Science.gov

Sample records for aerosol module ham

  1. Aerosol processing in stratiform clouds in ECHAM6-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike; Hoose, Corinna

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol processing in stratiform clouds by uptake into cloud particles, collision-coalescence, chemical processing inside the cloud particles and release back into the atmosphere has important effects on aerosol concentration, size distribution, chemical composition and mixing state. Aerosol particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei. Cloud droplets can take up further aerosol particles by collisions. Atmospheric gases may also be transferred into the cloud droplets and undergo chemical reactions, e.g. the production of atmospheric sulphate. Aerosol particles are also processed in ice crystals. They may be taken up by homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets below -38° C or by heterogeneous freezing above -38° C. This includes immersion freezing of already immersed aerosol particles in the droplets and contact freezing of particles colliding with a droplet. Many clouds do not form precipitation and also much of the precipitation evaporates before it reaches the ground. The water soluble part of the aerosol particles concentrates in the hydrometeors and together with the insoluble part forms a single, mixed, larger particle, which is released. We have implemented aerosol processing into the current version of the general circulation model ECHAM6 (Stevens et al., 2013) coupled to the aerosol module HAM (Stier et al., 2005). ECHAM6-HAM solves prognostic equations for the cloud droplet number and ice crystal number concentrations. In the standard version of HAM, seven modes are used to describe the total aerosol. The modes are divided into soluble/mixed and insoluble modes and the number concentrations and masses of different chemical components (sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt and mineral dust) are prognostic variables. We extended this by an explicit representation of aerosol particles in cloud droplets and ice crystals in stratiform clouds similar to Hoose et al. (2008a,b). Aerosol particles in cloud droplets are represented by 5 tracers for the

  2. The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM, version 2: sensitivity to improvements in process representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; O'Donnell, D.; Kazil, J.; Stier, P.; Kinne, S.; Lohmann, U.; Ferrachat, S.; Croft, B.; Quaas, J.; Wan, H.; Rast, S.; Feichter, J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces and evaluates the second version of the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM. Major changes have been brought into the model, including new parameterizations for aerosol nucleation and water uptake, an explicit treatment of secondary organic aerosols, modified emission calculations for sea salt and mineral dust, the coupling of aerosol microphysics to a two-moment stratiform cloud microphysics scheme, and alternative wet scavenging parameterizations. These revisions extend the model's capability to represent details of the aerosol lifecycle and its interaction with climate. Nudged simulations of the year 2000 are carried out to compare the aerosol properties and global distribution in HAM1 and HAM2, and to evaluate them against various observations. Sensitivity experiments are performed to help identify the impact of each individual update in model formulation. Results indicate that from HAM1 to HAM2 there is a marked weakening of aerosol water uptake in the lower troposphere, reducing the total aerosol water burden from 75 Tg to 51 Tg. The main reason is the newly introduced κ-Köhler-theory-based water uptake scheme uses a lower value for the maximum relative humidity cutoff. Particulate organic matter loading in HAM2 is considerably higher in the upper troposphere, because the explicit treatment of secondary organic aerosols allows highly volatile oxidation products of the precursors to be vertically transported to regions of very low temperature and to form aerosols there. Sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter and mineral dust in HAM2 have longer lifetimes than in HAM1 because of weaker in-cloud scavenging, which is in turn related to lower autoconversion efficiency in the newly introduced two-moment cloud microphysics scheme. Modification in the sea salt emission scheme causes a significant increase in the ratio (from 1.6 to 7.7) between accumulation mode and coarse mode emission fluxes of aerosol number concentration. This

  3. Estimating the influence of the secondary organic aerosols on present climate using ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, D.; Tsigaridis, K.; Feichter, J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several field measurement campaigns have highlighted the importance of the organic fraction of aerosol mass, and with such spatial diversity that one may assert that these aerosols are ubiquitous in the troposphere, with particular importance in continental areas. Investigation of the chemical composition of organic aerosol remains a work in progress, but it is now clear that a significant portion of the total organic mass is composed of secondary organic material, that is, aerosol chemically formed from gaseous volatile organic carbon (VOC) precursors. A number of such precursors, of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin, have been identified. Experimental, inventory building and modelling studies have followed. Laboratory studies have yielded information on the chemical pathways that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, and provided the means to estimate the aerosol yields from a given precursor-oxidant reaction. Global inventories of anthropogenic VOC emissions, and of biogenic VOC emitter species distribution and their emission potential have been constructed. Models have been developed that provide global estimates of precursor VOC emissions, SOA formation and atmospheric burdens of these species. This paper estimates the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols using the global climate-aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM. For year 2000 conditions, we estimate a global annual mean shortwave (SW) aerosol direct effect due to SOA of -0.3 W m-2. The model predicts a positive SW indirect effect due to SOA amounting to +0.23 W m-2, arising from enlargement of particles due to condensation of SOA, together with an enhanced coagulation sink for small particles. Longwave effects are small. Finally, we indicate of areas of research into SOA that are required in order to better constrain our estimates of the influence of aerosols on the climate system.

  4. Aerosol Optical Depth over Arabian Peninsula: a Validation of ECHAM5-HAM against Ground-Based and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Mamdouh, Khoder; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour

    2016-04-01

    This research validates aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the global climate - aerosol model (ECHAM5-HAM) for the period 2005 - 2011 over Arabian Peninsula. The ECHAM5-HAM AOD is evaluated at mid visible wavelength (550 nm) against AOD observation at three AERONET ground-base stations, and against satellite AOD measurements carried out by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Average AOD monthly data for the period 2005 - 2011 is extracted from the model ECHAM5-HAM and compared to three AERONET stations located over Arabian Peninsula representing western (Hada Al-Sham), central (Solar Village) and eastern (Kuwait) regions. In addition, semillar comparison to MODIS AOD were carried out over all and over six sub-regions of Arabian Peninsula. The model overestimates the Angstrom Exponent by 0.69 and underestimate AOD by -0.15, but the model AOD is in a good correlation with observation (0.66) over Arabian Peninsula. This makes the model capable of predicting successfully the aerosol annual cycle over Arabian Peninsula. The ECHAM5-HAM model overestimates the Angstom Exponent and underestimates AOD over Arabian Peninsula, but it correlates well with observation. This implys that the model can be improved for regions dominated by dust, and can be effective in studying the various aspects of aerosol interactions in the atmosphere including investigating the direct and indirect enfluence of aerosols on the climate of Arabian Peninsula.

  5. Aerosol emissions and dimming/brightening in Europe: Sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2011-11-01

    Observational data indicate a decrease of surface solar radiation (SSR) in Europe from about 1950 to the mid-1980s, followed by a renewed increase. Changing aerosol emissions have been suggested as a likely cause for this observed dimming and brightening. To quantify this hypothesis, we performed ensembles of transient sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, which includes interactive treatment of aerosols. The simulations cover the period 1950-2005 and use transient aerosol emissions (National Institute of Environmental Science, Japan) and prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Centre. The simulated clear-sky dimming and brightening can be attributed to changing aerosol emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Ensemble means of modeled SSR trends are in agreement with observed values. Dimming ceases too early in the model, around 1970. Potential causes are discussed. Brightening sets in at about the right time. Regional differences of modeled SSR are substantial, with clear-sky dimming trends ranging from -6.1 (eastern Europe) to -0.4 W m-2 decade-1 (British Isles) and brightening trends ranging from +1.3 to +6.3 W m-2 decade-1 (Scandinavia and eastern Europe). All-sky conditions show similar trends in the ensemble mean, but the spread among ensemble members is considerable, emphasizing the importance of clouds. Surface temperatures are found to depend mostly on the prescribed SSTs, with an additional aerosol component in some regions like eastern Europe. For precipitation, internal variability is too large to allow for any firm conclusions.

  6. New developments in the representation of Saharan dust sources in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina; Schepanski, Kerstin; Banks, Jamie R.

    2016-02-01

    In the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2, dust source activation (DSA) observations from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite are proposed to replace the original source area parameterization over the Sahara Desert. The new setup is tested in nudged simulations for the period 2007 to 2008. The evaluation is based on comparisons to dust emission events inferred from MSG dust index imagery, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer observations, and satellite retrievals of aerosol optical thickness (AOT).The model results agree well with AERONET measurements especially in terms of seasonal variability, and a good spatial correlation was found between model results and MSG-SEVIRI (Spinning-Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) dust AOT as well as Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) AOT. ECHAM6-HAM2 computes a more realistic geographical distribution and up to 20 % higher annual Saharan dust emissions, using the MSG-based source map. The representation of dust AOT is partly improved in the southern Sahara and Sahel. In addition, the spatial variability is increased towards a better agreement with observations depending on the season. Thus, using the MSG DSA map can help to circumvent the issue of uncertain soil input parameters.An important issue remains the need to improve the model representation of moist convection and stable nighttime conditions. Compared to sub-daily DSA information from MSG-SEVIRI and results from a regional model, ECHAM6-HAM2 notably underestimates the important fraction of morning dust events by the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet, while a major contribution is from afternoon-to-evening emissions.

  7. Evaluation of the tropospheric aerosol number concentrations simulated by two versions of the global model ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Kazil, J.; Feichter, J.

    2009-04-01

    Since its first version developed by Stier et al. (2005), the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM has gone through further development and updates. The changes in the model include (1) a new time integration scheme for the condensation of the sulfuric acid gas on existing particles, (2) a new aerosol nucleation scheme that takes into account the charged nucleation caused by cosmic rays, and (3) a parameterization scheme explicitly describing the conversion of aerosol particles to cloud nuclei. In this work, simulations performed with the old and new model versions are evaluated against some measurements reported in recent years. The focus is on the aerosol size distribution in the troposphere. Results show that modifications in the parameterizations have led to significant changes in the simulated aerosol concentrations. Vertical profiles of the total particle number concentration (diameter > 3nm) compiled by Clarke et al. (2002) suggest that, over the Pacific in the upper free troposphere, the tropics are associated with much higher concentrations than the mid-latitude regions. This feature is more reasonably reproduced by the new model version, mainly due to the improved results of the nucleation mode aerosols. In the lower levels (2-5 km above the Earth's surface), the number concentrations of the Aitken mode particles are overestimated compared to both the Pacific data given in Clarke et al. (2002) and the vertical profiles over Europe reported by Petzold et al. (2007). The physical and chemical processes that have led to these changes are identified by sensitivity tests. References: Clarke and Kapustin: A Pacific aerosol survey - part 1: a decade of data on production, transport, evolution and mixing in the troposphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 363-382, 2002. Petzold et al.: Perturbation of the European free troposphere aerosol by North American forest fire plumes during the ICARTT-ITOP experiment in summer 2004, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5105-5127, 2007

  8. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienola, A. I.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Jacob, D.; Pozdun, R.; Petäjä, T.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.

    2012-09-01

    The prediction skill of the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC) concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient OVL (the common area under two probability distributions curves) and Z-score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions). The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low, suggesting either an excessive loss of black carbon in the model, or missing emissions. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause for the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  9. Salt and intramuscular fat modulate dynamic perception of flavour and texture in dry-cured hams.

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt and intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of two different types of dry-cured hams (Iberian and Serrano) using the time-intensity (TI) method. All studied TI parameters of flavour attributes (overall flavour, saltiness, cured and rancid flavours) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by variations in the salt and/or IMF content. However, regarding texture attributes only the maximum intensity (Imax) of hardness was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the salt content of hams. Compared to Iberian dry-cured hams, the dynamic perception of the flavour and texture of Serrano dry-cured hams was less influenced by variations in salt and/or IMF content. The dynamic sensory techniques may be helpful to guarantee the quality of dry-cured products subjected to strategies of salt and fat reduction.

  10. Ham test

    MedlinePlus

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Modulation of aerosol clouds produced by pressurised inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Ganderton, D; Garzia, R; Lewis, D; Meakin, B; Ventura, P

    1999-09-10

    The inclusion of non-volatile components such as glycerol or polyethylene glycol in hydrofluoralkane (HFA) solution formulations for pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), greatly increases the particle size of the aerosol. Cloud characteristics can be further modulated by permuting this factor with the choice of propellant and the dimensions of the actuator, to give a chosen fine particle dose and particle diameter. This principle has been used to design solutions which closely match the performance of chlorofluorocarbon based suspension formulations containing beclomethasone dipropionate, budesonide and ipratropium bromide as assessed for pharmaceutical equivalence using the Andersen Cascade impactor.

  12. CMAQ AEROSOL MODULE DEVELOPMENT RECENT ENHANCEMENTS & FUTURE PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent enhancements to the CMAQ aerosol module will be reviewed briefly. These include revision of the secondary organic aerosol subroutine to improve numerical efficiency and control the growth of the accumulation mode standard deviation, revision of the nucleation subroutine t...

  13. Development of an aerosol module in MOCAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho-Kim, E.-Y.; Josse, B.; Michou, M.; Peuch, V.-H.; Simon, P.

    2003-04-01

    An aerosol module was developed to introduce in MOCAGE, the global chemistry and transport model of Météo-France. This study includes the size specific parameterization of the atmospheric processes of aerosols and comprises the representation of particle size distribution, the emission, the transport, the gravitational sedimentation, the dry deposition and the wet scavenging of aerosols. The particle size distribution is represented by combining one or several modes of lognormal distribution. The distribution is then discretized in classes according to the particles size, and the number density or the mass of each class is introduced in the model as a tracer. The settling velocity of aerosol particles for a given diameter is caculated according to Stokes' Law taking into account thin air condition at higher altitude. Mass transfer by sedimentation was carried out in all model layers except the nearest layer from the surface where the sedimentation is integrated in the dry deposition process. The characterization of dry deposition velocity is based on Slinn and Slinn's (1980) model. The aerodynamic resistance has been estimated as a function of the atmospheric stability, the surface roughness, and the wind speed. The grid surface roughness length has been calculated taking into account the contribution of the land cover and of the subgrid scale orography. The quasi-laminar layer resistance has been parameterized by considering the effects of the Brownian diffusion, the inertial impaction and the contribution of interception by vegetative hairs. In the model, the dry deposition flux is calculated as a product of this velocity by the local concentration of the lowest model level. The aerosol scavenging by the precipitation is parameterized by two different manners, in-cloud scavenging and below-cloud scavenging. The below-cloud scavenging rate is calculated as a function of the collision efficiency between droplets and aerosols and of the vertical flux of the

  14. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CMAQ MODEL AEROSOL MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes changes that were made to the aerosol module between CMAQ v4.4 and v4.5, as well as the effects of these changes on CMAQ model results. New aerosol diagnostic tools released with CMAQ v4.5 are also described and some illustrative results are provided

  15. MELCOR aerosol transport module modification for NSSR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes modifications of the MELCOR computer code aerosol transport module that will increase the accuracy of calculations for safety analysis of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The modifications generalize aerosol deposition models to consider gases other than air, add specialized models for aerosol deposition during high speed gas flows in ducts, and add models for resuspension of aerosols that are entrained in coolants when these coolants flash. Particular attention has been paid to the adhesion of aerosol particles once they are transported to duct walls. The results of calculations with the modified models have been successfully compared to data from Light Water Reactor Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) conducted by an international consortium at Hanford, Washington.

  16. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-30

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 µm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 – 20% over northern East Asia and 20 – 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA

  17. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

    2011-03-02

    This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

  18. SGPGET: AN SBDART Module for Aerosol Radiative Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    McComiskey, A.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Ogren, J.A.; Dutton, E.

    2005-03-18

    Quantification of the aerosol direct effect and climate sensitivity requires accurate estimates of optical properties as inputs to a radiative transfer model. Long-term measurements of aerosol properties at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site can be used as an improvement over a best guess or global average for optical properties (e.g., asymmetry factor of 0.7) used in Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) products such as the Broadband Heating Rate Profile VAP. To make this information readily available to the ARM community and others, an add-on module for a commonly used radiative transfer model, SBDART (Ricchiazzi et al. 1998), is being developed. A look up table and algorithm will provide aerosol related model inputs including aerosol optical and atmospheric state properties at high temporal resolution. These inputs can be used in conjunction with any mode of operation and with any other information, for example, cloud properties, in SBDART or any other radiative transfer model. Aerosol properties measured at three visible wavelengths are extrapolated so that flux calculations can be made in any desired wavelength across the shortwave spectrum. Several sources of uncertainty contribute to degraded accuracy of the aerosol property estimation. The effect of these uncertainties is shown through error analysis and comparisons of modeled and observed surface irradiance. A module is also being developed for the North Slope of Alaska site.

  19. Evaluating Aerosol Process Modules within the Framework of the Aerosol Modeling Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Velu, V.; Gustafson, W. I.; Chapman, E.; Easter, R. C.; Shrivastava, M.; Singh, B.

    2012-12-01

    Factors that influence predictions of aerosol direct and indirect forcing, such as aerosol mass, composition, size distribution, hygroscopicity, and optical properties, still contain large uncertainties in both regional and global models. New aerosol treatments are usually implemented into a 3-D atmospheric model and evaluated using a limited number of measurements from a specific case study. Under this modeling paradigm, the performance and computational efficiency of several treatments for a specific aerosol process cannot be adequately quantified because many other processes among various modeling studies (e.g. grid configuration, meteorology, emission rates) are different as well. The scientific community needs to know the advantages and disadvantages of specific aerosol treatments when the meteorology, chemistry, and other aerosol processes are identical in order to reduce the uncertainties associated with aerosols predictions. To address these issues, an Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) has been developed that systematically and objectively evaluates new aerosol treatments for use in regional and global models. The AMT consists of the modular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a series testbed cases for which extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties are available, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of meteorological, chemical, aerosol process modules. WRF contains various parameterizations of meteorological, chemical, and aerosol processes and includes interactive aerosol-cloud-radiation treatments similar to those employed by climate models. In addition, the physics suite from the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) have also been ported to WRF so that they can be tested at various spatial scales and compared directly with field campaign data and other parameterizations commonly used by the mesoscale modeling community. Data from several campaigns, including the 2006

  20. Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenstein, D K; Penner, J E; Herzog, M; Liu, Xiaohong

    2007-05-08

    We present an intercomparison of two aerosol modules, one sectional, one modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acid-water aerosols in this study. Two versions of the sec-tional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the pre-scribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs 150) used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sec-tional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all sit-uations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signflcant impact on model-calculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol mass and surface area density calcu-lated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability.

  1. Characterization of the Neurospora crassa Cell Fusion Proteins, HAM-6, HAM-7, HAM-8, HAM-9, HAM-10, AMPH-1 and WHI-2

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ci; Ao, Jie; Dettmann, Anne; Seiler, Stephan; Free, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular communication of vegetative cells and their subsequent cell fusion is vital for different aspects of growth, fitness, and differentiation of filamentous fungi. Cell fusion between germinating spores is important for early colony establishment, while hyphal fusion in the mature colony facilitates the movement of resources and organelles throughout an established colony. Approximately 50 proteins have been shown to be important for somatic cell-cell communication and fusion in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Genetic, biochemical, and microscopic techniques were used to characterize the functions of seven previously poorly characterized cell fusion proteins. HAM-6, HAM-7 and HAM-8 share functional characteristics and are proposed to function in the same signaling network. Our data suggest that these proteins may form a sensor complex at the cell wall/plasma membrane for the MAK-1 cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We also demonstrate that HAM-9, HAM-10, AMPH-1 and WHI-2 have more general functions and are required for normal growth and development. The activation status of the MAK-1 and MAK-2 MAPK pathways are altered in mutants lacking these proteins. We propose that these proteins may function to coordinate the activities of the two MAPK modules with other signaling pathways during cell fusion. PMID:25279949

  2. Modulation of Atlantic Aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Wong, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much like the better-known EI Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a global-scale atmospheric phenomenon. The MJO involves periodic, systematic changes in the distribution of clouds and precipitation over the western Pacific and Indian oceans, along with differences in wind intensity over even more extensive areas, including the north and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. The lead authors of this paper developed a sophisticated mathematical technique for mapping the spatial and temporal behavior of changes in the atmosphere produced by the MJO. In a previous paper, we applied this technique to search for modulation of airborne particle amount in the eastern hemisphere associated with the "wet" (cloudy) vs. "dry" phases of the MJO. The study used primarily AVHRR, MODIS, and TOMS satellite-retrieved aerosol amount, but concluded that other factors, such as cloud contamination of the satellite signals, probably dominated the observed variations. The current paper looks at MJO modulation of desert dust transport eastward across the Atlantic from northern Africa, a region much less subject to systematic cloud contamination than the eastern hemisphere areas studied previously. In this case, a distinct aerosol signal appears, showing that dust is transported westward much more effectively during the MJO phase that favors westward-flowing wind, and such transport is suppressed when the MJO reduces these winds. Aside form the significant achievement in identifying such an effect, the result implies that an important component of global dust transport can be predicted based on the phase of the MJO. As a consequence, the impact of airborne dust on storm development in the Atlantic, and on dust deposition downwind of the desert sources, can also be predicted and more accurately modeled.

  3. Eratosthenes via Ham Radio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koser, John F.

    1975-01-01

    A secondary geology class used Eratosthenes' method for measuring the circumference of the earth by comparing their measurements of the shadow of a vertical rod to the measurements made by another person contacted by ham radio. (MLH)

  4. A COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF INORGANIC AEROSOL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM MODULES: SIMILARITIES, DIFFERENCES, AND THEIR LIKELY CAUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive comparison of five inorganic aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium modules, MARS-A, SEQUILIB, SCAPE2, EQUISOLV II, and AIM2, was conducted for a variety of atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter (PM) constituents, relative humidities (RHs), and temperatures....

  5. Ham Radio is Mir Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary

    1997-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students communicated with U.S. and Russian astronauts via ham radio while they were in orbit on the space station Mir. Gives suggestions for other ham radio classroom activities as well as names of organizations, publications, and grant programs that teachers can access to help in bring ham radio into their…

  6. An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol Component Modules of Global Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, H.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horrowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-05-29

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment global fields for mass and for mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among aerosol component modules of 21 different global models. There is general agreement among models for the annual global mean of component combined aot. At 0.12 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca 0.14) and space (MODIS-MISR composite ca 0.16). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture have remained. Of particular concern is the large model diversity for contributions by dust and carbon, because it leads to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since not only aot but also aab influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) and space (e.g. correlations between retrieved aerosol and cloud properties).

  7. Development and first application of an Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) for quasi online compound specific aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, Thorsten; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Trimborn, Dagmar; Jayne, John; Wahner, Andreas; Worsnop, Doug

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate and human health on regional and global scales (IPCC, 2007). In many environments organics are a major fraction of the aerosol influencing its properties. Due to the huge variety of organic compounds present in atmospheric aerosol current measurement techniques are far from providing a full speciation of organic aerosol (Hallquist et al., 2009). The development of new techniques for compound specific measurements with high time resolution is a timely issue in organic aerosol research. Here we present first laboratory characterisations of an aerosol collection module (ACM) which was developed to allow for the sampling and transfer of atmospheric PM1 aerosol. The system consists of an aerodynamic lens system focussing particles on a beam. This beam is directed to a 3.4 mm in diameter surface which is cooled to -30 °C with liquid nitrogen. After collection the aerosol sample can be evaporated from the surface by heating it to up to 270 °C. The sample is transferred through a 60cm long line with a carrier gas. In order to test the ACM for linearity and sensitivity we combined it with a GC-MS system. The tests were performed with octadecane aerosol. The octadecane mass as measured with the ACM-GC-MS was compared versus the mass as calculated from SMPS derived total volume. The data correlate well (R2 0.99, slope of linear fit 1.1) indicating 100 % collection efficiency. From 150 °C to 270 °C no effect of desorption temperature on transfer efficiency could be observed. The ACM-GC-MS system was proven to be linear over the mass range 2-100 ng and has a detection limit of ~ 2 ng. First experiments applying the ACM-GC-MS system were conducted at the Jülich Aerosol Chamber. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was formed from ozonolysis of 600 ppbv of b-pinene. The major oxidation product nopinone was detected in the aerosol and could be shown to decrease from 2 % of the total aerosol to 0.5 % of the aerosol over the 48 hours of

  8. Ham in Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Ham, a three-year-old chimpanzee, in the spacesuit he would wear for the second Mercury- Redstone (MR-2) suborbital test flight in January, 1961. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury capsule before launching the fisrt American astronaut, Alan Shepard, in May 1961. The Mercury capsule rode atop a modified Redstone rocket, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German Rocket Team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  9. Numerical studies of microphysical modulations of stratospheric aerosol within ROMIC-ROSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, René; von Savigny, Christian; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John; Zalach, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    The stratospheric aerosol layer (so-called Junge layer) is an inherent part of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). Stratospheric aerosols play a large role in the Earth's climate system because they interact with catalytic cycles depleting ozone, directly alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and modulate the strength of polar vortices, in particular when this system is perturbed. In terms of mass the layer is predominantly composed of liquid sulphate-water droplets and is fed from the oxidation of gaseous precursors reaching the stratosphere either by direct volcanic injections (mainly supplying SO2) or troposphere-stratosphere exchange processes. In volcanically quiescent periods, latter processes predominantly maintain the so-called background state of aerosol layer through oxidation of OCS above 22 km, and SO2 below. The Junge layer begins to develop 2-3 km above the tropopause and reaches a height of about 35 km, with a largest vertical extent in the tropics and spring-time polar regions. Above the TTL, the layer's vertical extent varies between 2 km and 8 km (about 35% of its mean vertical expansion), depending on the phase of the QBO. The QBO-induced meridional circulation, overlying the BDC, and accompanied signatures in the stratospheric temperature directly affect the life cycle of stratospheric aerosol. Mainly by modulating the equilibrium between microphysical processes which maintain the layer. Effects caused by QBO modulations of the advective transport in the upwelling region of the BDC are smaller and difficult to quantify, because the overlying sedimentation of aerosol is also being modulated and counteract the aerosol lofting. Here we show results from numerical studies performed within the project ROMIC-ROSA (Role of Stratospheric Aerosol in Climate and Atmospheric Science). We further explored relationships between QBO forcing and aerosol processes in the lower stratosphere. We examined whether similar process interferences can be caused by

  10. Vaccination by aerosols: modulation of clearance mechanisms in the lung.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Lubitz, W

    1997-02-01

    Inhalation and deposition within the the airways are the initial steps before pathogens of the respiratory tract are able to adhere and colonize their host. Once the microorganisms are deposited in the lung lining fluids they do not remain at the location where they first came in contact with the mucous membranes. It is long known that lung clearance mechanisms translocate all deposited particles. At least, most of them are swallowed and cleared via the gastrointestinal tract. Aerosol vaccination with inactivated or (recombinant) live bacteria has been shown to be an efficient way to induce local protection against lung diseases. It can be assumed that the local concentration of the vaccine and the deposition pattern of the vaccine within the lung limit the strength of a local or systemic immune response. The local concentration of airborne bacterial antigen necessary to initiate a mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract is known for a very few microorganisms. Bacterial survival, infectivity, deposition, and persistence characteristics have to be defined when aerosols are included in vaccination experiments.

  11. Chimpanzee 'Ham' In Biopack Couch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee 'Ham' over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  12. Effect of Aerosol and Ocean Representation on Simulated Climate Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Knutti, Reto; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    It is still debated to what extent anthropogenic aerosols shaped 20th century surface temperatures, especially sea surface temperatures (SSTs), through alteration of surface solar radiation (SSR). SSTs, in turn, are crucial in the context of atmospheric circulation and ocean heat uptake. Uncertainty considering anthropogenic aerosol forcing thus translates into uncertainty regarding ocean heat uptake and, ultimately, climate responses towards anthropogenic influences. We use the global climate model ECHAM to analyse the 20th century climate response towards either anthropogenic aerosols or well-mixed greenhouse gases or both with different representations of ocean and aerosols: atmosphere-only with prescribed SSTs and interactive aerosols; mixed-layer ocean and interactive or prescribed aerosols; fully coupled with prescribed aerosols. For interactive aerosols we use the Hamburg Aerosol Module (HAM). Our results suggest that up to 15% of global ocean surfaces undergo an SSR reduction of at least -4W/m² in the year 2000, due to anthropogenic aerosols. The area affected depends on how aerosols are represented and whether clear sky or all sky SSR is considered. In MLO equilibria with interactive aerosols, anthropogenic aerosols clearly shape surface temperature response patterns. This is to a lesser degree the case for the transient fully coupled case. Additivity of global mean temperature responses towards single forcings - an assumption often made in the literature - is not fulfilled for the MLO experiments, but for the fully coupled experiments. While some of these differences can be attributed to the differing ocean representation, it is implied that differing aerosol representation may play an even more relevant role. Thus, our results corroborate not only the relevance of anthropogenic aerosols for surface temperature responses, but also highlight the relevance of choice of aerosol representation.

  13. Intramuscular variation in fresh ham muscle color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to characterize a defect involving pale muscle tissue in the superficial, ventral portion of ham muscles, resulting in two-toned appearance of cured ham products. Biceps femoris muscles (n = 200), representing 3 production systems, were obtained from the ham-boning lin...

  14. Image analysis of modified Hamming aperture: application on confocal microscopy and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, A. M.; Alsaeed, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Digital truncated and obstructed Hamming apertures are used in confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to improve the resolution. The resultant point spread function (RPSF) and the coherent transfer function of the defined microscope, using the modified Hamming apertures, are computed. The mammographic images are used in the CLSM to test resolution of the investigated apertures. The image is computed from the modulus square of the convolution product of the RPSF and the complex amplitude of the object. A comparison with the images obtained in case of circular uniform apertures is investigated. Another application on holography allows the recognition of the modulated Hamming apertures.

  15. Visibility and aerosol measurement by diode-laser random-modulation CW lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, N.; Baba, H.; Sakurai, K.; Ueno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1986-01-01

    Examples of diode laser (DL) random-modulation continuous wave (RM-CW) lidar measurements are reported. The ability of the measurement of the visibility, vertical aerosol profile, and the cloud ceiling height is demonstrated. Although the data shown here were all measured at night time, the daytime measurement is, of course, possible. For that purpose, accurate control of the laser frequency to the center frequency of a narrow band filter is required. Now a new system with a frequency control is under construction.

  16. 9 CFR 319.105 - “Ham patties,” “Chopped ham,” “Pressed ham,” “Spiced ham,” and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.105 “Ham patties,” “Chopped ham...,” “Chopped Ham,” “Pressed Ham,” and “Spiced Ham” 16.0 (Common and usual) water added. “Ham Patties,” “Chopped Ham,” “Pressed Ham,” and “Spiced Ham” water product—(x)% of weight...

  17. Technical Note: Evaluation of the WRF-Chem "Aerosol Chemical to Aerosol Optical Properties" Module using data from the MILAGRO campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, James C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-08-09

    A comparison between observed aerosol optical properties from the MILAGRO field campaign, which took place in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during March 2006, and values simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) model, reveals large differences. To help identify the source of the discrepancies, data from the MILAGRO campaign are used to evaluate the "aerosol chemical to aerosol optical properties" module implemented in the full chemistry version of the WRF-Chem model. The evaluation uses measurements of aerosol size distributions and chemical properties obtained at the MILAGRO T1 site. These observations are fed to the module, which makes predictions of various aerosol optical properties, including the scattering coefficient, Bscat; the absorption coefficient, Babs; and the single-scattering albedo, v0; all as a function of time. This simulation is compared with independent measurements obtained from a photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) at a wavelength of 870 nm. Because of line losses and other factors, only "fine mode" aerosols with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 mm are considered here. Over a 10-day period, the simulations of hour-by-hour variations of Bscat are not satisfactory, but simulations of Babs and v0 are considerably better. When averaged over the 10-day period, the computed and observed optical properties agree within the uncertainty limits of the measurements and simulations. Specifically, the observed and calculated values are, respectively: (1) Bscat, 34.1 ± 5.1 Mm-1 versus 30.4 ± 4.3 Mm-1; (2) Babs, 9.7 ± 1.0 Mm-1 versus 11.7 ± 1.5 Mm-1; and (3) v0, 0.78 ± 0.04 and 0.74 ± 0.03. The discrepancies in values of v0 simulated by the full WRF-Chem model thus cannot be attributed to the "aerosol chemistry to optics" module. The discrepancy is more likely due, in part, to poor characterization of emissions near the T1 site, particularly black carbon emissions.

  18. Dual-photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging concept for aerosol remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Diner, David J; Davis, Ab; Hancock, Bruce; Gutt, Gary; Chipman, Russell A; Cairns, Brian

    2007-12-10

    A dual-photoelastic-modulator- (PEM-) based spectropolarimetric camera concept is presented as an approach for global aerosol monitoring from space. The most challenging performance objective is to measure degree of linear polarization (DOLP) with an uncertainty of less than 0.5% in multiple spectral bands, at moderately high spatial resolution, over a wide field of view, and for the duration of a multiyear mission. To achieve this, the tandem PEMs are operated as an electro-optic circular retardance modulator within a high-performance reflective imaging system. Operating the PEMs at slightly different resonant frequencies generates a beat signal that modulates the polarized component of the incident light at a much lower heterodyne frequency. The Stokes parameter ratio q = Q/I is obtained from measurements acquired from each pixel during a single frame, providing insensitivity to pixel responsivity drift and minimizing polarization artifacts that conventionally arise when this quantity is derived from differences in the signals from separate detectors. Similarly, u = U/I is obtained from a different pixel; q and u are then combined to form the DOLP. A detailed accuracy and tolerance analysis for this polarimeter is presented. PMID:18071373

  19. Dual-Photoelastic-Modulator-Based Polarimetric Imaging Concept for Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Davis, Ab; Hancock, Bruce; Gutt, Gary; Chipman, Russell A.; Cairns, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A dual-photoelastic-modulator- (PEM-) based spectropolarimetric camera concept is presented as an approach for global aerosol monitoring from space. The most challenging performance objective is to measure degree of linear polarization (DOLP) with an uncertainty of less than 0.5% in multiple spectral bands, at moderately high spatial resolution, over a wide field of view, and for the duration of a multiyear mission. To achieve this, the tandem PEMs are operated as an electro-optic circular retardance modulator within a high-performance reflective imaging system. Operating the PEMs at slightly different resonant frequencies generates a beat signal that modulates the polarized component of the incident light at a much lower heterodyne frequency. The Stokes parameter ratio q = Q/I is obtained from measurements acquired from each pixel during a single frame, providing insensitivity to pixel responsivity drift and minimizing polarization artifacts that conventionally arise when this quantity is derived from differences in the signals from separate detectors. Similarly, u = U/I is obtained from a different pixel; q and u are then combined to form the DOLP. A detailed accuracy and tolerance analysis for this polarimeter is presented.

  20. Modulation of the summer hydrological cycle evolution over western Europe by anthropogenic aerosols and soil-atmosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boé, J.

    2016-07-01

    Large decadal variations in solar radiation at surface have been observed over Europe for 60 years. These variations might have impacted the hydrological cycle, through a modulation of the energy available for evapotranspiration. Here a large ensemble of climate models is analyzed to characterize the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the hydrological cycle over western Europe in summer and the associated uncertainties. Some models simulate strong aerosols-driven changes in evapotranspiration and also precipitation on the historical period, while other models show virtually no impact. These opposed responses are largely determined by two seemingly independent properties of the models: the magnitude of the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on solar radiation and whether evapotranspiration is predominantly water or energy limited. Both properties, characterized on the past climate, are highly uncertain in current climate models and continue to impact the evolution of the hydrological cycle through the 21st century.

  1. Tropospheric aerosol size distributions simulated by three online global aerosol models using the M7 microphysics module

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Wan, Hui; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Meigen; Feichter, J.; Liu, Xiaohong

    2010-07-14

    Tropospheric aerosol size distributions are simulated by three online global models that employ exactly the same modal approach but differ in many aspects such as model meteorology, natural aerosol emissions, sulfur chemistry, and the parameterization of deposition processes. The main purpose of this study is to identify where the largest inter-model discrepancies occur and what the main reasons are. The number concentrations of different aerosol size ranges are compared among the three models and against observations. Overall all the three models can capture the basic features of the observed aerosol number spatial distributions. The magnitude of the number concentration of each mode is consistent among the three models. Quantitative differences are also clearly detectable. For the soluble and insoluble coarse mode and accumulation mode, inter-model discrepancies mainly result from differences in the sea salt and dust emissions, as well as the different strengths of the convective transport in the meteorological models. For the nucleation mode and the soluble Aitken mode, the spread of the model results is largest in the tropics and in the middle and upper troposphere. Diagnostics and sensitivity experiments suggest that this large spread is closely related to the sulfur cycle in the models, which is strongly affected by the choice of sulfur chemistry scheme, its coupling with the convective transport and wet deposition calculation, and the related meteorological fields such as cloud cover, cloud water content, and precipitation. The aerosol size distributions simulated by the three models are compared to observations in the boundary layer. The characteristic shape and magnitude of the distribution functions are reasonably reproduced in typical conditions (i.e., clean, polluted and transition areas). Biases in the mode parameters over the remote oceans and the China adjacent seas are probably caused by the fixed mode variance in the mathematical formulations used

  2. Modulated exponential films generated by surface acoustic waves and their role in liquid wicking and aerosolization at a pinned drop.

    PubMed

    Taller, Daniel; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2013-05-01

    The exponentially decaying acoustic pressure of scattered surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the contact line of a liquid film pinned to filter paper is shown to sustain a high curvature conic tip with micron-sized modulations whose dimension grows exponentially from the tip. The large negative capillary pressure in the film, necessary for offsetting the large positive acoustic pressure at the contact line, also creates significant negative hydrodynamic pressure and robust wicking action through the paper. An asymptotic analysis of this intricate pressure matching between the quasistatic conic film and bulk drop shows that the necessary SAW power to pump liquid from the filter paper and aerosolize, expressed in terms of the acoustic pressure scaled by the drop capillary pressure, grows exponentially with respect to twice the acoustic decay constant multiplied by the drop length, with a universal preexponential coefficient. Global rapid aerosolization occurs at a SAW power twice as high, beyond which the wicking rate saturates. PMID:23767617

  3. Impact of Aerosol Processing on Orographic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, Sara; Zubler, Elias M.; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    . [6]. Our investigation regarding the influence of aerosol processing will focus on the regional scale using a cloud-system resolving model with a much higher resolution. Emphasis will be placed on orographic mixed-phase precipitation. Different two-dimensional simulations of idealized orographic clouds will be conducted to estimate the effect of aerosol processing on orographic cloud formation and precipitation. Here, cloud lifetime, location and extent as well as the cloud type will be of particular interest. In a supplementary study, the new parameterization will be compared to observations of total and interstitial aerosol concentrations and size distribution at the remote high alpine research station Jungfraujoch in Switzerland. In addition, our simulations will be compared to recent simulations of aerosol processing in warm, mixed-phase and cold clouds, which have been carried out at the location of Jungfraujoch station [5]. References: [1] Pruppacher & Jaenicke (1995), The processing of water vapor and aerosols by atmospheric clouds, a global estimate, Atmos. Res., 38, 283295. [2] Seifert & Beheng (2006), A two-moment microphysics parameterization for mixed-phase clouds. Part 1: Model description, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 92, 4566. [3] Vignati et al. (2004), An efficient size-resolved aerosol microphysics module for large-scale transport models, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D22202 [4] Muhlbauer & Lohmann (2008), Sensitivity studies of the role of aerosols in warm-phase orographic precipitation in different flow regimes, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 25222542. [5] Hoose et al. (2008), Aerosol processing in mixed-phase clouds in ECHAM5HAM: Model description and comparison to observations, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D071210. [6] Hoose et al. (2008), Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 69396963.

  4. 9 CFR 319.105 - “Ham patties,” “Chopped ham,” “Pressed ham,” “Spiced ham,” and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false âHam patties,â âChopped ham,â âPressed ham,â âSpiced ham,â and similar products. 319.105 Section 319.105 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... with minimum meat Protein Fat Free (PFF) percentage requirements set forth in the following chart:...

  5. Detection of Iberian ham aroma by a semiconductor multisensorial system.

    PubMed

    Otero, Laura; Horrillo, M A Carmen; García, María; Sayago, Isabel; Aleixandre, Manuel; Fernández, M A Jesús; Arés, Luis; Gutiérrez, Javier

    2003-11-01

    A semiconductor multisensorial system, based on tin oxide, to control the quality of dry-cured Iberian hams is described. Two types of ham (submitted to different drying temperatures) were selected. Good responses were obtained from the 12 elements forming the multisensor for different operating temperatures. Discrimination between the two types of ham was successfully realised through principal component analysis (PCA). PMID:22063700

  6. Two Applications of the Hamming-Golay Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Andy

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give two unexpected applications of a Hamming code. The first one, also known as the "Hat Problem," is based on the fact that a small portion of the available code words are actually used in a Hamming code. The second one is a magic trick based on the fact that a Hamming code is perfect for single-error correction.

  7. Detection of Iberian ham aroma by a semiconductor multisensorial system.

    PubMed

    Otero, Laura; Horrillo, M A Carmen; García, María; Sayago, Isabel; Aleixandre, Manuel; Fernández, M A Jesús; Arés, Luis; Gutiérrez, Javier

    2003-11-01

    A semiconductor multisensorial system, based on tin oxide, to control the quality of dry-cured Iberian hams is described. Two types of ham (submitted to different drying temperatures) were selected. Good responses were obtained from the 12 elements forming the multisensor for different operating temperatures. Discrimination between the two types of ham was successfully realised through principal component analysis (PCA).

  8. Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M

    2012-12-01

    The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed.

  9. Chimpanzee Ham after sucessful MR-2 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Closeup view of the chimpanzee 'Ham', the live test subject for Mercury-Redstone 2 test flight being fed an apple. This photo was taken after his successful recovery from the Atlantic. Note he is still strapped into his special flight couch.

  10. Comparison of aerosol optical properties above clouds between POLDER and AeroCom models over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peers, F.; Bellouin, N.; Waquet, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Mollard, J.; Myhre, G.; Skeie, R. B.; Takemura, T.; Tanré, D.; Thieuleux, F.; Zhang, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties above clouds have been retrieved over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season 2006 using satellite observations from POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances). From June to October, POLDER has observed a mean Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Thickness (ACAOT) of 0.28 and a mean Above-Clouds Single Scattering Albedo (ACSSA) of 0.87 at 550 nm. These results have been used to evaluate the simulation of aerosols above clouds in five Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), European Centre Hamburg Model 5-Hamburg Aerosol Module 2 (ECHAM5-HAM2), Oslo-Chemical Transport Model 2 (OsloCTM2), and Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS)). Most models do not reproduce the observed large aerosol load episodes. The comparison highlights the importance of the injection height and the vertical transport parameterizations to simulate the large ACAOT observed by POLDER. Furthermore, POLDER ACSSA is best reproduced by models with a high imaginary part of black carbon refractive index, in accordance with recent recommendations.

  11. A Common Representative Intermediates (CRI) mechanism for VOC degradation. Part 3: Development of a secondary organic aerosol module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utembe, S. R.; Watson, L. A.; Shallcross, D. E.; Jenkin, M. E.

    A Photochemical Trajectory Model (PTM), containing the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM v3.1) coupled with an optimised representation of gas-aerosol absorptive partitioning of 365 oxygenated product species, has been used to simulate mass concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for the conditions of the TORCH-2003 campaign in the south-east UK in late July and August 2003. A comprehensive reference dataset of 50 case study arrival events (and 4750 associated hourly air mass history events) has been compiled, which considers the base case conditions and scenarios in which emissions of anthropogenic pollution have been reduced by factors of up to 100. The relative contributions of SOA derived from anthropogenic and biogenic precursors are presented for the range of conditions, and the composition of these simulated components is discussed in terms of average molecular formulae, atomic ratios (H/C, O/C and N/C) and organic aerosol mass to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC), which are compared to reported measurements. The MCM v3.1 dataset has been used as a reference benchmark for development and optimisation of a reduced (14 species) SOA module for use with version 2 the Common Representative Intermediates mechanism (CRI v2), described in the first of two preceding companion papers [Jenkin, M.E., Watson, L.A., Utembe, S.R., Shallcross, D.E., 2008a. A Common Representative Intermediates (CRI) mechanism for VOC degradation. Part 1: gas phase mechanism development. Atmospheric Environment, 42, pp. 7185-7195. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.028.]. The resultant version of the PTM containing CRI v2 and the reduced SOA module has been used to simulate the entire TORCH-2003 campaign at hourly resolution, and the contributions of SOA derived from anthropogenic and biogenic precursors are presented and discussed. The reduced SOA module is also shown to be compatible with the most reduced CRI variant (CRI v2-R5), described in the second of two preceding

  12. Dry-cured ham restructured with fibrin.

    PubMed

    Romero de Ávila, M D; Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A; Cambero, M I

    2014-09-15

    The viability of a fibrinogen-thrombin system (FT) to bind fresh deboned hams for incorporation in the salting and ripening processes, to produce cured ham, was studied. The effects of the different processing variables (pH, NaCl concentration, temperature and gelation time) on FT, a meat emulsion mixed with FT, fresh pork portions and deboned hams restructured with FT were analyzed. The most stable and firmest fibrin gels were obtained after 6h of adding the FT, with less than 2% NaCl and pH 7-8.4. Scanning electron microscopy of the fibrin gel showed fibrillar structures with a high degree of cross-linking and a high density. Two structures were found in the binding area of restructured meat; one in the central part with similar characteristics to fibrin gels and, another in the area of contact between the meat surfaces, where a filamentous structure connected the fibrin gels with the muscle bundles. PMID:24767091

  13. Potential of aerosolized rifampicin lipospheres for modulation of pulmonary pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charan; Koduri, L V Seshu Kumar; Dhawale, Vaibhav; Bhatt, Tara Datt; Kumar, Rajdeo; Grover, Vikas; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Suresh, Sarasija

    2015-11-30

    The aim of the present study was to establish the potential of rifampicin loaded phospholipid lipospheres carrier for pulmonary application. Lipospheres were prepared with rifampicin and phospholipid in the ratio of 1:1 using spray drying method. Further, lipospheres were evaluated for flow properties and surface area measurement. The formulated lipospheres were evaluated in vitro for aerodynamic characterization and in vivo for lung pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies in Sprague Dawley rats. Powder flow properties finding suggested the free flowing nature of the lipospheres. In-vitro aerosol performance study indicated more than 80±5% of the emitted dose (ED) and 77.61±3% fine particles fraction (FPF). Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were found to be 2.72±0.13 μm and 3.28±0.12, respectively. In-vitro aerosol performance study revealed the higher deposition at 3, 4 and 5 stages which simulates the trachea-primary bronchus, secondary and terminal bronchus of the human lung, respectively. The drug concentration from nebulized lipospheres in the non-targeted tissues was lesser than from rifampicin-aqueous solution. The pulmonary pharmacokinetic study demonstrated improved bioavailability, longer residence of drug in the lung and targeting factor of 8.03 for lipospheres as compared to rifampicin-aqueous solution. Thus, the results of the study demonstrated the potential of rifampicin lipospheres formulation would be of use as an alternative to existing oral therapy.

  14. Description and evaluation of a new four-mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM4) within version 5.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Ma, P.-L.; Wang, H.; Tilmes, S.; Singh, B.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Rasch, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in the climate system by influencing the Earth's radiation budgets and modifying the cloud properties. Despite the importance, their representations in large-scale atmospheric models are still crude, which can influence model simulated burden, lifetime, physical, chemical and optical properties, and the climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study, we improve the current three-mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM3) in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) by introducing an additional primary carbon mode to explicitly account for the microphysical ageing of primary carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere. Compared to MAM3, the four-mode version of MAM (MAM4) significantly increases the column burdens of primary particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC) by up to 40 % in many remote regions, where in-cloud scavenging plays an important role in determining the aerosol concentrations. Differences in the column burdens for other types of aerosol (e.g., sulfate, secondary organic aerosols, mineral dust, sea salt) are less than 1 %. Evaluating the MAM4 simulation against in situ surface and aircraft observations, we find that MAM4 significantly improves the simulation of seasonal variation of near-surface BC concentrations in the polar regions, by increasing the BC concentrations in all seasons and particularly in cold seasons. However, it exacerbates the overestimation of modeled BC concentrations in the upper troposphere in the Pacific regions. The comparisons suggest that, to address the remaining model POM and BC biases, future improvements are required related to (1) in-cloud scavenging and vertical transport in convective clouds and (2) emissions of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols.

  15. Description and evaluation of a new four-mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM4) within version 5.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, X.; Ma, P. -L.; Wang, H.; Tilmes, S.; Singh, B.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Rasch, P. J.

    2016-02-08

    Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in the climate system by influencing the Earth's radiation budgets and modifying the cloud properties. Despite the importance, their representations in large-scale atmospheric models are still crude, which can influence model simulated burden, lifetime, physical, chemical and optical properties, and the climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study, we improve the current three-mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM3) in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) by introducing an additional primary carbon mode to explicitly account for the microphysical ageing of primary carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere. Compared to MAM3,more » the four-mode version of MAM (MAM4) significantly increases the column burdens of primary particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC) by up to 40 % in many remote regions, where in-cloud scavenging plays an important role in determining the aerosol concentrations. Differences in the column burdens for other types of aerosol (e.g., sulfate, secondary organic aerosols, mineral dust, sea salt) are less than 1 %. Evaluating the MAM4 simulation against in situ surface and aircraft observations, we find that MAM4 significantly improves the simulation of seasonal variation of near-surface BC concentrations in the polar regions, by increasing the BC concentrations in all seasons and particularly in cold seasons. However, it exacerbates the overestimation of modeled BC concentrations in the upper troposphere in the Pacific regions. As a result, the comparisons suggest that, to address the remaining model POM and BC biases, future improvements are required related to (1) in-cloud scavenging and vertical transport in convective clouds and (2) emissions of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols.« less

  16. Coupling aerosol optics to the MATCH (v5.5.0) chemical transport model and the SALSA (v1) aerosol microphysics module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Emma; Kahnert, Michael

    2016-05-01

    A new aerosol-optics model is implemented in which realistic morphologies and mixing states are assumed, especially for black carbon particles. The model includes both external and internal mixing of all chemical species, it treats externally mixed black carbon as fractal aggregates, and it accounts for inhomogeneous internal mixing of black carbon by use of a novel "core-grey-shell" model. Simulated results of aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical depth, backscattering coefficients and the Ångström exponent, as well as radiative fluxes are computed with the new optics model and compared with results from an older optics-model version that treats all particles as externally mixed homogeneous spheres. The results show that using a more detailed description of particle morphology and mixing state impacts the aerosol optical properties to a degree of the same order of magnitude as the effects of aerosol-microphysical processes. For instance, the aerosol optical depth computed for two cases in 2007 shows a relative difference between the two optics models that varies over the European region between -28 and 18 %, while the differences caused by the inclusion or omission of the aerosol-microphysical processes range from -50 to 37 %. This is an important finding, suggesting that a simple optics model coupled to a chemical transport model can introduce considerable errors affecting radiative fluxes in chemistry-climate models, compromising comparisons of model results with remote sensing observations of aerosols, and impeding the assimilation of satellite products for aerosols into chemical-transport models.

