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Sample records for aerosol monitoring station

  1. The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) is a French initiative supported by the MISTRALS program (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales, http://www.mistrals-home.org). It aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The major stake is an understanding of the future of the Mediterranean region in a context of strong regional anthropogenic and climatic pressures. The target of ChArMEx is short-lived particulate and gaseous tropospheric trace species which are the cause of poor air quality events, have two-way interactions with climate, or impact the marine biogeochemistry. In order to fulfill these objectives, important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, a key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly air masses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The observations at this station began in June 2012 (in the context of the EMEP / ACTRIS / PEGASOS / ChArMEx campaigns). A broad spectrum of aerosol properties is also measured at the station, from the chemical composition (off-line daily filter sampling in PM2.5/PM10, on-line Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), ground optical properties (extinction/absorption/light scattering coeff. with 1-? CAPS PMex monitor, 7-? Aethalometer, 3-? Nephelometer), integrated and vertically resolved optical properties (4-? Cimel sunphotometer and LIDAR, respective), size distribution properties (N-AIS, SMPS, APS, and OPS instruments), mass (PM1/PM10 by TEOM/TEOM-FDMS), hygroscopicity (CCN), as well as total insoluble deposition. So far, real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), and off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges) are also

  2. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  3. TOR station for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Y.; Arshinova, V. G.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kovalevskii, Valentin K.; Plotnikov, Aleksandr P.; Pokrovskii, Evgenii V.; Rasskazchikova, T. M.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Sklyadneva, Tatyana K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    1997-05-01

    In December 1992 a station for atmospheric observations has been put into operation at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics within the frameworks of the program of ecological monitoring of Siberia. The station provides for acquiring data on gas and aerosol composition of the atmosphere, on meteorological quantities, and the background of gamma radiation. The station operates day and night and the whole year round. All the measurement procedures are fully automated. Readouts from the measuring devices are performed very hour 10 minutes averaged. In addition, synoptic information is also received at the station. Periodically gas chromatographic analysis is being done to determine concentrations of hydrocarbons from the methane row. Occasionally, chemical composition of suspended matter is determined relative to 39 ingredients. The station is located to the north-east of Tomsk, Akademgorodok. Therefore sometimes it measures air mass coming from Tomsk down town area and sometimes the air mass from rural areas. As a result information obtained at this station should be typical for recreation zones around Tomsk.

  4. Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Ignatov, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) developed at NESDIS generates three products from AVHRR, operationally: clear sky radiances in all bands, and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from clear-sky brightness temperatures (BT) in Ch3B (centered at 3.7 μm), Ch4 (11 μm) and Ch5 (12 μm), and aerosol optical depths (AOD) derived from clear-sky reflectances in Ch1 (0.63), Ch2 (0.83) and Ch3A (1.61 μm). An integral part of ACSPO is the fast Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), which calculates first-guess clear-sky BTs using global NCEP forecast atmospheric and Reynolds SST fields. Simulated BTs are employed in ACSPO for improved cloud screening, physical (RTM-based) SST inversions, and to monitor and validate satellite BTs. The model minus observation biases are monitored online in near-real time using the Monitoring IR Clear-sky radiances over Oceans for SST (MICROS; http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/sst/micros/). A persistent positive M-O bias is observed in MICROS, partly attributed to missing aerosol in CRTM input, causing "M" to be warmer than "O". It is thus necessary to include aerosols in CRTM and quantify their effects on AVHRR BTs and SSTs. However, sensitivity of thermal bands to aerosol is only minimal, and use of solar reflectance bands is preferable to evaluate the accuracy of CRTM modeling, with global aerosol fields as input (from e.g. Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport, GOCART, or Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS). Once available, the corresponding M-O biases in solar reflectance bands will be added to MICROS. Also, adding CRTM simulated reflectances in ACSPO would greatly improve cloud detection, help validate CRTM in the solar reflectance bands, and assist aerosol retrievals. Running CRTM with global aerosol as input is very challenging, computationally. While CRTM is being optimized to handle such global scattering computations, a near-real time web-based Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM

  5. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  6. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Buoni, C; Coutant, R; Barnes, R; Slivon, L

    1988-05-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  7. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Buoni, C; Coutant, R; Barnes, R; Slivon, L

    1988-05-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs. PMID:11542838

  8. Space station atmospheric monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  9. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  10. Connecting Aerosol Size Distributions at Three Arctic Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freud, E.; Krejci, R.; Tunved, P.; Barrie, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in Earth's energy balance mainly through interactions with solar radiation and cloud processes. There is a distinct annual cycle of arctic aerosols, with greatest mass concentrations in the spring and lowest in summer due to effective wet removal processes - allowing for new particles formation events to take place. Little is known about the spatial extent of these events as no previous studies have directly compared and linked aerosol measurements from different arctic stations during the same times. Although the arctic stations are hardly affected by local pollution, it is normally assumed that their aerosol measurements are indicative of a rather large area. It is, however, not clear if that assumption holds all the time, and how large may that area be. In this study, three different datasets of aerosol size distributions from Mt. Zeppelin in Svalbard, Station Nord in northern Greenland and Alert in the Canadian arctic, are analyzed for the measurement period of 2012-2013. All stations are 500 to 1000 km from each other, and the travel time from one station to the other is typically between 2 to 5 days. The meteorological parameters along the calculated trajectories are analyzed in order to estimate their role in the modification of the aerosol size distribution while the air is traveling from one field station to another. In addition, the exposure of the sampled air to open waters vs. frozen sea is assessed, due to the different fluxes of heat, moisture, gases and particles, that are expected to affect the aerosol size distribution. The results show that the general characteristics of the aerosol size distributions and their annual variation are not very different in all three stations, with Alert and Station Nord being more similar. This is more pronounced when looking into the cases for which the trajectory calculations indicated that the air traveled from one of the latter stations to the other. The probable causes for the

  11. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  12. Investigation of atmospheric aerosols and gases at an East China Station. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Parungo, F.; Nagamoto, C.; Kopcewicz, B.; Li, X.; Yang, D.

    1993-04-01

    From August to October of 1991, when the West Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM-west) airborne expedition was conducted, ground-level measurements of gases and aerosols were carried out at Lin-an station near the east coast of China. Meteorological parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity, solar radiation, wind direction, and wind speed were recorded continuously. Concentrations of SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], O[sub 3], and black carbon were monitored in situ intermittently. Aerosol samples were collected and later analyzed in laboratories. A transmission electron microscope was used to analyze particle concentration, morphology, and size distribution. Elemental compositions of aerosol samples, collected on filters, were determined with an neutron activation analyzer and with a proton induced x-ray energy spectrometer. The water soluble portions of the aerosols were analyzed by ion chromatography.

