Oct 2008, Feb/Mar 2009). These measurements were conducted, analysed and quality controlled carefully using a unified protocol, providing the largest spatial database of aerosol chemical composition measured with a unified online technique to date, and a unique snapshots of the European non-refractory submicron aerosol climatology. As campaign averages over all active monitoring sites, organics represent 28 to 43%, sulphate 18 to 25%, ammonium 13 to 15% and nitrate 15 to 36% of the resolved aerosol mass, with the highest relative nitrate contribution during the Feb/Mar campaign. The measurements demonstrate that in NW Europe (e.g. Ireland, UK, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland) the regional submicron aerosol tends to be neutralised and here nitrates make a major contribution to the aerosol mass. By contrast, periods with low nitrate and acidic aerosol were observed at sites in S and E Europe (e.g. Greece, Finland), presumably due to a combination of larger SO2 point sources in Easter Europe, smaller local NH3 sources and, in the case of Greece, higher temperatures. While at the more marine and remote sites (Ireland, Scotland, Finland) nitrate concentrations were dominated by episodic transport phenomena, at continental sites (Switzerland, Germany, Hungary) nitrate followed a clear diurnal cycle, reflecting the thermodynamic behaviour of ammonium nitrate. The datasets clearly shows spatially co-ordinated, large-scale pollution episodes of organics, sulphate and nitrate, the latter being most pronounced during the Feb/Mar campaign. At selected

  13. Satellite measurements of tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, M.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation uses LANDSAT 2 radiance data and ground-truth measurements of the aerosol optical thickness, obtained previously from five inland sites, to study the usefulness and limitations of the near infrared radiance over inland bodies of water. The linear relationship between LANDSAT 2 MSS7 and aerosol content found in this study can be used to estimate the aerosol content with a standard deviation of 0.42N. Analysis of the data for MSS6 and MSS7 suggest that the larger uncertainty is mostly due to water turbidity, with little contribution from the adjacency effect. The relationship found is best applied to determine an average aerosol content over a period of time at a given target, or an area average at a given time over several targets close together.

  14. Exploring a geophysical process-based attribution technique for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer depth using aerosol lidar and near-surface meteorological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sandip; Haeffelin, Martial; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2013-08-01

    A new objective method for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth using routine vertically pointing aerosol lidar measurements is presented. A geophysical process-based analysis is introduced to improve the attribution of the lidar-derived aerosol gradients, which is so far the most challenging part in any gradient-based technique. Using micrometeorological measurements of Obukhov length scale, both early morning and evening transition periods are determined which help separate the turbulence regimes during well-mixed convective ABL and nocturnal/stable ABL. The lidar-derived aerosol backscatter signal intensity is used to determine the hourly-averaged vertical profiles of variance of the fluctuations of particle backscatter signal providing the location of maximum turbulent mixing within the ABL; thus, obtained mean ABL depth guides the attribution by searching for the appropriate minimum of the gradients. An empirical classification of the ABL stratification patterns into three different types is proposed by determining the changes in the near-surface stability scenarios. First results using the lidar observations obtained between March and July in 2011 at SIRTA atmospheric observatory near Palaiseau (Paris suburb) in France demonstrate that the new attribution technique makes the lidar estimations of ABL depth more physically reliable under a wide spectrum of meteorological conditions. While comparing lidar and nearby radiosonde measurements of ABL depths, an excellent concordance was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.968 and 0.927 for daytime and nighttime measurements, respectively. A brief climatology of the characteristics of the ABL depth, its diurnal cycle, a detailed discussion of the morning and evening transitions are presented.

  15. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  16. Aerosol Measurements by the Globally Distributed Micro Pulse Lidar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Judd; Campbell, James; Berkoff, Tim; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Full time measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol are now being acquired at a number of globally distributed MP (micro pulse) lidar sites. The MP lidar systems provide full time profiling of all significant cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation from compact, eye safe instruments. There are currently eight sites in operation and over a dozen planned. At all sited there are also passive aerosol and radiation measurements supporting the lidar data. Four of the installations are at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites. The network operation includes instrument operation and calibration and the processing of aerosol measurements with standard retrievals and data products from the network sites. Data products include optical thickness and extinction cross section profiles. Application of data is to supplement satellite aerosol measurements and to provide a climatology of the height distribution of aerosol. The height distribution of aerosol is important for aerosol transport and the direct scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. Current satellite and other data already provide a great amount of information on aerosol distribution, but no passive technique can adequately resolve the height profile of aerosol. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is an orbital lidar to be launched in early 2002. GLAS will provide global measurements of the height distribution of aerosol. The MP lidar network will provide ground truth and analysis support for GLAS and other NASA Earth Observing System data. The instruments, sites, calibration procedures and standard data product algorithms for the MPL network will be described.

  17. In-Situ Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties using New Cavity Ring-Down and Photoacoustics Instruments and Comparison with more Traditional Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Arnott, P.; Covert, D.; Elleman, R.; Ferrare, R.; Hallar, A. G.; Jonsson, H.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Luu, A. P.; Ogren, J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous species (BC and OC) are responsible for most of the absorption associated with aerosol particles. The amount of radiant energy an aerosol absorbs has profound effects on climate and air quality. It is ironic that aerosol absorption coefficient is one of the most difficult aerosol properties to measure. A new cavity ring-down (CRD) instrument, called Cadenza (NASA-ARC), measures the aerosol extinction coefficient for 675 nm and 1550 nm light, and simultaneously measures the scattering coefficient at 675 nm. Absorption coefficient is obtained from the difference of measured extinction and scattering within the instrument. Aerosol absorption coefficient is also measured by a photoacoustic (PA) instrument (DRI) that was operated on an aircraft for the first time during the DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period (IOP). This paper will report on measurements made with this new instrument and other in-situ instruments during two field recent field studies. The first field study was an airborne cam;oaign, the DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period flown in May, 2003 over northern Oklahoma. One of the main purposes of the IOP was to assess our ability to measure extinction and absorption coefficient in situ. This paper compares measurements of these aerosol optical properties made by the CRD, PA, nephelometer, and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) aboard the CIRPAS Twin-Otter. During the IOP, several significant aerosol layers were sampled aloft. These layers are identified in the remote (AATS-14) as well as in situ measurements. Extinction profiles measured by Cadenza are compared to those derived from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14, NASA-ARC). The regional radiative impact of these layers is assessed by using the measured aerosol optical properties in a radiative transfer model. The second study was conducted in the Caldecott Tunnel, a heavily-used tunnel located north of San Francisco, Ca. The aerosol sampled in this study was

  18. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Hair, J.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Kleinman, L.; Clarke, A.; Russell, P.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Szykman, J.; Al-Saadi, J.

    2007-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) recently developed an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to measure aerosol distributions and optical properties. The HSRL technique takes advantage of the spectral distribution of the lidar return signal to discriminate aerosol and molecular signals and thereby measure aerosol extinction and backscatter independently. The LaRC instrument employs the HSRL technique to measure aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles at 532 nm and the standard backscatter lidar technique to measure aerosol backscatter profiles at 1064 nm. Depolarization profiles are measured at both wavelengths. Since March 2006, the airborne HSRL has acquired over 215 flight hours of data deployed on the NASA King Air B200 aircraft during several field experiments. Most of the flights were conducted during two major field experiments. The first major experiment was the joint Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX B) experiment that was conducted during March 2006 to investigate the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The second major experiment was the Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) that was conducted during August and September 2006 to investigate climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. Several flights were also conducted to help validate the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO) satellite. In February 2007, several flights were carried out as part of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) experiment to assess air quality in central California. Airborne HSRL data acquired during these missions were used to quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types

  19. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the intercomparison of aerosol data - Part 4: Combined maximum covariance analysis to bridge the gap between multi-sensor satellite retrievals and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Carlson, B. E.; Lacis, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques has greatly advanced our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols. Various satellite sensors and the associated retrieval algorithms all add to the information of global aerosol variability, while well-designed surface networks provide time series of highly accurate measurements at specific locations. In studying the variability of aerosol properties, aerosol climate effects, and constraining aerosol fields in climate models, it is essential to make the best use of all of the available information. In the previous three parts of this series, we demonstrated the usefulness of several spectral decomposition techniques in the analysis and comparison of temporal and spatial variability of aerosol optical depth using satellite and ground-based measurements. Specifically, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) successfully captures and isolates seasonal and interannual variability from different aerosol source regions, Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) provides a means to verify the variability in one satellite dataset against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, and Combined Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) realized parallel comparison among multi-satellite, multi-sensor datasets. As the final part of the study, this paper introduces a novel technique that integrates both multi-sensor datasets and ground observations, and thus effectively bridges the gap between these two types of measurements. The Combined Maximum Covariance Analysis (CMCA) decomposes the cross covariance matrix between the combined multi-sensor satellite data field and AERONET station data. We show that this new method not only confirms the seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol optical depth, aerosol source regions and events represented by different satellite datasets, but also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in capturing the variability associated with sources, events or aerosol types. Furthermore, by examining the spread of

  20. SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.

  1. Aerosol measurements at the south pole during 1987. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Harris, J.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates an atmospheric monitoring observatory at Amundsen-Scott Station, South Pole. The aerosol measurement program consists of the continuous measurement of condensation nuclei (CN) concentration and aerosol scattering extinction coefficient. During 1987, a special aerosol experiment was conducted that included filter samples for subsequent analysis by the proton induced x-ray emission technique, diffusion battery measurements for size information in the sub-0.1 micrometer size range, and aerosol absorption measurements using an aethalometer. Surface and upper air meteorological data were also available. The purpose of the report is to present all of the aerosol data obtained during 1987.

  2. Practical application of in situ aerosol measurement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    The use of in situ, real-time measurement techniques permits the characterization of airborne droplets and particles under conditions where traditional sampling methods can fail. For example, sampling method rely on the ability to sample and transport particles without biasing the properties of interest, and often are not applicable in harsh environment. Although in situ methods offer unique opportunities in these cases, these techniques introduce new concerns and must be used carefully if accurate measurement are to be made. Several in situ measurement techniques are reviewed here. As the field is rapidly evolving, the discussion is limited to those techniques which: (1) are commercially available, (2) provide real-time output, (3) measure the aerosol size distribution. Discussion is divided between single particle counters (which provide a flux-based or temporal measurement) and ensemble techniques (which provide a concentration-based or spatial measurement). Specific techniques discussed include phase Doppler, Mie scattering, and Fraunhofer diffraction, and commercial instruments based on these techniques.

  3. Aerosol measurement program strategy for global aerosol backscatter model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.

  4. Development of Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer for Personal and Mobile Aerosol Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Fukushima, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    We describe development of a Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) for size distribution measurement of submicrometer aerosol. The spectrometer is designed for use in personal or mobile aerosol characterization studies and measures approximately 22.5 × 22.5 × 15 cm and weighs about 4.5 kg including the battery. PAMS uses electrical mobility technique to measure number-weighted particle size distribution of aerosol in the 10–855 nm range. Aerosol particles are electrically charged using a dual-corona bipolar corona charger, followed by classification in a cylindrical miniature differential mobility analyzer. A condensation particle counter is used to detect and count particles. The mobility classifier was operated at an aerosol flow rate of 0.05 L/min, and at two different user-selectable sheath flows of 0.2 L/min (for wider size range 15–855 nm) and 0.4 L/min (for higher size resolution over the size range of 10.6–436 nm). The instrument was operated in voltage stepping mode to retrieve the size distribution, which took approximately 1–2 minutes, depending on the configuration. Sizing accuracy and resolution were probed and found to be within the 25% limit of NIOSH criterion for direct-reading instruments (NIOSH 2012). Comparison of size distribution measurements from PAMS and other commercial mobility spectrometers showed good agreement. The instrument offers unique measurement capability for on-person or mobile size distribution measurements of ultrafine and nanoparticle aerosol.

  5. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the intercomparison of aerosol data - Part 4: Synthesized analysis of multisensor satellite and ground-based AOD measurements using combined maximum covariance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Carlson, B. E.; Lacis, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce the usage of a newly developed spectral decomposition technique - combined maximum covariance analysis (CMCA) - in the spatiotemporal comparison of four satellite data sets and ground-based observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD). This technique is based on commonly used principal component analysis (PCA) and maximum covariance analysis (MCA). By decomposing the cross-covariance matrix between the joint satellite data field and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station data, both parallel comparison across different satellite data sets and the evaluation of the satellite data against the AERONET measurements are simultaneously realized. We show that this new method not only confirms the seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol optical depth, aerosol-source regions and events represented by different satellite data sets, but also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each data set in capturing the variability associated with sources, events or aerosol types. Furthermore, by examining the spread of the spatial modes of different satellite fields, regions with the largest uncertainties in aerosol observation are identified. We also present two regional case studies that respectively demonstrate the capability of the CMCA technique in assessing the representation of an extreme event in different data sets, and in evaluating the performance of different data sets on seasonal and interannual timescales. Global results indicate that different data sets agree qualitatively for major aerosol-source regions. Discrepancies are mostly found over the Sahel, India, eastern and southeastern Asia. Results for eastern Europe suggest that the intense wildfire event in Russia during summer 2010 was less well-represented by SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), which might be due to misclassification of smoke plumes as clouds. Analysis for the Indian subcontinent shows that here SeaWiFS agrees

  6. Measuring Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Aerosol Profiles Simultaneously with a Camera Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, John; Pipes, Robert; Sharma, Nimmi C. P.

    2016-06-01

    CLidar or camera lidar is a simple, inexpensive technique to measure nighttime tropospheric aerosol profiles. Stars in the raw data images used in the CLidar analysis can also be used to calculate aerosol optical depth simultaneously. A single star can be used with the Langley method or multiple star pairs can be used to reduce the error. The estimated error from data taken under clear sky conditions at Mauna Loa Observatory is approximately +/- 0.01.

  7. Transported acid aerosols measured in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Gerald J.; Spengler, John D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Allen, George A.; Raizenne, Mark; Stern, Bonnie

    During the period 29 June 1986-9 August 1986, a field health study assessing the acute health effects of air pollutants on children was conducted at a summer girls' camp on the northern shore of Lake Erie in SW Ontario. Continuous air pollution measurements of SO 2, O 3, NO x, particulate sulfates, light scattering, and meteorological measurements including temperature, dew point, and wind speed and direction were made. Twelve-hour integrated samples of size fractioned particles were also obtained using dichotomous samplers and Harvard impactors equipped with an ammonia denuder for subsequent hydrogen ion determination. Particulate samples were analyzed for trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and Neutron Activation, and for organic and elemental carbon by a thermal/optical technique. The measured aerosol was periodically very acidic with observed 12-h averaged H + concentrations in the range < 10-560 nmoles m -3. The aerosol H + appeared to represent the net strong acidity after H 2SO 4 reaction with NH 3(g). Average daytime concentrations were higher than night-time for aerosol H +, sulfate, fine mass and ozone. Prolonged episodes of atmospheric acidity, sulfate, and ozone were associated with air masses arriving at the measurement site from the west and from the southwest over Lake Erie. Sulfate concentrations measured at the lakeshore camp were more than twice those measured at inland sites during extreme pollution episodes. The concentration gradient observed with onshore flow was potentially due to enhanced deposition near the lakeshore caused by discontinuities in the meteorological fields in this region.

  8. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  9. A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurry, Peter H.

    Recent developments in atmospheric aerosol measurements are reviewed. The topics included complement those covered in the recent review by Chow (JAWMA 45: 320-382, 1995) which focuses on regulatory compliance measurements and filter measurements of particulate composition. This review focuses on measurements of aerosol integral properties (total number concentration, CCN concentration, optical coefficients, etc.), aerosol physical chemical properties (density, refractive index, equilibrium water content, etc.), measurements of aerosol size distributions, and measurements of size-resolved aerosol composition. Such measurements play an essential role in studies of secondary aerosol formation by atmospheric chemical transformations and enable one to quantify the contributions of various species to effects including light scattering/absorption, health effects, dry deposition, etc. Aerosol measurement evolved from an art to a science in the 1970s following the development of instrumentation to generate monodisperse calibration aerosols of known size, composition, and concentration. While such calibration tools permit precise assessments of instrument responses to known laboratory-generated aerosols, unquantifiable uncertainties remain even when carefully calibrated instruments are used for atmospheric measurements. This is because instrument responses typically depend on aerosol properties including composition, shape, density, etc., which, for atmospheric aerosols, may vary from particle-to-particle and are often unknown. More effort needs to be made to quantify measurement accuracies that can be achieved for realistic atmospheric sampling scenarios. The measurement of organic species in atmospheric particles requires substantial development. Atmospheric aerosols typically include hundreds of organic compounds, and only a small fraction (˜10%) of these can be identified by state-of-the-art analytical methodologies. Even the measurement of the total particulate organic

  10. Development of An Ion-Drift Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Technique for Measurements of Aerosol Precursor Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Ma, Y.; Chen, M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a new technique, i.e., ion-drift time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-ToF-CIMS) for measurements of aerosol precursor gases, including ammonia, amines, organic acids and oxygenated VOCs at pptv level with a response time less than 1 s. The ID-ToF-CIMS was modified from an Aerodyne high resolution ToF-CIMS with a custom-designed ion-drift tube, which can control the ion flight velocity and hence the ion-molecular reaction time. In addition, the tunable electric field generated by the drift tube can break up water clusters to select the major reagent ions. The advantages of the ID-ToF-CIMS over the traditional quadrupole-based ID-CIMS were the high mass-resolving power of the ToF mass analyzer and the capability of simultaneous measurement of the full mass range (typically up to 300 m/z) of product ions. Using hydronium ion based reagent ions, we demonstrated that the ID-ToF-CIMS can unambiguously measure ammonia (NH3) at 18.03 m/z, methyl amine (CH3NH2) at 32.05 m/z, formic acid (HCOOH) at 47.01 m/z and acetone (CH3COCH3) at 59.05 m/z. Calibrations were performed with both compressed commercial standard gases and permeation tubes and the results showed that the instrument detection limit can reach pptv level for 1 s average time or less. The ID-ToF-CIMS was also field tested in a mobile laboratory on the campus of Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST). The preliminary results will be discussed.

  11. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to aerosol correlative measurements experiments for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, conducted between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative measurements were taken with an impactor/laser probe, a dustsonde, and an airborne 36-cm lidar system. The primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments are compared with those calculated from the aerosol size distributions from SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. Good agreement is found between the two sets of measurements.

  12. Laser radar measurements of the aerosol content of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, G. W.

    1969-01-01

    A summary of the results of laser radar observations of atmospheric aerosols is presented along with a description of the laser radar system devised during the study and of the data handling techniques utilized for the analysis of the data of the temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Current research conducted by the group is directed toward the analysis of the frequency spectrum of laser radar echoes to obtain absolute measurements of the dust content of the atmosphere by resolving the molecular and aerosol contributions to the laser radar echoes.

  13. Measurement of Transport Properties of Aerosolized Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Airborne engineered nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), functionalized MWCNT, graphene, fullerene, silver and gold nanorods were characterized using a tandem system of a differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol particle mass analyzer to obtain their airborne transport properties and understand their relationship to morphological characteristics. These nanomaterials were aerosolized using different generation methods such as electrospray, pneumatic atomization, and dry aerosolization techniques, and their airborne transport properties such as mobility and aerodynamic diameters, mass scaling exponent, dynamic shape factor, and effective density were obtained. Laboratory experiments were conducted to directly measure mobility diameter and mass of the airborne nanomaterials using tandem mobility-mass measurements. Mass scaling exponents, aerodynamic diameters, dynamic shape factors and effective densities of mobility-classified particles were obtained from particle mass and the mobility diameter. Microscopy analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was performed to obtain morphological descriptors such as envelop diameter, open area, aspect ratio, and projected area diameter. The morphological information from the TEM was compared with measured aerodynamic and mobility diameters of the particles. The results showed that aerodynamic diameter is smaller than mobility diameter below 500 nm by a factor of 2 to 4 for all nanomaterials except silver and gold nanorods. Morphologies of MWCNTs generated by liquid-based method, such as pneumatic atomization, are more compact than those of dry dispersed MWCNTs, indicating that the morphology depends on particle generation method. TEM analysis showed that projected area diameter of MWCNTs appears to be in reasonable agreement with mobility diameter in the size range from 100 – 400 nm. Principal component analysis of the obtained airborne particle

  14. Three optical methods for remotely measuring aerosol size distributions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Herman, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    Three optical probing methods for remotely measuring atmospheric aerosol size distributions are discussed and contrasted. The particular detection methods which are considered make use of monostatic lidar (laser radar), bistatic lidar, and solar radiometer sensing techniques. The theory of each of these measurement techniques is discussed briefly, and the necessary constraints which must be applied to obtain aerosol size distribution information from such measurements are pointed out. Theoretical and/or experimental results are also presented which demonstrate the utility of the three proposed probing methods.

  15. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  16. Requirements For Lidar Aerosol and Ozone Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, S.; Woeste, L.

    borne and ground based Aerosol and Ozone measure- ments, to give an idea, what kind of technique and input data is required to get reliable results. As an example for an application I oppose experimentally retrieved planetary boundary layer height and ozone concentrations with results of a chemical dispersion model for the region Berlin/Brandenburg. One mayor task for the future is to apply the advanced laser remote sensing techniques on all continents at as much location as possible, to get a first impression about the variability and correlation of optical parameters of the atmosphere and to gather databases, which allow to find the right input values for evaluation of space borne data.

  17. A Search for Correlations Between Four Different Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement Systems Atop Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, Brian

    2004-05-01

    Accurate atmospheric aerosol transport measurements are important to international nuclear test monitoring, emergency response, health and ecosystem toxicology, and climate change. An International Monitoring System (IMS) is being established which will include a suite of aerosol radionuclide sensors. To explore the possibility of using the IMS sites to improve the understanding of global atmospheric aerosol transport, four state-of-the-art aerosol measurement systems were placed atop Rattlesnake Mountain at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer measures radionuclide concentration via gamma-ray spectroscopy. The Cascade Impactor Beam Analyzer Technique measures 30 elements in three aerosol sizes using PNNLâ's Ion Beams Materials Analysis Laboratory. The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance provides time-averaged aerosol mass concentrations for a range of sizes. The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measures the solar irradiance to derive an aerosol optical depth. Results and correlations from the four different detectors will be presented.

  18. Accuracy of near-surface aerosol extinction determined from columnar aerosol optical depth measurements in Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present work is a detailed analysis of aerosol columnar optical depth as a tool to determine near-surface aerosol extinction in Reno, Nevada, USA, during the summer of 2012. Ground and columnar aerosol optical properties were obtained by use of in situ Photoacoustic and Integrated Nephelometer and Cimel CE-318 Sun photometer instruments, respectively. Both techniques showed that seasonal weather changes and fire plumes had enormous influence on local aerosol optics. The apparent optical height followed the shape but not magnitude of the development of the convective boundary layer when fire conditions were not present. Back trajectory analysis demonstrated that a local flow known as the Washoe Zephyr circulation often induced aerosol transport from Northern California over the Sierra Nevada Mountains that increased the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm during afternoons when compared with mornings. Aerosol fine mode fraction indicated that afternoon aerosols in June and July and fire plumes in August were dominated by submicron particles, suggesting upwind urban plume biogenically enhanced evolution toward substantial secondary aerosol formation. This fine particle optical depth was inferred to be beyond the surface, thereby complicating use of remote sensing measurements for near-ground aerosol extinction measurements. It is likely that coarse mode depletes fine mode aerosol near the surface by coagulation and condensation of precursor gases.

  19. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  20. AVHRR measurements of atmospheric aerosols over oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, M.

    1981-11-01

    A large set of AVHRR and ground-truth data was obtained at ten sites around the globe to investigate the possible global variability of the radiance-aerosol content relationship observed previously with LANDSAT data. The aerosol content was inferred from the AVHRR Channel 1 radiance using an algorithm based on previous LANDSAT measurements at San Diego. The data for four sites were analyzed, and showed excellent agreement between the aerosol content measured by the AVHRR and by sunphotometers at San Diego, Sable Island and San Juan, but at Barbados, the AVHRR appeared to overestimate the aerosol content. The reason for the different relationship at the Barbados site was not definitely established, but is most likely related to problems in interpreting the sunphotometer data rather than to a real overestimation by the AVHRR.

  1. Measurement of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol by Globally Distributed MP Lidar Network Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Judd; Campbell, James; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global distribution of aerosol has an important influence on climate through the scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation and through modification of cloud optical properties. Current satellite and other data already provide a great amount of information on aerosol distribution. However there are critical parameters that can only be obtained by active optical profiling. For aerosol, no passive technique can adequately resolve the height profile of aerosol. The aerosol height distribution is required for any model for aerosol transport and the height resolved radiative heating/cooling effect of aerosol. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is an orbital lidar to be launched by 2002. GLAS will provide global measurements of the height distribution of aerosol. The sampling will be limited by nadir only coverage. There is a need for local sites to address sampling, and accuracy factors. Full time measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol are now being acquired at a number of globally distributed MP (micro pulse) lidar sites. The MP lidar systems provide profiling of all significant cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation from compact, eye safe instruments. There are currently six sites in operation and over a dozen planned. At all sites there are a complement of passive aerosol and radiation measurements supporting the lidar data. Four of the installations are at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites. The aerosol measurements, retrievals and data products from the network sites will be discussed. The current and planned application of data to supplement satellite aerosol measurements is covered.

  2. A CLOSURE STUDY OF AEROSOL MASS CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS: COMPARISON OF VALUES OBTAINED WITH FILTERS AND BY DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF MASS DISTRIBUTIONS. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer–aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA–APM) technique (Aero...

  3. Aerosol measurements from earth orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The global aerosol data base evolving from monitoring being done by Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) since the fall of 1978 is presented. Data reveal that polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) enhance extinction and optical depths by up to two orders of magnitude and an order of magnitude, respectively. These data are over background 1000 nm values of approximately 1.2 x 10 to the -4th per km, and 1.3 x 10 to the -3rd, respectively. SAGE has offered, for the first time, quantitative measurements of volcanic eruptions on a nearly global basis, and estimates are given for the amount of aerosol injected into the stratosphere from each volcano. For example, Northern Hemisphere aerosol was enhanced by more than 100% by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, which produced about 0.32 x 10 to the 6th metric tons of aerosol. A cirrus cloud data base is being developed which will be useful in earth radiation and water vapor budget studies. Cross-section, contour, and temperature variation diagrams are included.

  4. Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieval with various techniques in the UV and visible wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, A.; Krotkov, N.; Blumthaler, M.; Bais, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Balis, D.; Schmidhauser, R.; Kouremeti, N.; Giannakaki, E.; Arola, A.

    2009-08-01

    The most important aerosol properties for determining aerosol effect in the solar radiation reaching the earth's surface are the aerosol extinction optical depth and the single scattering albedo (SSA). Most of the latest studies, dealing with aerosol direct or indirect effects, are based on the analysis of aerosol optical depth in a regional or global scale, while SSA is typically assumed based on theoretical assumptions and not direct measurements. Especially for the retrieval of SSA in the UV wavelengths only limited work has been available in the literature. In the frame of SCOUT-O3 project, the variability of the aerosol SSA in the UV and visible range was investigated during an experimental campaign. The campaign took place in July 2006 at Thessaloniki, Greece, an urban environment with high temporal aerosol variability. SSA values were calculated using measured aerosol optical depth, direct and diffuse irradiance as input to radiative transfer models. The measurements were performed by co-located UV-MFRSR and AERONET CIMEL filter radiometers, as well as by two spectroradiometers. In addition, vertical aerosol profile measurements with LIDAR and in-situ information about the aerosol optical properties at ground level with a nephelometer and an aethalometer were available. The ground-based measurements revealed a strong diurnal cycle in the SSA measured in-situ at ground level (from 0.75 to 0.87 at 450nm), which could be related to the variability of the wind speed, the boundary layer height and the local aerosol emissions. The reasons for SSA differences obtained by different techniques are analyzed for the first time to provide recommendations for more accurate column SSA measurements.

  5. ELECTRICAL AEROSOL DETECTOR (EAD) MEASUREMENTS AT THE ST. LOUIS SUPERSITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Model 3070A Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD) measures a unique aerosol parameter called total aerosol length. Reported as mm/cm3, aerosol length can be thought of as a number concentration times average diameter, or simply as d1 weighting. This measurement falls between nu...

  6. Arctic aerosol and clouds studied by bistatic lidar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofson, K. Frans G.; Svensson, Erik A.; Witt, Georg; Pettersson, Jan B. C.

    2009-09-01

    Aerosol and cloud studies were carried out with a polarimetric bistatic lidar setup at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) in Andenes (69°N, 16E°), Norway. The measurements were performed from 10 to 23 October 2006 and covered altitudes between 1.5 and 11 km, corresponding to scattering angles between 130 and 170°. The degree of linear polarization, PL, calculated from the experiments was compared with light scattering calculations using Lorenz-Mie theory for spherical particles, the T-matrix approach for nonspherical rotationally symmetric particles, and a geometric optics ray-tracing method. Average PL values between 0.61 and 0.72 were obtained for the background aerosol under cloud-free conditions. The aerosol results may be qualitatively reproduced by standard aerosol types if a suitable combination of coarse- and fine-mode spherical particles is assumed. The PL values obtained for thin and mildly opaque clouds were in the range from 0.21 to 0.38. These results were not well described by spherical particles, and the results for relatively small prolate and oblate particles studied with the T-matrix method tended to be slightly higher than the experimental values. Geometric optics calculations for hexagonal column ice particles with surface roughness were able to reproduce the experimental cloud data. This does not rule out contributions from other types of particles, and particle orientation effects may also have influenced the results. We conclude that the experimental results are consistent with earlier in situ studies of cirrus clouds, and the further development and application of the bistatic lidar technique is discussed.

  7. One year of urban background fluorescent aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Online aerosol fluorescence is a popular methodology for detecting bioaerosols in the atmosphere. In recent years there has been considerable effort into refining the technique to be able to distinguish between different bioaerosol classes such as pollen, spores and bacteria. A near continuous record of aerosol fluorescence measurements has been recorded at an urban background observation site in Birmingham, UK for the year 2015. Fluorescence measurements were performed using the Biral aerosol fluorescence spectrometer (AFS) which measures both UV and visible fluorescence resulting from the excitation of aerosol particles at 280 nm. Speciation of the fluorescent particles into different bioaerosol class is possible with the AFS but the lack of particle sizing makes the task difficult compared to other techniques. In addition to the fluorescence measurements, further campaign mode measurements were also generated for size segregated total particle numbers, ozone, nitrogen oxides and other chemical species. These measurements allow for the influence of road traffic on the concentration of fluorescent particle to be determined. This presentation will provide an in depth look into how bioaerosol concentrations and speciation (pollen, spores and bacteria) change throughout the year. These changes will be linked to local and regional meteorology and climate. In particular, the consequences of the unusually warm UK winter upon bioaerosol concentrations will be highlighted.

  8. A comparative study of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    SAM II and SAGE are two satellite experiments designed to measure stratospheric aerosol extinction using the technique of solar occultation or limb extinction. Although each sensor is mounted aboard a different satellite, there are occasions when their measurement locations are nearly coincident, thereby providing opportunities for a measurement comparison. In this paper, the aerosol extinction profiles and daily contour plots for some of these events in 1979 are reported. The comparisons shown in this paper demonstrate that SAM II and SAGE are producing similar aerosol extinction profiles within their measurement errors and that since SAM II has been previously validated, these results show the validity of the SAGE aerosol measurements.

  9. Aerosol size distribution and aerosol water content measurements during Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment/Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Sievering, H.; Boatman, J.; Wellman, D.; Pszenny, A.

    1995-11-01

    Aerosol size distribution data measured during the June 1992 Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange experiment are analyzed to investigate the characteristics of fine marine aerosol particles measured over the North Atlantic near the Azores Islands. Measured aerosol size distribution data were corrected using the corrected size calibration data based on the optical properties of particles being measured. The corrected size distribution data were then approximated with either one or two lognormal size distributions, depending on air mass conditions. Under clean air mass conditions <3 μm diameter aerosol size distributions typically exhibited two modes, consisting of an accumulation mode and the small end of the sea-salt particle mode. However, under the influence of continental polluted air masses, the aerosol size distribution was dominated by <1 μm diameter particles in a single mode with an increased aerosol concentration. Aerosol water content of accumulation mode marine aerosols was estimated from differences between several series of ambient and dried aerosol size distributions. The average aerosol water fraction was 0.31, which is in good agreement with an empirical aerosol growth model estimate. The average rate of SO4= production in the accumulation mode aerosol water by H2O2 oxidation was estimated to be <7×10-10 mol L-1 s-1, which is an insignificant contributor to the observed non-sea-salt SO4= in the accumulation mode.

  10. Aerosol and Plasma Measurements in Noctilucent Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop rocket-borne probes to detect charged aerosol layers in the mesosphere. These include sporadic E layers, which have their origin in meteoric dust, and noctilucent clouds, which form in the arctic summer and are composed of ice crystals. The probe being developed consists of a charge collecting patch connected to a sensitive electrometer which measures the charge deposited on the patch by impacting aerosols. The ambient electrons and light ions in the mesosphere are prevented from being collected by a magnetic field. The magnetic force causes these lighter particles to turn so that they miss the collecting patch.

  11. Observationally-constrained estimates of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over East Asia via data assimilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Song, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Not only aerosol's direct effect on climate by scattering and absorbing the incident solar radiation, but also they indirectly perturbs the radiation budget by influencing microphysics and dynamics of clouds. Aerosols also have a significant adverse impact on human health. With an importance of aerosols in climate, considerable research efforts have been made to quantify the amount of aerosols in the form of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD is provided with ground-based aerosol networks such as the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), and is derived from satellite measurements. However, these observational datasets have a limited areal and temporal coverage. To compensate for the data gaps, there have been several studies to provide AOD without data gaps by assimilating observational data and model outputs. In this study, AODs over East Asia simulated with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) observation are interpolated via different data assimilation (DA) techniques such as Cressman's method, Optimal Interpolation (OI), and Kriging for the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March - May 2012). Here, the interpolated results using the three DA techniques are validated intensively by comparing with AERONET AODs to examine the optimal DA method providing the most reliable AODs over East Asia.

  12. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing: Calculations and Measurements from the Tropospheric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Stowe, L. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Radiative forcing is defined as the change in the net (downwelling minus upwelling) radiative flux at a given level in the atmosphere. This net flux is the radiative power density available to drive climatic processes in the earth-atmosphere system below that level. Recent research shows that radiative forcing by aerosol particles is a major source of uncertainty in climate predictions. To reduce those uncertainties, TARFOX was designed to determine direct (cloud-free) radiative forcing by the aerosols in one of the world's major industrial pollution plumes--that flowing from the east coast of the US over the Atlantic Ocean. TARFOX measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including direct forcing) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the aerosol particles causing those effects. The resulting data sets permit a wide variety of tests of the consistency, or closure, among the measurements and the models that link them. Because climate predictions use the same or similar model components, closure tests help to assess and reduce prediction uncertainties. In this work we use the TARFOX-determined aerosol, gas, and surface properties to compute radiative forcing for a variety of aerosol episodes, with inadvisable optical depths ranging from 0.07 to 0.6. We calculate forcing by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to test the range of applicability of simplified techniques--which are often the only ones feasible in climate predictions by general circulation models (GCMs). We then compare computed forcing to that determined from: (1) Upwelling and downwelling fluxes (0.3-0.7 mm and 0.7-3.0 mm) measured by radiometers on the UK MRF C-130. and (2) Daily average cloud-free absorbed solar and emitted thermal radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from the AVHRR radiometer on the NOAA- 14 satellite. The calculations and measurements all yield aerosol direct radiative forcing in the

  13. Development of a continuous aerosol mass concentration measurement device.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Thomas, D; Contal, P; Subra, I

    2003-08-01

    A dynamic aerosol mass concentration measurement device has been developed for personal sampling. Its principle consists in sampling the aerosol on a filter and monitoring the change of pressure drop over time (Delta P). Ensuring that the linearity of the Delta P = f(mass of particles per unit area of filter) relationship has been well established, the change of concentration can be deduced. The response of the system was validated in the laboratory with a 3.5 microm alumina aerosol (mass median diameter) generated inside a 1-m(3) ventilated enclosure. As the theory predicted that the mass sensitivity of the system would vary inversely with the square of the particle diameter, only sufficiently fine aerosols were able to be measured. The system was tested in the field in a mechanical workshop in the vicinity of an arc-welding station. The aerosol produced by welding is indeed particularly well-adapted due to the sub-micronic size of the particles. The device developed, despite this limitation, has numerous advantages over other techniques: robustness, compactness, reliability of calibration, and ease of use.

  14. Measurements of the absorption coefficient of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogren, J. A.; Ahlquist, N. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Charlson, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of stratospheric aerosols are measured using a variation on the integrating plate method. The technique is based on the decrease in the transparency of a substrate when an absorbing aerosol is deposited on it. A Lambert scatterer is placed behind the substrate to integrate forward scattered light and minimize the effect of scattering on the measurement. The low pressure in the stratosphere is used for the direct impaction of particles onto a narrow strip of opal glass. The eight samples collected had a median value of 4 x 10 to the -9th m with an uncertainty of + or - 5 x 10 to the -9th m. If this absorption is due to graphitic carbon, then its concentration is estimated at about 0.4 ng/cu m, or about 0.25% of the total aerosol mass concentration. Estimates of the aerosol scattering coefficients based on satellite extinction inversions result in an aerosol single-scattering albedo in the range of 0.96-1.0.

  15. Intercomparison of measurement methods for black carbon aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzenberger, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Larson, S. M.; Dillner, A.; Cachier, H.; Galambos, Z.; Rouc, A.; Spain, T. G.

    In this study, two method intercomparisons were performed. One thermal and two optical methods for the measurement of black carbon (BC) were applied to laboratory generated aerosols containing only BC. For the optical measurements, an aethalometer (Hansen et al., 1984. Science of Total Environment 36, 191-196) and an integrating sphere technique (Hitzenberger et al., 1996b. Journal of Geophysical Research 101, D14, 19 601-19 606) were used. The thermal method was described by Cachier et al. (1989a. Tellus 41B, 379-390). In an additional comparison, the integrating sphere was compared to a thermal optical technique (Birch and Cary, 1996. Aerosol Science Technology 25, 221-241) on ambient aerosol samples. The absorption coefficients were obtained from transmission measurements on filter samples for both the aethalometer and the integrating sphere. The BC mass concentration for the aethalometer was derived from this absorption measurement. The BC mass concentration for the integrating sphere, however, was obtained using an independent calibration curve. The agreement between the absorption coefficient σa obtained for the BC test aerosol on parallel filters with the aethalometer and the integrating sphere was satisfactory. The slope of the regression lines depended on filter type. A comparison between BC mass concentrations, however, showed that the aethalometer values were only 23% of those obtained by the integrating sphere technique indicating that for pure BC aerosols, the standard aethalometer calibration should not be used. Compared to the thermal method, the integrating sphere gave an overestimation of the BC mass concentrations by 21%. For the ambient samples, the integrating sphere and the thermal optical methods for BC mass concentration determination showed agreement within 5% of the 1 : 1 line, although the data were not so well correlated.

  16. Aerosol Classification using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Froyd, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired extensive datasets of aerosol extinction (532 nm), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 18 field missions that have been conducted over North America since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, backscatter color ratio, spectral depolarization ratio) are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on observations of known aerosol types is used to qualitatively classify the extensive set of HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate types. Several examples are presented showing how the aerosol intensive parameters vary with aerosol type and how these aerosols are classified according to this new methodology. The HSRL-based classification reveals vertical variability of aerosol types during the NASA ARCTAS field experiment conducted over Alaska and northwest Canada during 2008. In two examples derived from flights conducted during ARCTAS, the HSRL classification of biomass burning smoke is shown to be consistent with aerosol types derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of particle size and composition. The HSRL retrievals of aerosol optical thickness and inferences of aerosol types are used to apportion aerosol optical thickness to aerosol type; results of this analysis are shown for several experiments.

  17. In-depth discrimination of aerosol types using multiple clustering techniques over four locations in Indo-Gangetic plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Bibi, Samina

    2016-11-01

    Discrimination of aerosol types is essential over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) because several aerosol types originate from different sources having different atmospheric impacts. In this paper, we analyzed a seasonal discrimination of aerosol types by multiple clustering techniques using AERosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) datasets for the period 2007-2013 over Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur and Kanpur. We discriminated the aerosols into three major types; dust, biomass burning and urban/industrial. The discrimination was carried out by analyzing different aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Angstrom Exponent (AE), Extinction Angstrom Exponent (EAE), Abortion Angstrom Exponent (AAE), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Real Refractive Index (RRI) and their interrelationship to investigate the dominant aerosol types and to examine the variation in their seasonal distribution. The results revealed that during summer and pre-monsoon, dust aerosols were dominant while during winter and post-monsoon prevailing aerosols were biomass burning and urban industrial, and the mixed type of aerosols were present in all seasons. These types of aerosol discriminated from AERONET were in good agreement with CALIPSO (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) measurement.

  18. Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Thrush, Evan P.; Thomas, Michael E.; Siegrist, Karen M.; Baldwin, Kevin; Quizon, Jason; Carter, Christopher C.

    2009-05-01

    A chamber aerosol LIDAR is being developed to perform well-controlled tests of optical scattering characteristics of biological aerosols, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), for validation of optical scattering models. The 1.064 μm, sub-nanosecond pulse LIDAR allows sub-meter measurement resolution of particle depolarization ratio or backscattering cross-section at a 1 kHz repetition rate. Automated data acquisition provides the capability for real-time analysis or recording. Tests administered within the refereed 1 cubic meter chamber can provide high quality near-field backscatter measurements devoid of interference from entrance and exit window reflections. Initial chamber measurements of BG depolarization ratio are presented.

  19. Measurements of Semi-volatile Aerosol and Its Effect on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

    2013-12-01

    Semi-volatile compounds, including particle-bound water, comprise a large part of aerosol mass and have a significant influence on aerosol lifecycle and its optical properties. Understanding the properties of semi-volatile compounds, especially those pertaining to gas/aerosol partitioning, is of critical importance for our ability to predict concentrations and properties of ambient aerosol. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of temperature and relative humidity on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder and a variable residence time constant temperature thermodenuder in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. It was found that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. The variable residence time thermodenuder data suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s, in contrast to other ambient observations. Preliminary analysis show that approximately 50% and 90% of total aerosol mass evaporated at temperatures of 100 C and 180C, respectively. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology. During course of this study, T50 (temperatures at which 50% aerosol mass evaporates) varied from 60 C to more than 120 C.

  20. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  1. Ground-Based Aerosol Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex chemical mixture of liquid and solid particles suspended in air (Seinfeld and Pandis 2016). Measurements of this complex mixture form the basis of our knowledge regarding particle formation, source-receptor relationships, data to ...

  2. Aerosol absorption measurement with a sinusoidal phase modulating fiber optic photo thermal interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuwang; Shao, Shiyong; Mei, Haiping; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol light absorption plays an important role in the earth's atmosphere direct and semi-direct radiate forcing, simultaneously, it also has a huge influence on the visibility impairment and laser engineering application. Although various methods have been developed for measuring aerosol light absorption, huge challenge still remains in precision, accuracy and temporal resolution. The main reason is that, as a part of aerosol light extinction, aerosol light absorption always generates synchronously with aerosol light scattering, and unfortunately aerosol light scattering is much stronger in most cases. Here, a novel photo-thermal interferometry is proposed only for aerosol absorption measurement without disturbance from aerosol scattering. The photo-thermal interferometry consists of a sinusoidal phase-modulating single mode fiber-optic interferometer. The thermal dissipation, caused by aerosol energy from photo-thermal conversion when irritated by pump laser through interferometer, is detected. This approach is completely insensitive to aerosol scattering, and the single mode fiber-optic interferometer is compact, low-cost and insensitive to the polarization shading. The theory of this technique is illustrated, followed by the basic structure of the sinusoidal phase-modulating fiber-optic interferometer and demodulation algorithms. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results show that the new photo-thermal interference is a potential approach for aerosol absorption detection and environmental pollution detection.

  3. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  4. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  5. Eddy Covariance Measurements of the Sea-Spray Aerosol Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.; Yelland, M. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Prytherch, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, almost all estimates of the sea-spray aerosol source flux have been inferred through various indirect methods. Direct estimates via eddy covariance have been attempted by only a handful of studies, most of which measured only the total number flux, or achieved rather coarse size segregation. Applying eddy covariance to the measurement of sea-spray fluxes is challenging: most instrumentation must be located in a laboratory space requiring long sample lines to an inlet collocated with a sonic anemometer; however, larger particles are easily lost to the walls of the sample line. Marine particle concentrations are generally low, requiring a high sample volume to achieve adequate statistics. The highly hygroscopic nature of sea salt means particles change size rapidly with fluctuations in relative humidity; this introduces an apparent bias in flux measurements if particles are sized at ambient humidity. The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) was developed specifically to make high rate measurements of aerosol size distributions for use in eddy covariance measurements, and the instrument and data processing and analysis techniques have been refined over the course of several projects. Here we will review some of the issues and limitations related to making eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray source flux over the open ocean, summarise some key results from the last decade, and present new results from a 3-year long ship-based measurement campaign as part of the WAGES project. Finally we will consider requirements for future progress.

  6. Aerosols, light, and water: Measurements of aerosol optical properties at different relative humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Daniel

    The Earth's atmosphere is composed of a large number of different gases as well as tiny suspended particles, both in solid and liquid state. These tiny particles, called atmospheric aerosols, have an immense impact on our health and on our global climate. Atmospheric aerosols influence the Earth's radiation budget both directly and indirectly. In the direct effect, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight changing the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. Aerosols indirectly influence the Earth's radiation budget by modifying the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds as well as their water content and lifetime. In ambient conditions, aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth due to the influence of relative humidity (RH), scattering more light than when the particles are dry. The quantitative knowledge of the RH effect and its influence on the light scattering coefficient and, in particular, on the phase function and polarization of aerosol particles is of substantial importance when comparing ground based observations with other optical aerosol measurements techniques such satellite and sunphotometric retrievals of aerosol optical depth and their inversions. This dissertation presents the aerosol hygroscopicity experiment investigated using a novel dryer-humidifier system, coupled to a TSI-3563 nephelometer, to obtain the light scattering coefficient (sp) as a function of relative humidity (RH) in hydration and dehydration modes. The measurements were performed in Porterville, CA (Jan 10-Feb 6, 2013), Baltimore, MD (Jul 3-30, 2013), and Golden, CO (Jul 12-Aug 10, 2014). Observations in Porterville and Golden were part of the NASA-sponsored DISCOVER-AQ project. The measured sp under varying RH in the three sites was combined with ground aerosol extinction, PM2:5mass concentrations, particle composition measurements, and compared with airborne observations performed during campaigns. The enhancement factor, f(RH), defined as the ratio of sp

  7. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Chen, Da-Ren

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  8. Retrieving the Vertical Structure of the Effective Aerosol Complex Index of Refraction from a Combination of Aerosol in Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Turco, R. P.; Liou, K. N.; Russell, P. B.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hartley, W. S.; Ismail, S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.