  17. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  18. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  19. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  20. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  1. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  2. HAM2D: 2D Shearing Box Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammie, Charles F.; Guan, Xiaoyue

    2012-10-01

    HAM solves non-relativistic hyperbolic partial differential equations in conservative form using high-resolution shock-capturing techniques. This version of HAM has been configured to solve the magnetohydrodynamic equations of motion in axisymmetry to evolve a shearing box model.

  3. 9 CFR 319.105 - “Ham patties,” “Chopped ham,” “Pressed ham,” “Spiced ham,” and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.105 “Ham patties,” “Chopped ham... indigenous to the raw, unprocessed pork expressed as a percent of the nonfat portion of the finished...

  4. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, J.; Yu, X.-Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first single particle results obtained using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The instrument was operated as a standard AMS from 12-30 March, acquiring average chemical composition and size distributions for the ambient aerosol, and in single particle mode from 27-30 March. Over a 75-h sampling period, 12 853 single particle mass spectra were optically triggered, saved, and analyzed. The correlated optical and chemical detection allowed detailed examination of single particle collection and quantification within the LS-ToF-AMS. The single particle data enabled the mixing states of the ambient aerosol to be characterized within the context of the size-resolved ensemble chemical information. The particulate mixing states were examined as a function of sampling time and most of the particles were found to be internal mixtures containing many of the organic and inorganic species identified in the ensemble analysis. The single particle mass spectra were deconvolved, using techniques developed for ensemble AMS data analysis, into HOA, OOA, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4Cl fractions. Average single particle mass and chemistry measurements are shown to be in agreement with ensemble MS and PTOF measurements. While a significant fraction of ambient particles were internal mixtures of varying degrees, single particle measurements of chemical composition allowed the identification of time periods during which the ambient ensemble was externally mixed. In some cases the chemical composition of the particles suggested a likely source. Throughout the full sampling period, the ambient ensemble was an external mixture of combustion-generated HOA particles from local sources (e.g. traffic), with number concentrations peaking

  5. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture. PMID:23816516

  6. simplified aerosol representations in global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Peters, Karsten; Stevens, Bjorn; Rast, Sebastian; Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The detailed treatment of aerosol in global modeling is complex and time-consuming. Thus simplified approaches are investigated, which prescribe 4D (space and time) distributions of aerosol optical properties and of aerosol microphysical properties. Aerosol optical properties are required to assess aerosol direct radiative effects and aerosol microphysical properties (in terms of their ability as aerosol nuclei to modify cloud droplet concentrations) are needed to address the indirect aerosol impact on cloud properties. Following the simplifying concept of the monthly gridded (1x1 lat/lon) aerosol climatology (MAC), new approaches are presented and evaluated against more detailed methods, including comparisons to detailed simulations with complex aerosol component modules.

  7. Experimental determination of the partitioning coefficient and volatility of important BVOC oxidation products using the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G.; Hohaus, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schmitt, S. H.; Yu, Z.; Schlag, P.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol can alter the Earth's radiative budget and global climate but can also affect human health. A dominant contributor to the submicrometer particulate matter (PM) is organic aerosol (OA). OA can be either directly emitted through e.g. combustion processes (primary OA) or formed through the oxidation of organic gases (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). A detailed understanding of SOA formation is of importance as it constitutes a major contribution to the total OA. The partitioning between the gas and particle phase as well as the volatility of individual components of SOA is yet poorly understood adding uncertainties and thus complicating climate modelling. In this work, a new experimental methodology was used for compound-specific analysis of organic aerosol. The Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) is a newly developed instrument that deploys an aerodynamic lens to separate the gas and particle phase of an aerosol. The particle phase is directed to a cooled sampling surface. After collection particles are thermally desorbed and transferred to a detector for further analysis. In the present work, the ACM was coupled to a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to detect and quantify organic compounds partitioning between the gas and particle phase. This experimental approach was used in a set of experiments at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR to investigate SOA formation. Ozone oxidation with subsequent photochemical aging of β-pinene, limonene and real plant emissions from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) were studied. Simultaneous measurement of the gas and particle phase using the ACM-PTR-ToF-MS allows to report partitioning coefficients of important BVOC oxidation products. Additionally, volatility trends and changes of the SOA with photochemical aging are investigated and compared for all systems studied.

  8. Dimming over the Oceans: Transient Anthropogenic Aerosol Plumes in the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Knutti, Reto; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols reduce incoming surface solar radiation (SSR), but the magnitude of this effect for reducing sea surface temperature (SST) is still debated. Using simulations from the global climate model ECHAM5 with the Hamburg Aerosol Module (HAM) and prescribed SSTs, we quantify anthropogenic aerosol dimming over sea surfaces by comparing ensembles, which only differ in anthropogenic aerosol emissions. We isolate the anthropogenic aerosol effect on SSR with sufficiently large ensemble sizes to provide statistically significant results. The following simulation results are obtained: Dimming plumes extend from their source regions with clear seasonality. The latter is predominantly shaped by atmospheric circulation, while interdecadal changes follow the gradual increase in anthropogenic aerosol emissions. Comparing the 1990s with the 1870s, on average, 9.4% (clearsky SSR) or 15.4% (allsky SSR) of the entire ocean surface was affected by anthropogenic aerosol dimming larger than -4 W m-2 (annual mean). Comparing the same time periods, global average anthropogenic dimming over oceans is -2.3 W m-2and -3.4 W m-2 for clearsky and allsky SSR, respectively. Surface dimming is hemispherically asymmetrical with stronger Northern Hemispheric dimming by 2.3 W m-2 and 4.5 W m-2 for clearsky and allsky SSR, respectively. Zonal average clearsky dimming reaches its maximum (5.5 W m-2 ) near the Equator. Allsky dimming peaks at 40° N (-8 W m-2 ) and is regionally larger than clearsky dimming. Regionally, surface dimming can go beyond -20 W m-2 (clearsky) and -40 W m-2 (allsky). Results are a contribution towards better quantifying spatially heterogeneous and time-dependent anthropogenic dimming effects on SSTs.

  9. Study of simulations using ECHAM-HAM and CAM5-MAM3 using ground-based and satellite data for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvim, D. S., Sr.; Nobre, P. N.; Nilo, S.; Correa, S. M.; Pendharkar, J.; Capistrano, V.; Dos Santos, A. F.; Kubota, P. Y.; Silva, J.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil is developing its own atmosphere-ocean-biosphere-cryosphere Global Circulation Model - the Brazilian Earth System Model (BESM). BESM simulations demonstrate potential results on global climate change. Brazilian climate modeling community can significantly contribute to the international efforts on global climate change research. Currently, the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies of the National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE), Brazil is implementing and testing the aerosol component in BESM. A priori knowledge of the overall performance of the existing state-of-the-art aerosol models is necessary for the implementation. This work analyzes the performance of the aerosol component, their distribution over Brazil in particular, of two Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCM), the European Centre's Model - Hamburg Aerosol Model (ECHAM-HAM) and the Community Atmosphere Model - Modal Aerosol Model (CAM5-MAM3) against the observations. We evaluated the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from both the simulations and Angström exponent from ECHAM-HAM. The results are compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground station measurements, and satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study was done for four cities in Brazil - São Paulo, Cuiabá, Rio Branco, and Alta Floresta during 2001-2006. Both models underestimate AOD for all the four cities. However, CAM5-MAM3 has greater negative bias in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil where biomass burning is more frequent during the dry season. Better performance is seen during January-June and November-December, but not consistent during July to October (i.e., the dry season), when fire occurrences are more frequent. CAM5-MAM3 model has small negative bias for this period. The Angström parameter is reasonably reproduced by ECHAM-HAM, except for Cuiabá, indicating that the particle size distribution is correctly represented in most

  10. A numerical study of aerosol influence on mixed-phase stratiform clouds through modulation of the liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2013-02-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out in a high-resolution two-dimensional framework to increase our understanding of aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase stratiform clouds. Aerosol characteristics explored include insoluble particle type, soluble mass fraction, influence of aerosol-induced freezing point depression and influence of aerosol number concentration. Simulations were analyzed with a focus on the processes related to liquid phase microphysics, and ice formation was limited to droplet freezing. Of the aerosol properties investigated, aerosol insoluble mass type and its associated freezing efficiency was found to be most relevant to cloud lifetime. Secondary effects from aerosol soluble mass fraction and number concentration also alter cloud characteristics and lifetime. These alterations occur via various mechanisms, including changes to the amount of nucleated ice, influence on liquid phase precipitation and ice riming rates, and changes to liquid droplet nucleation and growth rates. Alteration of the aerosol properties in simulations with identical initial and boundary conditions results in large variability in simulated cloud thickness and lifetime, ranging from rapid and complete glaciation of liquid to the production of long-lived, thick stratiform mixed-phase cloud.

  11. Modulation of aerosol radiative forcing due to mixing state in clear and cloudy-sky: A case study from Delhi National Capital Region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh; Agarwal, Poornima

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties change with the change in mixing state of aerosols and therefore it is a source of uncertainty in estimated aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) from observations or by models assuming a specific mixing state. The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. Quantifying the modulation of ARF by mixing state is hindered by lack of knowledge about proper aerosol composition. Hence, first a detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out. Aerosol composition is arranged quantitatively into five major aerosol types - accumulation dust, coarse dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS), and black carbon (BC) (directly measured by Athelometer). Eight different mixing cases - external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell mixing (BC over dust, WS over dust, WS over BC, BC over WS, WS over WINS, and BC over WINS; each of the combinations externally mixed with other species) have been considered. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing cases are calculated and finally 'clear-sky' and 'cloudy-sky' ARF at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface are estimated using a radiative transfer model. Comparison of surface-reaching flux for each of the cases with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux reveals the most likely mixing state. 'BC-WINS+WS+Dust' show least deviation relative to MERRA during the pre-monsoon (MAMJ) and monsoon (JAS) seasons and hence is the most probable mixing states. During the winter season (DJF), 'BC-Dust+WS+WINS' case shows the closest match with MERRA, while external mixing is the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season (ON). Lowest values for both TOA and surface 'clear-sky' ARF is observed for 'BC-WINS+WS+ Dust' mixing case. TOA ARF is 0.28±2

  12. A numerical study of aerosol influence on mixed-phase stratiform clouds through modulation of the liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out in a high-resolution two dimensional framework to increase our understanding of aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase stratiform clouds. Aerosol characteristics explored include insoluble particle type, soluble mass fraction, the influence of aerosol-induced freezing point depression and the influence of aerosol number concentration. These experiments were completed with an emphasis on the liquid phase, with droplet freezing the mechanism for ice production. Of the aerosol properties investigated, aerosol insoluble mass type and its associated freezing efficiency was found to be most relevant to cloud lifetime. Secondary effects from aerosol soluble mass fraction and number concentration also alter cloud characteristics and lifetime. These alterations occur via various mechanisms, including changes to the amount of nucleated ice, influence on liquid phase precipitation and ice riming rates, and changes to liquid droplet growth rates. Simulation of the same environment leads to large variability of cloud thickness and lifetime, ranging from rapid and complete glaciation of the cloud to the production of a long-lived, thick stratiform mixed-phase cloud. In the end, these processes are summarized into a diagram that includes internal feedback loops that act within the cloud system.

  13. Generalized DNA Barcode Design Based on Hamming Codes

    PubMed Central

    Bystrykh, Leonid V.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and scope of multiplex parallel sequencing applications is steadily increasing. Critically, multiplex parallel sequencing applications methods rely on the use of barcoded primers for sample identification, and the quality of the barcodes directly impacts the quality of the resulting sequence data. Inspection of the recent publications reveals a surprisingly variable quality of the barcodes employed. Some barcodes are made in a semi empirical fashion, without quantitative consideration of error correction or minimal distance properties. After systematic comparison of published barcode sets, including commercially distributed barcoded primers from Illumina and Epicentre, methods for improved, Hamming code-based sequences are suggested and illustrated. Hamming barcodes can be employed for DNA tag designs in many different ways while preserving minimal distance and error-correcting properties. In addition, Hamming barcodes remain flexible with regard to essential biological parameters such as sequence redundancy and GC content. Wider adoption of improved Hamming barcodes is encouraged in multiplex parallel sequencing applications. PMID:22615825

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A NEW AIR POLLUTION MODELING SYSTEM--II. AEROSOL MODULE STRUCTURE AND DESIGN (R823186)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The methods used for simulating aerosol physical and chemical processes in a new air pollution modeling system are discussed and analyzed. Such processes include emissions, nucleation, coagulation, reversible chemistry, condensation, dissolution, evaporation, irreversible chem...

  15. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A NEW THERMODYNAMIC AEROSOL MODULE FOR URBAN AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELS. (R824793)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computationally efficient and rigorous thermodynamic model (ISORROPIA) that predicts the physical state and composition of inorganic atmospheric aerosol is presented. The advantages of this particular model render it suitable for incorporation into urban and regional air qualit...

  16. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Canagaratna, Manjula; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, Joel; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Davidovits, Paul

    2009-10-01

    To accurately model the radiative forcing of aerosol particles, one must measure in real-time the size, shape, density, chemical composition, and mixing state of ambient particles. This is a formidable challenge because the chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles are highly complex, dependent on the emission sources, the geography and meteorology of the surroundings, and the gas phase composition of the regional atmosphere.

  17. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics. PMID:27449232

  18. Controlling pests in dry-cured ham: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Amoah, B; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W

    2016-01-01

    Dry-cured hams can become infested with ham mites, red-legged beetles, cheese skippers, and larder beetles during the aging process. Though other methods may be used for beetles and cheese skippers, methyl bromide is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mites in dry-cured ham plants in the United States. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries by approximately 2015. This paper will review and explore potential alternatives that have been investigated to determine their feasibility for replacing methyl bromide to control pest infestations in dry-cured ham plants in the United States. Potential alternatives include: 1) fumigants such as phosphine and sulfuryl fluoride; 2) physical control approaches through cold treatment, modified atmosphere, inert dusts, etc.; 3) pesticides and bioactive compounds; 4) food-grade processing aids. The most promising potential alternatives to date include the use of propylene glycol on the ham surface, the exploration of alternative fumigants, and implementation of an integrated pest management plan. PMID:26473293

  19. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics.

  20. Long term variability in aerosol optical depth and its modulation at different time scales observed at a Western Indo-Gangetic Plain station, Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Beegum, S. N.; Lodhi, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term measurements of Spectral Aerosol Optical Depths (AOD) in the spectral range 340 - 1020 nm have been done for a period of 11.5 years (from 2001 to 2012) using Microtops Sunphotometers at Delhi (28.63°N, 77.33°E, 238 m msl) in the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP). The measurements show consistently high AODs during the entire period of observation with strong seasonal and spectral variations. Significant variability is also observed in the variations of Angstrom exponent, α and its derivative, α' suggesting the prevalence of multi-modal aerosol size-distributions at Delhi. The coarse mode natural aerosols dominate during summer (March-June) and monsoon (July-September) seasons, whereas, fine/accumulation mode enhances during post monsoon (October-November) and winter (December-February) seasons. The AODs shows a weak but statistically significant (in 95% confidence level) decreasing trend ~ -0.02/year at 500 nm. Climatologically, AODs at the shorter (340 nm) and the mid-visible wavelengths (500 nm) show higher values during May-June and October-November and lower values during March and September. While at longer wavelengths (870 and 1020 nm), the highest values of AOD are observed during June and the least values during September. The time series of AOD has also been analyzed to delineate the significant modulations by different time scale atmospheric motions or circulations. Wavelet spectra of the time-series data have revealed the presence of periodicities varying from intra-seasonal to inter-annual time scales in significant amplitudes. The meteorological parameters at different pressure levels also show similar pattern of periodicities with certain interesting observations. While the shorter periodicities in aerosol parameters were strongly correlated with the corresponding oscillations in the near surface meteorological parameters, the inter-annual oscillations were found to be associated with the circulation pattern in the Upper troposphere

  1. A canonical correlation analysis of the association between carcass and ham traits in pigs used to produce dry-cured ham

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Henrique T.; Lopes, Paulo S.; Peloso, José V.; Guimarães, Simone E.F.; Carneiro, Antonio Policarpo S.; Carneiro, Paulo L.S.

    2011-01-01

    The association between carcass and ham traits in a pig population used to produce dry-cured ham was studied using canonical correlation analysis. The carcass traits examined were hot carcass weight (HCW), backfat thickness (BT) and loin depth (LD), and the ham traits studied were gross ham weight (GHW), trimmed ham weight (THW), ham inner layer fat thickness (HIFT), ham outer layer fat thickness (HOFT), pH (pH) and the Göfo value. Carcass and ham traits are not independent. The canonical correlations (r) between the carcass and ham traits at 130 kg were 0.77, 0.24 and 0.20 for the first, second and third canonical pair, respectively, and were all significant (p < 0.01) by the Wilks test. The corresponding canonical correlations between the three canonical variate pairs for the carcass and ham traits at 160 kg were 0.88, 0.42 and 0.14, respectively (p < 0.05 for all, except the third). The correlations between the traits and their canonical variate showed an association among HCW, GHW and THW, and between BT and HOFT. These results indicate that carcass traits should be used to cull pigs that are not suitable for dry-cured ham production. PMID:21931518

  2. Aqueous aerosol SOA formation: impact on aerosol physical properties.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joseph L; Kim, Derek D; Schwier, Allison N; Li, Ruizhi; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry in aerosol water has recently been recognized as a potentially important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material. This SOA material may be surface-active, therefore potentially affecting aerosol heterogeneous activity, ice nucleation, and CCN activity. Aqueous aerosol chemistry has also been shown to be a potential source of light-absorbing products ("brown carbon"). We present results on the formation of secondary organic aerosol material in aerosol water and the associated changes in aerosol physical properties from GAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis), a photochemical box model with coupled gas and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. The detailed aerosol composition output from GAMMA was coupled with two recently developed modules for predicting a) aerosol surface tension and b) the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the aerosol, based on our previous laboratory observations. The simulation results suggest that the formation of oligomers and organic acids in bulk aerosol water is unlikely to perturb aerosol surface tension significantly. Isoprene-derived organosulfates are formed in high concentrations in acidic aerosols under low-NO(x) conditions, but more experimental data are needed before the potential impact of these species on aerosol surface tension may be evaluated. Adsorption of surfactants from the gas phase may further suppress aerosol surface tension. Light absorption by aqueous aerosol SOA material is driven by dark glyoxal chemistry and is highest under high-NO(x) conditions, at high relative humidity, in the early morning hours. The wavelength dependence of the predicted absorption spectra is comparable to field observations and the predicted mass absorption efficiencies suggest that aqueous aerosol chemistry can be a significant source of aerosol brown carbon under urban conditions. PMID:24601011

  3. Pre-cure freezing effect on physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Ruiz, J; Martín, D; Barat, J M; Antequera, T

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of pre-cure freezing on the physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of raw and dry-cured hams. Both, refrigerated (R) and pre-cure frozen (F) hams showed the same weight losses during the processing. At the green stage F Iberian hams had lower moisture content, higher values of a* and chroma, lower hardness and chewiness and higher adhesiveness and springiness than R ones. However, at the end of the processing R and F Iberian hams only were different in salt content, F hams showing lower values than R ones. Sensory analysis of Iberian dry-cured ham did not show differences in salty taste. Panelist detected a higher fat hardness and lean pastiness in F than in R hams. The overall acceptability for both groups of dry-cured hams was between average and good. PMID:21441388

  4. CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists

  5. Evaluation of different types of dry-cured ham by Italian and French consumers.

    PubMed

    Cannata, S; Ratti, S; Meteau, K; Mourot, J; Baldini, P; Corino, C

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to analyse the distribution of preferences between two group of consumers (100 consumers each) from different countries (Italy and France), in order to establish which type of dry-cured ham is most acceptable and to compare results across countries using preference mapping. A preference test was carried out on four types of dry-cured hams: Parma ham (P), Italian non-branded ham (I) and hams derived from pigs fed a diet containing sunflower oil (2.5%) (S) or extruded linseed (5%) (L). The consumers were requested to evaluate each single descriptor using a hedonic scale and assigning a score between 1 (dislike extremely) and 9 (like extremely). The four different dry-cured hams were sensorially well differentiated by the consumers of different nationalities. Italian consumers preferred P and S hams while French consumers preferred S, I and P hams in terms of overall acceptability and acceptability of aroma and flavour. L ham was negatively discriminated, compared to the other hams, by both consumer groups. A good differentiation between the dry-cured hams was obtained using the internal preference map method: P was discriminated from the other hams. PMID:20374830

  6. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,”...

  7. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,”...

  8. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,”...

  9. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,”...

  10. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,”...

  11. Degenerate quantum codes and the quantum Hamming bound

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Klappenecker, Andreas

    2010-03-15

    The parameters of a nondegenerate quantum code must obey the Hamming bound. An important open problem in quantum coding theory is whether the parameters of a degenerate quantum code can violate this bound for nondegenerate quantum codes. In this article we show that Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, over a prime power alphabet q{>=}5, cannot beat the quantum Hamming bound. We prove a quantum version of the Griesmer bound for the CSS codes, which allows us to strengthen the Rains' bound that an [[n,k,d

  12. A pathway analysis of global aerosol processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Although budgets for aerosol emission and deposition (macrophysical fluxes) have been studied before, much less is known about the budgets of processes e.g. nucleation, coagulation and condensation. A better understanding of their relative importance would improve our understanding of the aerosol system and help model development and evaluation. Aerosols are not only emitted from and deposited to the Earth's surface but are modified during their transport. The processes for these modifications include nucleation of H2SO4 gas into new aerosol, coagulation with other aerosol and condensation of H2SO4 unto existing aerosol. As a result of these processes, aerosol grow in size and change their chemical composition, often becoming hydrophilic where they were hydrophobic before. This affects their characteristics for various deposition processes (sedimentation, dry or wet deposition) as well as their radiative properties and hence climate forcing by aerosol. We present a complete budget of all aerosol processes in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM including the M7 microphysics. This model treats aerosol as 7 distinct but interacting two-moment modes of mixed species (soot, organic carbons, sulfate, sea salt and dust). We will show both global budgets as well as regional variations in dominant processes. Some of our conclusions are: condensation of H2SO4 gas onto pre-existing particles is an important process, dominating the growth of small particles in the nucleation mode to the Aitken mode and the ageing of hydrophobic matter. Together with in-cloud production of H2SO4, it significantly contributes to (and often dominates) the mass burden (and hence composition) of the hydrophilic Aitken and accumulation mode particles. Particle growth itself is the leading source of number densities in the hydrophilic Aitken and accumulation modes, with their hydrophobic counterparts contributing (even locally) relatively little. However, the coarse mode is mostly decoupled from the

  13. Ham particle size influences saltiness perception in flans.

    PubMed

    Emorine, M; Septier, C; Thomas-Danguin, T; Salles, C

    2014-04-01

    One major issue of the food industry is reducing sodium content while maintaining food acceptability and liking. Despite extensive research in this field, little has been published on real complex food products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the size of particles, a parameter easily adjusted in food processing, could influence the salty taste of low-salt food product. We thus evaluated the effect of ham particle sizes (4 levels, including a zero level) on salt perception and the consumer liking of flans varying in their overall salt concentrations (low- and high-salt content). Two consumer panels, composed of 107 and 77 subjects, rated, respectively, the saltiness of and liking for the developed flans (8 samples). The outcomes of this study indicated first, that the addition of ham to flans increased the salty taste perception and second, that a decrease in ham particle size (ground ham) increased the perceived saltiness. Moreover, low- and high-salt flans were equally liked, demonstrating that food manufacturers could reduce the salt contents (here, by over 15%) while maintaining consumer acceptability through the manipulation of the size of the salt-providing particles.

  14. Rapid detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Barba, C; Santa-María, G; Herraiz, M; Calvo, M M

    2012-03-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with either gas chromatography-ionization flame detector (CG-FID) or multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) was evaluated for its ability to detect volatile hydrocarbons produced during the irradiation of cooked ham. The chromatogram of an irradiated sample obtained using GC-FID showed a complex pattern of peaks, with several co-eluting peaks superimposed, indicating that the method was unlikely to resolve adequately the volatile hydrocarbons formed during irradiation. Using SPME-MDGC-MS 1-tetradecene (C(1-14:1)), n-pentadecane (C(15:0)), 1-hexadecene (C(1-16:1)), n-heptadecane (C(17:0)) and 8-heptadecene (C(8-17:1)) were detected in cooked ham irradiated at 0.5, 2, 4 and 8kGy. This method allows the detection of most n-alkanes and n-alkenes produced during the irradiation of the majority of fatty acids in cooked ham, namely oleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid. SPME is rapid and inexpensive and does not require organic solvents. The proposed SPME-MDGC-MS method allows the determination of radiolytic markers in cooked ham in less than 115min. PMID:22100714

  15. Rapid detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Barba, C; Santa-María, G; Herraiz, M; Calvo, M M

    2012-03-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with either gas chromatography-ionization flame detector (CG-FID) or multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) was evaluated for its ability to detect volatile hydrocarbons produced during the irradiation of cooked ham. The chromatogram of an irradiated sample obtained using GC-FID showed a complex pattern of peaks, with several co-eluting peaks superimposed, indicating that the method was unlikely to resolve adequately the volatile hydrocarbons formed during irradiation. Using SPME-MDGC-MS 1-tetradecene (C(1-14:1)), n-pentadecane (C(15:0)), 1-hexadecene (C(1-16:1)), n-heptadecane (C(17:0)) and 8-heptadecene (C(8-17:1)) were detected in cooked ham irradiated at 0.5, 2, 4 and 8kGy. This method allows the detection of most n-alkanes and n-alkenes produced during the irradiation of the majority of fatty acids in cooked ham, namely oleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid. SPME is rapid and inexpensive and does not require organic solvents. The proposed SPME-MDGC-MS method allows the determination of radiolytic markers in cooked ham in less than 115min.

  16. 9 CFR 319.105 - “Ham patties,” “Chopped ham,” “Pressed ham,” “Spiced ham,” and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with minimum meat Protein Fat Free (PFF) percentage requirements set forth in the following chart: Type... added ingredients. 2 1 The minimum meat PFF percentage shall be the minimum meat protein which is... value; e.g., Ham and Water Product—20% of Weight is Added Ingredients. (b) Cured pork products...

  17. 9 CFR 319.105 - “Ham patties,” “Chopped ham,” “Pressed ham,” “Spiced ham,” and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with minimum meat Protein Fat Free (PFF) percentage requirements set forth in the following chart: Type... added ingredients. 2 1 The minimum meat PFF percentage shall be the minimum meat protein which is... value; e.g., Ham and Water Product—20% of Weight is Added Ingredients. (b) Cured pork products...

  18. Holistic aerosol evaluation using synthesized aerosol aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson-Parris, Duncan; Reddington, Carly; Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip; Carslaw, Ken; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    Despite ongoing efforts there are still large uncertainties in aerosol concentrations and loadings across many commonly used GCMs. This in turn leads to large uncertainties in the contributions of the direct and indirect aerosol forcing on climate. However, constraining these fields using earth observation data, although providing global coverage, is problematic for many reasons, including the large uncertainties in retrieving aerosol loadings. Additionally, the inability to retrieve aerosols in or around cloudy scenes leads to further sampling biases (Gryspeerdt 2015). Many in-situ studies have used regional datasets to attempt to evaluate the model uncertainties, but these are unable to provide an assessment of the models ability to represent aerosols properties on a global scale. Within the Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP) we have assembled the largest collection of quality controlled, in-situ aircraft observations ever synthesized to a consistent format. This provides a global set of in-situ measurements of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and Black Carbon (BC), amongst others. In particular, the large number of vertical profiles provided by this aircraft data allows us to investigate the vertical structure of aerosols across a wide range of regions and environments. These vertical distributions are particularly valuable when investigating the dominant processes above or below clouds where remote sensing data is not available. Here we present initial process-based assessments of the BC lifetimes and vertical distributions of CCN in the HadGEM-UKCA and ECHAM-HAM models using this data. We use point-by-point based comparisons to avoid the sampling issues associated with comparing spatio-temporal aggregations.

  19. An aerosol data assimilation technique using GCM predictions and satellite observations of seasonal AOD over south Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Bhushan, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Cherian, R.; Quaas, J.; Carmichael, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol properties and climate effects simulated in climate chemistry models often exhibit large uncertainties, owing to bias in model processes like chemistry or transport, simplified representation of sub-grid processes and uncertainties in aerosol emission estimates. An approach to reduce this uncertainty involves assimilation of observational datasets, typically from satellite detection, with model predictions. Estimation of uncertainty in observations then becomes a central concern in data assimilation procedures. In this work, predictions of aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from simulation of a general circulation model ECHAM 5.5 extended by an aerosol module HAM (Hamburg Aerosol Module) were assimilated using daily mean AOD from satellite observations available from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), over south Asia. Towards this end, an algorithm was developed for interpolation of the observations (available at higher resolutions) to a larger model grid, using data quality weights and propagation of uncertainties. An optimal interpolation algorithm was then implemented to assimilate the observed values with the model predicted values of AOD over the domain of interest. The free parameters in the assimilation algorithm pertaining to observational uncertainty were tuned using values obtained from the error analysis of satellite (MODIS) data with ground station (AERONET) measurements at Kanpur during 2001-2010. The assimilation was performed on a monthly scale for a complete year of 2006. The ability of the assimilation algorithm to correct model AOD was evaluated using sunphotometer AOD measurements at different sites in the domain. Assimilation corrected the underpredicted model AODs significantly to bring them close to AERONET measurements. Root mean square error (RMSE) for assimilated AODs was 0.107 compared to 0.337 for model AODs indicating reduction in uncertainty. For further validation, daily assimilation was performed and the

  20. Global aerosol effects on convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till; Stier, Philip

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, and thereby the radiation balance of the planet and the water cycle. The influence of aerosols on clouds is dominated by increase of cloud droplet and ice crystal numbers (CDNC/ICNC) due to enhanced aerosols acting as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. In deep convective clouds this increase in CDNC/ICNC is hypothesised to increase precipitation because of cloud invigoration through enhanced freezing and associated increased latent heat release caused by delayed warm rain formation. Satellite studies robustly show an increase of cloud top height (CTH) and precipitation with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD, as proxy for aerosol amount). To represent aerosol effects and study their influence on convective clouds in the global climate aerosol model ECHAM-HAM, we substitute the standard convection parameterisation, which uses one mean convective cloud for each grid column, with the convective cloud field model (CCFM), which simulates a spectrum of convective clouds, each with distinct values of radius, mixing ratios, vertical velocity, height and en/detrainment. Aerosol activation and droplet nucleation in convective updrafts at cloud base is the primary driver for microphysical aerosol effects. To produce realistic estimates for vertical velocity at cloud base we use an entraining dry parcel sub cloud model which is triggered by perturbations of sensible and latent heat at the surface. Aerosol activation at cloud base is modelled with a mechanistic, Köhler theory based, scheme, which couples the aerosols to the convective microphysics. Comparison of relationships between CTH and AOD, and precipitation and AOD produced by this novel model and satellite based estimates show general agreement. Through model experiments and analysis of the model cloud processes we are able to investigate the main drivers for the relationship between CTH / precipitation and AOD.

  1. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Christian; Erbou, Søren G; Thauland, Torunn; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Berg, Per

    2005-01-01

    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams correlated well (r(2)=0.94) to the CT value of a 10 mm section located at the center of femur bone, perpendicular to the length axis of the hams. In the same position, significant correlations between the CT values before (r(2)=0.71) and after (r(2)=0.80) the ageing period and actual chemical analysis of the same section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt distribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non-invasively, while hams are still in production. Computed tomography combined with appropriate image analysis offers advantages as a non-invasive tool in both research and product development.

  2. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P<0.05), and there was a higher shrinkage tendency compared with the hams cooked without a bag. For the processing characteristics and texture properties of pork ham, there were no significant differences observed among the treatments with and without a cooking bag in terms of the combined effect of cooking and cooling (P>0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  3. Prediction of lean and fat composition in swine carcasses from ham area measurements with image analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P; Forrest, John C; Chen, Way; Wagner, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Video images of ham cross-sections were recorded from 71 pork carcasses (ranging in weight from 72 to 119kg). Three sets of prediction equations were developed to estimate pork carcass lean and fat composition from video image analysis (VIA) of ham cross-sectional area measurements, 10th rib back fat depth (TENFAT) and hot carcass weight (HCKg). Carcass data of dissected lean and fat in the four primal cuts (ham, loin, Boston button and picnic shoulder) were used as dependent variables in establishing regression equations. The first set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and total ham weight (HTKg). Regression models containing the single variable HTKg times ham percentage lean area (Vol. 1) or HTKg times ham percentage fat area (Vol. 2) accounted for 88% and 68% of the variation in total carcass lean weight (CLKg) and total carcass fat weight (CFKg) from the right side of each carcass, respectively. The second set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and TENFAT (cm). Multiple regression models involving TENFAT, Vol. 1, and Vol. 2 accounted for 91% and 90% of the variation in CLKg and CFKg. The third set of equations used VIA ham measurements, TENFAT and HCKg. Carcass lean weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and ham lean area (HLA) (R(2)=.92). Carcass fat weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and Vol. 2 (R(2)=.91). Overall correlations showed a high association between Vol. 1 and CLKg (r=.94, P<.0001) and Vol. 2 and CFKg (r=.83, P<.0001). Ham lean area was related to CLKg (r=.74, P<.0001) and ham fat area to CFKg (r=.81, P<.0001). The results of this study indicated video image analysis of ham cross-section slices combined with backfat depth at the 10th rib can be used for accurate estimation of total carcass lean or fat composition.

  4. New planetary boundary layer parametrization in ECHAM5-HAM: Dynamical refinement of the vertical resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegenthaler-Le Drian, C.; Spichtinger, P.; Lohmann, U.

    2010-09-01

    associated with the PBL top. In case a cloud can be formed, a new level is associated with the lifting condensation level as well. The regular grid plus the two additional levels define the new dynamical grid, which varies geographically and temporally. The physical processes are computed on this new dynamical grid, Consequently, the sharp gradients and the interaction between the different processes can be better resolved. Some results of this new parametrization will be presented. On a single column model set-up, the reconstruction method accurately finds the inversion at the PBL top for the EPIC stratocumulus case. Also, on a global scale, the occurrence of a successful reconstruction, which is restricted in typical stratocumulus regions, occurs with a high frequency. The impact of the new dynamical grid on clouds and the radiation balance will be presented in the talk. References [Bretherton and Park, 2009] Bretherton, C. S. and Park, S. (2009). A new moist turbulence parametrization in the community atmosphere model. J. Climate, 22:3422-3448. [Grenier and Bretherton, 2001] Grenier, H. and Bretherton, C. S. (2001). A moist parametrization for large-scale models and its application to subtropical cloud-topped marine boundary layers. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129:357-377. [Lenderink and Holtslag, 2000] Lenderink, G. and Holtslag, A. M. (2000). Evaluation of the kinetic energy approach for modeling turbulent fluxes in stratocumulus. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128:244-258. [Lock, 2001] Lock, A. P. (2001). The numerical representation of entrainment in parametrizations of boundary layer turbulent mixing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129:1148-1163. [Roeckner et al., 2003] Roeckner, E., Bäuml, G., Bonaventura, L. et al. (2003). The atmospheric general circulation model echam5, part I: Model description. Technical Report 349, Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg,Germany. [Stier et al., 2005] Stier, P., Feichter, J., Kinne, S. et al. (2005). The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5:1125-1156.

  5. Influence of pre-cure freezing of Iberian ham on proteolytic changes throughout the ripening process.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge; Barat, Jose Manuel; Aristoy, María Concepción; Antequera, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effect of pre-cure freezing Iberian hams on proteolysis phenomena throughout the ripening process. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN), peptide nitrogen (PN) and amino acid nitrogen (AN) as well as amino acid and dipeptide evolution followed the same trend in both refrigerated (R) and pre-cure frozen (F) Iberian hams during processing. At the different stages of ripening, there were no differences in the content of NPN and AN while F dry-cured hams had higher levels of PN than R hams at the final step. This seemed to be more related to the salt content (lower in F than in R hams) than to the pre-cure freezing treatment. Most amino acids and dipeptides detected showed higher concentrations in F than in R Iberian hams at the green stage, being rather similar at the intermediate phases. At the final stage, the effects of pre-cure freezing of Iberian hams were not well defined, higher levels of some amino acids and dipeptides were found in R than in F Iberian hams whereas other amino acids were lower in R than in F hams.

  6. Organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  7. Effects of lactic acid on the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked ham surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surfaces of ready-to-eat meats are susceptible to post-processing contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. This study examined and modeled the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes on the surface of cooked ham treated with lactic acid solutions (LA). Pieces of cooked ham inoculated with a...

  8. Development of potentiometric equipment for the identification of altered dry-cured hams: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Girón, Joel; Gil-Sánchez, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Pagán, M Jesús; Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Microbiological contamination in dry-cured ham can occur in the early stages of the process, a large number of microorganisms involved in spoilage can produce alterations in the product. These include non-common odours, which are detected at the end of the process by a procedure called "cala", consisting of a sharp instrument punctured in every ham; this is smelled by an expert taster, who classifies hams as good and altered hams. An electronic device would be suitable for this process given the large amount of hams. The present research aims to develop objective equipment based on the potentiometry technique that identifies altered hams. A probe was developed, containing silver, nickel and copper electrodes, and was employed to classify altered and unaltered hams prior to classification by a tester. The results shown lower Ag and higher Cu potential values for altered hams. The differences in potentiometric response reveal a classification model, although further studies are required to obtain a reliable classification model.

  9. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is... “Deviled Tongue” and similar products shall not exceed that of the fresh, unprocessed meat....

  10. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is... “Deviled Tongue” and similar products shall not exceed that of the fresh, unprocessed meat....

  11. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is... “Deviled Tongue” and similar products shall not exceed that of the fresh, unprocessed meat....

  12. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is... “Deviled Tongue” and similar products shall not exceed that of the fresh, unprocessed meat....

  13. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is... “Deviled Tongue” and similar products shall not exceed that of the fresh, unprocessed meat....

  14. Identification and control of moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Alía, Alberto; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Alicia; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Bernáldez, Victoria; Córdoba, Juan J

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this work were to identify moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in the drying and cellar stages of dry-cured ham processing and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions for controlling this alteration. Four mould strains isolated from spoiled hams were identified by morphological characteristics and the ITS and β-tubulin sequencing. Two of them were Cladosporium oxysporum, one was C. cladosporioides and the remaining one was C. herbarum. These spoiling strains reproduced the black spots on dry-cured ham-based media and ham slices. Additionally, the effect of water activity (aw) conditions reached throughout dry-cured ham ripening and the activity of the protective culture Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922 against the spoiling moulds were evaluated. In the dry-cured ham model system the growth of the Cladosporium strains was minimised when the aw approaches 0.84 or in P. chrysogenum CECT 20922 inoculated dry-cured ham slices. Therefore such combination could be used to avoid the black spot formation in dry-cured ham.

  15. Identification and control of moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Alía, Alberto; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Alicia; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Bernáldez, Victoria; Córdoba, Juan J

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this work were to identify moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in the drying and cellar stages of dry-cured ham processing and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions for controlling this alteration. Four mould strains isolated from spoiled hams were identified by morphological characteristics and the ITS and β-tubulin sequencing. Two of them were Cladosporium oxysporum, one was C. cladosporioides and the remaining one was C. herbarum. These spoiling strains reproduced the black spots on dry-cured ham-based media and ham slices. Additionally, the effect of water activity (aw) conditions reached throughout dry-cured ham ripening and the activity of the protective culture Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922 against the spoiling moulds were evaluated. In the dry-cured ham model system the growth of the Cladosporium strains was minimised when the aw approaches 0.84 or in P. chrysogenum CECT 20922 inoculated dry-cured ham slices. Therefore such combination could be used to avoid the black spot formation in dry-cured ham. PMID:27468139

  16. Sensory characteristics of Iberian ham: Influence of salt content and processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Andrés, A I; Cava, R; Ventanas, J; Thovar, V; Ruiz, J

    2004-09-01

    Sensory characteristics of Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles from 24 dry-cured Iberian hams were assessed. Hams were salted with different amounts of salt (6% and 3% w/w) and then ripened at different temperature conditions (traditional processing vs. modified processing). Hams manufactured using modified processing showed higher scores for dryness (P<0.05), hardness (P<0.05) and rancid flavour (P<0.001) in the Semimembranosus muscle than those processed in a traditional way. The Biceps femoris muscle of hams salted with 6% of salt was drier (P<0.05), harder (P<0.05) and more fibrous (P<0.01) than in hams salted with 3% salt. Salty taste was more intense in the Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris from hams with a higher level of salt (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). A more intense rancidity in hams ripened in modified processing could affect the overall aroma. A decrease in salt content produces less salty hams, but the changes in texture traits should be also considered.

  17. Anthropogenic Aerosols and Tropical Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Kim, D.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Barth, M. C.; Rasch, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols can affect the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system and precipitation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN) and thus modifying the optical and microphysical properties as well as lifetimes of clouds. Recent studies have also suggested that the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, particularly absorbing aerosols, can perturb the large-scale circulation and cause a significant change in both quantity and distribution of critical tropical precipitation systems ranging from Pacific and Indian to Atlantic Oceans. This effect of aerosols on precipitation often appears in places away from aerosol-concentrated regions and current results suggest that the precipitation changes caused by it could be much more substantial than that by the microphysics-based aerosol effect. To understand the detailed mechanisms and strengths of such a "remote impact" and the climate response/feedback to anthropogenic aerosols in general, an interactive aerosol-climate model has been developed based on the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) of NCAR. Its aerosol module describes size, chemical composition, and mixing states of various sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols. Several model processes are derived based on 3D cloud-resolving model simulations. We have conducted a set of long integrations using the model driven by radiative effects of different combinations of various carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols and their mixtures. The responses of tropical precipitation systems to the forcing of these aerosols are analyzed using both model and observational data. Detailed analyses on the aerosol-precipitation causal relations of two systems: i.e., the Indian summer monsoon and Pacific ITCZ will be specifically presented.

  18. An iterative HAM approach for nonlinear boundary value problems in a semi-infinite domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinlong; Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an iterative approach to increase the computation efficiency of the homotopy analysis method (HAM), a analytic technique for highly nonlinear problems. By means of the Schmidt-Gram process (Arfken et al., 1985) [15], we approximate the right-hand side terms of high-order linear sub-equations by a finite set of orthonormal bases. Based on this truncation technique, we introduce the Mth-order iterative HAM by using each Mth-order approximation as a new initial guess. It is found that the iterative HAM is much more efficient than the standard HAM without truncation, as illustrated by three nonlinear differential equations defined in an infinite domain as examples. This work might greatly improve the computational efficiency of the HAM and also the Mathematica package BVPh for nonlinear BVPs.

  19. Characterization by volatile compounds of microbial deep spoilage in Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Benito, María J; Aranda, Emilio; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, volatile compounds of spoiled dry-cured Iberian ham with deep spoilage or "bone taint" were analyzed and correlated with level of spoilage and the microorganisms detected. Volatile compounds extracted by a solid phase micro-extraction technique were assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The spoiled hams were evaluated sensorially, and the correlations among volatile compounds, spoilage level, and microbial counts were studied. The spoiled hams had higher concentrations of hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and other minor volatile compounds than unspoiled hams. The sensorial analysis showed that the spoilage level of hams correlated with several volatile compounds, most of them associated with Gram-positive catalase positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae counts. Cyclic compounds such as cyclohexanone, some ethers, and pyrazines should be considered as indicators to monitor incipient microbial deep spoilage in the elaboration of this meat product.

  20. Nutritional composition of dry-cured ham and its role in a healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ventanas, J; Toldrá, F

    2010-04-01

    Dry-cured ham is a traditional product with a strong presence in markets in the Mediterranean area. It is very popular with European consumers and is of enormous economic importance for the meat industry in the Mediterranean area. Although the great palatability of ham largely outweighs other considerations, aspects relating to health and wellbeing are increasingly important factors in consumer decisions. The potential role of ham in a context of healthy nutrition has not been clearly elucidated, especially considering that origins and production methods of dry-cured hams can induce differences in composition. The object of this review was on the one hand to provide an analysis of the components of dry-cured ham and their role in a healthy diet, and on the other hand to suggest possible strategies for improving its nutritional composition.

  1. Evolution of volatile aldehydes in Iberian ham matured under different processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Martín, L; Timón, M L; Petrón, M J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of the Iberian ham processing conditions in the evolution of volatile aldehydes, 35 hams were processed in two plants following different conditions of relative humidity and temperature. For this, free fatty acids, peroxide values and volatile aldehydes were quantified in the hams. The highest increases in free fatty acids were noted during the drying stage in both processing plants. The drying period also revealed the greatest increase in peroxide values, where the highest values were in those hams processed at higher temperatures. The temperature during post-salting and drying had a marked influence on the formation of volatile aldehydes, being responsible for the differences in volatile compounds of matured hams.

  2. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O₂) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO₂), and ozone (O₃). Results showed that both low O₂ and high CO₂ levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O₂ and high CO₂ had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO₂ and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O₂. Both low O₂ and high CO₂ trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O₃ has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O₃ is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O₂ or high CO₂. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  3. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J.; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O2) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3). Results showed that both low O2 and high CO2 levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O2 and high CO2 had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO2 and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O2. Both low O2 and high CO2 trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O3 has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O3 is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O2 or high CO2. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  4. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (<0.70 Log CFU/g). The daily consumption of ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was -3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10(-12). It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp.. PMID:26761897

  5. Biochemical and microbiological events of Parma ham production technology.

    PubMed

    Chizzolini, R; Rosa, P; Novelli, E

    1993-02-01

    Parma ham technology relies on a few basic points. They are: a fresh meat substantially free of microbial deep contamination, a relatively long phase (up to 100 days) at cold temperatures at the beginning of processing, an uncovered muscular surface as reduced as possible, a long period of maturation. The final product, the matured ham, is the result of a slow process of dehydration which, combined with a limited penetration of salt into the muscles, lowers the water activity to values around 0.90. Surface bacterial contamination is mainly made up by Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. Among them E. agglomerans and S. liquefaciens are able to grow at 2 degrees C and salt concentrations up to 7.5% and can be responsible for taint development. Micrococci penetrate into the meat during salting and can reach values of 10 x 6 but decrease substantially towards the end of maturation. Maturation, from a biochemical point of view, is characterized by hydrolytic phenomena interesting nitrogen compounds and fats. As a result free amino acids, non protein nitrogen, volatile fatty acids and carbonylic molecules are produced. Such products are important for the development of typical organoleptic characters.

  6. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-08-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  7. C. elegans HAM-1 functions in the nucleus to regulate asymmetric neuroblast division.

    PubMed

    Leung, Amy; Hua, Khang; Ramachandran, Pavitra; Hingwing, Kyla; Wu, Maria; Koh, Pei Luan; Hawkins, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    All 302 neurons in the C. elegans hermaphrodite arise through asymmetric division of neuroblasts. During embryogenesis, the C. elegans ham-1 gene is required for several asymmetric neuroblast divisions in lineages that generate both neural and apoptotic cells. By antibody staining, endogenous HAM-1 is found exclusively at the cell cortex in many cells during embryogenesis and is asymmetrically localized in dividing cells. Here we show that in transgenic embryos expressing a functional GFP::HAM-1 fusion protein, GFP expression is also detected in the nucleus, in addition to the cell cortex. Consistent with the nuclear localization is the presence of a putative DNA binding winged-helix domain within the N-terminus of HAM-1. Through a deletion analysis we determined that the C-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localization and we identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs). A subcellular fractionation experiment from wild type embryos, followed by Western blotting, revealed that endogenous HAM-1 is primarily found in the nucleus. Our analysis also showed that the N-terminus is necessary for cortical localization. While ham-1 function is essential for asymmetric division in the lineage that generates the PLM mechanosensory neuron, we showed that cortical localization may not required. Thus, our results suggest that there is a nuclear function for HAM-1 in regulating asymmetric neuroblast division and that the requirement for cortical localization may be lineage dependent. PMID:26703426

  8. C. elegans HAM-1 functions in the nucleus to regulate asymmetric neuroblast division.

    PubMed

    Leung, Amy; Hua, Khang; Ramachandran, Pavitra; Hingwing, Kyla; Wu, Maria; Koh, Pei Luan; Hawkins, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    All 302 neurons in the C. elegans hermaphrodite arise through asymmetric division of neuroblasts. During embryogenesis, the C. elegans ham-1 gene is required for several asymmetric neuroblast divisions in lineages that generate both neural and apoptotic cells. By antibody staining, endogenous HAM-1 is found exclusively at the cell cortex in many cells during embryogenesis and is asymmetrically localized in dividing cells. Here we show that in transgenic embryos expressing a functional GFP::HAM-1 fusion protein, GFP expression is also detected in the nucleus, in addition to the cell cortex. Consistent with the nuclear localization is the presence of a putative DNA binding winged-helix domain within the N-terminus of HAM-1. Through a deletion analysis we determined that the C-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localization and we identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs). A subcellular fractionation experiment from wild type embryos, followed by Western blotting, revealed that endogenous HAM-1 is primarily found in the nucleus. Our analysis also showed that the N-terminus is necessary for cortical localization. While ham-1 function is essential for asymmetric division in the lineage that generates the PLM mechanosensory neuron, we showed that cortical localization may not required. Thus, our results suggest that there is a nuclear function for HAM-1 in regulating asymmetric neuroblast division and that the requirement for cortical localization may be lineage dependent.