  13. Variability of atmospheric aerosol and ozone concentrations at marine, urban, and high-altitude monitoring stations in southern Italy during the 2007 summer Saharan dust outbreaks and wildfire episodes.

    PubMed

    Bencardino, M; Sprovieri, F; Cofone, F; Pirrone, N

    2011-09-01

    In order to evaluate the spatial variation of aerosol (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm [PM10]) and ozone (03) concentrations and characterize the atmospheric conditions that lead to 03 and PM10-rich episodes in southern Italy during summer 2007, an intensive sampling campaign was simultaneously performed, from middle of July to the end of August, at three ground-based sites (marine, urban, and high-altitude monitoring stations) in Calabria region. A cluster analysis, based on the prevailing air mass backward trajectories, was performed, allowing to discriminate the contribution of different air masses origin and paths. Results showed that both PM10 and 03 levels reached similar high values when air masses originated from the industrialized continental Europe as well as under the influence of wildfire emissions. Among natural sources, dust intrusion and wildfire events seem to involve a marked impact on the recorded data. Typical fair weather of Mediterranean summer and persisting anticyclone system at synoptic scale were indeed favorable conditions to the arrival of heavily dust-loaded air masses over three periods of consecutive days and more than half of the observed PM10 daily exceedances have been attributed to Saharan dust events. During the identified dust outbreaks, a consistent increase in PM10 levels with a concurrent decrease in 03 values was also observed and discussed.

  14. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station: Extending Long-Term Ozone and Aerosol Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M.; Gasbarre, J.; Flittner, D. E.; Hill, C.; Roell, M.; Moore, J. R.; Hernandez, G.; McCormick, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station (SAGE III on ISS) will extend the global measurements of vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases begun with SAGE I in 1979, enabling the detection of long-term trends. SAGE III on ISS is the fourth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring these constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm, using the heritage occultation technique, utilizing both the sun and the moon. Launch to ISS is planned for early 2015 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft. SAGE III will investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the measured species in order to determine their role in climatological processes, biogeochemical cycles, the hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry. It will characterize tropospheric, as well as stratospheric aerosols and upper tropospheric and stratospheric clouds, and investigate their effects on the Earth's environment including radiative, microphysical, and chemical interactions. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Amongst its key objectives will be to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to reestablish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The ISS is ideal for Earth observing experiments; its mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III on ISS mission, its implementation, current status, and concentrate on its key science objectives.

  15. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  16. LOCATING MONITORING STATIONS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water undergoes changes in quality between the time it leaves the treatment plant and the time it reaches the customer's tap, making it important to select monitoring stations that will adequately monitor these changers. But because there is no uniform schedule or framework for ...

  17. Environmental monitoring for Space Station WP01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    External contamination monitoring instrumentation for the Space Station work package one (WP01) elements, were imposed on the contractor as deliverable hardware. The monitoring instrumentation proposed by the WP01 contractor in response to the contract requirement includes both real time measurements and passive samples. Real time measurement instrumentation consists of quartz crystal microbalances for molecular deposition, ion gaseous species identification. Internal environmental contamination monitoring for particulates is included in both Lab and HAB modules. Passive samples consists of four sample mounting plates mounted external to the Space Station modules, two on the U.S. LAB, and two on the HAB module.

  18. Infrared monitoring of the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Jennings, Donald E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement and monitoring of infrared emission in the environment of the Space Station has a twofold importance - for the study of the phenomena itself and as an aid in planning and interpreting Station based infrared experiments. Spectral measurements of the infrared component of the spacecraft glow will, along with measurements in other spectral regions, provide data necessary to fully understand and model the physical and chemical processes producing these emissions. The monitoring of the intensity of these emissions will provide background limits for Space Station based infrared experiments and permit the determination of optimum instrument placement and pointing direction. Continuous monitoring of temporal changes in the background radiation (glow) will also permit better interpretation of Station-based infrared earth sensing and astronomical observations. The primary processes producing infrared emissions in the Space Station environment are: (1) Gas phase excitations of Station generated molecules ( e.g., CO2, H2O, organics...) by collisions with the ambient flux of mainly O and N2. Molecular excitations and generation of new species by collisions of ambient molecules with Station surfaces. They provide a list of resulting species, transition energies, excitation cross sections and relevant time constants. The modeled spectrum of the excited species occurs primarily at wavelengths shorter than 8 micrometer. Emissions at longer wavelengths may become important during rocket firing or in the presence of dust.

  19. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time data capability of the ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as air quality and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science

  20. Monitoring biological aerosols using UV fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversole, Jay D.; Roselle, Dominick; Seaver, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus has been designed and constructed to continuously monitor the number density, size, and fluorescent emission of ambient aerosol particles. The application of fluorescence to biological particles suspended in the atmosphere requires laser excitation in the UV spectral region. In this study, a Nd:YAG laser is quadrupled to provide a 266 nm wavelength to excite emission from single micrometer-sized particles in air. Fluorescent emission is used to continuously identify aerosol particles of biological origin. For calibration, biological samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and vegetative cells, Esherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis and Erwinia herbicola vegetative cells were prepared as suspensions in water and nebulized to produce aerosols. Detection of single aerosol particles, provides elastic scattering response as well as fluorescent emission in two spectral bands simultaneously. Our efforts have focuses on empirical characterization of the emission and scattering characteristics of various bacterial samples to determine the feasibility of optical discrimination between different cell types. Preliminary spectroscopic evidence suggest that different samples can be distinguished as separate bio-aerosol groups. In addition to controlled sample results, we will also discuss the most recent result on the effectiveness of detection outdoor releases and variations in environmental backgrounds.

  1. LESSONS LEARNED IN AEROSOL MONITORING WITH THE RASA

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Eslinger, Paul W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Litke, Kevin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Schrom, Brian T.; Van Davelaar, Peter; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-09-14

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the 1990's and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The RASA operates unattended, save for regularly scheduled maintenance, iterating samples through a three-step process on a 24-hour interval. In its 15-year history, much has been learned from the operation and maintenance of the RASA that can benefit engineering updates or future aerosol systems. On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami rocked the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in power loss and cooling failures at the Daiichi nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture. Aerosol collections were conducted with the RASA in Richland, WA. We present a summary of the lessons learned over the history of the RASA, including lessons taken from the Fukushima incident, regarding the RASA IMS stations operated by the United States.