    2000-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in estimates of the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate stems from uncertainties in the determination of their microphysical properties, including the aerosol complex index of refraction, which in turn determines their optical properties. A novel technique is used to estimate the aerosol complex index of refraction in distinct vertical layers from a combination of aerosol in situ size distribution and remote sensing measurements during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX). In particular, aerosol backscatter measurements using the NASA Langley LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) instrument and in situ aerosol size distribution data are utilized to derive vertical profiles of the "effective" aerosol complex index of refraction at 815 nm (i.e., the refractive index that would provide the same backscatter signal in a forward calculation on the basis of the measured in situ particle size distributions for homogeneous, spherical aerosols). A sensitivity study shows that this method yields small errors in the retrieved aerosol refractive indices, provided the errors in the lidar-derived aerosol backscatter are less than 30% and random in nature. Absolute errors in the estimated aerosol refractive indices are generally less than 0.04 for the real part and can be as much as 0.042 for the imaginary part in the case of a 30% error in the lidar-derived aerosol backscatter. The measurements of aerosol optical depth from the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) are successfully incorporated into the new technique and help constrain the retrieved aerosol refractive indices. An application of the technique to two TARFOX case studies yields the occurrence of vertical layers of distinct aerosol refractive indices. Values of the estimated complex aerosol refractive index range from 1.33 to 1.45 for the real part and 0.001 to 0.008 for the imaginary part. The methodology devised in this study

  9. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  10. Sensorimotor System Measurement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Bryan L.; Myers, Joseph B.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of currently available sensorimotor assessment techniques. Data Sources: We drew information from an extensive review of the scientific literature conducted in the areas of proprioception, neuromuscular control, and motor control measurement. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE for the years 1965 to 1999 with the key words proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials, nerve conduction testing, electromyography, muscle dynamometry, isometric, isokinetic, kinetic, kinematic, posture, equilibrium, balance, stiffness, neuromuscular, sensorimotor, and measurement. Additional sources were collected using the reference lists of identified articles. Data Synthesis: Sensorimotor measurement techniques are discussed with reference to the underlying physiologic mechanisms, influential factors and locations of the variable within the system, clinical research questions, limitations of the measurement technique, and directions for future research. Conclusions/Recommendations: The complex interactions and relationships among the individual components of the sensorimotor system make measuring and analyzing specific characteristics and functions difficult. Additionally, the specific assessment techniques used to measure a variable can influence attained results. Optimizing the application of sensorimotor research to clinical settings can, therefore, be best accomplished through the use of common nomenclature to describe underlying physiologic mechanisms and specific measurement techniques. PMID:16558672

  11. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  12. Retrieving the Vertical Structure of the Effective Aerosol Complex Index of Refraction from a Combination of Aerosol in Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Turco, R. P.; Liou, K. N.; Russell, P. B.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hartley, W. S.; Ismail, S.

    2000-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in estimates of the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate stems from uncertainties in the determination of their microphysical properties, including the aerosol complex index of refraction, which in turn determines their optical properties. A novel technique is used to estimate the aerosol complex index of refraction in distinct vertical layers from a combination of aerosol in situ size distribution and remote sensing measurements during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX). In particular, aerosol backscatter measurements using the NASA Langley LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) instrument and in situ aerosol size distribution data are utilized to derive vertical profiles of the 'effective' aerosol complex index of refraction at 815 nm (i.e., the refractive index that would provide the same backscatter signal in a forward calculation on the basis of the measured in situ particle size distributions for homogeneous, spherical aerosols). A sensitivity study shows that this method yields small errors in the retrieved aerosol refractive indices, provided the errors in the lidar derived aerosol backscatter are less than 30% and random in nature. Absolute errors in the estimated aerosol refractive indices are generally less than 0.04 for the real part and can be as much as 0.042 for the imaginary part in the case of a 30% error in the lidar-derived aerosol backscatter. The measurements of aerosol optical depth from the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) are successfully incorporated into the new technique and help constrain the retrieved aerosol refractive indices. An application of the technique to two TARFOX case studies yields the occurrence of vertical layers of distinct aerosol refractive indices. Values of the estimated complex aerosol refractive index range from 1.33 to 1.45 for the real part and 0.001 to 0.008 for the imaginary part. The methodology devised in this study

  13. Atmospheric aerosol characterization combining multi-wavelength Raman lidar and MAX-DOAS measurements in Gwanjgu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Kwang Chul; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Shin, Sungkyun; Noh, Young M.; Müller, Detlef; Kim, Young J.

    2011-11-01

    Integrated approach has been adopted at the ADvanced Environmental Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. Various active and passive optical remote sensing techniques such as multi-wavelength (3β+2α+1δ) Raman LIDAR, sun-photometry, MAX-DOAS, and satellite retrieval have been utilized. This integrated monitoring system approach combined with in-situ surface measurement is to allow better characterization of physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol. Information on the vertical distribution and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol is important for understanding its transport characteristics as well as radiative effect. The GIST multi-wavelength (3β + 2α+1δ) Raman lidar system can measure vertical profiles of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols such as extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and depolarization ratio at 532nm. The incomplete overlap between the telescope field-of-view and beam divergence of the transmitting laser significantly affects lidar measurement, resulting in higher uncertainty near the surface where atmospheric aerosols of interest are concentrated. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique is applied as a complementary tool for the detection of atmospheric aerosols near the surface. The passive Multi-Axis DOAS (MAX-DOAS) technique uses scattered sunlight as a light source from several viewing directions. Recently developed aerosol retrieval algorithm based on O4 slant column densities (SCDs) measured at UV and visible wavelengths has been utilized to derive aerosol information (e.g., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol extinction coefficients (AECs)) in the lower troposphere. The aerosol extinction coefficient at 356 nm was retrieved for the 0-1 and 1-2 km layers based on the MAX-DOAS measurements using the retrieval algorithm

  14. Aerosol optical properties measurement by recently developed cavity-enhanced aerosol single scattering albedometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Zhang, Qilei; Fang, Bo; Qian, Xiaodong; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weijun

    2015-04-01

    Development of appropriate and well-adapted measurement technologies for real-time in-situ measurement of aerosol optical properties is an important step towards a more accurate and quantitative understanding of aerosol impacts on climate and the environment. Aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, ω), the ratio between the scattering (αscat) and extinction (αext) coefficients, is an important optical parameter that governs the relative strength of the aerosol scattering and absorption capacity. Since the aerosol extinction coefficient is the sum of the absorption and scattering coefficients, a commonly used method for the determination of SSA is to separately measure two of the three optical parameters - absorption, scattering and extinction coefficients - with different instruments. However, as this method involves still different instruments for separate measurements of extinction and absorption coefficients under different sampling conditions, it might cause potential errors in the determination of SSA value, because aerosol optical properties are very sensitive to the sampling conditions such as temperature and relative humidity (RH). In this paper, we report on the development of a cavity-enhanced aerosol single scattering albedometer incorporating incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) and an integrating sphere (IS) for direct in-situ measurement of aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients on the exact same sample volume. The cavity-enhanced albedometer holds great promise for high-sensitivity and high-precision measurement of ambient aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients (hence absorption coefficient and SSA determination) and for absorbing trace gas concentration. In addition, simultaneous measurements of aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients enable a potential application for the retrieval of particle number size distribution and for faster retrieval of aerosols' complex RI. The albedometer was deployed to

  15. LASE measurements of aerosols and water vapor during TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard A.; Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Kooi, Susan A.; Clayton, Marian B.; Melfi, Harvey; Whiteman, David N.; Schwenner, Geary; Evans, Keith D.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Veefkind, J. Pepijn; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Hignett, Philip; Holben, Brent N.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    1998-01-01

    The TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment) intensive field campaign was designed to reduce uncertainties in estimates of the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate by measuring direct radiative effects and the optical, physical, and chemical properties of aerosols [1]. TARFOX was conducted off the East Coast of the United States between July 10-31, 1996. Ground, aircraft, and satellite-based sensors measured the sensitivity of radiative fields at various atmospheric levels to aerosol optical properties (i.e., optical thickness, phase function, single-scattering albedo) and to the vertical profile of aerosols. The LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) instrument, which was flown on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, measured vertical profiles of total scattering ratio and water vapor during a series of 9 flights. These profiles were used in real-time to help direct the other aircraft to the appropriate altitudes for intensive sampling of aerosol layers. We have subsequently used the LASE aerosol data to derive aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles. Using these aerosol extinction profiles, we derived estimates of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and compared these with measurements of AOT from both ground and airborne sun photometers and derived from the ATSR-2 (Along Track and Scanning Radiometer 2) sensor on ERS-2 (European Remote Sensing Satellite-2). We also used the water vapor mixing ratio profiles measured simultaneously by LASE to derive precipitable water vapor and compare these to ground based measurements.

  16. Characterization of aerosol events based on the column integrated optical aerosol properties and polarimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, Florian; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Zawadzka, Olga

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties are very useful tools for analyzing their radiative effects, which are directly or indirectly related to the global radiation budget. Investigation of column-integrated aerosol optical properties is a worldwide and well-accepted method. The introduction of new methodologies, like those of operation with polarimetric measurements, represent a new challenge to interpret the measurement data and give more detailed information about the aerosol events and their characteristics. Aerosol optical properties during the period June - August 2015 in AERONET Strzyzow station in Poland were analyzed. The aerosol properties like aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, fine mode fraction, fine mode contribution on AOD, asymmetry parameter, single scattering angle are analyzed synergistically with the polarimetric measurements of the degree of polarization in different solar zenith and zenith viewing angles at several wavelengths. The overall results show that aerosol events in Strzyzow were characterized mostly by fine mode aerosols. Backward-trajectories suggest that the majority of air masses come from the west. The principal component of the aerosol load was urban/industrial contamination, especially from the inner part of the continent. Additionally, the maximal values of the degree of linear polarization were found to be dependent on the solar zenith and zenith viewing angles and aerosol optical properties like aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent. These dependencies were further analyzed in a specific case with very high mean values of AOD500 (0.59) and AE440-870 (1.91). The diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties investigated during this special case, suggest that biomass burning products are the main cause of that aerosol load over the stations.

  17. Biomass Burning Aerosol Absorption Measurements with MODIS Using the Critical Reflectance Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Li; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses the critical reflectance technique, a space-based remote sensing method, to measure the spatial distribution of aerosol absorption properties over land. Choosing two regions dominated by biomass burning aerosols, a series of sensitivity studies were undertaken to analyze the potential limitations of this method for the type of aerosol to be encountered in the selected study areas, and to show that the retrieved results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the assumptions used in the retrieval of smoke aerosol. The critical reflectance technique is then applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) in South African and South American 35 biomass burning events. The retrieved results were validated with collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. One standard deviation of mean MODIS retrievals match AERONET products to within 0.03, the magnitude of the AERONET uncertainty. The overlap of the two retrievals increases to 88%, allowing for measurement variance in the MODIS retrievals as well. The ensemble average of MODIS-derived SSA for the Amazon forest station is 0.92 at 670 nm, and 0.84-0.89 for the southern African savanna stations. The critical reflectance technique allows evaluation of the spatial variability of SSA, and shows that SSA in South America exhibits higher spatial variation than in South Africa. The accuracy of the retrieved aerosol SSA from MODIS data indicates that this product can help to better understand 44 how aerosols affect the regional and global climate.

  18. Analysis of Ambient Aerosol Measurements During PROPHET 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delia, A. E.; Garland, R.; Toohey, D. W.; Worsnop, D. R.; Allen, J. O.; Carroll, M. A.; Fortner, E.; Hengel, S.; Lilly, M.; Moody, J.; Huey, G.; Tanner, D.

    2002-12-01

    Aerosol size and composition were measured using an aerosol mass spectrometer, developed by Aerodyne Research, Inc., during PROPHET 2001 (Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions and Transport). Our purpose in this study was to characterize chemical composition and size of ambient aerosols, investigate the effects of transport, and study aerosol microphysics. The site is located in a remote forested area of northern Michigan at the University of Michigan Biological Station, far from any large urban areas and surrounded primarily by deciduous forests. The aerosols at this site can be cataloged into four classes. The two principal classes are distinguished by meteorological conditions. Clean, northerly airflow produced low aerosol mass loadings dominated by organic species. More polluted southerly airflow brought higher aerosol mass loadings dominated by sulfate with an organic contribution. Under both of these conditions, aerosol existed almost entirely in the accumulation size mode of 300-600 nm. In addition to these principal aerosol types, small particle growth was observed on several occasions. It appears that these events occurred primarily during periods of low aerosol mass loading (i.e., northerly airflow) when the low aerosol number provided an opportunity for new particle formation and rapid growth. On at least one occasion, it appears that a large plume of sulfur dioxide that was converted to sulfuric acid near the site may be responsible for new particle formation. The fourth type of aerosol consisted of short events dominated by organic species, apparently diesel exhaust caused by local truck traffic. In addition to the overall aerosol characterization, comparisons with other measurements that affected the aerosol composition or characterized the air masses will be presented and the implications of these results for regional transport of aerosols will be discussed.

  19. Novel Diffusivity Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    A common-path interferometer (CPI) system was developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. This system uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. Hence, the molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined using the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and the liquid phase properties. The data obtained with this interferometer were compared with similar results from other techniques and demonstrated that the instrument is superior in measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while keeping the system very compact and robust. CPI can also be used for studies in interface dynamics and other diffusion-dominated-process applications.

  20. Optical Techniques for the Remote Detection of Biological Aerosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    enhancement of Raman or fluorescent signals, and multiwavelength differential. absorption. As will be evident from the discussions in subsequent sections of...detection of aerosols, using optical techniques. B. Rationale SRI Proposal ERU 72-62, which led to this project, describes several optical...enhancement of Raman or fluorescent signals, and multiwavelength differential absorption. The optical interactions were reviewed early in the project, with

  1. Identification of aerosol composition from multi-wavelength lidar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop the potential of lidar for the identification of the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols. Available numerical computations suggest that aerosols can be identified by the wavelength dependence of aerosol optical properties. Since lidar can derive the volume backscatter coefficient as a function of wavelength, a multi-wavelength lidar system may be able to provide valuable information on the composition of aerosols. This research theoretically investigates the volume backscatter coefficients for the aerosol classes, sea-salts, and sulfates, as a function of wavelength. The results show that these aerosol compositions can be characterized and identified by their backscatter wavelength dependence. A method to utilize multi-wavelength lidar measurements to discriminate between compositionally different thin aerosol layers is discussed.

  2. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol as determined from AERONET measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal means and standard deviations of column-integrated aerosol optical properties (e.g. spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo, phase function, Ångström exponent, volume particle size distribution, complex refractive index, absorbing aerosol optical thickness) from several Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites located in typical aerosol source and background regions are investigated (Holben et al., 1998). The AERONET program is an inclusive network of ground-based sun-photometers that measure atmospheric aerosol optical properties (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/). The results can be used for improving the accuracy of satellite-retrieved AOT, assessments of the global aerosol models, studies of atmospheric pollution and aerosol radiative forcing on climate. We have paid a special attention to several AERONET sites that are Mexico_City (Mexico), Alta_Floresta (Brazil), Avignon (France), Solar_Village (Saudi Arabia), and Midway_Island (Pacific) representative for industrial/urban, biomass burning, rural, desert dust and oceanic aerosols, respectively. We have found that the optical and microphysical aerosol properties are highly dependent on the local aerosol emission sources and seasonal meteorological conditions.

  3. Aerosol Classification from High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kahnert, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Berkoff, T.; Seaman, S. T.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Fenn, M. A.; Rogers, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars, HSRL-1 and HSRL-2, have acquired large datasets of vertically resolved aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization during >30 airborne field missions since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters like lidar ratio and color ratio embed information about intrinsic aerosol properties, and are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into aerosol types. Knowledge of aerosol type is important for assessing aerosol radiative forcing, and can provide useful information for source attribution studies. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead is a mixture, which affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. We show that aerosol intensive parameters measured by lidar can be understood using mixing rules for cases of external mixing. Beyond coarse classification and mixing between classes, variations in the lidar aerosol intensive parameters provide additional insight into aerosol processes and composition. This is illustrated by depolarization measurements at three wavelengths, 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, made by HSRL-2. Particle depolarization ratio is an indicator of non-spherical particles. Three cases each have a significantly different spectral dependence of the depolarization ratio, related to the size of the depolarizing particles. For two dust cases, large non-spherical particles account for the depolarization of the lidar light. The spectral dependence reflects the size distribution of these particles and reveals differences in the transport histories of the two plumes. For a smoke case, the depolarization is inferred to be due to the presence of small coated soot aggregates. Interestingly, the depolarization at 355 nm is similar for this smoke case compared to the dust cases, having potential implications for the upcoming EarthCARE satellite, which will measure particle depolarization ratio only at 355 nm.

  4. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  5. INDUCED SPUTUM DERIVES FROM THE CENTRAL AIRWAYS: CONFIRMATION USING A RADIOLABELED AEROSOL BOLUS DELIVERY TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indirect evidence suggests that induced sputum derives from the surfaces of the bronchial airways. To confirm this experimentally, we employed a radiolabeled aerosol bolus delivery technique that preferentially deposits aerosol in the central airways in humans. We hypothesized th...

  6. Improved and new balloon-borne instruments for the measurements of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Chartier, Michel; Brogniez, Colette; Verwaerde, Christian; Balois, Jean-Yves; Auriol, Frédérique; Palumbo, Pasquale

    The aerosols in the stratosphere play an important role in the ozone chemistry. Liquid sulphate aerosols are involved in the heterogeneous chemistry of nitrogen and bromine species. The key parameters for modelling calculations of stratospheric species are the amount of these aerosols and their size distribution. In fact, the aerosol content in the stratosphere is more complex than previously assumed, since different natures of solid particles are present: soot from various origins and interplanetary dust intercepted by the Earth atmosphere. Since no major volcanic eruption has occurred since 15 years, it is possible to study at present the content of stratospheric background aerosols and to detect the different natures of particles. There is no unique technique of measurements in order to fully describe the physical properties of liquid and solid aerosols. Then different instruments must be used: SALOMON-N2, which is a night-time UV-visible spectrometer (from 350 to 950 nm) allowing the retrieval of the extinction coefficient of aerosols, the STAC particle counter (giving 14 size classes of aerosols), and MicroRADIBAL, which is a polarimeter allowing the retrieval of the aerosol phase function from the radiance and the polarisation measurements in the near infrared. Analysis of measurements performed during previous flights shows that significant amount of solid aerosols were detected in the middle stratosphere, up to about 30 km, with strong spatial and temporal variability. Combined aerosols measurements are necessary in order to be able to distinguish between the various natures of aerosols. Then, STAC is now implanted in the SALOMON-N2 and MicroRADIBAL gondolas. STAC can be also implanted on other gondolas flying in the stratosphere a few days apart, in order to study the variability of the total aerosol content. A new instrument, DUSTER, will be implanted soon in the SALOMON gondola. This instrument will collect solid particles in the middle stratosphere, in

  7. Inversion Techniques for Retrieving Detailed Aerosol Properties from Remote Sensing Observations: Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovik, O.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of aerosol particles to interact strongly with electromagnetic radiation makes aerosol one of most climatically important atmospheric component. Remote sensing using the same ability for characterizing properties of atmospheric aerosol is probably the most adequate observational approach for accessing aerosol effect in climatic studies. Indeed, the satellite remote sensing is unique technique allowing monitoring of time variability of the aerosol at regional and global scales. Compare to in situ and laboratory measurements, remote methods do not use aerosol sampling and allow accessing the properties of unperturbed ambient aerosol in the atmospheres. However, interpretation of the remote sensing observations involves data inversion that, in practice, often appears to be a sophisticated procedure leading to rather ambiguous results. Numerous publications offer a wide diversity of approaches suggesting somewhat different inversion methods. Such uncertainty in methodological guidance leads to excessive dependence of retrieval algorithms on the personalized input and preferences of the developer. This presentation highlights a continues effort on developing a concept clarifying the differences between various methods and outlining unified principles addressing such important aspects of inversion optimization as accounting for errors in the data used, inverting the data with different levels of accuracy, accounting for a priori and ancillary information, estimating retrieval errors, etc. The developed concept uses the principles of statistical estimation and suggests a generalized multi-term Least Square type formulation that complementarily unites advantages of a variety of practical inversion approaches, such as Phillips-Tikhonov-Twomey constrained inversion, Kalman filter, Newton-Gauss and Levenberg-Marquardt iterations, optimal estimation, etc. The concept will be demonstrated by successful implementations in several challenging aerosol remote sensing

  8. Aerosol generation and measurement of multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myojo, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Takako; Nishi, Kenichiro; Kadoya, Chikara; Tanaka, Isamu; Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Sakae, Hirokazu; Shirai, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Mass production of some kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNT) is now imminent, but little is known about the risk associated with their exposure. It is important to assess the propensity of the CNT to release particles into air for its risk assessment. In this study, we conducted aerosolization of a multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) to assess several aerosol measuring instruments. A Palas RBG-1000 aerosol generator applied mechanical stress to the MWCNT by a rotating brush at feed rates ranging from 2 to 20 mm/h, which the MWCNT was fed to a two-component fluidized bed. The fluidized bed aerosol generator was used to disperse the MWCNT aerosol once more. We monitored the generated MWCNT aerosol concentrations based on number, area, and mass using a condensation particle counter and nanoparticle surface area monitor. Also we quantified carbon mass in MWCNT aerosol samples by a carbon monitor. The shape of aerosolized MWCNT fibers was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The MWCNT was well dispersed by our system. We found isolated MWCNT fibers in the aerosols by SEM and the count median lengths of MWCNT fibers were 4-6 μm. The MWCNT was quantified by the carbon monitor with a modified condition based on the NIOSH analytical manual. The MWCNT aerosol concentration (EC mass base) was 4 mg/m3 at 2 mm/h in this study.

  9. Aerosol Optical Thickness Derived From Atmospheric Transmittance Using Spectroradiometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul K.; Chow Jeng, C. J.

    section The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of hand held spectroradiometer measurements for the retrieval AOT values Twenty-six stations were chosen randomly around Penang Island and the atmospheric transmittance measurements were collected using a handheld spectroradiometer The corresponding PM10 concentrations were measured using a portable DustTrak Aerosol Monitor 8520 simultaneously with the measurements of the transmittance data The AOT values were calculated using the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law Linear relationship was found between AOT and PM10 values in this study Finally a PM10 map was created using Kriging interpolation technique The result of the study showed the potential of a spectroradiometer data for the retrieval of AOT and PM10 to provide the air pollution information

  10. Cloud-Aerosol Interactions: Retrieving Aerosol Ångström Exponents from Calipso Measurements of Opaque Water Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Mark; Liu, Zhaoyan; Hu, Yong-Xiang; Powell, Kathleen; Omar, Ali; Rodier, Sharon; Hunt, William; Kar, Jayanta; Tackett, Jason; Getzewich, Brian; Lee, Kam-Pui

    2016-06-01

    Backscatter and extinction from water clouds are well-understood, both theoretically and experimentally, and thus changes to the expected measurement of layer-integrated attenuated backscatter can be used to infer the optical properties of overlying layers. In this paper we offer a first look at a new retrieval technique that uses CALIPSO measurements of opaque water clouds to derive optical depths and Ångström exponents for overlying aerosol layers.

  11. SAGE Aerosol Measurements. Volume 2: 1 January - 31 December 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite system, launched on February 18, 1979, provides profiles of aerosol extinction at wavelengths of 1.00 and 0.45 micron, ozone concentration, and nitrogen dioxide concentration. Data taken during sunset events in the form of zonal averages and seasonal averages of the aerosol extinction at 1.00 and 0.45 micron, ratios of the aerosol extinction to the molecular extinction at 1.00 micron, and ratios of the aerosol extinction at 0.45 micron to the aerosol extinction at 1.00 micron are presented. The averages for l980 are shown in tables and in profile and contour plots (as a function of altitude and latitude). In addition, temperature data provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the time and location of each SAGE measurement are averaged and shown in a similar format.

  12. Spectral Measurements of Aerosol Absorption from UV to VISIBLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Labow, G.; Herman, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Slusser, J.; Durham, B.; Janson, G.; Wilson, C.; Disterhoft, P.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Eck, T. F.; Holben, B.; Bais, A.; Rapsomanikis, S.

    2007-05-01

    Amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface can be strongly influenced by aerosol absorption. The aerosol absorption optical thickness (AAOT) in the visible and near IR (440 nm- 1020nm) is routinely produced from almucantar measurements made by the CIMEL instruments in the AERONET network. AAOT in the UV (300nm- 368nm) have been derived from the total and diffuse hemispherical flux measurements made by UV- Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR, Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc.) instruments. However, no direct comparisons between these two methods exist because the CIMEL wavelengths (used in almucantar retrievals) do not overlap with the UV-MFRSR wavelengths. To enable direct comparisons between the two techniques, we have modified our UV-MFRSR, part of USDA UVB Monitoring and Research Network, by replacing standard 300nm filter with 440nm filter used in AERONET network. The instrument has been deployed at Mauna Loa Observatory, at NASA GSFC in Greenbelt, MD (July 2005 - June 2006) and during SCOUT-03 field campaign in Thessaloniki, Greece in July 2006. During these deployments the instrument's calibration was monitored daily using co-located AERONET and BREWER direct sun measurements of aerosol extinction optical thickness (AOT). Between the deployments the instrument was thoroughly calibrated at the NOAA Central UV Calibration Facility in Boulder, Colorado. We find that the UV-MSFRSR instrument is highly susceptible to calibration drifts. However, these drifts can be accurately assessed using AERONET and BREWER direct sun data. After correcting for these calibration changes, the AAOT was inferred by fitting the measurements of global and diffuse atmospheric transmittances with the forward RT model independently at each spectral channel. The AOT data and ancillary measurements of aerosol column particle size distribution and refractive index in the visible wavelengths (by CIMEL sun-sky almucantar inversions), direct -sun column NO2 and

  13. Aerosol absorption measurement at SWIR with water vapor interference using a differential photoacoustic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenyue; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Yi

    2015-09-07

    Atmospheric aerosol plays an important role in atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing and scattering the solar radiation, which changes local weather and global climate. Accurate measurement is highly requested to estimate the radiative effects and climate effects of atmospheric aerosol. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique, which observes the aerosols on their natural suspended state and is insensitive to light scattering, is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosols. In the present work, a method of measuring aerosol OAC at the wavelength where could also be absorbed by water vapor was proposed and corresponding measurements of the absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol at the short wave infrared (SWIR, 1342 nm) wavelength were carried out. The spectrometer was made up of two high performance homemade photoacoustic cells. To improve the sensitivity, several methods were presented to control the noise derived from gas flow and vibration from the sampling pump. Calibration of the OAC and properties of the system were also studied in detail. Using the established PAS instrument, measurement of the optical absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol were carried out in laboratory and field environment.

  14. Assessment of Error in Aerosol Optical Depth Measured by AERONET Due to Aerosol Forward Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinyuk, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Eck, Thomas F.; Slustsker, Ilya; Schafer, Joel S.; Giles, David M.; Sorokin, Michail

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of aerosol forward scattering on the accuracy of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by CIMEL Sun photometers. The effect is quantified in terms of AOD and solar zenith angle using radiative transfer modeling. The analysis is based on aerosol size distributions derived from multi-year climatologies of AERONET aerosol retrievals. The study shows that the modeled error is lower than AOD calibration uncertainty (0.01) for the vast majority of AERONET level 2 observations, 99.53%. Only 0.47% of the AERONET database corresponding mostly to dust aerosol with high AOD and low solar elevations has larger biases. We also show that observations with extreme reductions in direct solar irradiance do not contribute to level 2 AOD due to low Sun photometer digital counts below a quality control cutoff threshold.

  15. Assessment of error in aerosol optical depth measured by AERONET due to aerosol forward scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyuk, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Schafer, Joel S.; Giles, David M.; Sorokin, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of aerosol forward scattering on the accuracy of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by CIMEL Sun photometers. The effect is quantified in terms of AOD and solar zenith angle using radiative transfer modeling. The analysis is based on aerosol size distributions derived from multi-year climatologies of AERONET aerosol retrievals. The study shows that the modeled error is lower than AOD calibration uncertainty (0.01) for the vast majority of AERONET level 2 observations, ∼99.53%. Only ∼0.47% of the AERONET database corresponding mostly to dust aerosol with high AOD and low solar elevations has larger biases. We also show that observations with extreme reductions in direct solar irradiance do not contribute to level 2 AOD due to low Sun photometer digital counts below a quality control cutoff threshold.

  16. SAGE II aerosol validation - Selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Russell, Philip B.; Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Ferry, Guy V.; Livingston, John M.; Rosen, James N.; Osborn, Mary T.; Kritz, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements obtained during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II is tested. The SAGE II measurements are compared with correlative aerosol measurements taken during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986 with impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers on a U-2 aircraft, an upward pointing lidar on a P-3 aircraft, and balloon-borne optical particle counters. The data for July 29, 1986 are discussed in detail. The aerosol measurements taken on this day at an altitude of 20.5 km produce particulate extinction values which validate the SAGE II values for similar wavelengths.

  17. Aerosol properties derived from spectral actinic flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Cozic, J.; Wollny, A. G.; Brock, C. A.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2008-12-01

    Measurement of aerosol properties is very important for understanding climate change. Aerosol optical properties influence solar radiation throughout the troposphere. According to the Working Group I report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change [IPCC, 2007], aerosols have a direct radiative forcing of - 0.5±0.4 W/m2 with a medium to low level of scientific understanding. This relatively large uncertainty indicates the need for more frequent and precise measurements of aerosol properties. We will show how actinic flux measurements can be used to derive important optical aerosol parameters such as aerosol optical thickness and depth, surface albedo, angstrom exponent, radiative forcing by clouds and aerosols, aerosol extinction, and others. The instrument used for this study is a combination of two spectroradiometers measuring actinic flux in the ultraviolet and visible radiation range from 280 to 690 nm with a resolution of 1 nm. Actinic flux is measured as the radiation incident on a spherical surface with sensitivity independent of direction. In contrast, irradiance is measured as the radiation incident on a plane surface, which depends on the cosine of the incident angle. Our goal is to assess the capabilities of using spectral actinic flux measurements to derive various aerosol properties. Here we will compare 1) actinic flux measurements to irradiance measurements from the spectral solar flux radiometer (SSFR), 2) derived aerosol size distributions with measurements from a white light optical particle counter (WLOPC) and ultra high sensitivity aerosol size spectrometer (UHSAS), and 3) derived aerosol optical extinction with measurements from a cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectrometer (CRD-AES). These comparisons will utilize data from three recent field campaigns over New England and the Atlantic Ocean (ICARTT 2004), Texas and the Gulf of Mexico during (TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006), and Alaska and the Arctic Ocean (ARCPAC 2008) when the instruments

  18. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  19. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  20. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements

  1. Measurement of size distributions of a coagulating aerosol. [Calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.G.

    1984-05-01

    Measurements have been performed for the determination of the size distribution of a coagulating ultrafine aerosol over a time interval of up to about 30 min. The aerosol was contained in a balloon with an initial volume of 60 l subject to a temperature inversion for the purpose of quenching the free convection and thereby diminishing the aerosol loss to the balloon wall. The aerosol size distribution was measured with the TSI electrostatic aerosol classifier hooked up to a TSI aerosol electrometer. The initial aerosol had an average diameter of about 12 nm. Measurements were taken by computer at a rate of 1 measurement cycle every 3 s; 1 cycle consists of a measurement of time, and burst measurements of electrometer current, classifier rod voltage, 3 flow rates, and 5 temperatures, followed by the calculation of averages and standard deviations, and storage of the results in a data string. The TSI instruments have been modified to permit the automatic computer reading of the parameters mentioned above. A multiplexer has been built to allow the multiplet data to be measured by a single system voltmeter. Channel switching in the multiplexer can be done either automatically by using the ''delay'' signal emitted by the system voltmeter every time it makes a reading or by software control through the 16-bit parallel interface of the computer.

  2. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    PubMed

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  3. Atmospheric DMS and Biogenic Sulfur aerosol measurements in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremaninezhadgharelar, R.; Norman, A. L.; Wentworth, G.; Burkart, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J.; Sharma, S.; Desiree, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) and its oxidation products were measured on the board of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen and above melt ponds in the Arctic during July 2014 in the context of the NETCARE study which seeks to understand the effect of DMS and its oxidation products with respect to aerosol nucleation, as well as its effect on cloud and precipitation properties. The objective of this study is to quantify the role of DMS in aerosol growth and activation in the Arctic atmosphere. Atmospheric DMS samples were collected from different altitudes, from 200 to 9500 feet, aboard the POLAR6 aircraft expedition to determine variations in the DMS concentration and a comparison was made to shipboard DMS measurements and its effects on aerosol size fractions. The chemical and isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol size fractions was studied. Sulfur isotope ratios (34S/32S) offer a way to determine the oceanic DMS contribution to aerosol growth. The results are expected to address the contribution of anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions. In addition, aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured at the same time within precipitation and fogs to compare with the characteristics of aerosols in each size fraction with the characteristics of the sulfate in each medium. This measurement is expected to explain the contribution of DMS oxidation in aerosol activation in the Arctic summer. Preliminary results from the measurement campaign for DMS and its oxidation products in air, fog and precipitation will be presented.

  4. Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Northam, G. B.; Butler, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer at 20 km.

  5. Measurements of Hygroscopicity- and Size-Resolved Sea Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Royalty, T. M.; Reed, R. E.; Petters, M.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a central role in many environmental processes by influencing the Earth's radiative balance, tropospheric chemistry, clouds, biogeochemical cycles, and visibility as well as adversely impacting human health. Based on their origin, atmospheric aerosols can be defined as anthropogenic or natural. Recent studies have shown that a large fraction of uncertainty in the radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols is related to uncertainty in natural—background—aerosols. Marine aerosols are of particular interest due to the abundance of oceans covering the Earth's surface. Despite their importance, limited information is currently available for size- and composition-resolved marine aerosol emission fluxes. Our group has designed and built an instrument for measuring the size- and hygroscopicity-resolved sea spray aerosol fluxes. The instrument was first deployed during spring 2015 at the end of the 560 m pier of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, NC. Measurements include 200 nm-sized diameter growth factor (hygroscopicity) distributions, sea spray particle flux measurements, and total sub-micron sized aerosol concentration. Ancillary ocean data includes salinity, pH, sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen content, and relative fluorescence (proxy for [Chl-a]). Hygroscopicity distribution measurements show two broad peaks, one indicative of organics and sulfates and another suggestive of sea salt. The fraction of 200 nm-sized salt particles having hygroscopicity similar to that of sea-spray aerosol contributes up to ~24% of the distribution on days with high-speed onshore winds and up to ~3% on calm days with winds blowing from the continent. However, the total concentration of sea-spray-like particles originating from offshore versus onshore winds was relatively similar. Changes in the relative contribution of sea-salt to number concentration were caused by a concomitant changes in total aerosol concentration

  6. Aerosol classification using EARLINET measurements for an intensive observational period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network) organized an intensive observation period during summer 2012. This campaign aimed at the provision of advanced observations of physical and chemical aerosol properties, at the delivery of information about the 3D distribution of European atmospheric aerosols, and at the monitoring of Saharan dust intrusions events. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) participated in the ACTRIS campaign through the addition of measurements according to the EARLINET schedule as well as daily lidar-profiling measurements around sunset by 11 selected lidar stations for the period from 8 June - 17 July. EARLINET observations during this almost two-month period are used to characterize the optical properties and vertical distribution of long-range transported aerosol over the broader area of Mediterranean basin. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, Angstrom exponents) are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on EARLINET observations of frequently observed aerosol types is used to classify aerosols into seven separate types. The summertime Mediterranean basin is prone to African dust aerosols. Two major dust events were studied. The first episode occurred from the 18 to 21 of the June and the second one lasted from 28 June to 6 July. The lidar ratio within the dust layer was found to be wavelength independent with mean values of 58±14 sr at 355 nm and 57±11 sr at 532 nm. For the particle linear depolarization ratio, mean values of 0.27±0.04 at 532 nm have been found. Acknowledgements. The financial support for EARLINET in the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Project by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 654169 and previously under grant agreement no. 262254 in the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.S. ); Weiss, R.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Retrievals of Aerosol and Cloud Particle Microphysics Using Polarization and Depolarization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The recent availability of theoretical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering of light by realistic polydispersions of spherical and nonspherical particles and the strong dependence of the Stokes scattering matrix on particle size, shape, and refractive index make polarization and depolarization measurements a powerful particle characterization tool. In this presentation I will describe recent applications of photopolarimetric and lidar depolarization measurements to remote sensing characterization of tropospheric aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), and contrails. The talk will include (1) a short theoretical overview of the effects of particle microphysics on particle single-scattering characteristics; (2) the use of multi-angle multi-spectral photopolarimetry to retrieve the optical thickness, size distribution, refractive index, and number concentration of tropospheric aerosols over the ocean surface; and (3) the application of the T-matrix method to constraining the PSC and contrail particle microphysics using multi-spectral measurements of lidar backscatter and depolarization.

  9. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  10. Evidence for Novel Atmospheric Organic Aerosol Measured in a Bornean Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Hamilton, J. F.; Allan, J. D.; Langford, B.; Oram, D. E.; Chen, Q.; Ward, M. W.; Hewitt, C. N.; Martin, S. T.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G. B.

    2009-12-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth’s atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Off line analysis of filter samples was performed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS). This technique provide a more detailed chemical characterisation of the SOA, allowing direct links back to gas phase precursors. The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) measurements of VOCs were made at the ground site and from the FAAM aircraft. Novel organic aerosol was measured by both AMSs, and identified by GCxGC/ToFMS analysis. The aerosol component was

  11. Measurement of elemental concentration of aerosols using spark emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Prasoon K; Kulkarni, Pramod

    A coaxial microelectrode system has been used to collect and analyse the elemental composition of aerosol particles in near real-time using spark emission spectroscopy. The technique involves focused electrostatic deposition of charged aerosol particles onto the flat tip of a microelectrode, followed by introduction of spark discharge. A pulsed spark discharge was generated across the electrodes with input energy ranging from 50 to 300 mJ per pulse, resulting in the formation of controlled pulsed plasma. The particulate matter on the cathode tip is ablated and atomized by the spark plasma, resulting in atomic emissions which are subsequently recorded using a broadband optical spectrometer for element identification and quantification. The plasma characteristics were found to be very consistent and reproducible even after several thousands of spark discharges using the same electrode system. The spark plasma was characterized by measuring the excitation temperature (~7000 to 10 000 K), electron density (~10(16) cm(-3)), and evolution of spectral responses as a function of time. The system was calibrated using particles containing Pb, Si, Na and Cr. Absolute mass detection limits in the range 11 pg to 1.75 ng were obtained. Repeatability of spectral measurements varied from 2 to 15%. The technique offers key advantages over similar microplasma-based techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, as: (i) it does not require any laser beam optics and eliminates any need for beam alignment, (ii) pulse energy from dc power supply in SIBS system can be much higher compared to that from laser source of the same physical size, and (iii) it is quite conducive to compact, field-portable instrumentation.

  12. Measurement of elemental concentration of aerosols using spark emission spectroscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.

    2015-01-01

    A coaxial microelectrode system has been used to collect and analyse the elemental composition of aerosol particles in near real-time using spark emission spectroscopy. The technique involves focused electrostatic deposition of charged aerosol particles onto the flat tip of a microelectrode, followed by introduction of spark discharge. A pulsed spark discharge was generated across the electrodes with input energy ranging from 50 to 300 mJ per pulse, resulting in the formation of controlled pulsed plasma. The particulate matter on the cathode tip is ablated and atomized by the spark plasma, resulting in atomic emissions which are subsequently recorded using a broadband optical spectrometer for element identification and quantification. The plasma characteristics were found to be very consistent and reproducible even after several thousands of spark discharges using the same electrode system. The spark plasma was characterized by measuring the excitation temperature (~7000 to 10 000 K), electron density (~1016 cm−3), and evolution of spectral responses as a function of time. The system was calibrated using particles containing Pb, Si, Na and Cr. Absolute mass detection limits in the range 11 pg to 1.75 ng were obtained. Repeatability of spectral measurements varied from 2 to 15%. The technique offers key advantages over similar microplasma-based techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, as: (i) it does not require any laser beam optics and eliminates any need for beam alignment, (ii) pulse energy from dc power supply in SIBS system can be much higher compared to that from laser source of the same physical size, and (iii) it is quite conducive to compact, field-portable instrumentation. PMID:26491209

  13. Measurements and Modeling of Aerosol Absorption and Single Scattering Albedo at Ambient Relative Hum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hamill, P.

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties in the aerosol single scattering albedo have been identified to be an important source of errors in current large-scale model estimates of the direct aerosol radiative forcing of climate. A number of investigators have obtained estimates of the single scattering albedo from a variety of remote sensing and in situ measurements during aerosol field experiments. During the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX, 1996) for example, estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo were obtained (1) as a best-fit parameter in comparing radiative flux changes measured by airborne pyranometer to those computed from independently measured aerosol properties; (2) from estimates of the aerosol complex index of refraction derived using a combination of airborne sunphotometer, lidar backscatter and in situ size distribution measurements; and (3) from airborne measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption using nephelometers and absorption photometers. In this paper, we briefly compare the results of the latter two methods for two TARFOX case studies, since those techniques provide height-resolved information about the aerosol single scattering albedo. Estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo from nephelometer and absorption photometer measurements require knowledge of the scattering and absorption humidification (i.e., the increase in these properties in response to an increase in ambient relative humidity), since both measurements are usually carried out at a relative humidity different from the ambient atmosphere. In principle, the scattering humidification factor can be measured, but there is currently no technique widely available to measure the absorption of an aerosol sample as a function of relative humidity. Frequently, for lack of better knowledge, the absorption humidification is assumed to be unity (meaning that there is no change in aerosol absorption due to an increase in ambient relative humidity). This

  14. Application of spectral analysis techniques in the intercomparison of aerosol data: Part III. Using combined PCA to compare spatiotemporal variability of MODIS, MISR, and OMI aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2014-04-01

    Satellite measurements of global aerosol properties are very useful in constraining aerosol parameterization in climate models. The reliability of different data sets in representing global and regional aerosol variability becomes an essential question. In this study, we present the results of a comparison using combined principal component analysis (CPCA), applied to monthly mean, mapped (Level 3) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). This technique effectively finds the common space-time variability in the multiple data sets by decomposing the combined AOD field. The results suggest that all of the sensors capture the globally important aerosol regimes, including dust, biomass burning, pollution, and mixed aerosol types. Nonetheless, differences are also noted. Specifically, compared with MISR and OMI, MODIS variability is significantly higher over South America, India, and the Sahel. MODIS deep blue AOD has a lower seasonal variability in North Africa, accompanied by a decreasing trend that is not found in either MISR or OMI AOD data. The narrow swath of MISR results in an underestimation of dust variability over the Taklamakan Desert. The MISR AOD data also exhibit overall lower variability in South America and the Sahel. OMI does not capture the Russian wild fire in 2010 nor the phase shift in biomass burning over East South America compared to Central South America, likely due to cloud contamination and the OMI row anomaly. OMI also indicates a much stronger (boreal) winter peak in South Africa compared with MODIS and MISR.

  15. Application of Spectral Analysis Techniques in the Intercomparison of Aerosol Data: Part III. Using Combined PCA to Compare Spatiotemporal Variability of MODIS, MISR and OMI Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite measurements of global aerosol properties are very useful in constraining aerosol parameterization in climate models. The reliability of different data sets in representing global and regional aerosol variability becomes an essential question. In this study, we present the results of a comparison using combined principal component analysis (CPCA), applied to monthly mean, mapped (Level 3) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). This technique effectively finds the common space-time variability in the multiple data sets by decomposing the combined AOD field. The results suggest that all of the sensors capture the globally important aerosol regimes, including dust, biomass burning, pollution, and mixed aerosol types. Nonetheless, differences are also noted. Specifically, compared with MISR and OMI, MODIS variability is significantly higher over South America, India, and the Sahel. MODIS deep blue AOD has a lower seasonal variability in North Africa, accompanied by a decreasing trend that is not found in either MISR or OMI AOD data. The narrow swath of MISR results in an underestimation of dust variability over the Taklamakan Desert. The MISR AOD data also exhibit overall lower variability in South America and the Sahel. OMI does not capture the Russian wild fire in 2010 nor the phase shift in biomass burning over East South America compared to Central South America, likely due to cloud contamination and the OMI row anomaly. OMI also indicates a much stronger (boreal) winter peak in South Africa compared with MODIS and MISR.

  16. Airborne Cavity Ring-Down Measurement of Aerosol Extinction and Scattering During the Aerosol IOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Ricci, K.; Provencal, R.; Schmid, B.; Covert, D.; Elleman, R.; Arnott, P.

    2003-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects of aerosols on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This paper describes preliminary results from Cadenza, a new continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) instrument designed to address these uncertainties. Cadenza measures the aerosol extinction coefficient for 675 nm and 1550 nm light, and simultaneously measures the scattering coefficient at 675 nm. In the past year Cadenza was deployed in the Asian Dust Above Monterey (ADAM) and DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period (IOP) field projects. During these flights Cadenza produced measurements of aerosol extinction in the range from 0.2 to 300 Mm-1 with an estimated precision of 0.1 Min-1 for 1550 nm light and 0.2 Mm-1 for 675 nm light. Cadenza data from the ADAM and Aerosol IOP missions compared favorably with data from the other instruments aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and participating in those projects.= We present comparisons between the Cadenza measurements and those friom a TSI nephelometer, Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), and the AATS 14 sun-photometer. Measurements of the optical properties of smoke and dust plumes sampled during these campaigns are presented and estimates of heating rates due to these plumes are made.