  9. Effect of Oyster Shell Calcium Powder on the Quality of Restructured Pork Ham

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jin, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Yang-Il

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of oyster shell calcium powder (OSCP) as a substitute for phosphates in curing agent, on the quality of restructured pork ham. Restructured pork ham was processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (no additives), T2 (0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate), T3 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein), T4 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.15% OSCP), T5 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.3% OSCP), and T6 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.5% OSCP). Addition of OSCP significantly increased the ash content and pH of restructured pork ham (p<0.05), but did not affect the cooking loss and water holding capacity values of restructured pork ham. Addition of OSCP had no effect on Hunter a and b surface color values of restructured pork ham, but did decrease the Hunter L surface color value (p<0.05). The addition of 0.5% OSCP showed significantly higher chewiness and springiness values of restructured pork ham, compared with the addition of phosphates (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of OSCP combined with low NaCl and 0.5% whey protein can be considered a viable substitute for phosphates in the curing agent, when processing restructured pork ham. PMID:26761179

  10. Effect of Transport Distance and Season on Some Defects of Fresh Hams Destined for DPO Production

    PubMed Central

    Arduini, Agnese; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Dall’Olio, Stefania; Pace, Vincenzo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport to the slaughterhouse is a stressful event for pigs. Travel duration and conditions can negatively affect animal welfare and carcass quality. Some defects in fresh hams are strictly connected to pre-slaughter transportation. Journeys with short (<37 km) and long (>170 km) distances may increase damage in fresh hams and decrease Denomination Protected of Origin (DPO) Parma dry-cured ham production. Abstract Pre-slaughter handling is related to defects in fresh hams that result in exclusion from the DPO Parma chain, including hematomas, lacerations, microhaemorrhages and veining. To determine the effects of transport conditions on hams, we collected data on defects in 901,990 trimmed fresh hams from heavy pigs provided by 3,650 batches from slaughterhouse during 2012 and 2013. For all batches, transport distance (1–276 km) season and year of delivery were considered. A decrease of all defect occurrences was observed for increasing distance up to 170 km (P < 0.05). Above 170 km, however, all defects frequencies increased (P < 0.05). Season showed an effect on the incidence of defects, with an increasing of hematomas and lacerations in winter and autumn respectively (P < 0.05) and the highest percentage of veining and hemorrhages in spring (P < 0.05). Summer had the lowest incidence of defects on fresh hams. We concluded that the incidence of the examined defects and the subsequent rejection for DPO Parma ham production is lower in fresh hams transported 38–170 km during the summer. PMID:26480322

  11. Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Lavvas, Panayotis; Yelle, Roger V; Koskinen, Tommi; Bazin, Axel; Vuitton, Véronique; Vigren, Erik; Galand, Marina; Wellbrock, Anne; Coates, Andrew J; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Crary, Frank J; Snowden, Darci

    2013-02-19

    Photochemically produced aerosols are common among the atmospheres of our solar system and beyond. Observations and models have shown that photochemical aerosols have direct consequences on atmospheric properties as well as important astrobiological ramifications, but the mechanisms involved in their formation remain unclear. Here we show that the formation of aerosols in Titan's upper atmosphere is directly related to ion processes, and we provide a complete interpretation of observed mass spectra by the Cassini instruments from small to large masses. Because all planetary atmospheres possess ionospheres, we anticipate that the mechanisms identified here will be efficient in other environments as well, modulated by the chemical complexity of each atmosphere. PMID:23382231

  12. A Chimpanzee, 'Ham,' in the Biopack Couch for the MR-2 Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee 'Ham' over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  13. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.

  14. Electronic nose for the identification of pig feeding and ripening time in Iberian hams.

    PubMed

    Santos, J P; García, M; Aleixandre, M; Horrillo, M C; Gutiérrez, J; Sayago, I; Fernández, M J; Arés, L

    2004-03-01

    An electronic nose system to control the processing of dry-cured Iberian ham is presented. The sensors involved are tin oxide semiconductors thin films. They were prepared by RF sputtering. Some of the sensors were doped with metal catalysts as Pt and Pd, in order to improve the selectivity of the sensors. The multisensor with 16 semiconductor sensors, gave different responses from two types of dry-cured Iberian hams which differ in the feeding and curing time. The data has been analysed using the PCA (principal component analysis) and backpropagation and probabilistic neural networks. The analysis shows that different types of Iberian ham can be discriminated and identified successfully. PMID:22060883

  15. Electronic nose for the identification of pig feeding and ripening time in Iberian hams.

    PubMed

    Santos, J P; García, M; Aleixandre, M; Horrillo, M C; Gutiérrez, J; Sayago, I; Fernández, M J; Arés, L

    2004-03-01

    An electronic nose system to control the processing of dry-cured Iberian ham is presented. The sensors involved are tin oxide semiconductors thin films. They were prepared by RF sputtering. Some of the sensors were doped with metal catalysts as Pt and Pd, in order to improve the selectivity of the sensors. The multisensor with 16 semiconductor sensors, gave different responses from two types of dry-cured Iberian hams which differ in the feeding and curing time. The data has been analysed using the PCA (principal component analysis) and backpropagation and probabilistic neural networks. The analysis shows that different types of Iberian ham can be discriminated and identified successfully.

  16. Aerosol Modeling for the Global Model Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an aerosol module to be used within the framework of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI). The model development work will be preformed jointly by the University of Michigan and AER, using existing aerosol models at the two institutions as starting points. The GMI aerosol model will be tested, evaluated against observations, and then applied to assessment of the effects of aircraft sulfur emissions as needed by the NASA Subsonic Assessment in 2001. The work includes the following tasks: 1. Implementation of the sulfur cycle within GMI, including sources, sinks, and aqueous conversion of sulfur. Aerosol modules will be added as they are developed and the GMI schedule permits. 2. Addition of aerosol types other than sulfate particles, including dust, soot, organic carbon, and black carbon. 3. Development of new and more efficient parameterizations for treating sulfate aerosol nucleation, condensation, and coagulation among different particle sizes and types.

  17. Rainfall-aerosol relationships explained by wet scavenging and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandey, Benjamin S.; Gururaj, Anisha; Stier, Philip; Wagner, Till M.

    2014-08-01

    Relationships between precipitation rate and aerosol optical depth, the extinction of light by aerosol in an atmospheric column, have been observed in satellite-retrieved data. What are the reasons for these precipitation-aerosol relationships? We investigate relationships between convective precipitation rate (Rconv) and aerosol optical depth (τtot) using the ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model. We show that negative Rconv-τtot relationships arise due to wet scavenging of aerosol. The apparent lack of negative Rconv-τtot relationships in satellite-retrieved data is likely because the satellite data do not sample wet scavenging events. When convective wet scavenging is excluded in the model, we find positive Rconv-τtot relationships in regions where convective precipitation is the dominant form of model precipitation. The spatial distribution of these relationships is in good agreement with satellite-based results. We further demonstrate that a substantial component of these positive relationships arises due to covariation with large-scale relative humidity. Although the interpretation of precipitation-aerosol relationships remains a challenging question, we suggest that progress can be made through a synergy between observations and models.

  18. Aerosol effect on climate extremes in Europe under different future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillmann, J.; Pozzoli, L.; Vignati, E.; Kloster, S.; Feichter, J.

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions (i.e., SO2 and black and organic carbon) simulated with an aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) with focus on Europe. The simulations include a maximum feasible aerosol reduction (MFR) scenario and a current legislation emission (CLEmod) scenario where Europe implements the MFR scenario, but the rest of the world follows the current legislation scenario and a greenhouse gas scenario. The strongest changes relative to the year 2000 are projected for the MFR scenario, in which the global aerosol reduction greatly enforces the general warming effect due to greenhouse gases and results in significant increases of temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe. Regional warming effects can also be identified from aerosol reductions under the CLEmodscenario. This becomes most obvious in the increase of the hottest summer daytime temperatures in Northern Europe.

  19. Benchmarking value in the pork supply chain: Processing and consumer characteristics of hams manufactured from different quality raw materials.

    PubMed

    Person, R C; McKenna, D R; Ellebracht, J W; Griffin, D B; McKeith, F K; Scanga, J A; Belk, K E; Smith, G C; Savell, J W

    2005-05-01

    Impact of fresh ham quality on finished ham product characteristics was evaluated. Bone-in hams destined for spiral-sliced ham manufacturing were sorted into two pH groups before processing: pH⩽5.5 and pH⩾5.6. For boneless hams, raw materials were sorted into groups with different levels of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) product before manufacturing into sliced vacuum packaged hams: "Low PSE" (⩽5% PSE muscle), "Intermediate PSE" (20-30% PSE muscle) or "High PSE" (40-60% PSE muscle). Few differences were observed between the pH⩽5.5 and pH⩾5.6 groups in objective color measures and drip loss in bone-in spiral-sliced hams stored under refrigeration, however, after frozen storage, hams from the pH⩽5.5 group had lower L*- and a*-values and had much higher drip loss than those from the pH⩾5.6 group. Processing yields for bone-in spiral-sliced hams were similar through cooking and chilling, however, the pH⩾5.6 group had higher yields after slicing. For boneless hams, defects occurred at a greater frequency in hams formulated with a greater percentage of PSE raw materials than those with lower amounts of PSE. Differences in objective color measures and purge were minimal over the duration of storage time, but hams formulated with greater percentages of PSE raw materials were lighter in appearance and had less redness. Consumers gave lower color responses for hams formulated with "High PSE" amounts, but did not differentiate between hams manufactured with lower quantities of PSE muscle. However, when consumers directly compared packages of ham, there was distinct discrimination against hams manufactured with greater amounts of PSE. Purchase intent showed that consumers favored ham manufactured from fresh ham muscles containing low quantities of PSE tissue. Further research is needed to determine the optimal ratio of allowable PSE product in formulation that enables processors to maximize consumer appeal with the economic realities of sorting out PSE pork.

  20. Unexpected Benefits of Reducing Aerosol Cooling Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impacts of aerosol cooling are not limited to changes in surface temperature since modulation of atmospheric dynamics resulting from the increased stability can deteriorate local air quality and impact human health. Health impacts from two manifestations of the aerosol direct eff...

  1. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on hams shortly after vacuum packaging by spray application of lauric arginate.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J

    2009-12-01

    This study measured and compared the short-term efficacy levels of lauric arginate (LAE) as a postlethality treatment against Listeria monocytogenes present on varied surfaces of large-diameter hams. Preliminary in vitro work demonstrated a 5-log inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 5,000- and 9,090-ppm LAE solutions within 180 min at 4.4 and 23 degrees C. Six different whole-muscle ham types were inoculated with L. monocytogenes at ca. 7-log CFU per ham and spray treated with between 15 and 29 ml of a 9,090-ppm LAE solution, or an equal volume of water (control), prior to vacuum packaging. After 48 h at 4.4 degrees C, populations were recovered from ham and interior packaging surfaces by using a surface rinse method with Dey-Engley neutralizing broth followed by plating on modified Oxford medium. Logarithmic reductions of L. monocytogenes exceeding 2 log CFU/cm(2) of ham surfaces were achieved by LAE treatment on all ham types. Hams with 1,129 cm(2) of surface area that had been processed by drenching in liquid smoke had 3.84 and 2.67 CFU/cm(2) 48 h following treatment with 18 ml of water or LAE, respectively, but increasing treatment volumes to 22 ml significantly reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes levels to 0.65 log CFU/cm(2). This study demonstrated the efficacy of LAE against L. monocytogenes on several ham types, thereby validating it as a postlethality treatment for inactivation of the pathogen.

  2. Subcutaneous and intermuscular fat characterisation of dry-cured Iberian hams.

    PubMed

    Timón, M L; Ventanas, J; Carrapiso, A I; Jurado, A; García, C

    2001-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols and free fatty acids of subcutaneous (internal and superficial layers) and intermuscular fat and the contribution of these fatty acids to the formation of volatile compounds were determined in dry-cured Iberian ham. The profile of the fatty acids and volatile compounds showed that lipolytic and oxidative processes occur more intensively in subcutaneous than intermuscular fat, however, few differences were found compared to those found in ham lean.

  3. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on hams shortly after vacuum packaging by spray application of lauric arginate.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J

    2009-12-01

    This study measured and compared the short-term efficacy levels of lauric arginate (LAE) as a postlethality treatment against Listeria monocytogenes present on varied surfaces of large-diameter hams. Preliminary in vitro work demonstrated a 5-log inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 5,000- and 9,090-ppm LAE solutions within 180 min at 4.4 and 23 degrees C. Six different whole-muscle ham types were inoculated with L. monocytogenes at ca. 7-log CFU per ham and spray treated with between 15 and 29 ml of a 9,090-ppm LAE solution, or an equal volume of water (control), prior to vacuum packaging. After 48 h at 4.4 degrees C, populations were recovered from ham and interior packaging surfaces by using a surface rinse method with Dey-Engley neutralizing broth followed by plating on modified Oxford medium. Logarithmic reductions of L. monocytogenes exceeding 2 log CFU/cm(2) of ham surfaces were achieved by LAE treatment on all ham types. Hams with 1,129 cm(2) of surface area that had been processed by drenching in liquid smoke had 3.84 and 2.67 CFU/cm(2) 48 h following treatment with 18 ml of water or LAE, respectively, but increasing treatment volumes to 22 ml significantly reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes levels to 0.65 log CFU/cm(2). This study demonstrated the efficacy of LAE against L. monocytogenes on several ham types, thereby validating it as a postlethality treatment for inactivation of the pathogen. PMID:20003733

  4. Consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Resano, H; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Sanjuán, A I; de Barcellos, M D; Grunert, K G; Verbeke, W

    2011-04-01

    The objective is to investigate consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries. A logistic regression model has been fitted using data collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey carried out in Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland and Greece during January 2008 (n=2437 of which 2156 were dry-cured ham consumers). Satisfaction was evaluated as overall satisfaction, as well as specific satisfaction with healthfulness, price, convenience and taste. The findings show that the main determinant of overall satisfaction is taste satisfaction, hence, producers are recommended to focus on matching sensory acceptability of dry-cured ham. No significant between-country differences were found, reflecting the wide availability of this product in all countries. Consumer characteristics influenced their level of satisfaction. Men, older (age > 52 years) and frequent consumers of dry-cured ham consumption were more likely to be satisfied with dry-cured ham. Consumers trust the butcher's advice and they preferred purchasing dry-cured ham at a butcher shop rather than in a supermarket. PMID:21146325

  5. Qualitative effects of fresh and dried plum ingredients on vacuum-packaged, sliced hams.

    PubMed

    Nuñez de Gonzalez, M T; Hafley, B S; Boleman, R M; Miller, R M; Rhee, K S; Keeton, J T

    2009-09-01

    Boneless ham muscles (Semimembranosus+Adductor) were injected (20% w/w) with a curing brine containing no plum ingredient (control), fresh plum juice concentrate (FP), dried plum juice concentrate (DP), or spray dried plum powder (PP) at 2.5% or 5%. Hams were cooked, vacuum-packaged, stored at<4°C and evaluated at 2-week intervals over 10 week. Evaluations were performed on sliced product to determine cook loss, vacuum-package purge, Allo-Kramer shear force, 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), proximate analysis, objective color, sensory panel color and sensory attributes. FP, DP and 2.5% PP increased (P<0.05) cook loss by 2% to 7% depending on treatment and level, but the highest cook loss (17.7%) was observed in hams with 5% PP. Shear force values increased as the level of plum ingredient increased (P<0.05) from 2.5% to 5%, and the highest shear values were observed in hams containing 5% FP. There were no differences (P>0.05) in lipid oxidation among treatments as determined by TBARS and sensory evaluation. FP and PP ham color was similar to the control, but DP had a more intense atypical color of cured ham. Minimal changes in physical, chemical and sensory properties were observed during storage of all treatments. PMID:20416628

  6. A pathway analysis of global aerosol processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutgens, N. A. J.; Stier, P.

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed budget of the changes in atmospheric aerosol mass and numbers due to various processes: emission, nucleation, coagulation, H2SO4 condensation and in-cloud production, ageing and deposition. The budget is created from monthly-averaged tracer tendencies calculated by the global aerosol model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 and allows us to investigate process contributions at various length- and time-scales. As a result, we show in unprecedented detail what processes drive the evolution of aerosol. In particular, we show that the processes that affect aerosol masses are quite different from those affecting aerosol numbers. Condensation of H2SO4 gas onto pre-existing particles is an important process, dominating the growth of small particles in the nucleation mode to the Aitken mode and the ageing of hydrophobic matter. Together with in-cloud production of H2SO4, it significantly contributes to (and often dominates) the mass burden (and hence composition) of the hydrophilic Aitken and accumulation mode particles. Particle growth itself is the leading source of number densities in the hydrophilic Aitken and accumulation modes, with their hydrophobic counterparts contributing (even locally) relatively little. As expected, the coarse mode is dominated by primary emissions and mostly decoupled from the smaller modes. Our analysis also suggests that coagulation serves mainly as a loss process for number densities and that, relative to other processes, it is a rather unimportant contributor to composition changes of aerosol. The analysis is extended with sensitivity studies where the impact of a lower model resolution or pre-industrial emissions is shown to be small. We discuss the use of the current budget for model simplification, prioritisation of model improvements, identification of potential structural model errors and model evaluation against observations.

  7. A pathway analysis of global aerosol processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutgens, N. A. J.; Stier, P.

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed budget of the changes in atmospheric aerosol mass and numbers due to various processes: emission (including instant condensation of soluble biogenic emissions), nucleation, coagulation, H2SO4 condensation and in-cloud production, aging and deposition. The budget is created from monthly averaged tracer tendencies calculated by the global aerosol model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 and allows us to investigate process contributions at various length-scales and timescales. As a result, we show in unprecedented detail what processes drive the evolution of aerosol. In particular, we show that the processes that affect aerosol masses are quite different from those that affect aerosol numbers. Condensation of H2SO4 gas onto pre-existing particles is an important process, dominating the growth of small particles in the nucleation mode to the Aitken mode and the aging of hydrophobic matter. Together with in-cloud production of H2SO4, it significantly contributes to (and often dominates) the mass burden (and hence composition) of the hydrophilic Aitken and accumulation mode particles. Particle growth itself is the leading source of number densities in the hydrophilic Aitken and accumulation modes, with their hydrophobic counterparts contributing (even locally) relatively little. As expected, the coarse mode is dominated by primary emissions and mostly decoupled from the smaller modes. Our analysis also suggests that coagulation serves mainly as a loss process for number densities and that, relative to other processes, it is a rather unimportant contributor to composition changes of aerosol. The analysis is extended with sensitivity studies where the impact of a lower model resolution or pre-industrial emissions is shown to be small. We discuss the use of the current budget for model simplification, prioritization of model improvements, identification of potential structural model errors and model evaluation against observations.

  8. Comparison of entire male and immunocastrated pigs for dry-cured ham production under two salting regimes.

    PubMed

    Škrlep, Martin; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Lukač, Nina Batorek; Povše, Maja Prevolnik; Pugliese, Carolina; Labussière, Etienne; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Due to the initiative to stop piglet castration, meat from entire male pigs is expected to take important share on the European market which can affect dry-cured ham industry. In the present study, hams of entire males (EM) and immunocastrates (IC) were submitted to dry-curing process. Sex category and salting regime were evaluated using standard (18 days; HS) and shortened salting (6 days; LS). At the end of processing, compared to HS, LS hams had lower (40%) salt content, were more proteolysed, were less salty, and had softer texture and different volatile profile. Sex effect was less evident; still, hams from EM exhibited higher processing losses and salt intake, and were drier, less marbled, harder, and more intensively coloured than IC hams. The panellists perceived higher off-flavours in hams with high boar taint compounds (correlation 0.67 and 0.53 for skatole and androstenone, respectively). The effect of sex category on volatile profile was negligible.

  9. Gas-aerosol cycling of ammonia and nitric acid in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Geert-Jan; Derksen, Jeroen

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric ammonia and nitric acid are present over NW Europe in large abundance. Observations made during the IMPACT measurement campaign (May 2008, Cabauw, The Netherlands) show a pronounced diurnal cycle of aerosol ammonium and nitrate on relatively dry days. Simultaneously, AERONET data show a distinct diurnal cycle in aerosol optical thickness (AOT). We used a global aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) and a detailed aerosol-cloud column model to help analyse the observations from this period. The study shows that the diurnal cycle in AOT is partly associated with particle number concentration, with distinct peaks in the morning and evening. More important is relative humidity (RH). RH maximizes in the night and early morning, decreases during the morning and increases again in the evening. The particle wet radius, and therefore AOT, changes accordingly. In addition, the RH variability also influences chemistry associated with ammonia and nitric acid (formation of ammonium nitrate, dissolution in aerosol water), resulting in the observed diurnal cycle of aerosol ammonium and nitrate. The additional aerosol matter increases the hygroscopicity of the particles, and this leads to further swelling by water vapor condensation and a further increase of AOT. During the day, as RH decreases and the particles shrink, aerosol ammonium and nitrate are again partly expelled to the gas phase. This behaviour contributes significantly to the observed diurnal cycle in AOT, and it illustrates the complexity of using AOT as a proxy for aerosol concentrations in aerosol climate studies in the case of heavily polluted areas.

  10. Aerosolized Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Marcos I; Keyt, Holly; Reyes, Luis F

    2015-06-01

    Administration of medications via aerosolization is potentially an ideal strategy to treat airway diseases. This delivery method ensures high concentrations of the medication in the targeted tissues, the airways, with generally lower systemic absorption and systemic adverse effects. Aerosolized antibiotics have been tested as treatment for bacterial infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The most successful application of this to date is treatment of infections in patients with CF. It has been hypothesized that similar success would be seen in NCFB and in difficult-to-treat hospital-acquired infections such as VAP. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of aerosolized antibiotics and addresses the specific considerations that clinicians should recognize when prescribing an aerosolized antibiotic for patients with CF, NCFB, and VAP.

  11. Global Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... sizes and from multiple sources, including biomass burning, mineral dust, sea salt and regional industrial pollution. A color scale is ... desert source region. Deserts are the main sources of mineral dust, and MISR obtains aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths ...

  12. How Important Is Organic Aerosol Hygroscopicity to Aerosol Indirect Forcing?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Jian

    2010-12-07

    Organics are among the most abundant aerosol components in the atmosphere. However, there are still large uncertainties with emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (precursor gases of secondary organic aerosol, SOA), formation and yield of SOA, and chemical and physical properties (e.g., hygroscopicity) of POA and SOA. All these may have significant impacts on aerosol direct and indirect forcing estimated from global models. In this study a modal aerosol module (MAM) in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) is used to examine sensitivities of aerosol indirect forcing to hygroscopicity (“κ” value) of POA and SOA. Our model simulation indicates that in the present-day condition changing “κ” value of POA from 0 to 0.1 increases the number concentration of cloud condensational nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation S=0.1% by 40-60% over the POA source regions, while changing “κ” value of SOA by ±50% (from 0.14 to 0.07 and 0.21) changes the CCN within 30%. Changes in the in-cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) are within 20% in most locations on the globe with the above changes in “κ” value of POA and SOA. Global annual mean anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) between present-day (PD) and pre-industrial (PI) conditions change by 0.4 W m-2 with the control run of -1.3 W m-2. AIF reduces with the increase hygroscopicity of organic aerosol, indicating the important role of natural organic aerosol in buffering the relative change of CDNC from PI to PD.

  13. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  14. Numerical Issues Associated with Compensating and Competing Processes in Climate Models: an Example from ECHAM-HAM

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Kazil, Jan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-26

    The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the need for appropriate numerical techniques to represent process interactions in climate models. In two versions of the ECHAM-HAM model, different time integration methods are used to solve the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) gas evolution equation, which lead to substantially different results in the H2SO4 gas concentration and the aerosol nucleation rate. Using convergence tests and sensitivity simulations performed with various time stepping schemes, it is confirmed that numerical errors in the second model version are significantly smaller than those in version one. The use of sequential operator splitting in combination with long time step is identified as the main reason for the large systematic biases in the old model. The remaining errors in version two in the nucleation rate, related to the competition between condensation and nucleation, have a clear impact on the simulated concentration of cloud condensation nuclei in the lower troposphere. These errors can be significantly reduced by employing an implicit solver that handles production, condensation and nucleation at the same time. Lessons learned in this work underline the need for more caution when treating multi-time-scale problems involving compensating and competing processes, a common occurrence in current climate models.

  15. Peptidomics as a tool for quality control in dry-cured ham processing.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-09-16

    Spanish dry-cured ham is a high quality product whose economic value is mainly given by its curing time. An intense proteolysis takes place throughout the dry-cured processing, which results in the generation of a high amount of peptides and free amino acids responsible for the final quality of dry-cured hams. In this work, a peptidomics approach has been used to study the evolution of peptides throughout the ham dry-curing process, identifying and quantifying the generated peptides in order to define potential quality biomarkers. For this purpose, dry-cured ham extracts at different processing times (0, 2, 3.5, 5, 6.5 and 9months) were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography and analysed by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Differences obtained in the relative quantification of peptides by using a label-free methodology were useful to establish differences between processing times, being peptides generated by the degradation of myosin light chain 1 protein mainly responsible for the observed differences during the last stages of curing. In particular, APAPAPAPPKEEKI and PAPAPAPAPAPAPAPPKE, exclusively identified at 9months of curing, would be potential markers to control the time of curing and thus the final quality of dry-cured hams. Biological significance A peptidomics approach has been used to study the evolution of peptides throughout the ham dry-curing process, identifying peptides APAPAPAPPKEEKI and PAPAPAPAPAPAPAPPKE, which were only detected at 9months of process. So, they would constitute good potential markers to control the time of processing and thus the final quality of dry-cured hams. PMID:26926439

  16. Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  17. Modulation of human alveolar macrophage properties by ozone exposure in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, S.; Madden, M.C.; Newman, S.L.; Devlin, R.B.; Koren, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated changes in human alveolar macrophage (HAM) function after exposure in vitro to ozone (O3)(0.1-1.0 ppm for 2-4 hr). The functions studied reflect concern that O3 is detrimental to host defense mechanisms in the bronchoalveolar spaces. Exposure of HAM to O3 caused a concentration-dependent increase in release of prostaglandin E2(PGE2), an important modulator of inflammation, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst. Although phagocytosis of particulate immune complexes was decreased by O3, the authors found no change in the quantity of Fc receptors and complement receptors on the HAM surface. Superoxide (O2) production in response to phorbol ester was reduced after exposure of HAM to O3 while the basal O2 release in response to plastic adherence was not affected. Growth inhibition of the opportunistic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans by HAM was not affected by O3 exposure. The production of inflammatory mediators and immune modulators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 were not induced by exposure to O3. However, compared to controls, O3-exposed HAM produced significantly lower levels of these cytokines when simulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

  18. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes using natural antimicrobials in no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added ham.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Niebuhr, Steven E; Xi, Yuan; Schrader, Kohl D; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2012-06-01

    Consumer demand for foods manufactured without the direct addition of chemical preservatives, such as sodium nitrite and organic acid salts, has resulted in a unique class of "naturally" cured meat products. Formulation with a natural nitrate source and nitrate-reducing bacteria results in naturally cured processed meats that possess traits similar to conventionally cured meats. However, previous research has shown that the naturally cured products are more susceptible to pathogen growth. This study evaluated Listeria monocytogenes growth on ham manufactured with natural curing methods and with commercially available clean-label antimicrobials (cultured sugar and vinegar blend; lemon, cherry, and vinegar powder blend) and assessed impacts on physicochemical characteristics of the product. Hams made with either of the antimicrobials supported L. monocytogenes growth similar to that in the traditionally cured control (P > 0.05). Hams made with prefermented celery juice powder had the lowest residual nitrite concentrations (P < 0.05), and when no antimicrobial was added, L. monocytogenes growth was similar to that of the uncured control (P > 0.05). Aside from residual nitrite and nitrate concentrations, few physicochemical differences were identified. These findings show that ham can be produced with natural curing methods and antimicrobials to provide similar L. monocytogenes inhibition and physicochemical traits as in traditionally cured ham. PMID:22691474

  19. Survival of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and ham.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jonathan A; Dickson, James S; Cordray, Joseph C; Olson, Dennis G; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Prusa, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern for human health professionals around the world. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is just one of the resistant organisms of concern. MRSA prevalence has also been recently reported in retail meat products at rates higher than originally thought. Although the risk of contracting an infection from handling contaminated meat products is thought to be low, very little is known about this organism from a food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of MRSA during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham. Frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham were manufactured using formulations and processing procedures developed at the Iowa State University meat laboratory. Thermal processing resulted in a significant log reduction (p<0.05) for boneless ham, summer sausage, and frankfurters when compared to uncooked, positive controls for each of the three processed meat products. All products were thermally processed to an internal temperature of 70°C and promptly cooled to 7.2°C. Boneless ham showed the highest log reduction (7.28 logs) from cooking, followed by summer sausage (6.75 logs) and frankfurters (5.53 logs). The results of this study indicate that thermal processing of ham, summer sausage, and frankfurters to 70°C is sufficient to reduce the risk of MRSA as a potential food safety hazard.

  20. Non-destructive determination of fat content in green hams using ultrasound and X-rays.

    PubMed

    de Prados, M; Fulladosa, E; Gou, P; Muñoz, I; Garcia-Perez, J V; Benedito, J

    2015-06-01

    This work addresses the use of ultrasound (US) and medical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry methods to predict the fat content in green pork hams. Ultrasonic velocity (υ) and X-ray absorption were measured in 78 green hams. An increase in the fat content involved an increase in υ and a decrease in the X-ray attenuation measured at 2°C. Models developed to predict the fat content from the ultrasonic velocity or X-ray parameters provided errors of 2.97% and 4.65%, respectively. The combination of both US and X-ray technologies did not improve prediction accuracy. These models allowed green hams to be classified into three levels of fatness, with 88.5% and 65.4% of the hams correctly classified when using models based on ultrasonic and X-ray parameters, respectively. Therefore, US and X-rays emerge as useful quality control technologies with which to estimate the fat content in green pork hams.

  1. Non-destructive determination of fat content in green hams using ultrasound and X-rays.

    PubMed

    de Prados, M; Fulladosa, E; Gou, P; Muñoz, I; Garcia-Perez, J V; Benedito, J

    2015-06-01

    This work addresses the use of ultrasound (US) and medical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry methods to predict the fat content in green pork hams. Ultrasonic velocity (υ) and X-ray absorption were measured in 78 green hams. An increase in the fat content involved an increase in υ and a decrease in the X-ray attenuation measured at 2°C. Models developed to predict the fat content from the ultrasonic velocity or X-ray parameters provided errors of 2.97% and 4.65%, respectively. The combination of both US and X-ray technologies did not improve prediction accuracy. These models allowed green hams to be classified into three levels of fatness, with 88.5% and 65.4% of the hams correctly classified when using models based on ultrasonic and X-ray parameters, respectively. Therefore, US and X-rays emerge as useful quality control technologies with which to estimate the fat content in green pork hams. PMID:25687033

  2. 9 CFR 319.106 - “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,” “Country Style Pork...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use in this subchapter or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or... Agriculture, announced that “the temperature and time period provisions of 9 CFR 319.106, paragraphs (c)(5... with all other provisions of 9 CFR 319.106 in order to be labeled ‘country ham,’ ‘country style...

  3. 9 CFR 319.106 - “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,” “Country Style Pork...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... use in this subchapter or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or... Agriculture, announced that “the temperature and time period provisions of 9 CFR 319.106, paragraphs (c)(5... with all other provisions of 9 CFR 319.106 in order to be labeled ‘country ham,’ ‘country style...

  4. 9 CFR 319.106 - “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,” “Country Style Pork...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... use in this subchapter or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or... Agriculture, announced that “the temperature and time period provisions of 9 CFR 319.106, paragraphs (c)(5... with all other provisions of 9 CFR 319.106 in order to be labeled ‘country ham,’ ‘country style...

  5. Comparisons of regional Hydrological Angular Momentum (HAM) of the different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, J.; Kolaczek, B.; Popinski, W.

    2006-10-01

    In the paper hydrological excitations of the polar motion (HAM) were computed from various hydrological data series (NCEP, ECMWF, CPC water storage and LaD World Simulations of global continental water). HAM series obtained from these four models and the geodetic excitation function GEOD computed from the polar motion COMB03 data were compared in the seasonal spectral band. The results show big differences of these hydrological excitation functions as well as of their spectra in the seasonal spectra band. Seasonal oscillations of the global geophysical excitation functions (AAM + OAM + HAM) in all cases besides the NCEP/NCAR model are smaller than the geodetic excitation function. It means that these models need further improvement and perhaps not only hydrological models need improvements.

  6. Growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria in ham by nisin: a model approach.

    PubMed

    Kalschne, Daneysa L; Geitenes, Simone; Veit, Marilei R; Sarmento, Cleonice M P; Colla, Eliane

    2014-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been described as spoilage organisms in vacuum-packed cooked ham. A Fractional Factorial Design was performed to investigate the relative merits of sodium chloride, sodium lactate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium erythorbate, nisin and pediocin, in limiting the Lactobacillus sakei growth in broth culture. This allowed rejection of sodium chloride, sodium lactate and sodium erythorbate (no significant effects on growth), and a Central Composite Rotatable Design broth culture study was performed comparing the effects of nisin and pediocin. From this study, nisin was identified as a more important variable for inclusion into a cooked ham model (significant effects on growth parameters: logarithmic increase in the population, exponential microbial growth rate and lag phase extension). The validation of this outcome in a model formulation of vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham (0.001%, 0.007% and 0.013% of nisin) stored for 60days, confirmed the inhibitory effect of nisin on total LAB growth.

  7. Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; García, C; Muriel, E; Andrés, A I; Ventanas, J

    2002-08-01

    The influence of different sensory attributes on the acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham was studied. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that juiciness and several flavour traits were the major attributes positively influencing acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham, whereas yellowness of the fat, dryness and fibrousness showed a negative influence. Using stepwise multivariate regression, juiciness and flavour intensity were the two traits that better explained the acceptability of dry-cured ham, the linear model obtained showing a regression coefficient of 0.526. The regression coefficient of acceptability with juiciness and flavour intensity was higher using a piecewise linear regression model (R(2)=0.759) showing, therefore, a discontinuous relationship between these variables. However, results on product acceptability have been obtained using trained panellists and it might be possible that the use of a consumer panel would change these conclusions.

  8. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Petrón, M J; Tejeda, J F; Muriel, E; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    2005-01-01

    Branched hydrocarbons from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of intramuscular fat from Iberian dry-cured hams were analyzed. Thirty-four hams were distributed into four groups according to the feed system of the pigs (extensive system "Montanera" and intensive system "Pienso") and genotype (Iberian and Iberian×Duroc). A total of 35 different hydrocarbons were identified in this study. Some differences were found in the levels of branched, cyclical and unsaturated hydrocarbons as a function of the diet of the pigs (3-hexyl-1,1-dimethyl cyclopentane, p<0.05; 3-octadecene, p<0.01; neophytadiene, p<0.001; 1-ethylundecyl benzene, p<0.01; cyclohexadecane, p<0.001; cyclotriacontane, p<0.05). However, the genotype had a limited effect in the level of branched hydrocarbons found. The study of branched hydrocarbons in intramuscular fat from dry-cured Iberian ham allows differentiation between the pigs management systems.

  9. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Petrón, M J; Antequera, T; Muriel, E; Tejeda, J F; Ventanas, J

    2004-02-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the linear hydrocarbons content (n-alkane and n-alkene) in intramuscular lipids (biceps femoris muscle) of dry-cured Iberian ham considering "feeding system" (Montanera: fed on acorns and pasture and concentrate feed) and "genotype" (hams from Iberian pure pigs and hams from Iberian crossbreed with Duroc in a 50%). The linear hydrocarbons from n-C(14) to n-C(32) range were present in the four studied groups. n-Alkenes fraction (60-76 mg/kg of intramuscular fat) was higher than n-alkanes fraction (34-38 mg/kg). The most abundant n-alkane and n-alkene were the shortest chain ones. Feeding and genotype did not influence linear hydrocarbons content (neither n-alkanes nor n-alkenes).

  10. Potential Biomarker of Myofibrillar Protein Oxidation in Raw and Cooked Ham: 3-Nitrotyrosine Formed by Nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xianchao; Li, Chenyi; Ullah, Niamat; Hackman, Robert M; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-12-30

    The stability of cured meat products is increased by the protection of its proteins from oxidation by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) during processing. This study investigated the effects of NaNO2 (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the physiochemical and structural characteristics of myofibrillar protein (MP) in raw and cooked ham. The NaNO2 showed a dose-dependent antioxidant effect, by inhibiting carbonyl formation, dityrosine formation, and denaturation of MP, and a nitrosative effect, through the formation of 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT). The 3-NT content within MP of raw ham had distinct negative correlations with sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. The 3-NT content within MP of cooked ham had significantly negative correlations with carbonyl, sulfhydryl content and turbidity and had significantly positive correlations with disulfide content. These results indicated that 3-NT may be a potential marker for protein oxidation in raw and cooked cured meat products. PMID:26593775

  11. Lipid and protein oxidation and sensory properties of vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham subjected to high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Jesús; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    The effect of HHP treatment (600 MPa) on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham and the impact on the sensory characteristics of the product was investigated. In order to assess how different commercial presentations are affected by HHP treatment, three different presentations of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham were considered, namely, (i) intact format (IF) corresponding to non-sliced vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham, (ii) conventional-sliced format (CSF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices placed stretched out in the package and (iii) alternative-sliced format (ASF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices piled up horizontally. The oxidation of dry-cured ham lipids and proteins was enhanced by HHP-treatment with the presentation being highly influential on these oxidative reactions. Pre-slicing dry-cured ham results in a more susceptible product to oxidative reactions during pressurisation and subsequent refrigerated storage. Possible mechanisms, by which HHP-induced oxidative reactions would affect particular sensory traits in vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham such as colour, texture and flavour attributes, are discussed.

  12. Volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham as affected by the length of the curing process.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Cava, R; Andrés, A; García, C

    1999-05-01

    Volatile compounds from 10 dry-cured Iberian hams ripened for two different processing times, a prolonged traditional one (600 days) and a shortened process (420 days), were analysed by purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Eighty-three compounds were identified which agreed with the major classes found in other ham types. The amount of methyl branched alkanes was much higher than in other dry-cured ham types, probably due to the feeding regime. The percentages of 2- and 3-methylbutanal were higher (p<0.0001 and p<0.0003, respectively) in the longer aged hams, whereas the amounts of some compounds from lipid oxidation decreased from 420 to 600 days aging. In agreement with these observations, 600-day hams had higher scores for those odour and flavour traits usually considered to be positive attributes and lower scores for rancidity. A positive and significant correlation between 2-methyl butanal and cured flavour was found.

  13. HAM-5 functions as a MAP kinase scaffold during cell fusion in Neurospora crassa

    DOE PAGES

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Leeder, Abigail C.; Ansong, Charles; Wang, Yuexi; Yang, Feng; Starr, Trevor L.; Camp, II, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Glass, N. Louise; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-11-20

    Cell fusion in genetically identical Neurospora crassa germlings and in hyphae is a highly regulated process involving the activation of a conserved MAP kinase cascade that includes NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2. During chemotrophic growth in germlings, the MAP kinase cascade members localize to conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) tips every 4 minutes, perfectly out of phase with another protein that is recruited to the tip: SOFT, a protein of unknown biochemical function. How this oscillation process is initiated, maintained and what proteins regulate the MAP kinase cascade is currently unclear. A global phosphoproteomics approach using an allele of mak-2 (mak-2Q100G) thatmore » can be specifically inhibited by the ATP analog 1NM-PP1 was utilized to identify MAK2 kinase targets in germlings that were potentially involved in this process. One such putative target was HAM5, a protein of unknown biochemical function. Previously, Δham-5 mutants were shown to be deficient for hyphal fusion. Here we show that HAM5-GFP co-localized with NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2 and oscillated with identical dynamics from the cytoplasm to CAT tips during chemotropic interactions. In the Δmak-2 strain, HAM5-GFP localized to punctate complexes that did not oscillate, but still localized to the germling tip, suggesting that MAK2 activity influences HAM5 function/localization. However, MAK2-GFP showed only cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in a Δham-5 strain and did not localize to puncta, as observed in wild type germlings. Via co-immunoprecipitation experiments, HAM5 was shown to physically interact with MAK2, MEK2 and NRC1, suggesting that it functions as a scaffold/transport hub for the MAP kinase cascade members during oscillation and chemotropic interactions during both germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa. The identification of HAM5 as a scaffold-like protein will help to link the activation of MAK2 to upstream factors and other proteins involved in this intriguing process of fungal

  14. Assessing quality parameters in dry-cured ham using microwave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bjarnadottir, S G; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2015-10-01

    Microwave spectroscopy has been applied in numerous non-food industry applications, and recently also in the food industry, for non-destructive measurements. In this study, a dry-cured ham model was designed and chemical analyses were performed for determining water activity, water content and salt content (sodium chloride) for all samples. These chemical parameters were also measured using microwave spectroscopy, with a rectangular microwave cavity resonator. Results indicate that microwave spectroscopy may be a promising technique for determination of water activity, salt content and water content in dry-cured ham using either reflected or transmitted signals.

  15. HAM-5 Functions As a MAP Kinase Scaffold during Cell Fusion in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Leeder, Abigail C.; Ansong, Charles; Wang, Yuexi; Yang, Feng; Starr, Trevor L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Glass, N. Louise

    2014-01-01

    Cell fusion in genetically identical Neurospora crassa germlings and in hyphae is a highly regulated process involving the activation of a conserved MAP kinase cascade that includes NRC-1, MEK-2 and MAK-2. During chemotrophic growth in germlings, the MAP kinase cascade members localize to conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) tips every ∼8 minutes, perfectly out of phase with another protein that is recruited to the tip: SOFT, a recently identified scaffold for the MAK-1 MAP kinase pathway in Sordaria macrospora. How the MAK-2 oscillation process is initiated, maintained and what proteins regulate the MAP kinase cascade is currently unclear. A global phosphoproteomics approach using an allele of mak-2 (mak-2Q100G) that can be specifically inhibited by the ATP analog 1NM-PP1 was utilized to identify MAK-2 kinase targets in germlings that were potentially involved in this process. One such putative target was HAM-5, a protein of unknown biochemical function. Previously, Δham-5 mutants were shown to be deficient for hyphal fusion. Here we show that HAM-5-GFP co-localized with NRC-1, MEK-2 and MAK-2 and oscillated with identical dynamics from the cytoplasm to CAT tips during chemotropic interactions. In the Δmak-2 strain, HAM-5-GFP localized to punctate complexes that did not oscillate, but still localized to the germling tip, suggesting that MAK-2 activity influences HAM-5 function/localization. However, MAK-2-GFP showed cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in a Δham-5 strain and did not localize to puncta. Via co-immunoprecipitation experiments, HAM-5 was shown to physically interact with NRC-1, MEK-2 and MAK-2, suggesting that it functions as a scaffold/transport hub for the MAP kinase cascade members for oscillation and chemotropic interactions during germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa. The identification of HAM-5 as a scaffold-like protein will help to link the activation of MAK-2 cascade to upstream factors and proteins involved in this intriguing process of

  16. Reliability of a science admission test (HAM-Nat) at Hamburg medical school

    PubMed Central

    Hissbach, Johanna; Klusmann, Dietrich; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The University Hospital in Hamburg (UKE) started to develop a test of knowledge in natural sciences for admission to medical school in 2005 (Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge, Naturwissenschaftsteil, HAM-Nat). This study is a step towards establishing the HAM-Nat. We are investigating parallel forms reliability, the effect of a crash course in chemistry on test results, and correlations of HAM-Nat test results with a test of scientific reasoning (similar to a subtest of the "Test for Medical Studies", TMS). Methods: 316 first-year students participated in the study in 2007. They completed different versions of the HAM-Nat test which consisted of items that had already been used (HN2006) and new items (HN2007). Four weeks later half of the participants were tested on the HN2007 version of the HAM-Nat again, while the other half completed the test of scientific reasoning. Within this four week interval students were offered a five day chemistry course. Results: Parallel forms reliability for four different test versions ranged from rtt=.53 to rtt=.67. The retest reliabilities of the HN2007 halves were rtt=.54 and rtt =.61. Correlations of the two HAM-Nat versions with the test of scientific reasoning were r=.34 und r=.21. The crash course in chemistry had no effect on HAM-Nat scores. Conclusions: The results suggest that further versions of the test of natural sciences will not easily conform to the standards of internal consistency, parallel-forms reliability and retest reliability. Much care has to be taken in order to assemble items which could be used interchangeably for the construction of new test versions. The test of scientific reasoning and the HAM-Nat are tapping different constructs. Participation in a chemistry course did not improve students’ achievement, probably because the content of the course was not coordinated with the test and many students lacked of motivation to do well in the second test. PMID:21866246

  17. [Aerosol therapy].

    PubMed

    Wildhaber, J H

    1998-08-15

    Aerosol therapy plays a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of various lung diseases. The aim of inhalation therapy is to deposit a reproducible and adequate dose of a specific drug to the airways, in order to achieve a high, local, clinical effect while avoiding serious systemic side effects. To achieve this goal, it is therefore important to have an efficient inhalation device to deliver different medications. However, the currently available therapeutic inhalation devices (nebuliser, pressurised metered-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler) are not very efficient in aerosol delivery and have several disadvantages. Inhalation devices can be assessed by in vitro studies, filter studies and radiolabelled deposition studies. Several radiolabelled deposition studies have shown that nebulisers and pressurised metered-dose inhalers are not very efficient in aerosol delivery. In children, before 1997, only 0.5% to 15% of the total nebulised or actuated dose from a nebuliser or pressurised metered-dose inhaler actually reached the lungs. These numbers were somewhat improved in adults, 30% of the total nebulised or actuated dose reaching the airways. Aerosol therapy with dry powder inhalers was the most efficient before 1997, 30% of the total dose being deposited in the lungs of adults and children. In 1997, new developments in pressurised metered-dose inhalers much improved their efficiency in aerosol delivery. Lung deposition can be increased by up to 60% with use of a non-electrostatic holding chamber and/or a pressurised metered-dose inhaler with a hydrofluoroalkane propellant possessing superior aerosol characteristics. Several studies comparing the clinical efficiency of different inhalation devices have shown that the choice of an optimal inhalation device is crucial. In addition to the aerosol characteristics, ventilation parameters and airway morphology have an important bearing on deposition patterns. These parameters may be greatly influenced by the

  18. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Silva, M; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araujo, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. Objectives: To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. Methods: From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Results: Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. Conclusions: TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological

  19. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  20. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aan de Brugh, J. M. J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M. C.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension). We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95%) and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%). We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match), while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional) aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  1. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aan de Brugh, J. M. J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension). We observe that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95%) and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%). We observe transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we observe an underestimation of the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match), while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional) aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  2. Relevance of nanocomposite packaging on the stability of vacuum-packed dry cured ham.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Elsa; Fernandez, Avelina; Trbojevich, Raul; Arnau, Jacint; Picouet, Pierre A

    2016-08-01

    In this study effects of a novel high barrier multilayer polyamide film containing dispersed nanoclays (PAN) on the stability of vacuum packed dry-cured ham were investigated during 90days refrigerated storage in comparison with non-modified multilayer polyamide (PA) and a commercial high barrier film. Characteristic bands of the mineral in FT-IR spectra confirmed the presence of nanoclays in PAN, enhancing oxygen transmission barrier properties and UV protection. Packaging in PAN films did not originate significant changes on colour or lipid oxidation during prolonged storage of vacuum-packed dry-cured ham. Larger oxygen transmission rates in PA films caused changes in CIE b* during refrigerated storage. Ham quality was not affected by light exposition during 90days and only curing had a significant benefit on colour and TBARS, being cured samples more stable during storage in all the packages used. Packaging of dry-cured ham in PAN was equivalent to commercial high barrier films. PMID:26998947

  3. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs.

  4. Epigenetic modification of the FoxP3 TSDR in HAM/TSP decreases the functional suppression of Tregs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique R; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Massoud, Raya; Ngouth, Nyater; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Oh, Unsong; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-09-01

    HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus that is associated with the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In these patients, HTLV-1 is primarily found in the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell subset (Regulatory T cells:Tregs), which is responsible for peripheral immune tolerance and is known to be dysfunctional in HAM/TSP. Recent evidence suggests that FoxP3 expression and function is determined epigenetically through DNA demethylation in the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR). We analyzed the methylation of the TSDR in PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from normal healthy donors (NDs) and HAM/TSP patients. We demonstrated that there is decreased demethylation in analyzed PBMCs and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from HAM/TSP patients as compared to NDs. Furthermore, decreased TSDR demethylation was associated with decreased functional suppression by Tregs. Additionally, increased HTLV-1 Tax expression in HAM/TSP PBMC culture correlated with a concomitant decline in FoxP3 TSDR demethylation. Overall, we suggest that HTLV-1 infection decreases Treg functional suppressive capacity in HAM/TSP through modification of FoxP3 TSDR demethylation and that dysregulated Treg function may contribute to HAM/TSP disease pathogenesis. PMID:24845974

  5. Consumers' preferences for Iberian dry-cured ham and the influence of mast feeding: An application of conjoint analysis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Francisco J; Gaspar, Paula; Pulido, Angel F; Escribano, Miguel; Pulido, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyzes consumers' preferences for Iberian dry-cured ham, one of the most typical and highly prized meat products in Spain. The data were obtained by a survey carried out between April and May 2006 with a sample of 417 consumers in Extremadura (SW Spain). Conjoint Analysis was used to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes affecting preferences for Iberian ham and to create consumer segments with similar preference profiles. Results have shown that Price and Type of ham are the most important attributes for the choice of ham. Simulation analyses determined the surcharge that consumers are willing to pay for an Iberian mast-fed ham instead of an Iberian ham, thus identifying an ideal cluster for Iberian mast-fed ham.

  6. Aerosol growth in Titan’s ionosphere

    PubMed Central

    Lavvas, Panayotis; Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi; Bazin, Axel; Vuitton, Véronique; Vigren, Erik; Galand, Marina; Wellbrock, Anne; Coates, Andrew J.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Crary, Frank J.; Snowden, Darci

    2013-01-01

    Photochemically produced aerosols are common among the atmospheres of our solar system and beyond. Observations and models have shown that photochemical aerosols have direct consequences on atmospheric properties as well as important astrobiological ramifications, but the mechanisms involved in their formation remain unclear. Here we show that the formation of aerosols in Titan’s upper atmosphere is directly related to ion processes, and we provide a complete interpretation of observed mass spectra by the Cassini instruments from small to large masses. Because all planetary atmospheres possess ionospheres, we anticipate that the mechanisms identified here will be efficient in other environments as well, modulated by the chemical complexity of each atmosphere. PMID:23382231

  7. Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vilchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis show that infection in humans is mainly caused by the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Cured "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. The "Serrano" ham is prepared from pork meat and undergoes a process known as curing and a subsequent fermentation without thermal or smoking treatments. The viability of Toxoplasma gondii in hams and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs that have been subject to different curing processes has been studied in order to evaluate the best method to completely eliminate the viable protozoa. The different treatments include, i) freezing the legs and shoulders below -20 °C for 3 days before salting with marine salt, ii) salting the meat with marine salt and nitrites, iii) salting only with marine salt (traditional process) and iv) salting with marine salt and then freezing at -20 °C for 3 days after the curing period. The ham leg samples were cured for 7 months and the shoulder samples for 5 months. The presence of T. gondii in the different treatments was studied by a "magnetic-capture" method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the T. gondii burden in the ham legs and shoulders. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed by bioassays in mice and some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water activity (aw) and salt content, were evaluated at the end of the curing time. In all the cases where the samples were frozen the T. gondii infectivity was eliminated. In samples in which the meat was salted in marine salt plus nitrites, the parasite viability remained for longer than in the traditional salting process. The methods described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products. PMID:27217366

  8. Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vilchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis show that infection in humans is mainly caused by the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Cured "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. The "Serrano" ham is prepared from pork meat and undergoes a process known as curing and a subsequent fermentation without thermal or smoking treatments. The viability of Toxoplasma gondii in hams and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs that have been subject to different curing processes has been studied in order to evaluate the best method to completely eliminate the viable protozoa. The different treatments include, i) freezing the legs and shoulders below -20 °C for 3 days before salting with marine salt, ii) salting the meat with marine salt and nitrites, iii) salting only with marine salt (traditional process) and iv) salting with marine salt and then freezing at -20 °C for 3 days after the curing period. The ham leg samples were cured for 7 months and the shoulder samples for 5 months. The presence of T. gondii in the different treatments was studied by a "magnetic-capture" method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the T. gondii burden in the ham legs and shoulders. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed by bioassays in mice and some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water activity (aw) and salt content, were evaluated at the end of the curing time. In all the cases where the samples were frozen the T. gondii infectivity was eliminated. In samples in which the meat was salted in marine salt plus nitrites, the parasite viability remained for longer than in the traditional salting process. The methods described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products.