  2. Measurements of trace gas species and aerosols at three Siberian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Ivlev, Georgii A.; Pestunov, Dmitrii A.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.; Fofonov, Alexander V.

    2014-05-01

    Siberia is of great importance to understand the climate change due to it covers about 10% of Earth's land surface and it has the largest area to be studied under the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX). In the overview done by Kulmala et al. (2011) authors arrived at a conclusion that continuous and comprehensive measurements of GHGs and aerosols over Siberia are still lacking. Understanding the importance of this problem, in recent years the Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS established several monitoring stations for continuous measurements of aerosol and trace gas species to fill up this gap. In this paper we present some results of continuous measurements of trace gas species and aerosols carried out at three stations located in West Siberia. The first one is a so-called TOR-station located in the scientific campus of Tomsk (56° 28'41"N, 85° 03'15"E), the second one is the Base Experimental Complex (BEC, 56° 28'49"N, 85° 06'08"E) - in the eastern suburbs of Tomsk, and the third one is Fonovaya Observatory (56° 25'07"N, 84° 04'27"E) - in a rural area 60 km west of Tomsk. All equipment of the stations is fully automated and can be monitored via Internet. Gas analyzers are hourly calibrated against standard gas mixtures, micro-flux gas sources, or gas generators, depending on the instrument type and the gas to be detected. Aerosol measurements carried out continuously from March 2010 enabled a frequency and seasonal dependency of the new particle formation (NPF) events to be revealed. NPF events in Siberia are more often observed during spring (from March to May) and early autumn (secondary frequency peak in September). On average, NPF evens took place on 23-28 % of all days. This work was funded by Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14

  3. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a

  4. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  5. Development of a Scheimpflug Lidar System for Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a Scheimpflug lidar system which was employed for atmospheric aerosol monitoring in southern Sweden. Atmospheric aerosol fluctuation was observed around rush-hour. The extinction coefficient over 6 km was retrieved, i.e., 0.15 km-1, by employing the slop-method during the time when the atmosphere was relatively homogenous. The measurements successfully demonstrate the potential of using a Scheimpflug lidar technique for atmospheric aerosol monitoring applications.

  6. Precipitation effects on aerosol concentration in the background EMEP station of Zarra (Valencia), Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Ana Isabel; San Martín, Isabel; Castro, Amaya; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Márcio; Fernández-González, Sergio; Fraile, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and precipitation are closely related, presenting a bidirectional influence and constituting an important source of uncertainties on climate change studies. However, they are usually studied independently and in general are only linked to one another for the development or validation of cloud models. The primary and secondary pollutants may be removed by wet and dry deposition. Wet deposition, including in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging processes, can efficiently remove atmospheric aerosols and it is considered a critical process for determining aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. In this study, aerosols and precipitation data from a background Spanish EMEP (Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) station located in Zarra, Valencia (Spain) were analyzed (1° 06' W and 39° 05' N, 885 m asl). The effect of precipitation on aerosol concentration was studied and the correlation between the intensity of precipitation and scavenging effect was investigated. In order to evaluate the effects of precipitation on different aerosol size ranges three different aerosol fractions were studied: PM10, PM10-2.5 and PM2.5. In order to eliminate the influence of the air mass changes, only the days in which the air mass of the precipitation day and the previous day had the same origin were considered. Thus, from a total of 3586 rainy days registered from March 2001 to December 2010, 34 precipitation days satisfied this condition and were analyzed. During the period of study, daily precipitation ranged between 0.2 and 28.8 mm, with a mean value of 4 mm. Regarding the origin of the air masses, those from west were dominant at the three height levels investigated (500, 1500 and 3000 m). In order to obtain additional information, aerosol and precipitation chemical composition were also studied in relation to the days of precipitation and the previous days. Furthermore, in order to identify the type

  7. GPS Monitor Station Upgrade Program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Craig, Dwin M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the measurements made by the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor stations is to measure the continuous pseudo-range of all the passing GPS satellites. The pseudo-range contains GPS and monitor station clock errors as well as GPS satellite navigation errors. Currently the time at the GPS monitor station is obtained from the GPS constellation and has an inherent inaccuracy as a result. Improved timing accuracy at the GPS monitoring stations will improve GPS performance. The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing hardware and software for the GPS monitor station upgrade program to improve the monitor station clock accuracy. This upgrade will allow a method independent of the GPS satellite constellation of measuring and correcting monitor station time to US Naval Observatory (USNO) time. THe hardware consists of a high performance atomic cesium frequency standard (CFS) and a computer which is used to ensemble the CFS with the two CFS's currently located at the monitor station by use of a dual-mixer system. The dual-mixer system achieves phase measurements between the high-performance CFS and the existing monitor station CFS's to within 400 femtoseconds. Time transfer between USNO and a given monitor station is achieved via a two way satellite time transfer modem. The computer at the monitor station disciplines the CFS based on a comparison of one pulse per second sent from the master site at USNO. The monitor station computer is also used to perform housekeeping functions, as well as recording the health status of all three CFS's. This information is sent to the USNO through the time transfer modem. Laboratory time synchronization results in the sub nanosecond range have been observed and the ability to maintain the monitor station CFS frequency to within 3.0 x 10 (sup minus 14) of the master site at USNO.

  8. Long-term Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in the Amazon Forest - ATTO Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, S.; Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Holanda, B. A.; Cirino, G. G.; Saturno, J.; Krüger, M. L.; Pöhlker, C.; Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The study of the chemical composition of aerosol particles in the Amazon forest represents a step forward to understand the strong coupling between the atmosphere and the forest. For this reason submicron aerosol particles were investigated in the Amazon forest, where biogenic and anthropogenic aerosol particles coexist at the different seasons (wet/dry). The measurements were performed at the ATTO station, which is located about 150 km northeast of Manaus. At ATTO station the Aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne) and the Multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP, Thermo 5012) have been operated continuously from March 2014 to July 2015. In this study, long-term measurements (near-real-time, ~30 minutes) of PM1 chemical composition were investigated for the first time in this environment.The wet season presented lower concentrations than the dry season (~5 times). In terms of chemical composition, both seasons were dominated by organics (75 and 63%) followed by sulfate (11 and 13%). Nitrate presented different ratio values between the mass-to-charges 30 to 46 (main nitrate fragments) suggesting the presence of nitrate as inorganic and organic nitrate during both seasons. The results indicated that about 75% of the nitrate signal was from organic nitrate during the dry season. In addition, several episodes with elevated amount of chloride, likely in the form of sea-salt from the Atlantic Ocean, were observed during the wet season. During those episodes, chloride comprised up to 7% of the PM1. During the dry season, chloride was also observed; however, with different volatility, which suggested that Chloride was present in different form and source. Moreover, the constant presence of sulfate and BC during the wet season might be related to biomass burning emissions from Africa. BC concentration was 2.5 times higher during the dry season. Further characterization of the organic fraction was accomplished with the positive matrix factorization (PMF), which