  17. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter generally includes dust, smoke, soot, or aerosol particles. Environmental research addresses the origin, size, chemical composition, and the formation mechanics of aerosols. In the troposphere, fine aerosols (e.g. with diameters < 2.5 um) remain suspended until...

  18. A Global Survey of Shipboard Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties over the Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. A.; Reynolds, R. M.; Quinn, P.; Bartholomew, M. J.

    2001-12-01

    Marine aerosols contribute to the global albedo in two ways: direct scattering of incoming solar radiation to space (the direct effect) and modulation of the scattering properties of marine clouds (the indirect effect). The shortwave scattering and absorption characteristics of the marine atmosphere vary widely in space and time due to the variety of aerosol types, aerosol concentrations, and cloud structures that can be present. Aerosols over the oceans may originate from a variety of sources. Some are locally produced by wind-wave interaction while others are advected over great distances by the wind. In clear skies, advected continental aerosols can have a significantly different radiative impact than those that are locally produced. In cloudy skies, continental aerosol can cause modifications to the cloud droplet distribution in marine boundary layer clouds. Therefore, it is important to understand the spatial, temporal, and physical characteristics of aerosol over the world's oceans. Although information about aerosol optical properties over the world's oceans is critical, shipboard sun photometer measurements of these properties are relatively sparse. As part of our NASA SIMBIOS work and with additional support from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Program (ARM) program, the number of shipboard measurements has increased exponentially due to the development of a marine version of the Fast-Rotating, Shadow-band spectral Radiometer (FRSR). This instrument makes continuous, semi-automated shipboard measurements of the direct-normal, diffuse, and global irradiance in seven channels (415 nm, 500 nm, 610 nm, 660 nm, 862 nm, 936 nm, and broadband) and does not require a mechanically stabilized platform, thereby making it cost effective and reliable. The aerosol optical thickness is computed continuously from the direct-normal component of irradiance using calibration constants obtained using the Langley technique. The FRSR has been deployed on

  19. International Workshop on Stratospheric Aerosols: Measurements, Properties, and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Following a mandate by the International Aerosol Climatology Program under the auspices of International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics International Radiation Commission, 45 scientists from five nations convened to discuss relevant issues associated with the measurement, properties, and effects of stratospheric aerosols. A summary is presented of the discussions on formation and evolution, transport and fate, effects on climate, role in heterogeneous chemistry, and validation of lidar and satellite remote sensing of stratospheric aerosols. Measurements are recommended of the natural (background) and the volcanically enhanced aerosol (sulfuric acid and silica particles), the exhaust of shuttle, civil aviation and supersonic aircraft operations (alumina, soot, and ice particles), and polar stratospheric clouds (ice, condensed nitric and hydrochloric acids).

  20. A new high spectral resolution lidar technique for direct retrievals of cloud and aerosol extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS) is a Doppler lidar system and high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) recently developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). ACATS passes the returned atmospheric backscatter through a single etalon and divides the transmitted signal into several channels (wavelength intervals), which are measured simultaneously and independently (Figure 1). Both the particulate and molecular scattered signal can be directly and unambiguously measured, allowing for direct retrievals of particle extinction. The broad Rayleigh-scattered spectrum is imaged as a nearly flat background, illustrated in Figure 1c. The integral of the particulate backscattered spectrum is analogous to the aerosol measurement from the typical absorption filter HSRL technique in that the molecular and particulate backscatter components can be separated (Figure 1c and 1d). The main difference between HSRL systems that use the iodine filter technique and the multichannel etalon technique used in the ACATS instrument is that the latter directly measures the spectral broadening of the particulate backscatter using the etalon to filter out all backscattered light with the exception of a narrow wavelength interval (1.5 picometers for ACATS) that contains the particulate spectrum (grey, Figure 1a). This study outlines the method and retrieval algorithms for ACATS data products, focusing on the HSRL derived cloud and aerosol properties. While previous ground-based multi-channel etalon systems have been built and operated for wind retrievals, there has been no airborne demonstration of the technique and the method has not been used to derive HSRL cloud and aerosol properties. ACATS has flown on the NASA ER-2 during flights over Alaska in July 2014 and as part of the Wallops Airborne Vegetation Experiment (WAVE) in September 2012. This study will focus on the HSRL aspect of the ACATS instrument, since the method and retrieval algorithms have direct application

  1. Ground-based Network and Supersite Measurements for Studying Aerosol Properties and Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.

    2008-01-01

    From radiometric principles, it is expected that the retrieved properties of extensive aerosols and clouds from reflected/emitted measurements by satellite (and/or aircraft) should be consistent with those retrieved from transmitted/emitted radiance observed at the surface. Although space-borne remote sensing observations contain large spatial domain, they are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite datasets. The development and deployment of AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sunphotometer network and SMART-COMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile supersite are aimed for the optimal utilization of collocated ground-based observations as constraints to yield higher fidelity satellite retrievals and to determine any sampling bias due to target conditions. To characterize the regional natural and anthropogenic aerosols, AERONET is an internationally federated network of unique sunphotometry that contains more than 250 permanent sites worldwide. Since 1993, there are more than 480 million aerosol optical depth observations and about 15 sites have continuous records longer than 10 years for annual/seasonal trend analyses. To quantify the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system and the atmospheric processes, SMART-COMMIT instrument into three categories: flux radiometer, radiance sensor and in-situ probe. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over eight years, SMART-COMMIT have gradually refine( and been proven vital for field deployment. In this paper, we will demonstrate the

  2. Broadband measurements of aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Flores, J. M.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross-sections and complex refractive indices. We describe a new laboratory instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We determined aerosol extinction cross-sections and directly observed Mie scattering resonances for aerosols that are purely scattering (polystyrene latex spheres and ammonium sulfate), slightly absorbing (Suwannee River fulvic acid), and strongly absorbing (nigrosin dye). We describe an approach for retrieving refractive indices as a function of wavelength from the measured extinction cross-sections over the 360-420 nm wavelength region. The retrieved refractive indices for PSL and ammonium sulfate agree within uncertainty with literature values for this spectral region. The refractive index determined for nigrosin is 1.78 (±0.03) + 0.19 (±0.08) i at 360 nm and 1.53 (±0.03) + 0.21 (±0.05) i at 420 nm. The refractive index determined for Suwannee River fulvic acid is 1.71 (±0.02) + 0.07 (±0.06) i at 360 nm and 1.66 (±0.02) + 0.06 (±0.04) i at 420 nm. These laboratory results support the potential for a field instrument capable of determining ambient aerosol optical extinction, average aerosol extinction cross-section, and complex refractive index as a function of wavelength.

  3. Broadband measurements of aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Flores, J. M.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. We describe a new laboratory instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We determined aerosol extinction cross sections and directly observed Mie scattering resonances for aerosols that are purely scattering (polystyrene latex spheres and ammonium sulfate), slightly absorbing (Suwannee River fulvic acid), and strongly absorbing (nigrosin dye). We describe an approach for retrieving refractive indices as a function of wavelength from the measured extinction cross sections over the 360-420 nm wavelength region. The retrieved refractive indices for PSL and ammonium sulfate agree within uncertainty with the literature values for this spectral region. The refractive index determined for nigrosin is 1.78 (± 0.03) + 0.19 (± 0.08)i at 360 nm and 1.63 (± 0.03) + 0.21 (± 0.05)i at 420 nm. The refractive index determined for Suwannee River fulvic acid is 1.71 (± 0.02) + 0.07 (± 0.06)i at 360 nm and 1.66 (± 0.02) + 0.06 (± 0.04)i at 420 nm. These laboratory results support the potential for a field instrument capable of determining ambient aerosol optical extinction, average aerosol extinction cross section, and complex refractive index as a function of wavelength.

  4. The Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008 (FAME-08): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, M.; Bougiatioti, A.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Kostenidou, E.; Mohr, C.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Kouvarakis, G.; Zarmpas, P.; Burkhart, J. F.; Lee, B.-H.; Psichoudaki, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Pilinis, C.; Stohl, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Kulmala, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2010-03-01

    A month (4 May to 8 June 2008) of ambient aerosol, air ion and gas phase sampling (Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment 2008, FAME-08) was conducted at Finokalia, on the island of Crete, Greece. The purpose of the study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of aged aerosol and to investigate new particle formation. Measurements included aerosol and air ion size distributions, size-resolved chemical composition, organic aerosol thermal volatility, water uptake and particle optical properties (light scattering and absorption). Statistical analysis of the aerosol mass concentration variations revealed the absence of diurnal patterns suggesting the lack of strong local sources. Sulfates accounted for approximately half of the particulate matter less than 1 micrometer in diameter (PM1) and organics for 26%. The PM1 organic aerosol fraction was highly oxidized with 80% water soluble. The supermicrometer particles were dominated by crustal components (50%), sea salt (24%) and nitrates (16%). The organic carbon to elemental carbon (OC/EC) ratio correlated with ozone measurements but with a one-day lag. The average OC/EC ratio for the study period was equal to 5.4. For three days air masses from North Africa resulted in a 6-fold increase of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) and a decrease of the OC/EC ratio by a factor of 2. Back trajectory analysis, based on FLEXPART footprint plots, identified five source regions (Athens, Greece, Africa, other continental and marine), each of which influenced the PM1 aerosol composition and properties. Marine air masses had the lowest PM1 concentrations and air masses from the Balkans, Turkey and Eastern Europe the highest.

  5. The Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008 (FAME-08): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, M.; Bougiatioti, A.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Kostenidou, E.; Mohr, C.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Kouvarakis, G.; Zarmpas, P.; Burkhart, J. F.; Lee, B.-H.; Psichoudaki, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Pilinis, C.; Stohl, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Kulmala, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2010-07-01

    A month (4 May to 8 June 2008) of ambient aerosol, air ion and gas phase sampling (Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment 2008, FAME-08) was conducted at Finokalia, on the island of Crete, Greece. The purpose of the study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of aged aerosol and to investigate new particle formation. Measurements included aerosol and air ion size distributions, size-resolved chemical composition, organic aerosol thermal volatility, water uptake and particle optical properties (light scattering and absorption). Statistical analysis of the aerosol mass concentration variations revealed the absence of diurnal patterns suggesting the lack of strong local sources. Sulfates accounted for approximately half of the particulate matter less than 1 micrometer in diameter (PM1) and organics for 28%. The PM1 organic aerosol fraction was highly oxidized with 80% water soluble. The supermicrometer particles were dominated by crustal components (50%), sea salt (24%) and nitrates (16%). The organic carbon to elemental carbon (OC/EC) ratio correlated with ozone measurements but with a one-day lag. The average OC/EC ratio for the study period was equal to 5.4. For three days air masses from North Africa resulted in a 6-fold increase of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) and a decrease of the OC/EC ratio by a factor of 2. Back trajectory analysis, based on FLEXPART footprint plots, identified five source regions (Athens, Greece, Africa, other continental and marine), each of which influenced the PM1 aerosol composition and properties. Marine air masses had the lowest PM1 concentrations and air masses from the Balkans, Turkey and Eastern Europe the highest.

  6. Measurement of contemporary and fossil carbon contents of PM 2.5 aerosols: results from Turtleback Dome, Yosemite National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G

    2003-10-17

    The impact of aerosol particulate matter of mean mass aerodynamic diameter {le} 2.5 {proportional_to}m (PM 2.5 aerosols), on health, visibility, and compliance with EPA's regional haze regulations is a growing concern. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of PM 2.5 aerosols. Measurement of the {sup 14}C/C ratio of the PM 2.5 aerosols, the absence of {sup 14}C in fossil carbon materials and the known {sup 14}C/C levels in contemporary carbon materials allows use of a two-component model to derive contemporary and fossil carbon contents of the particulate matter. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading. Here, the methodology for performing such an assessment using total suspended particulate Hi-vol aerosol samplers to collect PM 2.5 aerosols on quartz fiber filters and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to measure {sup 14}C/C ratios is presented and illustrated using PM 2.5 aerosols collected at Yosemite National Park.

  7. Improvement of drug delivery with a breath actuated pressurised aerosol for patients with poor inhaler technique.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S P; Weisz, A W; Talaee, N; Clarke, S W

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND The metered dose inhaler is difficult to use correctly, synchronising actuation with inhalation being the most important problem. A breath actuated pressurised inhaler, designed to help patients with poor inhaler technique, was compared with a conventional metered dose inhaler in terms of aerosol deposition and bronchodilator response. METHODS Radioaerosol deposition and bronchodilator response to 100 micrograms salbutamol were measured in 18 asthmatic patients, who inhaled from a conventional metered dose inhaler by their own chosen metered dose inhaler technique, from a conventional metered dose inhaler by a taught metered dose inhaler technique, and from a breath actuated pressured inhaler (Autohaler). RESULTS In the 10 patients who could coordinate actuation and inhalation of the inhaler on their own deposition of aerosol in the lungs and bronchodilator response were equivalent on the three study days. By contrast, in the eight patients who could not coordinate the mean (SEM) percentage of the dose deposited in the lungs with their own inhaler technique (7.2% (3.4%] was substantial lower than those attained by the taught metered dose inhaler technique (22.8% (2.5%] and by Autohaler (20.8% (1.7%]. CONCLUSION Although of little additional benefit to asthmatic patients with good coordination, the Autohaler is potentially a valuable aid to those with poor coordination, and should be considered in preference to a conventional metered dose inhaler in any patient whose inhaler technique is not known to be satisfactory. Images PMID:1750017

  8. Measurement of relative humidity dependent light scattering of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Zieger, P.; Wehrle, G.; Jefferson, A.; Ogren, J. A.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2009-09-01

    Relative humidity (RH) influences the water content of aerosol particles and therefore has an important impact on the particles' ability to scatter visible light. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp) is therefore an important measure for climate forcing calculations. We built a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 40-90%. This RH conditioner consists of a humidifier followed by a dryer, which enables us to measure the hysteresis behavior of deliquescent aerosol particles. In this paper we present the set-up of a new humidified nephelometer, a detailed characterization with well defined laboratory generated aerosols, and a first application in the field by comparing our instrument to another humidified nephelometer. Monodisperse ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride particles were measured at four different dry particle sizes. Agreement between measurement and prediction based on Mie theory was found for both σsp and f(RH)=σsp(RH)/σsp(dry) within the range of uncertainty. The two humidified nephelometers measuring at a rural site in the Black Forest (Germany) often detected different f(RH), probably caused by the aerosol hysteresis behavior: when the aerosol was metastable, therefore was scattering more light, only one instrument detected the higher f(RH).

  9. Measurement of relative humidity dependent light scattering of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Zieger, P.; Wehrle, G.; Jefferson, A.; Ogren, J. A.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2010-01-01

    Relative humidity (RH) influences the water content of aerosol particles and therefore has an important impact on the particles' ability to scatter visible light. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is therefore an important measure for climate forcing calculations. We built a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 40-90%. This RH conditioner consists of a humidifier followed by a dryer, which enables us to measure the hysteresis behavior of deliquescent aerosol particles. In this paper we present the set-up of a new humidified nephelometer, a detailed characterization with well defined laboratory generated aerosols, and a first application in the field by comparing our instrument to another humidified nephelometer. Monodisperse ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride particles were measured at four different dry particle sizes. Agreement between measurement and prediction based on Mie theory was found for both σsp and f(RH)=σsp(RH)/σsp(dry) within the range of uncertainty. The two humidified nephelometers measuring at a rural site in the Black Forest (Germany) often detected different f(RH), probably caused by the aerosol hysteresis behavior: when the aerosol was metastable, therefore was scattering more light, only one instrument detected the higher f(RH).

  10. Comparative Optical Measurements of Airspeed and Aerosols on a DC-8 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney; McGann, Rick; Wagener, Thomas; Abbiss, John; Smart, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden supported a cooperative flight test program on the NASA DC-8 aircraft in November 1993. This program evaluated optical airspeed and aerosol measurement techniques. Three brassboard optical systems were tested. Two were laser Doppler systems designed to measure free-stream-referenced airspeed. The third system was designed to characterize the natural aerosol statistics and airspeed. These systems relied on optical backscatter from natural aerosols for operation. The DC-8 aircraft carried instrumentation that provided real-time flight situation information and reference data on the aerosol environment. This test is believed to be the first to include multiple optical airspeed systems on the same carrier aircraft, so performance could be directly compared. During 23 hr of flight, a broad range of atmospheric conditions was encountered, including aerosol-rich layers, visible clouds, and unusually clean (aerosol-poor) regions. Substantial amounts of data were obtained. Important insights regarding the use of laser-based systems of this type in an aircraft environment were gained. This paper describes the sensors used and flight operations conducted to support the experiments. The paper also briefly describes the general results of the experiments.

  11. Calculating Capstone depleted uranium aerosol concentrations from beta activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Alberth, David P

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the DU source term for the subsequent Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Values for the equilibrium fraction ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92. This paper describes the process used and adjustments necessary to calculate uranium mass from proportional counting measurements.

  12. Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappuis absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Flittner, D.E.; Herman, B.M.; Thome, K.J.; Simpson, J.M.; Reagan, J.A. )

    1993-04-15

    A second-derivative smoothing technique, commonly used in inversion work, is applied to the problem of inferring total columnar ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths. The application is unique in that the unknowns (i.e., total columnar ozone and aerosol optical depth) may be solved for directly without employing standard inversion methods. It is shown, however, that by employing inversion constraints, better solutions are normally obtained. The current method requires radiometric measurements of total optical depth through the Chappuis ozone band. It assumes no a priori shape for the aerosol optical depth versus wavelength profile and makes no assumptions about the ozone amount. Thus, the method is quite versatile and able to deal with varying total ozone and various aerosol size distributions. The technique is applied first in simulation, then to 119 days of measurements taken in Tucson, Arizona, that are compared to TOMS values for the same dates. The technique is also applied to two measurements taken at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for which Dobson ozone values are available in addition to the TOMS values, and the results agree to within 15%. It is also shown through simulations that additional information can be obtained from measurements outside the Chappuis band. This approach reduces the bias and spread of the estimates total ozone and is unique in that it uses measurements from both the Chappuis and Huggins absorption bands. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Is There a Common Correction for Biases in Historic Filter-Based Aerosol Absorption Measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComiskey, A. C.; Jefferson, A.; Dubey, M. K.; Aiken, A. C.; Fast, J. D.; Flynn, C. J.; Kassianov, E.

    2014-12-01

    Improved characterization of aerosol absorption is a pressing need for improving estimates of climate forcing by aerosols. Measurements of aerosol absorption are difficult to make with the accuracy and precision demanded by climate science. While several different approaches have been employed and new techniques have emerged, none can yet be considered a true 'gold standard'. Instruments that use filter-based methods have been the most widely used and are the basis of historic records. However, several studies using direct photoacoustic techniques have shown that filter-based measurements can be biased relative to these direct measurements. It has been demonstrated that this bias depends strongly on aerosol chemical composition, specifically concentration of organic mass. The wealth of information in the extensive set of historical filter-based data demands that this bias be diagnosed and corrected. A correction is critical for proper evaluation and development of chemical transport models, improved retrievals from remote sensing measurements, and integrating aerosol absorption surface and sub-orbital in situ measurements with knowledge gained from these other approaches. We have performed an intercomparison of absorption coefficients from a photoacoustic and two filter-based instruments with co-located organic mass concentrations from continuous, half-hourly averaged measurements over six months at a remote, continental site in the US (ARM SGP). The results show a bias in the filter-based measurements with organic concentration that is consistent with previous studies. Previous results come from controlled lab studies or field campaigns where absorption coefficients and organic concentrations are high and may represent aerosol close to the source. The current study is important in that these quantities are much lower and the aerosol likely more aged, representing a larger portion of the global conditions, yet shows a similar bias. This site provides other measures

  14. Measurement of the nucleation of atmospheric aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Nieminen, Tuomo; Sipilä, Mikko; Manninen, Hanna E; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dal Maso, Miikka; Aalto, Pasi P; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Laaksonen, Ari; Kerminen, Veli-Matti

    2012-09-01

    The formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles and their subsequent growth have been observed frequently at various locations all over the world. The atmospheric nucleation rate (or formation rate) and growth rate (GR) are key parameters to characterize the phenomenon. Recent progress in measurement techniques enables us to measure atmospheric nucleation at the size (mobility diameter) of 1.5 (±0.4) nm. The detection limit has decreased from 3 to 1 nm within the past 10 years. In this protocol, we describe the procedures for identifying new-particle-formation (NPF) events, and for determining the nucleation, formation and growth rates during such events under atmospheric conditions. We describe the present instrumentation, best practices and other tools used to investigate atmospheric nucleation and NPF at a certain mobility diameter (1.5, 2.0 or 3.0 nm). The key instruments comprise devices capable of measuring the number concentration of the formed nanoparticles and their size, such as a suite of modern condensation particle counters (CPCs) and air ion spectrometers, and devices for characterizing the pre-existing particle number concentration distribution, such as a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS). We also discuss the reliability of the methods used and requirements for proper measurements and data analysis. The time scale for realizing this procedure is 1 year.

  15. Remote Attitude Measurement Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Engineering , New Jersey Institute of Technology. Published by University Microfilms International- Plibi R92,3 19. KCEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side...of the sensor is expressed in terms of a probabilistic matrix. The engineering considerations for liplementing a Remote Attitude Measure- ment...doctoral research. While in residence at Ft. Monmouth, the author served as the project engineer on an exploratory development model of a state of the art

  16. Radiative Flux Changes by Aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa over the Atlantic Ocean: Measurements and Calculations from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Chien, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Durkee, P. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the past climate and predicting climate change. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of American, European, and African aerosols over the Atlantic. In TARFOX, radiative fluxes and microphysics of the American aerosol were measured from the UK C-130 while optical depth spectra, aerosol composition, and other properties were measured by the University of Washington C-131A and the CIRPAS Pelican. Closure studies show that the measured flux changes agree with those derived from the aerosol measurements using several modelling approaches. The best-fit midvisible single-scatter albedos (approx. 0.89 to 0.93) obtained from the TARFOX flux comparisons are in accord with values derived by independent techniques. In ACE-2 we measured optical depth and extinction spectra for both European urban-marine aerosols and free-tropospheric African dust aerosols, using sunphotometers on the R/V Vodyanitskiy and the Pelican. Preliminary values for the radiative flux sensitivities (Delta Flux / Delta Optical depth) computed for ACE-2 aerosols (boundary layer and African dust) over ocean are similar to those found in TARFOX. Combining a satellite-derived optical depth climatology with the aerosol optical model validated for flux sensitivities in TARFOX provides first-cut estimates of aerosol-induced flux changes over the Atlantic Ocean.

  17. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS ON PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. The methodology has been extensively used in past wintertime studies to quantify the contribution of wood smoke to ambient aerosol. In summertime such measurements can p...

  18. A New Stratospheric Aerosol Product from CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.; Vernier, J. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Young, S. A.; Liu, Z.; Lucker, P.; Tackett, J. L.; Omar, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are derived from precursor SO2 and OCS gases transported from the lower troposphere. Volcanic injections can also enhance aerosol loadings far above background levels. The latter can exert a significant influence on the Earth's radiation budget for major and even minor eruptions. Careful measurements are needed, therefore, to monitor the distribution and evolution of stratospheric aerosols for climate related studies. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission has been acquiring profile measurements of clouds and aerosols since 2006, leading to major advances in our understanding of tropospheric aerosol and cloud properties and the processes that control them. The CALIPSO products have also enabled new insights into polar stratospheric clouds and stratospheric aerosols. Vernier et al (2009,JGR,114,D00H10) reported on the construction of a modified CALIPSO lidar product that corrected minor artifacts with the original lidar calibration that affected stratospheric aerosol investigations. A significantly improved CALIPSO Lidar Version 4 Level 1 product has been recently released addressing these calibration issues and has resulted in enhanced signal levels and a highly stable record over the span of the mission. Based on this product, a new 3D gridded stratospheric CALIPSO data product is under development and being targeted for release in 2015. A key emphasis of this new product is to bridge the measurement gap between the SAGE II and SAGE III data record (1984-2005) and the start of measurements from the new SAGE III instrument to be deployed on the International Space Station in 2016. The primary parameters delivered in the CALIPSO stratospheric data products will be attenuated scattering ratio and aerosol extinction profiles, both averaged over one month intervals and binned into an equal angle grid of constant latitude and longitude with a vertical resolution of 900m. We will present the overall

  19. Size and concentration measurement of an industrial aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, D.; Baron, P.; Willeke, K.

    1986-07-01

    Several real-time particle sizing instruments were evaluated for measuring the size distribution and concentration of the aerosol produced during the high speed grinding of gray iron castings. Aerosol was sampled in the airstream entrained by the motion of a spinning grinding wheel in a pilot grinding operation. Measurement methods based on differing physical principles were selected for evaluation and compared: particle inertia (aerodynamic particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance cascade impactor); light scattering (laser aerosol spectrometer); and projected-area microscopy (scanning electron microscope). Inferences of aerodynamic diameter based on measurements by the laser aerosol spectrometer consistently undersized that determined by the aerodynamic particle sizer by a factor of 1.5. Estimates of aerodynamic diameters from projected area diameters determined by scanning electron microscopy differed from those obtained by the aerodynamic particle sizer by a factor of 2. Differences appeared to be a non-linear function of particle diameter. Estimates of respirable mass determined from mass-weighted particle size spectra varied by a factor of 6 between the largest estimate (scanning electron microscope) and the smallest estimate (laser aerosol spectrometer).

  20. Size and concentration measurement of an industrial aerosol.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Baron, P; Willeke, K

    1986-07-01

    Several real-time particle sizing instruments were evaluated for measuring the size distribution and concentration of the aerosol produced during the high speed grinding of gray iron castings. Aerosol was sampled in the airstream entrained by the motion of a spinning grinding wheel in a pilot grinding operation. Measurement methods based on differing physical principles were selected for evaluation and compared: particle inertia (aerodynamic particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance cascade impactor); light scattering (laser aerosol spectrometer); and projected-area microscopy (scanning electron microscope). Inferences of aerodynamic diameter based on measurements by the laser aerosol spectrometer consistently undersized that determined by the aerodynamic particle sizer by a factor of 1.5. Estimates of aerodynamic diameters from projected area diameters determined by scanning electron microscopy differed from those obtained by the aerodynamic particle sizer by a factor of 2. Differences appeared to be a non-linear function of particle diameter. Estimates of respirable mass determined from mass-weighted particle size spectra varied by a factor of 6 between the largest estimate (scanning electron microscope) and the smallest estimate (laser aerosol spectrometer).

  1. Method of measuring charge distribution of nanosized aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Woo, K S; Liu, B Y H; Zachariah, M R

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a method to accurately measure the positive and negative charge distribution of nanosized aerosols using a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) system. From the series of TDMA measurements, the charge fraction of nanosized aerosol particles was obtained as a function of equivalent mobility particle diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The capability of this new approach was implemented by sampling from a laminar diffusion flame which provides a source of highly charged particles due to naturally occurring flame ionization process. The results from the TDMA measurement provide the charge distribution of nanosized aerosols which we found to be in reasonable agreement with Boltzmann equilibrium charge distribution theory and a theory based upon charge population balance equation (PBE) combined with Fuchs theory (N.A. Fuchs, Geofis. Pura Appl. 56 (1963) 185). The theoretically estimated charge distribution of aerosol particles based on the PBE provides insight into the charging processes of nanosized aerosols surrounded by bipolar ions and electrons, and agree well with the TDMA results.

  2. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  3. Aerosol Chemistry Resolved by Mass Spectrometry: Linking Field Measurements of Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity to Organic Aerosol Composition.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Alexander L; Schneider, Johannes; Müller-Tautges, Christina; Phillips, Gavin J; Pöhlker, Mira L; Rose, Diana; Zuth, Christoph; Makkonen, Ulla; Hakola, Hannele; Crowley, John N; Andreae, Meinrat O; Pöschl, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-10-06

    Aerosol hygroscopic properties were linked to its chemical composition by using complementary online mass spectrometric techniques in a comprehensive chemical characterization study at a rural mountaintop station in central Germany in August 2012. In particular, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry ((-)APCI-MS) provided measurements of organic acids, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates in the particle phase at 1 min time resolution. Offline analysis of filter samples enabled us to determine the molecular composition of signals appearing in the online (-)APCI-MS spectra. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) provided quantitative measurements of total submicrometer organics, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium. Inorganic sulfate measurements were achieved by semionline ion chromatography and were compared to the AMS total sulfate mass. We found that up to 40% of the total sulfate mass fraction can be covalently bonded to organic molecules. This finding is supported by both on- and offline soft ionization techniques, which confirmed the presence of several organosulfates and nitrooxy-organosulfates in the particle phase. The chemical composition analysis was compared to hygroscopicity measurements derived from a cloud condensation nuclei counter. We observed that the hygroscopicity parameter (κ) that is derived from organic mass fractions determined by AMS measurements may overestimate the observed κ up to 0.2 if a high fraction of sulfate is bonded to organic molecules and little photochemical aging is exhibited.

  4. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for Field and Aircraft Measurements of Aerosol Phase Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgos, G.; Martins, J.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols have a significant impact on the radiative balance and water cycle of our planet through influencing atmospheric radiation. Remote sensing of aerosols relies on scattering phase matrix information to retrieve aerosol properties with frequent global coverage. At the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County we developed a new technique to directly measure the aerosol phase function and the degree of linear polarization of the scattered light (two elements of the phase matrix). We designed and built a portable instrument called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). The PI-Neph successfully participated in dozens of flights of the NASA Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project and the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. The ambient aerosol enters the PI-Neph through an inlet and the sample is illuminated by laser light (wavelength of 532 nm); the scattered light is imaged by a stationary wide field of view camera in the scattering angle range of 2° to 178°. (In some cases stray light limited the scattering angle range to 3° to 176°). The PI-Neph measurement of phase function and the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) retrievals have already been compared in some cases when the aircraft spiraled over AERONET sites, for example at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, on October 18 2011, as shown in Figure 1. The differences between the PI-Neph and the AERONET retrievals can be attributed to differences between the ambient size distribution and the one sampled inside the aircraft. The data that is resolved with respect to scattering angle is used to compute the volume scattering coefficient. The above mentioned October 18 flight data showed good agreement between the PI-Neph measurements of volume scattering coefficient and the parallel TSI integrating nephelometer measurements. On average the TSI measurements were 1.02 times the PI

  5. Vertical Profiles of Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Condensation Nuclei, Optical Aerosol, Aerosol Optical Properties, and Aerosol Volatility Measured from Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshler, T.; Snider, J. R.; Vali, G.

    1998-01-01

    Under the support of this grant a balloon-borne gondola containing a variety of aerosol instruments was developed and flown from Laramie, Wyoming, (41 deg N, 105 deg W) and from Lauder, New Zealand (45 deg S, 170 deg E). The gondola includes instruments to measure the concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), optically detectable aerosol (OA.) (r greater than or equal to 0.15 - 2.0 microns), and optical scattering properties using a nephelometer (lambda = 530 microns). All instruments sampled from a common inlet which was heated to 40 C on ascent and to 160 C on descent. Flights with the CN counter, OA counter, and nephelometer began in July 1994. The CCN counter was added in November 1994, and the engineering problems were solved by June 1995. Since then the flights have included all four instruments, and were completed in January 1998. Altogether there were 20 flights from Laramie, approximately 5 per year, and 2 from Lauder. Of these there were one or more engineering problems on 6 of the flights from Laramie, hence the data are somewhat limited on those 6 flights, while a complete data set was obtained from the other 14 flights. Good CCN data are available from 12 of the Laramie flights. The two flights from Lauder in January 1998 were successful for all measurements. The results from these flights, and the development of the balloon-bome CCN counter have formed the basis for five conference presentations. The heated and unheated CN and OA measurements have been used to estimate the mass fraction of the aerosol volatile, while comparisons of the nephelometer measurements were used to estimate the light scattering, associated with the volatile aerosol. These estimates were calculated for 0.5 km averages of the ascent and descent data between 2.5 km and the tropopause, near 11.5 km.

  6. Measuring the influence of aerosols and albedo on sky polarization.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, A; Emde, C; Blumthaler, M

    2010-11-01

    All-sky distributions of the polarized radiance are measured using an automated fish-eye camera system with a rotating polarizer. For a large range of aerosol and surface albedo situations, the influence on the degree of polarization and sky radiance is investigated. The range of aerosol optical depth and albedo is 0.05-0.5 and 0.1-0.75, respectively. For this range of parameters, a reduction of the degree of polarization from about 0.7 to 0.4 was observed. The analysis is done for 90° scattering angle in the principal plane under clear sky conditions for a broadband channel of 450 ± 25 nm and solar zenith angles between 55° and 60°. Radiative transfer calculations considering three different aerosol mixtures are performed and and agree with the measurements within the statistical error.

  7. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions During PACDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. C.; Gandrud, B.; Campos, T.; Kok, G.; Stith, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) is an airborne project that attempts to characterize the indirect aerosol effect by tracing plumes of dust and pollution across the Pacific Ocean. This project occurred during April-May 2007 and used the NSF/NCAR HIAPER research aircraft. When a period of strong generation of dust particles and pollution was detected by ground-based and satellite sensors, then the aircraft was launched from Colorado to Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. Its mission was to intercept and track these plumes from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean, and ultimately to the edges of North America. For more description, see the abstract by Stith and Ramanathan (this conference) and other companion papers on PACDEX. The HIAPER aircraft carried a wide variety of sensors for measuring aerosols, cloud particles, trace gases, and radiation. Sampling was made in several weather regimes, including clean "background" air, dust and pollution plumes, and regions with cloud systems. Altitude ranges extended from 100 m above the ocean to 13.4 km. This paper reports on aerosol measurements made with a new Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), a Radial Differential Mobility Analyzer (RDMA), a water-based CN counter, and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). These cover the size range 10 nm to 10 um diameter. In clear air, dust was detected with the UHSAS and CDP. Polluted air was identified with high concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and CN. Aerosol size distributions will be presented, along with data to define the context of weather regimes.

  8. Ship-based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Near Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakerin, S. M.; Smirnov, A.; Kabanov, D. M.; Turchinovich, Y. S.; Holben, B. N.; Radionov, V. F.; Slutsker, I.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties over the oceans were studied in November 2005 January 2006 onboard the R/V Akademik Fedorov within the framework of the 51st Russian Antarctic Expedition. Measurements were made with the handheld sunphotometer Microtops II. The sunphotometer was calibrated against the AERONET reference CIMEL radiometer. The direct sun measurements were acquired in five spectral channels at 340, 440, 675, 870 and 936 nm. Aerosol optical depth was retrieved by applying the AERONET processing algorithm (Version 2). The paper presents results of measurements along the Atlantic transect and in the Antarctic region, where the main data volume was obtained (spanning 20 days). During the measurement period near Antarctica aerosol optical depth was low (daily averages varied within 0.02-0.04 at a wavelength 440 nm). Average spectral dependence of aerosol optical depth showed usual monotonic behavior, decreasing from 0.037 at 440 nm to 0.022 at 870 nm. Daily averaged Angstrom parameter was 0.84. Spatial and temporal variations in the Antarctic region were less or about 0.02 which is comparable with the measurement uncertainty. For a few days Microtops was collocated with the stationary sunphotometer ABAS-3 from the coastal Antarctic station Myrnyi and took simultaneous measurements. Presented results are compared with the long-term observations in Antarctica.

  9. Continuous measurements of aerosol particles in Arctic Russia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Brus, David; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrjö; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Ivakhov, Victor; Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71o 36' N; 128o 53' E) on the shore of the Laptev Sea has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol physical properties, which have been successfully continued since summer 2010. These, together with the FMI measurements in Pallas station in northern Finland since 1999, provide important information on the

  10. Aerosol statistics and pollution forecast based on lidar measurements in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, Doina; Talianu, Camelia; Ionescu, Constantin; Ciobanu, Mircea; Ciuciu, Jeni

    2005-10-01

    Recently, the Romanian lidar group implemented a routine monitoring scheme over Bucharest for the observation of aerosol optical properties in the troposphere. The measurements are provided twice per week at specific times (at 9:00 UT and 13:00 UT) for at least 2 hours per observation time. The purpose is to establish a quantitative comprehensive database of both horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol over Bucharest and surrounding industrial areas, using a Nd:YAG laser based lidar system, operating at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths, which provides in real time aerosol profiles up to 10 Km high, with a 6 m spatial resolution. In this paper, a statistical analysis obtained from several months of regular measurements is presented, ordinary and special events being outlined. For further analysis, the integration in atmospheric transport models of aerosol's spatial and temporal distribution derived from lidar measurements and complementary meteorological data was pursued. The novelty of this technique consists in using the OpenGIS technology (Open Geographical Information Systems), which permits the visualization and complex analysis of pollution in natural environment: numerical model of terrain, vegetation, meteorological and atmospheric characteristics. Lidar data are integrated as location type, direction and sense, as from the view-point of their temporal distribution. The position information is processed through an azimuthal projection GIS data server, considering the radial distribution of data centered to the coordinate point of installation location. Several codes were modified in order to obtain forecast aerosols trajectories and to evidence the impact on nearby regions.

  11. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  12. Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... article title:  Aerosols over Central and Eastern Europe     View Larger Image ... last weeks of March 2003, widespread aerosol pollution over Europe was detected by several satellite-borne instruments. The Multi-angle ...

  13. Two-Column Aerosol Project: Aerosol Light Extinction Measurements Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Manvendra; Aiken, Allison; Berg, Larry K.; Freedman, Andrew; Gorkowski, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    We deployed Aerodyne Research Inc.’s first Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction (CAPS PMex) monitor (built by Aerodyne) that measures light extinction by using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as a light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector in Cape Cod in 2012/13 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). The efficacy of this instrument is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light. The input LED is square-wave modulated and passed through the sample cell that distorts it due to exponential decay by aerosol light absorption and scattering; this is measured at the detector. The amount of phase shift of the light at the detector is used to determine the light extinction. This extinction measurement provides an absolute value, requiring no calibration. The goal was to compare the CAPS performance with direct measurements of absorption with ARM’s baseline photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and nephelometer instruments to evaluate its performance.

  14. Measurements of Gases and Aerosols during 2010Cal-Mex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Molina, L.

    2012-04-01

    The major goal of the collaborative Cal-Mex 2010 research project is to assess the sources and processing of emissions along the California-Mexico border region and their effects on regional air quality and climate in order to provide scientific information to decision makers of both nations when addressing these two inter-related issues. During the Cal-Mex 2010 field study, the TAMU teams have collected extensive data sets from Tijuana/San Diego border, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and a suite set of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols. This comprehensive data set requires additional effort to process and analyze the measurements of gases and aerosols during Cal-Mex 2010. In this talk, preliminary data analysis of gases and aerosols will be presented, including VOCs and particle mixing states, morphology, and effective densities.

  15. Measurement of mass distribution of chemical species in aerosol particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosols may be generated through the nebulizing of solutions and the evaporation of their solvent, leaving the dry solute particles. Attention is presently given to a method for the direct determination of the masses of chemical species in individual aerosol particles on a continuous, real-time basis, using mass spectrometry. After the aerosol particles are introduced into the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, the particles impinge on a hot rhenium filament in the mass spectrometer's ion source. The resulting vapor plume is ionized by electron bombardment, and a pulse of ions is generated by each particle. The intensities of different masses in the ion pulses can then be measured by the mass spectrometer.

  16. Shortwave Radiative Fluxes, Solar-Beam Transmissions, and Aerosol Properties: TARFOX and ACE-2 Find More Absorption from Flux Radiometry than from Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) made simultaneous measurements of shortwave radiative fluxes, solar-beam transmissions, and the aerosols affecting those fluxes and transmissions. Besides the measured fluxes and transmissions, other obtained properties include aerosol scattering and absorption measured in situ at the surface and aloft; aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from skylight radiances; and aerosol complex refractive index derived by combining profiles of backscatter, extinction, and size distribution. These measurements of North Atlantic boundary layer aerosols impacted by anthropogenic pollution revealed the following characteristic results: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements of aerosols (e.g., optical depth, extinction, and backscattering from sunphotometers, satellites, and lidars) than between remote and in situ measurements; 2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements; (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from other measurements. When the measured relationships between downwelling flux and optical depth (or beam transmission) are used to derive best-fit single scattering albedos for the polluted boundary layer aerosol, both TARFOX and ACE-2 yield midvisible values of 0.90 +/- 0.04. The other techniques give larger single scattering albedos (i.e. less absorption) for the polluted boundary layer, with a typical result of 0.95 +/- 0.04. Although the flux-based results have the virtue of describing the column aerosol unperturbed by sampling, they are subject to questions about representativeness and other uncertainties (e.g., unknown gas absorption). Current uncertainties in aerosol single scattering albedo are large in terms of climate effects. They also have an important influence on aerosol optical depths retrieved from satellite radiances

  17. Aerosol measurements and validation of satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over the Kavaratti Cal-Val site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. N.; Suthar, N. M.; Patel, P. N.; Mathur, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosols are short-lived with a residual time of about a week in the lower atmosphere and are concentrated around the source of origin. Aerosols are produced by variety of natural processes as well as by anthropogenic activities; it gets distributed in the atmosphere through turbulent mixing as well as transported away from the source of origin and thus results in its large seasonal and spatial variability. In this study, the CIMEL sun-photometer measurements at Kavaratti calibration and validation site are used to characterize the aerosols' nature at the measurement site. Also, these in-situ measurements are used to validate the satellite sensor derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) parameter. The data analysis shows that the locally generated aerosols are mostly of marine aerosols and other natural aerosols are transported desert dust. The anthropogenic aerosols are transported from mainland and they are found during the pre-monsoon season. Also aerosol measurements for five years (2009 - 2015) are being planned for validating the satellite sensors derived AOD products namely: OceanSat2-OCM2, MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua.

  18. Influence of sky radiance measurement errors on inversion-retrieved aerosol properties

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, B.; Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Bennouna, Y. S.; Fuertes, D.; Gonzalez, R.; Frutos, A. M. de; Berjon, A. J.; Dubovik, O.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Blarel, L.

    2013-05-10

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric aerosol is a well-established technique that is currently used for routine monitoring of this atmospheric component, both from ground-based and satellite. The AERONET program, initiated in the 90's, is the most extended network and the data provided are currently used by a wide community of users for aerosol characterization, satellite and model validation and synergetic use with other instrumentation (lidar, in-situ, etc.). Aerosol properties are derived within the network from measurements made by ground-based Sun-sky scanning radiometers. Sky radiances are acquired in two geometries: almucantar and principal plane. Discrepancies in the products obtained following both geometries have been observed and the main aim of this work is to determine if they could be justified by measurement errors. Three systematic errors have been analyzed in order to quantify the effects on the inversion-derived aerosol properties: calibration, pointing accuracy and finite field of view. Simulations have shown that typical uncertainty in the analyzed quantities (5% in calibration, 0.2 Degree-Sign in pointing and 1.2 Degree-Sign field of view) yields to errors in the retrieved parameters that vary depending on the aerosol type and geometry. While calibration and pointing errors have relevant impact on the products, the finite field of view does not produce notable differences.

  19. Coarse mode aerosol measurement using a Low Turbulence Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, J.; Bart, M.; Trembath, J.; McQuaid, J. B.; Brooks, B. J.; Osborne, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahara desert is a major natural source of global mineral dust emissions (Forster et al., 2007) through the mobilisation and lifting of dust particles into the atmosphere from dust storms. A significant fraction of this dust is in the aerosol coarse mode (Weinzierl et al., 2009). It is highlighted of the difficulty in making accurate and reliable measurements from an aircraft platform, particularly that of coarse mode aerosol (Wendisch et al., 2004). To achieve the measurement of a representative aerosol sample an aerosol inlet, on an aircraft, is required for the delivery of the sample to the instruments making the measurements. Inlet design can modify aerosol size distribution through either underestimating due to aerosol losses or overestimation due to enhancements. The Low Turbulence Inlet (LTI) was designed to improve inlet efficiency. This is achieved by reducing turbulence flow within the tip of the inlet, reducing impaction of particles to the walls of the inlet (Wilson et al., 2004). The LTI further maintains isokinetic sampling flow (free stream velocity, U0 and sampling velocity, U are equal to 1). Dust aerosol over the Sahara desert provides an excellent environment to test and quantify the capabilities of the LTI on the FAAM BAe 146, whilst enabling in-situ dust measurement. The LTI was operated during the Fennec field campaign in June 2011 with 11 flights during the campaign over Mauritania and Mali. We are using the LTI to provide critical information on the sampling characteristics of the inlet used by nearly all aerosol instruments inside the aircraft (AMS, Nephelometer, PSAP, and CCN). Inlet experiments were performed with identical Optical Particle Counters (OPC) connected to the rosemount and LTI with size distribution for each inlet measured and Rosemount enhancements determined. Rosemount inlet enhancements were determined to be 2 to 4 times for particles up to 2.5 µm. A key parameter in aerosol measurement is size distribution, in which

  20. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS - altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products - were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the

  1. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-07-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS - altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products - were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/. The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 7%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.8 for many of the analyzed products, while root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.07 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different land cover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the land cover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface closed shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which

  2. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  3. Applications of broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurements of trace gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Flores, J. M.; Langford, A. O.; Min, K. E.; Rudich, Y.; Stutz, J.; Wagner, N.; Young, C.; Zarzana, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES) uses a broadband light source, optical cavity, and multichannel detector to measure light extinction with high sensitivity. This method differs from cavity ringdown spectroscopy, because it uses an inexpensive, incoherent light source and allows optical extinction to be determined simultaneously across a broad wavelength region.Spectral fitting methods can be used to retrieve multiple absorbers across the observed wavelength region. We have successfully used this method to measure glyoxal (CHOCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from ground-based and aircraft-based sampling platforms. The detection limit (2-sigma) in 5 s for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 is 32, 250 and 80 parts per trillion (pptv).Alternatively, gas-phase absorbers can be chemically removed to allow the accurate determination of aerosol extinction. In the laboratory, we have used the aerosol extinction measurements to determine scattering and absorption as a function of wavelength. We have deployed a ground-based field instrument to measure aerosol extinction, with a detection limit of approximately 0.2 Mm-1 in 1 min.BBCES methods are most widely used in the near-ultraviolet and visible spectral region. Recently, we have demonstrated measurements at 315-350 nm for formaldehyde (CH2O) and NO2. Extending the technique further into the ultraviolet spectral region will allow important additional measurements of trace gas species and aerosol extinction.