  9. Monitoring Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) With Traps in Dry-Cured Ham Aging Rooms.

    PubMed

    Amoah, Barbara; Schilling, M W; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-08-01

    Methyl bromide is the most effective fumigant for controlling the mold (or ham) mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae), the most significant pest of dry-cured ham. However, methyl bromide is being phased out of use. Therefore, integrated pest management (IPM) methods should be developed to help control mites in dry-cured ham plants. The foundation of a successful IPM program is an effective monitoring program that provides information on pest presence and abundance over time. By using food-baited traps fabricated from disposable petri dishes and a dog food-based bait, mite activity over time and space was monitored in five dry-cured ham aging rooms from three commercial processing facilities that differed in their fumigation frequencies. Weekly sampling of the mite was conducted from June 2012 to September 2013. There were significant differences in the average weekly trap captures in all facilities, especially before and after fumigation, with the majority of mites in traps prior to fumigation. Mite numbers had a pattern of sharp decline after fumigation, followed by a steady increase until the next fumigation. Average trap captures varied due to trap location over the study period at all study sites, indicating that traps could be used to identify specific locations within an aging room where mite infestation of hams was more likely to occur. These findings can inform facility managers of mite population changes that can be used as one factor toward making pest management decisions and assessing the impact of fumigation or other pest mitigation actions. PMID:27247306

  10. Introducing the aerosol-climate model MAECHAM5-SAM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Timmreck, C.; Graf, H. F.

    2009-04-01

    We are presenting a new global aerosol model MAECHAM5-SAM2 to study the aerosol dynamics in the UTLS under background and volcanic conditions. The microphysical core modul SAM2 treats the formation, the evolution and the transport of stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol. The aerosol size distribution and the weight percentage of the sulphuric acid solution is calculated dependent on the concentrations of H2SO4 and H2O, their vapor pressures, the atmospheric temperature and pressure. The fixed sectional method is used to resolve an aerosol distribution between 1 nm and 2.6 micron in particle radius. Homogeneous nucleation, condensation and evaporation, coagulation, water-vapor growth, sedimentation and sulphur chemistry are included. The module is applied in the middle-atmosphere MAECHAM5 model, resolving the atmosphere up to 0.01 hPa (~80 km) in 39 layers. It is shown here that MAECHAM5-SAM2 well represents in-situ measured size distributions of stratospheric background aerosol in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes. Distinct differences can be seen when derived integrated aerosol parameters (surface area, effective radius) are compared with aerosol climatologies based on the SAGE II satellite instrument (derived by the University of Oxford and the NASA AMES laboratory). The bias between the model and the SAGE II data increases as the moment of the aerosol size distribution decreases. Thus the modeled effective radius show the strongest bias, followed by the aerosol surface area density. Correspondingly less biased are the higher moments volume area density and the mass density of the global stratospheric aerosol coverage. This finding supports the key finding No. 2 of the SPARC Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (2006), where it was shown that during periods of very low aerosol load in the stratosphere, the consistency between in-situ and satellite measurements, which exist in a volcanically perturbed stratosphere, breaks down and significant

  11. Atmospheric responses to the redistribution of anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The geographical shift of global anthropogenic aerosols from the developed countries to the Asian continent since the 1980s could potentially perturb the regional and global climate due to aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. We use an atmospheric general circulation model with different aerosol scenarios to investigate the radiative and microphysical effects of anthropogenic aerosols from different regions on the radiation budget, precipitation, and large-scale circulations. An experiment contrasting anthropogenic aerosol scenarios in 1970 and 2010 shows that the altered cloud reflectivity and solar extinction by aerosols results in regional surface temperature cooling in East and South Asia, and warming in the US and Europe, respectively. These aerosol-induced temperature changes are consistent with the relative temperature trends from 1980 to 2010 over different regions in the reanalysis data. A reduced meridional streamfunction and zonal winds over the tropics as well as a poleward shift of the jet stream suggest weakened and expanded tropical circulations, which are induced by the redistributed aerosols through a relaxing of the meridional temperature gradient. Consequently, precipitation is suppressed in the deep tropics and enhanced in the subtropics. Our assessments of the aerosol effects over the different regions suggest that the increasing Asian pollution accounts for the weakening of the tropics circulation, while the decreasing pollution in Europe and US tends to shift the circulation systems southward. Moreover, the aerosol indirect forcing is predominant over the total aerosol forcing in magnitude, while aerosol radiative and microphysical effects jointly shape the meridional energy distributions and modulate the circulation systems.

  12. A Computationally Efficient Algorithm for Aerosol Phase Equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Peters, Len K.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2004-10-04

    Three-dimensional models of atmospheric inorganic aerosols need an accurate yet computationally efficient thermodynamic module that is repeatedly used to compute internal aerosol phase state equilibrium. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of a computationally efficient numerical solver called MESA (Multicomponent Equilibrium Solver for Aerosols). The unique formulation of MESA allows iteration of all the equilibrium equations simultaneously while maintaining overall mass conservation and electroneutrality in both the solid and liquid phases. MESA is unconditionally stable, shows robust convergence, and typically requires only 10 to 20 single-level iterations (where all activity coefficients and aerosol water content are updated) per internal aerosol phase equilibrium calculation. Accuracy of MESA is comparable to that of the highly accurate Aerosol Inorganics Model (AIM), which uses a rigorous Gibbs free energy minimization approach. Performance evaluation will be presented for a number of complex multicomponent mixtures commonly found in urban and marine tropospheric aerosols.

  13. Implementation of the chemistry module MECCA (v2.5) in the modal aerosol version of the Community Atmosphere Model component (v3.6.33) of the Community Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, R.; Kergweg, A.; Erickson, D.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.

    2013-02-22

    A coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate system model was developed using the modal aerosol version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (modal-CAM; v3.6.33) and the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry’s Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA; v2.5) to provide enhanced resolution of multiphase processes, particularly those involving inorganic halogens, and associated impacts on atmospheric composition and climate. Three Rosenbrock solvers (Ros-2, Ros-3, RODAS-3) were tested in conjunction with the basic load-balancing options available to modal-CAM (1) to establish an optimal configuration of the implicitly-solved multiphase chemistry module that maximizes both computational speed and repeatability of Ros- 2 and RODAS-3 results versus Ros-3, and (2) to identify potential implementation strategies for future versions of this and similar coupled systems. RODAS-3 was faster than Ros-2 and Ros-3 with good reproduction of Ros-3 results, while Ros-2 was both slower and substantially less reproducible relative to Ros-3 results. Modal-CAM with MECCA chemistry was a factor of 15 slower than modal-CAM using standard chemistry. MECCA chemistry integration times demonstrated a systematic frequency distribution for all three solvers, and revealed that the change in run-time performance was due to a change in the frequency distribution of chemical integration times; the peak frequency was similar for all solvers. This suggests that efficient chemistry-focused load-balancing schemes can be developed that rely on the parameters of this frequency distribution.

  14. The impact of natural aerosols on Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoj, V.; Wang, H.; Yoon, J.; Rasch, P.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols emitted from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources impact the earth's radiation and water budget. Most of the studies in the recent past have been focusing on anthropogenic aerosols and their impact. However, natural aerosols like sea-salt and dust form the bulk of the aerosol mass loading in the atmosphere. For example, oceans cover about 70% of the earth's surface area and are a major source of sea-salt aerosols in the atmosphere. Sea-salt emission is the single largest contributor to natural aerosols and accounts for nearly half of the global aerosol optical depth. Dust emission, the counterpart over land, also contributes substantially to natural atmospheric aerosols. In addition to their direct effect on solar radiation, these aerosols also actively participate in cloud formation by acting as cloud condensation and ice nuclei and have indirect effects on clouds. Both sea-salt and dust particles are primarily formed by the action of winds that largely determine seasonal/annual variations in their source strength and atmospheric loading. Over the Indian Ocean region, especially the Arabian Sea is characterized by high winds during the monsoon that generate a large amount of sea-salt aerosols. Also these high winds mobilize large amount of dust aerosols in the northern Arabian Sea depending on wind direction. These natural aerosols together with anthropogenic emissions impact Indian monsoon precipitation. We use satellite observation of precipitation and column aerosol loading along with a global climate model (Community Atmosphere Model version 5, CAM5) to show that the variability of natural aerosols (i.e., sea-salt and dust) play an important role in modulating the Indian monsoon precipitation and the response of the monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosols. The effect of dust and sea-salt on precipitation is found to be opposite to each other. Our study suggests that the observed spatial and temporal trends in precipitation

  15. Study on Potential Clostridium Botulinum Growth and Toxin Production in Parma Ham

    PubMed Central

    Ramini, Mattia; Parolari, Giovanni; Barbuti, Silvana; Frustoli, Maria Angela; Taddei, Roberta; Pongolini, Stefano; Ardigò, Paolo; Cozzolino, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in the industrially manufactured Italian Parma ham. The study focuses on the Parma ham production phase identified as maximum risk to C. botulinum proliferation, i.e. the transition from cold phase (salting and resting) to a phase carried out at temperature between 15 and 23°C (drying). A preliminary in vitro test was carried out in order to verify the capability of 6 C. botulinum strains (1 type A, 4 type B, and 1 type E strains) to grow in conditions of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration comparable to those of the beginning stage of ham drying. Five C. botulinum strains grew at 20°C and pH 6, four strains produced toxin when inoculated at a concentration equal to 103 cfu/mL at NaCl concentration of 4%, while when the inoculum concentration was 10 cfu/mL, NaCl concentration of 3% resulted the toxin-genesis limiting factor. An experimental contamination with a mixture of the 5 C. botulinum strains selected by the preliminary in vitro test was performed on 9 thighs inoculated at the end of the resting phase. The study was designed to evaluate the potential growth and toxin production in extremely favourable conditions for the bacterium. Type B proteolytic C. botulinum toxin was produced after 14 days of incubation at 20°C in 2 thighs characterised by high weight, low number of days of resting and anomalous physiochemical characteristics [one for very low NaCl concentration (1.59%), the other for elevated pH (6.27) and both for high water activity values (>0.970)]. The results of this research confirm that the cold resting step is a critical phase in the production process of Parma ham for the investigated hazard. Based on the present study, the long resting phase adopted in the manufacturing of Parma ham is proven effective to prevent the growth of C. botulinum, an event which could not otherwise be excluded if the hams were processed under less stringent

  16. Quantitative study of the relationships among proteolysis, lipid oxidation, structure and texture throughout the dry-cured ham process.

    PubMed

    Harkouss, Rami; Astruc, Thierry; Lebert, André; Gatellier, Philippe; Loison, Olivier; Safa, Hassan; Portanguen, Stéphane; Parafita, Emilie; Mirade, Pierre-Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, salt and water contents are key processing factors in dry-cured ham production. They affect how proteolysis, lipid oxidation, structure and texture evolve, and thus determine the sensory properties and final quality of dry-cured ham. The aim of this study was to quantify the interrelationships and the time course of (i) proteolysis, (ii) lipid oxidation, (iii) five textural parameters: hardness, fragility, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness and (iv) four structural parameters: fibre numbers, extracellular spaces, cross section area, and connective tissue area, during the dry-cured ham process. Applying multiple polynomial regression enabled us to build phenomenological models relating proteolysis, salt and water contents to certain textural and structural parameters investigated. A linear relationship between lipid oxidation and proteolysis was also established. All of these models and relationships, once combined with salt penetration, water migration and heat transfer models, can be used to dynamically simulate all of these phenomena throughout dry-cured ham manufacturing.

  17. Contribution of starter cultures to the proteolytic process of a fermented non-dried whole muscle ham product.

    PubMed

    Scannell, Amalia G M; Kenneally, Paul M; Arendt, Elke K

    2004-06-01

    Porcine longissimus dorsi muscles were cured by brine injection. Curing brine containing 15% (w/v) NaCl, 1.33% (w/v) glucose, 750 ppm sodium nitrite, and appropriate levels of either Lactobacillus sakei LAD, L. sakei LAD plus Kocuria varians FT4 (formally Micrococcus varians), L. sakei LAD plus papain and GDL (glucono-delta-lactone) plus K. varians FT4, was injected to the muscle at a pumping rate 15% w/v. The effect of these treatments on the proteolysis in the ham system was compared to a control ham, produced without starter culture and containing GDL acidulant to control pH and antibiotics to reduce the contribution of background microflora. Hydrolysis of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and reverse phase-HPLC. Hams with different treatments were also investigated for differences in amino acid profile, protein and non-protein nitrogen level, colour, pH, water activity and moisture and microbiological evolution. There was no significant difference in the gross compositional analysis of any of the treatments compared to the control. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the protein content, non-protein nitrogen level, SDS-PAGE and free amino acid analysis between the control ham and ham inoculated with proteolytic starter culture. However, it was observed that hams containing starter cultures exhibited decreases in certain peptide fractions and corresponding increases in some free amino acids compared to the uninoculated control. It can be concluded that, while the principle mechanisms resulting in the proteolysis of this non-dried ham product involve the activity of endogeneous cathepsins, the addition of proteolytic starter cultures influence the amino acid profile thereby potentially enhancing the sensorial attributes of the ham. PMID:15135960

  18. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  19. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  20. Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Seok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham. PMID:27499673

  1. Comparison of entire male and immunocastrated pigs for dry-cured ham production under two salting regimes.

    PubMed

    Škrlep, Martin; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Lukač, Nina Batorek; Povše, Maja Prevolnik; Pugliese, Carolina; Labussière, Etienne; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Due to the initiative to stop piglet castration, meat from entire male pigs is expected to take important share on the European market which can affect dry-cured ham industry. In the present study, hams of entire males (EM) and immunocastrates (IC) were submitted to dry-curing process. Sex category and salting regime were evaluated using standard (18 days; HS) and shortened salting (6 days; LS). At the end of processing, compared to HS, LS hams had lower (40%) salt content, were more proteolysed, were less salty, and had softer texture and different volatile profile. Sex effect was less evident; still, hams from EM exhibited higher processing losses and salt intake, and were drier, less marbled, harder, and more intensively coloured than IC hams. The panellists perceived higher off-flavours in hams with high boar taint compounds (correlation 0.67 and 0.53 for skatole and androstenone, respectively). The effect of sex category on volatile profile was negligible. PMID:26331963

  2. High-pressure processing and antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita

    2008-02-01

    The efficiency of combining high-pressure processing (HPP) and active packaging technologies to control Listeria monocytogenes growth during the shelf life of artificially inoculated cooked ham was assessed. Three lots of cooked ham were prepared: control, packaging with alginate films, and packaging with antimicrobial alginate films containing enterocins. After packaging, half of the samples were pressurized. Sliced cooked ham stored at 6 degrees C experienced a quick growth of L. monocytogenes. Both antimicrobial packaging and pressurization delayed the growth of the pathogen. However, at 6 degrees C the combination of antimicrobial packaging and HPP was necessary to achieve a reduction of inoculated levels without recovery during 60 days of storage. Further storage at 6 degrees C of pressurized antimicrobial packed cooked ham resulted in L. monocytogenes levels below the detection limit (day 90). On the other hand, storage at 1 degrees C controlled the growth of the pathogen until day 39 in non-pressurized ham, while antimicrobial packaging and storage at 1 degrees C exerted a bacteriostatic effect for 60 days. All HPP lots stored at 1 degrees C led to counts <100CFU/g at day 60. Similar results were observed when combining both technologies. After a cold chain break no growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in pressurized ham packed with antimicrobial films, showing the efficiency of combining both technologies.

  3. Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Chul; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham. PMID:27499673

  4. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  5. Supervised adaptive Hamming net for classification of multiple-valued patterns.

    PubMed

    Hung, C A; Lin, S F

    1997-04-01

    A Supervised Adaptive Hamming Net (SAHN) is introduced for incremental learning of recognition categories in response to arbitrary sequences of multiple-valued or binary-valued input patterns. The binary-valued SAHN derived from the Adaptive Hamming Net (AHN) is functionally equivalent to a simplified ARTMAP, which is specifically designed to establish many-to-one mappings. The generalization to learning multiple-valued input patterns is achieved by incorporating multiple-valued logic into the AHN. In this paper, we examine some useful properties of learning in a P-valued SAHN. In particular, an upper bound is derived on the number of epochs required by the P-valued SAHN to learn a list of input-output pairs that is repeatedly presented to the architecture. Furthermore, we connect the P-valued SAHN with the binary-valued SAHN via the thermometer code. PMID:9327274

  6. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds of Iberian ham headspace.

    PubMed

    Carrapiso, Ana I; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2002-03-27

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) based on detection frequency (DF) was used to characterize the most odor-active compounds from the headspace of Iberian ham. Twenty-eight odorants were identified by GC-O on two capillary columns, including aldehydes (11), sulfur-containing compounds (7), ketones (5), nitrogen-containing compounds (2), esters (2), and an alcohol. Among them, the highest odor potencies (DF values) were found for 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-heptanone, 3-methylbutanal, methanethiol, hexanal, hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and (E)-2-hexenal. Nine of the 28 most odor-active compounds were identified for the first time as aroma components of dry-cured ham, including hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-3-hexenal, 1-octen-3-one, and the meaty-smelling compounds 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline.

  7. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds formed during processing of Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, L; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; Benítez-Donoso, R; Córdoba, J J

    2001-12-01

    Fifty-five legs from Iberian pigs were traditionally processed into dry cured hams. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction from the biceps femoris muscle were analyzed by HPLC. At the drying stage and in the last months in the cellar the largest increases in these water-soluble compounds took place. There was a clear influence on free amino acid formation of salt content and on the formation of peptides of the temperature at each processing stage. As the amount of non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction increases with processing time, their determination could provide a maturation index for Iberian ham.

  8. Effects of salt and temperature on proteolysis during ripening of Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Timón, M L; Ventanas, J

    1998-06-01

    Fifty-five hams from Iberian pigs were processed using two different dry-curing techniques, traditional and modern. Salt content, non-protein nitrogen and its fractions (peptide, amino acid and volatile basic nitrogen) from Biceps femoris muscles were quantified. The existence of an overlapping effect of both temperature and salt content on the general non-protein nitrogen production was observed. The most intense proteolytic breakdown took place when higher temperatures were reached during the drying stage. The difference in salt concentration seems to contribute to generating different quantities in the non-protein nitrogen fractions. The inclusion at the end of the cellar stage of a stuffing period would permit increasing the accumulation of free amino acid in high salted hams.

  9. Formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX in Parma-like ham without nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Uemura, Juichi; Odagiri, Hiroko; Okui, Jun; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Hioki, Shoji; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2009-04-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) is a characteristic red pigment in meat products that are manufactured without the addition of a curing agent such as nitrate or nitrite. To examine the effects of impurities such as mineral components in sea salt on the formation of ZPP, we manufactured Parmatype dry-cured hams that were salted with refined salt or sea salt and examined the involvement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the formation of ZPP. The content of ZPP was increased drastically after 40 weeks. Microscopic observation showed strong fluorescence caused by ZPP muscle fiber after 40 weeks. Conversely, heme content varied considerably during processing. ORP increased during processing. However, there was no obvious difference between ham salted with refined salt and that salted with sea salt. Therefore, it was concluded that impurities in sea salt were not involved in the formation of ZPP.

  10. Proteomic analysis of pork meat in the production of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Pioselli, Barbara; Paredi, Gianluca; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    The industrial production of cooked ham from pork meat involves, as initial steps, the injection of brine and a prolonged meat massage. These processes strongly affect the quality of the final product because they determine the breakage of muscle cells and the release of their protein content. The produced dense exudates act as a glue in the final cooked ham. In order to exploit modern tools to direct the technological process, still mainly based on empirical observations and traditional recipes, we have carried out a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the exudates as a function of brine concentration, temperature, and length of meat massage. Each condition was found to generate specific protein patterns. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis was applied allowing the identification of proteins, whose presence and/or quantity can be defined as biomarkers of meat processing, and, potentially, of final product quality.

  11. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  12. Use of antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita

    2007-11-30

    The antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes of biodegradable films (alginate, zein and polyvinyl alcohol) containing enterocins was investigated. Survival of the pathogen was studied by means of challenge tests performed at 6 degrees C during 8 and 29 days, for air-packed and vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham, respectively. Air packaging was tested with two concentrations of enterocins (200 and 2000 AU/cm2). Control air-packed cooked ham showed an increase of L. monocytogenes from 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/g after 8 days. By contrast, packaging with antimicrobial films effectively slowed down the pathogen's growth, leading to final counts lower than in control lots. Air-packaging with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins effectively controlled L. monocytogenes for 8 days. An increase of only 1 log unit was observed in zein and polyvinyl alcohol lots at the same enterocin concentration. Vacuum packaging with films containing enterocins (2000 AU/cm2) also delayed the growth of the pathogen. No increase from inoculated levels was observed during 15 days in antimicrobial alginate films. After 29 days of storage, the lowest counts were obtained in samples packed with zein and alginate films containing enterocins, as well as with zein control films. The most effective treatment for controlling L. monocytogenes during 6 degrees C storage was vacuum-packaging of sliced cooked ham with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins. From the results obtained it can concluded that antimicrobial packaging can improve the safety of sliced cooked ham by delaying and reducing the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Stratospheric Aerosol--Observations, Processes, and Impact on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kresmer, Stefanie; Thomason, Larry W.; von Hobe, Marc; Hermann, Markus; Deshler, Terry; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Stenke, Andrea; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Weigel, Ralf; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Prata, Fred J.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Schlager, Hans; Barnes, John E.; Antuna-Marrero, Juan-Carlos; Fairlie, Duncan; Palm, Mathias; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Notholt, Justus; Rex, Markus; Bingen, Christine; Vanhellemont, Filip; Bourassa, Adam; Plane, John M. C.; Klocke, Daniel; Carn, Simon A.; Clarisse, Lieven; Trickl, Thomas; Neeley, Ryan; James, Alexander D.; Rieger, Landon; Wilson, James C.; Meland, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Interest in stratospheric aerosol and its role in climate have increased over the last decade due to the observed increase in stratospheric aerosol since 2000 and the potential for changes in the sulfur cycle induced by climate change. This review provides an overview about the advances in stratospheric aerosol research since the last comprehensive assessment of stratospheric aerosol was published in 2006. A crucial development since 2006 is the substantial improvement in the agreement between in situ and space-based inferences of stratospheric aerosol properties during volcanically quiescent periods. Furthermore, new measurement systems and techniques, both in situ and space based, have been developed for measuring physical aerosol properties with greater accuracy and for characterizing aerosol composition. However, these changes induce challenges to constructing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology. Currently, changes in stratospheric aerosol levels less than 20% cannot be confidently quantified. The volcanic signals tend to mask any nonvolcanically driven change, making them difficult to understand. While the role of carbonyl sulfide as a substantial and relatively constant source of stratospheric sulfur has been confirmed by new observations and model simulations, large uncertainties remain with respect to the contribution from anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. New evidence has been provided that stratospheric aerosol can also contain small amounts of nonsulfatematter such as black carbon and organics. Chemistry-climate models have substantially increased in quantity and sophistication. In many models the implementation of stratospheric aerosol processes is coupled to radiation and/or stratospheric chemistry modules to account for relevant feedback processes.

  14. Determination of α-keto acids in pork meat and Iberian ham via tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Navarro, José L; Delgado, Rosa M; Zamora, Rosario

    2013-09-01

    An analytical method which offers accurate determination and identification of eight α-keto acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, pyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 3-methyl-2-oxobutyric acid, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid, 4-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, and phenylpyruvic acid) in pork meat and Iberian ham samples is reported. The method utilises a highly selective and sensitive method of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by mass spectrometry. The analytical method is simple (although the chemical derivatisation of the α-keto acids with dansylhydrazine is required), precise (<18% RSD), accurate (90-110%), sensitive (0.01-0.34 mg/kg of defatted and freeze-dried meat depending on the α-keto acid) and linear (R>0.99) over several orders of magnitude (until 0.01-146.1 mg/kg of defatted and freeze-dried meat depending on the α-keto acid). Using this methodology, α-keto acids were found to be present in pork meat to a low extent, and their concentration increased when they were determined in Iberian ham. This is the first report of the presence of α-keto acids in both pork meats and Iberian hams.

  15. Prediction of acid lactic-bacteria growth in turkey ham processed by high hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, S.P.; Rosenthal, A.; Gaspar, A.; Aragão, G.M.F.; Slongo-Marcusi, A.

    2013-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been investigated and industrially applied to extend shelf life of meat-based products. Traditional ham packaged under microaerophilic conditions may sometimes present high lactic acid bacteria population during refrigerated storage, which limits shelf life due to development of unpleasant odor and greenish and sticky appearance. This study aimed at evaluating the shelf life of turkey ham pressurized at 400 MPa for 15 min and stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C, in comparison to the non pressurized product. The lactic acid bacteria population up to 107 CFU/g of product was set as the criteria to determine the limiting shelf life According to such parameter the pressurized sample achieved a commercial viability within 75 days when stored at 4 °C while the control lasted only 45 days. Predictive microbiology using Gompertz and Baranyi and Roberts models fitted well both for the pressurized and control samples. The results indicated that the high hydrostatic pressure treatment greatly increased the turkey ham commercial viability in comparison to the usual length, by slowing down the growth of microorganisms in the product. PMID:24159279

  16. Inactivation of Serratia liquefaciens on dry-cured ham by high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Belletti, N; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T; Bover-Cid, S

    2013-08-01

    To quantify the inactivation of Serratia liquefaciens exerted by high pressure processing (HPP), slices of dry-cured ham were inoculated and processed combining different levels of technological parameters: pressure (347-852 MPa), time (2.3-15.8 min) and temperature (7.6-24.4 °C) according to a central composite design. Bacterial inactivation, as logarithmic reduction, indicated that S. liquefaciens was relatively sensitive to HPP. Six log reductions were achieved in a total of 10 trials combining pressures of 600 MPa or above with different holding times and temperatures. The inactivation of S. liquefaciens was analysed through the multiple regression analysis to generate a second order polynomial equation. Pressure and time were the two factors which significantly determined the inactivation of S. liquefaciens on dry-cured ham. Temperature did not significantly affect the lethality of the process. The response surface methodology was used to determine optimum process conditions to maximize the inactivation of S. liquefaciens in the experimental range tested. The maximum inactivation of S. liquefaciens in dry-cured ham was achieved by combining a pressure of 650 MPa with a holding time of 8 min. Combinations above these values (i.e. 750 MPa for 13 min) would not significantly improve the lethality of the process.

  17. Determination of volatile compounds and quality parameters of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Marušić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Petrak, Tomislav; Medić, Helga

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the characteristics of Istrian dry-cured ham by instrumental methods and sensory analysis. The aroma-active compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham from 2010 and 2012 were investigated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated by measuring physical and chemical characteristics. 92 volatile aroma compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham were found. Volatile compounds belonged to several chemical groups: aldehydes (51.4; 51.3%), terpenes (16.5; 16.4%), alcohols (15.5; 13.2%), ketones (8.6; 7.4%), alkanes (3.8; 5.7%), esters (1.3; 1.6%), aromatic hydrocarbons (0.8; 3.9%) and acids (0.6; 0.9%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fat content, tenderness and melting texture were positively correlated. Terpenes were strongly correlated with flavour of added spices. Sweet taste and the presence of esters were positively correlated as well as negative odour, raw meat flavour and water content. PMID:24398000

  18. Error Tree: A Tree Structure for Hamming and Edit Distances and Wildcards Matching.

    PubMed

    Al-Okaily, Anas

    2015-12-01

    Approximate pattern matching is a fundamental problem in the bioinformatics and information retrieval applications. The problem involves different matching relations such as Hamming distance, edit distances, and the wildcards matching problem. The input is usually a text of length n over a fixed alphabet of length Σ, a pattern of length m, and an integer k. The output is to find all positions that have ≤ k Hamming distance, edit distance, or wildcards matching with P. Many algorithms and indexes have been proposed to solve the problems more efficiently, but due to the space and time complexities of the problems, most tools adopted heuristics approaches based on, for instance, suffix tree, suffix array, or Burrows Wheeler Transform to reach practical implementations. Error Tree is a novel tree structure that is mainly oriented to solve the approximate pattern matching problems, using less space and faster computation time. The algorithm proposes for Hamming distance and wildcards matching a tree structure that needs [Formula: see text] words and takes [Formula: see text] in the average case) of query time for any online/offline pattern, where occ is the number of outputs. In addition, a tree structure of [Formula: see text] words and [Formula: see text] in the average case) query time for edit distance for any online/offline pattern. PMID:26402070

  19. Determination of volatile compounds and quality parameters of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Marušić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Petrak, Tomislav; Medić, Helga

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the characteristics of Istrian dry-cured ham by instrumental methods and sensory analysis. The aroma-active compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham from 2010 and 2012 were investigated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated by measuring physical and chemical characteristics. 92 volatile aroma compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham were found. Volatile compounds belonged to several chemical groups: aldehydes (51.4; 51.3%), terpenes (16.5; 16.4%), alcohols (15.5; 13.2%), ketones (8.6; 7.4%), alkanes (3.8; 5.7%), esters (1.3; 1.6%), aromatic hydrocarbons (0.8; 3.9%) and acids (0.6; 0.9%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fat content, tenderness and melting texture were positively correlated. Terpenes were strongly correlated with flavour of added spices. Sweet taste and the presence of esters were positively correlated as well as negative odour, raw meat flavour and water content.

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory peptides generated in Spanish dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2014-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are promising new therapies for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assay DPP-IV inhibitory peptides that can be present in a water soluble extract of Spanish dry-cured ham. Such an extract was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography and the in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity determined in each collected fraction. Then, several peptides previously identified in dry-cured ham extracts or known to be products of DPP IV action were synthesised and assayed for DPP-IV inhibition. Peptides KA and AAATP showed the strongest DPP-IV inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 6.27 mM and 6.47 mM, respectively. Dipeptides AA, GP, PL, and carnosine, as well as peptides AAAAG, ALGGA, and LVSGM were also DPP-IV inhibitors, although at a lower degree. These findings suggest the potential of Spanish dry-cured ham as a natural precursor of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. These biopeptides could also be used as ingredients for functional foods or pharmaceutical products against type 2 diabetes. PMID:24200567

  1. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  2. Hamming's "open doors" and group creativity as keys to scientific excellence: the example of Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Charlton used diverse approaches to identify research institutions which provided home to outstanding scientists and work. One intriguing example of long-lasting scientific excellence is Cambridge with 19 Nobel laureates who worked at the University or at the MRC Molecular Biology Unit when they received the prize between 1947 and 2006. With specific reference to Cambridge, I would like to complement the primarily quantitative assessment and offer considerations as to why and how research achievements may have clustered in space and time. Indeed, observations voiced by the mathematician Richard Hamming as to how great research can be pursued offer explanations for the series of great science in the UK. In my view, the most important determinant of the clustering may be illustrated by Hamming's fitting picture of "open doors": working in environments with the doors open allows constant interactions with peers with various disciplinary backgrounds, and thus fast avoidance of detours or dead ends in science and, ultimately, a focus on and the solution of problems of paramount, rather than of tangential, importance. Narrative insights into a strong argumentative tradition at Cambridge provided by Drs. Watson and Magueijo between 1968 and 2003 are in line with Hamming's suggestion and the value of group creativity. In the internet age with abundant interactions beyond home institutions we should not be surprised if clusters of great science were no longer confined to the usual suspect institutions which were awarded disproportionally with Nobel prizes in the past. PMID:17804173

  3. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in ham sausage with a hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay utilising two types of primary antibodies (murine monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody) and two types of horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies was established for simultaneously detecting multiple amphenicol residues in ham sausage. After combining the extract procedure of the target amphenicol into one simplified method, this hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) at the same time by adding the corresponding secondary antibody. Ham sausage samples were analysed by using this hybrid immunoassay, with LODs of CAP being 0.01 μg kg⁻¹, of FF being 2.8 μg kg⁻¹ and of FFA being 3.0 μg kg⁻¹. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining CAP, FF and FFA in ham sausage samples with satisfactory results. Good recoveries and high correlation with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LC-MS/MS results illustrated that the developed hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen high-throughput ultra-trace amphenicol residues effectively at one time.

  4. Determination of lipolytic and proteolytic activities of mycoflora isolated from dry-cured teruel ham.

    PubMed

    Alapont, C; Martínez-Culebras, P V; López-Mendoza, M C

    2015-08-01

    Fungi play a key role in dry-cured ham production because of their lipolytic and proteolytic activities. In the present study, 74 fungal strains from dry-cured Teruel hams and air chambers were tested for proteolytic and lipolytic activities, with a view to their possible use as starter cultures. Lipolytic activity of fungi was studied against lauric, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, whereas proteolytic activity was studied against casein and myosin. Of the 74 fungal strains tested, most of them demonstrated lipolytic activity (94.59 %). Lipolytic activity against lauric and oleic acids was stronger than against palmitic and stearic acids. 39 strains (52.70 %) demonstrated proteolytic activity against casein and the 6 highest proteolytic strains were also tested for pork myosin proteolysis. Some strains belonging to Penicillium commune, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium nalgiovense and Cladosporium cladosporioides were selected because of their significant proteolytic and lipolytic activities and could be suitable to use as starters in dry-cured ham. PMID:26243949

  5. The NASA GEOS-5 Aerosol Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; daSilva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System modeling and data assimilation environment (GEOS-5) is maintained by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Near-realtime meteorological forecasts are produced to support NASA satellite and field missions. We have implemented in this environment an aerosol module based on the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) model. This modeling system has previously been evaluated in the context of hindcasts based on assimilated meteorology. Here we focus on the development and evaluation of the near-realtime forecasting system. We present a description of recent efforts to implement near-realtime biomass burning emissions derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire radiative power products. We as well present a developing capability for improvement of aerosol forecasts by assimilation of aerosol information from MODIS.

  6. The use of high pressure processing to enhance the quality and shelf life of reduced sodium naturally cured restructured cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Johnston, S P

    2016-06-01

    The combined effect of partial salt replacement with modified potassium chloride and high pressure processing (600 MPa for 3 min at 8°C) on the quality and shelf life of naturally-cured restructured hams was investigated over a 12 week storage period. Instrumental, microbiological and consumer acceptability testing was performed. A partial salt substitution with modified potassium chloride adversely affected textural and water binding characteristics of hams and led to a decrease in the consumer acceptance compared to regular salt hams. Celery powder used as a curing agent had beneficial effects on water holding and moisture retention and improved bind of restructured hams; however the consumer acceptability of flavor and aftertaste received significantly lower scores compared to nitrite. No significant differences in all consumer acceptability parameters resulted for hams subjected to HPP compared to non-HPP for all storage periods indicating that HPP can effectively extend shelf-life of restructured ham without compromising eating quality. PMID:26874593

  7. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  8. Work-related allergies to storage mites in Parma (Italy) ham workers

    PubMed Central

    Tafuro, Federica; Ridolo, Erminia; Goldoni, Matteo; Montagni, Marcello; Mutti, Antonio; Corradi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of storage mites in the development of allergic diseases among ham production workers, and to search for early alterations in lung function tests and early inflammation markers in exhaled air. Respiratory allergies due to storage mites have been reported in people with various occupations but, although such mites are unavoidable when curing ham, there are no published data concerning ham production workers. Setting Secondary care. Design Experimental cross-sectional study. Participants 220 participants (110 ham production workers and 110 controls) were recruited. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workers answered a medical questionnaire, and underwent spirometry and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide at 50 mL/s (FeNO50) measurements. Those with allergic symptoms also underwent skin prick tests to determine their sensitisation to airborne allergens. A methacholine test was performed in symptomatic participants when spirometry was normal to assess airways hyper-responsiveness. Results Symptomatic storage mite sensitisation was observed in 16 workers (14.5%) (rhinoconjunctivitis in 15 (63%) and asthma in (4%)) and 2 controls (1.8%; p=0.001). Higher FeNO50 values in exposed symptomatic workers compared with healthy control participants (34.65±7.49 vs 13.29±4.29 ppb; p<0.001) suggested bronchial and nasal involvement, although their lung function parameters were normal. Regardless of exposure, a FeNO50 value of 22.5 ppb seems to be 100% sensitive and 99.4% specific in distinguishing allergic and non-allergic participants. Multivariate analysis of FeNO50 values in the symptomatic participants showed that they were positively influenced by IgE-mediated allergy (p=0.001) and reported symptom severity (p=0.041), and negatively by smoking status (p=0.049). Conclusions Ham processing workers, as well as workers involved in any meat processing work that includes curing, should be informed about the occupational risk of

  9. Meteorological and Aerosol Sensing with small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, J.; Möhler, O.; Haunold, W.; Schrod, J.; Brooks, I.; Norris, S.; Brooks, B.; Hill, M.; Leisner, T.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) facilitate the monitoring of several meteorological and aerosol parameters with high resolution in space and time. They are small, easy to operate, cost efficient and allow for flexible application during field campaigns. We present two experimental payloads for measurement of relative humidity, temperature, aerosol size distribution and the collection of aerosol samples on board the small UAS SIRIUS II. The payload modules are light weight (<1kg) and can be easily switched between two flights. All sensors can be controlled from the ground and the measured data is recorded by the autopilot together with the position data. The first module contains a sensor package for measurement of relative humidity and temperature and the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Prope (CLASP) for acquisition of aerosol size distributions. CLASP measures aerosol particles with diameters from 0.12μm to 9.25μm in up to 32 channels at a frequency of 10 Hz. The second module also contains a humidity and temperature sensor package and the aerosol sample collection device. The aerosol sampler collects air samples at 2 l/min onto a sample holder. After the flight the ice nuclei on the sample holder are activated in the lab and counted. In August 2012 the complete setup will be used during a measurement campaign at mount "Kleiner Feldberg" close to Frankfurt. Until then we will perform test flights and additional laboratory tests.

  10. Fungal Communication Requires the MAK-2 Pathway Elements STE-20 and RAS-2, the NRC-1 Adapter STE-50 and the MAP Kinase Scaffold HAM-5

    PubMed Central

    Dettmann, Anne; Heilig, Yvonne; Valerius, Oliver; Ludwig, Sarah; Seiler, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular communication is critical for the survival of unicellular organisms as well as for the development and function of multicellular tissues. Cell-to-cell signaling is also required to develop the interconnected mycelial network characteristic of filamentous fungi and is a prerequisite for symbiotic and pathogenic host colonization achieved by molds. Somatic cell–cell communication and subsequent cell fusion is governed by the MAK-2 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in the filamentous ascomycete model Neurospora crassa, yet the composition and mode of regulation of the MAK-2 pathway are currently unclear. In order to identify additional components involved in MAK-2 signaling we performed affinity purification experiments coupled to mass spectrometry with strains expressing functional GFP-fusion proteins of the MAPK cascade. This approach identified STE-50 as a regulatory subunit of the Ste11p homolog NRC-1 and HAM-5 as cell-communication-specific scaffold protein of the MAPK cascade. Moreover, we defined a network of proteins consisting of two Ste20-related kinases, the small GTPase RAS-2 and the adenylate cyclase capping protein CAP-1 that function upstream of the MAK-2 pathway and whose signals converge on the NRC-1/STE-50 MAP3K complex and the HAM-5 scaffold. Finally, our data suggest an involvement of the striatin interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, the casein kinase 2 heterodimer, the phospholipid flippase modulators YPK-1 and NRC-2 and motor protein-dependent vesicle trafficking in the regulation of MAK-2 pathway activity and function. Taken together, these data will have significant implications for our mechanistic understanding of MAPK signaling and for homotypic cell–cell communication in fungi and higher eukaryotes. PMID:25411845

  11. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  12. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  13. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  14. Aerosols and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth's radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  15. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination – applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Werwick, Katrin; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Hampe, Wolfgang; Albrecht, Peggy; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: In the 2012/13 winter semester, the Magdeburg Medical Faculty introduced a test of knowledge for the selection of applicants. The Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine - Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat) comprises a multiple-choice test with questions on the aspects of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics relevant to medicine, which was specifically developed for the selection of medicine applicants. The aim is to study how the HAM-Nat influences student selection, the reasons why students decide to take the test as part of their application procedure and what expectations they have of their course of study. Methods: The selection procedures applied at the university in 2011 (without HAM-Nat) and in 2012-2014 (with HAM-Nat) are compared. On the basis of the results of exploratory interviews, university entrants in winter semester 2013/2014 participated in a written survey on why they chose their subject and place of study and their expectations of their course of study. Results: No problems were encountered in introducing the extended selection procedure that included the HAM-Nat Test. The HAM-Nat had a great influence on the selection decision. About 65% of the students admitted would not have obtained a place if the decision had been based exclusively on their Abitur grade [grade obtained in the German school-leaving examination]. On average, male applicants obtained better HAM-Nat results than female ones. The questionnaire was answered by 147 out of 191 university entrants (77%). In the case of applicants from Saxony-Anhalt, the principle reasons for choosing the regional capital are its proximity, the social environment offered, good conditions for studying and the feel-good factor at the university. For the majority of applicants, however, particularly applicants from other federal states, the relatively good chances of admission in Magdeburg were the main reason. Conclusion: The Magdeburg Medical Faculty regards the HAM-Nat as a suitable tool

  16. Observation of low single scattering albedo of aerosols in the downwind of the East Asian desert and urban areas during the inflow of dust aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Pradeep; Takamura, Tamio; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data observed at Fukue-jima (32.752°N, 128.682°E), the downwind of the East Asian desert and urban areas, during the spring season (March-April) of 2008-2011 aiming to understand the light-absorption capacity of Asian dust aerosols, which is a topic of controversy. We observed the decreasing tendency of single-scattering albedo (SSA) with the decrease of Ångström exponent and the increase of the ratio of dust aerosol optical thickness to total aerosol optical thickness, suggesting the important role of coarse-mode dust aerosols on observed low SSAs. The observational data further indicated that the low SSAs during strong dust events were less likely due to the effect of only strong light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), indicating the association of aerosol size distribution on modulating SSA. Such observational results are justified by numerical calculations showing that aerosol size distribution can be the key factor on modulating SSA even without any change in relative amount of light-absorbing aerosol as well as total aerosol optical thickness. Therefore, the observed low SSAs in the downwind regions during dust events could be partially due to the dominance of coarse-mode aerosols over fine-mode aerosols, which are usual in dust events, along with the effect of mixed light-absorbing aerosols. The study further suggests that such effect of aerosol size distribution on SSA can be one of the important reasons for the low SSAs of dust aerosols in the source region as reported by some studies, if coarse-mode aerosols dominate fine-mode aerosols.

  17. Evolution of proteolytic and physico-chemical characteristics of Norwegian dry-cured ham during its processing.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Inna; Tolstorebrov, Ignat; Mora, Leticia; Toldrá, Fidel; Eikevik, Trygve Magne

    2016-11-01

    Proteolytic activity and physico-chemical characteristics were studied for Norwegian dry-cured ham at four different times of processing: raw hams, post-salted hams (3 months of processing), hams selected in the middle of the production (12 months of processing) and hams at the end of the processing (24 months). Cathepsin H activity decreased until negligible values after 3 months of processing, whereas cathepsins B and B+L were inactive at 12 months. AAP was the most active aminopeptidase whereas RAP and MAP were active just during the first 12 months of processing. Proteolysis index reached a value of 4.56±1.03 % with non-significant differences between 12 and 24 months of ripening. Peptide identification by LC-MS/MS was done and two peptides (GVEEPPKGHKGNKK and QAISNNKDQGSY) showing a linear response with the time of processing were found. Unfreezable water content and glass transition temperature were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique with non-significant differences in the temperature of glass transition for 12 and 24 months of processing. PMID:27371871

  18. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  19. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  20. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  1. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  2. Aerosol-cloud interactions: effect on precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takle, Jasmine; Maheskumar, R.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosols are tiny suspended particle in the atmosphere with high variability in time and space, play a major role in modulating the cloud properties and thereby precipitation. To understand the aerosol induced Invigoration effect predictors like aerosol optical depth, cloud optical depth, cloud top temperature, cloud effective radii, ice water path, retrieved from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level-3 aqua satellite data were analysed for pre monsoon April-May and post monsoon October-November months over the Indian subcontinent 8 ° N to 33° N, 65 °E to 100 °E during the period 2003-2013. Apart from the above data, mesoscale dynamical parameters such as vertical wind shear of horizontal wind, relative humidity, were also considered to understand their role in invigoration. Case studies have been carried out for the regions having heavy rainfall events & minimal rainfall events during high Aerosol optical depths occasions respectively. Analysis revealed that the heavy rainfall which occurred in this region with higher optical depths might be due to invigoration effect of aerosols wherein the dynamical as well as thermodynamical parameters were also found favourable. Minimal rainfall events were also observed most probably due to the suppression of rain formation/delay in precipitation due to high amount of aerosol concentration in these regions. Prominent 36 such cases were studied all over India during Pre & Post monsoon months.

  3. Survival of Unstressed and Acid-, Cold-, and Starvation-Stress-Adapted Listeria monocytogenes in Ham Extract with Hops Beta Acids and Consumer Acceptability of HBA on Ready-to-Eat Ham.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Shen, Cangliang

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of hops beta acids (HBA) against unstressed and stress-adapted Listeria monocytogenes in ham extract and the consumers' acceptability of HBA on ready-to-eat (RTE) hams were investigated. Unstressed or acid-, cold-, or starvation-stress-adapted L. monocytogenes was inoculated (1.3-1.5 log CFU/mL) into 10% ham extract, without (control) or with HBA (4.44 or 10.0 µg/mL). Survival/growth of the pathogen during storage (7.2 °C, 26 days) was monitored periodically. Sensory evaluation (30 participants, 9-point hedonic scale) was performed with hams dipped into 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23% HBA solution. Ham extracts without HBA supported rapid growth of unstressed and stress-adapted cells with growth rates of 0.39-0.71 log CFU/mL/day and lag phases of 0-3.26 days. HBA inhibited growth of unstressed L. monocytogenes by slowing (P < 0.05) growth rate (0.24-0.29 log CFU/mL/day) and increasing (P < 0.05) length of the lag phase (3.49-12.98 days) compared to control. Acid-, cold-, or starvation-stress-adapted cells showed cross protection against HBA with greater (P < 0.05) growth rates (0.44-0.66 log CFU/mL/day) and similar or shorter lag phases (0-5.44 days) than unstressed cells. HBA did not (P > 0.05) affect sensory attributes of RTE ham. These results are useful for RTE meat processors to develop operational protocols using HBA to control L. monocytogenes.

  4. Survival of Unstressed and Acid-, Cold-, and Starvation-Stress-Adapted Listeria monocytogenes in Ham Extract with Hops Beta Acids and Consumer Acceptability of HBA on Ready-to-Eat Ham

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Shen, Cangliang

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of hops beta acids (HBA) against unstressed and stress-adapted Listeria monocytogenes in ham extract and the consumers' acceptability of HBA on ready-to-eat (RTE) hams were investigated. Unstressed or acid-, cold-, or starvation-stress-adapted L. monocytogenes was inoculated (1.3–1.5 log CFU/mL) into 10% ham extract, without (control) or with HBA (4.44 or 10.0 µg/mL). Survival/growth of the pathogen during storage (7.2°C, 26 days) was monitored periodically. Sensory evaluation (30 participants, 9-point hedonic scale) was performed with hams dipped into 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23% HBA solution. Ham extracts without HBA supported rapid growth of unstressed and stress-adapted cells with growth rates of 0.39–0.71 log CFU/mL/day and lag phases of 0–3.26 days. HBA inhibited growth of unstressed L. monocytogenes by slowing (P < 0.05) growth rate (0.24–0.29 log CFU/mL/day) and increasing (P < 0.05) length of the lag phase (3.49–12.98 days) compared to control. Acid-, cold-, or starvation-stress-adapted cells showed cross protection against HBA with greater (P < 0.05) growth rates (0.44–0.66 log CFU/mL/day) and similar or shorter lag phases (0–5.44 days) than unstressed cells. HBA did not (P > 0.05) affect sensory attributes of RTE ham. These results are useful for RTE meat processors to develop operational protocols using HBA to control L. monocytogenes. PMID:26539527

  5. Aerosol Correction for Improving OMPS/LP Ozone Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhong; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Loughman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Limb Profiler (OMPS-LP) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite was launched on Oct. 28, 2011. Limb profilers measures the radiance scattered from the Earth's atmospheric in limb viewing mode from 290 to 1000 nm and infer ozone profiles from tropopause to 60 km. The recently released OMPS-LP Version 2 data product contains the first publicly released ozone profiles retrievals, and these are now available for the entire OMPS mission, which extends from April, 2012. The Version 2 data product retrievals incorporate several important improvements to the algorithm. One of the primary changes is to turn off the aerosol retrieval module. The aerosol profiles retrieved inside the ozone code was not helping the ozone retrieval and was adding noise and other artifacts. Aerosols including polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) and polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) have a detectable effect on OMPS-LP data. Our results show that ignoring the aerosol contribution would produce an ozone density bias of up to 10 percent in the region of maximum aerosol extinction. Therefore, aerosol correction is needed to improve the quality of the retrieved ozone concentration profile. We provide Aerosol Scattering Index (ASI) for detecting aerosols-PMC-PSC, defined as ln(Im-Ic) normalized at 45km, where Im is the measured radiance and Ic is the calculated radiance assuming no aerosols. Since ASI varies with wavelengths, latitude and altitude, we can start by assuming no aerosol profiles in calculating the ASIs and then use the aerosol profile to see if it significantly reduces the residuals. We also discuss the effect of aerosol size distribution on the ozone profile retrieval process. Finally, we present an aerosol-PMC-PSC correction scheme.