  9. Carbonaceous aerosols observed at Ieodo Ocean Research Station and implication for the role of secondary aerosols in fog formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Lee, M.; Shim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonaceous components and soluble ions of PM2.5 were measured at Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS) from December 2004 to June 2008. IORS is a 40-m research tower and located in the East China Sea (32.07°N, 125.10°E). As IORS is distanced equally from South Korea, China, and Japan, it is an ideal place to monitor Asian outflows with the least influence of local emissions. The mean concentration of PM2.5 mass was 21.8 ± 14.9 μg/m3 with the maximum of 35.3 μg/m3 (March) and the minimum of 11.2 μg/m3 (September). The monthly variation of PM2.5 mass was similar to that of O3 due to meteorological conditions, which determines the degree of influence from nearby lands. Chinese outflows were mostly responsible for the enhancement of mass and major constituents of PM2.5 such as sulfate, OC, and EC. Their concentrations were the lowest in summer when aged marine air masses were dominant. It is noteworthy that sulfate was also enhanced when air mass passed through Japan, even though its concentration was not as high as that of Chinese outflows. In June, OC concentration was distinctively high with high OC/EC ratio of ~9.5. At IORS, June is characterized by the most frequent occurrence of fog and the lowest visibility with the highest relative humidity. In China, the clearing fire of agricultural residues is the major source of fine aerosols in June, leading to severe haze (e.g., Cheng et al., 2014). In addition, the aerosol optical depth was also observed to be the maximum over northeast Asia in June (Kim et al., 2007). Consequently, our results suggest that organic aerosol played a critical role in fog formation in the study region. References Cheng, Z., et al. (2014) Impact of biomass burning on haze pollution in the Yangtze River delta, China: a case study in summer 2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4573-4585, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4573-2014. Kim, S.-W., et al. (2007) Seasonal and monthly variations of columnar aerosol optical properties over east Asia determined from

  10. Overview of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittner, David; Pitts, Michael; Zawodny, Joe; Hill, Charles; Damadeo, Robert; Moore, Randy; Cisewski, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III is the fourth generation of solar occultation instruments operated by NASA, the first coming under a different acronym, to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. Three flight-ready SAGE III instruments were built by Ball Aerospace in the late 1990s, with one launched aboard the former Russian Avaiation and Space Agency (now known as Roskosmos) Meteor-3M (M3M) platform on 10 December 2001 (continuing until the platform lost power in 2006). Another of the original instruments was manifested for the International Space Station (ISS) in the 2004 time frame, but was delayed because of budgetary considerations. Fortunately, that SAGE III/ISS mission was restarted in 2009 with a major focus upon filling an anticipated gap in ozone and aerosol observations in the second half of this decade. This exciting mission utilizes contributions from both the Science Mission Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the European Space Agency to enable scientific measurements that will provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. A related paper by Anderson et al. discusses the. Presented here is an overview of the mission architecture, its implementation and the data that will be produced by SAGE III/ISS, including their expected accuracy and coverage. The 52-degree inclined orbit of the ISS is well-suited for solar occultation and provides near-global observations on a monthly basis with excellent coverage of low and mid-latitudes. This is similar to that of the SAGE II mission (1985-2005), whose data set has served the international atmospheric science community as a standard for stratospheric ozone and aerosol measurements. The nominal science products include vertical profiles of trace gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water

  11. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    microbial growth. Air filtration can dramatically reduce the number of airborne bacteria, fungi, and particulates in spacecraft breathing air. Waterborne bacteria can be reduced to acceptable levels by thermal inactivation of bacteria during water processing, along with a residual biocide, and filtration at the point of use can ensure safety. System design must include onboard capability to achieve recovery of the system from contamination. Robust housekeeping procedures that include periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Food for consumption in space must be thoroughly tested for excessive microbial content and pathogens before launch. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, payloads, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. Many of the lessons learned from the Space Shuttle and previous programs were applied in the early design phase of the International Space Station, resulting in the safest space habitat to date. This presentation describes the monitoring program for the International Space Station and will summarize results from preflight and on-orbit monitoring.

  12. Continuous Monitoring of Nitrate and Sulfate in Aerosols with Microchip Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noblitt, S. D.; Henry, C. S.; Collett, J. L.; Hering, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    Routine monitoring of aerosol composition is important since aerosols can negatively affect both the environment and health. Water-soluble inorganic ions are commonly monitored using the particle-into-liquid-sampler coupled to ion chromatography (PILS-IC). However, a less-expensive, faster, and more portable analysis system is desirable. Here, we present the coupling of microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) to a water-based condensation particle counter (WCPC) for rapid and continuous monitoring of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in atmospheric aerosols. To achieve a working system, several obstacles were overcome. A working interface between the electrophoresis microchip and the WCPC sampler was developed. This interface was designed to remove insoluble particles from the analysis stream and to prevent the sampling-induced pressure gradient from altering flow in the microfluidic device. The electrophoresis separation chemistry was optimized for the small chip size, to be free from potential interfering compounds, and to operate continuously for several hours. In-field performance of the integrated system was tested with ambient aerosols. Anion analyses can be performed in less than two minutes with aerosol detection limits similar to the PILS-IC, but with greater portability and reduced cost. Coupling microfluidic devices to aerosol sampling technology proves successful for inorganic anion analysis and shows potential for faster and more sensitive measurements as well as monitoring of other water- soluble aerosol components such as organic acids, cations, and carbohydrates. The reduced cost and size relative to current technology indicate that greater deployment of monitoring stations or the advent of portable analyzers may be feasible.