  4. Digital Techniques for Laboratory Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dart, S. Leonard

    1975-01-01

    Describes techniques and equipment intended to both improve laboratory measurements and also form a background for more advanced work by introducing the concepts of electronic and digital circuits. (GS)

  5. Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H.; Yue, G. K.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for inferring stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from the water vapor concentration and aerosol extinction measurements obtained in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and the associated temperature from the NMC. The aerosols are assumed to be sulfuric acid-water droplets. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to determine model size distribution parameters based on the SAGE II multiwavelength aerosol extinctions. It is found that the best aerosol size information is contained in the aerosol radius range between about 0.25 and 0.80 micron.

  6. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  7. Aerosol Formation In The Free Troposphere: Aircraft and Laboratory Measurements of Ionic and Gaseous Aerosol Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, F.

    Aerosol formation seems to be very efficient in the upper troposphere (UT) as in- dicated by the frequent presence of numerous very small and therefore very young aerosol particles. Aersosol formation proceeds via nucleation of supersaturated low volatility trace gases (LVG) involving either a homogeneous (HONU) or an ion- induced (INU) mechanism. LVG experience rapid removal by condenstation on prefer- ably pre-existing aerosol particles and therefore LVG must be formed locally in the UT by photochemical conversion of precursor gases. A prominent example is gaseous sulfuric acid which is formed from SO2. This SO2 originates at least in the northern hemisphere mostly from fossil fuel combustion at ground-level and to some part origi- nates also from jet aircraft cruising in the UT. Other conceivable LVG's are low volatil- ity organic compounds. After formation by nucleation new particles may experience condensational growth involving LVG. Alternatively new particles may experience scavenging by attachment to pre-existing larger particles. The LVG-concentration has a strong influence on the growth-rate of new particles and thereby on the possibil- ity for growth to the size of a cloud condensation nucleus. Unfortunately present knowledge on free tropospheric LVG is rather poor. Here will be reported free tropo- spheric aircraft-based measurements of ionic and gaseous aerosol-precursors. These include both measurements in the "background" FT as well as measurements in ex- haust plumes of jet aircraft cruising in the UT. Furthermore accompanying new labo- ratory investigations of INU and measurements behind aircraft jet engines at ground- level will also be adressed.

  8. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  9. Measurements of ocean derived aerosol off the coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Hakala, J.; PetäJä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Covert, D. S.; Cappa, C. D.; Li, S.-M.; Hayden, K. L.; Nuaaman, I.; McLaren, R.; Massoli, P.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.; Keene, W. C.

    2012-06-01

    Reliable characterization of particles freshly emitted from the ocean surface requires a sampling method that is able to isolate those particles and prevent them from interacting with ambient gases and particles. Here we report measurements of particles directly emitted from the ocean using a newly developed in situ particle generator (Sea Sweep). The Sea Sweep was deployed alongside R/V Atlantis off the coast of California during May of 2010. Bubbles were generated 0.75 m below the ocean surface with stainless steel frits and swept into a hood/vacuum hose to feed a suite of aerosol instrumentation on board the ship. The number size distribution of the directly emitted, nascent particles had a dominant mode at 55-60 nm (dry diameter) and secondary modes at 30-40 nm and 200-300 nm. The nascent aerosol was not volatile at 230°C and was not enriched in SO4=, Ca++, K+, or Mg++above that found in surface seawater. The organic component of the nascent aerosol (7% of the dry submicrometer mass) volatilized at a temperature between 230 and 600°C. The submicrometer organic aerosol characterized by mass spectrometry was dominated by non-oxygenated hydrocarbons. The nascent aerosol at 50, 100, and 145 nm dry diameter behaved hygroscopically like an internal mixture of sea salt with a small organic component. The CCN/CN activation ratio for 60 nm Sea Sweep particles was near 1 for all supersaturations of 0.3 and higher indicating that all of the particles took up water and grew to cloud drop size. The nascent organic aerosol mass fraction did not increase in regions of higher surface seawater chlorophyll but did show a positive correlation with seawater dimethylsulfide (DMS).

  10. Measurements of ocean derived aerosol off the coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Hakala, J.; PetäJä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Covert, D. S.; Cappa, C. D.; Li, S.-M.; Hayden, K. L.; Nuaaman, I.; McLaren, R.; Massoli, P.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.; Keene, W. C.

    2011-11-01

    Reliable characterization of particles freshly emitted from the ocean surface requires a sampling method that is able to isolate those particles and prevent them from interacting with ambient gases and particles. Here we report measurements of particles directly emitted from the ocean using a newly developed in situ particle generator (Sea Sweep). The Sea Sweep was deployed alongside R/V Atlantis off the coast of California during May of 2010. Bubbles were generated 0.75 m below the ocean surface with stainless steel frits and swept into a hood/vacuum hose to feed a suite of aerosol instrumentation on board the ship. The number size distribution of the directly emitted, nascent particles had a dominant mode at 55-60 nm (dry diameter) and secondary modes at 30-40 nm and 200-300 nm. The nascent aerosol was not volatile at 230°C and was not enriched in SO4=, Ca++, K+, or Mg++above that found in surface seawater. The organic component of the nascent aerosol (7% of the dry submicrometer mass) volatilized at a temperature between 230 and 600°C. The submicrometer organic aerosol characterized by mass spectrometry was dominated by non-oxygenated hydrocarbons. The nascent aerosol at 50, 100, and 145 nm dry diameter behaved hygroscopically like an internal mixture of sea salt with a small organic component. The CCN/CN activation ratio for 60 nm Sea Sweep particles was near 1 for all supersaturations of 0.3 and higher indicating that all of the particles took up water and grew to cloud drop size. The nascent organic aerosol mass fraction did not increase in regions of higher surface seawater chlorophyll but did show a positive correlation with seawater dimethylsulfide (DMS).

  11. Evaluation of Aerosol Properties in GCMs using Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols from natural or anthropogenic sources have profound impacts on the regional and global climate. Currently the radiative forcing of aerosols predicted by global climate models remains highly uncertain, representing the largest uncertainty in climate predictions. The uncertainty mainly arises from the complicated aerosol chemical and physical properties, coarse emission inventories for pre-cursor gases as well as unrealistic representations of aerosol activation and cloud processing in global climate models. In this study, we will utilize multiple satellite measurements including MODIS, MISR and CALIPSO to quantitatively evaluate aerosol simulations from climate models. Our analyses show that the global means in AOD climatology from NCAR CAM5 and GFDL AM3 simulations are comparable with satellite measurements. However, the overall correlation coefficient between the AOD spatial patterns from CAM5 and satellite is only 0.4. Moreover, at finer scales, the magnitude of AOD in CAM5 is much lower than satellite measurements for most of the non-dust regions, especially over East Asia. GFDL AM3 shows better AOD simulations over East Asia. The underestimated AOD over remote maritime areas in CAM5 was attributed to the unrealistic wet removal processes in convective clouds of CAM5. Over continents, biases on AOD could stem from underestimations in the emissions inventory and unresolved sub-grid variations of relative humidity due to the model's coarse resolution. Uncertainty from emission inventory over developing countries in East Asia will be assessed using the newly updated Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) and Multi-resolution Emission Inventory in China (MEIC) in the model simulations.

  12. SAGE II aerosol validation: selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Livingston, J M; Russell, P B; Pueschel, R F; Rosen, J N; Osborn, M T; Kritz, M A; Snetsinger, K G; Ferry, G V

    1989-06-20

    Correlative aerosol measurements taken at a limited number of altitudes during coordinated field experiments are used to test the validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements taken by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II Sun photometer. In particular, results are presented from correlative measurement missions that were conducted during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986. Correlative sensors included impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers aboard an U-2-airplane, an upward pointing lidar aboard a P-3 airplane, and balloon-borne optical particle counters (dustsondes). The main body of this paper focuses on the July 29, 1986, validation experiment, which minimized the many difficulties (e.g., spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, imperfect coincidences) that can complicate the validation process. On this day, correlative aerosol measurements taken at an altitude of 20.5 km agreed with each other within their respective uncertainties, and particulate extinction values calculated at SAGE II wavelengths from these measurements validated corresponding SAGE II values. Additional validation efforts on days when measurement and logistical conditions were much less favorable for validation are discussed in an appendix.

  13. Measurements of Natural Radioactivity in Submicron Aerosols in Mexico City.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Sterling, K.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2003-12-01

    Natural radionuclides can be useful in evaluating the transport of ozone and aerosols in the troposphere. Beryllium-7, which is produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and becomes adsorbed on fine aerosols, can be a useful indicator of upper air transport into a region. Lead-210 is produced by the decay of radon-222 out-gassed into the lower atmosphere from ground-based uranium deposits. Potassium-40, found in soils, can act as a measure of wind-blown dust and also comes from burning of wood and other biomass that is enriched in this natural radioisotope. Thus, both lead-210 and potassium-40 can aid in identification of aerosols sourced in the lower atmosphere. As part of our continuing interest in the lifetimes and sources of aerosols and their radiative effects, we report here measurements of fine aerosol radioactivity in Mexico City, one of the largest megacities in the world. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters by using cascade impactors (Sierra type, Anderson Instruments) and high-volume air samplers from the rooftop of the main laboratory of El Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental (CENICA). By using stage 4 of the impactor and timers, we were able to collect integrated samples of sizes > 1 micrometer and < 1 micrometer over 12-hr time periods daily for approximately one month in April 2003. Samples were counted at the University of Illinois at Chicago by using state-of-the-art gamma counting (beryllium-7, 477.6 keV; potassium-40, 1460.8 keV; lead-210, 46.5 keV). The beryllium-7 data indicate one possible upper-air transport event during April 2003. As expected, the lead-210 data indicate very little soil contribution to the fine aerosol. The potassium-40 data showed an increase in fine aerosol potassium during Holy Week that might be attributed to local combustion of biomass fuels. The data will be presented and discussed in light of future data analysis and comparison with other

  14. Residual oil aerosol measurements on refrigerators and liquefiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflueckhahn, D.; Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purity of the process gas is essential for the reliability of refrigerators and liquefiers. Filtration and adsorption of impurities like water, nitrogen, and oil result in a major effort, cost, and maintenance in the helium process. Expensive impurity monitors for moisture, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon contents are required to identify filter failures and leakage immediately during the operation. While water and nitrogen contaminants can be detected reliably, the measurement of oil aerosols at the ppb-level is challenging. We present a novel diagnostic oil aerosol measurement system able to measure particles in the sub-μm range. This unit enabled us to evaluate and improve the oil separation system on a LINDE TCF 50 helium liquefier.

  15. Pseudorandom Noise Code-Based Technique for Cloud and Aerosol Discrimination Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Flood, Michael A.; Harrison, Fenton Wallace

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is working on a continuous wave (CW) laser based remote sensing scheme for the detection of CO2 and O2 from space based platforms suitable for ACTIVE SENSING OF CO2 EMISSIONS OVER NIGHTS, DAYS, AND SEASONS (ASCENDS) mission. ASCENDS is a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). A unique, multi-frequency, intensity modulated CW (IMCW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) operating at 1.57 micron for CO2 sensing has been developed. Effective aerosol and cloud discrimination techniques are being investigated in order to determine concentration values with accuracies less than 0.3%. In this paper, we discuss the demonstration of a PN code based technique for cloud and aerosol discrimination applications. The possibility of using maximum length (ML)-sequences for range and absorption measurements is investigated. A simple model for accomplishing this objective is formulated, Proof-of-concept experiments carried out using SONAR based LIDAR simulator that was built using simple audio hardware provided promising results for extension into optical wavelengths. Keywords: ASCENDS, CO2 sensing, O2 sensing, PN codes, CW lidar

  16. A mobile remote sensing laboratory for water vapor, trace gas, aerosol, and wind speed measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.; White, W.; Tulloch, W.; DeSlover, D.

    1993-03-19

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a mobile field laboratory for remote measurement of atmospheric processes and observables that are important in global climate change, dispersal of hazardous materials, and atmospheric pollution. Specific observables of interest are water vapor, trace gases, aerosol size and density, wind, and temperature. The goal is to study atmospheric processes continuously for extended periods in remote field locations. This laboratory has just reached field ready status with sensors for aerosol and trace gas measurement based on established techniques. A development program is underway to enhance the sensor suite with several new techniques and instruments that are expected to significantly extend the state of the art in remote trace gas analysis. The new sensors will be incorporated into the lab during the next two years.

  17. Light source effects on aerosol photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radney, James G.; Zangmeister, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements of flame-generated soot aerosol coated with small amounts of water yielded absorption enhancements that were dependent on the laser used: quasi-continuous wave (Q-CW, ≈650 ps pulse duration and 78 MHz repetition rate) versus continuous wave (CW). Water coating thickness was controlled by exposing the aerosol to a set relative humidity (RH). At ≈85% RH, the mass of the soot particles increased by an amount comparable to a monolayer of water being deposited and enhanced the measured absorption by 36% and 15% for the Q-CW and CW lasers, respectively. Extinction measurements were also performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (extinction equals the sum of absorption and scattering) with a CW laser and negligible enhancement was observed at all RH. These findings demonstrate that source choice can impact measurements of aerosols with volatile coatings and that the absorption enhancements at high RH previously measured by Radney and Zangmeister [1] are the result of laser source used (Q-CW) and not from an increase in the particle absorption cross section.

  18. Establishing aerosol exposure predictive models based on vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Lee, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Shih-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liou, Yuh-When; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2010-06-15

    This paper establishes particulate exposure predictive models based on vibration measurements under various concrete drilling conditions. The whole study was conducted in an exposure chamber using a full-scale mockup of concrete drilling simulator to simulate six drilling conditions. For each drilling condition, the vibration of the three orthogonal axes (i.e., a(x), a(y), and a(z)) was measured from the hand tool. Particulate exposure concentrations to the total suspended particulate (C(TSP)), PM(10) (C(PM10)), and PM(2.5) (C(PM2.5)) were measured at the downwind side of the drilling simulator. Empirical models for predicting C(TSP), C(PM10) and C(PM2.5) were done based on measured a(x), a(y), and a(z) using the generalized additive model. Good agreement between measured aerosol exposures and vibrations was found with R(2)>0.969. Our results also suggest that a(x) was mainly contributed by the abrasive wear. On the other hand, a(y) and a(z) were mainly contributed by both the impact wear and brittle fracture wear. The approach developed from the present study has the potential to provide a cheaper and convenient method for assessing aerosol exposures from various emission sources, particularly when conducting conventional personal aerosol samplings are not possible in the filed.

  19. Comparing Simultaneous Stratospheric Aerosol and Ozone Lidar Measurements with SAGE 2 Data after the Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Wang, P.-H.; Rizi, V.; Masci, F.; DAltorio, A.; Visconti, G.

    1995-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol and ozone profiles obtained simultaneously from the lidar station at the University of L'Aquila (42.35 deg N, 13.33 deg E, 683 m above sea level) during the first 6 months following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo are compared with corresponding nearby Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 2 profiles. The agreement between the two data sets is found to be reasonably good. The temporal change of aerosol profiles obtained by both techniques showed the intrusion and growth of Pinatubo aerosols. In addition, ozone concentration profiles derived from an empirical time-series model based on SAGE 2 ozone data obtained before the Pinatubo eruption are compared with measured profiles. Good agreement is shown in the 1991 profiles, but ozone concentrations measured in January 1992 were reduced relative to time-series model estimates. Possible reasons for the differences between measured and model-based ozone profiles are discussed.

  20. MAX-DOAS Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide and Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendolia, Deanna

    Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) was applied to retrieve tropospheric NO2 and aerosol vertical profiles from downtown Toronto, and King City, Ontario during select periods in 2006 - 2010. Linear regression of MAX-DOAS NO2 vertical column density (VCD) versus OMI (satellite) VCD yielded a good correlation (R = 0.88) and MAX-DOAS negative bias of 20%, which was within the reported uncertainty of the MAX-DOAS and OMI VCD. The average regional Toronto VCD (remotely-sensed via MAX-DOAS and OMI) was half of the near-road VCD obtained in-situ (2.4 x 1016 ± 1.2 x 1016 molec/cm2 ). MAX-DOAS measurements of O4 were coupled with radiative transfer modeling to obtain vertical aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical depth (AOD). A strong linear agreement was observed between PM 2.5 concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient (R = 0.92), and MAX-DOAS versus sun photometer AOD (slope = 0.94; R= 0.90).

  1. Confined Aerosol Jet in Fiber Classification and Dustiness Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Prahit

    The focus of this dissertation is the numerical analysis of confined aerosol jets used in fiber classification and dustiness measurement. Of relevance to the present work are two devices, namely, the Baron Fiber Classifier (BFC), and the Venturi Dustiness Tester (VDT). The BFC is a device used to length-separate fibers, important for toxicological research. The Flow Combination Section (FCS) of this device consists of an upstream region, where an aerosol of uncharged fibers is introduced in the form of an annular jet, in-between two sheath flows. Length-separation occurs by dielectrophoresis, downstream of the FCS in the Fiber Classification Section (FClS). In its standard operation, BFC processes only small quantities of fibers. In order to increase its throughput, higher aerosol flow rates must be considered. The goal of the present investigation is to understand the interaction of sheath and aerosol flows inside the FCS, and to identify possible limits to increasing aerosol flow rates using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Simulations involve solution of Navier-Stokes equations for axisymmetric and 3D models of the FCS for six different flow rates, and a pure aerodynamic treatment of the aerosol jet. The results show that the geometry of the FCS, and the two sheath flows, are successful in preventing the emergence of vortices in the FCS for aerosol-to-sheath flow inlet velocity ratios below ≈ 50. For larger aerosol-to-sheath flow inlet velocity ratios, two vortices are formed, one near the inner cylinder and one near the outer cylinder. The VDT is a novel device for measuring the dustiness of powders, relevant for dust management and controlling hazardous exposure. It uses just 10 mg of the test powder for its operation, during which the powder is aerosolized and turbulently dispersed (Re = 19,900) for 1.5s into a 5.7 liter chamber; the aerosol is then gently sampled (Re = 2050) for 240s through two filters located at the chamber top. Pump-driven suction at

  2. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  3. How Well Can Aerosol Measurements from the Terra Morning Polar Orbiting Satellite Represent the Daily Aerosol Abundance and Properties?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Slutzker, I.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra mission, launched at the dawn of 1999, and Aqua mission to be launched soon, will possess innovative measurements of the aerosol daily spatial distribution, distinguish between dust, smoke and regional pollution and measure aerosol radiative forcing of climate. Their polar orbit gives daily global coverage, however measurements are acquired at specific time of the day. To what degree can present measurements from Terra taken between 10:00 and 11:30 AM local time, represent the daily average aerosol forcing of climate? Here we answer this question using 7 years of data from the distributed ground based 50-70 instrument Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) This (AERONET) half a million measurement data set shows that Terra aerosol measurements represent the daily average values within 5%. The excellent representation is found for large dust particles or small aerosol particles from Fires or regional pollution and for any range of the optical thickness, a measure of the amount of aerosol in the atmosphere.

  4. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  5. Aerosol-cloud closure study using RPAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmer, R.; Roberts, G.; Sanchez, K. J.; Nicoll, K.; Preissler, J.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Sciare, J.; Bronz, M.; Hattenberger, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Lauda, S.; Hashimshoni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Enhancements in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) have increased their possible uses in many fields for the past two decades. For atmospheric research, ultra-light RPAS (< 2.5kg) are now able to fly at altitudes greater than 3 km and even in cloud, which opens new opportunities to understand aerosol-cloud interactions. We are deploying the RPAS as part of the European project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic Emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic Understanding). Field experiments in Cyprus and Ireland have already been conducted to study aerosol-cloud interactions in climatically different environments. The RPAS are being utilized in this study with the purpose of complementing ground-based observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to conduct aerosol-cloud closure studies Cloud microphysical properties such as cloud drop number concentration and size can be predicted directly from the measured CCN spectrum and the observed updraft, the vertical component of the wind vector [e.g., Conant et al, 2004]. On the RPAS, updraft measurements are obtained from a 5-hole probe synchronized with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The RPA (remotely piloted aircraft) are programmed to fly at a level leg just below cloud base to measure updraft measurements while a scanning CCN counter is stationed at ground level. Vertical profiles confirm that CCN measurements on the ground are representative to those at cloud base. An aerosol-cloud parcel model is implemented to model the cloud droplet spectra associated with measured updraft velocities. The model represents the particle size domain with internally mixed chemical components, using a fixed-sectional approach [L. M. Russell and Seinfeld, 1998]. The model employs a dual moment (number and mass) algorithm to calculate growth of particles from one section to the next for non-evaporating species. Temperature profiles, cloud base, updraft velocities and aerosol size and composition, all

  6. Aerosol and gamma background measurements at Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, Christo; Arsov, Todor; Penev, Ilia; Nikolova, Nina; Kalapov, Ivo; Georgiev, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Trans boundary and local pollution, global climate changes and cosmic rays are the main areas of research performed at the regional Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station Moussala BEO (2925 m a.s.l., 42°10'45'' N, 23°35'07'' E). Real time measurements and observations are performed in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Complex information about the aerosol is obtained by using a threewavelength integrating Nephelometer for measuring the scattering and backscattering coefficients, a continuous light absorption photometer and a scanning mobile particle sizer. The system for measuring radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols allows us to monitor a large scale radioactive aerosol transport. The measurements of the gamma background and the gamma-rays spectrum in the air near Moussala peak are carried out in real time. The HYSPLIT back trajectory model is used to determine the origin of the data registered. DREAM code calculations [2] are used to forecast the air mass trajectory. The information obtained combined with a full set of corresponding meteorological parameters is transmitted via a high frequency radio telecommunication system to the Internet.

  7. Aircraft measurements of aerosols in the upper troposphere at midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, Y.; Takagi, M.; Kondo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of aerosols were made during the years 1982 to 1984 in the upper troposphere. In some cases, the influence of the local atmospheric pollution originating from the land surface was observed. The background concentration of the Mie particle was about 0.1/cu. cm. at an altitude of 6 to 8 km. An air mass of stratospheric origin was observed over the Japan sea in the winters of 1983 and 1984. The Mie particle concentration increased and the count ratio of two size ranges was found to be a large value in 1983, the value decreased to that of a background level in the stratosphere in 1984. The volcanic eruption of Mt. El Chichon seems to be responsible for the large aerosol count ratio of the measurements of 1983.

  8. Observations of accumulation mode aerosol composition and soot carbon concentrations by means of a high-temperature volatility technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael H.; O'Dowd, Colin D.

    1996-08-01

    A high-temperature volatility system has been deployed for the measurement of the composition and concentration of the accumulation mode aerosol (0.05 μm < r < 1 μm) within the atmospheric boundary layer. This instrumentation comprises a volatility system based around a Particle Measuring Systems ASASP-X optical particle counter, which was operated together with an aethalometer for the direct observation of soot carbon concentrations. By cycling the heater tube through a range of temperatures from near ambient to over 1000°C, size-differentiated information upon aerosol composition may be obtained. Furthermore, by careful selection of analysis temperatures, discrimination is possible between elemental carbon and the more volatile fractions of the soot carbon aerosol. Observations made over the North Sea near the Dutch coast and in the central United Kingdom are presented for differing environmental conditions with soot carbon concentrations ranging from about 100 to over 6000 ng m-3. For polluted conditions over the North Sea the volatility technique clearly showed the dominance of soot carbon particles over other aerosol components with a narrow carbon particle distribution of mode radius around 0.06 μm accounting for about 80% of all particles with radii below 0.1 μm. Under polluted conditions, only about 25% of the total soot carbon aerosol comprised elemental carbon (with the remainder consisting of more volatile material), whereas this proportion rose to around 50% in the lower carbon loadings found in a cleaner maritime air mass. The use of soot carbon loadings as a tracer of anthropogenic aerosol inputs to oceanic regions is explored on the basis of measurements from a NE Atlantic cruise.

  9. Measurement of size-dependent single scattering albedo of fresh biomass burning aerosols using the extinction-minus-scattering technique with a combination of cavity ring-down spectroscopy and nephelometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sujeeta; Fiddler, Marc N.; Bililign, Solomon

    2016-11-01

    Biomass burning (BB) aerosols have a significant effect on regional climate, and represent a significant uncertainty in our understanding of climate change. Using a combination of cavity ring-down spectroscopy and integrating nephelometry, the single scattering albedo (SSA) and Ångstrom absorption exponent (AAE) were measured for several North American biomass fuels. This was done for several particle diameters for the smoldering and flaming stage of white pine, red oak, and cedar combustion. Measurements were done over a wider wavelength range than any previous direct measurement of BB particles. While the offline sampling system used in this work shows promise, some changes in particle size distribution were observed, and a thorough evaluation of this method is required. The uncertainty of SSA was 6 %, with the truncation angle correction of the nephelometer being the largest contributor to error. While scattering and extinction did show wavelength dependence, SSA did not. SSA values ranged from 0.46 to 0.74, and were not uniformly greater for the smoldering stage than the flaming stage. SSA values changed with particle size, and not systematically so, suggesting the proportion of tar balls to fractal black carbon change with fuel type/state and particle size. SSA differences of 0.15-0.4 or greater can be attributed to fuel type or fuel state for fresh soot. AAE values were quite high (1.59-5.57), despite SSA being lower than is typically observed in wildfires. The SSA and AAE values in this work do not fit well with current schemes that relate these factors to the modified combustion efficiency of a burn. Combustion stage, particle size, fuel type, and fuel condition were found to have the most significant effects on the intrinsic optical properties of fresh soot, though additional factors influence aged soot.

  10. First lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols from a high-altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed

    1995-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in many atmospheric processes related to radiation, climate change, atmospheric dynamics, meteorology, the global hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry, and yet our knowledge of the global distribution of water vapor is very limited. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique has the potential of providing needed high resolution water vapor measurements from aircraft and from space, and the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is a key step in the development of this capability. The LASE instrument is the first fully engineered, autonomous DIAL system, and it is designed to operate from a high-altitude aircraft (ER-2) and to make water vapor and aerosol profile measurements across the troposphere. The LASE system was flown from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in a series of engineering flights during September 1994. This paper discusses the characteristics of the LASE system and presents the first LASE measurements of water vapor and aerosol profiles.

  11. Ground-Based Aerosol Measurements | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex chemical mixture of liquid and solid particles suspended in air (Seinfeld and Pandis 2016). Measurements of this complex mixture form the basis of our knowledge regarding particle formation, source-receptor relationships, data to test and verify complex air quality models, and how PM impacts human health, visibility, global warming, and ecological systems (EPA 2009). Historically, PM samples have been collected on filters or other substrates with subsequent chemical analysis in the laboratory and this is still the major approach for routine networks (Chow 2005; Solomon et al. 2014) as well as in research studies. In this approach, air, at a specified flow rate and time period, is typically drawn through an inlet, usually a size selective inlet, and then drawn through filters, 1 INTRODUCTION Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex chemical mixture of liquid and solid particles suspended in air (Seinfeld and Pandis 2016). Measurements of this complex mixture form the basis of our knowledge regarding particle formation, source-receptor relationships, data to test and verify complex air quality models, and how PM impacts human health, visibility, global warming, and ecological systems (EPA 2009). Historically, PM samples have been collected on filters or other substrates with subsequent chemical analysis in the laboratory and this is still the major approach for routine networks (Chow 2005; Solomo

  12. Advances In Global Aerosol Modeling Applications Through Assimilation of Satellite-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James; Hyer, Edward; Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey; Westphal, Douglas; Xian, Peng; Vaughan, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Modeling the instantaneous three-dimensional aerosol field and its downwind transport represents an endeavor with many practical benefits foreseeable to air quality, aviation, military and science agencies. The recent proliferation of multi-spectral active and passive satellite-based instruments measuring aerosol physical properties has served as an opportunity to develop and refine the techniques necessary to make such numerical modeling applications possible. Spurred by high-resolution global mapping of aerosol source regions, and combined with novel multivariate data assimilation techniques designed to consider these new data streams, operational forecasts of visibility and aerosol optical depths are now available in near real-time1. Active satellite-based aerosol profiling, accomplished using lidar instruments, represents a critical element for accurate analysis and transport modeling. Aerosol source functions, alone, can be limited in representing the macrophysical structure of injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth from passive satellite observations significantly improves the analysis of the initial state. However, this procedure can not fully compensate for any potential vertical redistribution of mass required at the innovation step. The expense of an inaccurate vertical analysis of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive forecast runs will likely diverge with height. In this paper, the application of a newly-designed system for 3D-VAR (x,y,z) assimilation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles derived from elastic-scattering lidar measurements is described [Campbell et al., 2009]. Performance is evaluated for use with the U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) by assimilating NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 0.532 μm measurements [Winker et al., 2009

  13. Joint elastic side-scattering LIDAR and Raman LIDAR measurements of aerosol optical properties in south east Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, L.; Rizi, V.; Will, M.; Allen, C.; Botts, A.; Calhoun, M.; Carande, B.; Claus, J.; Coco, M.; Emmert, L.; Esquibel, S.; Grillo, A. F.; Hamilton, L.; Heid, T. J.; Iarlori, M.; Klages, H.-O.; Kleifges, M.; Knoll, B.; Koop, J.; Mathes, H.-J.; Menshikov, A.; Morgan, S.; Patterson, L.; Petrera, S.; Robinson, S.; Runyan, C.; Sherman, J.; Starbuck, D.; Wakin, M.; Wolf, O.

    2017-03-01

    We describe an experiment, located in south-east Colorado, U.S.A., that measured aerosol optical depth profiles using two LIDAR techniques. Two independent detectors measured scattered light from a vertical UV laser beam. One detector, located at the laser site, measured light via the inelastic Raman backscattering process. This is a common method used in atmospheric science for measuring aerosol optical depth profiles. The other detector, located approximately 40 km distant, viewed the laser beam from the side. This detector featured a 3.5 m2 mirror and measured elastically scattered light in a bistatic LIDAR configuration following the method used at the Pierre Auger cosmic ray observatory. The goal of this experiment was to assess and improve methods to measure atmospheric clarity, specifically aerosol optical depth profiles, for cosmic ray UV fluorescence detectors that use the atmosphere as a giant calorimeter. The experiment collected data from September 2010 to July 2011 under varying conditions of aerosol loading. We describe the instruments and techniques and compare the aerosol optical depth profiles measured by the Raman and bistatic LIDAR detectors.

  14. Remote Measurement of Pollution-A 40-Year Langley Retrospective. Part 2; Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.

    2012-01-01

    A workshop was convened in 1971 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on the Remote Measurement of Pollution (RMOP), and the findings and recommendations of its participants are in a NASA Special Publication (NASA SP-285). The three primary workshop panels and their chairmen were focused on trace gas species (Will Kellogg), atmospheric particulates or aerosols (Verner Suomi), and water pollution (Gifford Ewing). Many of the workshop participants were specialists in the techniques that might be employed for regional to global-scale, remote measurements of the atmospheric parameters from Earth-orbiting satellites. In 2011 the author published a 40-year retrospective (or Part I) of the instrumental developments that were an outgrowth of the RMOP panel headed by Will Kellogg, i.e., on atmospheric temperature and gaseous species. The current report (or Part II) is an analogous retrospective of the vision of the panel led by Verner Suomi for the measurement of particulates (or aerosols) and clouds and for their effects on Earth s radiation budget. The class of measurement techniques includes laser radar or lidar, solar occultation, limb emission and scattering, nadir-viewing photometry or radiometry, and aerosol polarimetry. In addition, the retrospective refers to the scientific imperatives that led to those instrument developments of 1971-2010. Contributions of the atmospheric technologists at the Langley Research Center are emphasized, and their progress is placed in the context of the parallel and complementary work from within the larger atmospheric science community.

  15. Aerosol Particle Interfacial Thermodynamics and Phase Partitioning Measurements Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, Cari; Metcalf, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remain large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. Interfacial properties affect the ambient aerosol morphology, or internal structure of the particle, which in turn can affect the way a particle interacts with an environment of condensable clusters and organic vapors. To improve our ability to accurately predict ambient aerosol morphology, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Unfortunately, many techniques employed to measure interfacial properties do so in bulk solutions or in the presence of a ternary (e.g. solid) phase. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface or interfacial tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred.

  16. Detection of Biomass in New York City Aerosols: Light Scattering and Optical Fluorescence Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebauer, M.; Alimova, A.; Katz, A.; Xu, M.; Rudolph, E.; Steiner, J.; Alfano, R. R.

    2005-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy is an ideal method for detecting bacteria and spores in real time. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy examination of New York City aerosols is used to quantify the mass of bacteria spores present in air masses collected at 14 liters/minute onto silica fiber filters, and on silica fiber ribbons using an Environmental Beta Attenuation Monitor manufactured by MetOne Instruments configured for the PM2.5 fraction. Dipicolinic acid (DPA), a molecule found primarily in bacterial spores, is the most characteristic component of spores in trial experiments on over 200 collected aerosol samples. DPA is extracted from the spores using a heat bath and chelated with Terbium. The DPA:Tb is detected by measuring its characteristic fluorescence with emission bands at 490, 545 and 585 nm for 270 nm excitation. Light scattering also measures the size distribution for a number of a variety of bacteria - Bacillus subtilis (rod shaped), Staphylococcus aureus (spherical) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (short rods) establishing that optical techniques satisfactorily distinguish populations based on their variable morphology. Size and morphology are obtained by applying a variation of the Gaussian Ray Approximation theory of anomalous diffraction theory to an analysis of the transmission spectra in the range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns. In test experiments, the refractive index of the inner spore core of Bacillus subtilis decreases from 1.51 to 1.39 while the spore radius enlarges from 0.38 to 0.6 micrometers. Optical determinations are verified by oil-immersion techniques and by scanning electron microscope measurements. Characterization of spores, germinating spore materials, and bacteria is considered vital to tracing bacteria in the environment, for the development of life-detection systems for planetary exploration, monitoring pathogens in environmental systems, and for the preparation of anti-terrorism strategies.

  17. Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Matthew A.

    Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment

  18. Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Froyd, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired extensive datasets of aerosol extinction (532 nm), aerosol optical depth (AOD) (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 18 field missions that have been conducted over North America since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, backscatter color ratio, and spectral depolarization ratio) are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on observations of known aerosol types is used to qualitatively classify the extensive set of HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate types. Several examples are presented showing how the aerosol intensive parameters vary with aerosol type and how these aerosols are classified according to this new methodology. The HSRL-based classification reveals vertical variability of aerosol types during the NASA ARCTAS field experiment conducted over Alaska and northwest Canada during 2008. In two examples derived from flights conducted during ARCTAS, the HSRL classification of biomass burning smoke is shown to be consistent with aerosol types derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of particle size and composition. The HSRL retrievals of AOD and inferences of aerosol types are used to apportion AOD to aerosol type; results of this analysis are shown for several experiments.

  19. Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Froyd, K. D.

    2011-09-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired extensive datasets of aerosol extinction (532 nm), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 18 field missions that have been conducted over North America since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, backscatter color ratio, and spectral depolarization ratio) are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on observations of known aerosol types is used to qualitatively classify the extensive set of HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate types. Several examples are presented showing how the aerosol intensive parameters vary with aerosol type and how these aerosols are classified according to this new methodology. The HSRL-based classification reveals vertical variability of aerosol types during the NASA ARCTAS field experiment conducted over Alaska and northwest Canada during 2008. In two examples derived from flights conducted during ARCTAS, the HSRL classification of biomass burning smoke is shown to be consistent with aerosol types derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of particle size and composition. The HSRL retrievals of AOT and inferences of aerosol types are used to apportion AOT to aerosol type; results of this analysis are shown for several experiments.

  20. Accurate and precise zinc isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Simone; Weiss, Dominik; Coles, Barry; Arnold, Tim; Babinski, Marly

    2008-12-15

    We developed an analytical method and constrained procedural boundary conditions that enable accurate and precise Zn isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols. We also demonstrate the potential of this new isotope system for air pollutant source tracing. The procedural blank is around 5 ng and significantly lower than published methods due to a tailored ion chromatographic separation. Accurate mass bias correction using external correction with Cu is limited to Zn sample content of approximately 50 ng due to the combined effect of blank contribution of Cu and Zn from the ion exchange procedure and the need to maintain a Cu/Zn ratio of approximately 1. Mass bias is corrected for by applying the common analyte internal standardization method approach. Comparison with other mass bias correction methods demonstrates the accuracy of the method. The average precision of delta(66)Zn determinations in aerosols is around 0.05 per thousand per atomic mass unit. The method was tested on aerosols collected in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. The measurements reveal significant variations in delta(66)Zn(Imperial) ranging between -0.96 and -0.37 per thousand in coarse and between -1.04 and 0.02 per thousand in fine particular matter. This variability suggests that Zn isotopic compositions distinguish atmospheric sources. The isotopic light signature suggests traffic as the main source. We present further delta(66)Zn(Imperial) data for the standard reference material NIST SRM 2783 (delta(66)Zn(Imperial) = 0.26 +/- 0.10 per thousand).

  1. In situ measurements of water uptake by black carbon-containing aerosol in wildfire plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Fahey, David W.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Palm, Brett D.; Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Ziemba, Luke; Anderson, Bruce; Shingler, Taylor; Crosbie, Ewan; Sorooshian, Armin; Yokelson, Robert; Gao, Ru-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Water uptake by black carbon (BC)-containing aerosol was quantified in North American wildfire plumes of varying age (1 to 40 h old) sampled during the SEAC4RS mission (2013). A Humidified Dual SP2 (HD-SP2) is used to optically size BC-containing particles under dry and humid conditions from which we extract the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of materials internally mixed with BC. Instrumental variability and the uncertainty of the technique are briefly discussed. An ensemble average κ of 0.04 is found for the set of plumes sampled, consistent with previous estimates of bulk aerosol hygroscopicity from biomass burning sources. The temporal evolution of κ in the Yosemite Rim Fire plume is explored to constrain the rate of conversion of BC-containing aerosol from hydrophobic to more hydrophilic modes in these emissions. A BC-specific κ increase of 0.06 over 40 h is found, fit well with an exponential curve corresponding to a transition from a κ of 0 to a κ of 0.09 with an e-folding time of 29 h. Although only a few percent of wildfire particles contain BC, a similar κ increase is estimated for bulk aerosol and the measured aerosol composition is used to infer that the observed κ change is driven by a combination of incorporation of ammonium sulfate and oxidation of existing organic materials. Finally, a substantial fraction of wildfire-generated BC-containing aerosol is calculated to be active as cloud condensation nuclei shortly after emission likely indicating efficient wet removal. These results can constrain model treatment of BC from wildfire sources.

  2. Comparison of the aerosol optical properties and size distribution retrieved by sun photometer with in situ measurements at midlatitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvigné, Aurélien; Sellegri, Karine; Hervo, Maxime; Montoux, Nadège; Freville, Patrick; Goloub, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget through scattering and absorption of solar radiation. Several methods are used to investigate aerosol properties and thus quantify their direct and indirect impacts on climate. At the Puy de Dôme station, continuous high-altitude near-surface in situ measurements and low-altitude ground-based remote sensing atmospheric column measurements give the opportunity to compare the aerosol extinction measured with both methods over a 1-year period. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a comparison is realised with continuous measurements of a high-altitude site during a long-term period. This comparison addresses to which extent near-surface in situ measurements are representative of the whole atmospheric column, the aerosol mixing layer (ML) or the free troposphere (FT). In particular, the impact of multi-aerosol layers events detected using lidar backscatter profiles is analysed. A good correlation between in situ aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer is observed with a correlation coefficient around 0.80, indicating that the in situ measurements station is representative of the overall atmospheric column. After filtering for multilayer cases and correcting for each layer optical contribution (ML and FT), the atmospheric structure seems to be the main factor influencing the comparison between the two measurement techniques. When the site lies in the ML, the in situ extinction represents 45 % of the sun photometer ML extinction while when the site lies within the FT, the in situ extinction is more than 2 times higher than the FT sun photometer extinction. Moreover, the assumption of a decreasing linear vertical aerosol profile in the whole atmosphere has been tested, significantly improving the instrumental agreement. Remote sensing retrievals of the aerosol particle size distributions (PSDs) from the sun photometer

  3. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

  4. Retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from Imaging Polar Nephelometer scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed Espinosa, W.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Dubovik, Oleg; Ziemba, Luke; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Orozco, Daniel; Schuster, Gregory; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Fuertes, David; Vanderlei Martins, J.

    2017-03-01

    A method for the retrieval of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from in situ light-scattering measurements is presented and the results are compared with existing measurement techniques. The Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) is applied to airborne and laboratory measurements made by a novel polar nephelometer. This instrument, the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph), is capable of making high-accuracy field measurements of phase function and degree of linear polarization, at three visible wavelengths, over a wide angular range of 3 to 177°. The resulting retrieval produces particle size distributions (PSDs) that agree, within experimental error, with measurements made by commercial optical particle counters (OPCs). Additionally, the retrieved real part of the refractive index is generally found to be within the predicted error of 0.02 from the expected values for three species of humidified salt particles, with a refractive index that is well established. The airborne measurements used in this work were made aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field campaign, and the inversion of this data represents the first aerosol retrievals of airborne polar nephelometer data. The results provide confidence in the real refractive index product, as well as in the retrieval's ability to accurately determine PSD, without assumptions about refractive index that are required by the majority of OPCs.

  5. North Atlantic Aerosol Radiative Impacts Based on Satellite Measurements and Aerosol Intensive Properties from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Bergstrom, Robert W.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the impact of North Atlantic aerosols on the net short-wave flux at the tropopause by combining satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps with model aerosol properties determined via closure analyses in TARFOX and ACE 2. We exclude African dust, primarily by restricting latitudes to 25-60 N. The analyses use in situ aerosol composition measurements and air- and ship-borne sun-photometer measurements of AOD spectra. The aerosol model yields computed flux sensitivities (dFlux/dAOD) that agree with measurements by airborne flux radiometers in TARFOX. Its midvisible single-scattering albedo is 0.9. which is in the range obtained from in situ measurements of scattering and absorption in both TARFOX and ACE 2. Combining satellite-derived AOD maps with the aerosol model yields maps of 24-hour average net radiative flux changes. For simultaneous AVHRR, radiance measurements exceeded the sunphotometer AODs by about 0.04. However. shipboard sunphotometer and AVHRR AODs agreed Within 0.02 for data acquired during satellite overflights on two other days. We discuss attempts to demonstrate column closure within the MBL by comparing shipboard sunphotometer AODs and values calculated from simultaneous shipboard in-situ aerosol size distribution measurements. These comparisons were mostly unsuccessful, but they illustrate the difficulties inherent in this type of closure analysis. Specifically, AODs derived from near-surface in-situ size distribution measurements are extremely sensitive to the assumed hygroscopic growth model that itself requires an assumption of particle composition as a function of height and size, to the radiosonde-measured relative humidity, and to the vertical profile of particle number. We investigate further the effects of hygroscopic particle growth within the MBL by using shipboard lidar aerosol backscatter profiles together with the sunphotometer AOD.

  6. Modified Technique For Chemisorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Schryer, Jacqueline

    1989-01-01

    In measurements of chemisorption of CO on Pt/SnO2 catalyst observed that if small numbers of relatively large volumes of adsorbate gas are passed through sample, very little removal of CO detected. In these cases little or no CO has been chemisorbed on Pt/SnO2. Technique of using large number of small volumes of adsorbate gas to measure chemisorption applicable to many gas/material combinations other than CO on Pt/SnO2. Volume used chosen so that at least 10 percent of adsorbate gas removed during each exposure.

  7. Aerosol optical properties from multiwavelength lidar measurements in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, Doina; Talianu, Camelia; Carstea, Emil; Nemuc, Anca

    2009-09-01

    Vertically resolved profiles of optical properties of aerosols were measured using a multi-wavelength lidar system-RALI, set up at the scientific research center in Magurele, Bucharest area (44.35 N latitude, 26.03 E longitude) during 2008. The use of multiple laser wavelengths has enabled us to observe significant variations in backscatter profiles depending on the particle origins. An air mass backward trajectory analysis, using Hysplit-4, was carried out to track the aerosol plumes. Aerosols can serve as valuable tracers of air motion in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The height of layers in the lower troposphere from lidar signal was calculated using the gradient method- minima of the first derivative. The Richardson number method was used to estimate PBL height from the radio-soundings. We have used pressure, temperature and dew point profiles as well as the wind direction profiles from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) data base. The results were consistent with the ones obtained from LIDAR.

  8. Aerosol, surface, and cloud optical parameters derived from airborne spectral actinic flux: measurement comparison with other methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Bierwirth, E.; Schmidt, S.; Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Lack, D. A.; Madronich, S.; Parrish, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Optical parameters of aerosols, surfaces, and clouds are essential for an accurate description of Earth’s radiative balance. We will present values for such parameters derived from spectral actinic flux measured on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) study in April 2008. We will compare these measurements to results obtained from other instruments on board the same aircraft, such as the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) for irradiance measurements and aerosol extinction and absorption measurements by cavity ring-down and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). Actinic flux is sensitive to these parameters and can be used to measure them directly in the atmosphere without in-situ sampling methods required. We will describe the specifics of the actinic flux measurements, show advantages and disadvantages of this measurement technique, and compare results with other techniques. Furthermore, we will compare our measurements with model calculations from radiative transfer models such as the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiation model, the widely used library of radiative transfer (libradtran) model, and a Monte-Carlo radiation model (GRIMALDI). Also, we will investigate satellite measurements to constrain the radiation measurements to general radiation conditions in the arctic and to compare the results to aerosol optical depth retrievals. In particular, we will show results for surface albedo of the Arctic Ocean ice surface, extinction and absorption of Arctic haze layers, and optical thickness and albedo measurements of clouds.