  6. Analysis of microbiological contamination in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung-Su; Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Moon, Jin-San; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination levels (aerobic bacteria plate count [APC], coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage. A total of 180 samples were collected from factories with and without hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems at four steps: after chopping (AC), after mixing (AM), cooling after the first heating process, and cooling after the second heating process. For ham, APCs and coliform and E. coli counts increased when ingredients were added to the meat at the AC step. Final product APC was 1.63 to 1.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in nine (15.0%) and six (10.0%) samples, respectively, but only at the AC and AM steps and not in the final product. Sausage results were similar to those for ham. The final product APC was 1.52 to 3.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in 29 (24.2%) and 25 (20.8%) samples at the AC and AM steps, respectively, but not in the final product. These results indicate that the temperature and time of the first and second heating are of extreme importance to ensure the microbiological safety of the final product regardless of whether a HACCP system is in place. Microorganism contamination must be monitored regularly and regulations regarding sanitization during processing should be improved. Education regarding employee personal hygiene, environmental hygiene, prevention of cross-contamination, ingredient control, and step-by-step process control is needed to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

  7. Gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci from dry cured Iberian ham and their enterotoxigenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, M; Núñez, F; Córdoba, J J; Bermúdez, E; Asensio, M A

    1996-01-01

    Iberian ham is an uncooked, cured meat product ripened under natural uncontrolled conditions for 18 to 24 months. Gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci are the main microbial population in Iberian ham for most of the ripening time. Since some of these organisms are able to produce enterotoxins, adequate characterization and toxicological study are needed. For this, 1,327 gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci, isolated from Iberian hams at different stages and locations, were characterized by physiological and biochemical tests. Selected isolates were further characterized by guanine-cytosine (G+C) content and restriction enzyme analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA. The toxigenic potential of these organisms was tested with specific DNA gene probes for staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C, and D and confirmed by semiquantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The majority of the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. Non-identified gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci which were moderately halophilic and showed a 42 to 52% G+C content were detected. A great variety of staphylococcal strains were found within the different species at any sampling time. Two strains of Staphylococcus xylosus, one Staphylococcus cohnii strain, and four of the non-identified organisms with 42 to 52% G+C contents hybridized with some of the DNA probes for C and D staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. S. xylosus hybridizing with C-enterotoxin probe reacted with both C and D enterotoxins in the immunological test. In addition, enterotoxin D was confirmed in the nonidentified strains. Some toxigenic organisms were isolated from the final product, posing a health hazard for the consumer. PMID:8787389

  8. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  9. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  10. Gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci from dry cured Iberian ham and their enterotoxigenic potential.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Núñez, F; Córdoba, J J; Bermúdez, E; Asensio, M A

    1996-06-01

    Iberian ham is an uncooked, cured meat product ripened under natural uncontrolled conditions for 18 to 24 months. Gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci are the main microbial population in Iberian ham for most of the ripening time. Since some of these organisms are able to produce enterotoxins, adequate characterization and toxicological study are needed. For this, 1,327 gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci, isolated from Iberian hams at different stages and locations, were characterized by physiological and biochemical tests. Selected isolates were further characterized by guanine-cytosine (G+C) content and restriction enzyme analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA. The toxigenic potential of these organisms was tested with specific DNA gene probes for staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C, and D and confirmed by semiquantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The majority of the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. Non-identified gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci which were moderately halophilic and showed a 42 to 52% G+C content were detected. A great variety of staphylococcal strains were found within the different species at any sampling time. Two strains of Staphylococcus xylosus, one Staphylococcus cohnii strain, and four of the non-identified organisms with 42 to 52% G+C contents hybridized with some of the DNA probes for C and D staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. S. xylosus hybridizing with C-enterotoxin probe reacted with both C and D enterotoxins in the immunological test. In addition, enterotoxin D was confirmed in the nonidentified strains. Some toxigenic organisms were isolated from the final product, posing a health hazard for the consumer.

  11. Unexpected Benefits of Reducing Aerosol Cooling Effects.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jia; Wang, Jiandong; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Wang, Shuxiao; Hogrefe, Christian; Gan, Chuen-Meei; Wong, David C; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-19

    Impacts of aerosol cooling are not limited to changes in surface temperature since modulation of atmospheric dynamics resulting from the increased stability can deteriorate local air quality and impact human health. Health impacts from two manifestations of the aerosol direct effects (ADE) are estimated in this study: (1) the effect on surface temperature and (2) the effect on air quality through atmospheric dynamics. Average mortalities arising from the enhancement of surface PM2.5 concentration due to ADE in East Asia, North America and Europe are estimated to be 3-6 times higher than reduced mortality from decreases of temperature due to ADE. Our results suggest that mitigating aerosol pollution is beneficial in decreasing the impacts of climate change arising from these two manifestations of ADE health impacts. Thus, decreasing aerosol pollution gets direct benefits on health, and indirect benefits on health through changes in local climate and not offsetting changes associated only with temperature modulations as traditionally thought. The modulation of air pollution due to ADE also translates into an additional human health dividend in regions (e.g., U.S. Europe) with air pollution control measures but a penalty for regions (e.g., Asia) witnessing rapid deterioration in air quality. PMID:27310144

  12. Hiromeri: a specialty ham of Cyprus--historical evidence, culinary and cultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Patapiou, Nasa; Lazarou, Chrystalleni

    2013-01-01

    Hiromeri is a specialty ham of Cyprus, made of smoked pork leg that is matured in wine. Until now there has been no systematic effort to present historical evidence that will support the Cypriot authenticity of this product. In this article, the historical evidence from sixteenth to twentieth centuries, referring to the production and trade of hiromeri in Cyprus, is presented. The evidence is drawn from archival testimony, travelers' descriptions, old history books, and essays on agricultural production. Moreover, a description of the hiromeri production process as well as past and current culinary uses and customs associated with its production and consumption are presented.

  13. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products. PMID:24551829

  14. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  15. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham.

  16. Inclusion complexation of flavour compounds by dispersed high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) in an aqueous model system.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Lihe; Thompson, Donald B; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated how hydrophobicity, solubility and the concentration of flavour compounds related to inclusion complexation by dispersed native high amylose maize starch (HAMS). The effect of native lipid on flavour retention and the effect of time (one day to one month) on flavour retention and precipitated starch yield was also examined. Flavour-starch complexation was dependent on the flavour compound hydrophobicity, the flavour concentration in a dose-dependent manner and also influenced by time (increased during storage). Flavour composition also influenced starch complexation; no flavour complexes were reported with limonene by itself but were observed when added in binary flavour mixtures with menthone or thymol. Furthermore, no difference in flavour retention was observed for native and lipid-free starch dispersions. In summary, flavour inclusion complexes with HAMS exhibited cooperativity-type binding behaviour; with a critical ligand concentration needed for a stable physical association between flavour compounds and HAMS.

  17. Muscle individual phospholipid classes throughout the processing of dry-cured ham: influence of pre-cure freezing.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge; Dewettinck, Koen; Le, Thien Trung; Antequera, Teresa

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to study the profile of phospholipid (PL) classes of Iberian ham throughout its processing and the changes it underwent due to the influence of the pre-cure freezing treatment. The general profile of each PL class did not vary during the ripening stage. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed the highest proportion, followed by phosphatidyletanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) being the minor PL. The four PL classes were highly hydrolysed during the salting stage and their degradation continued during the rest of the processing. Pre-cure freezing of Iberian ham influenced the levels of the four PL classes at the initial stage, all of them being higher in refrigerated (R) than in pre-cure frozen (F) hams. Moreover, the pattern of hydrolysis was not the same in these two groups.

  18. The effect of NaCl-free processing and high pressure on the fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella on sliced smoked dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Stollewerk, Katharina; Jofré, Anna; Comaposada, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Garriga, Margarita

    2012-02-01

    NaCl is an important multifunctional ingredient applied in dry-cured ham elaboration. However, its excessive intake has been linked to serious cardiovascular diseases causing a recent increase in the development of reduced salt products. In the present study Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, food-borne pathogens which can cross-contaminate post processed products, were spiked with <100 CFU/g on slices of both standard (S) and NaCl-free processed (F) (elaborated with KCl+potassium lactate instead of NaCl) smoked dry-cured ham. Although L. monocytogenes and Salmonella counts decreased faster in S ham, pathogens were present in both types of non-pressure treated ham during the entire refrigerated storage period (112 days). Pressurisation at 600 MPa for 5 min caused the elimination of both pathogens in S ham after 14 days. In contrast, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were present in F ham until days 28 and 56, respectively, indicating that the NaCl-free processed dry-cured ham had lower stability than standard smoked dry-cured ham.

  19. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid from extruded linseed influences the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham from heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Musella, M; Cannata, S; Rossi, R; Mourot, J; Baldini, P; Corino, C

    2009-11-01

    Twenty-four barrows (78.1 +/- 1.7 kg of initial BW) were fed a control diet (2.5% sunflower oil) or an experimental diet containing 5% whole extruded linseed. Both diets were supplemented with 170 mg of vitamin E/kg of feed. At slaughter (160 +/- 9.2 kg of BW), 6 hams were collected per group and delivered to Stazione Sperimentale per l'Industria delle Conserve Alimentari of Parma for seasoning. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of diet on the physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham. The linseed diet increased (P < 0.05) the content of n-3 PUFA in trimmed fat (green ham), semimembranosus muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and the whole slice (dry-cured ham). Moreover, there was a decrease in the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from 12 to 3 in all of those tissues. In contrast, the greater alpha-linolenic acid content in linseed caused an increase in the iodine value of green hams to a value that is not accepted by the Parma Ham Consortium. A sensory consumer test indicated that linseed-enriched dry-cured ham had the least acceptance score for odor, taste, and overall acceptability descriptors. These data suggest that the use of extruded linseed for pig feed is an acceptable way to improve the nutritional quality of long-cured pork products but could be limited by negative effects on the sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

  20. Effect of meat ingredients (sodium nitrite and erythorbate) and processing (vacuum storage and packaging atmosphere) on germination and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores in ham during abusive cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of nitrite and erythorbate on Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ham during abusive cooling (15 h) was evaluated. Ham was formulated with ground pork, NaNO2 (0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 ppm) and sodium erythorbate (0 or 547 ppm). Ten grams of meat (stored at 5C for 3 or...

  1. Effects of lactate on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella SPP., in cooked ham at refrigeration and abuse temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sodium lactate on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in cooked ham during storage at refrigeration and abuse temperatures. Cooked ham was added with 0-3% lactate, inoculated with a multiple...

  2. Evaluation of aerosol properties simulated by the high resolution global coupled chemistry-aerosol-microphysics model C-IFS-GLOMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomse, Sandip; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; Flemming, Johannes; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Engelen, Richard; Remy, Samuel; Boucher, Olivier; Benduhn, Francois; Hewson, Will; Woodhouse, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The EU Framework Programme GEMS and MACC consortium projects co-ordinated by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have developed an operational global forecasting and reanalysis system (Composition-IFS) for atmospheric composition including greenhouse gases, reactive gases and aerosol. The current operational C-IFS system uses a mass-based aerosol model coupled to data assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth measured by satellite (MODIS) to predict global aerosol properties. During MACC, the GLOMAP-mode aerosol microphysics scheme was added to the system, providing information on aerosol size and number for improved representation of aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, accounting also for simulated global variations in size distribution and internally-mixed particle composition. The IFS-GLOMAP system has recently been upgraded to couple with the sulphur cycle simulated in the online TM5 tropospheric chemistry module for global reactive gases. This C-IFS-GLOMAP system is also being upgraded to use a new "nitrate-extended" version of GLOMAP which realistically treats the size-resolved gas-particle partitioning of semi volatile gases ammonia and nitric acid. In this poster we described C-IFS-GLOMAP and present an evaluation of the global sulphate aerosol distribution simulated in this coupled aerosol-chemistry C-IFS-GLOMAP, comparing to surface observations in Europe, North America and the North Atlantic and contrasting to the fixed timescale sulphate production scheme developed in GEMS. We show that the coupling to the TM5 sulphur chemistry improves the seasonal cycle of sulphate aerosol, for example addressing a persistent wintertime sulphate high bias in northern Europe. The improved skill in simulated sulphate aerosol seasonal cycle is a pre-requisite to realistically characterise nitrate aerosol since biases in sulphate affect the amount of free ammonia available to form ammonium nitrate.

  3. Monthly Averages of Aerosol Properties: A Global Comparison Among Models, Satellite Data, and AERONET Ground Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, S.; Lohmann, U; Feichter, J; Schulz, M.; Timmreck, C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Chin, M; Ginoux, P.; Takemura, T.; Tegen, I.; Koch, D; Herzog, M.; Penner, J.; Pitari, G.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Slutsker, I.; Tanre, D.; Torres, O.; Mishchenko, M.; Geogdzhayev, I.; Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2003-10-21

    Aerosol introduces the largest uncertainties in model-based estimates of anthropogenic sources on the Earth's climate. A better representation of aerosol in climate models can be expected from an individual processing of aerosol type and new aerosol modules have been developed, that distinguish among at least five aerosol types: sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, sea-salt and dust. In this study intermediate results of aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth of new aerosol modules from seven global models are evaluated. Among models, differences in predicted mass-fields are expected with differences to initialization and processing. Nonetheless, unusual discrepancies in source strength and in removal rates for particular aerosol types were identified. With simultaneous data for mass and optical depth, type conversion factors were compared. Differences among the tested models cover a factor of 2 for each, even hydrophobic, aerosol type. This is alarming and suggests that efforts of good mass-simulations could be wasted or that conversions are misused to cover for poor mass-simulations. An individual assessment, however, is difficult, as only part of the conversion determining factors (size assumption, permitted humidification and prescribed ambient relative humidity) were revealed. These differences need to be understood and minimized, if conclusions on aerosol processing in models can be drawn from comparisons to aerosol optical depth measurements.

  4. Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ≥ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham. PMID:26761492

  5. HAM-5 functions as a MAP kinase scaffold during cell fusion in Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Leeder, Abigail C.; Ansong, Charles; Wang, Yuexi; Yang, Feng; Starr, Trevor L.; Camp, II, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Glass, N. Louise; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-11-20

    Cell fusion in genetically identical Neurospora crassa germlings and in hyphae is a highly regulated process involving the activation of a conserved MAP kinase cascade that includes NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2. During chemotrophic growth in germlings, the MAP kinase cascade members localize to conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) tips every 4 minutes, perfectly out of phase with another protein that is recruited to the tip: SOFT, a protein of unknown biochemical function. How this oscillation process is initiated, maintained and what proteins regulate the MAP kinase cascade is currently unclear. A global phosphoproteomics approach using an allele of mak-2 (mak-2Q100G) that can be specifically inhibited by the ATP analog 1NM-PP1 was utilized to identify MAK2 kinase targets in germlings that were potentially involved in this process. One such putative target was HAM5, a protein of unknown biochemical function. Previously, Δham-5 mutants were shown to be deficient for hyphal fusion. Here we show that HAM5-GFP co-localized with NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2 and oscillated with identical dynamics from the cytoplasm to CAT tips during chemotropic interactions. In the Δmak-2 strain, HAM5-GFP localized to punctate complexes that did not oscillate, but still localized to the germling tip, suggesting that MAK2 activity influences HAM5 function/localization. However, MAK2-GFP showed only cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in a Δham-5 strain and did not localize to puncta, as observed in wild type germlings. Via co-immunoprecipitation experiments, HAM5 was shown to physically interact with MAK2, MEK2 and NRC1, suggesting that it functions as a scaffold/transport hub for the MAP kinase cascade members during oscillation and chemotropic interactions during both germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa. The identification of HAM5 as a scaffold-like protein will help to link the activation of MAK2 to upstream factors and other proteins involved in this intriguing process of fungal

  6. Mixed-layer ocean responses to anthropogenic aerosol dimming from 1870 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, T. N.; Folini, D.; Knutti, R.; Wild, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is debated to what extent surface solar radiation (SSR) changes through varying anthropogenic aerosol emissions since industrialization affected surface temperatures (tsurf). We use mixed-layer ocean experiments with the general circulation model ECHAM6.1 and explicit aerosols (HAM2.2) to identify regions where this effect is discernible. For each decade from 1870 to 2000 we derive three equilibria: anthropogenic aerosol emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations at the respective decade's levels (ALL), either aerosols or greenhouse gases fixed at year 1850 levels (GHG and AERO). We duplicated parts of the experiments with different prescribed divergence of ocean heat transport (Q_ALL, Q_AERO, and Q_GHG). Comparing year 2000 with year 1870 equilibria, we find global average cooling of -1.4 K for AERO and warming of 1.4 K for GHG. ALL and Q_ALL warm by 0.6 K and 0.4 K, respectively. The way divergence of ocean heat transport is prescribed thus matters. Pattern correlations of year 2000 tsurf responses in ALL with the sum of AERO and GHG are higher (0.88) than with Q_ALL (0.71) confirming additivity of global patterns, but not of global means. The imprint of anthropogenic aerosols on tsurf response patterns in ALL is distinct, thus potentially detectable. Over the decades, ocean fractions affected by either changing aerosol optical depth or all-sky SSR vary in concert, supporting linkage between anthropogenic aerosols and all-sky SSR. SSR changes and tsurf responses are marginally collocated. Oceanic regions with strongest tsurf response to aerosol-induced SSR changes are the northern midlatitudes and North Pacific with tsurf sensitivities up to -0.7 K W m-2 SSR change.

  7. Mixed-layer ocean responses to anthropogenic aerosol dimming from 1870 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Knutti, Reto; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    It is still debated, to what extent anthropogenic aerosol-induced changes in surface solar radiation (SSR) since industrialization affected surface temperatures (tsurf). We use mixed-layer ocean (MLO) experiments with the general circulation model ECHAM6.1 and explicit aerosols (HAM2.2) to identify regions where this effect is discernible. For each decade from 1870 to 2000 we derive three equilibria: anthropogenic aerosol emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations at the respective decade's levels (ALL), either aerosols or greenhouse gases fixed at year 1850 levels (GHG and AERO). We duplicated parts of the experiments with different prescribed divergence of ocean heat transport (Q_ALL, Q_AERO, Q_GHG). Comparing year 2000 with year 1870 equilibria, we find global average cooling of -1.4K for AERO, and warming of 1.4K for GHG. ALL and Q_ALL warm by 0.6K and 0.4K, respectively. The way divergence of ocean heat transport is prescribed thus matters. Pattern correlations of year 2000 tsurf responses in ALL with the sum of AERO and GHG are higher (0.88) than with Q_ALL (0.71) confirming additivity of global patterns, but not of global means. The imprint of anthropogenic aerosols on tsurf response patterns in ALL is distinct, thus potentially detectable. Over the decades, ocean fractions affected by either changing aerosol optical depth or all-sky SSR vary in concert, supporting linkage between anthropogenic aerosols and all-sky SSR. SSR changes and tsurf responses are marginally collocated. Oceanic regions with strongest tsurf response to aerosol-induced SSR changes are the northern mid-latitudes and North Pacific with tsurf sensitivities up to -0.7K per Wm-2 SSR change. Results presented have been published under the same title in the Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 121, DOI 10.1002/2015JD024070.

  8. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  9. Moisture diffusivity in the lean tissue of dry-cured ham at different process times.

    PubMed

    Gou, P; Comaposada, J; Arnau, J

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effective moisture diffusivity coefficient (D(e)) during dry-cured ham processing in two muscles, an internal one (Biceps femoris, BF) and an external one (Semimembranosus, SM), at different temperatures. Two adjacent samples, which included both SM and BF muscles, were selected after salting (PS), after resting (PR), after 4 months of drying (D1) and at the end of the process (D2). One was used to determine the initial profiles of moisture and NaCl/moisture and the other to determine D(e) at different temperatures (1 and 5°C in PS; 5 and 12°C in PR; 12, 19 and 26°C in D1; 19 and 33°C in D2). D(e) was higher in the muscle with the higher moisture content (BF) except in PS and PR, where a gradient of NaCl/moisture ratio was observed in SM muscle. There was a positive effect of temperature on D(e), but it decreased during processing of the dry-cured ham. A simple diffusive model, with a unique and constant moisture diffusivity coefficient or with a coefficient depending only on temperature, does not explain the whole drying process correctly. The effects of moisture content and the gradient of NaCl/moisture ratio on D(e) have to be considered. PMID:22061315

  10. New analytical method for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer equations and comparison with HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Erfani, E.

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we present a numerical comparison between the differential transform method (DTM) and the homotopy analysis method (HAM) for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer problems. The first differential equation is the Burgers' equation serves as a useful model for many interesting problems in applied mathematics. The second one is the modeling equation of a straight fin with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity. In order to show the effectiveness of the DTM, the results obtained from the DTM is compared with available solutions obtained using the HAM [M.M. Rashidi, G. Domairry, S. Dinarvand, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 708-717; G. Domairry, M. Fazeli, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 489-499] and whit exact solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and nonlinear problems. It illustrates the validity and the great potential of the differential transform method in solving nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained results reveal that the technique introduced here is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations and nonlinear ordinary differential equations that we are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  11. Ultrasonic assessment of the melting behaviour in fat from Iberian dry-cured hams.

    PubMed

    Niñoles, L; Mulet, A; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasounds to characterize the melting properties of fat from Iberian dry-cured hams was evaluated. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and ultrasonic measurements were used to characterize the fat melting. The ultrasonic velocity in fat decreased with the increase in temperature, showing four different sections (0-4 degrees C, 4-10 degrees C, 10-20 degrees C and 20-24 degrees C). Ultrasonic velocity was related (R(2)=0.99) to the percentage of melted fat (%MEF) showing an increase of 5.4 ms(-1) for 1% increase of melted fat (%MEF above 60%). The thermal history did not affect the ultrasonic measurements from 10 to 25 degrees C and, consequently, this range was the most suitable for classifying Iberian dry-cured products with different genetics and feeding backgrounds. Ultrasonic measurements could be a reliable technique to estimate the %MEF and subsequently the related sensory attributes in Iberian dry-cured ham at 10-25 degrees C, which is the common temperature range for the consumption of Iberian dry-cured products.

  12. Antilisterial peptides from Spanish dry-cured hams: Purification and identification.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Patricia; Mora, Leticia; Escudero, Elizabeth; Vignolo, Graciela; Aznar, Rosa; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-10-01

    The typical Spanish dry-cured ham has a particular sensory quality that makes it a distinctive food, highly appreciated for consumers worldwide. Its particular physicochemical properties, such as high salt content and reduced water activity contribute to their shelf-stability. However, post-processing actions carried out for the commercialization of these products such as slicing may increase the risk of development of pathogenic microorganisms as Listeria monocytogenes. During ripening, muscle proteins are hydrolyzed by muscle peptidases releasing peptides and free amino acids. Some of these peptides have been described to exert biological activities such as antioxidant and ACE-inhibition. In this study, a peptidomic strategy using mass spectrometry techniques has been used to identify and sequence those naturally generated peptides showing antilisterial activity. One hundred and five peptides have been identified in active fractions and some synthesized and their MIC calculated. Ten peptides were able to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes, being the pentapeptide RHGYM the most effective showing a MIC value of 6.25 mM. This study proves for the first time the potential antimicrobial action against L. monocytogenes of certain naturally generated peptides obtained from Spanish dry-cured ham. PMID:27375254

  13. Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2011-12-01

    The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.

  14. Does the Madden-Julian Oscillation Influence Aerosol Variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Li, Q.; Yung, Y. L.; Tyranowski, T.; Geogdzhayev, I. V.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Torres, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the modulation of aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) using satellite-based global aerosol products, including aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Nimbus-7, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA satellites. A composite analysis is performed for boreal winter, and the global pentad rainfall data from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) are used to identify MJO events. The MJO composites exhibit large variations in the TOMS AI and MODIS/AVHRR AOT over the equatorial Indian and western Pacific Oceans where MJO convection is active, as well as the tropical Africa and Atlantic Ocean where MJO convection is relatively weak but the background aerosol level is relatively high. A strong inverse linear relationship between the TOMS AI and rainfall anomalies, but a weaker, less coherent positive correlation between the MODIS/AVHRR AOT and rainfall anomalies, were found. The Aerosol Robotic Network AOT pattern at Kaashidoo (73.5°E, 4.9°N) and Nauru (167°E, 0.5°S) is more consistent with MODIS and AVHRR. These results indicate a connection between the MJO, its associated rainfall and circulation variability, and the observed aerosol variations. Several physical and non-physical factors that may contribute to the observed aerosol-rainfall relationship, such as aerosol humidification effect, wet deposition, surface wind speed, phytoplankton, different sensor sensitivities (absorbing versus non-absorbing aerosols and upper versus lower tropospheric aerosols), sampling issue, and cloud contamination, are discussed. However, a clear causal explanation for the observed patterns remains elusive. Further investigation is needed to unravel this complex aerosol-rainfall relationship.

  15. Parameter sensitivity study of Arctic aerosol vertical distribution in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic surface temperature response to light-absorbing aerosols (black carbon, brown carbon and dust) depends strongly on their vertical distributions. Improving model simulations of three dimensional aerosol fields in the remote Arctic region will therefore lead to improved projections of the climate change caused by aerosol emissions. In this study, we investigate how different physical parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) influence the simulated vertical distribution of Arctic aerosols. We design experiments to test the sensitivity of the simulated aerosol fields to perturbations of selected aerosol process-related parameters in the Modal Aerosol Module with seven lognormal modes (MAM7), such as those govern aerosol aging, in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging, aerosol hygroscopicity and so on. The simulations are compared with observed aerosol vertical distributions and total optical depth to assess model performance and quantify uncertainties associated with these model parameterizations. Observations applied here include Arctic aircraft measurements of black carbon and sulfate vertical profiles, along with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) optical depth measurements. We also assess the utility of using High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements from the ARM Barrow site to infer vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. The sensitivity study explored here will provide guidance for optimizing global aerosol simulations.

  16. Improving Aerosol Transport to the Arctic in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P.; Wang, M.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S.; Qian, Y.; Yoon, J.; Ma, P.; Vinoj, V.

    2011-12-01

    Of the many factors contributing to the rapid arctic climate change, arctic haze has been identified as a potentially important forcing agent. It has been well established that arctic aerosols largely originate from lower latitudes. Hence, the long-range atmospheric transport of aerosols to the Arctic is of great concern for studying arctic climate change. The treatment of aerosol and cloud processes has been substantially improved in the current version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) which is widely used in the research of aerosol effects on clouds and climate. However, like many other global models, the CAM5 produces a relatively poor simulation of arctic aerosols and clouds. For example, previous studies have shown that the standard version of CAM5 remarkably underpredicts arctic aerosol concentrations, particularly during the arctic haze season, compared to various measurements. In this study, we focus on improving processes associated with aerosol-cloud interactions, cloud microphysics and macrophysics, and aerosol emission, transformation, removal, and deposition that are key to determining the amount of aerosols reaching the Arctic. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to understand the role of each of the processes and to identify sources of uncertainties, and improvements are made to processes that are not well represented in the CAM5. The evaluation and improvement are guided by aerosol and cloud measurements together with process-oriented model results from the multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that embeds a cloud-resolving model in each CAM5 grid column to explicitly represent convection and aerosol-cloud interactions. Results show that including black carbon (BC) aging process through a more complete 7-mode version of the aerosol module in CAM5 can substantially increase the amount of arctic BC, compared to simulations with the standard 3-mode version, but has minimal effect on other species such as dust and sulfate. Excessive mid

  17. PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms and quality traits of dry-cured hams--III. Associations in Slovenian dry-cured ham Kraški pršut and their dependence on processing.

    PubMed

    Škrlep, M; Čandek-Potokar, M; Žlender, B; Robert, N; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Gou, P

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study, the third in a series of three papers, is to show the effects of PRKAG3 and CAST gene polymorphisms on the quality traits of the Slovenian dry-cured ham "Kraški pršut" and their interaction with ham producers. Significant interaction of polymorphisms with producer in the case of salt content, lipid oxidation (PRKAG3 Ile199Val), proteolysis index (CAST Arg249Lys) and pastiness (CAST Ser638Arg) indicated that genotype manifestation was reliant on the manufacturing practice. PRKAG3 Ile199Val polymorphism affected several physico-chemical, rheological and sensory traits. The Ile/Ile genotype yielded less salty and softer hams, indicating beneficial effects on dry-cured ham quality. The effect of CAST polymorphisms was less pronounced, although the observed associations with pastiness, proteolysis index and several free amino acid concentrations indicate its possible influence on proteolysis, with haplotype CAST 249Arg/638Ser being associated with a higher degree of proteolysis. PMID:22770931

  18. Air pollution and asthma: clinical studies with sulfuric acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Frampton, M.W.; Morrow, P.E. )

    1991-11-01

    Until recently, acid deposition has been widely considered a serious ecological problem but not a threat to human health. The controlled clinical study is an important approach in linking acidic aerosol inhalation with respiratory effects. Asthmatic patients represent a subpopulation most responsive to sulfuric acid aerosols. In a series of studies with asthmatic volunteers, several factors have been identified that may modulate the intensity of the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled acidic aerosols. We found (1) enhancement of the bronchoconstrictor response during exercise, (2) the more acidic aerosols provoke the greatest changes in lung function, and (3) mitigation of airway responses during sulfuric acid aerosol inhalation caused by high respiratory ammonia concentrations. Additional factors influencing responsiveness await identification.

  19. Simulations of the Aerosol Index and the Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth and Comparisons with OMI Retrievals During ARCTAS-2008 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    We have computed the Aerosol Index (AI) at 354 nm, useful for observing the presence of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere, from aerosol simulations conducted with the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running online the GEOS-5 Atmospheric GCM. The model simulates five aerosol types: dust, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate aerosol and can be run in replay or data assimilation modes. In the assimilation mode, information's provided by the space-based MODIS and MISR sensors constrains the model aerosol state. Aerosol optical properties are then derived from the simulated mass concentration and the Al is determined at the OMI footprint using the radiative transfer code VLIDORT. In parallel, model derived Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) is compared with OMI retrievals. We have focused our study during ARCTAS (June - July 2008), a period with a good sampling of dust and biomass burning events. Our ultimate goal is to use OMI measurements as independent validation for our MODIS/MISR assimilation. Towards this goal we document the limitation of OMI aerosol absorption measurements on a global scale, in particular sensitivity to aerosol vertical profile and cloud contamination effects, deriving the appropriate averaging kernels. More specifically, model simulated (full) column integrated AAOD is compared with model derived Al, this way identifying those regions and conditions under which OMI cannot detect absorbing aerosols. Making use of ATrain cloud measurements from MODIS, C1oudSat and CALIPSO we also investigate the global impact on clouds on OMI derived Al, and the extent to which GEOS-5 clouds can offer a first order representation of these effects.

  20. Aerosol MTF revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, Norman S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-05-01

    Different views of the significance of aerosol MTF have been reported. For example, one recent paper [OE, 52(4)/2013, pp. 046201] claims that the aerosol MTF "contrast reduction is approximately independent of spatial frequency, and image blur is practically negligible". On the other hand, another recent paper [JOSA A, 11/2013, pp. 2244-2252] claims that aerosols "can have a non-negligible effect on the atmospheric point spread function". We present clear experimental evidence of common significant aerosol blur and evidence that aerosol contrast reduction can be extremely significant. In the IR, it is more appropriate to refer to such phenomena as aerosol-absorption MTF. The role of imaging system instrumentation on such MTF is addressed too.

  1. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Texture Quality, Color and Mineral Status of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the chemical composition, mineral status, oxidative stability, and texture attributes of dry-cured ham from pigs fed processed sulfur (S, 1 g/kg feed), and from those fed a basal diet (CON), during the period from weaning to slaughter (174 d). Total collagen content and soluble collagen of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). The pH of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group, whereas the S group had a lower expressible drip compared to the control group. The S group also showed the lower lightness compared to the control group (p<0.05). In regard to the mineral status, the S group had significantly lower Fe2+ and Ca2+ content than the control group (p<0.05), whereas the proteolysis index of the S group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p<0.05). The feeding of processed sulfur to pigs led to increased oxidative stability, related to lipids and pigments, in the dry-cured ham (p<0.05). Compared to the dry-cured ham from the control group, that from the S group exhibited lower springiness and gumminess; these results suggest that feeding processed sulfur to pigs can improve the quality of the texture and enhance the oxidative stability of dry-cured ham. PMID:26761895

  2. The effect of salt reduction on sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, ham and salami.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Vestergaard, Christian; Koch, Anette Granly

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a multi-functional ingredient used to inhibit microbial growth and to ensure good texture and taste in processed meat. This study showed how moderately (22-25%) and greatly (43-50%) reduction of NaCl affected yield, sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, cooked cured ham and salami. In greatly reduced products, the yield was reduced by 8% in sausages and 6% in ham, whereas the yield in bacon and salami remained unaffected. The microbial growth was generally not affected by reducing the content of NaCl to 2.0% in sausages, 2.3% in bacon, 1.7% in ham and 6.3% in salami (aqueous phase). Salt taste, juiciness and texture were the sensory parameters most affected by the NaCl reduction. In sausages and ham, reduction from 2.2% to 1.7% and from 2.3% to 1.3% (w/w), respectively, did not alter the sensory properties. In contrast, the sensory properties of bacon and salami were significantly affected already after a moderately reduction.

  3. 77 FR 12001 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Hams Into the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Hams Into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health...

  4. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

  5. How Will Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Change in an Ice-Free Arctic Summer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgen, Anina; Katty Huang, Wan Ting; Ickes, Luisa; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    Future temperatures in the Arctic are expected to increase more than the global mean temperature, which will lead to a pronounced retreat in Arctic sea ice. Before mid-century, most sea ice will likely have vanished in late Arctic summers. This will allow ships to cruise in the Arctic Ocean, e.g. to shorten their transport passage or to extract oil. Since both ships and open water emit aerosol particles and precursors, Arctic clouds and radiation may be affected via aerosol-cloud and cloud-radiation interactions. The change in radiation feeds back on temperature and sea ice retreat. In addition to aerosol particles, also the temperature and the open ocean as a humidity source should have a strong effect on clouds. The main goal of this study is to assess the impact of sea ice retreat on the Arctic climate with focus on aerosol emissions and cloud properties. To this purpose, we conducted ensemble runs with the global climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 under present-day and future (2050) conditions. ECHAM6-HAM2 was coupled with a mixed layer ocean model, which includes a sea ice model. To estimate Arctic aerosol emissions from ships, we used an elaborated ship emission inventory (Peters et al. 2011); changes in aerosol emissions from the ocean are calculated online. Preliminary results show that the sea salt aerosol and the dimethyl sulfide burdens over the Arctic Ocean significantly increase. While the ice water path decreases, the total water path increases. Due to the decrease in surface albedo, the cooling effect of the Arctic clouds becomes more important in 2050. Enhanced Arctic shipping has only a very small impact. The increase in the aersol burden due to shipping is less pronounced than the increase due to natural emissions even if the ship emissions are increased by a factor of ten. Hence, there is hardly an effect on clouds and radiation caused by shipping. References Peters et al. (2011), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5305-5320

  6. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1997-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included pollution haze layer from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core.

  7. Thermoluminescent aerosol analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Long, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for detecting and measuring trace amounts of aerosols when reacted with ozone in a gaseous environment was examined. A sample aerosol was exposed to a fixed ozone concentration for a fixed period of time, and a fluorescer was added to the exposed sample. The sample was heated in a 30 C/minute linear temperature profile to 200 C. The trace peak was measured and recorded as a function of the test aerosol and the recorded thermoluminescence trace peak of the fluorescer is specific to the aerosol being tested.

  8. Technological approach to reduce NaCl content of traditional smoked dry-cured hams: effect on quality properties and stability.

    PubMed

    Martuscelli, Maria; Lupieri, Laura; Chaves-Lopez, Clemencia; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The modification of the salting procedure (from a three- to a two-salt coverage steps) and its effects on quality and stability properties has been investigated to reduce NaCl content of traditional dry-cured ham. The study was applied on green hams of small-S and large-L weight classes. Results evidenced that a two-salt coverage steps salting could be applied to reduce significantly NaCl content of S-size hams and to reach the physico-chemical conditions required for microbial stability at the end of ripening. The final salt content of the products results (p < 0.05) to depend on salting procedure and initial weight of the hams, while limited differences on quality properties have been observed being the latter mainly associated to the pattern of the volatile compounds. In particular, aldehydes and hexanal content were lower in hams undergone to a 2-steps salting. Sensory analysis evidenced that the hams with reduced NaCl (2s-S and 2s-L) were less easy to chew, less salty and with a lower intensity of the smoky flavour in respect to the 3s- ones. The study confirmed the feasibility of salt content reduction of traditional dry-cured hams by modifying the salting process. However, the weight of the initial tights resulted a critical factor in affecting salting diffusion, salt content and water activity of the ripened products, their quality and stability properties. PMID:26604350

  9. Presence of ochratoxin A on the surface of dry-cured Iberian ham after initial fungal growth in the drying stage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Mar; Martín, Alberto; Delgado, Josué; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    Accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the surface and to a 0.5 cm depth of dry-cured Iberian ham after initial fungal growth was investigated. For this, 20 dry-cured Iberian hams from the drying stage showing incipient fungal growth on the surface were analyzed. In addition, the presence of OTA-producing molds was examined on the surface of the hams by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on the otanpsPN gene. Quantification of specific OTA-producing molds, such as Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum was also achieved on the hams by specific qPCR methods. Ten of 20 dry-cured hams showed OTA at higher levels than those established by legal regulation. OTA was even detected in the deep section of hams. OTA-producing molds ranged from 1.5 to 7.3 log cfu/cm². Accumulation of OTA on the hams seems to be related to the presence of OTA-producing molds and especially to P. nordicum.

  10. Detecting fractal power-law long-range dependence in pre-sliced cooked pork ham surface intensity patterns using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Valous, Nektarios A; Drakakis, Konstantinos; Sun, Da-Wen

    2010-10-01

    The visual texture of pork ham slices reveals information about the different qualities and perceived image heterogeneity, which is encapsulated as spatial variations in geometry and spectral characteristics. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) detects long-range correlations in nonstationary spatial sequences, by a self-similarity scaling exponent alpha. In the current work, the aim is to investigate the usefulness of alpha, using different colour channels (R, G, B, L*, a*, b*, H, S, V, and Grey), as a quantitative descriptor of visual texture in sliced ham surface patterns for the detection of long-range correlations in unidimensional spatial series of greyscale intensity pixel values at 0 degrees , 30 degrees , 45 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees rotations. Images were acquired from three qualities of pre-sliced pork ham, typically consumed in Ireland (200 slices per quality). Results indicated that the DFA approach can be used to characterize and quantify the textural appearance of the three ham qualities, for different image orientations, with a global scaling exponent. The spatial series extracted from the ham images display long-range dependence, indicating an average behaviour around 1/f-noise. Results indicate that alpha has a universal character in quantifying the visual texture of ham surface intensity patterns, with no considerable crossovers that alter the behaviour of the fluctuations. Fractal correlation properties can thus be a useful metric for capturing information embedded in the visual texture of hams. PMID:20510535

  11. Quantification and viability assays of Toxoplasma gondii in commercial "Serrano" ham samples using magnetic capture real-time qPCR and bioassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vílchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2015-04-01

    "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. To make Serrano ham, pork undergoes a salting and a subsequent fermentation process known as curing. Certain pigs used for meat production are an important source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. We have developed a method for quantifying and assaying the viability of the T. gondii present in commercial Serrano ham samples. A magnetic capture method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a qRT-PCR were used to estimate the T. gondii burden in 475 commercial samples of "Serrano" ham in two presentation formats: ham pieces and sliced ham. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed in mice. The global prevalence of T. gondii was 8.84%, ranging from 32.35% in one of the companies to 0% prevalence in three other companies. The infectivity assays revealed that only 4.84% of the positive samples were infective. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report focussing on the prevalence of T. gondii in commercial "Serrano" ham. The method described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products.

  12. Predictive Model for Growth of Staphylococcus aureus on Raw Pork, Ham, and Sausage.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Park, Joong-Hyun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Recent Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks linked to meat and poultry products underscore the importance of understanding the growth kinetics of S. aureus in these products at different temperatures. Raw pork, ham, and sausage (each 10 ± 0.3 g) were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of S. aureus, resulting in an initial level of ca. 3 log CFU/g. Samples were stored isothermally at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40°C, and S. aureus was enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was developed using experimental data collected from S. aureus grown on all samples (where data from raw pork, ham, and sausage were combined) so as to describe the growth rate of S. aureus as a function of temperature. The model was then compared with models for S. aureus growth on each individual sample in the experiments (raw pork, ham, or sausage) and the S. aureus ComBase models, as well as models for the growth of different types of pathogens (S. aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella serovars, and Salmonella Typhimurium) on various types of meat and poultry products. The results show that the S. aureus model developed here based on the pooled data from all three pork products seems suitable for the prediction of S. aureus growth on different pork products under isothermal conditions from 10 to 25°C, as well as for S. aureus growth on different meat and poultry products at higher temperatures between 20 and 35°C. Regardless of some high deviations observed at temperatures between 25 and 40°C, the developed model still seems suitable to predict the growth of other pathogens on different types of meat and poultry products over the temperature ranges used here, especially for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. The developed model, therefore, may be useful for estimating the effects of storage temperature on the behavior of pathogens in different meat and poultry products and for microbial risk assessments evaluating meat

  13. Extensive feeding versus oleic acid and tocopherol enriched mixed diets for the production of Iberian dry-cured hams: Effect on chemical composition, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, S; Ventanas, J; Tovar, J; García, C; Estévez, M

    2007-10-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative status of Iberian dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets: extensive feeding on acorns and pasture in a "Montanera" traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement control mixed diet (CON) without added tocopherol and oleic acid fat. Muscles from MON dry-cured hams contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) than those from HOVE and CON hams. The feeding background affected the tocopherol levels in dry-cured hams as those from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than those from CON pigs whereas the extensive feeding provided muscles from MON pigs with significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. The HOVE diet significantly increased the levels of oleic acid in Iberian dry-cured hams with these levels being similar to the oleic acid levels found in MON hams and significantly higher than those in CON hams. Compared to dry-cured hams from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels. The principal component analysis (PCA) successfully discriminated between dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets.

  14. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, Sharad; Ali, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodistilled oil obtained from the stem bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don (yield 0.3%) was analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil consisted mainly of n-hexadecanol (25.2%), eudesmol acetate (21.9%), palmitic acid (11.6%), cis-β-caryophyllene (8.7%), n-pentadecanol (7.7%) and n-octadecanol (7.6%). The oil was found to be a potential antimicrobial agent against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The essential oil exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug in Swiss albino mice ear. PMID:22260222

  15. Hamming Distance Method with Subjective and Objective Weights for Personnel Selection

    PubMed Central

    Md Saad, R.; Ahmad, M. Z.; Abu, M. S.; Jusoh, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Multicriteria decision making (MCDM) is one of the methods that popularly has been used in solving personnel selection problem. Alternatives, criteria, and weights are some of the fundamental aspects in MCDM that need to be defined clearly in order to achieve a good result. Apart from these aspects, fuzzy data has to take into consideration that it may arise from unobtainable and incomplete information. In this paper, we propose a new approach for personnel selection problem. The proposed approach is based on Hamming distance method with subjective and objective weights (HDMSOW's). In case of vagueness situation, fuzzy set theory is then incorporated onto the HDMSOW's. To determine the objective weight for each attribute, the fuzzy Shannon's entropy is considered. While for the subjective weight, it is aggregated into a comparable scale. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the HDMSOW's. PMID:24782670

  16. Quality of ham pâté containing bovine globin and plasma as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Viana, F R; Silva, V D M; Delvivo, F M; Bizzotto, C S; Silvestre, M P C

    2005-05-01

    The effect of the incorporation of globin (10%), plasma (10%) and both combined (5% each) as fat replacers on the quality of ham paté was investigated. The chemical composition, the sensorial analysis (color, flavor and consistency) and the instrumental analysis of the texture (hardness, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness and tackiness) were evaluated. The results showed an increase of moisture and protein contents after the fat replacement, while the fat reduction of 25-35% led to the preparation of light products. No change was observed for the aroma, taste and the consistency of fat replacing products, but an intensification of the cohesivity and a reduction of color, hardness and tackiness were detected in some samples. PMID:22063291

  17. Quality of ham pâté containing bovine globin and plasma as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Viana, F R; Silva, V D M; Delvivo, F M; Bizzotto, C S; Silvestre, M P C

    2005-05-01

    The effect of the incorporation of globin (10%), plasma (10%) and both combined (5% each) as fat replacers on the quality of ham paté was investigated. The chemical composition, the sensorial analysis (color, flavor and consistency) and the instrumental analysis of the texture (hardness, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness and tackiness) were evaluated. The results showed an increase of moisture and protein contents after the fat replacement, while the fat reduction of 25-35% led to the preparation of light products. No change was observed for the aroma, taste and the consistency of fat replacing products, but an intensification of the cohesivity and a reduction of color, hardness and tackiness were detected in some samples.

  18. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, Sharad; Ali, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodistilled oil obtained from the stem bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don (yield 0.3%) was analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil consisted mainly of n-hexadecanol (25.2%), eudesmol acetate (21.9%), palmitic acid (11.6%), cis-β-caryophyllene (8.7%), n-pentadecanol (7.7%) and n-octadecanol (7.6%). The oil was found to be a potential antimicrobial agent against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The essential oil exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug in Swiss albino mice ear.

  19. High capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zekun; Yin, Zhaoxia; Hu, Honghe; Gao, Xiangping; Wang, Liangmin

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to embed large amount of data while minimize the sum of costs of all changed pixels, a novel high capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code is realized by a family of algorithms. Firstly, n (n = 1, 2, 3) cover pixels are assigned to one set according to the payload. Then, 128 binary strings of length seven are divided into eight sets according to the syndrome of every binary string. Binary strings that share the same syndrome are classified into one set. Finally, a binary string in a certain set determined by the data to be embedded is chosen to modify some of the least significant bits of the n cover pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the image quality of the proposed method with high embedding payload is superior to those of the related schemes. PMID:27026872

  20. A fast approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm in the Hamming space.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Mani Malek; Ward, Rabab Kreidieh; Fatourechi, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    A fast approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm for the (binary) Hamming space is proposed. The proposed Error Weighted Hashing (EWH) algorithm is up to 20 times faster than the popular locality sensitive hashing (LSH) algorithm and works well even for large nearest neighbor distances where LSH fails. EWH significantly reduces the number of candidate nearest neighbors by weighing them based on the difference between their hash vectors. EWH can be used for multimedia retrieval and copy detection systems that are based on binary fingerprinting. On a fingerprint database with more than 1,000 videos, for a specific detection accuracy, we demonstrate that EWH is more than 10 times faster than LSH. For the same retrieval time, we show that EWH has a significantly better detection accuracy with a 15 times lower error rate.

  1. Changes in intramuscular lipids during ripening of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    1999-02-01

    Thirty-one thighs were obtained from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and were processed during 22 months in the traditional dry-curing process. Lipolysis affecting intramuscular fat during the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been analyzed by studying the changes of glycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids in lipids from Biceps femoris muscle. Little change affected the fatty acid composition of glycerides during processing. A double-phased increase in the acidity values and a decrease in the quantity of fatty acids of phospholipids during the processing were observed. There seems to be a relationship between the extension of the lipolysis taking place during the maturing and the processing conditions and raw material used.

  2. Hydrolysis and loss of extractability of proteins during ripening of iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; López-Bote, C; García, C; Asensio, M A

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate the extent of the hydrolysis and loss of extractability of protein during the traditional ripening of Iberian ham, the evolution during processing of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and protein fractions soluble in 0·03 m pH 7·1 phosphate and 1·1 KI + 0·1 m phosphate pH 7·4 buffers and 6 m urea was followed from Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles. The NPN steadily increased during processing, showing maximum intensity at salting and drying. Electrophoretic study of the proteins extracted, and microscopical examination of the pellet obtained after consecutive extractions with the above buffers, revealed that hydrolysis and insolubilization are more intense in myofibrillar than in sarcoplasmic proteins. Protein aggregation involves mainly the myofibrillar fraction, and occurs during the first stage of processing.

  3. Fast Exact Search in Hamming Space With Multi-Index Hashing.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Mohammad; Punjani, Ali; Fleet, David J

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in representing image data and feature descriptors using compact binary codes for fast near neighbor search. Although binary codes are motivated by their use as direct indices (addresses) into a hash table, codes longer than 32 bits are not being used as such, as it was thought to be ineffective. We introduce a rigorous way to build multiple hash tables on binary code substrings that enables exact k-nearest neighbor search in Hamming space. The approach is storage efficient and straight-forward to implement. Theoretical analysis shows that the algorithm exhibits sub-linear run-time behavior for uniformly distributed codes. Empirical results show dramatic speedups over a linear scan baseline for datasets of up to one billion codes of 64, 128, or 256 bits.

  4. Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Cable-Dunlap, Paula

    2005-11-15

    A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

  5. Global Aerosol Observations

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... atmosphere, directly influencing global climate and human health. Ground-based networks that accurately measure column aerosol amount and ... being used to improve Air Quality Models and for regional health studies. To assess the human-health impact of chronic aerosol exposure, ...

  6. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  7. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  8. Mycobiota and toxigenic Penicillium species on two Spanish dry-cured ham manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Alapont, C; López-Mendoza, M C; Gil, J V; Martínez-Culebras, P V

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the natural mycobiota occurring in dry-cured hams, and in particular on the incidence of mycotoxin-producing fungi. A total of 338 fungal colonies were isolated from three stages of production, these being the post-salting, ripening and aging stages in two manufacturing plants. The results show that fungi were more frequently isolated from the aging stage and that the predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Seventy-four of the 338 fungal strains were selected for identification at the species level by using morphological criteria and internal transcribed spacers sequencing. Of the 74 fungal strains, 59 were Penicillium strains. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified, with P. commune (24 strains) and P. chrysogenum (13 strains) being the most abundant. The potential ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied by isolating the culture followed by HPLC analysis of these mycotoxins in the culture extracts. The results indicated that 25 (33.7%) of the 74 fungal strains produced CPA. Worth noting is the high percentage of CPA-producing strains of P. commune (66.6%) of which some strains were highly toxigenic. P. polonicum strains were also highly toxigenic. With respect to OTA-producing fungi, a low percentage of fungal strains (9.5%) were able to produce OTA at moderate levels. OTA-producing fungi belonged to different Penicillium species including P. chrysogenum, P. commune, P. polonicum and P. verrucosum. These results indicate that there is a possible risk factor posed by CPA and OTA contamination of dry-cured hams.

  9. Toward a New Era of Research in Aerosol/Cloud/Climate Interactions at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C,; Dignon, J.; Grant, K.; Connell, P.; Bergman, D.; Rotman, D.; Wright, D.; McGraw, R.; Schwartz, S.

    2000-09-27

    One of the largest uncertainties in simulations of climate change over the industrial period is the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget. Much of this uncertainty arises from the limited capability for either precisely linking precursor gases to the formation and size distribution of the aerosols or quantitatively describing the existing levels of global aerosol loading. This project builds on our aerosol and chemistry expertise to address each of these uncertainties in a more quantitative fashion than is currently possible. With the current LDRD support, we are in the process to implement an aerosol microphysics module into our global chemistry model to more fundamentally and completely describe the processes that determine the distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Using this new modeling capability, in conjunction with the most current version of NCAR climate model, we will examine the influence of these processes on aerosol direct and indirect climate forcing.