  13. Portable Multigas Monitors for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) on International Space Station (ISS) includes portable instruments to measure various cabin gases that acutely impact crew health. These hand-held devices measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide. The oxygen and carbon dioxide units also serve to back up key functions of the Major Constituent Analyzers. Wherever possible, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are employed by EHS to save development and sustaining costs. COTS hardware designed for general terrestrial applications however has limitations such as no pressure compensation, limited life of the active sensor, calibration drift, battery issues, unpredictable vendor support and obsolescence. The EHS fleet (inflight and ground inventory) of instruments is both aging and dwindling in number. With the retirement of the US Space Shuttle, maintenance of on-orbit equipment becomes all the more difficult. A project is underway to search for gas monitoring technology that is highly reliable and stable for years. Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLS) seems to be the front-runner technology, but generally is not yet commercially available in portable form. NASA has fostered the development of TDLS through the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. A number of gases of interest to the aerospace and submarine communities can be addressed by TDLS including the list mentioned above plus hydrogen fluoride, ammonia and water (humidity). There are several different forms of TDLS including photoacoustic and direct absorption spectroscopy using various multipass cell geometries. This paper describes the history of portable gas monitoring on NASA spacecraft and provides a status of the development of TDLS based instruments. Planned TDLS flight experiments on ISS could lead both to operational use on ISS and important roles in future Exploration spacecraft and habitats.

  14. Parametric retrieval model for estimating aerosol size distribution via the AERONET, LAGOS station.

    PubMed

    Emetere, Moses Eterigho; Akinyemi, Marvel Lola; Akin-Ojo, Omololu

    2015-12-01

    The size characteristics of atmospheric aerosol over the tropical region of Lagos, Southern Nigeria were investigated using two years of continuous spectral aerosol optical depth measurements via the AERONET station for four major bands i.e. blue, green, red and infrared. Lagos lies within the latitude of 6.465°N and longitude of 3.406°E. Few systems of dispersion model was derived upon specified conditions to solve challenges on aerosols size distribution within the Stokes regime. The dispersion model was adopted to derive an aerosol size distribution (ASD) model which is in perfect agreement with existing model. The parametric nature of the formulated ASD model shows the independence of each band to determine the ASD over an area. The turbulence flow of particulates over the area was analyzed using the unified number (Un). A comparative study via the aid of the Davis automatic weather station was carried out on the Reynolds number, Knudsen number and the Unified number. The Reynolds and Unified number were more accurate to describe the atmospheric fields of the location. The aerosols loading trend in January to March (JFM) and August to October (ASO) shows a yearly 15% retention of aerosols in the atmosphere. The effect of the yearly aerosol retention can be seen to partly influence the aerosol loadings between October and February. PMID:26452005

  15. Measuring the characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer and total ozone concentration at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5 °N, 85.0 °E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of TOMS satellite data for the period 1979- 1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk after a series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, researchers record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  16. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  17. A study of aerosol optical properties at the global GAW station Bukit Kototabang, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, N.; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few studies carried out in Indonesia on the atmospheric aerosol optical properties and their impact on the earth climate. This study utilized solar radiation and aerosol measurement results of Indonesian GAW station Bukit Kototabang in Sumatra. The radiation data of nine years were used as input to a radiation simulation code for retrieving optically equivalent parameters of aerosols, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT), coarse particle to fine particle ratio ( γ-ratio), and soot fraction. Retrieval of aerosol properties shows that coarse particles dominated at the station due to high relative humidity (RH) reaching more than 80% throughout the year. AOT time series showed a distinct two peak structure with peaks in MJJ and NDJ periods. The second peak corresponds to the period of high RH suggesting it was formed by active particle growth with large RH near 90%. On the other hand the time series of hot spot number, though it is only for the year of 2004, suggests the first peak was strongly contributed by biomass burning aerosols. The γ-ratio took a value near 10 throughout the year except for November and December when it took a larger value. The soot fraction varies in close relation with the γ-ratio, i.e. low values when γ was large, as consistent with our proposal of active particle growth in the high relative periods.

  18. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  19. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring by an elastic Scheimpflug lidar system.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-11-30

    This work demonstrates a new approach - Scheimpflug lidar - for atmospheric aerosol monitoring. The atmospheric backscattering echo of a high-power continuous-wave laser diode is received by a Newtonian telescope and recorded by a tilted imaging sensor satisfying the Scheimpflug condition. The principles as well as the lidar equation are discussed in details. A Scheimpflug lidar system operating at around 808 nm is developed and employed for continuous atmospheric aerosol monitoring at daytime. Localized emission, atmospheric variation, as well as the changes of cloud height are observed from the recorded lidar signals. The extinction coefficient is retrieved according to the slope method for a homogeneous atmosphere. This work opens up new possibilities of using a compact and robust Scheimpflug lidar system for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing.

  20. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring by an elastic Scheimpflug lidar system.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-11-30

    This work demonstrates a new approach - Scheimpflug lidar - for atmospheric aerosol monitoring. The atmospheric backscattering echo of a high-power continuous-wave laser diode is received by a Newtonian telescope and recorded by a tilted imaging sensor satisfying the Scheimpflug condition. The principles as well as the lidar equation are discussed in details. A Scheimpflug lidar system operating at around 808 nm is developed and employed for continuous atmospheric aerosol monitoring at daytime. Localized emission, atmospheric variation, as well as the changes of cloud height are observed from the recorded lidar signals. The extinction coefficient is retrieved according to the slope method for a homogeneous atmosphere. This work opens up new possibilities of using a compact and robust Scheimpflug lidar system for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing. PMID:26698808

  1. Internal seismological stations for monitoring a comprehensive test ban theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlman, O.; Israelson, H.

    1980-06-01

    Verification of the compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban on nuclear explosions is expected to be carried out by a seismological verification system of some fifty globally distributed teleseismic stations designed to monitor underground explosions at large distances (beyond 2000 km). It is attempted to assess various technical purposes that such internal stations might serve in relation to a global network of seismological stations. The assessment is based on estimates of the detection capabilities of hypothetical networks of internal stations. Estimates pertaining to currently used detection techniques (P waves) indicate that a limited number (less than 30) of such stations would not improve significantly upon the detection capability that a global network of stations would have throughout the territories of the US and the USSR. Recently available and not yet fully analyzed data indicate however that very high detection capabilities might be obtained in certain regions.