  9. Comparison of LIDAR and Cavity Ring-Down Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Study of Inferred Aerosol Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, W. L.; Massoli, P.; McCarty, B. J.; Machol, J. L.; Tucker, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    A LIDAR and a Cavity Ring-Down Aerosol Extinction Spectrometer (CRD) instrument simultaneously measured aerosol extinction at 355-nm wavelength from aboard the Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study II campaign. The CRD measured air sampled from the top of the common mast used by several in situ aerosol optical and chemical instruments. The LIDAR's scan sequence included near-horizontal stares (2° elevation angle) with pointing corrected for ship's roll. Aerosol extinction was retrieved using a variant of the slope method. The LIDAR therefore sampled air over a short vertical extent with midpoint higher above the surface than the CRD intake and at a horizontal distance of as much as a few kilometers. The CRD measured aerosol extinction at dry and at high (near-ambient) relative humidity (RH) levels, which were used to scale the measurements to ambient RH for the comparisons. Data from the two instruments for well-mixed conditions (supported by turbulence and atmospheric stability data) are compared to evaluate the degree of agreement between the two methods and reasons for differences. For instances of larger differences, the aerosol gradient below approximately 100 m altitude is inferred and examined in context of low-level meteorological parameters and LIDAR measurements at higher angles.

  10. Improved simulation of aerosol, cloud, and density measurements by shuttle lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Morley, B. M.; Livingston, J. M.; Grams, G. W.; Patterson, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Data retrievals are simulated for a Nd:YAG lidar suitable for early flight on the space shuttle. Maximum assumed vertical and horizontal resolutions are 0.1 and 100 km, respectively, in the boundary layer, increasing to 2 and 2000 km in the mesosphere. Aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated using 1.06 and 0.53 microns wavelengths independently. Error sources include signal measurement, conventional density information, atmospheric transmission, and lidar calibration. By day, tenuous clouds and Saharan and boundary layer aerosols are retrieved at both wavelengths. By night, these constituents are retrieved, plus upper tropospheric, stratospheric, and mesospheric aerosols and noctilucent clouds. Density, temperature, and improved aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated by combining signals at 0.35, 1.06, and 0.53 microns. Particlate contamination limits the technique to the cloud free upper troposphere and above. Error bars automatically show effect of this contamination, as well as errors in absolute density nonmalization, reference temperature or pressure, and the sources listed above. For nonvolcanic conditions, relative density profiles have rms errors of 0.54 to 2% in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Temperature profiles have rms errors of 1.2 to 2.5 K and can define the tropopause to 0.5 km and higher wave structures to 1 or 2 km.

  11. Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosol Vertical Distributions above Svalbard, Norway using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Stalin, S.; Telg, H.; Murphy, D. M.; Burkhart, J. F.; Quinn, P.; Storvold, R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway in April 2015 to investigate the processes controlling aerosol concentrations and radiative effects. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) on 9 flights totaling 19 flight hours. Measurements were made of particle number concentration and aerosol light absorption at three wavelengths, similar to those conducted in April 2011 (Bates et al., Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2115-2120, 2013). A filter sample was collected on each flight for analyses of trace elements. Additional measurements in the aerosol payload in 2015 included aerosol size distributions obtained using a Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS) and aerosol optical depth obtained using a four wavelength miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP). The data show most of the column aerosol mass and resulting optical depth in the boundary layer but frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (2000 cm-3) and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Transport of these aerosol layers was assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion models. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  12. A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  13. A diagnostic stratospheric aerosol size distribution inferred from SAGE II measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.

    1991-01-01

    An aerosol size distribution model for the stratosphere is inferred based on 5 years of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II measurements of multispectral aerosol and water vapor extinction. The SAGE II aerosol and water vapor extinction data strongly suggest that there is a critical particle radius below which there is a relatively weak dependence of particle number density with size and above which there are few, if any, particles. A segmented power law model, as a simple representation of this dependence, is used in theoretical calculations and intercomparisons with a variety of aerosol measurements including dustsondes, longwave lidar, and wire impactors and shows a consistently good agreement.

  14. New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Matthew Todd

    Aerosols affect the lives of people every day. They can decrease visibility, alter cloud formation and cloud lifetimes, change the energy balance of the earth and are implicated in causing numerous health problems. Measuring the physical and chemical properties of aerosols is essential to understand and mitigate any negative impacts that aerosols might have on climate and human health. Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) is a technique that measures the size and chemical composition of individual particles in real time. The goal of this dissertation is to develop new and useful approaches for measuring the physical and/or chemical properties of particles using ATOFMS. This has been accomplished using laboratory experiments, ambient field measurements and sometimes comparisons between them. A comparison of mass spectra generated from petrochemical particles was made to light duty vehicle (LDV) and heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) particle mass spectra. This comparison has given us new insight into how to differentiate between particles from these two sources. A method for coating elemental carbon (EC) particles with organic carbon (OC) was used to generate a calibration curve for quantifying the fraction of organic carbon and elemental carbon on particles using ATOFMS. This work demonstrates that it is possible to obtain quantitative chemical information with regards to EC and OC using ATOFMS. The relationship between electrical mobility diameter and aerodynamic diameter is used to develop a tandem differential mobility analyzer-ATOFMS technique to measure the effective density, size and chemical composition of particles. The method is applied in the field and gives new insight into the physical/chemical properties of particles. The size resolved chemical composition of aerosols was measured in the Indian Ocean during the monsoonal transition period. This field work shows that a significant fraction of aerosol transported from India was from biomass

  15. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B.

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  16. Using Raman-lidar-based regularized microphysical retrievals and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements for the characterization of biomass burning aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Stefanos; Nicolae, Doina; Böckmann, Christine; Vasilescu, Jeni; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Labzovskii, Lev; Toanca, Florica; Papayannis, Alexandros

    2015-10-01

    In this work we extract the microphysical properties of aerosols for a collection of measurement cases with low volume depolarization ratio originating from fire sources captured by the Raman lidar located at the National Institute of Optoelectronics (INOE) in Bucharest. Our algorithm was tested not only for pure smoke but also for mixed smoke and urban aerosols of variable age and growth. Applying a sensitivity analysis on initial parameter settings of our retrieval code was proved vital for producing semi-automatized retrievals with a hybrid regularization method developed at the Institute of Mathematics of Potsdam University. A direct quantitative comparison of the retrieved microphysical properties with measurements from a Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (CToF-AMS) is used to validate our algorithm. Microphysical retrievals performed with sun photometer data are also used to explore our results. Focusing on the fine mode we observed remarkable similarities between the retrieved size distribution and the one measured by the AMS. More complicated atmospheric structures and the factor of absorption appear to depend more on particle radius being subject to variation. A good correlation was found between the aerosol effective radius and particle age, using the ratio of lidar ratios (LR: aerosol extinction to backscatter ratios) as an indicator for the latter. Finally, the dependence on relative humidity of aerosol effective radii measured on the ground and within the layers aloft show similar patterns.

  17. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements: Evaluation of Aerosol Measurements from SAGE II, HALOE, and Balloonborne Optical Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark; Deshler, Terry; Moddrea, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements from the University of Wyoming balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs), the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) were compared in the period 1982-2000, when measurements were available. The OPCs measure aerosol size distributions, and HALOE multiwavelength (2.45-5.26 micrometers) extinction measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol size distributions. Aerosol extinctions at the SAGE II wavelengths (0.386-1.02 micrometers) were computed from these size distributions and compared to SAGE II measurements. In addition, surface areas derived from all three experiments were compared. While the overall impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement can change with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense, these comparisons fall into two categories: high aerosol loading (volcanic periods) and low aerosol loading (background periods and altitudes above 25 km). When the aerosol amount was low, SAGE II and HALOE extinctions were higher than the OPC estimates, while the SAGE II surface areas were lower than HALOE and the OPCS. Under high loading conditions all three instruments mutually agree to within 50%.

  18. Arctic aerosol and cloud measurements performed during IAOOS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariage, Vincent; Pelon, Jacques; Blouzon, Frédéric; Geyskens, Nicolas; Amarouche, Nadir; Drezen, Christine; Calzas, Michel; Victori, Stéphane; Garracio, Magali; Desautez, Alain; Pascal, Nicolas; Foujols, Thomas; Sarkissian, Alain; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Sennechael, Nathalie; Provost, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Better understanding of atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions and in particular of the role of aerosols and clouds in this Earth system is of prime importance in the Arctic. In the frame of the French IAOOS Equipex project, a new observational network is planned to be developed for ocean-ice-atmosphere climate survey over the Arctic, starting in 2015, to complement satellite observations. Eye-safe lidar measurements will allow us to profile aerosols and clouds for the atmospheric part, with the objective to perform regular measurements and characterize the vertical structure and optical properties. Radiation and meteorological parameters will be measured at the surface. A first buoy has been prototyped and deployed in April 2014 at the Barneo site set by the Russian teams at the North Pole. Measurements with the first autonomous backscatter lidar ever deployed in the arctic have been taken from April to end of November 2014 before the buoy was lost. Four profiles a day have been performed allowing a good sampling of cloud variability. Observations have shown that the occurrence of low level clouds was higher than 90% during summer. The project is presented, instrument performance is described and first results are discussed.

  19. Lidar Measurements of Aerosol and Ozone Distributions During the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Butler, C. F.; Fenn, M. A.; Grant, W. B.; Carter, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The LaRC airborne lidar system was operated from the ARC DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (ASEE-2) to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and O3 across the Arctic vortex from Jan. to Mar. 1992. Monthly flights were made across the Arctic vortex from Anchorage, Alaska, to Stavanger, Norway, and then back to Bangor, Maine, and additional round-trip flights north into the vortex were made each month from either Stavanger or Bangor depending on the location of the vortex that month. The airborne lidar system uses the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique at laser wavelengths of 301.5 and 310.8 nm to measure O3 profiles above the DC-8 over the 12-25 km altitude range. Lidar measurements of aerosol backscatter and depolarization profiles over the 12-30 km altitude range are made simultaneously with the O3 measurements using infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) laser wavelengths of 603 and 1064 nm, respectively. The measurements of Pinatubo aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds, and O3 made with the airborne DIAL system during the AASE-2 expedition and to chemical and dynamical process that contribute to O3 depletion in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere.

  20. In Situ Aerosol Profile Measurements and Comparisons with SAGE 3 Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Profiles at 68 deg North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal three in situ profile measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone were completed from balloon-borne platforms. The measured quantities are aerosol size resolved number concentration and ozone. The one derived product is aerosol size distribution, from which aerosol moments, such as surface area, volume, and extinction can be calculated for comparison with SAGE III measurements and SAGE III derived products, such as surface area. The analysis of these profiles and comparison with SAGE III extinction measurements and SAGE III derived surface areas are provided in Yongxiao (2005), which comprised the research thesis component of Mr. Jian Yongxiao's M.S. degree in Atmospheric Science at the University of Wyoming. In addition analysis continues on using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive aerosol surface area from the 9 wavelength extinction measurements available from SAGE III. Ths paper will present PCA components to calculate surface area from SAGE III measurements and compare these derived surface areas with those available directly from in situ size distribution measurements, as well as surface areas which would be derived from PCA and Thomason's algorithm applied to the four wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements.

  1. Retrieval of aerosol composition using ground-based remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yisong; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao

    2016-04-01

    The chemical composition and mixing states of ambient aerosol are the main factors deciding aerosol microphysical and optical properties, and thus have significant impacts on regional or global climate change and air quality. Traditional approaches to detect atmospheric aerosol composition include sampling with laboratory analysis and in-situ measurements. They can accurately acquire aerosol components, however, the sampling or air exhausting could change the status of ambient aerosol or lead to some mass loss. Additionally, aerosol is usually sampled at the surface level so that it is difficult to detect the columnar aerosol properties. Remote sensing technology, however, can overcome these problems because it is able to detect aerosol information of entire atmosphere by optical and microphysical properties without destructing the natural status of ambient aerosol. This paper introduces a method to acquire aerosol composition by the remote sensing measurements of CIMEL CE318 ground-based sun-sky radiometer. A six component aerosol model is used in this study, including one strong absorbing component Black Carbon (BC), two partly absorbing components Brown Carbon (BrC) and Mineral Dust (MD), two scattering components Ammonia Sulfate-like (AS) and Sea Salt (SS), and Aerosol Water uptake (AW). Sensitivity analysis are performed to find the most sensitive parameters to each component and retrieval method for each component is accordingly developed. Different mixing models such as Maxwell-Garnett (MG), Bruggeman (BR) and Volume Average (VA) are also studied. The residual minimization method is used by comparing remote sensing measurements and simulation outputs to find the optimization of aerosol composition (including volume fraction and mass concentration of each component). This method is applied to measurements obtained from Beijing site under different weather conditions, including polluted haze, dust storm and clean days, to investigate the impacts of mixing

  2. Retrieval of aerosol composition using ground-based remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Li, Z.; Xu, H.; Chen, X.; Li, K.; Lv, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical composition and mixing status of ambient aerosol are the main factors deciding aerosol microphysical and optical properties, and thus have significant impacts on regional or global climate change and air quality. Traditional approaches to detect atmospheric aerosol composition include sampling with laboratory analysis and in-situ measurement. They can accurately acquire aerosol components, however, the sampling or air exhausting could change the status of aerosol or have some mass loss. Additionally, aerosol is usually sampled at the surface level so that it is difficult to detect the columnar aerosol properties. Remote sensing technology, however, can overcome these problems because it investigate aerosol information by optical and microphysical properties without destructing the natural status of ambient aerosol. This paper introduce a method to acquire aerosol composition by the remote sensing measurements of CIMEL CE318 ground-based sun-sky radiometer. A six component aerosol model is used in this study, including one strong absorbing component Black Carbon (BC), two partly absorbing components Brown Carbon (BrC) and Mineral Dust (MD), two scattering components Ammonia Sulfate-like (AS) and Sea Salt (SS), and Aerosol Water uptake (AW). Sensitivity analysis are performed to find the most sensitive parameters to each component and retrieval method for each component is accordingly developed. The residual minimization method is used by comparing remote sensing measurements and simulation outputs to find the optimization of aerosol composition (including volume fraction and mass concentration of each component). This method is applied to real measurements obtained from Beijing site under different weather conditions, including polluted haze, dust storm and clean days, to investigate the impacts of mixing states of aerosol particles on aerosol composition retrieval.

  3. Triple Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Carbonates: A Novel Technique to Identify Heterogeneous Chemistry on Aerosol Surfaces in Polluted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheen, R.; Horn, J.; Dominguez, G.; Masterson, A.; Ivanov, A. V.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    In the ambient atmosphere, the physical and chemical properties of aerosol vary greatly between location and time due to various heterogeneous and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. In polluted urban environments, the aerosol and gaseous mixtures interact to produce new compounds and particulates; consequently humans are exposed to many as yet undetected species. Studies of actual chemically-active, airborne particulates can better address the interaction of complex particulate and gaseous pollutant mixtures, however, it is notoriously difficult to measure chemical transformations of aerosols. Here we describe a new technique that can be used to understand the chemical transformation occurring on the surface of aerosols and thus to quantify the interaction of gaseous species and aerosol in the atmosphere. Fine and coarse aerosol samples were collected on filter papers in La Jolla, CA, USA for one week. The aerosol samples were digested with phosphoric acid and CO2 released was purified chromatographically and analyzed for 13 C. To obtain independent measurements of oxygen isotopes, the CO2 was fluorinated and oxygen gas obtained was analyzed using Mat253 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. The data indicated an excess 17O (0.6 to 4‰) in atmospheric carbonates. The oxygen isotope anomaly in atmospheric carbonates has been observed for the first time and it showed a highly significant correlation (r2 = 0.90) with urban index; an indirect measure of ozone chemistry. The δ13C in atmospheric carbonates was found to vary from -18 to -40‰. Controlled laboratory experiments to understand the origin and variation in the C and O isotopic composition of atmospheric carbonates were conducted using various mineral surfaces. Isotopic measurements of in-situ formed carbonated on CaOH, CaO, MgO, SiO2,Cu, CuO, Ni and Fe2O3 due to chemisorbed CO2 in the presence of thin water films were performed and we found that the δ13C in these carbonates ranged from -12 to -24

  4. In situ measurements of organics, meteoritic material, mercury, and other elements in aerosols at 5 to 19 kilometers

    PubMed

    Murphy; Thomson; Mahoney

    1998-11-27

    In situ measurements of the chemical composition of individual aerosol particles at altitudes between 5 and 19 kilometers reveal that upper tropospheric aerosols often contained more organic material than sulfate. Although stratospheric aerosols primarily consisted of sulfuric acid and water, many also contained meteoritic material. Just above the tropopause, small amounts of mercury were found in over half of the aerosol particles that were analyzed. Overall, there was tremendous variety in aerosol composition. One measure of this diversity is that at least 45 elements were detected in aerosol particles. These results have wide implications for the complexity of aerosol sources and chemistry. They also offer possibilities for understanding the transport of atmospheric aerosols.

  5. Urban aerosol radiative properties: Measurements during the 1999 Atlanta Supersite Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, Christian M.; Bergin, Michael H.; Xu, Jin; Baumann, Karsten; Maring, Hal

    2003-04-01

    As part of the Atlanta Supersite 1999 study, aerosol radiative and related physical and chemical properties are examined on the basis of measurements of PM2.5 (aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters, Dp, less than 2.5 μm) in urban Atlanta. In addition to potential compliance issues with proposed regulatory standards, PM2.5 concentrations in Atlanta and the surrounding region are large enough to have an important impact on atmospheric radiative transfer and hence visibility and potentially regional climate. Arithmetic means and standard deviations of the light scattering by PM2.5 (σsp at 530 nm) and absorption coefficients (σap at 550 nm) measured at a controlled relative humidity of 49 ± 5% are 121 ± 48 and 16 ± 12 Mm-1, respectively. Though the mean light extinction coefficient (σep) in Atlanta is much larger than background sites, it is comparable to nonurban areas in the interior southeast United States highlighting the contribution of a regional haze here. The single scattering albedo (ωo) in Atlanta is 0.87 ± 0.08 and is ˜10% lower than reported in nonurban polluted sites, likely a result of the emission of elemental carbon (EC) from mobile sources. A pronounced diel pattern in aerosol properties is observed with clear influences from mobile sources (morning rush hour maxima in concentrations, particularly soot-related indicators) and atmospheric mixing (afternoon minima). A strong linear relationship between σsp and PM2.5 is observed, and using several techniques, gives a range of mean mass scattering efficiencies (Esp) from = 3.5 to 4.4 m2 g-1. EC and σap are observed to have a relationship though less strongly correlated than σsp and PM2.5. Four methods of determining the mass absorption efficiency of EC give Eap ranging from 5.3 to 18.3 m2 g-1. This wide range of values is a result of the variability in aerosol properties, uncertainties in the light absorption method, and in particular, differences in the EC measurement techniques. Best

  6. Impact of Clouds and Aerosols on Photochemistry During the TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Olson, J. R.; Chen, G.

    2007-12-01

    Photochemistry is responsible for the production of tropospheric ozone, the primary component of smog. In 2006, Houston, Texas experienced 20 days with a 1-hour ozone average in excess of 125 ppbv, and 36 days with an 8-hour average over 85 ppbv. Two models were used to assess the impact of clouds and aerosols on the photochemical production and loss of ozone and radicals in a polluted urban environment. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 0-D photochemical box model was used to assess the changes in the photochemical budgets due to varying cloud and aerosol conditions. The NCAR Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model was used to calculate photolysis frequencies for clear sky conditions with a variety of aerosol profiles. These tools were used to analyze the data set collected during the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP) with respect to ozone and radical budgets. Measurements of trace gasses, aerosols, meteorological parameters, and radiation were collected between mid-August and early October 2006 at the University of Houston. The photochemical model was run using various photolysis rates that reflect a range of atmospheric conditions impacting the actinic flux. Rates from real-time actinic flux measurements include the impact of both the clouds and aerosols that are present. Photolysis rates for clear-sky (cloud-free) conditions, both with and without aerosol profiles were calculated using the TUV radiative transfer model. A comparison of the photochemical ozone and radical budgets resulting from these different rates indicate those sensitivities to the presence of aerosols and clouds. Approximately seven of the 50 days during the campaign were cloud-free and were compared to LaRC-TUV results to show the effects of aerosols. The remaining days show the effects of both aerosols and cloud conditions that varied from partly cloudy to heavy overcast conditions. A cloud camera was used to

  7. Informing Aerosol Transport Models With Satellite Multi-Angle Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limbacher, J.; Patadia, F.; Petrenko, M.; Martin, M. Val; Chin, M.; Gaitley, B.; Garay, M.; Kalashnikova, O.; Nelson, D.; Scollo, S.

    2011-01-01

    As the aerosol products from the NASA Earth Observing System's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) mature, we are placing greater focus on ways of using the aerosol amount and type data products, and aerosol plume heights, to constrain aerosol transport models. We have demonstrated the ability to map aerosol air-mass-types regionally, and have identified product upgrades required to apply them globally, including the need for a quality flag indicating the aerosol type information content, that varies depending upon retrieval conditions. We have shown that MISR aerosol type can distinguish smoke from dust, volcanic ash from sulfate and water particles, and can identify qualitative differences in mixtures of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol components in urban settings. We demonstrated the use of stereo imaging to map smoke, dust, and volcanic effluent plume injection height, and the combination of MISR and MODIS aerosol optical depth maps to constrain wildfire smoke source strength. This talk will briefly highlight where we stand on these application, with emphasis on the steps we are taking toward applying the capabilities toward constraining aerosol transport models, planet-wide.

  8. A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.

    SciTech Connect

    KLOTZ,P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  9. Inversion of solar extinction data from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (ASTP/SAM) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The inversion methods are reported that have been used to determine the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient due to the stratospheric aerosols from data measured during the ASTP/SAM solar occultation experiment. Inversion methods include the onion skin peel technique and methods of solving the Fredholm equation for the problem subject to smoothing constraints. The latter of these approaches involves a double inversion scheme. Comparisons are made between the inverted results from the SAM experiment and near simultaneous measurements made by lidar and balloon born dustsonde. The results are used to demonstrate the assumptions required to perform the inversions for aerosols.

  10. Measurement of the emission rate of an aerosol source--comparison of aerosol and gas transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Callé, S; Godinot, S; Régnier, R; Dessagne, J M

    2000-12-01

    A measuring method of the emission rate of an atmospheric pollutant source, based on the use of a tracer gas (helium) and developed in the case of a gaseous source, was tested for an aerosol source. The influence of both particle sedimentation and wall depositions was studied. The transport coefficients of the tracer gas and of alumina particles of various particle sizes (MMAD from 8 to 36 microns) were measured on a vertical axis close to the source, in a 71 m3 room swept by a piston flow. The measurements clearly demonstrated the predominant influence of sedimentation in the case of particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 10 microns. Particle wall deposition was determined by measuring the gas and particle concentration decay in the ventilated room. To do this, a new tracing method using a fluorescent aerosol was developed. The measured aerosol deposition rates are much higher than those calculated from the formula of Corner for a cubical volume. Aerosol sedimentation and wall deposition are two phenomena limiting the use of a tracer gas to measure the aerosol emission rate. The chemical substances and materials used in work premises are likely to be released into the atmosphere and lead to the formation of pollutants. These emissions stem from either physical or chemical processes (evaporation of a solvent) or from mechanical processes (dispersion of oil droplets at the source of mists).

  11. Using OMI Observations to Measure Aerosol Absorption of Biomass Burning Aerosols Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Jethva, Hiren

    2011-01-01

    The presence of absorbing aerosol layers above clouds is unambiguously detected by the TOMS/OMI UV Aerosol Index (AI) that uses satellite observations at two near-UV channels. A sensitivity study using radiative transfer calculations shows that the AI signal of resulting from the presence of aerosols above clouds is mainly driven by the aerosol absorption optical depth and the optical depth of the underlying cloud. Based on these results, an inversion algorithm has been developed to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of aerosol layers above clouds. In this presentation we will discuss the sensitivity analysis, describe the retrieval approach, and present results of applications of the retrieval method to OMI observations over the South Atlantic Ocean. Preliminary error analyses, to be discussed, indicate that the AOD can be underestimated (up to -30%) or overestimated (up to 60%) depending on algorithmic assumptions.

  12. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N.; Williams, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.; Kremic, T.; Agrawal, A.; Andreae, M.; Bierbaum, R.; Blakeslee, R.; Boerner, A.; Bowles, N.; Christian, H.; Dunion, J.; Horvath, A.; Huang, X.; Khain, A.; Kinne, S.; Lemos, M.-C.; Penner, J.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. Knowledge of these interactions is foundational to our understanding of weather and climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Decadal Survey (NRC 2007) indicate that the uncertainty in how clouds adjust to aerosol perturbations dominates the uncertainty in the overall quantification of the radiative forcing attributable to human activities. The Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (CHASER) mission concept responds to the IPCC and Decadal Survey concerns by studying the activation of CCN and their interactions with clouds and storms. CHASER proposes to revolutionize our understanding of the interactions of aerosols with clouds by making the first global measurements of the fundamental physical entity linking them: activated cloud condensation nuclei. The CHASER mission was conceptualized to measure all quantities necessary for determining the interactions of aerosols with clouds and storms. Measurements by current satellites allow the determination of crude profiles of cloud particle size but not of the activated CCN that seed them. CHASER uses a new technique (Freud et al. 2011; Rosenfeld et al. 2012) and high-heritage instruments to produce the first global maps of activated CCN and the properties of the clouds associated with them. CHASER measures the CCN concentration and cloud thermodynamic forcing simultaneously, allowing their effects to be distinguished. Changes in the behavior of a group of weather systems in which only one of the quantities varies (a partial derivative of the intensity with the desirable quantity) allow the determination of each effect statistically. The high uncertainties of current climate predictions limit their much-needed use in decision-making. CHASER mitigates this

  13. The Time Series Technique for Aerosol Retrievals over Land from MODIS: Algorithm MAIAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols interact with sun light by scattering and absorbing radiation. By changing irradiance of the Earth surface, modifying cloud fractional cover and microphysical properties and a number of other mechanisms, they affect the energy balance, hydrological cycle, and planetary climate [IPCC, 2007]. In many world regions there is a growing impact of aerosols on air quality and human health. The Earth Observing System [NASA, 1999] initiated high quality global Earth observations and operational aerosol retrievals over land. With the wide swath (2300 km) of MODIS instrument, the MODIS Dark Target algorithm [Kaufman et al., 1997; Remer et al., 2005; Levy et al., 2007] currently complemented with the Deep Blue method [Hsu et al., 2004] provides daily global view of planetary atmospheric aerosol. The MISR algorithm [Martonchik et al., 1998; Diner et al., 2005] makes high quality aerosol retrievals in 300 km swaths covering the globe in 8 days. With MODIS aerosol program being very successful, there are still several unresolved issues in the retrieval algorithms. The current processing is pixel-based and relies on a single-orbit data. Such an approach produces a single measurement for every pixel characterized by two main unknowns, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface reflectance (SR). This lack of information constitutes a fundamental problem of the remote sensing which cannot be resolved without a priori information. For example, MODIS Dark Target algorithm makes spectral assumptions about surface reflectance, whereas the Deep Blue method uses ancillary global database of surface reflectance composed from minimal monthly measurements with Rayleigh correction. Both algorithms use Lambertian surface model. The surface-related assumptions in the aerosol retrievals may affect subsequent atmospheric correction in unintended way. For example, the Dark Target algorithm uses an empirical relationship to predict SR in the Blue (B3) and Red (B1) bands from the

  14. Three Compact, Robust Chemical Characterization Systems Suited To Sensitive, High Time Resolution Measurements Of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, L. A.; Cowin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2001-12-01

    In the past decade, the advancement of compact, robust and sensitive instrumentation to measure the chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols has lagged behind their physical characterization. There is a need for chemical instrumentation with these three qualities for use on airborne platforms and at infrequently attended ground level surveillance sites. Now chemical techniques are appearing that promise to fill this need. We discuss three chemical characterization systems that are emerging in atmospheric chemistry and climate research applications. These are: (i) the Aerodyne mass spectrometer for real time measurement of particle composition and two post-collection analysis techniques (ii) non-destructive, multi-elemental chemical analysis of size-resolved samples by high spatial resolution synchrotron x-ray and proton beams (S-XRF/PIXE/PESA/STIM) (iii) single particle characterization by automated scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersed detection of X-rays (SEM/EDX). The key to post-collection analysis is automated aerosol sizing and collection systems and automated chemical analysis systems. Together these techniques provide unique, comprehensive information on the organic and inorganic composition and morphology of particles and yet are easy to deploy in the field. The sensitivity of each technique is high enough to permit the rapid sampling needed to resolve spatial gradients in composition from a moving platform like the Battelle Gulfstream-159 aircraft, traveling at 100m/s.

  15. Techniques of Validation of Aerosol and Water Vapor Retrievals From MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Chu, Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Kaufman, Yoram; Remer, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Slutsker, Ilya; Holben, Brent N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Aerosols are extremely important for global climate studies and modeling in the quest to characterize the global radiation budget and forcing. The physical characteristics, composition, abundance, and spatial distribution and dynamics of aerosols are still very poorly known. Aerosol column optical thickness and other parameters as well as column precipitable water vapor amount are some of the main atmospheric parameters retrieved from the MODIS instrument on board the Terra satellite. To ensure the reliability of these parameters, we have embarked on a very massive validation effort. This involves cross correlation between the retrievals from the satellite data and those obtained from sunphotometer measurements at a large number of ground stations spread throughout the globe. Notable among these ground stations is a large network of over 100 stations coordinated under the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) project. Whereas MODIS retrieves the aerosol parameters throughout the globe once or twice a day during the daytime, the ground measurements cover only discrete locations of the earth, though the retrievals are done several times a day. We have devised a method to. match the MODIS and ground retrievals through spatial statistics for the MODIS data and temporal statistics for the ground data. This has produced good comparisons and has enabled the validation of MODIS aerosol and water vapor retrievals at over 100 discrete locations in various parts of the earth both over the land and over the ocean. Currently, the validation statistical data is produced routinely by the MODIS aerosol group and is even available not only for validation but also for use by the science community for short and long term studies at various parts of the earth. One important advantage is that the system can be expanded to incorporate more locations where ground measurements and other studies may be conducted at any time during the lifetime of MODIS.

  16. Aircraft measurements of biomass burning aerosol over West Africa during DABEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Osborne, S. R.; Haywood, J. M.; Harrison, M. A. J.

    2008-12-01

    This paper investigates the properties of biomass burning aerosols over West Africa using data from the UK FAAM aircraft during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX). Aged biomass burning aerosols were widespread across the region, often at altitudes up to 4 km. Fresh biomass burning aerosols were observed at low altitudes by flying through smoke plumes from agricultural fires. The aircraft measured aerosol size distributions, optical properties, and vertical distributions. Single scattering albedo varied from 0.73 to 0.93 (at 0.55 μm) in aerosol layers dominated by biomass burning aerosol. We attribute much of this variation to the variable proportion of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol. We estimate the single scattering albedo of aged biomass burning aerosol to be around 0.81 with an instrumental uncertainty of ±0.05. External mixing, and possibly internal mixing, between the biomass burning aerosol and mineral dust presents an additional source of uncertainty in this estimate. The size distributions of biomass burning aerosols were dominated by particles with radii smaller than 0.35 μm. A 20% increase of count mean radius was observed when contrasting fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols, accompanied by changes in the shape of the size distribution. These changes suggest growth by coagulation and condensation. Extinction coefficients, asymmetry parameters, and Angstrom exponents are calculated from Mie theory, using the lognormal fits to the measured size distributions and assumed refractive indices.

  17. High sensitivity sensor for continuous direct measurement of bipolar charged aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Karen; Jones, Chris; Fletcher-Wood, Guy

    2008-12-01

    The disruptive generation of aerosols is known to cause particles to carry electrostatic charges. Anthropogenic aerosol may have a standard deviation of charges when generated that is different to other sources or equilibrated aerosols. A simple, low cost 'Bipolar Charged Aerosol Sensor' (BCAS) has been developed to continuously measure charged aerosol in the ambient environment in real-time. Direct measurement of the current released from the charged aerosol particles when they deposit onto an electrode in a DC field is achieved using custom designed, sensitive electrometers. The mobility range of particles collected is defined by the DC field strength, air flow rate through the instrument and the electrode geometry. The mobility range of interest has been selected based on measurements made previously with a complex Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) based instrument. The BCAS has been assessed in laboratory. The sensor design and initial measurement data will be discussed.

  18. Aerosol/Cloud Measurements Using Coherent Wind Doppler Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Philippe; Boquet, Matthieu; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Sauvage, Laurent; Parmentier, Rémy

    2016-06-01

    The accurate localization and characterization of aerosol and cloud layers is crucial for climate studies (aerosol indirect effect), meteorology (Planetary Boundary Layer PBL height), site monitoring (industrial emissions, mining,…) and natural hazards (thunderstorms, volcanic eruptions). LEOSPHERE has recently developed aerosol/cloud detection and characterization on WINDCUBE long range Coherent Wind Doppler Lidars (CWDL). These new features combine wind and backscatter intensity informations (Carrier-to-Noise Ratio CNR) in order to detect (aerosol/cloud base and top, PBL height) and to characterize atmospheric structures (attenuated backscatter, depolarization ratio). For each aerosol/cloud functionality the method is described, limitations are discussed and examples are given to illustrate the performances.

  19. Intercomparison of aerosol extinction profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieß, U.; Klein Baltink, H.; Beirle, S.; Clémer, K.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Irie, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Li, A.; Moerman, M. M.; van Roozendael, M.; Shaiganfar, R.; Wagner, T.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.

    2016-07-01

    A first direct intercomparison of aerosol vertical profiles from Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations, performed during the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) in summer 2009, is presented. Five out of 14 participants of the CINDI campaign reported aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) as deduced from observations of differential slant column densities of the oxygen collision complex (O4) at different elevation angles. Aerosol extinction vertical profiles and AOT are compared to backscatter profiles from a ceilometer instrument and to sun photometer measurements, respectively. Furthermore, the near-surface aerosol extinction coefficient is compared to in situ measurements of a humidity-controlled nephelometer and dry aerosol absorption measurements. The participants of this intercomparison exercise use different approaches for the retrieval of aerosol information, including the retrieval of the full vertical profile using optimal estimation and a parametrised approach with a prescribed profile shape. Despite these large conceptual differences, and also differences in the wavelength of the observed O4 absorption band, good agreement in terms of the vertical structure of aerosols within the boundary layer is achieved between the aerosol extinction profiles retrieved by the different groups and the backscatter profiles observed by the ceilometer instrument. AOTs from MAX-DOAS and sun photometer show a good correlation (R>0.8), but all participants systematically underestimate the AOT. Substantial differences between the near-surface aerosol extinction from MAX-DOAS and from the humidified nephelometer remain largely unresolved.

  20. Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas with the use of remote techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemysław; Strzałkowska, Agata; Ponczkowska, Agnieszka; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Chourdakis, Georgius; Georgoussis, George; Kratzer, Susanne

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones in Crete in 2006 and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas where depending on air mass advection directions and altitudes the influence of fine or coarse mode (in this case possibly sea-salt) particles on the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties is an important issue to consider.

  1. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  2. Airborne measurements of biomass burning aerosol distribution and composition in the springtime Arctic 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberry, T.; Froyd, K. D.; Murphy, D. M.; Thomson, D. S.; Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Warneke, C.; Degouw, J.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Bahreini, R.; Brioude, J.

    2008-12-01

    The springtime Arctic troposphere in 2008 was characterized by high concentrations of biomass burning aerosol. During the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) campaign, airborne measurements of aerosol composition by the NOAA single particle mass spectrometer instrument (PALMS) identified biomass burning particles using an established composition tracer. Fires in northern Asia produced biomass burning aerosol that were transported to the Arctic within 3-12 days. Concentrations of biomass burning aerosols were elevated not only within well defined plumes, but also regionally throughout the Arctic. Above the boundary layer, biomass burning particles dominated the total aerosol volume and were largely responsible for the Arctic Haze observed during the period of study. The composition of plume aerosols varied according to source region, transport time, and anthropogenic influence.

  3. Impact of Tropospheric Aerosol Absorption on Ozone Retrieval from buv Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of tropospheric aerosols on the retrieval of column ozone amounts using spaceborne measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation is examined. Using radiative transfer calculations, we show that uv-absorbing desert dust may introduce errors as large as 10% in ozone column amount, depending on the aerosol layer height and optical depth. Smaller errors are produced by carbonaceous aerosols that result from biomass burning. Though the error is produced by complex interactions between ozone absorption (both stratospheric and tropospheric), aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption, a surprisingly simple correction procedure reduces the error to about 1%, for a variety of aerosols and for a wide range of aerosol loading. Comparison of the corrected TOMS data with operational data indicates that though the zonal mean total ozone derived from TOMS are not significantly affected by these errors, localized affects in the tropics can be large enough to seriously affect the studies of tropospheric ozone that are currently undergoing using the TOMS data.

  4. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 1; Methods and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Leifer, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured at night by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site in April 1994. These lidar data are used to derive aerosol profiles for altitudes between 0.0 1 5 and 5 km. Since this lidar detects Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen molecules as well as the elastic scattering from molecules and aerosols, it measures both aerosol backscattering and extinction simultaneously. The aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio varied between approximately 30 sr and 75 sr at 351 nm. Aerosol optical thicknesses derived by integrating the lidar profiles of aerosol extinction measured at night between 0. I and 5 km are found to be about 10-40% lower than those measured by a Sun photometer during the day. This difference is attributed to the contribution by stratospheric aerosols not included in the lidar estimates as well as to diurnal differences in aerosol properties and concentrations. Aerosol profiles close to the surface were acquired by pointing the lidar nearly horizontally. Measurements of aerosol scattering from a tower-mounted nephelometer are found to be 40% lower than lidar measurements of aerosol extinction over a wide range of relative humidities even after accounting for the difference in wavelengths. The reasons for this difference are not clear but may be due to the inability of the nephelometer to accurately measure scattering by large particles.

  5. Highly Resolved Aerosol Measurements from High Altitude Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1999-01-01

    The University of Denver agreed to develop and fabricate two instruments for the characterization of submicron aerosol. The instruments were to be light weight for use on remotely-piloted aircraft or balloons. The instruments were to provide accurate size measurements of size distributions in the size range from 0.07 to 2 micrometers in diameter and concentration measurements in the size range approximately 0.01 to 2 micrometers in diameter. The instruments constructed under this cooperative agreement respond quite nearly as expected and meet the objective of being light and compact. One has been used for ground based and low altitude studies and the other will be deployed in high altitude studies this winter.

  6. Error in total ozone measurements arising from aerosol attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W. L.; Basher, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A generalized least squares method for deducing both total ozone and aerosol extinction spectrum parameters from Dobson spectrophotometer measurements was developed. An error analysis applied to this system indicates that there is little advantage to additional measurements once a sufficient number of line pairs have been employed to solve for the selected detail in the attenuation model. It is shown that when there is a predominance of small particles (less than about 0.35 microns in diameter) the total ozone from the standard AD system is too high by about one percent. When larger particles are present the derived total ozone may be an overestimate or an underestimate but serious errors occur only for narrow polydispersions.

  7. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. Intercomparison of two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21) indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the filter-adjusted continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Correlations of the ACSM NR-PM1 (non-refractory particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 1 μm) plus elemental carbon (EC) with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM2.5 and Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM1 mass are strong with r2 > 0.7 and r2 > 0.8, respectively. Discrepancies might be attributed to evaporative losses of semi-volatile species from the filter measurements used to adjust the collocated continuous measurements. This suggests that adjusting the ambient aerosol continuous measurements with results from filter analysis introduced additional bias to the measurements. We also recommend to calibrate the ambient aerosol monitoring instruments using aerosol standards rather than gas-phase standards. The fitting approach for ACSM relative ionization for sulfate was shown to improve the comparisons between ACSM and collocated measurements in the absence of calibrated values, suggesting the importance of adding sulfate calibration into the ACSM calibration routine.

  8. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES campaign

    DOE PAGES

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; ...

    2015-04-17

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter γ, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter κ for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles (defined heremore » as particles with aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 2.5 microns), yielding κ = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA κ values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea-salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.« less

  9. Aerosol measurements of long range transport events from Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P.; Murphy, D.; Cziczo, D.; Thomson, D.; Brock, C.; Wilson, C.; Weber, R.; Sullivan, A.; Orsini, D.

    2003-04-01

    The Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission (Monterey, CA, spring 2002) investigated the gas phase and particulate composition of air masses along the western coast of the United States using a host of gas and aerosol instruments aboard the WP-3 aircraft. Several transport events from Asia containing enhanced number and mass concentrations of particles were intercepted during the mission. Within these different layers, a variety of particle modes and compositions were observed, including a) coarse crustal particles transported in the absence of anthropogenic trace gases, b) nucleation-mode particles associated with substantial enhancements in CO, NO_y, and organic tracers of biomass and anthropogenic emissions, and c) accumulation-mode particles found in the presence of CO and HNO_3. The properties, sources, and transport of these different aerosols will be evaluated using individual particle and bulk composition measurements and particle size distributions as determined from the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry), PILS (Particle Into Liquid Sampling), and particle size spectrometers, respectively.

  10. Compact Efficient Lidar Receiver for Measuring Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gili, Christopher; De Young, Russell

    2006-01-01

    A small, light weight, and efficient aerosol lidar receiver was constructed and tested. Weight and space savings were realized by using rigid optic tubes and mounting cubes to package the steering optics and detectors in a compact assembly. The receiver had a 1064nm channel using an APD detector. The 532nm channel was split (90/10) into an analog channel (90%) and a photon counting channel (10%). The efficiency of the 1064nm channel with optical filter was 44.0%. The efficiency of the analog 532nm channel was 61.4% with the optical filter, and the efficiency of the 532nm photon counting channel was 7.6% with the optical filter. The results of the atmospheric tests show that the detectors were able to consistently return accurate results. The lidar receiver was able to detect distinct cloud layers, and the lidar returns also agreed across the different detectors. The use of a light weight fiber-coupled telescope reduced weight and allowed great latitude in detector assembly positioning due to the flexibility enabled by the use of fiber optics. The receiver is now ready to be deployed for aircraft or ground based aerosol lidar measurements.

  11. Lidar measurements of the post-fuego stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hake, R. D., Jr.; Viezee, W.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol were made between February and November 1975. All observations revealed the greatly increased particulate backscattering that followed the eruption of the volcano Fuego in October 1974. Vertical structure consisted initially of multiple layers, which later merged to form a single, broader peak. Essentially all of the increased scattering was confined to altitudes below 20 km. Hence, aerosol layer centroids in 1975 were typically several km below their altitude prior to the eruption. Radiative and thermal consequences of the measured post-Fuego layer were computed using several recently published models. The models predict a temperature increase of several K at the altitude of the layer, caused by the infrared absorption bands of the sulfuric acid particles. The surface temperature decrease predicted by the models is considerably smaller than 1 K, partly because of the small optical thickness of the volcanic layer, and partly because of its short residence time relative to the earth-ocean thermal response time.

  12. Combining Satellite Data, Trajectory Modeling and Surface Insolation Measurements to Deduce the Direct Radiative Effect of Smoke Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Baum, Bryan A.; DiPasquale, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have introduced a method of inferring the radiative effect of smoke aerosols using a technique that combines satellite remote sensing with trajectory modeling. The results shown here clearly show large flux biases between theoretical and measured radiative fluxes correlate with the arrival of smoke aerosol to the area. Further analysis is required to convincingly demonstrate that the reason for these differences is the radiative effect of the smoke aerosols. To do this, the estimated fluxes taken from the ERA-15 will be recomputed every 3 hours using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set entitled DX gridded to a 1o equal angle resolution (see paper 7B.2 for details). Surface radiometric and ancillary data for several more Canadian surface sites are being obtained at minute temporal resolution. The ultimate purpose of this research is to derive aerosol smoke maps for fire events such as this to be included in an aerosol climatology and be incorporated in the computation of the earth's surface radiation budget to better understand the radiative effect of aerosols.

  13. Aerosol optical and microphysical properties from POLDER-PARASOL multi-angle photo-polarimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, O.; Litvinov, P.; Butz, A.

    2010-12-01

    The large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on clouds and climate is reflected in considerable discrepancies between different model simulations of the radiative forcing caused by these effects. Also, there exist even larger differences between values for radiative forcing calculated by models and those estimated from satellites (and model calculations constrained by satellite measurements). Relationships between aerosols and clouds derived from satellite measurements are subject to a number of important limitations. First of all, with current satellite aerosol products it is hard to determine which fraction of the aerosols is anthropogenic and which fraction is natural. Often the rather crude assumption is used that the fine mode contribution is fully anthropogenic. Furthermore, most aerosol types are strongly hygroscopic, which means that in an environment with high relative humidity (in the surrounding of clouds) the particle size increases considerably leading, in turn, to an increase in optical thickness. This effect may be misinterpreted as an apparent relation between aerosol concentration and cloud cover. Also, meteorology effects can be misinterpreted as apparent aerosol-cloud relationships. Accurate information on aerosol size and refractive index (related to chemical composition of aerosols and absorption) is needed to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic aerosols and to distinguish between aerosol effects on cloud formation and apparent relationships due to humidity and meteorology effects. Multi-angle photopolarimetric measurements have the potential to provide the necessary information on these aerosol properties. The POLDER instrument onboard the PARASOL micro-satellite is the only instrument currently in space that performs multi-angle photopolarimetric measurements. To fully exploit the information contained in these measurements a new type of retrieval algorithm is needed that retrieves detailed information on aerosol microphysical and

  14. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic

  15. Analysis of Measurement Requirements for the Aerosol Indirect Effect: A Synthesis of Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feingold, G.; Previdi, M.; Veron, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    The aerosol indirect effect has been measured for some time now by satellite remote sensors, and more recently by surface-based remote sensors. The indirect effect is often expressed in terms of a relative change in drop size for a relative change in aerosol optical depth or extinction. Here we present some recent results of surface based remote sensing of the indirect effect and assess whether aerosol optical depth or extinction is a suitable proxy for the aerosol affecting drop formation. To do so, we use multiple realizations of a cloud model to investigate the sensitivity of cloud drop effective radius re to aerosol parameters (size distribution and composition) and dynamical parameters (updraft and liquid water content). A breakdown of the individual aerosol terms contributing to drop size change shows that use of aerosol extinction as a proxy for size distribution and composition tends to underestimate the magnitude of the first indirect effect. The use of the aerosol index alleviates this problem somewhat. We show that re is most sensitive to cloud liquid water, a parameter often ignored in indirect effect analyses. The relative importance of the other parameters varies for different conditions but aerosol concentration Na is consistently important. Updraft plays an increasingly important role under high aerosol loadings. Requirements for measuring the indirect effect over polluted continents are shown to be more stringent than those over cleaner, remote oceans. This may influence interpretation of current satellite and surface remote measurements of the indirect effect.