  10. Analysis of DIAL/HSRL aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles during the SEAC4RS campaign with an aerosol assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, C. J.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Randles, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We retrieve aerosol concentrations and optical information from vertical profiles of airborne 532 nm extinction and 532 and 1064 nm backscatter measurements made during the SEAC4RS summer 2013 campaign. The observations are from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) on board the NASA DC-8. Instead of retrieving information about aerosol microphysical properties such as indexes of refraction, we seek information more directly applicable to an aerosol transport model - in our case the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module used in the GEOS-5 Earth modeling system. A joint atmosphere/aerosol mini-reanalysis was performed for the SEAC4RS period using GEOS-5. The meteorological reanalysis followed the MERRA-2 atmospheric reanalysis protocol, and aerosol information from MODIS, MISR, and AERONET provided a constraint on the simulated aerosol optical depth (i.e., total column loading of aerosols). We focus on the simulated concentrations of 10 relevant aerosol species simulated by the GOCART module: dust, sulfate, and organic and black carbon. Our first retrieval algorithm starts with the SEAC4RS mini-reanalysis and adjusts the concentration of each GOCART aerosol species so that differences between the observed and simulated backscatter and extinction measurements are minimized. In this case, too often we are unable to simulate the observations by simple adjustment of the aerosol concentrations. A second retrieval approach adjusts both the aerosol concentrations and the optical parameters (i.e., assigned mass extinction efficiency) associated with each GOCART species. We present results from DC-8 flights over smoke from forest fires over the western US using both retrieval approaches. Finally, we compare our retrieved quantities with in-situ observations of aerosol absorption, scattering, and mass concentrations at flight altitude.

  11. Aerosol climate time series from ESA Aerosol_cci (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer-Popp, T.

    2013-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) the Aerosol_cci project (mid 2010 - mid 2013, phase 2 proposed 2014-2016) has conducted intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors AATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. Global datasets for 2008 were produced and validated versus independent ground-based data and other satellite data sets (MODIS, MISR). An additional 17-year dataset is currently generated using ATSR-2/AATSR data. During the three years of the project, intensive collaborative efforts were made to improve the retrieval algorithms focusing on the most critical modules. The team agreed on the use of a common definition for the aerosol optical properties. Cloud masking was evaluated, but a rigorous analysis with a pre-scribed cloud mask did not lead to improvement for all algorithms. Better results were obtained using a post-processing step in which sudden transitions, indicative of possible occurrence of cloud contamination, were removed. Surface parameterization, which is most critical for the nadir only algorithms (MERIS and synergetic AATSR / SCIAMACHY) was studied to a limited extent. The retrieval results for AOD, Ångström exponent (AE) and uncertainties were evaluated by comparison with data from AERONET (and a limited amount of MAN) sun photometer and with satellite data available from MODIS and MISR. Both level2 and level3 (gridded daily) datasets were validated. Several validation metrics were used (standard statistical quantities such as bias, rmse, Pearson correlation, linear regression, as well as scoring approaches to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal correlations against AERONET), and in some cases

  12. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kimberly A.; Hatch, Courtney D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-07-01

    Aerosols represent an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Because aerosols are composed of solid and liquid particles of varying chemical complexity, size, and phase, large challenges exist in understanding how they impact climate, health, and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Only through the integration of field, laboratory, and modeling analysis can we begin to unravel the roles atmospheric aerosols play in these global processes. In this article, we provide a brief review of the current state of the science in the analysis of atmospheric aerosols and some important challenges that need to be overcome before they can become fully integrated. It is clear that only when these areas are effectively bridged can we fully understand the impact that atmospheric aerosols have on our environment and the Earth's system at the level of scientific certainty necessary to design and implement sound environmental policies.

  13. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  14. Quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Timmreck, C.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Graf, H. F.

    2015-05-01

    This study describes how aerosol in an aerosol-coupled climate model of the middle atmosphere is influenced by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) during times when the stratosphere is largely unperturbed by volcanic material. In accordance with satellite observations, the vertical extent of the stratospheric aerosol layer in the tropics is modulated by the QBO by up to 6 km, or ~ 35% of its mean vertical extent between 100-7 hPa (about 16-33 km). Its largest vertical extent lags behind the occurrence of strongest QBO westerlies. The largest reduction lags behind maximum QBO easterlies. Strongest QBO signals in the aerosol surface area (30 %) and number densities (up to 100% e.g. in the Aitken mode) are found in regions where aerosol evaporates, that is above the 10 hPa pressure level (~ 31 km). Positive modulations are found in the QBO easterly shear, negative modulations in the westerly shear. Below 10 hPa, in regions where the aerosol mixing ratio is largest (50-20 hPa, or ~ 20-26 km), in most of the analysed parameters only moderate statistically significant QBO signatures (< 10%) have been found. QBO signatures in the model prognostic aerosol mixing ratio are significant at the 95% confidence level throughout the tropical stratosphere where modelled mixing ratios exceed 0.1 ppbm. In some regions of the tropical lower stratosphere the QBO signatures in other analysed parameters are partly not statistically significant. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of the QBO signature in the prognostic mixing ratios are up to twice as large as seasonal variations in the region where aerosols evaporate and between 70-30 hPa. Between the tropical tropopause and 70 hPa the QBO signature is relatively weak and seasonal variations dominate the variability of the simulated Junge layer. QBO effects on the upper lid of the tropical aerosol layer turn the quasi-static balance between processes maintaining the layer's vertical extent into a cyclic balance when considering this dominant mode

  15. Global atmospheric sulfur budget under volcanically quiescent conditions: Aerosol-chemistry-climate model predictions and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jian-Xiong; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Rozanov, Eugene; Stenke, Andrea; Anet, Julien; Bingemer, Heinz; Peter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The global atmospheric sulfur budget and its emission dependence have been investigated using the coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate model SOCOL-AER. The aerosol module comprises gaseous and aqueous sulfur chemistry and comprehensive microphysics. The particle distribution is resolved by 40 size bins spanning radii from 0.39 nm to 3.2 μm, including size-dependent particle composition. Aerosol radiative properties required by the climate model are calculated online from the aerosol module. The model successfully reproduces main features of stratospheric aerosols under nonvolcanic conditions, including aerosol extinctions compared to Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) and Halogen Occultation Experiment, and size distributions compared to in situ measurements. The calculated stratospheric aerosol burden is 109 Gg of sulfur, matching the SAGE II-based estimate (112 Gg). In terms of fluxes through the tropopause, the stratospheric aerosol layer is due to about 43% primary tropospheric aerosol, 28% SO2, 23% carbonyl sulfide (OCS), 4% H2S, and 2% dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Turning off emissions of the short-lived species SO2, H2S, and DMS shows that OCS alone still establishes about 56% of the original stratospheric aerosol burden. Further sensitivity simulations reveal that anticipated increases in anthropogenic SO2 emissions in China and India have a larger influence on stratospheric aerosols than the same increase in Western Europe or the U.S., due to deep convection in the western Pacific region. However, even a doubling of Chinese and Indian emissions is predicted to increase the stratospheric background aerosol burden only by 9%. In contrast, small to moderate volcanic eruptions, such as that of Nabro in 2011, may easily double the stratospheric aerosol loading.

  16. The Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site Measured versus Modeled

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.; Turner, D.D.; Clayton, M.; Guibert, S.; Schulz, M.; Chin, M.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Raman lidar are used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter- Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) project. This project seeks to diagnose aerosol modules of global models and subsequently identify and eliminate weak components in aerosol modules used for global modeling; AEROCOM activities also include assembling data sets to be used in the evaluations. The AEROCOM average aerosol extinction profiles typically show good agreement with the Raman lidar profiles for altitudes above about 2 km; below 2 km the average model profiles are significantly (30-50%) lower than the Raman lidar profiles. The vertical variability in the average aerosol extinction profiles simulated by these models is less than the variability in the corresponding Raman lidar pro files. The measurements also show a much larger diurnal variability than the Interaction with Chemistry and Aerosols (INCA) model, particularly near the surface where there is a high correlation between aerosol extinction and relative humidity.

  17. Biological aerosol warner and analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, Harry; Kürbitz, Gunther; Miethe, Peter; Spieweck, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The development of an integrated sensor device BiSAM (Biological Sampling and Analysing Module) is presented which is designed for rapid detection of aerosol or dust particles potentially loaded with biological warfare agents. All functional steps from aerosol collection via immuno analysis to display of results are fully automated. The core component of the sensor device is an ultra sensitive rapid analyser PBA (Portable Benchtop Analyser) based on a 3 dimensional immuno filtration column of large internal area, Poly HRP marker technology and kinetic optical detection. High sensitivity despite of the short measuring time, high chemical stability of the micro column and robustness against interferents make the PBA an ideal tool for fielded sensor devices. It is especially favourable to combine the PBA with a bio collector because virtually no sample preparation is necessary. Overall, the BiSAM device is capable to detect and identify living micro organisms (bacteria, spores, viruses) as well as toxins in a measuring cycle of typically half an hour duration. In each batch up to 12 different tests can be run in parallel together with positive and negative controls to keep the false alarm rate low.

  18. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  19. Evolution of stratospheric sulfate aerosol from the 1991 Pinatubo eruption: Roles of aerosol microphysical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, T.; Sudo, K.; Nagai, T.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the role of aerosol microphysics in stratospheric sulfate aerosol changes after the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption using an atmospheric general circulation model that is coupled interactively with a chemistry module and a modal aerosol microphysical module with three modes. Our model can reproduce the global mean stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD) observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II during June 1991 to January 1993. The model underestimates the observed SAOD before the eruption and after January 1993. The model also underestimates the integrated backscatter coefficient observed by ground-based lidar at Tsukuba, Naha, and Lauder. The modeled effective radius becomes larger (about 0.5 μm) and agrees with the balloon-borne measurements at Laramie, Wyoming (41°N, 105°W). We further investigate effects of the inclusion of evaporation along with the condensation processes and the inclusion of van der Waals and viscous forces in the coagulation processes. The inclusion of evaporation along with the condensation processes reduces the global mean effective radius by up to 0.04 μm and increases the global burden of stratospheric sulfate aerosols (about 15% in late 1993). The inclusion of van der Waals and viscous forces in the coagulation processes increases the global mean effective radius by up to 0.06-0.07 μm and decreases the global burden (15-30% in late 1993). The effects of van der Waals and viscous forces differ between two schemes. However, we do not conclude which simulation is superior because all simulations fall within error bars.

  20. Effect of mayonnaise pH and storage temperature on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ham salad and potato salad.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheng-An

    2005-08-01

    This study examined and modeled the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ham salad and potato salad as affected by the pH of mayonnaise and storage temperature. An eight-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on the surface of diced cooked ham or potato. The inoculated ham or potato was then mixed with regular mayonnaise (pH 3.8) or mayonnaise that was adjusted with NaOH to pH 4.2 or 4.6. The cell counts of L. monocytogenes in the salads during storage at 4, 8, or 12 degrees C were enumerated and used to model the behavior of L. monocytogenes in ham salad or potato salad. At each of the storage temperatures, L. monocytogenes was able to grow in ham salad, whereas L. monocytogenes was inactivated in potato salad. The growth rate (log CFU per hour) in ham salad or the inactivation rate (log CFU per hour) in potato salad increased as the storage temperature increased. The duration before growth in ham salad or inactivation in potato salad increased as storage temperature decreased. The mayonnaise pH showed no consistent effect on the growth rate or inactivation rate and duration before growth or inactivation occurred. Mathematical equations that described the growth rate or inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in both salads as a function of mayonnaise pH and storage temperature were generated and shown to be satisfactory in describing the growth rate or inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in the ham salad or potato salad.

  1. The role of aerosol in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in winter and air-quality feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Gaetani, M.; Messori, G.; Kloster, S.; Dentener, F. J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical model scenarios of future climate depict a global increase in temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, driven by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Aerosol concentrations also play an important role in altering Earth's radiation budget and consequently surface temperature. Here, we use the general circulation aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model, to investigate the impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies in Europe on winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. We analyze the extreme case of a maximum feasible end-of-pipe reduction of aerosols in the near future (2030), in combination with increasing GHG concentrations. Our results show a more positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mean state in the near future, together with a significant eastward shift of the southern centre of action of the sea level pressure (SLP). Moreover, we show a significantly increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. By separating the aerosol and GHG impacts, our study suggests that the aerosol abatement in the near future may be the primary driver of such circulation changes. All these concomitant modifications of the atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector lead to more stagnant weather conditions that favor air pollutant accumulation in the Mediterranean, especially in the western sector. These changes in atmospheric circulation should be included in future air pollution mitigation assessments. Our results suggest that an evaluation of NAO changes in individual climate model simulations will allow an objective assessment of the role of changes in wintertime circulation on future air quality.

  2. The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams.

  3. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, P<0.01) feed intakes than controls. Pasta increased (quadratic, P<0.01) carcass weight and dressing percentage reaching the highest values at 30% inclusion level, and reduced (linear, P<0.01) the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum thickness. Pasta decreased (linear, P<0.01) linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in subcutaneous (fresh and seasoned hams) and intramuscular (seasoned hams) fat, and enhanced saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat (fresh hams: quadratic, P<0.01; seasoned hams: linear, P=0.03). Proteolysis index, colour, weight losses, and sensory properties (excepted extraneous taste) of the hams were unaffected by the pasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs. PMID:26722701

  4. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Subramanian, V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging. PMID:26233420

  5. Comparison of the hydrological excitation functions HAM of polar motion for the period 1980.0-2007.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, J.; Pasnicka, M.; Kolaczek, B.

    2011-10-01

    In this study we compared contributions of polar motion excitation determined from hydrological models and harmonic coefficients of the Earth gravity field obtained from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Hydrological excitation function (hydrological angular momentum - HAM) has been estimated from models of global hydrology, based on the observed distribution of surface water, snow, ice and soil moisture. All of them were compared with observed Geodetic Angular Momentum (GAM), excitations of polar motion. The spectra of these excitation functions of polar motion and residual geodetic excitation function G-A-O obtained from GAM by elimination of atmospheric and oceanic excitation functions were computed too. Phasor diagrams of the seasonal components of the polar motion excitation functions of all HAM excitation functions as well as of two GRACE solutions: CSR, CNES were determined and discussed.

  6. The application of natural antioxidants via brine injection protects Iberian cooked hams against lipid and protein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Mónica; Morcuende, David; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    In response to the increasing consumers' mistrust in synthetic additives, the meat industry is focused on searching sources of natural antioxidants. Two different sources of natural antioxidants i) a mixture of garlic, cinnamon, cloves and rosemary essential oils and ii) a Rosa canina L. extract, were compared with a commercial antioxidant additive (Artinox®) for their ability to control protein and lipid oxidation in cooked hams after a settling period of 30 days and at the end of a chilled storage (150 days). The mixture of essential oils was the most effective against lipid oxidation while R. canina L. extracts were the most effective in controlling protein carbonylation at day 150. Accordingly, the use of these antioxidants via brine injection is a successful strategy to enhance the oxidative stability of cooked hams without modifying their physicochemical properties. PMID:26923219

  7. The application of natural antioxidants via brine injection protects Iberian cooked hams against lipid and protein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Mónica; Morcuende, David; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    In response to the increasing consumers' mistrust in synthetic additives, the meat industry is focused on searching sources of natural antioxidants. Two different sources of natural antioxidants i) a mixture of garlic, cinnamon, cloves and rosemary essential oils and ii) a Rosa canina L. extract, were compared with a commercial antioxidant additive (Artinox®) for their ability to control protein and lipid oxidation in cooked hams after a settling period of 30 days and at the end of a chilled storage (150 days). The mixture of essential oils was the most effective against lipid oxidation while R. canina L. extracts were the most effective in controlling protein carbonylation at day 150. Accordingly, the use of these antioxidants via brine injection is a successful strategy to enhance the oxidative stability of cooked hams without modifying their physicochemical properties.

  8. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. PMID:26590278

  9. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano

    2015-11-20

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments.

  10. T cell receptor signaling pathway is overexpressed in CD4(+) T cells from HAM/TSP individuals.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). CD4(+) T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3ɛ), lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1), and zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP70) on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT). We observed that CD3ɛ, LCK, ZAP70, and VAV1 gene expression were increased in CD4(+) T cells from HAM/TSP group compared to HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients (HAC). Moreover, ZAP70 and VAV1 were also upregulated in HAM/TSP compared to CT group. We detected a positive correlation among all these genes. We also observed that CD3ɛ, LCK, and VAV1 genes had a positive correlation with the proviral load (PVL) and Tax expression. These results suggest that PVL and Tax protein could drive CD3ɛ, LCK, and VAV1 gene expression in CD4(+) T cells, and these genes function on a synchronized way on the CD4(+) T cell activation. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying T cell receptor signaling pathway is of considerable interest and might lead to new insights into the mechanism of HAM/TSP.

  11. Effect of the HamSprint Drills training programme on lower limb neuromuscular control in Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Matthew L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G; Misson, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the HamSprint Drills training programme and conventional football practice warm-up on lower limb neuromuscular control. The purpose-built active movement extent discrimination apparatus was used to assess lower limb neuromuscular control in 29 footballers from one professional Australian Football League club. Without vision of the contact point, participants performed 40 backward swing movement trials with each leg and made a judgment of the magnitude of each movement. Scores representing the ability to discriminate between different movement extents were calculated as the area under the player's receiver operating characteristic curve, constructed using non-parametric signal detection theory methods. Participants were randomized to either an intervention or control group that performed different procedures in the warm-up prior to football practice sessions over a 6-week period, and then were re-tested. The intervention group performed the HamSprint programme-drills specific to the improvement of running technique, co-ordination and hamstring function. The control group performed their usual warm-up of stretching, running, and increasingly intense football drills. Backward leg swing extent discrimination was significantly better in players following the 6-week HamSprint programme when compared to discrimination scores of players who performed their usual practice warm-up only. Significant improvement was observed in lower limb neuromuscular control in movements similar to the late-swing early stance phase of running. The HamSprint programme can therefore improve control in a specific aspect of sensorimotor system performance, and this may be useful particularly in athletes who have lower function levels or those deemed at risk of hamstring injury.

  12. Lidar determination of the composition of atmosphere aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the feasibility of using DIfferential SCatter (DISC) lidar to measure the composition of atmospheric aerosols are described. This technique involves multiwavelength measurements of the backscatter cross section of aerosols in the middle infrared, where a number of materials display strong restrahlen features that significantly modulate the backscatter spectrum. The theoretical work indicates that a number of materials of interest, including sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, and silicates, can be discriminated among with a CO2 lidar. An initial evaluation of this procedure was performed in which cirrus clouds and lower altitude tropospheric aerosols were developed. The observed ratio spectrum of the two types of aerosol displays structure that is in crude accord with theoretical expectations.

  13. Volcanic Aerosol Radiative Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Large sporadic volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of sulfur bearing gases into the stratosphere which then get photochemically converted to sulfuric acid aerosol droplets that exert a radiative cooling effect on the global climate system lasting for several years.

  14. Palaeoclimate: Aerosols and rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, Jud

    2015-03-01

    Instrumental records have hinted that aerosol emissions may be shifting rainfall over Central America southwards. A 450-year-long precipitation reconstruction indicates that this shift began shortly after the Industrial Revolution.

  15. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  16. Emergency protection from aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  17. Monodisperse aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  18. MISR Aerosol Typing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of global aerosol properties and aerosol impacts on climate. A central goal is to more strongly tie and constrain modeling efforts to observational data. A major element for exchanges between data and modeling groups are annual meetings. The meeting was held September 20 through October 2, 1014 and the organizers would like to post the presentations.

  19. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes from vacuum-packed dry-cured ham by E-beam radiation.

    PubMed

    Hoz, L; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C; Herrero, A M; Ordónez, J A

    2008-10-01

    The inactivation kinetics for Listeria monocytogenes Scott A (CIP 103575, serotype 4b) and Listeria innocua (NTC 11288) after E-beam radiation were studied in vacuum-packed ready-to-eat dry-cured ham to optimize the sanitation treatment of this product. A treatment of 1.12 kGy was calculated to reach the food safety objective according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture criterion. No irradiation treatment is necessary to meet the European Union microbiological criterion for this bacterium. No changes (at doses < or =4 kGy) in the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values and texture were observed. Dry-cured hams treated with 1 and 2 kGy had negligible sensory modifications (appearance, odor, and flavor). However, the application of 3 and 4 kGy resulted in an increase in the intensity of off-odors and off-flavors. Despite these effects, all irradiated vacuum-packed dry-cured hams treated at < or =4 kGy were deemed acceptable for trading.

  20. Effect of chemical composition and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Serrano dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Serrano dry-cured hams with different salt and intramuscular fat contents was investigated. In addition, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa for 6 min at 21°C on the volatile compounds of those hams was studied. One hundred volatile compounds were identified and their levels subjected to analysis of variance with ham chemical composition (aw, salt content, intramuscular fat content and salt in lean ratio) and HPP treatment as main effects. Chemical composition mainly affected the relative abundance of acids, alcohols, branched-chain aldehydes, ketones, benzene compounds, sulfur compounds and some miscellaneous compounds. Salt content and fat content influenced a greater number of volatile compounds than aw. High pressure processing had a significant effect on only 8 volatile compounds, with higher levels of methanethiol and sulfur dioxide in HPP-treated samples and higher levels of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide in control untreated samples. PMID:26398007

  1. Effect of chemical composition and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Serrano dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Serrano dry-cured hams with different salt and intramuscular fat contents was investigated. In addition, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa for 6 min at 21°C on the volatile compounds of those hams was studied. One hundred volatile compounds were identified and their levels subjected to analysis of variance with ham chemical composition (aw, salt content, intramuscular fat content and salt in lean ratio) and HPP treatment as main effects. Chemical composition mainly affected the relative abundance of acids, alcohols, branched-chain aldehydes, ketones, benzene compounds, sulfur compounds and some miscellaneous compounds. Salt content and fat content influenced a greater number of volatile compounds than aw. High pressure processing had a significant effect on only 8 volatile compounds, with higher levels of methanethiol and sulfur dioxide in HPP-treated samples and higher levels of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide in control untreated samples.

  2. Shelf-life Reduction as an Emerging Problem in Cooked Hams Underlines the Need for Improved Preservation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Cooked hams have gained an important position within the delicatessen market. Nowadays, consumers not only demand superior sensory properties but also request low levels of sodium and fat and the absence of conventional chemicals and preservatives used for the increase of the technological yield and shelf-life of the products. As a result, products that apply strict quality certificates or ''clean'' labels become increasingly important. However, such cooked hams suffer from a limited shelf-life. Besides some physicochemical effects, this is mainly due to microbial impact, despite the application of modified-atmosphere-packaging and chilling. Microbial spoilage is mostly due to the metabolic manifestation of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta, although Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts may occur too. Several preservation strategies have been developed to prolong the shelf-life of such vulnerable cooked meat products by targeting the microbial communities, with different rates of success. Whereas high-pressure treatments do not always pose a straightforward solution, a promising strategy relates to the use of bioprotective cultures containing lactic acid bacteria. The latter consist of strains that are deliberately added to the ham to outcompete undesirable microorganisms. Spoilage problems seem, however, to be specific for each product and processing line, underlining the importance of tailor-made solutions.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii in commercially available pork meat and cured ham: a contribution to risk assessment for consumers.

    PubMed

    Bayarri, Susana; Gracia, María J; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, whose transmission has usually been attributed to ingestion of undercooked or raw meat. Dry-cured ham is a high-quality meat product of increasing economic relevance, and epidemiological studies point to cured meat products as a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis. With the aim of contributing to the risk assessment process, 50 samples of fresh pork meat and commercial cured ham were collected in the city of Zaragoza (northeastern Spain), and the presence of viable forms of T. gondii was analyzed. A mouse concentration bioassay technique was used, and the presence of the parasite in mice was determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. T. gondii was detected in two samples of rib, reflecting a frequency of 8% positive fresh pork meat (4% positivity of total samples analyzed). Brains of seropositive mice were analyzed by histology and PCR, although the parasite was not isolated in the seroconverted mice. No viable forms were detected either in other types of fresh meat or in the samples of cured ham. PMID:22410238

  4. Shelf-life Reduction as an Emerging Problem in Cooked Hams Underlines the Need for Improved Preservation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Cooked hams have gained an important position within the delicatessen market. Nowadays, consumers not only demand superior sensory properties but also request low levels of sodium and fat and the absence of conventional chemicals and preservatives used for the increase of the technological yield and shelf-life of the products. As a result, products that apply strict quality certificates or ''clean'' labels become increasingly important. However, such cooked hams suffer from a limited shelf-life. Besides some physicochemical effects, this is mainly due to microbial impact, despite the application of modified-atmosphere-packaging and chilling. Microbial spoilage is mostly due to the metabolic manifestation of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta, although Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts may occur too. Several preservation strategies have been developed to prolong the shelf-life of such vulnerable cooked meat products by targeting the microbial communities, with different rates of success. Whereas high-pressure treatments do not always pose a straightforward solution, a promising strategy relates to the use of bioprotective cultures containing lactic acid bacteria. The latter consist of strains that are deliberately added to the ham to outcompete undesirable microorganisms. Spoilage problems seem, however, to be specific for each product and processing line, underlining the importance of tailor-made solutions. PMID:24915326

  5. RACORO aerosol data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  6. Influence of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Southeast Asia Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Bar-Or, Rotem; Wang, Chien

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning activities in Southeast Asia have become a major concern of general public as well as governments in the region. This is because that aerosols emitted from such fires can cause long-lasting haze events under favorite weather conditions in downwind locations such as Singapore, degrading air quality and causing human health issues. In order to improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in Southeast Asia, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a smoke aerosol module to conduct multi-year simulations covering the period from 2002 to 2014, driven by the biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.5. To attribute the aerosol influences over various target regions to specific fire locations, we have also partitioned aerosols emitted from five major fire regions of Southeast Asia in the simulations. Based on the simulation results, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal. We find that the transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols are strongly modulated by the Southeast Asian monsoon wind field and precipitation. We also identified that in the past decade, smoke aerosols are responsible for a substantial fraction of low visibility events in the major metropolitan areas of the region: 35% in Bangkok, 25% in Kuala Lumpur, 16% in Singapore, and 22% in Jakarta. The fires in the Indochina peninsula account for the largest percentage of the total fire enhancement to PM2.5 in Bangkok (98.9%), and fires in Sumatra were the major contributor in Kuala Lumpur (49%), Singapore (39%), and Jakarta (48%).

  7. The Interaction between Mt. Pinatubo Aerosols and the Stratospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquila, V.; Oman, L.; Stolarski, R. S.; Colarco, P. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    On June 15th, 1991 the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines injected about 20 Tg of sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere, which was transformed into sulfuric acid aerosol. Even though stratospheric winds climatologically tend to hinder the air mixing between the two hemispheres, observations have shown that a large part of the SO2 emitted by Mt. Pinatubo has been transported from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere. We show how the absorption of radiation by sulfate aerosol is responsible for the spreading to the southern hemisphere through a middle stratospheric channel. We simulate the Mt. Pinatubo eruption with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) version 5 general circulation model, coupled to the GOCART aerosol module and the StratChem stratospheric chemistry module. Our simulations are in good agreement with SAGE-II and AVHRR data. We perform two simulation ensembles. The first ensemble does not couple aerosols and radiation. In these simulations the aerosols are treated as passive tracers and the atmosphere is unperturbed. In the second ensemble the aerosols and radiation are coupled. The interactive aerosols produce a larger cross-equatorial transport of the Pinatubo cloud, in agreement with the observations. In this simulation, the volcanic cloud is transported from the latitude of the eruption to both hemispheres through a lower stratospheric pathway. Additionally, in the interactive simulations the absorption of long wave radiation from the volcanic sulfate induces a cloud "self-lofting" into the middle atmosphere and, at the same time, a divergent motion from the cloud's center. Such motion spreads the volcanic cloud across the equator and to the tropics, where the background circulation carries it to higher latitudes. These simulations demonstrate that radiative-dynamical interactive aerosols are necessary to correctly model the dispersion of the Pinatubo cloud.

  8. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  9. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds qualifying dry-cured hams.

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego L; Tena, Noelia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Morales, Maria T

    2008-10-01

    This work studies the relationship between 45 volatile compounds and 17 sensory attributes (13 flavour perceptions) of dry-cured hams. Volatile compounds were quantified by SPME-GC while the sensory assessment was carried out by 13 panellists. GC-sniffing was used to determine the odour impact zones of the chromatogram. The odour thresholds of the volatile compounds and their sensory characterisation were determined by dilution analysis. Six sensory attributes (acorn odour and flavour, rancid odour, rancid taste, fat rancid and fat pungent flavours) were explained by regression equations (adjusted -R(2)⩾0.70) based on ten compounds: benzaldehyde, 2-heptanone, hexanal, hexanol, limonene, 3-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanol, 2-nonanone, octanol, pentanol. Acorn flavour attribute was successfully emulated by mixing the volatile compounds selected by the equation. Its odour was evaluated by assessors that gave a sensory description that matches with the target. All the procedures performed for the elucidation of volatile-attribute relations showed a basic agreement in their results. PMID:22063336

  10. Aerosol Properties and Processes: A Path from Field and Laboratory Measurements to Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2007-07-01

    Aerosols exert a substantial influence on climate and climate change through a variety of complex mechanisms. Consequently there is a need to represent aerosol effects in global climate models, and models have begun to include representations of these effects. However, the treatment of aerosols in current global climate models is presently highly simplified, omitting many important processes and feedbacks. Consequently there is need for substantial improvement. Here we describe the U. S. Department of Energy strategy for improving the treatment of aerosol properties and processes in global climate models. The strategy begins with a foundation of field and laboratory measurements that provide the basis for modules of selected aerosol properties and processes. These modules are then integrated in regional aerosol models, which are evaluated by comparing with field measurements. Issues of scale are then addressed so that the modules can be applied to global aerosol models, which are evaluated by comparing with global satellite measurements. Finally, the validated set of modules are applied to global climate models for multi-century simulations. This strategy can be applied to successive generations of global climate models.

  11. Observational evidence for aerosol invigoration in shallow cumulus downstream of Mount Kilauea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, G. G.; Abernathy, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of how marine boundary layer (MBL) shallow cumulus clouds respond to changes in aerosol is central to understanding how MBL clouds modulate the climate system. Mount Kilauea on the island of Hawaii began erupting in 2008 injecting substantial SO2 into the marine boundary layer creating a unique natural laboratory. Examining data from approximately 600 passes of the A-Train downstream of Mount Kilauea over a 3 year period and separating data into aerosol optical depth quartiles, we find an unambiguous increase in marine boundary cloud top height and an increase in surface wind speed as aerosol increases while the radar reflectivity does not change substantially. We conclude that increased aerosols may have caused invigoration of the MBL clouds. Additionally, we find that increases in sub 1 km cloud fraction combined with increasing aerosol explain the increased visible reflectance suggesting that evidence for the so-called first aerosol indirect effect should be reexamined.

  12. Classification of pre-sliced pork and Turkey ham qualities based on image colour and textural features and their relationships with consumer responses.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Mendoza, Fernando; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Images of three qualities of pre-sliced pork and Turkey hams were evaluated for colour and textural features to characterize and classify them, and to model the ham appearance grading and preference responses of a group of consumers. A total of 26 colour features and 40 textural features were extracted for analysis. Using Mahalanobis distance and feature inter-correlation analyses, two best colour [mean of S (saturation in HSV colour space), std. deviation of b*, which indicates blue to yellow in L*a*b* colour space] and three textural features [entropy of b*, contrast of H (hue of HSV colour space), entropy of R (red of RGB colour space)] for pork, and three colour (mean of R, mean of H, std. deviation of a*, which indicates green to red in L*a*b* colour space) and two textural features [contrast of B, contrast of L* (luminance or lightness in L*a*b* colour space)] for Turkey hams were selected as features with the highest discriminant power. High classification performances were reached for both types of hams (>99.5% for pork and >90.5% for Turkey) using the best selected features or combinations of them. In spite of the poor/fair agreement among ham consumers as determined by Kappa analysis (Kappa-value<0.4) for sensory grading (surface colour, colour uniformity, bitonality, texture appearance and acceptability), a dichotomous logistic regression model using the best image features was able to explain the variability of consumers' responses for all sensorial attributes with accuracies higher than 74.1% for pork hams and 83.3% for Turkey hams.

  13. The effect of aerosols and sea surface temperature on China's climate over the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Focusing on China in the second half of the twentieth century, we examine the relative role of aerosols and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the evolution of surface solar radiation (SSR), surface air temperature (SAT), and precipitation in ensembles of transient (1870 - 2005) sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Observations and simulations with transient SSTs and aerosol emissions agree reasonably well in eastern China in terms of SSR dimming (-6 +/- 2 W/m2/decade, 1960 - 2000), statistically non-significant JJA SAT trend (1950 - 2000), and drying in JJA from 1950 to 1990 (-2.5% to -3.5% per decade, essentially via reduction of convective precipitation). Other major observed features are not reproduce by the model, e.g. precipitation increase in the 1990s in the Yangtze valley, the strong warming in winter in northern parts of China and Mongolia, or SSR dimming in western China. For the model results, SO2 emissions are more relevant than emissions of black and organic carbon. Aerosol effects are less pronounced at higher model resolution. Transient SSTs are found to be crucial for decadal scale SAT variability over land, especially the strong warming in the 1990s, and, via SST forced reduction of cloud cover, for the ceasing of SSR dimming around the year 2000. Unforced cloud variability leads to relevant scatter (up to +/- 2 W/m2/decade) of modeled SSR trends at individual observation sites.

  14. Assessing the Performance of Computationally Simple and Complex Representations of Aerosol Processes using a Testbed Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Ma, P.; Easter, R. C.; Liu, X.; Zaveri, R. A.; Rasch, P.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of aerosol radiative forcing in climate models still contain large uncertainties, resulting from a poor understanding of certain aerosol processes, the level of complexity of aerosol processes represented in models, and the ability of models to account for sub-grid scale variability of aerosols and processes affecting them. In addition, comparing the performance and computational efficiency of new aerosol process modules used in various studies is problematic because different studies often employ different grid configurations, meteorology, trace gas chemistry, and emissions that affect the temporal and spatial evolution of aerosols. To address this issue, we have developed an Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules. The AMT consists of the modular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a series of testbed cases for which extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties are available, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of meteorological, chemical, aerosol process modules. WRF contains various parameterizations of meteorological, chemical, and aerosol processes and includes interactive aerosol-cloud-radiation treatments similar to those employed by climate models. In addition, the physics suite from a global climate model, Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), has also been ported to WRF so that these parameterizations can be tested at various spatial scales and compared directly with field campaign data and other parameterizations commonly used by the mesoscale modeling community. In this study, we evaluate simple and complex treatments of the aerosol size distribution and secondary organic aerosols using the AMT and measurements collected during three field campaigns: the Megacities Initiative Local and Global Observations (MILAGRO) campaign conducted in the vicinity of Mexico City during March 2006, the

  15. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  16. MISR UAE2 Aerosol Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-21

    ... the MISR aerosol microphysical properties are "Beta." Uncertainty envelopes for the aerosol optical depths are given in  Kahn et ... particle microphysical property validation is in progress, uncertainty envelopes on particle size distribution, shape, and ...

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry: Nature's plasticized aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of atmospheric aerosol particles affects their reactivity and growth rates. Measurements of aerosol properties over the Amazon rainforest indicate that organic particles above tropical rainforests are simple liquid drops.

  18. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

    2009-05-05

    . Analysis of the aerosol and water vapor data collected by the Raman lidar during the 2003 Aerosol IOP indicated that the sensitivity of the lidar was significantly lower than when the lidar was initially deployed. A detailed analysis after the IOP of the long-term dataset demonstrated that the lidar began degrading in early 2002, and that it lost approximately a factor of 4 in sensitivity between 2002 and 2004. We participated in the development of the remediation plan for the system to restore its initial performance. We conducted this refurbishment and upgrade from May- September 2004. This remediation lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of 10 and 30 for the Raman lidar's water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol backscatter coefficient data, respectively as compared to the signal strengths when the system was first deployed. The DOE ARM Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE), which was conducted during September 2005, evaluated the impact of these modifications and upgrades on the SGP Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and optical thickness. The CARL modifications significantly improved the accuracy and temporal resolution of the aerosol measurements. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Raman lidar were also used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter-Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) (http://nansen.ipsl.jussieu.fr/AEROCOM/aerocomhome.html) project. There was a wide range in how the models represent the aerosol extinction profiles over the ARM SGP site, even though the average annual AOT represented by the various models and measured by CARL and the Sun photometer were in general agreement, at least within the standard deviations of the averages. There were considerable differences in the average vertical distributions among the models, even among models that had similar average aerosol optical thickness. Deviations between mean

  19. Aerosol characterization with lidar methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Aerosol component analysis methods for characterizing aerosols were developed for various types of lidars including polarization-sensitive Mie scattering lidars, multi-wavelength Raman scattering lidars, and multi-wavelength highspectral- resolution lidars. From the multi-parameter lidar data, the extinction coefficients for four aerosol components can be derived. The microphysical parameters such as single scattering albedo and effective radius can be also estimated from the derived aerosol component distributions.

  20. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    PubMed

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (P<0.01) and in groups with α-tocopherol addition (P<0.01). The TBARS values in lean were reduced by the inclusion of HOSO (P<0.05) and α-tocopherol supplementation (P<0.10). Compared to the no oil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet

  1. Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Ignatov, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) developed at NESDIS generates three products from AVHRR, operationally: clear sky radiances in all bands, and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from clear-sky brightness temperatures (BT) in Ch3B (centered at 3.7 μm), Ch4 (11 μm) and Ch5 (12 μm), and aerosol optical depths (AOD) derived from clear-sky reflectances in Ch1 (0.63), Ch2 (0.83) and Ch3A (1.61 μm). An integral part of ACSPO is the fast Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), which calculates first-guess clear-sky BTs using global NCEP forecast atmospheric and Reynolds SST fields. Simulated BTs are employed in ACSPO for improved cloud screening, physical (RTM-based) SST inversions, and to monitor and validate satellite BTs. The model minus observation biases are monitored online in near-real time using the Monitoring IR Clear-sky radiances over Oceans for SST (MICROS; http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/sst/micros/). A persistent positive M-O bias is observed in MICROS, partly attributed to missing aerosol in CRTM input, causing "M" to be warmer than "O". It is thus necessary to include aerosols in CRTM and quantify their effects on AVHRR BTs and SSTs. However, sensitivity of thermal bands to aerosol is only minimal, and use of solar reflectance bands is preferable to evaluate the accuracy of CRTM modeling, with global aerosol fields as input (from e.g. Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport, GOCART, or Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS). Once available, the corresponding M-O biases in solar reflectance bands will be added to MICROS. Also, adding CRTM simulated reflectances in ACSPO would greatly improve cloud detection, help validate CRTM in the solar reflectance bands, and assist aerosol retrievals. Running CRTM with global aerosol as input is very challenging, computationally. While CRTM is being optimized to handle such global scattering computations, a near-real time web-based Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM

  2. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkin formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.

  3. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  4. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions.

  5. Easy Volcanic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Radiative forcing by stratospheric sulfate aerosol of volcanic origin is one of the strongest drivers of natural climate variability. Transient model simulations attempting to match observed climate variability, such as the CMIP historical simulations, rely on volcanic forcing reconstructions based on observations of a small sample of recent eruptions and coarse proxy data for eruptions before the satellite era. Volcanic forcing data sets used in CMIP5 were provided either in terms of optical properties, or in terms of sulfate aerosol mass, leading to significant inter-model spread in the actual volcanic radiative forcing produced by models and in their resulting climate responses. It remains therefore unclear to what degree inter-model spread in response to volcanic forcing represents model differences or variations in the forcing. In order to isolate model differences, Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) provides an analytic representation of volcanic stratospheric aerosol forcing, based on available observations and aerosol model results, prescribing the aerosol's radiative properties and primary modes of spatial and temporal variability. In contrast to regriddings of observational data, EVA allows for the production of physically consistent forcing for historic and hypothetical eruptions of varying magnitude, source latitude, and season. Within CMIP6, EVA will be used to reconstruct volcanic forcing over the past 2000 years for use in the Paleo-Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), and will provide forcing sets for VolMIP experiments aiming to quantify model uncertainty in the response to volcanic forcing. Here, the functional form of EVA will be introduced, along with illustrative examples including the EVA-based reconstruction of volcanic forcing over the historical period, and that of the 1815 Tambora eruption.

  6. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging during the resting stage on sensory traits of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2008-12-01

    The effects of the inoculation of a mixed starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on odour, appearance, texture and flavour of dry-cured ham were studied. After salting, half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. Nine hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum-packaged during resting. External odour during the process, as well as appearance of the cut surface, texture and flavour on semimembranosus and biceps femoris of the final product were assessed. Vacuum packaging during resting caused an increase in white film and feedstuff flavour, as well as a decrease in aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking. The use of the starter culture brought about an increase in feedstuff flavour, a decrease in sweetness, aged flavour, nutty flavour and overall liking and, only in vacuum-packaged hams, the development of a floral flavour, but had no significant effect on texture descriptors. The starter culture studied is considered inappropriate for the production of traditional Spanish dry-cured ham regardless of the type of resting used. PMID:22063839

  7. Effect of IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor-II) genotype on the quality of dry-cured hams and shoulders.

    PubMed

    Reina, Raquel; López-Buesa, Pascual; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the paternal allele (homozygous AA and heterozygous AG) of the IGF-II gene on the fat content, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams and shoulders. The effects were more evident in the subcutaneous fat thickness than in the intramuscular fat (IMF) content, and in the dry-cured hams rather than the dry-cured shoulders. Subcutaneous fat thickness was significantly higher in AG dry-cured hams and shoulders; however, IMF content was only significantly higher in AG dry-cured hams. These effects produce changes in fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics when comparing both batches of each product, but the behavior differed with the type of product. Sensory characteristics were similar in both batches of dry-cured hams in spite of the differences in IMF content. Nevertheless, AG dry-cured shoulders showed higher scores in most of the attributes evaluated, despite the IMF content being similar between batches.

  8. Aerosols-Cloud-Microphysics Interactions in Tropical Cyclone Earl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Cruz, Yaitza

    Aerosols-cloud-microphysical processes are largely unknown in their influence on tropical cyclone evolution and intensification; aerosols possess the largest uncertainty. For example: What is the link between aerosols and cloud microphysics quantities? How efficient are the aerosols (i.e. dust from the Saharan Air Layer -SAL) as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN)? Does aerosols affect the vertical velocity, precipitation rates, cloud structure and lifetime? What are the dominant factors and in which sectors of the tropical cyclone? To address some of the questions in-situ microphysics measurements from the NASA DC-8 aircraft were obtained during the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) 2010 field campaign. A total of four named storms (Earl, Gaston, Karl and Mathew) were sampled. Earl presented the excellent opportunity to study aerosols-cloud-microphysics interactions because Saharan dust was present and it underwent rapid intensification. This thesis seeks to explore hurricane Earl to develop a better understanding of the relationship between the SAL aerosols and cloud microphysics evolution. To assist in the interpretation of the microphysics observations, high resolution numerical simulations of hurricane Earl were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model with the new Aerosol-Aware bulk microphysics scheme. This new version of Thompson scheme includes explicit activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from a major CCN source (i.e. sulfates and sea salt) and explicit ice nucleation (IN) from mineral dust. Three simulations are performed: (1) the Control case with the old Thompson scheme and initial conditions from GFS model, (2) the Aerosol-Aware first baseline case with GOCART aerosol module as an input conditions, and (3) the Aerosol-Aware increase case in which the GOCART aerosols concentrations were increased significantly. Overall, results of model simulations along with aircraft observations

  9. Highly stable aerosol generator

    SciTech Connect

    DeFord, Henry S.; Clark, Mark L.

    1981-01-01

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

  10. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  11. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  12. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  13. Simulation of the recent evolution of stratospheric aerosols by the MOSTRA Simulation of the recent evolution of stratospheric aerosols by the MOSTRA microphysical/transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Christine; Errera, Quentin; Vanhellemont, Filip; Fussen, Didier; Mateshvili, Nina; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Loodts, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    We present recent advances in the development of a microphysical/transport model for stratospheric aerosols, called MOdel for STRatospheric Aerosols (MOSTRA). MOSTRA is a 3D model describing the evolution in time and space of the stratospheric aerosol distribution described using a set of discrete size bins. The microphysical module used in this model makes use of the PSCBOX model developed by Larsen (2000). The transport module is based on the flux-form semi-Lagragian scheme by Lin and Rood (1996). The model structure will be presented with simulations of the evolution of the volcanic aerosol plume after recent volcanic eruptions. References: N. Larsen, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, Microphysical and optical models, Scientific Report 00-06, Danish Meteorological Institute, 2000 Lin, S.-J. Rood, R.B., Multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian Transport Schemes, Monthly Weather Review, 124, 2046-2070, 1996.

  14. Simulations of aerosols and their effects on photolysis and ozone formation in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Pandis, S.; Molina, L. T.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, formed from natural and anthropogenic sources, are believed to be associated with adverse human effects at high levels in polluted urban areas. They also play a key role in climate through direct and indirect effects. Therefore, accurate simulations of aerosol composition and distribution in the atmospheric models are important in evaluating their impact on environment and climate. In the present study, a flexible gas phase chemical module with SAPRC mechanism and the CMAQ/models3 aerosol module developed by EPA have been implemented into the WRF-CHEM model. Additionally, to further improve the aerosol, especially the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) simulations, an advanced SOA module [Tsimpidi et al., 2009] has been incorporated into the WRF-CHEM model. The new SOA module is based on the volatility basis-set approach in which both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive [Lane et al., 2008]. Gas phase species and aerosol simulation results are compared with the available measurements obtained during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. When the advanced SOA mechanism is employed, the SOA simulations are significantly improved. Furthermore, the aerosol impacts on the photochemistry in Mexico City have been evaluated using the FTUV [Tie et al., 2005]. Aerosol optical properties are calculated using the Mie theory and compared with available observations in Mexico City [Paredes-Miranda et al., 2008]. Aerosols, principally black carbon, reduce the photolysis frequencies of J[O3(1D)] and J[NO2] in the planetary boundary layer and hence decrease the ground-level ozone concentration. Our study demonstrates that the impact of aerosols on photochemistry is significant in polluted urban atmosphere. References: Lane, T. E., N. M. Donahue, and S. N. Pandis (2008), Simulating secondary organic aerosol formation using the volatility basis-set approach in a chemical transport model, PMCAMx, Atmos. Environ

  15. Assessment of aerosol optical property and radiative effect for the layer decoupling cases over the northern South China Sea during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (ω) ≈ 0.92 at 440 nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the ω (≈0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6 W m-2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  16. Impact on aerosol emissions in China and India on local and global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Thomas; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Henriksson, Svante V.; Bergman, Tommi; Laakso, Anton; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Laaksonen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    Existing surface temperature records show warming in the beginning of last century, followed by cooling starting from 1940 and again strong heating from 1975 until recent years. This behaviour has been attributed to increase in the greenhouse gas and aerosol emission as well as to natural variability of climate. Making a difference between these is crucial as climate predictions and international policy related to emission reductions are based on the models that are mainly evaluated against the historical temperature records. While in Europe and North America the aerosol emissions have decreased since the late 1970s, the emissions in China and India have started to increase dramatically at about the same time and have only recently started to stagnate due to new regulations in China. Here we use emission scenarios from the years 1996 through 2010 to assess the effect that these emissions have on local aerosol properties and climate as well as on the global climate. We use the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM [Roeckner2003, Roeckner2004] to simulate the local aerosol properties in China and India in the years 1996 through 2010, and their impact on local as well as global climate. For anthropogenic aerosol greenhouse gas emissions we use the ACCMIP-MACCity Aerocom emissions (Aerocom 2) [Lamarque2010] in combination with the emissions for China and India after Lu et. al [Lu2011] for the mentioned period of time. To assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosol emissions on earth's climate is assessed using the ECHAM-HAM model coupled to a mixed layer ocean on a T42L19 grid. The model is run with fixed yearly emissions for several emission scenarios (e.g. for the years 1996 and 2010), with data derived from 100-year averages. Additionally we run a number of transient simulations (i.e. with varying yearly emissions) from 1996 to 2010 in the attempt to extract a climate trend for the given period. References [Roeckner2003] Roeckner, E., Bäuml, R., Bonaventura, L., Brokopf

  17. Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-04-24

    Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

  18. Simulation of South Asian aerosols for regional climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2012-02-01

    Extensive intercomparison of columnar and near-surface aerosols, simulated over the South Asian domain using the aerosol module included in the regional climate model (RegCM4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been carried out using ground-based network of Sun/sky Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) radiometers, satellite sensors such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and ground-based black carbon (BC) measurements made at Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) network stations. In general, RegCM4 simulations reproduced the spatial and seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over South Asia reasonably well, particularly over west Asia, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading. In contrast, RegCM4 simulations drastically underestimated the BC mass concentrations over most of the stations, by a factor of 2 to 5, with a large spatial variability. Seasonally, the discrepancy between the measured and simulated BC tended to be higher during winter and periods when the atmospheric boundary layer is convectively stable (such as nighttime and early mornings), while during summer season and during periods when the boundary layer is convectively unstable (daytime) the discrepancies were much lower, with the noontime values agreeing very closely with the observations. A detailed analysis revealed that the model does not reproduce the nocturnal high in BC, observed at most of the Indian sites especially during winter, because of the excessive vertical transport of aerosols under stable boundary layer conditions. As far as the vertical distribution was concerned, the simulated vertical profiles of BC agreed well with airborne measurements during daytime. This comprehensive validation exercise reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the model in simulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the aerosol fields over

  19. Representing Cloud Processing of Aerosol in Numerical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mechem, D.B.; Kogan, Y.L.

    2005-03-18

    The satellite imagery in Figure 1 provides dramatic examples of how aerosol influences the cloud field. Aerosol from ship exhaust can serve as nucleation centers in otherwise cloud-free regions, forming ship tracks (top image), or can enhance the reflectance/albedo in already cloudy regions. This image is a demonstration of the first indirect effect, in which changes in aerosol modulate cloud droplet radius and concentration, which influences albedo. It is thought that, through the effects it has on precipitation (drizzle), aerosol can also affect the structure and persistence of planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds. Regions of cellular convection, or open pockets of cloudiness (bottom image) are thought to be remnants of strongly drizzling PBL clouds. Pockets of Open Cloudiness (POCs) (Stevens et al. 2005) or Albrecht's ''rifts'' are low cloud fraction regions characterized by anomalously low aerosol concentrations, implying they result from precipitation. These features may in fact be a demonstration of the second indirect effect. To accurately represent these clouds in numerical models, we have to treat the coupled cloud-aerosol system. We present the following series of mesoscale and large eddy simulation (LES) experiments to evaluate the important aspects of treating the coupled cloud-aerosol problem. 1. Drizzling and nondrizzling simulations demonstrate the effect of drizzle on a mesoscale forecast off the California coast. 2. LES experiments with explicit (bin) microphysics gauge the relative importance of the shape of the aerosol spectrum on the 3D dynamics and cloud structure. 3. Idealized mesoscale model simulations evaluate the relative roles of various processes, sources, and sinks.