  2. Aerosol Chemistry over a High Altitude Station at Northeastern Himalayas, India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Adak, Anandamay; Singh, Ajay K.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Tiwari, Suresh; Devara, Panuganti C. S.; Raha, Sibaji

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the sources, distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosol in order to control the atmospheric pollution over northeastern Himalayas where rising anthropogenic interferences from rapid urbanization and development is becoming an increasing concern. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive aerosol sampling program was conducted in Darjeeling (altitude ∼2200 meter above sea level (masl), latitude 27°01′N and longitude 88°15′E), a high altitude station in northeastern Himalayas, during January–December 2005. Samples were collected using a respirable dust sampler and a fine dust sampler simultaneously. Ion chromatograph was used to analyze the water soluble ionic species of aerosol. The average concentrations of fine and coarse mode aerosol were found to be 29.5±20.8 µg m−3 and 19.6±11.1 µg m−3 respectively. Fine mode aerosol dominated during dry seasons and coarse mode aerosol dominated during monsoon. Nitrate existed as NH4NO3 in fine mode aerosol during winter and as NaNO3 in coarse mode aerosol during monsoon. Gas phase photochemical oxidation of SO2 during premonsoon and aqueous phase oxidation during winter and postmonsoon were the major pathways for the formation of SO42− in the atmosphere. Long range transport of dust aerosol from arid regions of western India was observed during premonsoon. The acidity of fine mode aerosol was higher in dry seasons compared to monsoon whereas the coarse mode acidity was higher in monsoon compared to dry seasons. Biomass burning, vehicular emissions and dust particles were the major types of aerosol from local and continental regions whereas sea salt particles were the major types of aerosol from marine source regions. Conclusions/Significance The year-long data presented in this paper provide substantial improvements to the heretofore poor knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry over northeastern Himalayas, and should be useful to

  3. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station Mission: Science Objectives and Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M. S.; Flittner, D. E.; McCormick, M. P.; Gasbarre, J. F.; Damadeo, R. P.; Hill, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) is a strategic climate continuity mission which was included in NASA's 2010 plan, "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space." SAGE III/ISS continues the long-term, global measurements of trace gases and aerosols begun in 1979 by SAGE I and continued by SAGE II and SAGE III on Meteor 3M. Using a well characterized occultation technique, the SAGE III instrument's spectrometer will measure vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases relevant to ozone chemistry. The mission will launch in 2016 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft.The primary objective of SAGE III/ISS is to monitor the vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere to enhance our understanding of ozone recovery and climate change processes in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. SAGE III/ISS will provide data necessary to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, extend the SAGE III aerosol measurement record that is needed by both climate models and ozone models, and gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense community scrutiny for accuracy and stability. SAGE ozone data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol.The ISS inclined orbit of 51.6 degrees is ideal for SAGE III measurements because the orbit permits solar occultation measurement coverage to approximately +/- 70 degrees of latitude. SAGE III/ISS will make measurements using the solar occultation measurement technique, lunar occultation measurement technique, and the limb scattering measurement technique. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III/ISS mission, its

  4. Identifying atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    The atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom were identified by examining the following from an industrial hygiene perspective: the experiences of past missions; ground based tests of proposed life support systems; the unique experimental and manufacturing facilities; the contaminant load model; metabolic production; and a fire. A target list of compounds to be monitored is presented and information is provided relative to the frequency of analysis, concentration ranges, and locations for monitoring probes.

  5. Chemical Characterization of the Aerosol During the CLAMS Experiment Using Aircraft and Ground Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D.; Martins, J.; Artaxo, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Remer, L.; Yamasoe, M.; Fattori, A.

    2002-05-01

    During the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment Nuclepore filters were collected in two ground stations and aboard the University of Wasghington's Convair 580 Reserarch Aircraft. The two ground stations were chosen in strategic positions to characterize the chemical composition, the mass concentration, black carbon (BC) content, and the absorption properties of the aerosol particles at the surface level. One of the stations was located at the Cheasapeake lighthouse (25 km from the coast) and the other one was located at the Wallops Island. Aerosol particles where collected in two stages, fine (d<2.5um) and coarse mode (2.5aerosol in the atmospheric column in the CLAMS Experiment area. Some of the filters were also submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. The particulate matter mass for all the samples were obtained gravimetrically. The concentration of black carbon in the fine filters was optically determined by a broadband reflectance technique. The spectral (from UV to near IR) reflectance in the fine and coarse mode filter were also obtained with a FieldSpec ASD spectrometer. Aerosol elemental characterization (Na through Pb) was obtained by the PIXE (Particle induced X ray emission) analyses of the nuclepore filters. The sources of the aerosol measured at the ground stations were estimated by principal component analyses mainly in the Wallops Island, where a longer time series was collected. One of the main urban components identified in the aerosol during the experiment was sulfate. Black carbon

  6. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.

  7. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  8. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  9. Multi-Wave Station of Solar Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korokhin, V.; Akimov, L.; Beletsky, S.; Belkina, I.; Velikodsky, Y.; Marchenko, G.; Shaparenko, E.

    A technical description of the contemporary solar telescope of the Kharkov Astronomical Observatory (http://khassm.virtualave.net) is given, and the plan to future development is sketched. A wide range monitoring of solar activity including observations near UV range in Balmer continuum and the IR line of He 1083 nm is presented.

  10. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  11. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  12. Mobile station for monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Arshinov, Yu.F.; Belan, B.D.; Bobrovnikov, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    At present different types of mobile stations for ecological monitoring of the environment has been created at various environmental protection agencies. Mostly, such stations differ from each other by the set of equipment employed though they use, as a rule, the same measurement and sampling techniques. Basically, such mobile stations use sampling of air, water, and soil. The collected samples are then analyzed with the laboratory instrumentation. The mobile station we are going to discuss in this paper presents a new type of such systems. The matter is that it enables, in addition to traditional sampling, remote determination of the composition and intensity of the emissions at the mouth of a stack. To do this the station is equipped with a Raman lidar. This station has been tested in a number of field experiments at the territories of different plants and now it is presented for meteorological certification at the Scientific and Production Association {open_quotes}Dal`standart{close_quotes} in Khabarovsk. Thus, the mobile station discussed is capable of monitoring air quality near the ground surface using standard techniques of analysis and of performing air quality police functions, that is to control the emissions from industrial enterprises.

  13. Link between aerosol optical, microphysical and chemical measurements in an underground railway station in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Fortain, A.