  16. Jet and ultrasonic nebuliser output: use of a new method for direct measurement of aerosol output.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J H; Stenton, S C; Beach, J R; Avery, A J; Walters, E H; Hendrick, D J

    1990-01-01

    Output from jet nebulisers is calibrated traditionally by weighing them before and after nebulisation, but the assumption that the weight difference is a close measure of aerosol generation could be invalidated by the concomitant process of evaporation. A method has been developed for measuring aerosol output directly by using a solute (fluoride) tracer and aerosol impaction, and this has been compared with the traditional weight loss method for two Wright, six Turbo, and four Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers and two Microinhaler ultrasonic nebulisers. The weight loss method overestimated true aerosol output for all jet nebulisers. The mean aerosol content, expressed as a percentage of the total weight loss, varied from as little as 15% for the Wright jet nebulisers to 54% (range 45-61%) for the Turbo and Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers under the operating conditions used. In contrast, there was no discrepancy between weight loss and aerosol output for the ultrasonic nebulisers. These findings, along with evidence of both concentrating and cooling effects from jet nebulisation, confirm that total output from jet nebulisers contains two distinct fractions, vapour and aerosol. The vapour fraction, but not the aerosol fraction, was greatly influenced by reservoir temperature within the nebuliser; so the ratio of aerosol output to total weight loss varied considerably with temperature. It is concluded that weight loss is an inappropriate method of calibrating jet nebuliser aerosol output, and that this should be measured directly. PMID:2247862

  17. In Situ Aerosol Properties Measured over the California Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, J. M.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Kluzek, C.; Schmid, B.; Jonsson, H.; Woods, R.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are hypothesized to influence the formation of clouds and precipitation amounts within the Sierra Nevada Mountains. This could have a profound effect on the California water supply. To study this phenomena, an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP), and Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) were operated aboard the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-1 aircraft from February 2 to March 6, 2011 during the CalWater field campaign. The combined aerosol size distribution from the three instruments characterizes the size-resolved concentration of the submicron and supermicron aerosol over the California Central Valley and Sierra Nevada Mountain Range. The measured aerosol size distributions from CalWater are compared with the size distributions measured during the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010 to determine the changes in the aerosol size distributions during different seasons, atmospheric river events, and long-range transport events from Asia. These changes are used to estimate the resulting aerosol effect on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and the potential impact on cloud formation and precipitation.

  18. Measuring the vertical distributions of the upper tropospheric and stratospheric dust with a LOAC aerosol counter under meteorological balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignelles, Damien; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Dulac, François; Coute, Benoit; Jeannot, Matthieu; Jegou, Fabrice; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla

    2014-05-01

    The aerosol issue is in a constant growing. At ground, the airborne particles in boundary layer represent a real risk for population and must be control. In the middle troposphere, aerosols play an important role in the microphysics and meteorology, the heterogeneous chemistry is not well understood. In the stratosphere, several teams of researchers have shown that solid aerosols might exist, the question of the dynamic of these solid aerosol in the stratosphere is open. The aim was to develop an instrument that it can make measurements from the ground to the middle stratosphere. This instrument must be able to be put under meteorological balloons, which represent the worst conditions for the development of such instruments in terms of weight, resistance under large variations of temperature and pressure, autonomy and cost if we consider that something throw under a meteorological balloon can be lost after the fly. In the consideration of these conditions, we have developed a new instrument able to make such kind of measurements. This instrument is call LOAC for Light Optical Aerosol Counter. LOAC provides the concentration and size distribution of aerosols on 19 channels from 0.2 μm to 50.0 μm every ten seconds, and determine the main nature of particles (carbonaceous aerosol, mineral, droplets of water or sulfuric acid) in relation with a large range of samples in laboratory. The physical technique is based on the observation of the scattered light by particles at two angles. LOAC is light enough (1 kilogram) to be placed under a meteorological balloon that is very easy to launch such balloons. The goal is to perform a large number of flights to gather information about the dust distribution in stratosphere and to understand the various mechanisms controlling their spatial and temporal variability. About 25 flights with have been performed in the stratosphere with the LOAC above the Mediterranean Sea, from south of Paris, from Aire-Sur-l'Adour (South-West of

  19. Urban increments of gaseous and aerosol pollutants and their sources using mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main environmental concerns in urban areas, where anthropogenic emissions strongly affect air quality. This work presents the first spatially resolved detailed characterization of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic equivalent diameter daero ≤ 2.5 µm) in two major Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. The measurements were performed in March 2014 using a mobile platform. In both cities, the non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 was characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) using a recently developed lens which increases the transmission of super-micron particles. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) and several trace gases including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were also measured. The chemical composition of PM2.5 was found to be very similar in the two cities. Organic aerosol (OA) constituted the largest fraction, explaining on average about 52 to 60 % of the PM2.5 mass. Four sources of OA were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF): hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, from traffic emissions), biomass burning OA (BBOA, from biomass combustion), residential influenced OA (RIOA, probably mostly from cooking processes with possible contributions from waste and coal burning), and oxygenated OA (OOA, related to secondary aerosol formation). OOA was the major OA source during nighttime, explaining on average half of the OA mass, while during daytime mobile measurements the OA was affected by point sources and dominated by the primary fraction. A strong increase in the secondary organic and inorganic components was observed during periods with transport of air masses from northern Germany, while the primary local emissions accumulated during periods with temperature inversions. Mobile measurements offered the identification of different source regions within the urban areas and the assessment of the extent to which pollutants concentrations exceeded regional background

  20. Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Gitelson, A.; Karnieli, A.; Ganor, E. (Editor); Fraser, R. S.; Nakajima, T.; Mattoo, S.; Holben, B. N.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of the solar transmission and sky radiance in a horizontal plane through the Sun are taken in several geographical regions and aerosol types: dust in a desert transition zone in Israel, sulfate particles in Eastern and Western Europe, tropical aerosol in Brazil, and mixed continental/maritime aerosol in California. Stratospheric aerosol was introduced after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Therefore measurements taken before the eruption are used to analyze the properties of tropospheric aerosol; measurements from 1992 are also used to detect the particle size and concentration of stratospheric aerosol. The measurements are used to retrieve the size distribution and the scattering phase function at large scattering angles of the undisturbed aerosol particles. The retrieved properties represent an average on the entire atmospheric column. A comparison between the retrieved phase function for a scattering angle of 120 deg, with phase function predicted from the retrieved size distribution, is used to test the assumption of particle homogeneity and sphericity in radiative transfer models (Mie theory). The effect was found to be small (20% +/- 15%). For the stratospheric aerosol (sulfates), as expected, the phase function was very well predicted using the Mie theory. A model with a power law distribution, based on the spectral dependence of the optical thickness, alpha, cannot estimate accurately the phase function (up to 50% error for lambda = 0.87 microns). Before the Pinatubo eruption the ratio between the volumes of sulfate and coarse particles was very well correlated with alpha. The Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol destroyed this correlation. The aerosol optical properties are compared with analysis of the size, shape, and composition of the individual particles by electron microscopy of in situ samples. The measured volume size distribution before the injection of stratospheric aerosol consistently show two modes, sulfate

  1. Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Gitelson, A.; Karnieli, A.; Ganor, E.; Fraser, R. S.; Nakajima, T.; Mattoo, S.; Holben, B. N.

    1994-05-01

    Ground-based measurements of the solar transmission and sky radiance in a horizontal plane through the Sun are taken in several geographical regions and aerosol types: dust in a desert transition zone in Israel, sulfate particles in Eastern and Western Europe, tropical aerosol in Brazil, and mixed continental/maritime aerosol in California. Stratospheric aerosol was introduced after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Therefore measurements taken before the eruption are used to analyze the properties of tropospheric aerosol; measurements from 1992 are also used to detect the particle size and concentration of stratospheric aerosol. The measurements are used to retrieve the size distribution and the scattering phase function at large scattering angles of the undisturbed aerosol particles. The retrieved properties represent an average on the entire atmospheric column. A comparison between the retrieved phase function for a scattering angle of 120°, with phase function predicted from the retrieved size distribution, is used to test the assumption of particle homogeneity and sphericity in radiative transfer models (Mie theory). The effect was found to be small (20%±15%). For the stratospheric aerosol (sulfates), as expected, the phase function was very well predicted using the Mie theory. A model with a power law size distribution, based on the spectral dependence of the optical thickness, a, cannot estimate accurately the phase function (up to 50% error for λ = 0.87 μm). Before the Pinatubo eruption the ratio between the volumes of sulfate and coarse particles was very well correlated with α. The Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol destroyed this correlation. The aerosol optical properties are compared with analysis of the size, shape, and composition of the individual particles by electron microscopy of in situ samples. The measured volume size distributions before the injection of stratospheric aerosol consistently show two modes, sulfate particles with rm

  2. Aerosol characterization and transport pathway using ground-based measurement and space borne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyouk, Neda; Léon, Jean-François; Delbarre, Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Using two years measurements of aerosol extinction coefficient retrieval from CALIPSO as a joint NASA-CNES satellite mission along with ground-based measurements of particle mass concentration (PM2.5), we assess particulate matter air quality over different urban and periurban areas in France. In order to understanding the influence of the long range transport onto the local aerosol load we have focused on analysing of pollution event in Lille - urban area and Dunkerque - industrial area. We compared ground- based measurements with CALIPSO measurements. The CALIPSO level 2 aerosol records are more useful because the extinction coefficient is available. We use the extinction coefficient profiles which are provided by CALIPSO to depict the vertical structure of the aerosol properties. The combination of ground- based measurements of PM2.5, aerosol optical thickness (AOT's) obtained by Aeronet network data and CALIOP data enhances the possibilities of studying transport pathway of aerosol in the atmosphere and aerosol optical properties (aerosol extinction coefficient, aerosol optical depth, atmosphere transparency). The linear relationship between AOT _CALIPSO and AOT _ Aeronet network shows a slop of 0.4 in north of France. Moreover, we observed the good relationship between PM2.5 and AOT by CALIPSO profiles with a slope of 57.59 and correlation coefficient of 0.75 over France.

  3. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  4. Long Term Stratospheric Aerosol Lidar Measurements in Kyushu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Motowo

    1992-01-01

    Lidar soundings of the stratospheric aerosols have been made since 1972 at Fukuoka, Kyushu Island of Japan. Volcanic clouds from eruptions of La Soufriere, Sierra Negra, St. Helens, Uluwan, Alaid, unknown volcano, and El Chichon were detected one after another in only three years from 1979 to 1982. In july 1991 strong scattering layers which were originated from the serious eruptions of Pinatubo in June and were almost comparable to the El Chichon clouds were detected. Volcanic clouds from pinatubo and other volcanos mentioned are examined and carefully compared to each other and to the wind and temperature which was measured by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory almost at the same time as the lidar observation was made.

  5. Aerosol Profile Measurements from the NASA Langley Research Center Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obland, Michael D.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John W.; Roers, Raymond R.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Since achieving first light in December of 2005, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been involved in seven field campaigns, accumulating over 450 hours of science data across more than 120 flights. Data from the instrument have been used in a variety of studies including validation and comparison with the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite mission, aerosol property retrievals combining passive and active instrument measurements, aerosol type identification, aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud top and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height determinations. Measurements and lessons learned from the HSRL are leading towards next-generation HSRL instrument designs that will enable even further studies of aerosol intensive and extensive parameters and the effects of aerosols on the climate system. This paper will highlight several of the areas in which the NASA Airborne HSRL is making contributions to climate science.

  6. Mass-based hygroscopicity parameter interaction model and measurement of atmospheric aerosol water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, E.; Merkulov, V.; Vlasenko, S.; Rose, D.; Pöschl, U.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we derive and apply a mass-based hygroscopicity parameter interaction model for efficient description of concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol particles. The model approach builds on the single hygroscopicity parameter model of Petters and Kreidenweis (2007). We introduce an observable mass-based hygroscopicity parameter κm, which can be deconvoluted into a dilute intrinsic hygroscopicity parameter (κm,∞) and additional self- and cross-interaction parameters describing non-ideal solution behavior and concentration dependencies of single- and multi-component systems. For sodium chloride, the κm-interaction model (KIM) captures the observed concentration and humidity dependence of the hygroscopicity parameter and is in good agreement with an accurate reference model based on the Pitzer ion-interaction approach (Aerosol Inorganic Model, AIM). For atmospheric aerosol samples collected from boreal rural air and from pristine tropical rainforest air (secondary organic aerosol) we present first mass-based measurements of water uptake over a wide range of relative humidity (1-99%) obtained with a new filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) technique. By application of KIM to the measurement data we can distinguish three different regimes of hygroscopicity in the investigated aerosol samples: (I) A quasi-eutonic regime at low relative humidity (~60% RH) where the solutes co-exist in an aqueous and non-aqueous phase; (II) a gradually deliquescent regime at intermediate humidity (~60%-90% RH) where different solutes undergo gradual dissolution in the aqueous phase; and (III) a dilute regime at high humidity (≳90% RH) where the solutes are fully dissolved approaching their dilute intrinsic hygroscopicity. The characteristic features of the three hygroscopicity regimes are similar for both samples, while the RH threshold values vary as expected for samples of different chemical composition. In each regime, the

  7. Near-highway aerosol and gas-phase measurements in a high-diesel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2015-04-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of light duty vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September 2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter - DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the vehicle type, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen-containing aerosol with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol. While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel from that of gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are typically found to have low oxygen incorporation, OOA was found to comprise the majority of the measured organic aerosol, and isotopic analysis showed that the measured OOA contained mainly modern carbon, not fossil-derived carbon. Thus, even in this heavily vehicular-emission-impacted environment, photochemical processes

  8. Studies of seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties with use of remote techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Makuch, Przemyslaw

    2014-05-01

    According to the IPCC report, atmospheric aerosols due to their properties -extinction of Sun and Earth radiation and participation in processes of creation of clouds, are among basic "unknowns" in climate studies. Aerosols have large effect on the radiation balance of the Earth which has a significant impact on climate changes. They are also a key issue in the case of remote sensing measurements. The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols depend not only on their type but also on physical parameters such as pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction. The wide range of properties in which atmospheric aerosols affect Earth's climate is the reason of high unrelenting interest of scientists from different disciplines such as physics, chemistry and biology. Numerous studies have dealt with aerosol optical properties, e.g. Dubovik et al. (2002), but only in a few have regarded the influence of meteorological parameters on the optical properties of aerosols in the Baltic Sea area. Studies of aerosol properties over the Baltic were conducted already in the last forty years, e.g. Zielinski T. et. al. (1999) or Zielinski T. & A. Zielinski (2002). The experiments carried out at that time involved only one measuring instrument -e.g. LIDAR (range of 1 km) measurements and they were conducted only in selected areas of the Polish coastal zone. Moreover in those publications authors did not use measurements performed on board of research vessel (R/V Oceania), which belongs to Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Science (IO PAN) or data received from satellite measurements. In 2011 Zdun and Rozwadowska performed an analysis of all data derived from the AERONET station on the Gotland Island. The data were divided into seasons and supplemented by meteorological factors. However, so far no comprehensive study has been carried out for the entire Baltic Sea area. This was the reason to conduct further research of SEasonal Variations of Aerosol optical depth over the Baltic

  9. Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratios of Lofted Aerosol Layers Observed During the First Three Months of CALIPSO Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Hu, Yongxiang; Reagan, John A.; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Case studies from the first three months of the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) measurements of lofted aerosol layers are analyzed using transmittance [Young, 1995] and two-wavelength algorithms [Vaughan et al., 2004] to determine the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratios at 532 and 1064 nm. The transmittance method requires clear air below the layer so that the transmittance through the layer can be determined. Suitable scenes are selected from the browse images and clear air below features is identified by low 532 nm backscatter signal and confirmed by low depolarization and color ratios. The transmittance and two-wavelength techniques are applied to a number of lofted layers and the extinction-to-backscatter ratios are compared with values obtained from the CALIPSO aerosol models [Omar et al., 2004]. The results obtained from these studies are used to adjust the aerosol models and develop observations based extinction-to-backscatter ratio look-up tables and phase functions. Values obtained by these techniques are compared to Sa determinations using other independent methods with a goal of developing probability distribution functions of aerosol type-specific extinction to backscatter ratios. In particular, the results are compared to values determined directly by the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) during the CALIPSO CloudSat Validation Experiments (CCVEX) and Sa determined by the application of the two-wavelength lidar Constrained Ratio Aerosol Model-fit (CRAM) retrieval approach [Cattrall et al., 2005; Reagan et al., 2004] to the HSRL data. The results are also compared to values derived using the empirical relationship between the multiple-scattering fraction and the linear depolarization ratio by using Monte Carlo simulations of water clouds [Hu et al., 2006].

  10. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research project to develop tools and methodologies to measure aerosol chemical and particle dispersion through space. These tools can be used to devise pollution prevention strategies that could reduce occupant chemical exposures and guide manufactu...

  11. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  12. SAM II aerosol profile measurements, Poker Flat, Alaska; July 16-19, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Grams, G. W.; Herman, B. M.; Pepin, T. J.; Russell, P. B.; Swissler, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    SAM II satellite measurements during the July 1979 Poker Flat mission, yielded an aerosol extinction coefficient of 0.0004/km at 1.0 micron wavelength, in the region of the stratospheric aerosol mixing ratio peak (12-16 km). The stratospheric aerosol optical depth for these data, calculated from the tropopause through 30 km, is approximately 0.001. These results are consistent with the average 1979 summertime values found throughout the Arctic.

  13. Estimation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects from Satellite and In Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; McIntosh, Dawn

    2000-01-01

    Ames researchers have combined measurements from satellite, aircraft, and the surface to estimate the effect of airborne particles (aerosols) on the solar radiation over the North Atlantic region. These aerosols (which come from both natural and pollution sources) can reflect solar radiation, causing a cooling effect that opposes the warming caused by carbon dioxide. Recently, increased attention has been paid to aerosol effects to better understand the Earth climate system.

  14. Ozone and aerosol distributions measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to O3 and aerosol distributions measured from an aircraft using a DIAL system in order to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during summer 1988. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere.

  15. Hygroscopic Measurements of Aerosol Particles in the San Joaquin Valley California during the DRAGON and Discover AQ Campaign 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, D.; Delgado, R.; Hoff, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the ambient atmosphere, aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth due to the influence of relative humidity (RH). Wet aerosols particles are larger than their dry equivalents, therefore they scatter more light. Quantitative knowledge of the RH effect and its influence on the light scattering coefficient on aerosol particles is of substantial importance when comparing ground based observations with other optical aerosol measurements techniques such satellite and sunphotometric retrievals of aerosol optical depth. The DISCOVER-AQ campaign is focused in improving the interpretation and relation between satellite observations and surface conditions related to air quality. In the winter of 2013, this campaign was held in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where systematic and concurrent observations of column integrated surface, and vertically resolved distributions of aerosols and trace gases relevant to air quality and their evolution during the day were observed. Different instruments such as particulate samplers, lidars, meteorological stations and airborne passive and active monitoring were coordinated to measure the aerosol structure of the San Joaquin Valley in a simultaneous fashion. A novel humidifier-dryer system for a TSI 3563 Nephelometer was implemented in the Penn State University NATIVE trailer located in Porterville California in order to measure the scattering coefficient σsp(λ) at three different wavelengths (λ=440, 550 and 700nm) in a RH range from 30 to 95%. The system was assembled by combining Nafion tubes to humidify and dry the aerosols and stepping motor valves to control the flow and the amount of humidity entering to the Nephelometer. Measurements in Porterville California reached dry scattering coefficient readings greater than 300Mm-1 at 550nm indicating the presence of a large amount of particles in the region. However, the ratio between scattering coefficients at high and low humidity, called the enhancement factor f

  16. Generalized high-spectral-resolution lidar technique with a multimode laser for aerosol remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Chong; Bai, Jian; Wang, Dan; Wang, Nanchao; Zhou, Yudi; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Shen, Yibing; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming

    2017-01-23

    High-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) is a powerful tool for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing. The current HSRL technique often requires a single longitudinal mode laser as the transmitter to accomplish the spectral discrimination of the aerosol and molecular scattering conveniently. However, single-mode laser is cumbersome and has very strict requirements for ambient stability, making the HSRL instrument not so robust in many cases. In this paper, a new HSRL concept, called generalized HSRL technique with a multimode laser (MML-gHSRL), is proposed, which can work using a multimode laser. The MML-gHSRL takes advantage of the period characteristic of the spectral function of the interferometric spectral discrimination filter (ISDF) thoroughly. By matching the free spectral range of the ISDF with the mode interval of the multimode laser, fine spectral discrimination for the lidar return from each longitudinal mode can be realized. Two common ISDFs, i.e., the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) and field-widened Michelson interferometer (FWMI), are introduced to develop the MML-gHSRL, and their performance is quantitatively analyzed and compared. The MML-gHSRL is a natural but significant generalization for the current HSRL technique based on the IDSF. It is potential that this technique would be a good entrance to future HSRL developments, especially in airborne and satellite-borne aerosol remote sensing applications.

  17. Novel polarization-sensitive micropulse lidar measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Connor J; Mendoza, Albert; Zheng, Yunhui; Mathur, Savyasachee

    2007-03-19

    Polarization-sensitive detection of elastic backscattered light is useful for detection of cloud phase and depolarizing aerosols. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program has deployed micropulse lidar (MPL) for over a decade, but without polarized detection. Adding an actively-controlled liquid crystal retarder provides the capability to identify depolarizing particles by alternately transmitting linearly and circularly polarized light. This represents a departure from established techniques, which transmit exclusively linear polarization or exclusively circular polarization. Mueller matrix calculations yield simple relationships between the well-known linear depolarization ratio delta(linear), the circular depolarization ratio delta(circ), and this MPL depolarization ratio delta(MPL).

  18. Field measurements involve various techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.P.; Byars, H.G. )

    1990-07-30

    A number of field techniques are available to determine the extent of corrosion on production equipment. This article on oil field corrosion explains the use of corrosion coupons, several types of probes, and various inspection techniques, and shows how to monitor iron content in water.

  19. Long-term measurement of aerosol chemical composition in Athens, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Liakakou, Eleni; Theodosi, Christina; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The collection of our samples was conducted for a period of five years (2008 - 2013) in Athens, Greece. The site is situated at the premises of the National Observatory of Athens on Penteli Hill, northeast Athens suburbs, and is considered an urban background station. The aim of our study was a first long-term estimation of the chemical mass closure of aerosol. For the purposes of the study, we applied three filter samplers during the sampling period: two Partisol FRM Model 2000 air samplers (one of them collecting PM10 and the other PM2.5 fractions of aerosol) and one Dichotomous Partisol auto-sampler (with PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 inlet). Aerosols were collected on Whatman QM-A quartz fiber filters and the mass of the collected samples was estimated by weighing the pre-combusted filters before and after sampling, under controlled conditions, using a microbalance. All quartz filters were analysed for organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) by a thermal - optical transmission technique. The concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was defined for each filter using a total organic carbon analyzer, while the content in main water soluble ions (Cl-, Br-, NO-3, SO4-2, PO4-3, C2O4-2, NH4+, K+, Na+, Mg+2, Ca+2) was determined by ion chromatography. Additionally the filters were analyzed for trace metals by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Aerosol chemical mass closure calculations were conducted for the PM2.5 fraction. The area of Athens is characterized by aged aerosol that can originate from the marine boundary layer, the European mainland and occasionally from North African desert areas. The contribution of dust and particulate organic matter on PM levels was estimated taking into consideration the location of the sampling site, while identification and evaluation of sources was performed. Additionally, non-sea salt concentrations of the main ions were estimated to complete the chemical closure in the extended area. According to

  20. Elucidating the Chemical Complexity of Organic Aerosol Constituents Measured During the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Spielman, S. R.; Worton, D. R.; Zhang, H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Thousands of volatile organic compounds are uniquely created in the atmosphere, many of which undergo chemical transformations that result in more highly-oxidized and often lower vapor pressure species. These species can contribute to secondary organic aerosol, a complex mixture of organic compounds that is still not chemically well-resolved. Organic aerosol collected on filters taken during the Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) constitute hundreds of unique chemical compounds. Some of these include known anthropogenic and biogenic tracers characterized using standardized analytical techniques (e.g. GC-MS, UPLC, LC-MS), but the majority of the chemical diversity has yet to be explored. By employing analytical techniques involving sample derivatization and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-MS), we elucidate the chemical complexity of the organic aerosol matrix along the volatility and polarity grids. Further, by utilizing both electron impact (EI) and novel soft vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization mass spectrometry, a greater fraction of the organic mass is fully speciated. The GC x GC-HR-ToF-MS with EI/VUV technique efficiently provides an unprecedented level of speciation for complex ambient samples. We present an extensive chemical characterization and quantification of organic species that goes beyond typical atmospheric tracers in the SOAS samples. We further demonstrate that complex organic mixtures can be chemically deconvoluted by elucidation of chemical formulae, volatility, functionality, and polarity. These parameters provide insight into the sources (anthropogenic vs. biogenic), chemical processes (oxidation pathways), and environmental factors (temperature, humidity), controlling organic aerosol growth in the Southeastern United States.

  1. Aerosol Measurements of the Fine and Ultrafine Particle Content of Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Chen, Da-Ren; Smith, Sally A.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first quantitative measurements of the ultrafine (20 to 100 nm) and fine (100 nm to 20 m) particulate components of Lunar surface regolith. The measurements were performed by gas-phase dispersal of the samples, and analysis using aerosol diagnostic techniques. This approach makes no a priori assumptions about the particle size distribution function as required by ensemble optical scattering methods, and is independent of refractive index and density. The method provides direct evaluation of effective transport diameters, in contrast to indirect scattering techniques or size information derived from two-dimensional projections of high magnification-images. The results demonstrate considerable populations in these size regimes. In light of the numerous difficulties attributed to dust exposure during the Apollo program, this outcome is of significant importance to the design of mitigation technologies for future Lunar exploration.

  2. Spectrally-resolved measurements of aerosol extinction at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Rudich, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. Aerosol extinction includes both the scattering and absorption of light, and these vary with wavelength, aerosol diameter, and aerosol composition. Historically, aerosol absorption has been measured using filter-based or extraction methods that are prone to artifacts. There have been few investigations of ambient aerosol optical properties at the blue end of the visible spectrum and into the ultraviolet. Brown carbon is particularly important in this spectral region, because it both absorbs and scatters light, and encompasses a large and variable group of organic compounds from biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol. We have developed a laboratory instrument that combines new, high-power LED light sources with high-finesse optical cavities to achieve sensitive measurements of aerosol optical extinction. This instrument contains two broadband channels, with spectral coverage from 360 - 390 nm and 385 - 420 nm. Using this instrument, we report aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet and near-visible spectral region as a function of chemical composition and structure. We have measured the extinction cross-sections between 360 - 420 nm with 0.5 nm resolution using different sizes and concentrations of polystyrene latex spheres, ammonium sulfate, and Suwannee River fulvic acid. Fitting the real and imaginary part of the refractive index allows the absorption and scattering to be determined.

  3. Evaluation of LIDAR/Polarimeter Aerosol Measurements by In Situ Instrumentation during DEVOTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Dolgos, G.; Ottaviani, M.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Yang, M. M.; Hair, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Combined measurements from LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and polarimeter instruments provide the opportunity for enhanced satellite observations of aerosol properties including retrievals of aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, effective radius, and refractive index. However, these retrievals (specifically for refractive index) have not been fully vetted and require additional intercomparisons with in situ measurements to improve accuracy. Proper validation of these combined LIDAR/polarimeter retrievals requires evaluation in varying atmospheric conditions and of varying aerosol composition. As part of this effort, two NASA Langley King Air aircraft have been outfitted to provide coordinated measurements of aerosol properties. One will be used as a remote sensing platform with the NASA Langley high-spectral resolution LIDAR (HSRL) and NASA GISS research scanning polarimeter (RSP). The second aircraft has been modified for use as an in situ platform and will house a suite of aerosol microphysical instrumentation, a pair of diode laser hygrometers (DLHs) for water vapor and cloud extinction measurements, and a polarized imaging nephelometer (PI-Neph). The remote sensing package has flown in a variety of campaigns, however only rarely has been able to coordinate with in situ measurements. The use of two collocated aircraft will allow for future coordinated flights to provide a more complete dataset for evaluation of aerosol retrievals and allow for fast-response capability. Results from the first coordinated King Air flights as part of DEVOTE (Development and Evaulation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters) will be presented. Flights are planned out of Hampton, VA during September and October 2011 including underflights of the CALIPSO satellite and overflights of ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites. These will provide a comparison of aerosol properties between in situ and remote instruments (ground, aircraft, and satellite

  4. Retrieval of Aerosol information from UV measurement by using optimal estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, S. D.; Moon, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    An algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and aerosol loading height is developed for GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) measurement. The GEMS is planned to be launched in geostationary orbit in 2018, and employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol information such as AOD and SSA [Torres et al., 2007; Torres et al., 2013; Ahn et al., 2014]. However, the large contribution of atmospheric scattering results in the increase of the sensitivity of the backward radiance to aerosol loading height. Thus, the assumption of aerosol loading height becomes important issue to obtain accurate result. Accordingly, this study focused on the simultaneous retrieval of aerosol loading height with AOD and SSA by utilizing the optimal estimation method. For the RTM simulation, the aerosol optical properties were analyzed from AERONET inversion data (level 2.0) at 46 AERONET sites over ASIA. Also, 2-channel inversion method is applied to estimate a priori value of the aerosol information to solve the Lavenberg Marquardt equation. The GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with OMI level-1B dataset, a provisional data for GEMS measurement, and the result is compared with OMI standard aerosol product and AERONET values. The retrieved AOD and SSA show reasonable distribution compared with OMI products, and are well correlated with the value measured from AERONET. However, retrieval uncertainty in aerosol loading height is relatively larger than other results.

  5. A novel technique for estimating aerosol optical thickness trends using meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, Moses E.; Akinyemi, M. L.; Akin-Ojo, O.

    2016-02-01

    Estimating aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over regions can be tasking if satellite data set over such region is very scanty. Therefore a technique whose application captures real-time events is most appropriate for adequate monitoring of risk indicators. A new technique i.e. arithmetic translation of pictorial model (ATOPM) was developed. The ATOPM deals with the use mathematical expression to compute other meteorological parameters obtained from satellite or ground data set. Six locations within 335 × 230 Km2 area of a selected portion of Nigeria were chosen and analyzed -using the meteorological data set (1999-2012) and MATLAB. The research affirms the use of some parameters (e.g. minimum temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity and rainfall) to estimate the aerosol optical thickness. The objective of the paper was satisfied via the use of other meteorological parameters to estimate AOT when the satellite data set over an area is scanty.

  6. Size Resolved Measurements of Springtime Aerosol Particles over the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Samuel A.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Cliff, Stephen S.; Zhao, Yongjing; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chu, Yu-Chi; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Large sources of aerosol particles and their precursors are ubiquitous in East Asia. Such sources are known to impact the South China Sea (henceforth SCS), a sometimes heavily polluted region that has been suggested as particularly vulnerable to climate change. To help elucidate springtime aerosol transport into the SCS, an intensive study was performed on the remote Dongsha (aka Pratas) Islands Atoll in spring 2010. As part of this deployment, a Davis Rotating-drum Uniform size-cut Monitor (DRUM) cascade impactor was deployed to collect size-resolved aerosol samples at the surface that were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for concentrations of selected elements. HYSPLIT backtrajectories indicated that the transport of aerosol observed at the surface at Dongsha was occurring primarily from regions generally to the north and east. This observation was consistent with the apparent persistence of pollution and dust aerosol, along with sea salt, in the ground-based dataset. In contrast to the sea-level observations, modeled aerosol transport suggested that the westerly flow aloft (w700 hPa) transported smoke-laden air toward the site from regions from the south and west. Measured aerosol optical depth at the site was highest during time periods of modeled heavy smoke loadings aloft. These periods did not coincide with elevated aerosol concentrations at the surface, although the model suggested sporadic mixing of this free-tropospheric aerosol to the surface over the SCS. A biomass burning signature was not clearly identified in the surface aerosol composition data, consistent with this aerosol type remaining primarily aloft and not mixing strongly to the surface during the study. Significant vertical wind shear in the region also supports the idea that different source regions lead to varying aerosol impacts in different vertical layers, and suggests the potential for considerable vertical inhomogeneity in the SCS aerosol environment.

  7. Mount St. Helens related aerosol properties from solar extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Kleckner, E.W.; Stokes, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    The optical extinction due to the introduction of aerosols and aerosol-precursors into the troposphere and stratosphere during the major eruptive phase of Mount St. Helens, Washington, is quantified. The concentration is on the two-week period centered on the major eruption of 22 July 1980. (ACR)

  8. In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Tin, P.; Wilson, J. C.; Jonsson, H. H.; Dye, J. E.; Baumgardner, D.; Borrmann, S.; Toohey, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    In situ measurements of stratospheric sulphate aerosol, reactive nitrogen and chlorine concentrations at middle latitudes confirm the importance of aerosol surface reactions that convert active nitrogen to a less active, reservoir form. This makes mid-latitude stratospheric ozone less vulnerable to active nitrogen and more vulnerable to chlorine species. The effect of aerosol reactions on active nitrogen depends on gas phase reaction rates, so that increases in aerosol concentration following volcanic eruptions will have only a limited effect on ozone depletion at these latitudes.

  9. New Examination of the Raman Lidar Technique for Water Vapor and Aerosols. Paper 1; Evaluating the Temperature Dependent Lidar Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.

    2003-01-01

    The intent of this paper and its companion is to compile together the essential information required for the analysis of Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol data acquired using a single laser wavelength. In this first paper several details concerning the evaluation of the lidar equation when measuring Raman scattering are considered. These details include the influence of the temperature dependence of both pure rotational and vibrational-rotational Raman scattering on the lidar profile. These are evaluated for the first time using a new form of the lidar equation. The results indicate that, for the range of temperatures encountered in the troposphere, the magnitude of the temperature dependent effect can reach 10% or more for narrowband Raman water vapor measurements. Also the calculation of atmospheric transmission is examined carefully including the effects of depolarization. Different formulations of Rayleigh cross section determination commonly used in the lidar field are compared revealing differences up to 5% among the formulations. The influence of multiple scattering on the measurement of aerosol extinction using the Raman lidar technique is considered as are several photon pulse-pileup correction techniques.

  10. Quantifying Above-Cloud Aerosols through Integrating Multi-Sensor Measurements from A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying above-cloud aerosols can help improve the assessment of aerosol intercontinental transport and climate impacts. Large-scale measurements of aerosol above low-level clouds had been generally unexplored until very recently when CALIPSO lidar started to acquire aerosol and cloud profiles in June 2006. Despite CALIPSO s unique capability of measuring above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD), such observations are substantially limited in spatial coverage because of the lidar s near-zero swath. We developed an approach that integrates measurements from A-Train satellite sensors (including CALIPSO lidar, OMI, and MODIS) to extend CALIPSO above-cloud AOD observations to substantially larger areas. We first examine relationships between collocated CALIPSO above-cloud AOD and OMI absorbing aerosol index (AI, a qualitative measure of AOD for elevated dust and smoke aerosol) as a function of MODIS cloud optical depth (COD) by using 8-month data in the Saharan dust outflow and southwest African smoke outflow regions. The analysis shows that for a given cloud albedo, above-cloud AOD correlates positively with AI in a linear manner. We then apply the derived relationships with MODIS COD and OMI AI measurements to derive above-cloud AOD over the whole outflow regions. In this talk, we will present spatial and day-to-day variations of the above-cloud AOD and the estimated direct radiative forcing by the above-cloud aerosols.

  11. Radiocarbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and ocean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.; Currie, L. A.

    2002-03-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the combustion-altered, solid residue remaining after biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. Radiocarbon measurements of BC provide information on the residence time of BC in organic carbon pools like soils and sediments, and also provide information on the source of BC by distinguishing between fossil fuel and biomass combustion byproducts. We have optimized dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation for the measurement of radiocarbon in BC. We also present comparisons of BC 14C measurements on NIST aerosol SRM 1649a with previously published bulk aromatic 14C measurements and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 14C measurements on the same NIST standard. Dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation belongs to the chemical class of BC measurement methods, which rely on the resistance of some forms of BC to strong chemical oxidants. Dilute solutions of dichromate-sulfuric acid degrade BC and marine-derived carbon at characteristic rates from which a simple kinetic formula can be used to calculate concentrations of individual components (Wolbach and Anders, 1989). We show that: (1) dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation allows precise, reproducible 14C BC measurements; (2) kinetics calculations give more precise BC yield information when performed on a % OC basis (vs. a % mass basis); (3) kinetically calculated BC concentrations are similar regardless of whether the oxidation is performed at 23°C or 50°C; and (4) this method yields 14C BC results consistent with previously published aromatic 14C data for an NIST standard. For the purposes of intercomparison, we report % mass and carbon results for two commercially available BC standards. We also report comparative data from a new thermal method applied to SRM 1649a, showing that thermal oxidation of this material also follows the simple kinetic sum of exponentials model, although with different time constants.

  12. New capabilities for space-based cloud and aerosols measurements: The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Palm, S. P.; Hart, W. D.; Nowottnick, E. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rodier, S. D.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Buchard-Marchant, V.

    2013-12-01

    Current uncertainties in cloud and aerosol properties limit our ability to accurately model the Earth's climate system and predict climate change. These limitations are due primarily to difficulties in adequately measuring aerosols and clouds on a global scale. NASA's A-Train satellites provide an unprecedented opportunity to address these uncertainties. In particular, the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) satellite provides vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties. The CALIOP lidar onboard CALIPSO has reached its seventh year of operation, well past its expected lifetime. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2016 or later. If the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational, there will be a gap in global lidar measurements. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), built at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a payload for the International Space Station (ISS), is set to launch in the summer of 2014. CATS is an elastic backscatter lidar with three wavelengths (1064, 532, 355 nm) and HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all three wavelengths. The ISS orbit is a 51 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of about 405 km. This orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three day repeat cycle. Thus, science applications of CATS include cloud and aerosol climate studies, air quality monitoring, and smoke/volcanic plume tracking. The primary science objectives of CATS include: continuing the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud vertical profile data record, providing near real time data to support operational applications such as air quality modeling, and advancing technology in support of future mission development using the HSRL channel. Furthermore, the vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties provided by CATS will complement current and future passive satellite

  13. Chemically-resolved aerosol eddy covariance flux measurements in urban Mexico City during MILAGRO 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalakeviciute, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Allwine, E.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Molina, L. T.; Nemitz, E.; Pressley, S. N.; VanReken, T. M.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Velasco, E.; Lamb, B. K.

    2012-08-01

    As part of the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign, the exchange of atmospheric aerosols with the urban landscape was measured from a tall tower erected in a heavily populated neighborhood of Mexico City. Urban submicron aerosol fluxes were measured using an eddy covariance method with a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer during a two week period in March, 2006. Nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations were elevated at this location near the city center compared to measurements at other urban sites. Significant downward fluxes of nitrate aerosol, averaging -0.2 μg m-2 s-1, were measured during daytime. The urban surface was not a significant source of sulfate aerosols. The measurements also showed that primary organic aerosol fluxes, approximated by hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA), displayed diurnal patterns similar to CO2 fluxes and anthropogenic urban activities. Overall, 47% of submicron organic aerosol emissions were HOA, 35% were oxygenated (OOA) and 18% were associated with biomass burning (BBOA). Organic aerosol fluxes were bi-directional, but on average HOA fluxes were 0.1 μg m-2 s-1, OOA fluxes were -0.03 μg m-2 s-1, and BBOA fluxes were -0.03 μg m-2 s-1. After accounting for size differences (PM1 vs PM2.5) and using an estimate of the black carbon component, comparison of the flux measurements with the 2006 gridded emissions inventory of Mexico City, showed that the daily-averaged total PM emission rates were essentially identical for the emission inventory and the flux measurements. However, the emission inventory included dust and metal particulate contributions, which were not included in the flux measurements. As a result, it appears that the inventory underestimates overall PM emissions for this location.

  14. Measurements of Aerosol Vertical Profiles and Optical Properties during INDOEX 1999 Using Micro-Pulse Lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.; Gordon, Howard R.; Johnson, James E.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-pulse lidar systems (MPL) were used to measure aerosol properties during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) 1999 field phase. Measurements were made from two platforms: the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, and the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Maldives. Sunphotometers were used to provide aerosol optical depths (AOD) needed to calibrate the MPL. This study focuses on the height distribution and optical properties (at 523 nm) of aerosols observed during the campaign. The height of the highest aerosols (top height) was calculated and found to be below 4 km for most of the cruise. The marine boundary layer (MBL) top was calculated and found to be less than 1 km. MPL results were combined with air mass trajectories, radiosonde profiles of temperature and humidity, and aerosol concentration and optical measurements. Humidity varied from approximately 80% near the surface to 50% near the top height during the entire cruise. The average value and standard deviation of aerosol optical parameters were determined for characteristic air mass regimes. Marine aerosols in the absence of any continental influence were found to have an AOD of 0.05 +/- 0.03, an extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S-ratio) of 33 +/- 6 sr, and peak extinction values around 0.05/km (near the MBL top). The marine results are shown to be in agreement with previously measured and expected values. Polluted marine areas over the Indian Ocean, influenced by continental aerosols, had AOD values in excess of 0.2, S-ratios well above 40 sr, and peak extinction values approximately 0.20/km (near the MBL top). The polluted marine results are shown to be similar to previously published values for continental aerosols. Comparisons between MPL derived extinction near the ship (75 m) and extinction calculated at ship-level using scattering measured by a nephelometer and absorption using a PSAP were conducted. The comparisons indicated that the MPL algorithm (using a constant S-ratio throughout the

  15. Vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties based on aircraft measurements over the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junxia; Liu, Xingang; Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Li, Zhanqing; Li, Peiren; Ren, Gang; Jin, Lijun; Li, Runjun; Dong, Zipeng; Li, Yiyu; Yang, Junmei

    2015-08-01

    Vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties based on aircraft measurements over the Loess Plateau were measured for the first time during a summertime aircraft campaign, 2013 in Shanxi, China. Data from four flights were analyzed. The vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficients (σsc), absorption coefficients (σab), Angström exponent (α), single scattering albedo (ω), backscattering ratio (βsc), aerosol mass scattering proficiency (Qsc) and aerosol surface scattering proficiency (Qsc(')) were obtained. The mean statistical values of σsc were 77.45 Mm(-1) (at 450 nm), 50.72 Mm(-1) (at 550n m), and 32.02 Mm(-1) (at 700 nm). The mean value of σab was 7.62 Mm(-1) (at 550 nm). The mean values of α, βsc and ω were 1.93, 0.15, and 0.91, respectively. Aerosol concentration decreased with altitude. Most effective diameters (ED) of aerosols were less than 0.8 μm. The vertical profiles of σsc,, α, βsc, Qsc and Qsc(') showed that the aerosol scattering properties at lower levels contributed the most to the total aerosol radiative forcing. Both α and βsc had relatively large values, suggesting that most aerosols in the observational region were small particles. The mean values of σsc, α, βsc, Qsc, Qsc('), σab and ω at different height ranges showed that most of the parameters decreased with altitude. The forty-eight hour backward trajectories of air masses during the observation days indicated that the majority of aerosols in the lower level contributed the most to the total aerosol loading, and most of these particles originated from local or regional pollution emissions.

  16. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  17. Contribution of Isoprene Epoxydiol to Urban Organic Aerosol: Evidence from Modeling and Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a region heavily influenced by anthropogenic and biogenic atmospheric emissions, recent field measurements have attributed one third of urban organic aerosol by mass to isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX). These aerosols arise from the gas phase oxidation of isoprene, the formation of...

  18. A comparison of lidar and balloon-borne particle counter measurements of the stratospheric aerosol 1974-1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swissler, T. J.; Hamill, P.; Osborn, M.; Russell, P. B.; McCormick, M. P.

    1982-04-01

    The optical radar measurements considered in the present investigation are those which have been obtained routinely at Hampton, VA (37.1 deg N, 76.3 deg W) since 1974. The dustsonde measurements are those made monthly at Laramie, WY (41.2 deg N, 105 deg W). The extensive data sets acquired with these two instruments during the time period 1974-80 permit a long-term comparison of the two different measurement techniques. The balloon-borne dustsonde pumps ambient air in a well-defined stream through an illuminated chamber where individual aerosol particles scatter light into photodetectors. The optical radar system used in the studies has a ruby laser with a 48-inch Cassegrainian configured telescope mounted on a mobile platform to collect the backscattered laser light. The investigation shows that optical radar measurements, dustsonde measurements, and realistic optical models together give a very consistent picture of stratospheric aerosol behavior.

  19. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    DOE PAGES

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; ...