  20. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h), growth rate (GR, log(10) cfu/h), and maximum population density (MPD, log(10) cfu/g), of L. monocytogenes and the native microflora in vacuum-packed ham slices stored at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 °C for up to 5 weeks were determined. At 4-12 °C, the LPDs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes were not significantly different from those of monocultured L. monocytogenes in ham, indicating the LPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-12 °C were not influenced by the presence of the native microflora. At 4-8 °C, the GRs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes (0.0114-0.0130 log(10) cfu/h) were statistically but marginally lower than those of monocultured L. monocytogenes (0.0132-0.0145 log(10) cfu/h), indicating the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were reduced by the presence of the native microflora. The GRs of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 8-7% with the presence of the native microflora at 4-8 °C, whereas there was less influence of the native microflora on the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 12 °C. The MPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were also reduced by the presence of the native microflora. Data from this study provide additional information regarding the growth suppression of L. monocytogenes by the native microflora for assessing the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products.

  1. Computer image analysis for measuring lean and fatty areas in cross-sectioned dry-cured hams.

    PubMed

    Carnier, P; Gallo, L; Romani, C; Sturaro, E; Bondesan, V

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to apply computer image analysis to obtain measures of lean and fatty areas on the cross section of dry-cured hams, 2) to investigate variation of these measures, and 3) to evaluate reproducibility and repeatability of these techniques. Traits of concern were the cross-sectional area (SA), lean, or muscles, area (LA), and the fatty area (FA) centered on the cross section and surrounded by biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and quadriceps femoris, as well as the FA-to-SA ratio (FESR). Hams were obtained from crossbred pigs (n = 279) slaughtered at 9 mo of age (mean BW of 169 +/- 17 kg). Digital images of the cross section of dry-cured hams were captured using standardized procedures. Three replicated measures of areas were collected by three operators using three image analysis techniques (automatic, automatic-assisted, and manual). Variance components were estimated using a linear model that included slaughter group, gender, and gender x slaughter group as fixed effects and operators, pig, and operator x pig as random effects. Statistical analyses considered all measures (n = 7,533) or measures collected after reinstruction of all operators for spatial calibration of the analysis system (n = 4,428). Average SA, LA, FA, and FESR were 350 cm2, 220 cm2, 8.7 cm2, and 2.5%, respectively. Variability of FA (CV = 42%) and of FESR (CV = 39%) was four times greater than that of SA and LA. Slaughter group, pig, operator, and operator x pig effects were the most (P < 0.01) important sources of variation of measures. Correlations between measures obtained with different techniques were greater (P < 0.01) than 0.90, with the exception of LA measures. Coefficients of reproducibility for SA and LA ranged from 87 to 94%, whereas those for FA and FESR ranged from 88 to 98%. Coefficients of repeatability ranged from 92 to 99%. Automatic-assisted and manual methods provided more reproducible and repeatable measures than the automatic

  2. Mesospheric aerosol sampling spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kohnert, Rick

    . The Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) instrument has been launched on two sounding rockets in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway to detect charged sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. The MASS instrument is designed to collect charged aerosols, cluster ions, and electrons on four pairs of graphite electrodes, three of which are biased with increasing voltage. The design of the MASS instrument was complicated by the short mean free path in the mesosphere. The opening to MASS was deliberately built to increase the mean free path and to reduce the shock wave within the instrument. The design procedure began with aerodynamics simulations of the flow through the instrument using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in 3-D. The electric fields within the instrument were calculated using a Laplace solver in 3-D. With the aerodynamic and electric field simulations completed, an algorithm was created to find the trajectories of charged aerosols including collisions within MASS. Using this algorithm the collection efficiencies for each electrode was calculated as a function of the charge to mass ratio of the incoming particle. The simulation results have been confirmed experimentally using an Argon RF ion beam. The data from the August launches have been analyzed and the initial results show the MASS instrument operated as expected. Additional studies are underway to determine if there were effects from payload charging or spurious charge generation within the instrument. This project is supported by NASA.

  3. Reporting the sensory properties of dry-cured ham using a new language: Time intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS).

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Hort, Joanne; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt content (normal and reduced) and feeding system (montanera and concentrate) on the dynamic sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams using time-intensity (TI) and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) techniques. Differences in the temporal sensory information given by the two different techniques were found. Significant differences in the temporal perception of flavour and texture were detected between normal and reduced salt content dry-cured hams which are a Spanish pricy meat product very appreciated by consumers due to its particular sensory characteristics. The effect of the feeding system was mainly observed on flavour attributes such as saltiness and cured flavour and texture attributes such as juiciness. The application of TDS technique to study temporal sensory attributes of dry-cured ham is reported for the first time in the present article. PMID:27322593

  4. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided.

  5. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided. PMID:27310601

  6. Efficiency of mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and RAPD-PCR to characterize yeasts growing on dry-cured Iberian ham at the different geographic areas of ripening.

    PubMed

    Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Casado, Eva; Córdoba, Juan J

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to characterize yeasts growing on dry-cured Iberian ham was evaluated. Besides, the distribution of the main species and biotypes of yeasts in the different ripening areas of this product was investigated. MtDNA restriction analysis allowed yeast characterization at species and strain level. RAPD-PCR with the primers (GACA)(4) and (GAC)(5) was inappropriate for characterization at species level. Most of the mtDNA restriction patterns detected in dry-cured Iberian ham were consistent with Debaryomyces hansenii. Several yeasts biotypes were associated to specific geographic areas of dry-cured Iberian ham ripening. PMID:20374799

  7. Reporting the sensory properties of dry-cured ham using a new language: Time intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS).

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Hort, Joanne; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt content (normal and reduced) and feeding system (montanera and concentrate) on the dynamic sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams using time-intensity (TI) and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) techniques. Differences in the temporal sensory information given by the two different techniques were found. Significant differences in the temporal perception of flavour and texture were detected between normal and reduced salt content dry-cured hams which are a Spanish pricy meat product very appreciated by consumers due to its particular sensory characteristics. The effect of the feeding system was mainly observed on flavour attributes such as saltiness and cured flavour and texture attributes such as juiciness. The application of TDS technique to study temporal sensory attributes of dry-cured ham is reported for the first time in the present article.

  8. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content.

  9. Efficiency of mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and RAPD-PCR to characterize yeasts growing on dry-cured Iberian ham at the different geographic areas of ripening.

    PubMed

    Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Casado, Eva; Córdoba, Juan J

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to characterize yeasts growing on dry-cured Iberian ham was evaluated. Besides, the distribution of the main species and biotypes of yeasts in the different ripening areas of this product was investigated. MtDNA restriction analysis allowed yeast characterization at species and strain level. RAPD-PCR with the primers (GACA)(4) and (GAC)(5) was inappropriate for characterization at species level. Most of the mtDNA restriction patterns detected in dry-cured Iberian ham were consistent with Debaryomyces hansenii. Several yeasts biotypes were associated to specific geographic areas of dry-cured Iberian ham ripening.

  10. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Arthur; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, Manish; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-08-01

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and 2 days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher-resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser-resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  11. Crowdsourced aerosol measurements using smartphone spectropolarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietjens, J.; Snik, F.; Keller, C. U.; Heinsbroek, R.; van Harten, G.; Heikamp, S.; de Boer, J.; Zeegers, E.; Einarsen, L.; Hasekamp, O.; Smit, M.; di Noia, A.; Apituley, A.; Mijling, B.; Hendriks, E.; Stammes, P.; Volten, H.; Vonk, J.; Berkhout, S.; Haaima, M.; van der Hoff, R.; Stam, D.; Navarro, R.; Bettonvil, F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the development, organisation and results of a large citizen science project with the goal to measure and characterise atmospheric aerosols using a network of smartphone spectropolarimeters. The project, called ';iSPEX', was conceived and carried out in the Netherlands, and organised the first National iSPEX measurement day on July 8th 2013. During this day, more than 3000 people performed over 6000 measurements with their own smartphones using a special add-on and a dedicated app. These measurements were sent to a central database, processed and analysed using a vector-radiative transfer based inversion code in order to extract aerosol properties. The add-on that transforms the camera of the smartphone into a spectropolarimeter and thereby the smartphone into a scientific instrument, employs the method of spectral modulation [1]. The add-on is comprised of polymer parts and was mass-produced and distributed to almost 10000 people. A single measurement involves scanning the blue sky, thereby yielding the angular behaviour of the degree of linear polarisation as a function of wavelength. Although a single iSPEX measurement is not accurate enough, combining many measurements of a crowdsourced experiment with thousands of people should yield sufficiently accurate results that may be interpreted in terms of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol particle properties. By analysing not only the measured results, but also the motivation of the general public to participate, we learn about the possibilities to create a new kind of air quality measurement network. At the conference, we will demonstrate iSPEX and present the results of the first measurement day. We hope to convince you that iSPEX is not only a great outreach tool to engage the public in issues pertaining to atmospheric aerosols, but that it may also contribute to the solution of several urgent societal and scientific problems. [1] Snik, F., Karalidi, T., Keller, C.U.. Spectral modulation for full

  12. Natural aerosols explain seasonal and spatial patterns of Southern Ocean cloud albedo

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Daniel T.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Wood, Robert; Grosvenor, Daniel P.; Elliott, Scott M.; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Phillip J.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, suspended solid and liquid particles, act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties—ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path, and areal extent that determine the reflectivity (albedo) of clouds. The concentration Nd of droplets in clouds that influences planetary albedo is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles on which the droplets form. Natural aerosol concentrations affect not only cloud properties themselves but also modulate the sensitivity of clouds to changes in anthropogenic aerosols. It is shown that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed Nd. Enhanced Nd is spatially correlated with regions of high chlorophyll a, and the spatiotemporal variability in Nd is found to be driven primarily by high concentrations of sulfate aerosol at lower Southern Ocean latitudes (35o to 45oS) and by organic matter in sea spray aerosol at higher latitudes (45o to 55oS). Biogenic sources are estimated to increase the summertime mean reflected solar radiation in excess of 10 W m–2 over parts of the Southern Ocean, which is comparable to the annual mean increases expected from anthropogenic aerosols over heavily polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:26601216

  13. Natural aerosols explain seasonal and spatial patterns of Southern Ocean cloud albedo.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Daniel T; Burrows, Susannah M; Wood, Robert; Grosvenor, Daniel P; Elliott, Scott M; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Phillip J; Hartmann, Dennis L

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, suspended solid and liquid particles, act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties-ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path, and areal extent that determine the reflectivity (albedo) of clouds. The concentration N d of droplets in clouds that influences planetary albedo is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles on which the droplets form. Natural aerosol concentrations affect not only cloud properties themselves but also modulate the sensitivity of clouds to changes in anthropogenic aerosols. It is shown that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed N d. Enhanced N d is spatially correlated with regions of high chlorophyll a, and the spatiotemporal variability in N d is found to be driven primarily by high concentrations of sulfate aerosol at lower Southern Ocean latitudes (35(o) to 45(o)S) and by organic matter in sea spray aerosol at higher latitudes (45(o) to 55(o)S). Biogenic sources are estimated to increase the summertime mean reflected solar radiation in excess of 10 W m(-2) over parts of the Southern Ocean, which is comparable to the annual mean increases expected from anthropogenic aerosols over heavily polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Daniel; Burrows, Susannah M.; Wood, R.; Grosvenor, Daniel P.; Elliott, Scott; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    2015-07-17

    Small particles called aerosols act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties – ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path and areal extent that determine the reflectivity (albedo) of clouds. The concentration Nd of droplets in clouds that influences planetary albedo is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles on which the droplets form. Natural aerosol concentrations not only affect cloud properties themselves, but also modulate the sensitivity of clouds to changes in anthropogenic aerosols. Here, it is shown that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed Nd. Enhanced Nd over regions of high biological activity is found to be driven primarily by high concentrations of sulfate aerosol at lower Southern Ocean latitudes (35-45°S) and by organic matter in sea spray aerosol at higher latitudes (45-55°S). Biogenic sources are estimated to increase the summertime mean reflected solar radiation in excess of 10 W m-2 over parts of the Southern Ocean, which is comparable to the annual mean increases expected from anthropogenic aerosols over heavily polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

  15. Natural aerosols explain seasonal and spatial patterns of Southern Ocean cloud albedo.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Daniel T; Burrows, Susannah M; Wood, Robert; Grosvenor, Daniel P; Elliott, Scott M; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Phillip J; Hartmann, Dennis L

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, suspended solid and liquid particles, act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties-ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path, and areal extent that determine the reflectivity (albedo) of clouds. The concentration N d of droplets in clouds that influences planetary albedo is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles on which the droplets form. Natural aerosol concentrations affect not only cloud properties themselves but also modulate the sensitivity of clouds to changes in anthropogenic aerosols. It is shown that modeled natural aerosols, principally marine biogenic primary and secondary aerosol sources, explain more than half of the spatiotemporal variability in satellite-observed N d. Enhanced N d is spatially correlated with regions of high chlorophyll a, and the spatiotemporal variability in N d is found to be driven primarily by high concentrations of sulfate aerosol at lower Southern Ocean latitudes (35(o) to 45(o)S) and by organic matter in sea spray aerosol at higher latitudes (45(o) to 55(o)S). Biogenic sources are estimated to increase the summertime mean reflected solar radiation in excess of 10 W m(-2) over parts of the Southern Ocean, which is comparable to the annual mean increases expected from anthropogenic aerosols over heavily polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:26601216

  16. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.

    2015-12-01

    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  17. A Monodisperse Aerosol Dynamics Model Mono32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, L.

    A recently developed aerosol dynamics model MONO32 (and MULTIMONO) (Pir- jola and Kulmala, 2000) is a Lagrangian type box model which uses mondisperse representation for particle size distribution. The model takes into account gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics including emissions and dry deposition of gases and particles, chemical reactions in the gas phase, homogeneous binary H2SO4-H2O or ternary H2SO4-H2O-NH3 nucleation, multicomponent condensation of H2SO4, H2O, HNO3, NH3 and some organic vapour onto particles as well as inter- and in- tramode coagulation of particles. Particles can consist of soluble material such as sul- phate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium cloride, as well as insoluble material such as or- ganic carbon, elemental carbon and mineral dust. Hygroscopic properties and growth of particles were studied by the model. Simulations predicted that nucleation mode particles grew with a growth rate of 2.5-3 nm/h if the source rate of a condensable nonvolatile organic vapour exceeded 10^5 cm^-3 s^-1 and the condensation sink of the pre-existing particles was 0.9x10^-3 s^-1. These results are in good agreemnet with the measurements in Southern Finland. Further, these particles are able to grow to CCN sizes, thus affecting climate. The model was compared very well with the sectional model AEROFOR2 (Pirjola and Kulmala, 2001). It is physically sound and computa- tionally efficient model also for using as a module for regional transport models. Pirjola, L. and Kulmala, M. (2000) Aerosol dynamical model MULTIMONO, Boreal research 5, 361-372. Pirjola, L. and Kulmala, M. (2001) Development of particle size and composition distribution with aerosol dynamics model AEROFOR2. Tellus 53B, 491-509. Pirjola, L., Korhonen, H. and Kulmala, M. (2002) Condensation/ evaporation of insoluble organic vapour as functions of source rate and saturation vapour pressure. J. Geophys. Res. (in press).

  18. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  19. Salt uptake and water loss in hams with different water contents at the lean surface and at different salting temperatures.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gil, Núria; Muñoz, Israel; Santos-Garcés, Eva; Arnau, Jacint; Gou, Pere

    2014-01-01

    The salt uptake homogeneity is crucial in assuring quality in dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water contents at the lean surface before salting and of the temperature during salting on the salt uptake. Pieces of loin stored at 3°C for 3 days before salting absorbed less salt through a surface that has been dried during storage. A group of raw hams were subjected to different pre-salting storage times (0, 3 and 6 days) and another group subjected to different set room temperatures during salting (-1.0, 0.5 and 4.0°C). The duration of storage before salting and the temperature during salting had a negative and a positive effect on the average salt absorption, respectively. The most important effects appeared after 6 days of storage and at 4°C. No significant differences in salt uptake homogeneity were found between storage times and between salting temperatures. PMID:23896138

  20. Volatile analysis of spoiled, artisan-type, modified-atmosphere-packaged cooked ham stored under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; Van Hemelryck, Steven; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-02-01

    Metabolite production due to bacterial outgrowth and oxidation phenomena lead to spoilage development of cooked ham. Artisan-type products, with low salt concentrations and a minimum of additives, are particularly sensitive. Cold chain variations related to distribution and consumer habits have a negative influence on the shelf-life. In this study, sliced, modified atmosphere packaged artisan-type cooked ham was stored at different temperatures (4, 7, 12, and 26 degrees C). The evolution of volatiles over time for the different storage temperatures was monitored with static headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SH-GC-MS). The latter method was compared to solid phase microextraction (SPME). Several of the detected compounds could be ascribed to bacterial glucose and amino acid metabolism and their production was related to the storage temperature. The compounds 3-methyl butanol and ethanol were related with bacterial cell growth. Maillard-derived compounds, leading to the formation of furans, probably originated from endogenous reactions during cooking. Several detected aliphatic compounds probably originated from fatty acid oxidation reactions, including thermal fat degradation, chemical auto-oxidation, and enzymatic beta-oxidation. PMID:19028312

  1. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p<0.05) values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). Furthermore, there were no significant (p>0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference.

  2. Ultrasonic and sensory characterization of dry-cured ham fat from Iberian pigs with different genetics and feeding backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Niñoles, L; Sanjuan, N; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J

    2008-11-01

    The textural and ultrasonic properties of the subcutaneous fat from five batches of dry-cured hams from animals with different genetics (Iberian, Iberian×Duroc) and type of feeding ("montanera", concentrate feeds with different oleic acid content) were studied and related to the sensory traits (oiliness and brightness) of their biceps femoris muscle. The different genetics and feeding backgrounds found in the batches brought about differences in their ultrasonic velocities (average velocity from 4 to 20°C ranged from 1608 to 1650m/s) and textural parameters (maximum force at 8°C ranged from 11 to 21N). On average, batches with lower textural parameters had lower velocities and higher sensory scores. Ultrasonic measurements were used to carry out a discriminant analysis which allowed 78.3% of the samples to be correctly classified in the batches considered. Therefore, ultrasonic and sensory techniques could be useful in the characterization and differentiation of dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs.

  3. Technology-induced selection towards the spoilage microbiota of artisan-type cooked ham packed under modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Maere, Hannelore; De Mey, Eveline; Paelinck, Hubert; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    The microbiota associated with a highly-perishable Belgian artisan-type cooked ham was analyzed through plating and (GTG)(5)-fingerprinting of isolates throughout its processing chain. The raw tumbled meat was characterized by the presence of a versatile microbiota around 4.8 log(cfu g(-1)), consisting of lactic acid bacteria, staphylococci, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Pasteurisation of the ham logs reduced bacterial counts below 2 log(cfu g(-1)) and subsequent manipulations selected for leuconostocs and carnobacteria. Also, B. thermosphacta and several Enterobacteriaceae were found at this stage. During storage in an intermediate high-care area for 2 days, a selection towards certain Enterobacteriaceae (Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter spp., and Pantoea agglomerans) and lactic acid bacteria (mainly vagococci and Streptococcus parauberis) was observed. B. thermosphacta, Leuconostoc carnosum and carnobacteria were also detected, but only after allowing bacterial outgrowth by incubating the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks. After a mild post-pasteurisation process and subsequent handling, incubation of the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks led to outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Enterobacter spp. and Serratia spp.). B. thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Leuc. carnosum, and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) were also found. After slicing and packaging under modified atmosphere, the microbiota of the refrigerated end-product consisted of leuconostocs, carnobacteria, and B. thermosphacta. PMID:19913696

  4. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p<0.05) values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). Furthermore, there were no significant (p>0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. PMID:24769097

  5. Influence of type of muscle on volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of Celta dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Roberto; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of muscle type on volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of Celta dry-cured ham was studied. Thirty Celta ham were taken from the fresh pieces, after the end of the salting stage, after 120 days of post-salting, after the end of drying-ripening stage, and after 165 and 330 days of "bodega" step. The volatile compounds from semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were extracted by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analysed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty-five volatile compounds were identified and quantified. The number of volatile compounds increased during the different steps of the process, reaching at 550 days of process 39 and 40 volatile compounds in SM and BF muscles, respectively. Results indicated that the most abundant chemical family in flavour at the end of the manufacturing process were esters in the two muscles studied, followed by aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. During the manufacturing process, an increase in the total amount of volatile compounds was observed, being this increase more marked in samples from BF muscle (from 550.7 to 1118.9 × 10(6) area units) than in samples from SM muscle (from 459.3 to 760.4 × 10(6) area units). Finally, muscle type displayed significant (P < 0.05) differences for four esters, two alcohols, one aldehyde, one ketone and four aliphatic hydrocarbons. PMID:25331495

  6. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P < 0.001) and CLM, IOD, RS, and SF (P < 0.05). The contribution of social genetic effects to the total heritable variance was large for CLM and BW270, ranging from 33.2 to 35%, whereas the one for ham quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270

  7. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P < 0.001) and CLM, IOD, RS, and SF (P < 0.05). The contribution of social genetic effects to the total heritable variance was large for CLM and BW270, ranging from 33.2 to 35%, whereas the one for ham quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270

  8. Lidar data assimilation for improved analyses of volcanic aerosol events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Observations of hazardous events with release of aerosols are hardly analyzable by today's data assimilation algorithms, without producing an attenuating bias. Skillful forecasts of unexpected aerosol events are essential for human health and to prevent an exposure of infirm persons and aircraft with possibly catastrophic outcome. Typical cases include mineral dust outbreaks, mostly from large desert regions, wild fires, and sea salt uplifts, while the focus aims for volcanic eruptions. In general, numerical chemistry and aerosol transport models cannot simulate such events without manual adjustments. The concept of data assimilation is able to correct the analysis, as long it is operationally implemented in the model system. Though, the tangent-linear approximation, which describes a substantial precondition for today's cutting edge data assimilation algorithms, is not valid during unexpected aerosol events. As part of the European COPERNICUS (earth observation) project MACC II and the national ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) initiative, we developed a module that enables the assimilation of aerosol lidar observations, even during unforeseeable incidences of extreme emissions of particulate matter. Thereby, the influence of the background information has to be reduced adequately. Advanced lidar instruments comprise on the one hand the aspect of radiative transfer within the atmosphere and on the other hand they can deliver a detailed quantification of the detected aerosols. For the assimilation of maximal exploited lidar data, an appropriate lidar observation operator is constructed, compatible with the EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) system. The observation operator is able to map the modeled chemical and physical state on lidar attenuated backscatter, transmission, aerosol optical depth, as well as on the extinction and backscatter coefficients. Further, it has the ability to process the observed discrepancies with lidar

  9. Stratospheric ion and aerosol chemistry and possible links with cirrus cloud microphysics - A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, Volker A.

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of stratospheric ion chemistry and physics are assessed as they relate to aerosol formation and the transport of aerosols to upper tropospheric regions to create conditions favorable for cirrus cloud formation. It is found that ion-induced nucleation and other known phase transitions involving ions and sulfuric acid vapor are probably not efficient processes for stratospheric aerosol formation, and cannot compete with condensation of sulfuric acid on preexisting particles of volcanic or meteoritic origin which are larger than about 0.15 micron in radius. Thus, galactic cosmic rays cannot have a significant impact on stratospheric aerosol population. Changes in the stratospheric aerosol burden due to volcanos are up to two orders of magnitude larger than changes in ion densities. Thus, volcanic activity may modulate the radiative properties of cirrus clouds.

  10. Graphical aerosol classification method using aerosol relative optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi-Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Shuai, Yong; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A simple graphical method is presented to classify aerosol types based on a combination of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and aerosol relative optical thickness (AROT). Six aerosol types, including maritime (MA), desert dust (DD), continental (CO), sub-continental (SC), urban industry (UI) and biomass burning (BB), are discriminated in a two dimensional space of AOT440 and AROT1020/440. Numerical calculations are performed using MIE theory based on a multi log-normal particle size distribution, and the AROT ranges for each aerosol type are determined. More than 5 years of daily observations from 8 representative aerosol sites are applied to the method to confirm spatial applicability. Finally, 3 individual cases are analyzed according to their specific aerosol status. The outcomes indicate that the new graphical method coordinates well with regional characteristics and is also able to distinguish aerosol variations in individual situations. This technique demonstrates a novel way to estimate different aerosol types and provide information on radiative forcing calculations and satellite data corrections.

  11. Exposures to acidic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D; Keeler, G J; Koutrakis, P; Ryan, P B; Raizenne, M; Franklin, C A

    1989-02-01

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m3 (approximately 27 micrograms/m3 H2SO4). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m3 for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H2SO4 exceeded 50 micrograms/m3.

  12. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  13. Biological aerosol trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSha, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    In recent history, manmade and natural events have shown us the every-present need for systems to monitor the troposphere for contaminates. These contaminants may take either a chemical or biological form, which determines the methods we use to monitor them. Monitoring the troposphere for biological contaminants is of particular interest to my organization. Whether manmade or natural, contaminants of a biological origin share similar constituents; typically the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. All of these proteinaceous compounds autofluorescence when exposed to UV radiation and this established the basis of the laser-induced fluorescence technique we use to detect biological contaminants. This technique can be employed in either point or remote detection schemes and is a valuable tool for discriminating proteinaceous form non-proteinaceous aerosols. For this particular presentation I am going to describe a breadboard point sensor we designed and fabricated to detect proteinaceous aerosols. Previous point sensor designs relied on convoluted flow paths to concentrate the aerosols into a solution. Other systems required precise beam alignment to evenly distribute the energy irradiating the detector elements. Our objective was to build a simple system where beam alignment is not critical, and the flow is straight and laminar. The breadboard system was developed over a nine- month period and its performance assessed at a recent test at Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah. In addition, we have performed chamber experiments in an attempt to establish a baseline for the systems. The results of these efforts are presented here.

  14. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  15. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  16. Multi-sensor cloud and aerosol retrieval simulator and remote sensing from model parameters - Part 2: Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wind, Galina; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven; Mattoo, Shana; Levy, Robert C.

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-sensor Cloud Retrieval Simulator (MCRS) produces a "simulated radiance" product from any high-resolution general circulation model with interactive aerosol as if a specific sensor such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were viewing a combination of the atmospheric column and land-ocean surface at a specific location. Previously the MCRS code only included contributions from atmosphere and clouds in its radiance calculations and did not incorporate properties of aerosols. In this paper we added a new aerosol properties module to the MCRS code that allows users to insert a mixture of up to 15 different aerosol species in any of 36 vertical layers.This new MCRS code is now known as MCARS (Multi-sensor Cloud and Aerosol Retrieval Simulator). Inclusion of an aerosol module into MCARS not only allows for extensive, tightly controlled testing of various aspects of satellite operational cloud and aerosol properties retrieval algorithms, but also provides a platform for comparing cloud and aerosol models against satellite measurements. This kind of two-way platform can improve the efficacy of model parameterizations of measured satellite radiances, allowing the assessment of model skill consistently with the retrieval algorithm. The MCARS code provides dynamic controls for appearance of cloud and aerosol layers. Thereby detailed quantitative studies of the impacts of various atmospheric components can be controlled.In this paper we illustrate the operation of MCARS by deriving simulated radiances from various data field output by the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model. The model aerosol fields are prepared for translation to simulated radiance using the same model subgrid variability parameterizations as are used for cloud and atmospheric properties profiles, namely the ICA technique. After MCARS computes modeled sensor radiances equivalent to their observed counterparts, these radiances are presented as input to

  17. Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses.

    PubMed

    Keen, R A

    1983-12-01

    The moon is visible during total lunar eclipses due to sunlight refracted into the earth's shadow by the atmosphere. Stratospheric aerosols can profoundly affect the brightness of the eclipsed moon. Observed brightnesses of 21 lunar eclipses during 1960-1982 are compared with theoretical calculations based on refraction by an aerosol-free atmosphere to yield globally averaged aerosol optical depths. Results indicate the global aerosol loading from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón is similar in magnitude to that from the 1963 Agung eruption.

  18. Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses.

    PubMed

    Keen, R A

    1983-12-01

    The moon is visible during total lunar eclipses due to sunlight refracted into the earth's shadow by the atmosphere. Stratospheric aerosols can profoundly affect the brightness of the eclipsed moon. Observed brightnesses of 21 lunar eclipses during 1960-1982 are compared with theoretical calculations based on refraction by an aerosol-free atmosphere to yield globally averaged aerosol optical depths. Results indicate the global aerosol loading from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón is similar in magnitude to that from the 1963 Agung eruption. PMID:17776243

  19. Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Stratospht1ic sulfuric acid particles scatter and absorb sunlight and they scatter, absorb and emit terrestrial thermal radiation. These interactions play a role in the earth's radiation balance and therefore affect climate. The stratospheric aerosols are perturbed by volcanic injection of SO2 and ash, by aircraft injection of SO2, by rocket exhaust of Al2O3 and by tropospheric mixing of particles and pollutant SO2 and COS. In order to assess the effects of these perturbations on climate, the effects of the aerosols on the radiation balance must be understood and in order to understand the radiation effects the properties of the aerosols must be known. The discussion covers the aerosols' effect on the radiation balance. It is shown that the aerosol size distribution controls whether the aerosols will tend to warm or cool the earth's surface. Calculations of aerosol properties, including size distribution, for various perturbation sources are carried out on the basis of an aerosol model. Calculations are also presented of the climatic impact of perturbed aerosols due to volcanic eruptions and Space Shuttle flights.

  20. Aerosols and contrasting monsoon conditions over the Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Charu; Ganguly, Dilip; Dash, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Impact of aerosols on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability is well documented; however there are limited studies which have quantified the role of aerosols in modifying the amount of rainfall. To address this research problem, we make use of the remotely sensed data set of precipitation and aerosols from different observations. In the present study remotely sensed precipitation data set has been utilised to define contrasting monsoon conditions over the Himalayan region. As per the classical definition, active and break spells are defined over the central part of the Indian land region, and during the break spells over the central Indian region, the Himalayan region receives substantial amount of rainfall. It is found that accumulation of more dust over the Uttarakhand region significantly (negative correlation with rainfall; significant at 5% significance level) suppresses the rainfall during break spells. We propose that the substantial aerosol loading and its associated dynamical feedback over the Himalayan foothills may have considerable impact on the amount of rainfall over the mountainous regions of the Indian subcontinent. Results presented in this paper are supported by the statistically robust significance test and would be useful to develop the understanding of the role of aerosols in modulating the rainfall intensity during the summer monsoon season.

  1. Effect of exposure to light on physico-chemical quality attributes of sliced dry-cured Iberian ham under different packaging systems.

    PubMed

    Parra, V; Viguera, J; Sánchez, J; Peinado, J; Espárrago, F; Gutierrez, J I; Andrés, A I

    2012-01-01

    Dry-cured Iberian ham slices were stored under vacuum and under two different atmospheres (N(2)=70% N(2)+30% CO(2); Ar=70% Ar+30% CO(2)) and exposed to lightness or darkness. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbial analysis was carried out throughout 60 days storage. Vacuum samples showed the highest a*-value compared to N(2) and Ar after 30 (P<0.05) and 60 days (P<0.05). The influence of illumination during storage was evident after 60 days of storage, L* and a*-values being lower (P<0.01) in hams exposed to light than those kept in darkness, which can be ascribed to the lower nitrosylmioglobin content in samples exposed to light after 60 days (P=0.001). Ham slices stored in darkness showed the lowest TBARS values (P<0.05) and hexanal content (P<0.05) after 60 days. Slices of ham packed in vacuum showed lower TBARS values than N(2) and Ar batches (P=0.001), these samples being perceived as more rancid (P<0.05). The rest of the sensory attributes were not generally affected by gas mixture or illumination (P>0.05).

  2. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    PubMed

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings.

  3. Consumer facial expression in relation to smoked ham with the use of face reading technology. The methodological aspects and informative value of research results.

    PubMed

    Kostyra, Eliza; Rambuszek, Michał; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena; Laskowski, Wacław; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Poławska, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    The study determined the emotional reactions of consumers in relation to hams using face visualization method, which was recorded by FaceReader (FR). The aims of the research were to determine the effect of the ham samples on the type of emotion, to examine more deeply the individual emotional reactions of consumers and to analyse the emotional variability with regard to the temporal measurement of impressions. The research involved testing the effectiveness of measuring emotions in response to the ongoing flavour impression after consumption of smoked hams. It was found that for all of the assessed samples, neutral and negative emotions prevailed as the overall emotions recorded during the assessment of the taste/flavour impression. The range of variability of the overall emotions depended more on the consumer reactions and less on the properties of the assessed product. Consumers expressed various emotions in time and the ham samples evoked different emotional reactions as an effect of duration of the impression. PMID:27115865

  4. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    PubMed

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings. PMID:26593467

  5. Influence of physicochemical parameters and high pressure processing on the volatile compounds of Serrano dry-cured ham after prolonged refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Onandi, N; Rivas-Cañedo, A; Picon, A; Nuñez, M

    2016-12-01

    One hundred and three volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 30 ripened Serrano dry-cured hams, submitted or not to high pressure processing (HPP) and afterwards held for 5months at 4°C. The effect of ham physicochemical parameters and HPP (600MPa for 6min) on volatile compounds was assessed. Physicochemical parameters primarily affected the levels of acids, alcohols, alkanes, esters, benzene compounds, sulfur compounds and some miscellaneous compounds. Intramuscular fat content was the physicochemical parameter with the most pronounced effect on the volatile fraction of untreated Serrano ham after refrigerated storage, influencing the levels of 38 volatile compounds while aw, salt content and salt-in-lean ratio respectively influenced the levels of 4, 4 and 5 volatile compounds. HPP treatment affected 21 volatile compounds, resulting in higher levels of alkanes and ketones and lower levels of esters and secondary alcohols, what might affect Serrano ham odor and aroma after 5months of refrigerated storage. PMID:27513944

  6. Sodium chloride-induced filamentation and alternative gene expression of fts, murZ, and gnd in Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 on vacuum-packaged ham.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoji; Miller, Petr; Basu, Urmila; McMullen, Lynn M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the filament formation and differential gene expression of Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 grown on refrigerated vacuum-packaged ham products with various NaCl concentrations. Filament formation of L. monocytogenes was observed on ham products with 1.35% and 2.35% NaCl, which was monitored using flow cytometry by measuring forward light scatter. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to study the differential expression of genes in filamented cells of L. monocytogenes grown on hams following 2 or 3 months of storage at 4 °C. The genes involved in cell division (ftsX/lmo2506), cell wall synthesis (murZ/lmo2552), and NADPH production (gnd/lmo1376) were significantly downregulated in filamented cells of L. monocytogenes grown on ham with 2.35% NaCl stored at 4 °C. To our knowledge, this study reports the first evidence of filament formation of Listeria grown on meat products, which could impact the food safety risk and tolerance levels of L. monocytogenes set by regulatory agencies.

  7. Biochemical and sensory changes in dry-cured ham salted with partial replacements of NaCl by other chloride salts.

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Mónica; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Barat, José Manuel; Toldrá, Fidel

    2012-02-01

    The reduction of the content of sodium chloride in dry-cured ham was studied in to prevent the problems related to high sodium intake (i.e. the hypertension). One of the possibilities to reduce the sodium content is the partial replacement of sodium chloride by mixtures of potassium, magnesium and calcium chloride salts. The effect of two salting formulations (formulation II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl and formulation III: 55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15 CaCl(2) and 5 MgCl(2)) on the protease activity through the dry-curing process and on the sensory characteristics of the final product was evaluated and compared to those of control hams (formulation I, 100% NaCl). Sensory attributes were all affected in the hams containing CaCl(2) and MgCl(2) while hams containing 50% KCl and NaCl (formulation II) were better valued, except for the attribute taste probably due to the potassium contribution to bitter taste.

  8. Application of a simple method using minute particles of amorphous calcium phosphate for recovery of norovirus from cabbage, lettuce, and ham.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Michiyo; Uchida, Kazue; Shimada, Shin-ichi; Tomioka, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Minegishi, Toshitaka; Kawahashi, Sachie; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral adsorption to ACP particles (0.3g) in the eluent solution (40ml) from foods, collection of the particles by centrifugation, followed by dissolution of the particles with 3.3M citric acid (3ml). In ham, FCV recovery was improved by addition of ascorbic acids into the eluent solution before ACP-particle adsorption. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that FCV recoveries were 32-33%, 50-55%, and 37-46% from cabbage, lettuce, and ham, respectively, when seeded with 10(3)-10(4) viruses, and detection limits were estimated ∼10(3) genomic copies in all 3 foods. Subsequently, the ACP-concentration method was evaluated for norovirus (NoV) detection from these 3 foods. The recoveries and detection limit of NoVs determined by qRT-PCR were 12-41% and 10(3) (genomic copies) from cabbage, 30-57% and 10(3) from lettuce, and 20-26% and 10(4) from ham, when seeded with 10(3)-10(5) viruses. This simple method may be suitable for NoV detection from these foods. PMID:23046989

  9. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  10. Incubation of curing brines for the production of ready-to-eat, uncured, no-nitrite-or-nitrate-added, ground, cooked and sliced ham.

    PubMed

    Krause, B L; Sebranek, J G; Rust, R E; Mendonca, A

    2011-12-01

    Salt concentration, vegetable juice powder (VJP) concentration and temperature were investigated to determine necessary conditions for incubation of curing brines including VJP and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus prior to production of naturally cured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products. Subsequently, incubated brines were utilized to produce no-nitrate/nitrite-added sliced ham in which quality characteristics and residual nitrite concentrations were measured to determine feasibility of brine incubation for nitrate conversion prior to injection. Two ham treatments (one with VJP and starter culture; one with pre-converted VJP) and a nitrite-added control were used. No differences (P>0.05) were found for color in the VJP treatments. Control sliced ham was redder after 42 days of storage, retaining significantly (P<0.05) greater a* (redness) than either of the VJP treatments. Residual nitrite concentration was greater (P<0.05) in the control hams during the first week of storage. While the nitrite-added control retained greater red color and initially had more residual nitrite than the VJP treatments, the two VJP treatments did not differ from each other. PMID:21664056

  11. Modeling the survival of Salmonella on slice cooked ham as a function of apple skin polyphenols, acetic acid, oregano essential oil and carvacrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the combined effect of apple skin polyphenols (ASP), acetic acid (AA), oregano essential oil (O) and carvacrol (C) on the inactivation of Salmonella on sliced cooked ham. A full factorial experimental design was employed with control variables ...

  12. FY 2011 Second Quarter: Demonstration of New Aerosol Measurement Verification Testbed for Present-Day Global Aerosol Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, D

    2011-03-20

    The regional-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is being used by a DOE Earth System Modeling (ESM) project titled “Improving the Characterization of Clouds, Aerosols and the Cryosphere in Climate Models” to evaluate the performance of atmospheric process modules that treat aerosols and aerosol radiative forcing in the Arctic. We are using a regional-scale modeling framework for three reasons: (1) It is easier to produce a useful comparison to observations with a high resolution model; (2) We can compare the behavior of the CAM parameterization suite with some of the more complex and computationally expensive parameterizations used in WRF; (3) we can explore the behavior of this parameterization suite at high resolution. Climate models like the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) being used within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) will not likely be run at mesoscale spatial resolutions (10–20 km) until 5–10 years from now. The performance of the current suite of physics modules in CAM5 at such resolutions is not known, and current computing resources do not permit high-resolution global simulations to be performed routinely. We are taking advantage of two tools recently developed under PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects for this activity. The first is the Aerosol Modeling Testbed (Fast et al., 2011b), a new computational framework designed to streamline the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The second is the CAM5 suite of physics parameterizations that have been ported into WRF so that their performance and scale dependency can be quantified at mesoscale spatial resolutions (Gustafson et al., 2010; with more publications in preparation).

  13. Investigation into Spectral Parameters as they Impact CPV Module Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Rodriguez, J.

    2011-03-01

    The CPV industry is well aware that performance of triple junction cells depends on spectral conditions but there is a lack of data quantifying this spectral dependence at the module level. This paper explores the impact of precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and optical air mass on multiple CPV module technologies on-sun in Golden, CO.

  14. Land cover maps, BVOC emissions, and SOA burden in a global aerosol-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanelle, Tanja; Henrot, Alexandra; Bey, Isaelle

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported that different land cover representations influence the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) (e.g. Guenther et al., 2006). But the land cover forcing used in model simulations is quite uncertain (e.g. Jung et al., 2006). As a consequence the simulated emission of BVOCs depends on the applied land cover map. To test the sensitivity of global and regional estimates of BVOC emissions on the applied land cover map we applied 3 different land cover maps into our global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2.2. We found a high sensitivity for tropical regions. BVOCs are a very prominent precursor for the production of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Therefore the sensitivity of BVOC emissions on land cover maps impacts the SOA burden in the atmosphere. With our model system we are able to quantify that impact. References: Guenther et al. (2006), Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3181-3210, doi:10.5194/acp-6-3181-2006. Jung et al. (2006), Exploiting synergies of global land cover products for carbon cycle modeling, Rem. Sens. Environm., 101, 534-553, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.01.020.

  15. Scientific Basis for Use of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. Fruit in Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Ailments

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Zaeem Ahsan, Muhammad; Saqib, Fatima; Imran, Imran; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Abid Rashid, Muhammad; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Moga, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Background Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. has been used conventionally by many communities in the Himalayan region for the management of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular complications. Set against this background, this study was carried out to justify the scientific basis to validate folkloric uses of fruits of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. (Pp.Cr) in traditional systems of medicine. Methods The crude ethanol extract of fruits of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. (Pp.Cr) was tested in vitro on isolated rabbit jejunum, tracheal, and aorta preparations. The responses of tissues were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with a PowerLab data acquisition system. Results The Pp.Cr on application (0.01–5.0 mg/ml) to isolated rabbit jejunum preparation exhibited relaxation through decrease in magnitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The Pp.Cr also exerted a relaxant (0.01–5.0 mg/ml) effect on K+(80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and caused shifting of the Ca2+ curves (1.0–3.0 mg/ml) toward right in a manner similar to that of verapamil (3μM), possibly suggesting presence of Ca2+ channel blocking activity. Subsequently, Pp.Cr in a concentration-dependent fashion (0.01–10.0 mg/ml) caused relaxation of CCh (1μM) and K+ (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations in a manner comparable to that of dicyclomine, suggesting that the observed relaxant effect is likely to be mediated through antimuscarinic and/or Ca2+ channel blocking activities. Moreover, when evaluated against isolated rabbit aortic preparations, the Pp.Cr in concentrations up to 10 mg/ml exhibited a contractile response that was found to be abolished subsequent to pretreatment of isolated tissue preparation with cyproheptadine (1μM), phentolamine (1μM), and losartan (1μM), suggesting that Pp.Cr may have some α-adrenergic, muscarinic, serotonergic, and angiotensin II activities. Conclusions The aqueous

  16. High hydrostatic pressure and biopreservation of dry-cured ham to meet the Food Safety Objectives for Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Hereu, Anna; Bover-Cid, Sara; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2012-03-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of nisin application (biopreservation) combined with high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP) on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes CTC1034 intentionally inoculated (at ca. 10(7)cells/g) onto the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced dry-cured ham. Two types of dry-cured ham, which had different water activities and fat contents were studied (a(w) of 0.92 and 14.25% fat and a(w) of 0.88 and 33.26% fat). Three batches were prepared for each type of product: (C) control, without nisin; (N) nisin directly applied (200 AU/cm(2)) and (F) nisin applied through active packaging, polyvinyl alcohol films with 200 AU/cm(2). Half of the samples were pressurized at 600 MPa for 5min. Counts of L. monocytogenes were periodically monitored throughout 60 days of storage at 8°C. The physico-chemical characteristics of the products enabled the survival of L. monocytogenes, but it was significantly reduced by the presence of nisin. The effect of biopreservation was greater when applied directly to the surface and in the product with lower water activity in comparison with the active packaging and the high water activity products, respectively. The immediate inactivation of L. monocytogenes by HHP ranged from 1.82 to 3.85 Log units, depending on the type of dry-cured ham. The lower the water activity, the less was the inactivation induced by HHP, both immediately and during storage. The reduction of L. monocytogenes immediately after HHP and during storage was more evident in batches with nisin applied directly to the surface of the product. The pathogen was not detected in some samples from day 5 of storage in the product with higher water activity. The effect of nisin applied through active packaging was lower than the direct application. The results of the present study indicated that HHP, as post-processing listericidal treatment, is more effective (both immediately and long term) than the use of nisin as an antimicrobial measure

  17. Large-Scale Covariability Between Aerosol and Precipitation Over the 7-SEAS Region: Observations and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Zhang, Chidong; Jeong, Myeong Jae; Gautam, Ritesh; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Hansell, Richard A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the seven scientific areas of interests of the 7-SEAS field campaign is to evaluate the impact of aerosol on cloud and precipitation (http://7-seas.gsfc.nasa.gov). However, large-scale covariability between aerosol, cloud and precipitation is complicated not only by ambient environment and a variety of aerosol effects, but also by effects from rain washout and climate factors. This study characterizes large-scale aerosol-cloud-precipitation covariability through synergy of long-term multi ]sensor satellite observations with model simulations over the 7-SEAS region [10S-30N, 95E-130E]. Results show that climate factors such as ENSO significantly modulate aerosol and precipitation over the region simultaneously. After removal of climate factor effects, aerosol and precipitation are significantly anti-correlated over the southern part of the region, where high aerosols loading is associated with overall reduced total precipitation with intensified rain rates and decreased rain frequency, decreased tropospheric latent heating, suppressed cloud top height and increased outgoing longwave radiation, enhanced clear-sky shortwave TOA flux but reduced all-sky shortwave TOA flux in deep convective regimes; but such covariability becomes less notable over the northern counterpart of the region where low ]level stratus are found. Using CO as a proxy of biomass burning aerosols to minimize the washout effect, large-scale covariability between CO and precipitation was also investigated and similar large-scale covariability observed. Model simulations with NCAR CAM5 were found to show similar effects to observations in the spatio-temporal patterns. Results from both observations and simulations are valuable for improving our understanding of this region's meteorological system and the roles of aerosol within it. Key words: aerosol; precipitation; large-scale covariability; aerosol effects; washout; climate factors; 7- SEAS; CO; CAM5

  18. Reconciling Organic Aerosol Volatility, Hygroscopicity, and Oxidation State During the Colorado DISCOVER-AQ Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hite, J. R.; Moore, R.; Martin, R.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Nenes, A.

    2014-12-01

    The organic fraction of submicron aerosol can profoundly impact radiative forcing on climate directly, through enhancement of extinction, or indirectly through modulation of cloud formation. Semi-volatile constituents of organic ambient aerosol are of particular interest as their partitioning between the vapor and aerosol phases is not well constrained by current atmospheric models and appears to play an important role in the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) as suggested by recent research. An experimental setup consisting of a DMT CCN counter and SMPS downstream of a custom-built thermodenuder assembly was deployed during the summer 2014 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign to retrieve simultaneous, size-resolved volatility and hygroscopicity - through the use of scanning mobility CCN analysis (SMCA). Housed in the NASA Langley mobile laboratory, a suite of complimentary measurements were made available onboard including submicron aerosol composition and oxidation state provided by an HR-ToF-AMS, and aerosol optical properties provided by a range of other instruments including an SP2. Air masses sampled from locations across the Central Colorado region include influences from regional aerosol nucleation/growth events, long-range transport of Canadian biomass burning aerosols, cattle feedlot emissions and influences of the Denver urban plume - amidst a backdrop of widespread oil and gas exploration. The analysis focuses on the reconciliation of the retrieved aerosol volatility distributions and corresponding hygroscopicity and oxidation state observations, including the use of AMS factor analysis.

  19. The role of aerosol in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in winter and its impact on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, F. S. R.; Gaetani, M.; Messori, G.; Kloster, S.; Dentener, F. J.

    2015-02-01

    Numerical model scenarios of future climate depict a global increase in temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, primarily driven by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Aerosol particles also play an important role by altering the Earth's radiation budget and consequently surface temperature. Here, we use the general circulation aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model, to investigate the impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies in Europe on winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. We analyse the extreme case of a maximum feasible end-of-pipe reduction of aerosols in the near future (2030), in combination with increasing GHG concentrations. Our results show a more positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mean state by 2030, together with a significant eastward shift of the southern centre of action of sea-level pressure (SLP). Moreover, we show a significantly increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. By separating the impacts of aerosols and GHGs, our study suggests that future aerosol abatement may be the primary driver of both the eastward shift in the southern SLP centre of action and the increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. These concomitant modifications of the atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector lead to more stagnant weather conditions that favour air pollutant accumulation, especially in the western Mediterranean sector. Changes in atmospheric circulation should therefore be included in future air pollution mitigation assessments. The indicator-based evaluation of atmospheric circulation changes presented in this work will allow an objective first-order assessment of the role of changes in wintertime circulation on future air quality in other climate model simulations.

  20. INDOOR AEROSOLS AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of both indoor aerosol concentration measurements, and the considerations for assessment of exposure to aerosols in non-occupational settings. The fixed-location measurements of concentration at an outdoor location, while commuting inside an a...

  1. Aerosol in the Pacific troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Antony D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of near real-time optical techniques is emphasized for the measurement of mid-tropospheric aerosol over the Central Pacific. The primary focus is on measurement of the aerosol size distribution over the range of particle diameters from 0.15 to 5.0 microns that are essential for modeling CO2 backscatter values in support of the laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) program. The measurement system employs a LAS-X (Laser Aerosol Spectrometer-PMS, Boulder, CO) with a custom 256 channel pulse height analyzer and software for detailed measurement and analysis of aerosol size distributions. A thermal preheater system (Thermo Optic Aerosol Descriminator (TOAD) conditions the aerosol in a manner that allows the discrimination of the size distribution of individual aerosol components such as sulfuric acid, sulfates and refractory species. This allows assessment of the relative contribution of each component to the BCO2 signal. This is necessary since the different components have different sources, exhibit independent variability and provide different BCO2 signals for a given mass and particle size. Field activities involve experiments designed to examine both temporal and spatial variability of these aerosol components from ground based and aircraft platforms.

  2. Mount Saint Helens aerosol evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Fong, W.; Hayes, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  3. Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: description and evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Zaveri, R.; Rasch, P.; Shi, X.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Vitt, F.; Conley, A.; Park, S.; Neale, R.; Hannay, C.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Hess, P.; Mahowald, N.; Collins, W.; Iacono, M. J.; Bretherton, C. S.; Flanner, M. G.; Mitchell, D.