    Measurements carried out in Paris Magenta railway station in April-May 2006 underlined a repeatable diurnal cycle of aerosol concentrations and optical properties. The average daytime PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in such a confined space were approximately 5-30 times higher than those measured in Paris streets. Particles are mainly constituted of dust, with high concentrations of iron and other metals, but are also composed of black and organic carbon. Aerosol levels are linked to the rate at which rain and people pass through the station. Concentrations are also influenced by ambient air from the nearby streets through tunnel ventilation. During daytime approximately 70% of aerosol mass concentrations are governed by coarse absorbing particles with a low Angström exponent (˜0.8) and a low single-scattering albedo (˜0.7). The corresponding aerosol density is about 2 g cm -3 and their complex refractive index at 355 nm is close to 1.56-0.035 i. The high absorption properties are linked to the significant proportion of iron oxides together with black carbon in braking systems. During the night, particles are mostly submicronic, thus presenting a greater Angström exponent (˜2). The aerosol density is lower (1.8 g cm -3) and their complex refractive index presents a lower imaginary part (1.58-0.013 i), associated to a stronger single-scattering albedo (˜0.85-0.90), mostly influenced by the ambient air. For the first time we have assessed the emission (deposition) rates in an underground station for PM 10, PM 2.5 and black carbon concentrations to be 3314 ± 781(-1164 ± 160), 1186 ± 358(-401 ± 66) and 167 ± 46(-25 ± 9) μg m -2 h -1, respectively.

  14. Atmosphere and water quality monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, William

    1990-01-01

    In Space Station Freedom air and water will be supplied in closed loop systems. The monitoring of air and water qualities will ensure the crew health for the long mission duration. The Atmosphere Composition Monitor consists of the following major instruments: (1) a single focusing mass spectrometer to monitor major air constituents and control the oxygen/nitrogen addition for the Space Station; (2) a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to detect trace contaminants; (3) a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer to determine carbon monoxide concentration; and (4) a laser particle counter for measuring particulates in the air. An overview of the design and development concepts for the air and water quality monitors is presented.

  15. Time-resolved mass concentration, composition and sources of aerosol particles in a metropolitan underground railway station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salma, Imre; Weidinger, Tamás; Maenhaut, Willy

    Aerosol samples were collected using a stacked filter unit (SFU) for PM10-2.0 and PM2.0 size fractions on the platform of a metropolitan underground railway station in downtown Budapest. Temporal variations in the PM10 mass concentration and wind speed and direction were determined with time resolutions of 30 and 4 s using a tapered-element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) and a wind monitor, respectively. Sample analysis involved gravimetry for particulate mass, and particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) for elemental composition. Diurnal variation of the PM10 mass concentration exhibited two peaks, one at approximately 07:00 h and the other at approximately 17:00 h. The mean±SD PM10 mass concentration for working hours was 155±55 μg m -3. Iron, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cr concentrations were higher than in outdoor air by factors between 5 and 20, showing substantial enrichment compared to both the average crustal rock composition and the average outdoor aerosol composition. Iron accounted for 40% and 46% of the PM10-2.0 and PM2.0 masses, respectively, and 72% of the PM10 mass was associated with the PM10-2.0 size fraction. The aerosol composition in the metro station (in particular the abundance of the metals mentioned above) is quite different from the average outdoor downtown composition. Mechanical wear and friction of electric conducting rails and bow sliding collectors, ordinary rails and wheels, as well as resuspension, were identified as the primary sources. Possible health implications based on comparison to various limit values and to data available for other underground railways are discussed.

  16. Development of an atmospheric monitoring plan for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    An environmental health monitoring plan for Space Station will ensure crew health during prolonged habitation. The Space Station, Freedom, will operate for extended periods, 90+ days, without resupply. A regenerative, closed loop life support system will be utilized in order to minimize resupply logistics and costs. Overboard disposal of wastes and venting of gases to space will be minimal. All waste material will be treated and recycled. The concentrated wastes will be stabilized and stored for ground disposal. The expected useful life of the station (decades) and the diversity of materials brought aboard for experimental or manufacturing purposes, increases the likelihood of cabin contamination. Processes by which cabin contamination can occur include: biological waste production, material off-gassing, process leakage, accidental containment breach, and accumulation due to poor removal efficiencies of the purification units. An industrial hygiene approach was taken to rationalize monitoring needs and to identify the substances likely to be present, the amount, and their hazard.

  17. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  18. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  19. Long-term Observation of Aerosol Optical Properties at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yicheng; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Wang, Jiaping; Chi, Xuguang; Qi, Ximeng; Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Longfei; Xie, Yuning

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence the earth's radiation budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and contribute substantial uncertainty in the estimation of climate forcing. Thorough and comprehensive measurements on different parameters including absorption and scattering coefficient, wavelength dependence and angular dependence along with their daily and seasonal variation help to understand the influence of aerosol on radiation. 2-years continuous measurement of aerosol optical properties has been conducted from June 2013 to May 2015 at the Station for Observing Regional Process of Earth System (SORPES) station, which is a regional background station located in downwind direction of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) urban agglomeration in China. A 7-wavelenths aethalometer and a 3-wavelenths nephelometer were used to measure absorption and scattering coefficient, and also other parameters like single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption angstrom Exponent (AAE), scattering angstrom exponent (SAE) and back-scattering refraction. In addtion, simultaneous measurements on chemical composition and particle size distribution were performed so as to investigate the dependencies of aerosol optical properties on chemical composition and size distribution. To get further insight on the influencing factors, Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) was employed for source identification in this study. The averages of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and SSA are 26.0±18.7 Mm-1, 426±327 Mm-1 , 0.936±0.3 at 520nm respectively for whole period. SAE between 450 and 635nm is 1.299±0.34 and have strong negative correlation with particle Surface Mean Diameter (SMD). AAE between 370 and 950nm is 1.043±0.15 for whole period but growth to more than 1.6 in all identified Biomass Burning (BB) events.

  20. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  1. Integrated environmental quality monitoring around an underground methane storage station.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Linda; Vignudelli, Marco; Bartolucci, Fabrizio; Salvatorelli, Fiorenzo; Di Michele, Cesare; Tavano, Nicola; Rossi, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The study reports an integrated environmental quality monitoring of a 100 km2 area in central Italy mostly occupied by an underground station of methane storage, working since 1982. The nitrogen oxides, ozone and isoprene concentration detached with a network monitoring of passive filters were compared with the results of lichens biomonitoring. Data from the two monitorings were in accordance: there was an inversely correlation between lichen biodiversity index (IBL) and NOx (-0.96) and ozone (-0.80), and a positive correlation between IBL and isoprene (0.67). IBL indicated that the area ranged between medium naturalness and medium alteration status, values fully compatible with the medium-high level of eutrophication, caused by intensive agriculture. Only two areas were in high alteration status, due to their proximity to glass factories and to a quarries area. Despite almost thirty years of activity, the environment quality of the area around the station did not show signs of declining. PMID:25828802

  2. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.