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations ofmore » the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.« less

  20. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    SciTech Connect

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations of the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  1. Unique airborne measurements at the tropopause of Fukushima Xe-133, aerosol, and aerosol precursors indicate aerosol formation via homogeneous and cosmic ray induced nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Hans; Arnold, Frank; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Minikin, Andreas; Baumann, Robert; Simgen, Hardy; Lindemann, Stefan; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank; Pirjola, Liisa; Schumann, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    We report unique airborne measurements, at the tropopause, of the Fukushima radio nuclide Xe-133, aerosol particles (size, shape, number concentration, volatility), aerosol precursor gases (particularly SO2, HNO3, H2O). Our measurements and accompanying model simulations indicate homogeneous and cosmic ray induced aerosol formation at the tropopause. Using an extremely sensitive detection method, we managed to detect Fukushima Xe-133, an ideal transport tracer, at and even above the tropopause. To our knowledge, these airborne Xe-133 measurements are the only of their kind. Our investigations represent a striking example how a pioneering measurement of a Fukshima radio nuclide, employing an extremely sensitive method, can lead to new insights into an important atmospheric process. After the Fukushima accidential Xe-133 release (mostly during 11-15 March 2011), we have conducted two aircraft missions, which took place over Central Europe, on 23 March and 11 April 2011. In the air masses, encountered by the research aircraft on 23 March, we have detected Fukushima Xe-133 by an extremely sensitive method, at and even above the tropopause. Besides increased concentrations of Xe-133, we have detected also increased concentrations of the gases SO2, HNO3, and H2O. The Xe-133 data and accompanying transport model simulations indicate that a West-Pacific Warm Conveyor Belt (WCB) lifted East-Asian planetary boundary layer air to and even above the tropopause, followed by relatively fast quasi-horizontal advection to Europe. Along with Xe-133, anthropogenic SO2, NOx (mostly released from East-Asian ground-level combustion sources), and warer vapour were also lifted by the WCB. After the lift, SO2 and NOx experienced efficient solar UV-radiation driven conversion to the important aerosol precursors gases H2SO4 and HNO3. Our investigations indicate that, increased concentrations of the gases SO2, HNO3, and H2O promoted homogeneous and cosmic ray induced aerosol formation at and

  2. Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Arnott, P.; Bucholtz, A.; Colarco, P.; Covert, D.; Eilers, J.; Elleman, R.; Ferrare, R.; Flagan, R.; Jonsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet one of its goals - to relate observations of radiative fluxes and radiances to the atmospheric composition - the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has pursued measurements and modeling activities that attempt to determine how aerosols impact atmospheric radiative transfer, both directly and indirectly. However, significant discrepancies between aerosol properties measured in situ or remotely remain. One of the objectives of the Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (TOP) conducted by ARM in May 2003 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north central Oklahoma was to examine and hopefully reduce these differences. The IOP involved airborne measurements from two airplanes over the heavily instrumented SGP site. We give an overview of airborne results obtained aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. The Twin Otter performed 16 research flights over the SGP site. The aircraft carried instrumentation to perform in-situ measurements of aerosol absorption, scattering, extinction and particle size. This included such novel techniques as the photoacoustic and cavity ring-down methods for in-situ absorption (675 nm) and extinction (675 and 1550 nm) and a new multiwavelength, filter-based absorption photometer (467, 530, 660 nm). A newly developed instrument measured cloud condensation nucleus concentration (CCN) concentrations at two supersaturation levels. Aerosol optical depth and extinction (354-2139 nm) were measured with the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel sunphotometer. Furthermore, up-and downwelling solar (broadband and spectral) and infrared radiation were measured using seven individual radiometers. Three up-looking radiometers werer mounted on a newly developed stabilized platform, keeping the instruments level up to aircraft pitch and roll angles of approximately 10(exp 0). This resulted in unprecedented continuous vertical profiles

  3. Attribution of Particulate Sulfur in the Grand Canyon to Specific Point Sources Using Tracer-Aerosol Gradient Interpretive Technique (TAGIT).

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Hampden; Green, Mark; Pitchford, Marc; Vasconcelos, Luis; White, Warren; Mirabella, Vince

    1999-08-01

    Since aerosol particulate sulfur is generally a secondary airborne pollutant, most source attribution techniques require many assumptions about the transport and chemistry of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Uncertainties in our understanding of these processes impair our ability to generate reliable attribution information that is necessary for designing cost-effective pollution control policies. A new attribution technique using artificial tracer is presented in hopes of reducing the uncertainty of secondary aerosol source attribution. The Tracer-Aerosol Gradient Interpretive Technique (TAGIT) uses tracer data from a monitoring network to distinguish sites impacted by a source tagged with tracer from nonimpacted sites. Sites determined not to be influenced by the plume are considered to represent background particulate sulfur concentrations. The particulate sulfur attributable to the source at sites within the plume is calculated as the difference between observed and background particulate sulfur. TAGIT is applied to measurements made in the vicinity of the east and west ends of the Grand Canyon in order to attribute particulate sulfur to the sources within the Eastern Colorado River Valley (ECRV) and the Mohave Power Project (MPP), respectively. TAGIT results indicate that during the winter intensive field sampling experiment (January 15-February 13, 1992), an average of 59 + 12% of the particulate sulfur at Marble Canyon, AZ, was attributable to ECRV sources. Similarly, during the summer field sampling experiment (July 13-August 30, 1992), MPP is estimated to have contributed an average of 7 + 3% of the particulate sulfur at Meadview, AZ. Uncertainties associated with the assumptions of TAGIT are discussed and quantified. The attribution results suggest that SO2-to-sulfate conversion rates are highly variable from day to day in this region.

  4. Tethered balloon-borne aerosol measurements: seasonal and vertical variations of aerosol constituents over Syowa Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2013-09-01

    Tethered balloon-borne aerosol measurements were conducted at Syowa Station, Antarctica, during the 46th Japanese Antarctic expedition (2005-2006). Direct aerosol sampling was operated from near the surface to the lower free troposphere (approximately 2500 m) using a balloon-borne aerosol impactor. Individual aerosol particles were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Seasonal and vertical features of aerosol constituents and their mixing states were investigated. Results show that sulfate particles were predominant in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere in summer, whereas sea-salt particles were predominant during winter through spring. Minerals, MgSO4, and sulfate containing K were identified as minor aerosol constituents in both boundary layer and free troposphere over Syowa Station. Although sea-salt particles were predominant during winter through spring, the relative abundance of sulfate particles increased in the boundary layer when air masses fell from the free troposphere over the Antarctic coast and continent. Sea-salt particles were modified considerably through heterogeneous reactions with SO42- CH3SO3- and their precursors during summer, and were modified slightly through heterogeneous reactions with NO3- and its precursors. During winter through spring, sea-salt modification was insignificant, particularly in the cases of high relative abundance of sea-salt particles and higher number concentrations. In August, NO3- and its precursors contributed greatly to sea-salt modification over Syowa Station. Because of the occurrence of sea-salt fractionation on sea ice, Mg-rich sea-salt particles were identified during the months of April through November. In contrast, Mg-free sea-salt particles and slightly Mg-rich sea-salt particles coexisted in the lower troposphere during summer. Thereby, Mg separation can proceed by sea-salt fractionation during summer in Antarctic regions.

  5. Tethered balloon-borne aerosol measurements: seasonal and vertical variations of aerosol constituents over Syowa Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2013-03-01

    Tethered balloon-borne aerosol measurements were conducted at Syowa Station, Antarctica during the 46th Japanese Antarctic expedition (2005-2006). Direct aerosol sampling was operated from near the surface to the lower free troposphere (approximately 2500 m) using a balloon-borne aerosol impactor. Individual aerosol particles were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Seasonal and vertical features of aerosol constituents and their mixing states were investigated. Results show that sulfate particles were dominant in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere in the summer, whereas sea-salt particles were dominant during winter-spring. Minerals, MgSO4, and sulfate containing K were identified as minor aerosol constituents in both boundary layer and free troposphere over Syowa Station. Although sea-salt particles were dominant during winter-spring, the relative abundance of sulfate particles increased in the boundary layer when air masses fell from the free troposphere over the Antarctic coast and continent. Sea-salt particles were modified considerably through heterogeneous reactions with SO42-, CH3SO3-, and their precursors during the summer, and were modified slightly through heterogeneous reactions with NO3- and its precursors. During winter-spring, sea-salt modification was insignificant, particularly in the cases of high relative abundance of sea-salt particles and higher number concentrations. In August, NO3- and its precursors contributed greatly to sea-salt modification over Syowa Station. Because of the occurrence of sea-salt fractionation on sea-ice, Mg-rich sea-salt particles were identified during April-November. In contrast, Mg-free sea-salt particles and slightly Mg-rich sea-salt particles co-existed in the lower troposphere during summer. Thereby, Mg separation can proceed by sea-salt fractionation during summer in Antarctic regions.

  6. Airborne UV DIAL Measurements of Ozone and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system measures vertical profiles of ozone and aerosols above and below the aircraft along its flight track. This system has been used in over 20 airborne field missions designed to study the troposphere and stratosphere since 1980. Four of these missions involved tropospheric measurement programs in the Pacific Ocean with two in the western North Pacific and two in the South Pacific. The UV DIAL system has been used in these missions to study such things as pollution outflow, long-range transport, and stratospheric intrusions; categorize the air masses encountered; and to guide the aircraft to altitudes where interesting features can be studied using the in situ instruments. This paper will highlight the findings with the UV DIAL system in the Pacific Ocean field programs and introduce the mission planned for the western North Pacific for February-April 2001. This will be an excellent opportunity for collaboration between the NASA airborne mission and those with ground-based War systems in Asia Pacific Rim countries to make a more complete determination of the transport of air from Asia to the western Pacific.

  7. The effect of ozone and aerosols on the surface erythemal UV radiation estimated from OMI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joonsuk; Choi, Won Jun; Kim, Deok Rae; Kim, Seung-Yeon; Song, Chang-Keun; Hong, Jun Suk; Hong, Youdeog; Lee, Sukjo

    2013-05-01

    Surface erythemal UV radiation is mainly affected by total column ozone, aerosols, clouds, and solar zenith angle. The effect of ozone on the surface UV radiation has been explored many times in the previous studies due to the decrease of ozone layer. In this study, we calculated the effect of aerosols on the surface UV radiation as well as that of ozone using data acquired from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). First, ozone, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and surface erythemal UVB radiation measured from satellite are compared with those from ground measurements. The results showed that the comparison for ozone was good with r 2 of 0.92. For aerosol, there was difference between satellite measurements and surface measurements due to the insufficient information on aerosol in the retrieval algorithm. The r 2 for surface erythemal UV radiation was high (˜0.94) but satellite measurements showed about 30% larger values than surface measurements on average by not considering the effect of absorbing aerosols in the retrieval process from satellite measurements. Radiative amplification factor (RAF) is used to access the effect of ozone and aerosol quantitatively. RAF for ozone was 0.97˜1.49 with solar zenith angle. To evaluate the effect of aerosol on the surface UV radiation, only clear-sky pixel data were used and solar zenith angle and total column amount of ozone were fixed. Also, RAF for aerosol was assessed according to the single scattering albedo (SSA) of aerosols. The results showed that RAF for aerosol with smaller SSA (< 0.90) was larger than that for with larger SSA (> 0.90). The RAF for aerosol was 0.09˜0.22 for the given conditions which was relatively small compared to that for ozone. However, considering the fact that aerosol optical depth can change largely in time and space while the total column amount of ozone does not change very much, it needs to include the effect of aerosol to predict the variations of surface UV radiation more correctly.

  8. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: Aerosol Viscoelastic Measurement Calibration and Subsiquent H2O Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farland, D. R., Jr.; Gilles, M. K.; Harder, T.; Weis, J.; Mueller, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles exposed to various atmospheric relative humidity (RH) levels exhibit hygroscopic properties which are not fully understood. Water adsorption or diffusion depends on particle viscosity in semi-solid to liquid states. This relationship between particle viscosity as a function of RH and the corresponding hygroscopic behavioral response is the purpose of this study. However, reliable techniques for viscosity quantification have been limited. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) was used for viscosity measurements and to determine phase changes. Prior to studies on field samples, microscope immersion/viscosity standard oils, salt crystals, sugars and alpha-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) surrogates are used for viscosity, RH calibrations, water uptake and phase change measurements. RH was controlled by flowing N2 gas saturated with H2O for RH's between 0-75% RH. For higher RH values, (75-100% RH range) saturated salt solutions were flowed over a gore membrane to protect the QCM sensor from direct contact with the solutions. The viscosity calibration constructed via QTools fitting software illustrates the limitations as well as the ranges of reliability of the QCM viscosity measurements. Deliquescing salt crystals of differing deliquescence relative humidity's (DRH), sugars and alpha-pinene SOA's provided insight into the detection of various phase change behaviors. Water uptake experiments performed on alpha-pinene SOA and sucrose sugar yielded significantly different frequency and dissipation responses than the deliquescing salts. Future work will apply these experimental methods and analysis on aerosol particles collected during the GoAmazon field campaign.

  9. Inferring aerosol types over the Indo-Gangetic Basin from ground based sunphotometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Dey, Sagnik; Kanawade, V. P.; Tiwari, S.

    2012-06-01

    A discrimination of aerosol types over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during pre-monsoon period was made using multi-year ground based sun/sky radiometer measured aerosol products associated with the size of aerosols and radiation absorptivity. High dust enriched aerosols (i.e. polluted dust, PD) were found to contribute more over the central IGB station at Kanpur (KNP, 62%) as compared to the eastern IGB station at Gandhi College (GC, 31%) whereas vice-versa was observed for polluted continental (PC) aerosols, which contain high anthropogenic and less dust aerosols. Contributions of carbonaceous particles having high absorbing (mostly black carbon, MBC) and low absorbing (mostly organic carbon, MOC) aerosols were found to be 11% and 10%, respectively at GC, which was ~ 46% and 62% higher than the observed contributions at KNP; however, very less contribution of non-absorbing (NA) aerosols was observed only at GC (2%). Variability in aerosol types together with single scattering albedo (SSA) at both the stations were also studied during the forenoon (FN) and afternoon (AN) hour, which suggests their strong association with emission sources. Results were well substantiated with the air mass back-trajectories and the fire products. Spectral information of SSA for each aerosol type discriminates the dominance of natural dust (SSA increases with increasing wavelength) with anthropogenic aerosols (SSA decreases with increasing wavelength) at both the locations. The estimated absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) values suggest relative dominance of absorbing type aerosols over the central part of IGB (due to dominant dust absorption) as compared to the eastern part during pre-monsoon period.

  10. SAGE II long-term measurements of stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.H.; Kent, G.S.; McCormick, M.P.; Thomason, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument has been making measurements on stratospheric aerosols and gases continually since October 1984. Observations from the SAGE II instrument provide a valuable long-term data set for study of the aerosol in the stratosphere and aerosol and cloud in the upper troposphere. The period of observation covers the decay phase of material injected by the El Chichon volcanic eruption in 1982, the years 1988--1990 when stratospheric aerosol levels approached background levels, and the period after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The Mount Pinatubo eruption caused the largest perturbation in stratospheric aerosol loading in this century, with effects on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. The SAGE II data sequence shows the global dispersion of aerosols following the Mount Pinatubo eruption, as well as the changes occurring in stratospheric aerosol mass and surface area. The downward transfer of stratospheric aerosols into the upper troposphere following the earlier eruption of El Chichon is clearly visible. Estimates have been made of the amount of volcanic material lying in the upper troposphere and the way in which this varies with latitude and season.

  11. Lidar measurements of wildfire smoke aerosols in the atmosphere above Sofia, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshev, Zahary Y.; Deleva, Atanaska D.; Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2016-01-01

    Presented are results of lidar measurements and characterization of wildfire caused smoke aerosols observed in the atmosphere above the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, related to two local wildfires raging in forest areas near the city. A lidar systems based on a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operated at 532 nm and 1064 nm is used in the smoke aerosol observations. It belongs to the Sofia LIDAR Station (at Laser Radars Laboratory, Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences), being a part of the European Aerosol Lidar Network. Optical, dynamical, microphysical, and geometrical properties and parameters of the observed smoke aerosol particles and layers are displayed and analyzed, such as: range/height-resolved profiles of the aerosol backscatter coefficient; integral aerosol backscattering; sets of colormaps displaying time series of the height distribution of the aerosol density; topologic, geometric, and volumetric properties of the smoke aerosol layers; time-averaged height profiles of backscatter-related Ångström exponent (BAE). Obtained results of retrieving and profiling smoke aerosols are commented in their relations to available meteorological and air-mass-transport forecasting and modelling data.

  12. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  13. Investigation the optical and radiative properties of aerosol vertical profile of boundary layer by lidar and ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Chou, C.; Lin, P.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer is the air layer near the ground directly affected by diurnal heat, moisture, aerosol, and cloud transfer to or from the surface. In the daytime solar radiation heats the surface, initiating thermal instability or convection. Whereas, the scattering and absorption of aerosols or clouds might decrease the surface radiation or heat atmosphere which induce feedbacks such as the enhanced stratification and change in relative humidity in the boundary layer. This study is aimed to understand the possible radiative effect of aerosols basing on ground based aerosol measurements and lidar installed in National Taiwan University in Taipei. The optical and radiative properties of aerosols are dominated by aerosol composition, particle size, hygroscopicity property, and shape. In this study, aerosol instruments including integrating nephelometer, open air nephelometer, aethalometer are applied to investigate the relationship between aerosol hygroscopicity properties and aerosol types. The aerosol hygroscopicity properties are further applied to investigate the effect of relative humidity on aerosol vertical profiles measured by a dual-wavelength and depolarization lidar. The possible radiative effect of aerosols are approached by vertical atmospheric extinction profiles measured by lidar. Calculated atmospheric and aerosol heating effects was compared with vertical meteorological parameters measured by radiosonde. The result shows light-absorbing aerosol has the potential to affect the stability of planetary boundary layer.

  14. Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology.

    PubMed

    Eldering, A; Irion, F W; Chang, A Y; Gunson, M R; Mills, F P; Steele, H M

    2001-06-20

    The wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction in the 800-1250-cm(-1) region has been derived from ATMOS (atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy) high-spectral-resolution IR transmission measurements. Using models of aerosol and cloud extinction, we have performed weighted nonlinear least-squares fitting to determine the aerosol-volume columns and vertical profiles of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and cirrus cloud volume. Modeled extinction by use of cold-temperature aerosol optical constants for a 70-80% sulfuric-acid-water solution shows good agreement with the measurements, and the derived aerosol volumes for a 1992 occultation are consistent with data from other experiments after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The retrieved sulfuric acid aerosol-volume profiles are insensitive to the aerosol-size distribution and somewhat sensitive to the set of optical constants used. Data from the nonspherical cirrus extinction model agree well with a 1994 mid-latitude measurement indicating the presence of cirrus clouds at the tropopause.

  15. On the variation of aerosol properties over Finland based on the optical columnar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Kazadzis, S.; Arola, A.; Amiridis, V.; Lihavainen, H.; de Leeuw, G.

    2012-10-01

    Long-range aerosol transport over Finland has been studied using ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical properties. Cimel sunphotometers were used at an urban site (Helsinki), a rural site (Hyytiälä) and a semiurban site (Kuopio) and PFR sunphotometer measurements were made at two rural sites, Jokioinen and Sodankylä. The CIMEL measurements are part of the AERONET (Aerosol robotic network) network and Jokioinen and Sodankylä are GAW-PFR (Global Atmosphere Watch-Precision Filter Radiometer) Associate Stations. Sunphotometers provide information on local columnar aerosol properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (ÅE) that were used to investigate the aerosol content and aerosol type in this region. A set of representative event days, i.e. days with high turbidity, covering the time period between March 2006 and June 2010 has been selected for further analysis. For these days the AOD results were combined with air mass back trajectories to provide information about the air mass origin, especially for cases with moderate turbidity produced by long-range transported aerosols from mid latitudes to Finland. As expected, episodes with high AOD are connected with the transport of polluted air masses originating from the east or southeast or from industrial areas in Central Europe. We distinguished events with long range transported air pollution from cases where pollution was accumulated in the area due to the local meteorological factors.

  16. Aerosol Daytime Variations over North and South America Derived from Multiyear AERONET Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Hongbin; Eck, Tom F.; Smirnov, Alexander; Chin, Mian; Remer, Lorraine A.; Bian, Huisheng; Tan, Qian; Levy, Roberrt; Holben, Brent N.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the daytime variation of aerosol with seasonal distinction by using multi-year measurements from 54 of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over North America, South America, and islands in surrounding oceans. The analysis shows a wide range of daily variability of aerosol optical depth (AOO) and Angstrom exponent depending on location and season. Possible reasons for daytime variations are given. The largest AOO daytime variation range at 440 nm, up to 75%, occurs in Mexico City, with maximum AOO in the afternoon. Large AOO daily variations are also observed in the polluted mid-Atlantic U.S. and U.S. West Coast with maximum AOO occurring in the afternoon in the mid-Atlantic U.S., but in the morning in the West Coast. In South American sites during the biomass burning season (August to October), maximum AOO generally occurs in the afternoon. But the daytime variation becomes smaller when sites are influenced more by long-range transported smoke than by local burning. Islands show minimum AOO in the morning and maximum AOO in the afternoon. The diverse patterns of aerosol daytime variation suggest that geostationary satellite measurements would be invaluable for characterizing aerosol temporal variations on regional and continental scales. In particular, simultaneous measurements of aerosols and aerosol precursors from a geostationary satellite would greatly aid in understanding the evolution of aerosol as determined by emissions, chemical transformations, and transport processes.

  17. Particle size distribution of the stratospheric aerosol from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Malinina, Elizaveta; Rozanov, Vladimir; Hommel, Rene; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are of a great scientific interest because of their crucial role in the Earth's radiative budget as well as their contribution to chemical processes resulting in ozone depletion. While the permanent aerosol background in the stratosphere is determined by the tropical injection of SO2, COS and sulphate particles from the troposphere, major perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer result form an uplift of SO2 after strong volcanic eruptions. Satellite measurements in the visible spectral range represent one of the most important sources of information about the vertical distribution of the stratospheric aerosol on the global scale. This study employs measurements of the scattered solar light performed in the limb viewing geometry from the space borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY, which operated onboard the ENVISAT satellite, from August 2002 to April 2012. A retrieval approach to obtain parameters of the stratospheric aerosol particle size distribution will be reported along with the sensitivity studies and first results.

  18. The Ny-Alesund aerosol and ozone measurements intercomparison campaign 1997/1998 (NAOMI-1998)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuber, R.; Beyerle, G.; Beninga, I.; VonderGathen, P.; Rairoux, P.; Schrems, O.; Wahl, P.; Gross, M.; McGee, Th.; Iwasaka, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Shibata, T.; Klein, U.; Steinbrecht, W.

    1998-01-01

    An intercomparison campaign for Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and aerosol has been conducted at the Primary Station of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) in Ny-Alesund/Spitsbergen during January-February 1998. In addition to local instrumentation, the NDSC mobile ozone lidar from NASA/GSFC and the mobile aerosol lidar from Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) participated. The aim is the validation of stratospheric ozone and aerosol profile measurements according to NDSC guidelines. This paper briefly presents the employed instruments and outlines the campaign. Results of the blind intercomparison of ozone profiles are given in a companion paper and temperature measurements are described in this issue.

  19. Breakwire Technique for Hypervelocity Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    R )ATORY DSTO - • ’, - , CCL!’ A ~t1 ror - NTSCRA&Ic ý, I rIC TA8 0 SU .,".o,;"ed...Boom,’ r , a large scale explohing’fl folhflii plat’ \\’einerator. Two techniques were tested, ta dual breakwire method and a single breakwire method. 7...E I ~0.8 U.0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 4 8 12 16 Time. ps 1.8 Boomer 1: 3 WV 14 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 o 12 1824 F ~ev position. mm (b) Figure 7: ( a ) Approximate

  20. Measurement Techniques for Clock Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Schlesinger, Adam

    2012-01-01

    NASA is in the process of modernizing its communications infrastructure to accompany the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to replace the shuttle. With this effort comes the opportunity to infuse more advanced coded modulation techniques, including low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that offer greater coding gains than the current capability. However, in order to take full advantage of these codes, the ground segment receiver synchronization loops must be able to operate at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than supported by equipment currently in use.

  1. Airborne lidar measurements of El Chichon stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1985-01-01

    A NASA Electra airplane, outfitted with a lidar system, was flown in January to February 1983 between the latitudes of 27 deg N and 76 deg N. One of the primary purposes of this mission was to determine the spatial distribution and aerosol characteristics of the El Chichon-produced stratospheric material. This report presents the lidar data from that flight mission. Representative profiles of lidar backscatter ratio, plots of the integrated backscattering function versus latitude, and contours of backscatter mixing ratio versus altitude and latitude are given. It addition, tables containing numerical values of the backscatter ratio and backscattering function versus altitude are supplied for each profile. The largest amount of material produced by the El Chichon eruptions of late March to early April 1982, which was measured by this flight, resided between 35 deg N and 52 deg N. Peak backscatter ratios at a wavelength of 0.6943 micro m decreased from 8 to 10 at the lower latitudes to 3 at the higher latitudes. Backscatter ratio profiles taken while crossing the polar vortex show that the high-altitude material from El Chichon arrived at the north polar region sometime after the winter polar vortex was established. This report presents the results of this mission in a ready-to-use format for atmospheric and climatic studies.

  2. New Satellite Measurements of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing from MODIS, MISR, and POLDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    2000-01-01

    New set of satellites, MODIS and MISR launched on EOS-Terra and POLDER launched on ADEOS-1, and scheduled for ADEOS-II and PARASOL in orbit with EOS-AQUA, open exciting opportunities to measure aerosol and their radiative forcing of climate. Each of these instruments has a different approach to invert remote sensing data to derive the aerosol properties. MODIS is using wide spectral range 0.47-2.1 micron. MISR is using narrower spectral range (0.44 to 0.87 micron) but observing the same spot from 9 different angles along the satellite track. POLDER using similar wavelengths, uses two dimensional view with a wide angle optics and adds polarization to the inversion process. Among these instruments, we expect to measure the global distribution of aerosol, to distinguish small pollution particles from large particles from deserts and ocean spray. We shall try to measure the aerosol absorption of solar radiation, and their refractive index that indicates the effect of liquid water on the aerosol size and interaction with sunlight. The radiation field measured by these instruments in variety of wavelengths and angles, is also used to derive the effect of the aerosol on reflection of sunlight spectral fluxes to space. When combined with flux measurements at the ground, it gives a complete characterization of the effect of aerosol on solar illumination, heating in the atmosphere and reflection to space.

  3. Middle East measurements of concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles for coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, Sergey; Kopeika, Norman S.; Blaunstein, Natan S.

    2005-10-01

    Recently, an extension of the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) was proposed based on analysis of an extensive series of measurements at the Irish Atlantic Coast and at the French Mediterranean Coast. We confirm the relevance of that work for the distant eastern Meditteranean and extend several coefficients of that coastal model, proposed by Piazzola et al. for the Meditteranean Coast (a form of the Navy Aerosol Model), to midland Middle East coastal environments. This analysis is based on data collected at three different Middle East coastal areas: the Negev Desert (Eilat) Red Sea Coast, the Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) Coast, and the Mediterranean (Haifa) Coast. Aerosol size distributions are compared with those obtained through measurements carried out over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean Coasts, and Mediterranean, and Baltic Seas Coasts. An analysis of these different results allows better understanding of the similarities and differences between different coastal lake, sea, and open ocean zones. It is shown that in the coastal regions in Israel, compared to open ocean and other sea zones, larger differences in aerosol particle concentration are observed. The aerosol particle concentrations and their dependences on wind speed for these coastal zones are analyzed and discussed. We propose to classify the aerosol distribution models to either: 1. a coastal model with marine aerosol domination; 2. a coastal model with continental aerosol domination (referred to as midland coast in this work); or 3. a coastal model with balanced marine and continental conditions.

  4. Aerosol Spectral Radiative Forcing Efficiency from Airborne Measurements During Multiple Field Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Leblanc, S. E.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of shortwave spectral irradiance in conjunction with measurements of aerosol optical depth are used to determine the direct aerosol radiative forcing for various different regions and missions. To better compare cases with different air masses and solar geometry, we use the concept of top-of-layer and bottom-of-layer relative forcing efficiency. The aerosol layers were sampled from aircraft during several field campaigns, including the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO, Mexico, 2006); the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, Alaska and Alberta, 2008), Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex, California, 2010); and the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3, central US, 2012). We show that the spectral shape of the relative forcing efficiency is similar for these aerosol layers regardless of the aerosol type. The spectral relative forcing efficiency at any one wavelength for the majority of the cases is constrained within a span of 20% per unit of midvisible aerosol optical depth. Single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and surface albedo are secondary products for the various methods used to determine aerosol radiative forcing. Using these, we determine the diurnally averaged spectral and broadband top-of-atmosphere and surface radiative forcing efficiency for the various different aerosol types and surface conditions.

  5. Application of Spectral Analysis Techniques in the Intercomparison of Aerosol Data: 1. an EOF Approach to the Spatial-Temporal Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth Using Multiple Remote Sensing Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Many remote sensing techniques and passive sensors have been developed to measure global aerosol properties. While instantaneous comparisons between pixel-level data often reveal quantitative differences, here we use Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, also known as Principal Component Analysis, to demonstrate that satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) data sets exhibit essentially the same spatial and temporal variability and are thus suitable for large-scale studies. Analysis results show that the first four EOF modes of AOD account for the bulk of the variance and agree well across the four data sets used in this study (i.e., Aqua MODIS, Terra MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS). Only SeaWiFS data over land have slightly different EOF patterns. Globally, the first two EOF modes show annual cycles and are mainly related to Sahara dust in the northern hemisphere and biomass burning in the southern hemisphere, respectively. After removing the mean seasonal cycle from the data, major aerosol sources, including biomass burning in South America and dust in West Africa, are revealed in the dominant modes due to the different interannual variability of aerosol emissions. The enhancement of biomass burning associated with El Niño over Indonesia and central South America is also captured with the EOF technique.

  6. Aerosol measurements at 60 m during April 1994 remote cloud study intensive operating period (RCS/IOP)

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Albert, B.; Lee, N.; Knuth, R.H.

    1996-04-01

    Aerosol measurements were made at the Southern Great Plains Site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Many types of air masses pass over this area, and on the data acquisition day, extremly low aerosol scattering coefficients were seen. A major effort was placed on providing some characterization of the aerosol size distribution. Data is currently available from the experimental center.

  7. Aerosol Retrieval from Multiangle Multispectral Photopolarimetric Measurements: Importance of Spectral Range and Angular Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Hasekamp, O.; Van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the importance of spectral range and angular resolution for aerosol retrieval from multiangle photopolarimetric measurements over land. For this purpose, we use an extensive set of simulated measurements for different spectral ranges and angular resolutions and subsets of real measurements of the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) carried out during the PODEX and SEAC4RS campaigns over the continental USA. Aerosol retrievals performed from RSP measurements show good agreement with ground-based AERONET measurements for aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and refractive index. Furthermore, we found that inclusion of shortwave infrared bands (1590 and/or 2250 nm) significantly improves the retrieval of AOD, SSA and coarse mode microphysical properties. However, accuracies of the retrieved aerosol properties do not improve significantly when more than five viewing angles are used in the retrieval.

  8. A Comparison of Aerosol Optical Property Measurements Made During the DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period and Their Effects on Regional Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Hallar, A. G.; Arnott, W. P.; Covert, D.; Elleman, R.; Ogren, J.; Schmid, B.; Luu, A.

    2004-01-01

    The amount of radiant energy an aerosol absorbs has profound effects on climate and air quality. It is ironic that aerosol absorption coefficient is one of the most difficult to measure aerosol properties. One of the main purposes of the DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period (IOP) flown in May, 2003 was to assess our ability to measure absorption coefficient in situ. This paper compares measurements of aerosol optical properties made during the IOP. Measurements of aerosol absorption coefficient were made by Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) aboard the CIRPAS Twin-Otter (U. Washington) and on the DOE Cessna 172 (NOAA-C,MDL). Aerosol absorption coefficient was also measured by a photoacoustic instrument (DRI) that was operated on an aircraft for the first time during the IOP. A new cavity ring-down (CRD) instrument, called Cadenza (NASA-AkC), measures the aerosol extinction coefficient for 675 nm and 1550 nm light, and simultaneously measures the scattering coefficient at 675 nm. Absorption coefficient is obtained from the difference of measured extinction and scattering within the instrument. Measurements of absorption coefficient from all of these instruments during appropriate periods are compared. During the IOP, several significant aerosol layers were sampled aloft. These layers are identified in the remote (AATS-14) as well as in situ measurements. Extinction profiles measured by Cadenza are compared to those derived from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14, NASA-ARC). The regional radiative impact of these layers is assessed by using the measured aerosol optical properties in a radiative transfer model.

  9. Infrared limb emission measurements of aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars; Spang, Reinhold; von Hobe, Marc; Müller, Rolf; Riese, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Altitude-resolved aerosol detection in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is a challenging task for remote sensing instruments. Infrared limb emission measurements provide vertically resolved global measurements at day- and nighttime in the UTLS. For high-spectral-resolution infrared limb instruments we present here a new method to detect aerosol and separate between ice and non-ice particles. The method is based on an improved aerosol-cloud index that identifies infrared limb emission spectra affected by non-ice aerosol or ice clouds. For the discrimination between non-ice aerosol and ice clouds we employed brightness temperature difference correlations. The discrimination thresholds for this method were derived from radiative transfer simulations (including scattering) and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS)/Envisat measurements obtained in 2011. We demonstrate the value of this approach for observations of volcanic ash and sulfate aerosol originating from the Grímsvötn (Iceland, 64° N), Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (Chile, 40° S), and Nabro (Eritrea, 13° N) eruptions in May and June 2011 by comparing the MIPAS volcanic aerosol detections with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) volcanic ash and SO2 measurements.

  10. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 2; Derivation of Aerosol Real Refractive Index, Single-Scattering Albedo, and Humidification Factor using Raman Lidar and Aircraft Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Poellot, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol size distribution measurements made by a PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe) optical particle counter flown on the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. We describe a technique which uses both lidar and PCASP measurements to derive the dependence of particle size on relative humidity, the aerosol real refractive index n, and estimate the effective single-scattering albedo Omega(sub 0). Values of n ranged between 1.4-1.5 (dry) and 1.37-1.47 (wet); Omega(sub 0) varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The single-scattering albedo derived from this technique is sensitive to the manner in which absorbing particles are represented in the aerosol mixture; representing the absorbing particles as an internal mixture rather than the external mixture assumed here results in generally higher values of Omega(sub 0). The lidar measurements indicate that the change in particle size with relative humidity as measured by the PCASP can be represented in the form discussed by Hattel with the exponent gamma = 0.3 + or - 0.05. The variations in aerosol optical and physical characteristics captured in the lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements are discussed in the context of the meteorological conditions observed during the experiment.

  11. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Oritz, Carlos A.; Marlow, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  12. Combining Suborbital Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor for Satellite Sensor Validations in the CLAMS (Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites) Experiment, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Eilers, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; Kahn, R.; Smith, W. L.; Holben, B. N.; Rutledge, C. K.; Pitts, M. C.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Chowdhary, J.; Martins, J. V.; Plana-Fattori, A.; Charlock, T. P.

    2002-05-01

    As part of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment, July 10 - August 2, 2001, the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated successfully aboard the University of Washington Convair-580 during 10 research flights (~45 flight hours). The CLAMS campaign was a clear sky, shortwave (SW) closure campaign that entailed measurements from the Chesapeake Lighthouse research platform, several land sites, 6 research aircraft and the Terra satellite. CLAMS research goals included validation of satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties, vertical profiles of radiative fluxes, temperature and water vapor. Suborbital measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) were carried out at several AERONET sites and aboard five of the six airborne platforms using a variety of techniques. AATS-14 measures the direct solar beam transmission at 14 discrete wavelengths (354-1558 nm), yielding aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor. During coordinated flights of the UW Convair-580, AATS-14 measured full column aerosol optical depth spectra at exact Terra overpass time on at least 7 occasions. For five of these opportunities, AOD at 499nm was at or below 0.1. During Terra overpass on July 17, 2001, AATS-14 measured the largest AOD encountered during the entire experiment (~0.48 at 499nm), including a horizontal gradient in AOD of more than 0.1 over a distance of ~80 kilometers. We will illustrate how the spatially resolved measurements by AATS-14 and the temporally resolved AERONET measurements can be usefully combined for satellite validation purposes by constraining the small-scale aerosol variability off the US East coast. While the first part of this paper is focused on AATS-14 measurements, in the remainder of this paper we will show comparisons to other suborbital measurements obtained using (i) the AERONET sun/sky radiometer at the Chesapeake Lighthouse, (ii

  13. SAGE measurements of the stratospheric aerosol dispersion and loading from the Soufriere Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Kent, G. S.; Yue, G. K.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Explosions of the Soufriere volcano on the Caribbean Island of St. Vincent reduced two major stratospheric plumes which the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) satellite tracked to West Africa and the North Atlantic Ocean. The total mass of the stratospheric ejecta measured is less than 0.5% of the global stratospheric aerosol burden. No significant temperature or climate perturbation is expected. It is found that the movement and dispersion of the plumes agree with those deduced from high altitude meteorological data and dispersion theory. The stratospheric aerosol dispersion and loading from the Soufrier volcano was measured.

  14. Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, G.; Neuber, R.; Schrems, O. ); Wittrock, F. ); Knudsen, B. )

    1994-01-01

    Using a multiwavelength lidar the authors measured aerosols from the tropopause to altitudes of 30 km in the period December 1992 to March 1993. They analyzed backscatter and depolarization measurements to infer information on aerosol size and phase. During most of this period they saw evidence of a liquid drop aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere which was of a volcanic origin. In January they observed polar stratospheric clouds on numerous occasions, and particle size was found to depend strongly on the cooling rate.

  15. Collection and characterization of aerosols from metal cutting techniques typically used in decommissioning nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Newton, G J; Hoover, M D; Barr, E B; Wong, B A; Ritter, P D

    1987-11-01

    This study was designed to collect and characterize aerosols released during metal cutting activities typically used in decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities. Such information can guide in the selection of appropriate control technologies for these airborne materials. Mechanical cutting tools evaluated included a multi-wheel pipe cutter, reciprocating saw, band saw, chop saw, and large and small grinding wheels. Melting-vaporization cutting techniques included an oxy-acetylene torch, electric arc cut rod and plasma torch. With the exception of the multi-wheel pipe cutter, all devices created aerosols in the respirable size range (less than 10 micron aerodynamic diameter). Time required to cut 2-in. (5-cm) Schedule 40, Type 304L, stainless steel ranged from about 0.6 min for the plasma torch to about 3.0 min for the reciprocating saw. Aerosol production rate ranged from less than 10 mg/min for the reciprocating saw to more than 3000 mg/min for the electric arc cut rod. Particles from mechanical tools were irregular in shape, whereas particles from vaporization tools were spheres and ultrafine branched-chain aggregates.

  16. BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) measurements provide a means to quantify the ...

  17. Comparison of Modeled Backscatter using Measured Aerosol Microphysics with Focused CW Lidar Data over Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Vandana; Clarke, Antony D.; Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1997-01-01

    During NASA's GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) II flight mission over the Pacific Ocean in May-June 1990, extensive aerosol backscatter data sets from two continuous wave, focused CO2 Doppler lidars and an aerosol microphysics data set from a laser optical particle counter (LOPC) were obtained. Changes in aerosol loading in various air masses with associated changes in chemical composition, from sulfuric acid and sulfates to dustlike crustal material, significantly affected aerosol backscatter, causing variation of about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Some of the significant backscatter features encountered in different air masses were the low backscatter in subtropical air with even lower values in the tropics near the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), highly variable backscatter in the ITCZ, mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode, and high backscatter in an Asian dust plume off the Japanese coast. Differences in aerosol composition and backscatter for northern and southern hemisphere also were observed. Using the LOPC measurements of physical and chemical aerosol properties, we determined the complex refractive index from three different aerosol mixture models to calculate backscatter. These values provided a well-defined envelope of modeled backscatter for various atmospheric conditions, giving good agreement with the lidar data over a horizontal sampling of approximately 18000 km in the mid-troposphere.

  18. Aerosol and gas re-distribution by shallow cumulus clouds: An investigation using airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschuetz, Anna; Sorooshian, Armin; Ervens, Barbara; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Feingold, Graham; Murphy, Shane M.; de Gouw, Joost; Warneke, Carsten; Jonsson, Haflidi H.

    2012-09-01

    Aircraft measurements during the 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) are used to examine the influence of shallow cumulus clouds on vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, size distributions, and secondary aerosol precursor gases. The data show signatures of convective transport of particles, gases and moisture from near the surface to higher altitudes, and of aqueous-phase production of aerosol mass (sulfate and organics) in cloud droplets and aerosol water. In cloudy conditions, the average aerosol volume concentration at an altitude of 2850 m, above typical cloud top levels, was found to be 34% of that at 450 m; for clear conditions, the same ratio was 13%. Both organic and sulfate mass fractions were on average constant with altitude (around 50%); however, the ratio of oxalate to organic mass increased with altitude (from 1% at 450 m to almost 9% at 3450 m), indicative of the influence of in-cloud production on the vertical abundance and characteristics of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass. A new metric termed "residual cloud fraction" is introduced as a way of quantifying the "cloud processing history" of an air parcel. Results of a parcel model simulating aqueous phase production of sulfate and organics reproduce observed trends and point at a potentially important role of SOA production, especially oligomers, in deliquesced aerosols. The observations emphasize the importance of shallow cumulus clouds in altering the vertical distribution of aerosol properties that influence both their direct and indirect effect on climate.

  19. An automated online instrument to quantify aerosol-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) for ambient measurement and health-relevant aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wragg, Francis P. H.; Fuller, Stephen J.; Freshwater, Ray; Green, David C.; Kelly, Frank J.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient aerosol particles have been well documented, but it is still unclear which aerosol properties are most important for their negative health impact. Some studies suggest the oxidative effects of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potential major contributors to the toxicity of particles. Traditional ROS measurement techniques are labour-intensive, give poor temporal resolution and generally have significant delays between aerosol sampling and ROS analysis. However, many oxidising particle components are reactive and thus potentially short-lived. Thus, a technique to quantify particle-bound ROS online would be beneficial to quantify also the short-lived ROS components. We introduce a new portable instrument to allow online, continuous measurement of particle-bound ROS using a chemical assay of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), via fluorescence spectroscopy. All components of the new instrument are attached to a containing shell, resulting in a compact system capable of automated continuous field deployment over many hours or days. From laboratory measurements, the instrument was found to have a detection limit of ˜ 4 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per cubic metre (m3) air, a dynamic range up to at least ˜ 2000 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air and a time resolution of ≤ 12 min. The instrument allows for ˜ 16 h automated measurement if unattended and shows a fast response to changes in concentrations of laboratory-generated oxidised organic aerosol. The instrument was deployed at an urban site in London, and particulate ROS levels of up to 24 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air were detected with PM2.5 concentrations up to 28 µg m-3. The new and portable Online Particle-bound ROS Instrument (OPROSI) allows fast-response quantification; this is important due to the potentially short-lived nature of particle-bound ROS as well as fast-changing atmospheric conditions

  20. SAM 2 Measurements of the Polar Stratospheric Aerosol, volume 2. April 1979 to October 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Steele, H. M.; Hamill, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II sensor is abroad the Earth orbiting Nimbus 7 spacecraft proving extinction measurements of the Antarctic and Arctic stratospheric aerosol with a vertical resolution of 1 km. Representative examples and weekly averages of aerosol data and corresponding temperature profiles for the time and place of each SAM II measurement (April 29, 1979, to October 27, 1979) is presented. Contours of aerosol extinction as a function of altitude and longitude or time were plotted and weekly aerosol optical depths were calculated. Seasonal variations and variations in space (altitude and longitude) for both polar regions are easily seen. Typical values of aerosol extinction at the SAM II wavelength of 1.0 micron for the time priod were 1 to 3 x 10 to the -4th power km -1 in the main stratospheric aerosol layer. Optical depths for the stratosphere were about 0.002. Polar stratospheric clouds at altitudes between the tropopause and 20 km were observed during the Antarctic winter at various times and locations. A ready-to-use format containing a representative sample of the second 6 months of data to be used in atmospheric and climatic studies is presented.

  1. Aerosol Properties and Processes: A Path from Field and Laboratory Measurements to Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2007-07-01

    Aerosols exert a substantial influence on climate and climate change through a variety of complex mechanisms. Consequently there is a need to represent aerosol effects in global climate models, and models have begun to include representations of these effects. However, the treatment of aerosols in current global climate models is presently highly simplified, omitting many important processes and feedbacks. Consequently there is need for substantial improvement. Here we describe the U. S. Department of Energy strategy for improving the treatment of aerosol properties and processes in global climate models. The strategy begins with a foundation of field and laboratory measurements that provide the basis for modules of selected aerosol properties and processes. These modules are then integrated in regional aerosol models, which are evaluated by comparing with field measurements. Issues of scale are then addressed so that the modules can be applied to global aerosol models, which are evaluated by comparing with global satellite measurements. Finally, the validated set of modules are applied to global climate models for multi-century simulations. This strategy can be applied to successive generations of global climate models.

  2. Retrieval of Aerosol Parameters from Continuous H24 Lidar-Ceilometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Di Liberto, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Wille, H.

    2016-06-01

    Ceilometer technology is increasingly applied to the monitoring and the characterization of tropospheric aerosols. In this work, a method to estimate some key aerosol parameters (extinction coefficient, surface area concentration and volume concentration) from ceilometer measurements is presented. A numerical model has been set up to derive a mean functional relationships between backscatter and the above mentioned parameters based on a large set of simulated aerosol optical properties. A good agreement was found between the modeled backscatter and extinction coefficients and the ones measured by the EARLINET Raman lidars. The developed methodology has then been applied to the measurements acquired by a prototype Polarization Lidar-Ceilometer (PLC). This PLC instrument was developed within the EC- LIFE+ project "DIAPASON" as an upgrade of the commercial, single-channel Jenoptik CHM15k system. The PLC run continuously (h24) close to Rome (Italy) for a whole year (2013-2014). Retrievals of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm and of the relevant aerosol properties were performed using the proposed methodology. This information, coupled to some key aerosol type identification made possible by the depolarization channel, allowed a year-round characterization of the aerosol field at this site. Examples are given to show how this technology coupled to appropriate data inversion methods is potentially useful in the operational monitoring of parameters of air quality and meteorological interest.

  3. Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Beranek, Josef; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Hallar, Anna G.; McCubbin, Ian; Thornton, Joel A.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2013-12-09

    We present measurements of CCN concentrations and associated aerosol composition and size properties at a high-elevation research site in March 2011. CCN closure and aerosol hygroscopicity were assessed using simplified assumptions of bulk aerosol properties as well as a new method utilizing single particle composition and size to assess the importance of particle mixing state in CCN activation. Free troposphere analysis found no significant difference between the CCN activity of free tropospheric aerosol and boundary layer aerosol at this location. Closure results indicate that using only size and number information leads to adequate prediction, in the majority of cases within 50%, of CCN concentrations, while incorporating the hygroscopicity parameters of the individual aerosol components measured by single particle mass spectrometry adds to the agreement, in most cases within 20%, between predicted and measured CCN concentrations. For high-elevation continental sites, with largely aged aerosol and low amounts of local area emissions, a lack of chemical knowledge and hygroscopicity may not hinder models in predicting CCN concentrations. At sites influenced by fresh emissions or more heterogeneous particle types, single particle composition information may be more useful in predicting CCN concentrations and understanding the importance of particle mixing state on CCN activation.