    2012-05-01

    A modal aerosol module (MAM) has been developed for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). MAM is capable of simulating the aerosol size distribution and both internal and external mixing between aerosol components, treating numerous complicated aerosol processes and aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties in a physically-based manner. Two MAM versions were developed: a more complete version with seven lognormal modes (MAM7), and a version with three lognormal modes (MAM3) for the purpose of long-term (decades to centuries) simulations. In this paper a description and evaluation of the aerosol module and its two representations are provided. Sensitivity of the aerosol lifecycle to simplifications in the representation of aerosol is discussed. Simulated sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass concentrations are remarkably similar between MAM3 and MAM7. Differences in primary organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC) concentrations between MAM3 and MAM7 are also small (mostly within 10%). The mineral dust global burden differs by 10% and sea salt burden by 30-40% between MAM3 and MAM7, mainly due to the different size ranges for dust and sea salt modes and different standard deviations of the log-normal size distribution for sea salt modes between MAM3 and MAM7. The model is able to qualitatively capture the observed geographical and temporal variations of aerosol mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and aerosol optical properties. However, there are noticeable biases; e.g., simulated BC concentrations are significantly lower than measurements in the Arctic. There is a low bias in modeled aerosol optical depth on the global scale, especially in the developing countries. These biases in aerosol simulations clearly indicate the need for improvements of aerosol processes (e.g., emission fluxes of anthropogenic aerosols and precursor gases in

  4. Combined effects of high pressure and sodium hydrogen carbonate treatment on pork ham: improvement of texture and palatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Jung; Nishiumi, Tadayuki; Fujimura, Shinobu; Ogoshi, Hiro; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the combined effects of high pressure and sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) treatment on the physical and chemical properties, and palatability of pork ham, a tough and under-utilized meat, were investigated. Assessment of meat properties with heat treatment, after exposure to NaHCO3 and high pressure treatment, revealed an increase in water content, and decreased weight reduction and rupture stress. The free amino acid content of meat samples increased with NaHCO3 and high pressure treatment. The effect of high pressure processing was especially notable at a pressure of 300 MPa. Sensory evaluation showed that meat subjected to high pressure processing after NaHCO3 treatment was tender and juicy. In addition, the sample produced minimal residue in the mouth and was characterized by a good taste.

  5. Analysis of irradiated cooked ham by direct introduction into the programmable temperature vaporizer of a multidimensional gas chromatography system.

    PubMed

    Barba, Carmen; Santa-María, Guillermo; Calvo, Marta M

    2013-08-15

    A simple method involving direct introduction (DI) of cooked ham into a programmable temperature vaporizer and subsequent thermal desorption for multidimensional chromatographic analysis as a tool for studying changes of volatile compounds during food irradiation has been proposed. Analysis of non-irradiated samples showed four peaks in the precolumn, which were identified on the main column as peak 1, ethyl acetate; peak 2, a mixture of octanol and ethyl propanoate; peak 3, (R,R)-2,3-butanediol, and peak 4, nonanoic acid. (R,R) and (S,S)-2,3-butanediol were detected in samples irradiated at 8 kGy, which may indicate that irradiation induces isomerisation. When a single cut was transferred from the precolumn to the main column, 1-tetradecene, n-pentadecane, 8-heptadecene and 1-hexadecene were detected in irradiated samples. This simple and easy method allows detection of radiolytic markers and isomerisation of 2,3-butanediol during irradiation of food.

  6. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  7. Thermophoretically Dominated Aerosol Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.; Arias-Zugasti, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A theory of aerosol coagulation due to size-dependent thermophoresis is presented. This previously overlooked effect is important when local temperature gradients are large, the sol population is composed of particles of much greater thermal conductivity than the carrier gas, with mean diameters much greater than the prevailing gas mean free path, and an adequate “spread” in sizes (as in metallurgical mists or fumes). We illustrate this via a population-balance analysis of the evolution of an initially log-normal distribution when this mechanism dominates ordinary Brownian diffusion.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Leuconostoc carnosum, Associated with Production and Spoilage of Vacuum-Packaged, Sliced, Cooked Ham

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K. J.; Vandamme, P.; Korkeala, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Leuconostoc carnosum was shown to be the specific spoilage organism in vacuum-packaged, sliced, cooked ham showing spoilage during 3 weeks of shelf life. Identification of the specific spoilage organism was done by use of phenotypic data and ClaI, EcoRI, and HindIII reference strain ribopatterns. One hundred L. carnosum isolates associated with the production and spoilage of the ham were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), together with some meat-associated Leuconostoc species: L. citreum, L. gelidum, L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum, and L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. ApaI and SmaI digests divided the industrial L. carnosum strains into 25 different PFGE types, ApaI and SmaI types being consistent. Only one specific PFGE type was associated with the spoiled packages. This type also was detected in air and raw-meat mass samples. The spoilage strain did not produce bacteriocins. Only seven isolates belonging to three different PFGE types produced bacteriocins. Similarity analysis of the industrial L. carnosum strains revealed a homogeneous cluster which could be divided into eight subclusters consisting of strains having at most three-fragment differences. The L. carnosum cluster was clearly distinguished from the other meat-associated leuconostoc clusters, with the exception of the L. carnosum type strain. Ribotyping can be very helpful in the identification of L. carnosum, but its discriminatory power is too weak for strain characterization. PFGE provides good discrimination for studies dealing with the properties of homogeneous L. carnosum strains. PMID:9726876

  9. Modeling the Effect of Storage Temperatures on the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Ham and Sausage.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke; Hong, Sung-Sam; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat ham and sausage at different temperatures (4 to 35°C). The observed data fitted well with four primary models (Baranyi, modified Gompertz, logistic, and Huang) with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.98) at all measured temperatures. After the mean square error (0.009 to 0.051), bias factors (0.99 to1.06), and accuracy factors (1.01 to 1.09) were obtained in all models, the square root and the natural logarithm model were employed to describe the relation between temperature and specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) derived from the primary models. These models were validated against the independent data observed from additional experiments using the acceptable prediction zone method and the proportion of the standard error of prediction. All secondary models based on each of the four primary models were acceptable to describe the growth of the pathogen in the two samples. The validation results indicate that the optimal primary model for estimating the SGR was the Baranyi model, and the optimal primary model for estimating LT was the logistic model in ready-to-eat (RTE) ham. The Baranyi model was also the optimal model to estimate the SGR and LT in RTE sausage. These results could be used to standardize predictive models, which are commonly used to identify critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems or for the quantitative microbial risk assessment to improve the food safety of RTE meat products.

  10. Behavior and enterotoxin production by coagulase negative Staphylococcus in cooked ham, reconstituted skimmed milk, and confectionery cream.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria; Miya, Norma Teruko Nago; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Pereira, José Luiz

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the behavior and enterotoxin production by 10 different coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains inoculated in cooked ham, reconstituted skimmed milk, and confectionery cream in the presence or absence of background microbiota have been investigated. After inoculation (103 CFU/g), foods were incubated at 25, 30, and 37 °C and aerobic mesophilic and CNS counts were carried out at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) detection was performed by SET-RPLA (Oxoid, Basingstoke, U.K.) and mini-Vidas® (bioMérieux, La Balme les Grottes, France). CNS counts increased during incubation and approached 10⁶ to 10⁷ CFU/g after 12 h at 37 °C in the 3 foods studied. At 25 °C, counts reached 10⁶ to 10⁷ CFU/g only after 24 to 48 h. The interference of background microbiota on CNS behavior was only observed when they grew in sliced cooked ham, which presented a high initial total count (10⁵ CFU/g). Significantly higher counts of CNS isolated from raw cow's milk in comparison with food handlers isolates were found in reconstituted milk and confectionery cream. Although CNS strains were able to produce SEA, SEB, and SED in culture media, in foods, in the presence or absence of background microbiota S. chromogenes LE0598 was the only strain able to produce SEs. Despite the scarcity of reports on CNS involvement with foodborne disease outbreaks, the results found here support the CNS growth and SE production in foods even in the presence of background microbiota and may affect food safety. PMID:21535559

  11. Modelling non-equilibrium secondary organic aerosol formation and evaporation with the aerosol dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model ADCHAM

    SciTech Connect

    Roldin, P.; Eriksson, A. C.; Nordin, E. Z.; Hermansson, E.; Mogensen, Ditte; Rusanen, A.; Boy, Michael; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Zelenyuk, Alla; Pagels, J.

    2014-08-11

    We have developed the novel Aerosol Dynamics, gas- and particle- phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM). The model combines the detailed gas phase Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2, an aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module (which considers acid catalysed oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation reactions in the particle phase and non-ideal interactions between organic compounds, water and inorganic ions) and a kinetic multilayer module for diffusion limited transport of compounds between the gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk phase. In this article we describe and use ADCHAM to study: 1) the mass transfer limited uptake of ammonia (NH3) and formation of organic salts between ammonium (NH4+) and carboxylic acids (RCOOH), 2) the slow and almost particle size independent evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, and 3) the influence of chamber wall effects on the observed SOA formation in smog chambers.

  12. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Han, X.; Liu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W/m2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W/m2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan.

  13. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m -2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m -2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  14. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-14

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  15. Development, Comparisons and Evaluation of Aerosol Retrieval Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Holzer-Popp, T.; Aerosol-cci Team

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Change Initiative (cci) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has brought together a team of European Aerosol retrieval groups working on the development and improvement of aerosol retrieval algorithms. The goal of this cooperation is the development of methods to provide the best possible information on climate and climate change based on satellite observations. To achieve this, algorithms are characterized in detail as regards the retrieval approaches, the aerosol models used in each algorithm, cloud detection and surface treatment. A round-robin intercomparison of results from the various participating algorithms serves to identify the best modules or combinations of modules for each sensor. Annual global datasets including their uncertainties will then be produced and validated. The project builds on 9 existing algorithms to produce spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent) as well as other aerosol information; two instruments are included to provide the absorbing aerosol index (AAI) and stratospheric aerosol information. The algorithms included are: - 3 for ATSR (ORAC developed by RAL / Oxford university, ADV developed by FMI and the SU algorithm developed by Swansea University ) - 2 for MERIS (BAER by Bremen university and the ESA standard handled by HYGEOS) - 1 for POLDER over ocean (LOA) - 1 for synergetic retrieval (SYNAER by DLR ) - 1 for OMI retreival of the absorbing aerosol index with averaging kernel information (KNMI) - 1 for GOMOS stratospheric extinction profile retrieval (BIRA) The first seven algorithms aim at the retrieval of the AOD. However, each of the algorithms used differ in their approach, even for algorithms working with the same instrument such as ATSR or MERIS. To analyse the strengths and weaknesses of each algorithm several tests are made. The starting point for comparison and measurement of improvements is a retrieval run for 1 month, September 2008. The data from the same month are subsequently used for

  16. Mexico City aerosol study

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Y.I. ); Ramirez, C.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Mexico City is located in a valley at high elevation (2,268 m) and is subject to atmospheric inversion related problems similar to those found in Denver, Colorado. In addition, Mexico City has a tropical climate (latitude 19{degrees} 25 minutes N), and therefore has more sunlight available for production of photochemical smog. There are approximately 9.5 million people spread in a 1,500 km{sup 2} (25 sq. mi) urban area, and more than two million automobiles (D.G.P.T. 1979) which use leaded gasoline. Furthermore, Mexico City is the principal industrial center in the country with more than 131,000 industries. The growth of the city has led to a serious air pollution problem, and there is concern over the possible pollutant effects on human health. The authors discuss work done to characterize the chemical composition of the aerosol. It is shown that many of the organic compounds which have been detected in urban aerosols are carcinogens.

  17. PMSE dependence on aerosol charge number density and aerosol size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Markus; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Hoffmann, Peter; Latteck, Ralph; Baumgarten, Gerd; Blix, Tom A.

    2003-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that the existence of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSEs) depends on the presence of charged aerosols since these are comparatively heavy and reduce the diffusion of free electrons due to ambipolar forces. Simple microphysical modeling suggests that this diffusivity reduction is proportional to rA2 (rA = aerosol radius) but only if a significant amount of charges is bound on the aerosols such that NA∣ZA∣/ne > 1.2 (NA = number of aerosols, ZA = aerosol charge, ne = number of free electrons). The fact that the background electron profile frequently shows large depletions ("biteouts") at PMSE altitudes is taken as a support for this idea since within biteouts a major fraction of free electrons is missing, i.e., bound on aerosols. In this paper, we show from in situ measurements of electron densities and from radar and lidar observations that PMSEs can also exist in regions where only a minor fraction of free electrons is bound on aerosols, i.e., with no biteout and with NA∣ZA∣/ne ≪ 1. We show strong experimental evidence that it is instead the product NA∣ZA∣rA2 that is crucial for the existence of PMSEs. For example, small aerosol charge can be compensated by large aerosol radius. We show that this product replicates the main features of PMSEs, in particular the mean altitude distribution and the altitude of PMSEs in the presence of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). We therefore take this product as a "proxy" for PMSE. The agreement between this proxy and the main characteristics of PMSEs implies that simple microphysical models do not satisfactorily describe PMSE physics and need to be improved. The proxy can easily be used in models of the upper atmosphere to better understand seasonal and geographical variations of PMSEs, for example, the long debated difference between Northern and Southern hemisphere PMSEs.

  18. Sources and transformations of atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Eben Spencer

    Aerosol particles are an important component of the Earth-Atmosphere system because of their influence on the radiation budget both directly (through absorption and scattering) and indirectly (through cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity). The magnitude of the raditaive forcing attributed to the direct and indirect aerosol effects is highly uncertain, leading to large uncertainties in projections of global climate change. Real-time measurements of aerosol properties are a critical step toward constraining the uncertainties in current global climate modeling and understanding the influence that anthropogenic activities have on the climate. The objective of the work presented in this thesis is to gain a more complete understanding of the atmospheric transformations of aerosol particles and how such transformations influence the direct and indirect radiative effects of the particles. The work focuses on real-time measurements of aerosol particles made with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) developed in collaboration with the Boston College research group. A key feature of the work described is the development of a light scattering module for the AMS. Here we present the first results obtained with the integrated light scattering - AMS system. The unique and powerful capabilities of this new instrument combination are demonstrated through laboratory experiments and field deployments. Results from two field studies are presented: (1) The Northeast Air Quality Study (NEAQS), in the summer of 2004, conducted at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia and (2) The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in and around Mexico City, Mexico in March of 2006. Both field studies were designed to study the transformations that occur within pollution plumes as they are transported throughout the atmosphere. During the NEAQS campaign, the pollution plume from the Northeastern United States was intercepted as it was

  19. Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Peters, Len K.

    2008-07-03

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC), with a special focus on addressing the long-standing issues associated with solving the dynamic partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic gases (HNO3, HCl, and NH3) to size-distributed atmospheric aerosol particles. The coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE) for dynamic gas-particle mass transfer are extremely stiff, and the available numerical techniques are either too expensive or produce oscillatory and/or inaccurate steady-state solutions. These limitations are overcome in MOSAIC, which couples an accurate and computationally efficient thermodynamic module [Zaveri et al., 2005a,b] with a new dynamic gas-particle partitioning module described here. The algorithm involves time-split integrations of non-volatile and semi-volatile species, and a new concept of “dynamic pH” and an adaptive time-stepping scheme hold the key to smooth, accurate, and efficient solutions over the entire relative humidity range. MOSAIC is found to be in excellent agreement with a benchmark version of the model that uses LSODES (a Gear solver) for rigorously integrating the stiff ODEs. The steady-state MOSAIC results for monodisperse aerosol test cases are also in excellent agreement with those obtained with the benchmark equilibrium model AIM. MOSAIC is also evaluated within a 3-D model, and the average CPU speed is estimated to be over 100 times faster than the dynamic aerosol model MADM [Pilinis et al., 2000]. These results suggest that MOSAIC is highly attractive for use in 3-D aerosol and air quality models in which both accuracy and efficiency are critically important.

  20. Inorganic Components of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Anthony Stein

    The inorganic components comprise 15% to 50% of the mass of atmospheric aerosols. For about the past 10 years the mass of these components was predicted assuming thermodynamic equilibrium between the volatile aerosol -phase inorganic species NH_4NO _3 and NH_4Cl and their gas-phase counterparts NH_3, HNO_3, and HCl. In this thesis I examine this assumption and prove that (1) the time scales for equilibration between the gas and aerosol phases are often too long for equilibrium to hold, and (2) even when equilibrium holds, transport considerations often govern the size distribution of these aerosol components. Water can comprise a significant portion of atmospheric aerosols under conditions of high relative humidity, whereas under conditions of sufficiently low relative humidity atmospheric aerosols tend to be dry. The deliquescence point is the relative humidity where the aerosol goes from a solid dry phase to an aqueous or mixed solid-aqueous phase. In this thesis I derive the temperature dependence of the deliquescence point and prove that in multicomponent solutions the deliquescence point is lower than for corresponding single component solutions. These theories of the transport, thermodynamic, and deliquescent properties of atmospheric aerosols are integrated into an aerosol inorganics model, AIM. The predictions of AIM compare well to fundamental thermodynamic measurements. Comparison of the prediction of AIM to those of other aerosol equilibrium models shows substantial disagreement in the predicted water content at lower relative humidities. The disagreement is due the improved treatment in AIM of the deliquescence properties of multicomponent solutions. In the summer and fall of 1987 the California Air Resources Board conducted the Southern California Air Quality Study, SCAQS, during which atmospheric aerosols were measured in Los Angeles. The size and composition of the aerosol and the concentrations of their gas phase counterparts were measured. When the

  1. International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Workshop on Aerosol Forecast Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to reinforce the working partnership between centers who are actively involved in global aerosol forecasting, and to discuss issues related to forecast verification. Participants included representatives from operational centers with global aerosol forecasting requirements, a panel of experts on Numerical Weather Prediction and Air Quality forecast verification, data providers, and several observers from the research community. The presentations centered on a review of current NWP and AQ practices with subsequent discussion focused on the challenges in defining appropriate verification measures for the next generation of aerosol forecast systems.

  2. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to aerosol correlative measurements experiments for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, conducted between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative measurements were taken with an impactor/laser probe, a dustsonde, and an airborne 36-cm lidar system. The primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments are compared with those calculated from the aerosol size distributions from SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. Good agreement is found between the two sets of measurements.

  3. Lidar observations of high-altitude aerosol layers (cirrus clouds)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleva, Atanaska D.; Grigorov, Ivan V.

    2013-03-01

    Aerosols, clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions are recognized as the key factors influencing the climate. Clouds are the primary modulators of the Earth's radiative budget. This paper focuses on the detection of high-altitude aerosol layers in the troposphere over mid-latitude lidar station in Sofia, Bulgaria. They are situated in the height-region 6 km÷16 km, with thickness in the range 0.2 km÷5 km and have varying optical characteristics. On the basis of the general utilized classification of the Cirrus clouds, high values of the calculated atmospheric backscatter coefficient and Angströmexponent estimation results we conclude that the registered strongly scattered aerosol layers are Cirrus clouds. Lidar measurements are performed with an aerosol lidar, equipped with Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths 532 nm and 1064 nm. Mainly, lidar data are presented in terms of vertical atmospheric backscatter coefficient profiles. We also include 2Dcolormap in height-time coordinates build on the basis of so called range corrected signals. It shows in general changes of the aerosol stratification over the lidar station during the measurement period. We employed HYSPLIT backward trajectories and DREAM forecasts to analyze the lidar profile outlines and characterize the events during which Cirrus cloud samples were observed. So was remarked that most of the results were obtained during Saharan dust long-way transport over the city of Sofia. Reported experimental examples are extracted from regular lidar investigations of the atmosphere within the frame of European project EARLINET.

  4. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) program is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks established by NASA and LOA-PHOTONS (CNRS) and is greatly expanded by collaborators from national agencies, institutes, universities, individual scientists, and partners. The program provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical, mircrophysical and radiative properties for aerosol research and characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with other databases. The network imposes standardization of instruments, calibration, processing and distribution. AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  5. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial ham, formulated with or without antimicrobials, under conditions simulating contamination in the processing or retail environment and during home storage.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2007-02-01

    Commercial cured ham formulated with or without potassium lactate and sodium diacetate was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and stored to simulate conditions of processing, retail, and home storage. The ham was sliced, inoculated with a 10-strain composite of L. monocytogenes (1 to 2 log CFU/cm2), vacuum packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C to simulate contamination following lethality treatment at processing (first shelf life). After 10, 20, 35, and 60 days of storage, packages were opened, samples were tested, and bags with remaining slices were reclosed with rubber bands. At the same times, portions of original product (stored at 4 degrees C in original processing bags) were sliced, inoculated, and packaged in delicatessen bags to simulate contamination during slicing at retail (second shelf life). Aerobic storage of both sets of packages at 7 degrees C for 12 days was used to reflect domestic storage conditions (home storage). L. monocytogenes populations were lower (P < 0.05) during storage in ham formulated with lactate-diacetate than in product without antimicrobials under both contamination scenarios. Inoculation of ham without lactate-diacetate allowed prolific growth of L. monocytogenes in vacuum packages during the first shelf life and was the worst case contamination scenario with respect to pathogen numbers encountered during home storage. Under the second shelf life contamination scenario, mean growth rates of the organism during home storage ranged from 0.32 to 0.45 and from 0.18 to 0.25 log CFU/cm2/day for ham without and with lactate-diacetate, respectively, and significant increases in pathogen numbers (P < 0.05) were generally observed after 4 and 8 days of storage, respectively. Regardless of contamination scenario, 12-day home storage of product without lactate-diacetate resulted in similar pathogen populations (6.0 to 6.9 log CFU/cm2) (P > 0.05). In ham containing lactate-diacetate, similar counts were found during the home storage

  6. Advancements in the Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Microphysics in the GEOS-5 AGCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D.; Oreopoulos, L.; Sud, Y.; Barahona, D.; Nemes, A.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous challenges, the physical parameterization of cloud-aerosol interactions in atmospheric GCMs has become a top priority for advancement because of our need to simulate and understand past, current, and future indirect effects of aerosols on clouds. The challenges stem from the involvement of wide range of cloud-scale dynamics and aerosol activation physical processes. Cloud dynamics modulate cloud areal extent and condensate, while aerosol activation depends on aerosol mass load, size distribution, internal mixing state, and nucleating properties, and ultimately determines cloud optical properties via particle sizes. Both macro- and micro-scale processes are obviously important for cloud-radiation interactions. We will present the main features of cloud microphysical properties in the GEOS- 5 Atmospheric GCM (AGCM) as simulated by the McRAS-AC (Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert and Aerosol-Cloud interaction) scheme. McRAS-AC uses Fountoukis and Nenes (2005) aerosol activation for liquid clouds, and has an option for either Liu and Penner (2005) or Barahona and Nenes (2008, 2009) aerosol activation for ice clouds. Aerosol loading (on-line or climatological) comes from GOCART, with an assumed log-normal size distribution. Other features of McRAS-AC are level-by-level cloud-scale thermodynamics, and Seifert-Beheng (2001)-type precipitation microphysics, particularly from moist convection. Results from Single-Column Model simulations will be shown to demonstrate how cloud radiative properties, lifetimes, and precipitation are influenced by different parameterization assumptions. Corresponding fields from year-long simulations of the full AGCM will also be presented with geographical distributions of cloud effective particle sizes compared to satellite retrievals. While the primary emphasis will be on current climate, simulation results with perturbed aerosol loadings will also be shown to expose the radiative sensitivity of the

  7. Controls on aerosol wet deposition from satellite-based (re-)analysis products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, P. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol wet deposition is the key aerosol loss mechanism globally, yet is not well-understood relative to aerosol sources and transformations. The difficulty in generating appropriate observational data sets is one important barrier to the study of aerosol wet removal. In this study, we combine two independent products based on satellite measurements. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is obtained from the ECMWF Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) project, which is a re-analysis product that assimilates MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depth. Rainfall is obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis version 7 (TMPA-7). The latter product is available only from 50°N to 50°S, which sets our region of study. The data used is from 2011-12, is averaged to 6-hr intervals and has a horizontal resolution of 0.25°x0.25°. Our approach involves constructing a Lagrangian advection scheme that predicts aerosol AOD at the next time step (i.e. 6 hr in the future) based on current time step AOD and winds, and neglecting all aerosol sources and sinks. Predicted AOD is then compared with MACC reanalysis AOD conditioned on Lagrangian parcels that experienced rainfall during that interval, with AOD decreases attributed to wet deposition. Aerosol wet deposition is often parameterized in models as a function of rainfall rate using a power law. We evaluate the validity of such a power law relationship, and, when valid, compute the power law exponent globally, and by region (including continental and maritime locations) to reveal seasonal and geographic variability. Assuming precipitation is modulated by aerosol, at least in some regimes, then it follows that wet deposition also depends on AOD, and we quantify the strength of this coupling. This same approach could be used to study wet deposition of trace gases such as CO and ozone, as these are also available from the MACC re-analysis.

  8. Aerosol-stratocumulus Interactions over the Southeast Pacific: A Process Study Using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Y.; Chen, G.; Wang, W. C.; Liao, H.; Chen, J. P.; Xue, H.

    2015-12-01

    The recent WRF study by Chen et al. (2015) showed that the shortwave radiative forcing by the stratocumulus over the southeast Pacific (SEP) is much enhanced by anthropogenic aerosols from South America. Here we further investigate the aerosol-stratocumulus interactions on the process level using the WRF-Chem model which explicitly simulates the aerosol emissions and formations. Two cloud microphysics schemes are used: the widely-applied Lin scheme and the physics-based two-moment scheme used in Chen et al. (2015). The simulations with the Lin scheme captured some observed features of aerosols (e.g., aerosol mass and optical depth decreases westward along 20°S) and key aerosol-cloud microphysics interactions (e.g., more cloud droplet numbers near the coast). However, biases were also noticed, such as the overestimation of cloud droplet number near the coast, and the underestimation of aerosol concentration over the remote ocean. These could be caused by the inadequacy in cloud process parameterization, such as a lack of aerosol recycling from rain droplets in coupling with chemistry and microphysical modules (Saide et al, 2012). The two-moment scheme that explicitly addresses these processes is expected to minimize the biases. Detailed investigations of the cloud microphysics processes using the two schemes, and, to the extent possible, comparisons with observations will be presented and discussed. Chen, G.-X., W.-C. Wang, and J.-P. Chen, 2015: Aerosol-stratocumulus-radiation interactions over Southeast Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 2612-2621. Saide, P. E. (and 16 co-authors), 2012: Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3045-3064.

  9. Effects of Two Application Methods of Plantaricin BM-1 on Control of Listeria monocytogenes and Background Spoilage Bacteria in Sliced Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Ham Stored at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huimin; Xie, Yuanhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Duan, Huixia; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-10-01

    Two application methods were used to investigate the effect of plantaricin BM-1 on the control of Listeria monocytogenes and background spoilage bacteria in sliced vacuum-packaged cooked ham without the addition of any chemical preservatives, including sodium nitrite, during 35 days of storage at 4°C. Regardless of the application method, plantaricin BM-1 treatment (320, 640, or 1,280 arbitrary units [AU]/g of sliced cooked ham) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of L. monocytogenes (inoculated at 4 log CFU/g of sliced ham) compared with its survival in the control during the first 21 days of storage at 4°C. The inhibitory effect of plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham was significantly better than the same concentration of plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham (P < 0.0001) during storage. Even 320 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface exhibited greater inhibition of L. monocytogenes than 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham on days 1, 14, and 28. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham reduced L. monocytogenes counts to below the detection limit from the 1st to the 21st day of storage at 4°C. Afterwards, L. monocytogenes was able to regrow, and the viable counts of L. monocytogenes at the end of storage reached 2.76 log CFU/g (6.11 log CFU/g lower than in the control). In the control ham, the counts of background spoilage bacteria increased gradually and surpassed the microbiological spoilage limitation level on the 21st day of storage. However, plantaricin BM-1 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of background spoilage bacteria in ham compared with their survival in the control from day 21 to 35 of storage at 4°C. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into cooked ham was the most effective, reducing the count of background spoilage bacteria count from an initial 2.0 log CFU/g to 1.5 log CFU/g on day 7. This was then maintained for another 14 days and

  10. Effects of Two Application Methods of Plantaricin BM-1 on Control of Listeria monocytogenes and Background Spoilage Bacteria in Sliced Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Ham Stored at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huimin; Xie, Yuanhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Duan, Huixia; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-10-01

    Two application methods were used to investigate the effect of plantaricin BM-1 on the control of Listeria monocytogenes and background spoilage bacteria in sliced vacuum-packaged cooked ham without the addition of any chemical preservatives, including sodium nitrite, during 35 days of storage at 4°C. Regardless of the application method, plantaricin BM-1 treatment (320, 640, or 1,280 arbitrary units [AU]/g of sliced cooked ham) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of L. monocytogenes (inoculated at 4 log CFU/g of sliced ham) compared with its survival in the control during the first 21 days of storage at 4°C. The inhibitory effect of plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham was significantly better than the same concentration of plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham (P < 0.0001) during storage. Even 320 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface exhibited greater inhibition of L. monocytogenes than 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham on days 1, 14, and 28. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham reduced L. monocytogenes counts to below the detection limit from the 1st to the 21st day of storage at 4°C. Afterwards, L. monocytogenes was able to regrow, and the viable counts of L. monocytogenes at the end of storage reached 2.76 log CFU/g (6.11 log CFU/g lower than in the control). In the control ham, the counts of background spoilage bacteria increased gradually and surpassed the microbiological spoilage limitation level on the 21st day of storage. However, plantaricin BM-1 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of background spoilage bacteria in ham compared with their survival in the control from day 21 to 35 of storage at 4°C. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into cooked ham was the most effective, reducing the count of background spoilage bacteria count from an initial 2.0 log CFU/g to 1.5 log CFU/g on day 7. This was then maintained for another 14 days and

  11. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  12. HTLV-1 subgroups associated with the risk of HAM/TSP are related to viral and host gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, independent of the transactivation functions of the viral factors.

    PubMed

    Yasuma, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Takashima, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-01

    Among human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals, the risk of developing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) across lifetime differs between ethnic groups. There is an association between HTLV-1 tax gene subgroups (subgroup-A or subgroup-B) and the risk of HAM/TSP in the Japanese population. In this study, we investigated the full-length proviral genome sequences of various HTLV-1-infected cell lines and patient samples. The functional differences in the viral transcriptional regulators Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) between each subgroup and the relationships between subgroups and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients were evaluated. The results of these analyses indicated the following: (1) distinct nucleotide substitutions corresponding to each subgroup were associated with nucleotide substitutions in viral structural, regulatory, and accessory genes; (2) the HBZ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in HTLV-1-infected cells was significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B than in those with subgroup-A; (3) a positive correlation was observed between the expression of HBZ mRNA and its target Foxp3 mRNA in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B, but not in patients with subgroup-A; (4) no clear differences were noted in clinical and laboratory characteristics between HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-A and subgroup-B; and (5) no functional differences were observed in Tax and HBZ between each subgroup based on reporter gene assays. Our results indicate that although different HTLV-1 subgroups are characterized by different patterns of viral and host gene expression in HAM/TSP patients via independent mechanisms of direct transcriptional regulation, these differences do not significantly affect the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients. PMID:26635027

  13. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  14. Regional Urban Aerosol Retrieval With MODIS: High-Resolution Algorithm Application and Extension of Look-up Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerg, M. P.; Oo, M. M.; Gross, B. M.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role for the global climate by modulating the Earth's energy budget. Air quality and related health issues for humans are also tightly linked with concentration, composition, and size of aerosol particles. Satellite remote sensing with the MODIS sensor on NASA's Aqua and Terra platforms is one means to investigate aerosols globally. However, due to the global scope of the operational mission only globally based aerosol models can be employed in the look-up table approach of the retrieval algorithm. The relatively coarse resolution of 10x10km also largely prevents the detection of small scale structures in the aerosol optical depth (AOD) on a regional level. Consequently, the operational MODIS aerosol algorithm over land has been specifically adapted to the New York City area. First, the operational look-up table was extended based on local aerosol climatology obtained using five years of AERONET measurements at the City College of New York site. These models were then used to create appropriate LUT using the 6S radiative transfer model. Second, regional surface reflectance ratio parameterizations which better characterize the urban surface properties were implemented in the algorithm. These two modifications ultimately allow the retrieval algorithm to be applied at the actual sensor resolution of 500x500m. This presentation focuses on estimating the errors that are inherent in the operational processing compared to a regionally refined processing scheme. In particular, we remove artificial hot spots in the aerosol retrieval and are able to extract realistic high resolution aerosol structure.

  15. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5-10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  16. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  18. Aerosol lidar ``M4``

    SciTech Connect

    Shelevoy, C.D.; Andreev, Y.M. |

    1994-12-31

    Small carrying aerosol lidar in which is used small copper vapor laser ``Malachite`` as source of sounding optical pulses is described. The advantages of metal vapor laser and photon counting mode in acquisition system of lidar gave ability to get record results: when lidar has dimensions (1 x .6 x .3 m) and weight (65 kg), it provides the sounding of air industrial pollutions at up to 20 km range in scanning sector 90{degree}. Power feed is less than 800 Wt. Lidar can be disposed as stationary so on the car, helicopter, light plane. Results of location of smoke tails and city smog in situ experiments are cited. Showed advantages of work of acquisition system in photon counting mode when dynamic range of a signal is up to six orders.

  19. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  20. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  1. The influence of meteoric smoke particles on stratospheric aerosol properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Graham; Brooke, James; Dhomse, Sandip; Plane, John; Feng, Wuhu; Neely, Ryan; Bardeen, Chuck; Bellouin, Nicolas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Colin; Abraham, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The ablation of metors in the thermosphere and mesosphere introduces a signficant source of particulate matter into the polar upper stratosphere. These meteoric smoke particles (MSP) initially form at nanometre sizes but in the stratosphere have grown to larger sizes (tens of nanometres) following coagulation. The presence of these smoke particles may represent a significant mechanism for the nucleation of polar stratospheric clouds and are also known to influence the properties of the stratospheric aerosol or Junge layer. In this presentation we present findings from experiments to investigate the influence of the MSP on the Junge layer, carried out with the UM-UKCA composition-climate model. The UM-UKCA model is a high-top (up to 80km) version of the general circulation model with well-resolved stratospheric dynamics, includes the aerosol microphysics module GLOMAP and has interactive sulphur chemistry suitable for the stratosphere and troposphere (Dhomse et al., 2014). We have recently added to UM-UKCA a source of meteoric smoke particles, based on prescribing the variation of the smoke particles from previous simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). In UM-UKCA, the MSP particles are transported within the GLOMAP aerosol framework, alongside interactive stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol. For the experiments presented here, we have activated the interaction between the MSP and the stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol. The MSP provide an important sink term for the gas phase sulphuric acid simulated in the model, with subsequent effects on the formation, growth and temporal evolution of stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol particles. By comparing simulations with and without the MSP-sulphur interactions we quantify the influence of the meteoric smoke on the properties of volcanically-quiescent Junge layer. We also investigate the extent to which the MSP may modulate the effects from SO2 injected into the stratosphere from volcanic

  2. A satellite view of the direct effect of aerosols on solar radiation at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Papadimas, Christos D.; Matsoukas, Christos; Fotiadi, Aggeliki; Benas, Nikolaos; Vardavas, Ilias

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols are a key parameter for better understanding and predicting current and future climate change. They are determining, apart from clouds, patterns of solar radiation through scattering and absorption processes. Especially, under cloud-free skies, aerosols are the major modulator of the solar radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. Although significant improvement has been made as to better understanding the direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, there is still a need for further improvement in our knowledge of the DRE spatial and temporal patterns, in particular with respect to extended spatial and temporal coverage of relevant information. In an ongoing rapidly evolving era of great satellite-based achievements, concerning the knowledge of solar radiation budget and its modulators, and with the great progress in obtaining significant information on key aerosol optical properties needed for modeling DRE, it is a great challenge to use all this new aerosol information and to see what is the new acquired scientific knowledge. The objective of this study is to obtain an improved view of global aerosol DRE effects using contemporary accurate data for the important atmospheric and surface parameters determining the solar radiation budget, with emphasis to state of the art aerosol data. Thus, a synergy is made of different datasets providing the necessary input data and of a detailed spectral radiative transfer model (RTM) to compute spectral globally distributed aerosol DREs. Emphasis is given on using highly accurate and well-tested aerosol optical properties. Spectral information on aerosol optical depth (AOD) is taken from retrieved products of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, while similar information is taken from MODIS for the aerosol asymmetry parameter (AP) over ocean. Information from MODIS is also taken for the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA). All this information comes from the latest Collection

  3. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Control of Earth Radiation and Latent Heat Release Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, D.

    2006-08-01

    Aircraft observations and model simulations show that cloud development is strongly modulated by the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on precipitation forming processes. New insights into the mechanisms by which aerosols dominate the cloud cover of marine shallow clouds suggest that feedbacks between the cloud microstructure and cloud dynamics through precipitation processes play a major role in determining when a solid cloud cover will break up into a field of trade wind cumulus. Cloud-aerosol interactions dominate not only the dynamics of marine shallow clouds, but also the lifetime and the vertical disposition of latent heat of deep convective clouds over ocean and even more strongly over land. Recent coincident satellite measurements of aerosols and cloud properties quantify the aerosol effects on cloud cover and radiative forcing on regional and global scales. The shapes of the satellite retrieved relations between aerosols and cloud properties are consistent with the suggested ways by which aerosols affect clouds via precipitation processes, particularly by affecting the intensity of the cloud vertical air motions and its vertical development.

  4. Decreasing Aerosol Water Is Consistent with OC Trends in the Southeast U.S.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thien Khoi V; Capps, Shannon L; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-07-01

    Water is a ubiquitous and abundant component of atmospheric aerosols. It influences light scattering, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and secondary particulate matter (PM) formation. Despite the critical importance of aerosol liquid water, mass concentrations are not well-known. Using speciated ion and meteorological data from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization network, we employ the thermodynamic model ISORROPIAv2.1 to estimate water mass concentrations and evaluate trends from 2001 to 2012 in urban and rural locations. The purpose of this study is to better understand the historical trends of aerosol liquid water in the southeast U.S. in the context of improved air quality and recently noted reductions in particulate organic carbon (OC). Aerosol water mass concentrations decrease by ∼79% from 2001 to 2012 in the region. Decreases are more prominent in rural than in urban areas. Fractional contribution of water to PM also decreases during the same time period, and this is consistent with recently noted improvements in visibility. These findings agree with the hypotheses that aerosol liquid water facilitates formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and that biogenically derived SOA is modulated in the presence of anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:26030084

  5. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  6. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the application of commercially available essential oils (EOs) and oleoresins to control bacterial pathogens for ready to eat food. In this study, sixty seven commercial EOs, oleoresins (ORs) and pure compounds were used to evaluate in vitro their antimicrobial activity against six food pathogens. These products were first screened for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion assay. Forty one products were then chosen for further analysis to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration against 6 different bacteria. There were 5 different products (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon Chinese cassia, cinnamon OR, oregano and red thyme) that showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Further analysis examined the effect of four selected EOs on controlling the growth rate of mixed cultures of Listeria monocytogenes in ham. A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500 ppm. PMID:24012976

  7. Development and application of a method for analysis of phthalates in ham sausages by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui; Wei, Danyi; Wang, Meili; Zhang, Huina; Gai, Panpan; Duan, Jing

    2010-03-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay was developed and successfully applied for the determination of phthalates in ham sausage migrated from packaging film. The phthalates studied were dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), with dibutyl adipate (DBA) as internal standard. The sample pre-treatments included extraction with n-hexane, solvent evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile before and after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extraction and cleaning up procedure was carried out with cartridges containing dimethyl butylamine groups, which showed extraction efficiencies over 87.3%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The method proved to be accurate and precise for the six phthalates used. It was successfully applied to a study on the migration of phthalates from packaging PVC film into ham sausage.

  8. Feasibility of NIR interactance hyperspectral imaging for on-line measurement of crude composition in vacuum packed dry-cured ham slices.

    PubMed

    Gou, P; Santos-Garcés, E; Høy, M; Wold, J P; Liland, K H; Fulladosa, E

    2013-10-01

    There is a growing market for packaged slices of dry-cured ham. The heterogeneity of the composition of slices between packages is an important drawback when aiming to offer consumers a product with a known and constant composition which fits individual consumer expectations. The aim of this work was to test the feasibility of NIR interactance imaging for on-line analysis of water, fat and salt and their spatial distribution in dry-cured ham slices. PLSR models for predicting water, fat and salt contents with NIR spectra were developed with a calibration set of samples (n=82). The models were validated with an external validation set (n=42). The predictive models were accurate enough for screening purposes. The errors of prediction were 1.34%, 1.36% and 0.71% for water, fat and salt, respectively. The spatial distribution of these components within the slice was also obtained.

  9. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  10. Mycobacterial Aerosols and Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae, and the new species M. immunogenum, have been implicated in outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis or respiratory problems in a wide variety of settings. One common feature of the outbreaks has been exposure to aerosols. Aerosols have been generated from metalworking fluid during machining and grinding operations as well as from indoor swimming pools, hot tubs, and water-damaged buildings. Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria are present in drinking water, resistant to disinfection, able to provoke inflammatory reactions, and readily aerosolized. In all outbreaks, the water sources of the aerosols were disinfected. Disinfection may select for the predominance and growth of mycobacteria. Therefore, mycobacteria may be responsible, in part, for many outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other respiratory problems in the workplace and home. PMID:12890314

  11. Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B.; Pollack, J. B.; Summers, A.; Toon, O. B.; Sagan, C.; Van Camp, W.

    1976-01-01

    Generated primarily by volcanic explosions, a layer of submicron silicate particles and particles made of concentrated sulfuric acids solution is present in the stratosphere. Flights through the stratosphere may be a future source of stratospheric aerosols, since the effluent from supersonic transports contains sulfurous gases (which will be converted to H2SO4) while the exhaust from Space Shuttles contains tiny aluminum oxide particles. Global heat balance calculations have shown that the stratospheric aerosols have made important contributions to some climatic changes. In the present paper, accurate radiative transfer calculations of the globally-averaged surface temperature (T) are carried out to estimate the sensitivity of the climate to changes in the number of stratospheric aerosols. The results obtained for a specified model atmosphere, including a vertical profile of the aerosols, indicate that the climate is unlikely to be affected by supersonic transports and Space Shuttles, during the next decades.

  12. Satellite measurements of tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, M.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation uses LANDSAT 2 radiance data and ground-truth measurements of the aerosol optical thickness, obtained previously from five inland sites, to study the usefulness and limitations of the near infrared radiance over inland bodies of water. The linear relationship between LANDSAT 2 MSS7 and aerosol content found in this study can be used to estimate the aerosol content with a standard deviation of 0.42N. Analysis of the data for MSS6 and MSS7 suggest that the larger uncertainty is mostly due to water turbidity, with little contribution from the adjacency effect. The relationship found is best applied to determine an average aerosol content over a period of time at a given target, or an area average at a given time over several targets close together.

  13. An Overview of the GEOS-5 Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A. S.; Buchard-Marchant, V.; Randles, C. A.; Gupta, P.

    2011-12-01

    GEOS-5 is the latest version of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) earth system model. GEOS-5 contains components for atmospheric circulation and composition (including data assimilation), ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, and land surface processes. In addition to traditional meteorological parameters, GEOS-5 includes modules representing the atmospheric composition, most notably aerosols and tropospheric/stratospheric chemical constituents, taking explicit account of the impact of these constituents on the radiative processes of the atmosphere. MERRA is a NASA meteorological reanalysis for the satellite era (1979-present) using GEOS-5. This project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales. As a first step towards an integrated Earth System Analysis (IESA), the GMAO is extending MERRA with reanalyses for other components of the earth system: land, ocean, bio-geochemistry and atmospheric constituents. In this talk we will present results from the MERRA-driven aerosol reanalysis covering the Aqua period (2003-present). The assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in GEOS-5 involves very careful cloud screening and homogenization of the observing system by means of a Neural Net scheme that translates MODIS radiances into AERONET calibrated AOD. These measurements are further quality controlled using an adaptive buddy check scheme, and assimilated using the Local Displacement Ensemble (LDE) methodology. For this reanalysis, GEOS-5 runs at a nominal 50km horizontal resolution with 72 vertical layers (top at ~85km). GEOS-5 is driven by daily biomass burning emissions derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We will present a summary of our efforts to validate such dataset. The GEOS-5 assimilated aerosol fields are first validated by comparison to independent in-situ measurements (AERONET and PM2.5 surface concentrations). In order to asses aerosol absorption on a

  14. An Overview of the GEOS-5 Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo; Colarco, Peter Richard; Damenov, Anton Spasov; Buchard-Marchant, Virginie; Randles, Cynthia A.; Gupta, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    GEOS-5 is the latest version of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) earth system model. GEOS-5 contains components for atmospheric circulation and composition (including data assimilation), ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, and land surface processes. In addition to traditional meteorological parameters, GEOS-5 includes modules representing the atmospheric composition, most notably aerosols and tropospheric/stratospheric chemical constituents, taking explicit account of the impact of these constituents on the radiative processes of the atmosphere. MERRA is a NASA meteorological reanalysis for the satellite era (1979-present) using GEOS-5. This project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales. As a first step towards an integrated Earth System Analysis (IESA), the GMAO is extending MERRA with reanalyses for other components of the earth system: land, ocean, bio-geochemistry and atmospheric constituents. In this talk we will present results from the MERRA-driven aerosol reanalysis covering the Aqua period (2003-present). The assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in GEOS-5 involves very careful cloud screening and homogenization of the observing system by means of a Neural Net scheme that translates MODIS radiances into AERONET calibrated AOD. These measurements are further quality controlled using an adaptive buddy check scheme, and assimilated using the Local Displacement Ensemble (LDE) methodology. For this reanalysis, GEOS-5 runs at a nominal 50km horizontal resolution with 72 vertical layers (top at approx. 8Skm). GEOS-5 is driven by daily biomass burning emissions derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We will present a summary of our efforts to validate such dataset. The GEOS-5 assimilated aerosol fields are first validated by comparison to independent in-situ measurements (AERONET and PM2.5 surface concentrations). In order to asses aerosol

  15. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  16. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  17. Nisin, rosemary, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat turkey ham stored at four degrees Celsius for sixty-three days.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Williams, S K; Djeri, N; Hinton, A; Rodrick, G E

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the anti-Listeria and general antimicrobial properties of nisin, rosemary, and EDTA alone and in combination on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on ready-to-eat vacuum-packaged diced turkey ham and to ascertain the effects of the treatments on pH and objective color. The turkey hams were cut into 0.5-cm pieces, inoculated with a L. monocytogenes cocktail containing 5 strains of the bacterium, and treated with either no treatment and no inoculum (negative control), inoculum only (positive control), 0.5% nisin, 20 mM EDTA, 1% rosemary, 0.5% nisin + 20 mM EDTA, 0.5% nisin + 1% rosemary, 0.5% nisin + 20 mM EDTA + 1% rosemary, or 20 mM EDTA + 1% rosemary. All samples were vacuum-packaged, stored for 63 d at 4 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, and analyzed at 1-wk intervals for total aerobes, L. monocytogenes, lactic acid organisms, pH, and objective color. Nisin, nisin with rosemary, nisin with EDTA, and nisin with rosemary and EDTA treatments reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes counts by 4.42, 4.20, 3.73, and 4.11 log cfu/g when compared with the positive control, respectively, on d 0. Listeria monocytogenes counts remained less than 2.75 log cfu/g for all hams treated with nisin. The EDTA and rosemary treatments alone and in combination were ineffective in inhibiting growth of L. monocytogenes. Although none of the treatments completely eliminated L. monocytogenes, the results indicated that ready-to-eat turkey ham can have significantly decreased L. monocytogenes when treated with nisin alone or in combination with rosemary or EDTA, or both.

  18. Modeling the lag phase and growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in ground ham containing sodium lactate and sodium diacetate at various storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C-A; Tamplin, M L

    2007-09-01

    Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) meats contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes were implicated in several listeriosis outbreaks. Lactate and diacetate have been shown to control L. monocytogenes in RTE meats. The objective of this study was to examine and model the effect of lactate (1.0% to 4.2%) and diacetate (0.05% to 0.2%) in ground ham on the lag phase duration (LPD, h) and growth rate (GR, log CFU/h) of L. monocytogenes at a range of temperatures (0 to 45 degrees C). A 6-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into ground ham containing lactate and diacetate, and stored at various temperatures. The LPD and GR of L. monocytogenes in ham as affected by lactate, diacetate, and storage temperature were analyzed and accurately represented with mathematical equations. Resulting LPD and GR equations for storage temperatures within the range of 0 to 36 degrees C significantly represented the experimental data with a regression coefficient of 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Significant factors (P < 0.05) that affected the LPD were temperature, lactate, diacetate, and the interactions of all three, whereas only temperature and the interactions between temperature and lactate and diacetate had a significant effect on GR. At suboptimal growth temperatures (< or = 12 degrees C) the increase of lactate and diacetate concentrations, individually or in combination, extended the LPD. The effect of higher concentrations of both additives on reducing the GR was observed only at temperatures that were more suitable for growth of L. monocytogenes, that is, 15 to 35 degrees C. These data may be used to assist in determining concentrations of lactate and diacetate in cooked ham products to control the growth of L. monocytogenes over a wide range of temperatures during manufacturing, distribution, and storage. PMID:17995648

  19. Hybrid in Silico/in Vitro Approach for the Identification of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Parma Dry-Cured Ham.

    PubMed

    Dellafiora, Luca; Paolella, Sara; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Dossena, Arnaldo; Cozzini, Pietro; Galaverna, Gianni

    2015-07-22

    The bioactivity assessment of foodborne peptides is currently a research area of great relevance, and, in particular, several studies are devoted to the antihypertensive effects through the inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). In the present work, a straightforward workflow to identify inhibitory peptides from food matrices is proposed, which involves a hybrid in vitro/in silico tandem approach. Parma dry-cured ham was chosen as case study. In particular, the advantage of using the hybrid approach to identify active sequences (in comparison to the experimental trials alone) has been pointed out. Specifically, fractions obtained by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of ham samples of 18 and 24 months of aging have been assessed for ACE inhibition. At the same time, the released peptidomic profiles, which cannot be entirely evaluated by using in vitro assays, have been screened for the inhibition by using an in silico model. Then, to identify novel inhibitory sequences, a series of strong candidates have been synthesized and assessed for their inhibitory activity through in vitro assay. On the one hand, the use of computational simulations appeared to be an effective strategy to find active sequences, as confirmed by in vitro analysis. On the other hand, strong inhibitory sequences were identified for the first time in Parma dry-cured ham (e.g., LGL and SFVTT with IC50 values of 145 and 395 μM, respectively), which is a product of international dietary and economic relevance. Therefore, these findings demonstrate the usefulness of in silico methodologies coupled to in vitro tests for the identification of potentially bioactive peptides, and they give an important contribution to the study of the overall nutritional value of Parma ham.

  20. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.