  4. Mass spectroscopy of single aerosols from field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, D.S.; Murphy, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    We are developing an aircraft instrument for the chemical analysis of individual ambient aerosols in real time. In order to test the laboratory version of this instrument, we participated in a field campaign near the continental divide in Colorado in September, 1993. During this campaign, over 5000 mass spectra of ambient aerosols were collected. Analysis of the negative ion spectra shows that sulfate was the most commonly seen component of smaller particles, while nitrate was more common in larger particles. Organic compounds are present in most particles, and we believe we can distinguish inorganic carbon in some particles. Although numerous distinct classes of particles were observed, indicating external mixtures, almost all of these particle types were themselves mixtures of several compounds. Finally, we note that although the field site experienced distinct polluted and unpolluted episodes, aerosol composition did not correlate with gas phase chemistry.

  5. High T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by plasma aerosol mist deposition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X. W.; Vuong, K. D.; Leone, A.; Shen, C. Q.; Williams, J.; Coy, M.

    1995-01-01

    We report new results on high T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by a plasma aerosol mist deposition technique, in atmospheric environment. Materials fabricated are YBaCuO, BiPbSrCaCuO, BaCaCuO precursor films for TlBaCaCuO, and other buffers such as YSZ. Depending on processing conditions, sizes of crystallites and/or particles are between dozens of nano-meters and several micrometers. Superconductive properties and other material characteristics can also be tailored.

  6. Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Wind Profiles with the Double Edge Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Korb, C. Laurence; Mathur, Savyasachee; Chen, Huailin

    1998-01-01

    Research has established the importance of global tropospheric wind measurements for large scale improvements in numerical weather prediction. In addition, global wind measurements provide data that are fundamental to the understanding and prediction of global climate change. These tasks are closely linked with the goals of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise and Global Climate Change programs. NASA Goddard has been actively involved in the development of direct detection Doppler lidar methods and technologies to meet the wind observing needs of the atmospheric science community. A variety of direct detection Doppler wind lidar measurements have recently been reported indicating the growing interest in this area. Our program at Goddard has concentrated on the development of the edge technique for lidar wind measurements. Implementations of the edge technique using either the aerosol or molecular backscatter for the Doppler wind measurement have been described. The basic principles have been verified in lab and atmospheric lidar wind experiments. The lidar measurements were obtained with an aerosol edge technique lidar operating at 1064 nm. These measurements demonstrated high spatial resolution (22 m) and high velocity sensitivity (rms variances of 0.1 m/s) in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The aerosol backscatter is typically high in the PBL and the effects of the molecular backscatter can often be neglected. However, as was discussed in the original edge technique paper, the molecular contribution to the signal is significant above the boundary layer and a correction for the effects of molecular backscatter is required to make wind measurements. In addition, the molecular signal is a dominant source of noise in regions where the molecular to aerosol ratio is large since the energy monitor channel used in the single edge technique measures the sum of the aerosol and molecular signals. To extend the operation of the edge technique into the free troposphere we

  7. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Measured at Puijo Measurement Station: The effect of surrounding terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romakkaniemi, Sami; Hellsten, Antti; Ahmad, Irshad; Tonttila, Juha; Jaatinen, Antti; Portin, Harri; Leskinen, Ari; Hao, Liqing; Virtanen, Annele; Komppula, Mika

    2015-04-01

    Puijo measurement station has provided continuous data on aerosol-cloud interactions since 2006. The station is located on top of the Puijo observation tower (tower height 75m, measurement altitude 224 m above the surrounding lake level) in Kuopio, Finland. The top of the tower is covered by low altitude cloud about 15 % of days, offering perfect conditions for studying aerosol-cloud interactions. In the measurements, a twin-inlet setup (total and interstitial inlets) is used to separate the activated particles from the interstitial (non-activated) particles. The continuous twin-inlet measurements include aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption. In addition weather parameters and cloud droplet size distribution are measured continuously. During the campaigns the twin-inlet system is additionally equipped with aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC). This way we were able to define the differences in chemical composition of the activated and non-activated particles, and the number of potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in different supersaturations. As the tower is located on the top of a hill, it is possible that updrafts created by the hill are affecting the cloud droplet formation. In this study the terrain effect on wind fields around the measurement station was modelled using PALM Large Eddy Simulation model. The LES domain covered 15 km x 8 km area around the Puijo tower and extended up to 1 km height while the boundary-layer depth was about 370 m. The LES grid spacing was 5 m in the mean wind direction and 4 m in both cross-wind and vertical directions. The terrain topography needed was obtained from the National Land Survey of Finland with spatial resolution of 2 meters. Results from this work show that in some conditions the updrafts caused by the hill are affecting cloud droplet number concentration measured at the station. This is dependent on the wind speed and direction, and cloud base height. In

  8. Measurements of stratospheric ozone and aerosols above Spitsbergen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuber, Roland; Beyerle, Georg; Schrems, Otto; Fabian, Rolf; Vondergathen, Peter; Krueger, Bernd C.

    1994-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone and aerosol data recorded at Spitsbergen (79 deg N, 12 deg E) from 1988 to 1992 are presented. Strong dynamical influences like seasonal variations and annual cycles in the ozone concentrations are described. Polar Stratospheric Clouds were detected above Spitsbergen in January 1989 and 1990, but not in the next two years. Volcanic aerosols, attributed to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, appeared as early as August 1991 above Spitsbergen and were a constant feature of the lower Arctic stratosphere in winter 1991/92.

  9. Quantitative respirator fit testing: dynamic pressure versus aerosol measurement.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, D R; Willeke, K

    1988-10-01

    A noninvasive, fast, inexpensive new fit testing method has been invented which relates the slope of the pressure decay inside a respirator during breath-holding to the fit of the respirator on the wearer's face. The dynamic pressure test has been compared with the conventional aerosol test at different leakage levels. The results of this comparison show that the sensitivity of the dynamic pressure test is similar to that of the aerosol test. The pressure test, however, is independent of leak site and probe location and can be performed on respirators before and after their use.

  10. Mediterranean aerosol typing by integrating three-wavelength lidar and sun photometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Perrone, M R; Burlizzi, P

    2016-07-01

    Backscatter lidar measurements at 355, 532, and 1064 nm combined with aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs) from sun photometer measurements collocated in space and time were used to retrieve the vertical profiles of intensive and extensive aerosol parameters. Then, the vertical profiles of the Ångström coefficients for different wavelength pairs (Å(λ1, λ2, z)), the color ratio (CR(z)), the fine mode fraction (η(z)) at 532 nm, and the fine modal radius (R f (z)), which represent aerosol characteristic properties independent from the aerosol load, were used for typing the aerosol over the Central Mediterranean. The ability of the Ångström coefficients to identify the main aerosol types affecting the Central Mediterranean with the support of the backward trajectory analysis was first demonstrated. Three main aerosol types, which were designed as continental-polluted (CP), marine-polluted (MP), and desert-polluted (DP), were identified. We found that both the variability range and the vertical profile structure of the tested aerosol intensive parameters varied with the aerosol type. The variability range and the altitude dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, also varied with the identified aerosol types even if they are extensive aerosol parameters. DP, MP, and CP aerosols were characterized by the Å(532, 1064 nm) mean values ± 1 standard deviation equal to 0.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.2, respectively. η(%) mean values ± 1SD were equal to 50 ± 10, 73 ± 7, and 86 ± 6 for DP, MP, and CP aerosols, respectively. The R f and CR mean values ± 1SD were equal to 0.16 ± 0.05 μm and 1.3 ± 0.3, respectively, for DP aerosols; to 0.12 ± 0.03 μm and 1.8 ± 0.4, respectively, for MP aerosols; and to 0.11 ± 0.02 μm and 1.7 ± 0.4, respectively, for CP aerosols. CP and DP aerosols were on average responsible for greater AOT and LR values, but

  11. Novel polarization-sensitive micropulse lidar measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Connor J.; Mendoza, Albert; Zheng, Yunhui; Mathur, Savyasachee

    2007-03-19

    Polarization-sensitive detection of elastic backscatter is useful for detection of cloud phase and depolarizing aerosols. The U.S. DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program has deployed micropulse lidar (MPL) for over a decade, but without polarized detection. Adding an actively-controlled liquid crystal retarder provides the capability to identify depolarizing particles by alternately transmitting linearly and circularly polarized light. This represents a departure from established techniques which transmit exclusively linear polarization or exclusively circular polarization. Mueller matrix calculations yield simple relationships between the well-known linear depolarization ratio δlinear, the circular depolarization ratio δcirc, and the hybrid MPL depolarization ratio δMPL. This research was supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program.

  12. Fast Airborne Aerosol Size and Chemistry Measurements with the High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer during the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCarlo, P. F.; Dunlea, E. J.; Kimmel, J. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Sueper, D.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Emmons, L.; Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A.; Zhou, J.; Tomlinson, J.; Collins,D. R.; Knapp, D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka,D. D.; Campos,T.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration, size, and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM(sub l)) was measured over Mexico City and central Mexico with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. This was the first aircraft deployment of the HR-ToF-AMS. During the campaign the instrument performed very well, and provided 12 s data. The aerosol mass from the AMS correlates strongly with other aerosol measurements on board the aircraft. Organic aerosol (OA) species dominate the NR-PM(sub l) mass. OA correlates strongly with CO and HCN indicating that pollution (mostly secondary OA, SOA) and biomass burning (BB) are the main OA sources. The OA to CO ratio indicates a typical value for aged air of around 80 microg/cubic m (STP) ppm(exp -1). This is within the range observed in outflow from the Northeastern US, which could be due to a compensating effect between higher BB but lower biogenic VOC emissions during this study. The O/C atomic ratio for OA is calculated from the HR mass spectra and shows a clear increase with photochemical age, as SOA forms rapidly and quickly overwhelms primary urban OA, consistent with Volkamer et al. (2006) and Kleinman et al. (2008). The stability of the OA/CO while O/C increases with photochemical age implies a net loss of carbon from the OA. BB OA is marked by signals at m/z 60 and 73, and also by a signal enhancement at large m/z indicative of larger molecules or more resistance to fragmentation. The main inorganic components show different spatial patterns and size distributions. Sulfate is regional in nature with clear volcanic and petrochemical/power plant sources, while the urban area is not a major regional source for this species. Nitrate is enhanced significantly in the urban area and immediate outflow, and is strongly correlated with CO indicating a strong urban source. The importance of nitrate decreases with distance from the city

  13. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors

  14. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  15. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  16. Shortwave radiative forcing efficiency of urban aerosols--a case study using ground based measurements.

    PubMed

    Latha, K Madhavi; Badarinath, K V S

    2005-01-01

    Aerosols reduce the surface reaching solar flux by scattering the incoming solar radiation out to space. Various model studies on climate change suggest that surface cooling induced by aerosol scattering is the largest source of uncertainty in predicting the future climate. In the present study measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its direct radiative forcing efficiency has been presented over a typical tropical urban environment namely Hyderabad during December, 2003. Measurements of AOD have been carried out using MICROTOPS-II sunphotometer, black carbon aerosol mass concentration using Aethalometer, total aerosol mass concentration using channel Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Impactor Particle analyser and direct normal solar irradiance using Multifilter Rotating Shadow Band Radiometer (MFRSR). Diurnal variation of AOD showed high values during afternoon hours. The fraction of BC estimated to be approximately 9% in the total aerosol mass concentration over the study area. Results of the study suggest -62.5 Wm(-2) reduction in the ground reaching shortwave flux for every 0.1 increase in aerosol optical depth. The results have been discussed in the paper.

  17. Model simulations of the first aerosol indirect effect and comparison of cloud susceptibility fo satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C; Penner, J E; Kawamoto, K

    2002-03-08

    Present-day global anthropogenic emissions contribute more than half of the mass in submicron particles primarily due to sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol components derived from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. These anthropogenic aerosols modify the microphysics of clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the reflectivity of low-level water clouds, leading to a cooling effect on climate (the Twomey effect or first indirect effect). The magnitude of the first aerosol indirect effect is associated with cloud frequency as well as a quantity representing the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in cloud drop number concentration. This quantity is referred to as cloud susceptibility [Twomey, 1991]. Analysis of satellite measurements demonstrates that marine stratus clouds are likely to be of higher susceptibility than continental clouds because of their lower number concentrations of cloud drops [Platnick and Twomey, 1994]. Here, we use an improved version of the fully coupled climate/chemistry model [Chuang et al., 1997] to calculate the global concentrations Of sulfate, dust, sea salt, and carbonaceous aerosols (biomass smoke and fossil fuel organic matter and black carbon). We investigated the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud susceptibility and calculated the associated changes of shortwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We also examined the correspondence between the model simulation of cloud susceptibility and that inferred from satellite measurements to test whether our simulated aerosol concentrations and aerosol/cloud interactions give a faithful representation of these features.

  18. Aerosol microphysical processes and properties in Canadian boreal forest fire plumes measured during BORTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko; Allen, James; Coe, Hugh; Taylor, Jonathan; Duck, Thomas; Pierce, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions contribute significantly to aerosol concentrations and clound condensation nuclei in many regions of the atmosphere. Plume-aerosol characteristics vary according to age, fuel type, and region. These differences are poorly represented in regional and global aerosol models, and they contribute to large uncertainties in predicted size distributions in biomass-burning-dominated regions. The Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) measurement campaign was designed to invesigate boreal biomass burning emissions over Atlantic Canada during July-August of 2011. Aged (2-3 days) biomass burning aerosols originating from western Ontario were measured by an SMPS and AMS on board the British Atmospheric Research Aircraft. We identify the presence of plumes using CO concentrations and acetonitrile enhancement ratios. In-plume aerosol size distributions were collected for six aged plume profiles. The size distributions show an accumulation-mode median diameter of ~240 nm. However, there are persistant nucleation and Aitken modes present in the profiles, even 2-3 days from the source. Without continuous nucleation and condensation (likely SOA production), these small modes would be lost by coagulation in less than 1 day. We use an aerosol microphysics plume model to estimate the mean nucleation and condensation rates necessary to maintain the small aerosols, and calculate how these processes enhance the total number of particles and cloud condensation nuclei in the aged plume.

  19. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  20. Advanced IMCW Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel; lin, bing; nehrir, amin; harrison, fenton; obland, michael

    2015-04-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation.

  1. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  2. Validation of LIRIC aerosol concentration retrievals using airborne measurements during a biomass burning episode over Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Amiridis, Vassilis; Allan, James D.; Papayannis, Alexandros; Solomos, Stavros; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Nenes, Athanasios; Rosenberg, Philip D.; Marenco, Franco; Marinou, Eleni; Vasilescu, Jeni; Nicolae, Doina; Coe, Hugh; Bacak, Asan; Chaikovsky, Anatoli

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we validate the Lidar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) retrievals of the aerosol concentration in the fine mode, using the airborne aerosol chemical composition dataset obtained over the Greater Athens Area (GAA) in Greece, during the ACEMED campaign. The study focuses on the 2nd of September 2011, when a long-range transported smoke layer was observed in the free troposphere over Greece, in the height range from 2 to 3 km. CIMEL sun-photometric measurements revealed high AOD ( 0.4 at 532 nm) and Ångström exponent values ( 1.7 at 440/870 nm), in agreement with coincident ground-based lidar observations. Airborne chemical composition measurements performed over the GAA, revealed increased CO volume concentration ( 110 ppbv), with 57% sulphate dominance in the PM1 fraction. For this case, we compare LIRIC retrievals of the aerosol concentration in the fine mode with the airborne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) measurements. Our analysis shows that the remote sensing retrievals are in a good agreement with the measured airborne in-situ data from 2 to 4 km. The discrepancies observed between LIRIC and airborne measurements at the lower troposphere (below 2 km), could be explained by the spatial and temporal variability of the aerosol load within the area where the airborne data were averaged along with the different time windows of the retrievals.

  3. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  4. A review on creatinine measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad

    2012-08-15

    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques.

  5. Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Birmili, W.; Chi, X.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Mikhailov, E.; Panov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. at a very remote continental site in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties. The instrumentation at the observatory includes a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until March 2011, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of the background CO mixing rations was observed with summer minima around 90 ppb and winter maxima of about 175 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were generally similar to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N, but showed an earlier onset of the elevated winter values. Episodes of elevated CO and aerosol concentrations, typically lasting for several days, are superimposed on the background seasonal cycle. During winter, these pollution episodes are usually associated with air masses that have passed over the central Siberian region around Omsk and Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During spring and summer, elevated levels of CO and aerosols are often caused by agricultural fires in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan or by forest fires in boreal Siberia. The optical properties of the aerosol showed more pronounced seasonal variability than the aerosol mass and number concentrations. Wintertime aerosols were highly absorbing, with single scattering albedos (SSA) around 0.85, consistent with a dominant fossil fuel combustion source. In contrast, summertime aerosols had very low absorption

  6. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    The MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris, using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), giving detailed information on the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of black carbon (BC), measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), BC, and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy)). Plotting the equivalent ratios of different organic aerosol species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in London, Mexico City, and in New England, USA. Using the measured SOA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species together with organic aerosol formation

  7. Aerosol direct effect retrieval over clouds from space-borne passive hyperspectral measurements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, M.; Tilstra, L.; Stammes, P.

    2013-12-01

    A novel approach for the retrieval of the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds will be presented, which is independent of aerosol parameters estimates. The direct effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) of aerosols over clouds can be estimated using hyperspectral reflectance measurements from space-borne spectrometers, when the equivalent aerosol-unpolluted cloud scene reflectance spectrum is known. For smoke over clouds the cloud parameters can be estimated from the shortwave infrared (SWIR), where the absorption of the small smoke particles becomes sufficiently small. Using precomputed tables of cloud reflectance spectra, the unpolluted cloud scene spectrum can then be simulated and compared to the real measured polluted cloud scene reflectance spectrum. The UV-radiation absorption by the smoke will lead to a difference between the measured and simulated spectra, which is proportional to the aerosol DRE at TOA. Aerosol microphysical assumptions and retrievals are avoided by modeling only the aerosol-free scene spectra, all the aerosol effects are in the reflectance measurements. The method works especially well for cloud scenes, which can be simulated relatively accurately. An algorithm was developed to derive the aerosol DRE over marine clouds, using the space-borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY, which produced shortwave reflectance spectra (from 240 to 1700 nm contiguously) from 2002 till 2012. These are ideally suited to study the effect of aerosols on the shortwave spectrum. However, since aerosols in general do not have high resolution spectral features, the algorithm can be adapted to suit data from any combination of instruments that measures UV, visible and SWIR reflectances simultaneously. Examples include OMI and MODIS, flying in the A-Train constellation, and TROPOMI, on the future Sentinel 5 precursor mission, combined with NOAA's NPP VIIRS. This would produce aerosol DRE estimates with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution. The

  8. Direct aerosol chemical composition measurements to evaluate the physicochemical differences between controlled sea spray aerosol generation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. B.; Zhao, D. F.; Ruppel, M. J.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Modini, R. L.; Stokes, M. D.; Russell, L. M.; Bertram, T. H.; Grassian, V. H.; Deane, G. B.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-11-01

    Controlled laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of sea spray aerosol (SSA) must be under-pinned by a physically and chemically accurate representation of the bubble-mediated production of nascent SSA particles. Bubble bursting is sensitive to the physico-chemical properties of seawater. For a sample of seawater, any important differences in the SSA production mechanism are projected into the composition of the aerosol particles produced. Using direct chemical measurements of SSA at the single-particle level, this study presents an intercomparison of three laboratory-based, bubble-mediated SSA production schemes: gas forced through submerged sintered glass filters ("frits"), a pulsed plunging-waterfall apparatus, and breaking waves in a wave channel filled with natural seawater. The size-resolved chemical composition of SSA particles produced by breaking waves is more similar to particles produced by the plunging waterfall than those produced by sintered glass filters. Aerosol generated by disintegrating foam produced by sintered glass filters contained a larger fraction of organic-enriched particles and a different size-resolved elemental composition, especially in the 0.8-2 μm dry diameter range. Interestingly, chemical differences between the methods only emerged when the particles were chemically analyzed at the single-particle level as a function of size; averaging the elemental composition of all particles across all sizes masked the differences between the SSA samples. When dried, SSA generated by the sintered glass filters had the highest fraction of particles with spherical morphology compared to the more cubic structure expected for pure NaCl particles produced when the particle contains relatively little organic carbon. In addition to an intercomparison of three SSA production methods, the role of the episodic or "pulsed" nature of the waterfall method on SSA composition was under-taken. In organic-enriched seawater, the continuous

  9. Development of algorithm for retrieving aerosols over land surfaces from NEMO-AM polarized measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Mehul R.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a large effect on the Earth radiation budget through its direct and indirect effects. A systematic assessment of aerosol effects on Earth's climate requires global mapping of tropospheric aerosols through satellite remote sensing. However aerosol retrieval over land surface remains a challenging task due to bright background of the land surfaces. Polarized measurements can provide an improved aerosol sensing by providing a means of decoupling the surface and atmospheric contribution. The Indian Space Research Organisation has planned a Multi- Angle Dual-Polarization Instrument (MADPI) onboard a Nano satellite for Earth Monitoring & Observations for Aerosol Monitoring (NEMO-AM). MADPI has three spectral bands in blue, red and near infrared spectral regions with a nominal spatial resolution of 30 m from an altitude of 500 km polar orbit. A study has been taken up with the aim of development of an algorithm for retrieving aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over land surfaces from NEMO-AM polarized measurements. The study has three major components: (1) detailed theoretical modelling exercise for computing the atmospheric and surface polarized contributions, (2) modelling of total satellite-level polarized contribution, and (3) retrieval of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) by comparing the modelled and measured polarized signals. The algorithm has been developed for MADPI/NEMO-AM spectral bands and tested successfully on similar spectral bands of POLDER/PARASOL measurements to retrieve AOT over Indian landmass having diverse atmospheric conditions. POLDER-derived AOT fields were compared with MODIS-AOT products. Results showed a very good match (R2 0.69, RMSE 0.07). Initial results have provided encouraging results, however, comprehensive analysis and testing has to be carried out for establishing the proposed algorithm for retrieving AOT from NEMO-AM measurements.

  10. Uncertainty in Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) Doppler Lidar Products and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmer, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is both a high spectral resolution lidar and Doppler lidar currently being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as a demonstrator instrument for NASA’s Aerosol Cloud Ecosystem (ACE) Mission. CATS is intended to fly on NASA’s high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. CATS will be capable of measuring both aerosol properties and horizontal wind velocity as a function of altitude. The accuracy of these measurements is important to the success of the instrument and the ACE mission. Uncertainty equations for both the aerosol and wind products are derived. Initially the only sources of error are assumed to be instrument error in the spectral measurements. Using simulated CATS spectral measurements from simulated atmospheric profiles (an atmosphere with only a cirrus layer, an atmosphere with only a cumulus layer, an atmosphere with only an aerosol layer, and an atmosphere with no clouds or aerosols), the uncertainty in the aerosol and wind products are calculated. These calculated uncertainties are found to be within reason. Also worthy of consideration is the effect of aircraft motion on CATS’ wind measurements and products. An equation for the the nadir angle (assumed to be about 45 degrees for CATS), as well as the uncertainty in this angle, in terms of aircraft pitch and roll is derived. The effect of uncertainty in this angle on the uncertainty in CATS aerosol and wind products is calculated using the same simulated data previously mentioned, which is found to be insignificant for normal, steady flight.

  11. Aerosol measurements over the Pacific Ocean in support of the IR aerosol backscatter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Savoie, Dennis L.

    1995-01-01

    The major efforts under NASA contract NAG8-841 included: (1) final analyses of the samples collected during the first GLOBE survey flight that occurred in November 1989 and collections and analysis of aerosol samples during the second GLOBE survey flight in May and June 1990. During the first GLOBE survey flight, daily samples were collected at four stations (Midway, Rarotonga, American Samoa, and Norfolk Island) throughout the month of November 1989. Weekly samples were collected at Shemya, Alaska, and at Karamea, New Zealand. During the second GLOBE survey flight, daily samples were collected at Midway, Oahu, American Samoa, Rarotonga, and Norfolk Island; weekly samples were collected at Shemya. These samples were all analyzed for sodium (sea-salt), chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and methanesulfonate at the University of Miami and for aluminum at the University of Rhode Island (under a subcontract). (2) Samples continued to be collected on a weekly basis at all stations during the periods between and after the survey flights. These weekly samples were also analyzed at the University of Miami for the suite of water-soluble species. (3) In August 1990, the results obtained from the above studies were submitted to the appropriate personnel at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to become part of the GLOBE data base for comparison with data from instruments used aboard the aircraft. In addition, the data will be compared with data previously obtained at these stations as part of the Sea-Air Exchange (SEAREX) Program. This comparison will provide valuable information on the representativeness of the periods in terms of the longer term aerosol climatology over the Pacific Ocean. (4) Several publications have been written using data from this grant. The data will continue to be used in the future as part of a continuing investigation of the long-term trends and interannual variations in aerosol species concentrations over the Pacific Ocean.

  12. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Chen, Gao; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  13. Multiwavelength Comparison of Modeled and Measured Remote Tropospheric Aerosol Backscatter Over Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, D. R.; Pueschel, R. F.; Srivastava, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Rothermel, J.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Menzies, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    Aerosol concentrations and size distributions in the middle and upper troposphere over the remote Pacific Ocean were measured with a forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during NASA's Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) in May-June 1990. The FSSP size channels were recalibrated based on refractive index estimates from flight-level aerosol volatility measurements with a collocated laser optical particle counter (LOPC). The recalibrated FSSP size distributions were averaged over 100-s intervals, fitted with lo-normal distributions and used to calculate aerosol backscatter coefficients at selected wavelengths. The FSSP-derived backscatter estimates were averaged over 300-s intervals to reduce large random fluctuations. The smoothed FSSP aerosol backscatter coefficients were then compared with LOPC-derived backscatter values and with backscatter measured at or near flight level from four lidar systems operating at 0.53, 1.06, 9.11, 9.25, and 10.59 micrometers. Agreement between FSSP-derived and lidar-measured backscatter was generally best at flight level in homogeneous aerosol fields and at high backscatter values. FSSP data often underestimated low backscatter values especially at the longer wavelengths due to poor counting statistics for larger particles (greater than 0.8 micrometers diameter) that usually dominate aerosol backscatter at these wavelengths. FSSP data also underestimated backscatter at shorter wavelengths when particles smaller than the FSSP lower cutoff diameter (0.35 micrometers) made significant contributions to the total backscatter.

  14. Monitoring of Sahelian aerosol and Atmospheric water vapor content characteristics from sun photometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizoun, C. A.; Podaire, A.; Dedieu, G.

    1994-11-01

    Atmospheric measurements in two Sahelian sites in West Africa are presented and analyzed. The measurements were performed using a sun photometer with five bands in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum. This instrument measures spectral values of the solar irradiances that are used to derive the aerosol optical thickness in three bands; the two other bands are used to derive the integrated atmospheric water vapor content using a differential absorption method. The Angstroem exponent, which is an estimate of the aerosol particle size, is derived from the spectral dependence of the optical thickness. Although the sites were located far from Sahara Desert aerosol sources, the observed aerosol optical thicknesses were high, with a mean annual value of 0.5 at 550 nm. The spectral dependence of aerosol optical thickness is generally low, with a mean annual value of Angstroem exponent of 0.4. The aerosol optical thickness and the atmosphereic water vapor content are both characterized by high temporal variability and exhibit seasonal cycles. From these measurements, climatological values and associated probability distribution laws are proposed.

  15. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-04-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, was developed and tested using recent data from Thessaloniki, Greece. The effective AOD calculated using this method was found to agree well with co-located AERONET measurements, exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with 2/3 of the data found within ±20% or ±0.05 of the AERONET AOD. This is similar to the performance of current satellite aerosol methods. Differences in the AOD as compared to AERONET can be explained by variations in the aerosol properties of the atmosphere that are not accounted for in the idealized settings used in the radiative transfer simulations, such as variations in the single scattering albedo and Ångström exponent. Furthermore, the method is sensitive to calibration offsets between the radiative transfer simulations and the pyranometer SSR. The method provides an opportunity of extending our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol load to locations and times not covered by dedicated aerosol measurements.

  16. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, was developed and tested using recent data from Thessaloniki, Greece. The effective AOD calculated using this method was found to agree well with co-located AERONET measurements, exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with 2/3 of the data found within ±20% or ±0.05 of the AERONET AOD. This is similar to the performance of current satellite aerosol methods. Differences in the AOD as compared to AERONET can be explained by variations in the aerosol properties of the atmosphere that are not accounted for in the idealized settings used in the radiative transfer simulations, such as variations in the single scattering albedo and Ångström exponent. Furthermore, the method is sensitive to calibration offsets between the radiative transfer simulations and the pyranometer SSR. The method provides an opportunity of extending our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol load to locations and times not covered by dedicated aerosol measurements.

  17. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Aerosol and Ozone Above the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, M.; Whiteway, J. A.; Seabrook, J.; Gray, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. The field campaign was carried out with a total of five flights out of Fort McMurray, Alberta during the period between August 22 and August 26, 2013. Significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to a height of 1.6 km, but the ozone concentration remained at or below background levels. On August 24th the lidar observed a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 1.8 km, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppbv. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, in the pollution from the oil sands industry, the measured ozone mixing ratio was lower than the background levels (≤35 ppbv).

  18. MAX-DOAS measurements of aerosol, HCHO, and NO2 over Los Angeles from an elevated mountaintop site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Ross

    MAX-DOAS measurements of aerosol, HCHO, and NO2 over Los Angeles from an elevated mountaintop site. By. Ross Cheung. Doctor of Philosophy in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. University of California, Los Angeles, 2016. Professor Jochen Stutz, Chair. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) has become a popular technique for measuring atmospheric trace gases using UV/Vis narrow-band absorption features along a light path through the atmosphere. The UCLA Multi-Axis DOAS instrument (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based spectrometer currently located at Mt. Wilson, California (1700 meters above sea level) that measures solar scattered light at various viewing elevation angles. Since May of 2010, it has been taking regular measurements of atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer of the atmosphere in and above the Los Angeles Basin. This thesis presents the experimental setup and spectral retrievals, as well as results of our observations of measurements of NO2 and HCHO from Mt. Wilson. Radiative transfer modeling efforts of the deployment at Mt. Wilson will be presented, as well as our efforts to model and account for the effects of clouds and aerosols on MAX-DOAS measurements. Because of the unique challenges presented by aerosols in the ultraviolet and visible light region in a polluted urban boundary layer, new techniques were developed to account for and quantify these effects. Observations of path-integrated NO2 and HCHO, some of the primary precursors to ozone formation in the lower troposphere, as well as aerosol extinctions using the UCLA MAX-DOAS will be presented, and the advantages of a mountaintop measurement strategy will be discussed in light of the amount of vertical information that can be retrieved from this approach. The techniques developed to improve the optimal estimation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles and trace gas concentration profiles will be discussed. Finally, an application of these observations uses the ratio of HCHO/NO2 to

  19. A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984-1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Deshler, T.

    1997-04-01

    A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density has been developed using the multiwavelength aerosol extinction measurements of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II for 1984-1994. The spatial and temporal variability of aerosol surface area density at 15.5, 20.5, and 25.5 km are presented as well as cumulative statistical distributions as a function of altitude and latitude. During this period, which encompassed the injection and dissipation of the aerosol associated with the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption as well as the low loading period of 1989-1991, aerosol surface area density varied by more than a factor 30 at some altitudes. Aerosol surface area density derived from SAGE II and from the University of Wyoming optical particle counters are compared for 1991-1994 and are shown to be in generally good agreement though some differences are noted. An extension of the climatology using single-wavelength measurements by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (1978-1994) and SAGE (1979-1981) instruments is also presented.

  20. New Approach for Near-Real-Time Measurement of Elemental Composition of Aerosol Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Prasoon; Kulkarni, Pramod; Birch, M. Eileen

    2015-01-01

    A new approach has been developed for making near-real-time measurement of elemental composition of aerosols using plasma spectroscopy. The method allows preconcentration of miniscule particle mass (pg to ng) directly from the sampled aerosol stream through electrostatic deposition of charged particles (30–900 nm) onto a flat-tip microneedle electrode. The collected material is subsequently ablated from the electrode and monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Atomic emission spectra were collected using a broadband spectrometer with a wavelength range of 200–980 nm. A single-sensor delay time of 1.3 μs was used in the spectrometer for all elements to allow simultaneous measurement of multiple elements. The system was calibrated for various elements including Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Na, and Ti. The absolute mass detection limits for these elements were experimentally determined and found to be in the range of 0.018–5 ng. The electrostatic collection technique has many advantages over other substrate-based methods involving aerosol collection on a filter or its focused deposition using an aerodynamic lens. Because the particle mass is collected over a very small area that is smaller than the spatial extent of the laser-induced plasma, the entire mass is available for analysis. This considerably improves reliability of the calibration and enhances measurement accuracy and precision. Further, the aerosol collection technique involves very low pressure drop, thereby allowing higher sample flow rates with much smaller pumps—a desirable feature for portable instrumentation. Higher flow rates also make it feasible to measure trace element concentrations at part per trillion levels. Detection limits in the range of 18–670 ng m−3 can be achieved for most of the elements studied at a flow rate of 1.5 L min−1 with sampling times of 5 min. PMID:26692632

  1. New Approach for Near-Real-Time Measurement of Elemental Composition of Aerosol Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Prasoon; Kulkarni, Pramod; Birch, M Eileen

    A new approach has been developed for making near-real-time measurement of elemental composition of aerosols using plasma spectroscopy. The method allows preconcentration of miniscule particle mass (pg to ng) directly from the sampled aerosol stream through electrostatic deposition of charged particles (30-900 nm) onto a flat-tip microneedle electrode. The collected material is subsequently ablated from the electrode and monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Atomic emission spectra were collected using a broadband spectrometer with a wavelength range of 200-980 nm. A single-sensor delay time of 1.3 μs was used in the spectrometer for all elements to allow simultaneous measurement of multiple elements. The system was calibrated for various elements including Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Na, and Ti. The absolute mass detection limits for these elements were experimentally determined and found to be in the range of 0.018-5 ng. The electrostatic collection technique has many advantages over other substrate-based methods involving aerosol collection on a filter or its focused deposition using an aerodynamic lens. Because the particle mass is collected over a very small area that is smaller than the spatial extent of the laser-induced plasma, the entire mass is available for analysis. This considerably improves reliability of the calibration and enhances measurement accuracy and precision. Further, the aerosol collection technique involves very low pressure drop, thereby allowing higher sample flow rates with much smaller pumps-a desirable feature for portable instrumentation. Higher flow rates also make it feasible to measure trace element concentrations at part per trillion levels. Detection limits in the range of 18-670 ng m(-3) can be achieved for most of the elements studied at a flow rate of 1.5 L min(-1) with sampling times of 5 min.

  2. An automated analyzer to measure surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of water soluble inorganic aerosol compounds and reactive trace gases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rick M; Trebs, Ivonne; Otjes, René; Jongejan, Piet A C; Ten Brink, Harry; Phillips, Gavin; Kortner, Michael; Meixner, Franz X; Nemitz, Eiko

    2009-03-01

    Here, we present a new automated instrument for semicontinuous gradient measurements of water-soluble reactive trace gas species (NH3, HNO3, HONO, HCl, and SO2) and their related aerosol compounds (NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-)). Gas and aerosol samples are collected simultaneously at two heights using rotating wet-annular denuders and steam-jet aerosol collectors, respectively. Online (real-time) analysis using ion chromatography (IC) for anions and flow injection analysis (FIA) for NH4+ and NH3 provide a half-hourly averaged gas and aerosol gradients within each hour. Through the use of syringe pumps, IC preconcentration columns, and high-quality purified water, the system achieves detection limits (3sigma-definition) under field conditions of typically: 136/207,135/114, 29/ 22,119/92, and 189/159 ng m(-3) for NH3/NH4+, HNO3/NO3-, HONO/ NO2-, HCl/Cl- and SO2/SO4(2-), respectively. The instrument demonstrates very good linearity and accuracy for liquid and selected gas phase calibrations over typical ambient concentration ranges. As shown by examples from field experiments, the instrument provides sufficient precision (3-9%), even at low ambient concentrations, to resolve vertical gradients and calculate surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes undertypical meteorological conditions of the atmospheric surface layer using the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  3. Comparison of Aerosol Classification Results from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Measurements and the Calipso Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Froyd, K. D.; Omar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the vertical profile, composition, concentration, and size of aerosols is required for assessing the direct impact of aerosols on radiation, the indirect effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation, and attributing these effects to natural and anthropogenic aerosols. Because anthropogenic aerosols are predominantly submicrometer, fine mode fraction (FMF) retrievals from satellite have been used as a tool for deriving anthropogenic aerosols. Although column and profile satellite retrievals of FMF have been performed over the ocean, such retrievals have not yet been been done over land. Consequently, uncertainty in satellite estimates of the anthropogenic component of the aerosol direct radiative forcing is greatest over land, due in large part to uncertainties in the FMF. Satellite measurements have been used to detect and evaluate aerosol impacts on clouds; however, such efforts have been hampered by the difficulty in retrieving vertically-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, which is the most direct parameter linking aerosol and clouds. Recent studies have shown correlations between average satellite derived column aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and in situ measured CCN. However, these same studies, as well as others that use detailed airborne in situ measurements have noted that vertical variability of the aerosol distribution, impacts of relative humidity, and the presence of coarse mode aerosols such as dust introduce large uncertainties in such relations.

  4. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  5. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques, which involves some investigations related to measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand, is reported. A major part of the activity was devoted to instruction and discussion with Thai radar engineers, technicians, and meteorologists concerning the basic principles of radar meteorology and applications to specific problems, including measurement of rainfall and detection of wind shear/microburst hazards. Weather radar calibration techniques were also considered during this project. Most of the activity took place during two visits to Thailand, in December 1990 and February 1992.

  6. Measurement and Modeling Results on the Evolution of Aerosol Size Distributions in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreini, R.; Kazil, J.; Reeves, J. M.; Froyd, K. D.; Wilson, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol particles in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) affect local chemistry and radiation balance due to their role in heterogeneous reactions and contribution to light scattering. Tropical UTLS particles also act as a source of lower stratospheric aerosol populations in the mid-latitudes. Therefore, understanding the processes controlling evolution of the particles in the tropical UTLS is of great importance. We present measurements of aerosol size distributions (4-1000 nm) in the tropics during winter (Pre-AVE, 2004 and CRAVE, 2006) and summer (TC4, 2007), using NMASS (Nuclei Mode Aerosol Size Spectrometer) and FCAS (Focused Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer) instruments aboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft. At altitudes below the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), integrated number and volume distributions indicate a factor of 2-5 variability between 2004 and 2006, reflecting the influence of different air mass origins on the local aerosol population. However, above TTL, the distributions are unified, without a significant change between the two years. Furthermore, above the TTL, number fraction of nucleation mode particles decreases from up to 90% to <40% while total aerosol volume and the volume fraction of particles larger than 350 nm increase. We use an aerosol dynamic model (MAIA, Kazil et al. (2007), Weigel et al. (2011)), constrained by observations to account for the horizontal air mass mixing from mid-latitudes, to simulate aerosol evolution in the tropical UTLS. We will discuss the results of MAIA's sensitivity runs along with the available aerosol composition information to gain insight into the processes controlling the increase in aerosol volume above the TTL. We will also use 2007 observations and MAIA's model results to compare winter-summer aerosol growth processes in the tropical UTLS. Kazil, J., et al., Is aerosol formation in cirrus clouds possible?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1407-1413, doi:10.5194/acp-7-1407-2007, 2007. Weigel et al., In situ

  7. SAGE aerosol measurements. Volume 1: February 21, 1979 to December 31, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite system, launched on February 18, 1979, provides profiles of aerosol extinction, ozone concentration, and nitrogen dioxide concentration between about 80 N and 80 S. Zonal averages, separated into sunrise and sunset events, and seasonal averages of the aerosol extinction at 1.00 microns and 0.45 microns ratios of the aerosol extinction to the molecular extinction at 1.00 microns, and ratios of the aerosol extinction at 0.45 microns to the aerosol extinction at 1.00 microns are given. The averages for 1979 are shown in tables and in profile and contour plots (as a function of altitude and latitude). In addition, temperature data provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the time and location of each SAGE measurement are averaged and shown in a similar format. Typical values of the peak aerosol extinction were 0.0001 to 0.0002 km at 1.00 microns depth values for the 1.00 microns channel varied between 0.001 and 0.002 over all latitudes.

  8. Measurement-based estimates of direct radiative effects of absorbing aerosols above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2015-07-01

    The elevated layers of absorbing smoke aerosols from western African (e.g., Gabon and Congo) biomass burning activities have been frequently observed above low-level stratocumulus clouds off the African coast, which presents an excellent natural laboratory for studying the effects of aerosols above clouds (AAC) on regional energy balance in tropical and subtropical environments. Using spatially and temporally collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System data sets, the top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol direct shortwave radiative effects (ARE) of absorbing aerosols above low-level water clouds in the southeast Atlantic Ocean was examined in this study. The regional averaged instantaneous ARE has been estimated to be 36.7 ± 20.5 Wm-2 (regional mean ± standard deviation) along with a mean positive OMI Aerosol Index at 1.3 in August 2006 based on multisensors measurements. The highest magnitude of instantaneous ARE can even reach 138.2 Wm-2. We assess that the 660 nm cloud optical depth (COD) values of 8-12 is the critical value above (below) which aerosol absorption (scattering) effect dominates and further produces positive (negative) ARE values. The results further show that ARE values are more sensitive to aerosols above lower COD values than cases for higher COD values. This is among the first studies to provide quantitative estimates of shortwave ARE due to AAC events from an observational perspective.

  9. The sensitivity to polarization in stratospheric aerosol retrievals from limb scattered sunlight measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elash, B. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Rieger, L. A.; Dueck, S. R.; Zawada, D. J.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Satellite measurements of limb scattered sunlight at visible and near infrared wavelengths have been used successfully for several years to retrieve the vertical profile of stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient. The existing satellite measurements are of the total radiance, with very little knowledge or impact of the polarization state of the limb radiance. Recently proposed instrument concepts for stratospheric aerosol profiling have been designed to measure the linearly polarized radiance. Yet, to date, the impact of the polarized measurement on the retrievals has not been systematically studied. Here we use a fully spherical, multiple scattering radiative transfer model to perform a sensitivity study on the effects of the polarized measurement on stratospheric aerosol extinction retrievals through specific investigations of the aerosol signal fraction in polarized measurements, potential retrieval bias, and achievable precision. In this study,we simulate both total and linearly polarized measurements, for a wide range of limb viewing geometries that are encountered in typical low earth orbits and for various aerosol loading scenarios. The orientation of the linear polarization with respect to the horizon is also studied. Taking into account instrument signal to noise levels it is found that in general, the linear polarization can be used as effectively as the total radiance measurement, with consideration of instrument signal to noise capabilities; however the horizontal polarization is more promising in terms of signal magnitude.

  10. Spectral aerosol direct radiative forcing from airborne radiative measurements during CalNex and ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Samuel E.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Hostetler, C.; Ferrare, R.; Hair, J.; Langridge, J. M.; Lack, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    This study presents the aerosol radiative forcing derived from airborne measurements of shortwave spectral irradiance during the 2010 Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex). Relative forcing efficiency, the radiative forcing normalized by aerosol optical thickness and incident irradiance, is a means of comparing the aerosol radiative forcing for different conditions. In this study, it is used to put the aerosol radiative effects of an air mass in the Los Angeles basin in context with case studies from three field missions that targeted other regions and aerosol types, including a case study from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS). For CalNex, we relied on irradiance measurements onboard the NOAA P-3 aircraft during a flight on 19 May 2010 over a ground station. CalNex presented a difficulty for determining forcing efficiency since one of the input parameters, optical thickness, was not available from the same aircraft. However, extinction profiles were available from a nearby aircraft. An existing retrieval algorithm was modified to use those measurements as initial estimate for the missing optical thickness. In addition, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (secondary products of the method), were compared with CalNex in situ measurements. The CalNex relative forcing efficiency spectra agreed with earlier studies that found this parameter to be constrained at each wavelength within 20% per unit of aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm regardless of aerosol type and experiment, except for highly absorbing aerosols sampled near Mexico City. The diurnally averaged below-layer forcing efficiency integrated over the wavelength range of 350-700 nm for CalNex is estimated to be -58.6 ± 13.8 W/m2, whereas for the ARCTAS case it is -48.7 ± 11.5 W/m2.

  11. Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Gausa, M.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Berjón, A.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; de Frutos, A. M.; Bennouna, Y.; Blindheim, S.; Myhre, C. L.; Zibordi, G.; Wehrli, C.; Kratzer, S.; Hakansson, B.; Carlund, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Herber, A.; Torres, B.

    2012-06-01

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and transport patterns. This work evaluates data from operational sites with sun photometer measurements belonging either to national or international networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) and programs conducted in Scandinavia and Svalbard. We enumerate a list of sites, measurement type and periods together with observed aerosol properties. An evaluation and analysis of aerosol data was carried out with a review of previous results as well. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) are the current parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first evaluation of aerosol properties. AOD (500 nm) ranges from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites (Ny-Ålesund: 0.09; Andenes: 0.10; Sodankylä: 0.08), and it is somewhat higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols show larger mean size (AE = 1.2 at Andenes) than in Finland, with continental climate (AE = 1.5 at Sodankylä). Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters derived from inversion of sun/sky radiances were also investigated. This work makes special emphasis in the joint and collaborative effort of the various groups from different countries involved in this study. Part of the measurements presented here were involved in the IPY projects Polar-AOD and POLARCAT.

  12. Continuous measurements of Arctic boundary layer aerosol physical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Lihavainen, H.; Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Reshetnikov, A.; Ivakhov, V.; Uttal, T.; Makshtas, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded on the shore of the Arctic Ocean, in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71_360N; 128_530E) has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol particle physical and optical properties. Measurements were initiated in summer 2010 and further extended in summer 2013. Together with the FMI measurements in Pallas GAW station in northern Finland since 1999

  13. Ground reflectance measurement techniques: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Duggin, M J; Cunia, T

    1983-12-01

    The relative accuracies of reflectance factor measurement methods involving the simultaneous, as compared to the sequential, measurement of irradiance on and radiance reflected from the target are discussed. Data are presented to support a statistical demonstration that the simultaneous measurement technique is the more accurate.

  14. Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor in ACE-Asia and Their Comparisons to Correlative Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; Hegg, D.; Wang, J.; Kahn, R.; Hsu, C.; Masonis, S.; Murayama, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characteri