    2015-12-01

    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  3. ON THE IMPACT OF THE HUMAN (CHILD) MICROCLIMATE ON PASSIVE AEROSOL MONITOR PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into the wind microclimate and its effect on the accuracy and effectiveness of passive aerosol monitors is expanding as the importance of personal monitoring versus regional monitoring increases. The important phenomena for investigation include thermal and dynamic eff...

  4. Summary of monitoring station component evaluation project 2009-2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as a center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring (GNEM) systems. This project will sustain and enhance our component evaluation capabilities. In addition, new sensor technologies that could greatly improve national monitoring system performance will be sought and characterized. This work directly impacts the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring mission by verifying that the performance of monitoring station sensors and instrumentation is characterized and suitable to the mission. It enables the operational monitoring agency to deploy instruments of known capability and to have confidence in operational success. This effort will ensure that our evaluation capabilities are maintained for future use.

  5. Comparison of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Measurements of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Smog Chamber Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, P. L.; Hunter, J. F.; Daumit, K. E.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Cross, E. S.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal vaporization-electron impact ionization (TV-EI) mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for understanding the chemistry of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and atmospheric aging. The Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and recently developed Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are two instruments that utilize the same TV-EI technique. The ACSM trades the particle sizing capability, sensitivity, speed, and resolution of the AMS for simplicity, affordability, and ease of operation - enabling stand-alone continuous sampling for extended periods of time. Here we present results of an intercomparison between a high-resolution AMS and an ACSM. Three well-studied SOA formation chamber experiments were conducted: isoprene photooxidation under high NOx conditions, m-xylene photooxidation under high NOx conditions, and α-pinene ozonolysis under low NOx conditions. Comparisons between time-series and mass spectra from these experiments, along with positive matrix factorization analysis results demonstrate that the ACSM, while it does not provide the same level of detail as an AMS, is a suitable tool for exploring the chemistry of SOA formation in chamber studies.

  6. An Environment Monitoring Package for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. Ralph; Clifton, Kenneth S.

    1998-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be launched into space and over the next few years ISS will be assembled on orbit into its final configuration. Experiments will be performed on a continuous basis both inside and outside the station. External experiments will be mounted on attached payload locations specifically designed to accommodate experiments, provide data and supply power from ISS. From the beginning of the space station program it has been recognized that experiments will require knowledge of the external local environment which can affect the science being performed and may impact lifetime and operations of the experiment hardware. Recently an effort was initiated to design and develop an Environment Monitoring Package (EMP). This paper describes the derivation of the requirements for the EMP package, the type of measurements that the EMP will make and types of instruments which will be employed to make these measurements.

  7. Monitoring of urban air pollution from MODIS and AERONET Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, K.; Chiaradia, M.; Guerriero, L.; Pasquariello, G.; Morea, A.; Nutricato, R.; Preziosa, G.

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, caused by fuel industries and urban traffic and its environmental impact, are of considerable interest to studies in air quality. In this paper, the monitoring of the air pollution over urban areas in Italy through Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements is presented. The high spatio-temporal frequency of MODIS AOT products (twice per day at 470nm, 1km full resolution) demonstrates that this satellite can be potentially used to routinely monitor the air pollution over land, especially urban area, which is the main source of aerosol particles. In this work AOT data derived by MODIS from November 2010 to February 2011 (winter period) and from May 2011 to August 2011 (summer period) were compared with AOT measurements from 6 different Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations over Italy (Bari, Lecce, Roma, Ispra, Potenza, Etna). The statistical analysis shows a good agreement between the ground based AOT measurements and the values retrieved using space based sensors, as shown in Figure 1. For all the stations the mean error is negligible, with a correlation ranging from 0.725 (in the worst case) to 0.96 (see Table 1). Moreover, LANDSAT-panchromatic images were used to discriminate urban and rural areas, based on the typical finger-like projections of urban land uses. The results of this study will be presented and commented. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Apulian Region in the framework of the ECOURB project. (Analisi e Modelli di inquinamento atmosferico e termico per sistemi di ECOlabeling URBano, 2009-2012). Figure 1: Scatter plot between AOT derived from MODIS and AERONET for Lecce City in summer period from May 2011 to August 2011. Y = - 0.023+0.86x (fit) ; Table 1: Statistical Analysis Report on the difference between AOT derived from MODIS and AERONET from May 2011 to August 2011 (summer period) for 6 different Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations

  8. On the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Gloria; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Cisewski, Michael S.; Thornton, Brooke M.; Panetta, Andrew D,; Roell, Marilee M.; Vernier, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on International Space Station (SAGE3/ISS) is anticipated to be delivered to Cape Canaveral in the spring of 2015. This is the fourth generation, fifth instrument, of visible/near-IR solar occultation instruments operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. The instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. The nominal science products include vertical profiles of trace gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor, along with multi-wavelength aerosol extinction. The SAGE3/ISS validation program will be based upon internal consistency of the measurements, detailed analysis of the retrieval algorithm, and comparisons with independent correlative measurements. The Instrument Payload (IP), mission architecture, and major challenges are also discussed.

  9. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

  10. Aerosol and CCN properties at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica: seasonality, new particle formation events and properties around precipitation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; De Backer, Hugo; Herenz, Paul; Wex, Heike; Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, several complementary ground-based instruments for measuring the aerosol composition of the Antarctic atmosphere have been operated at the Belgian Antarctic research station Princess Elisabeth, in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (71.95° S, 23.35° E, 1390 m asl.). In addition, three ground-based remote sensing instruments for cloud and precipitation observations have been installed for continuous operation, including a ceilometer (cloud base height, type, vertical extent), a 24 Ghz micro-rain radar (vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (cloud base temperature). The station is inhabited from November to end of February and operates under remote control during the other months. In this contribution, the general aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties will be described with a special focus on new particle formation events and around precipitation events. New particle formation events are important for the atmospheric aerosol budget and they also show that aerosols are not only transported to Antarctica but are also produced there, also inland. Aerosols are essential for cloud formation and therefore also for precipitation, which is the only source for mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet. Measured aerosol properties comprise size distribution, total number, total mass concentration, mass concentration of light-absorbing aerosol and absorption coefficient and total scattering coefficient. In addition, a CCN counter has been operated during austral summers 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The baseline total number concentration N-total was around some hundreds of particles/cm3. During new particle formation events N-total increased to some thousands of particles/cm3. Simultaneous measurements of N-total, size distribution and CCN number revealed that mostly the number of particles smaller than 100 nm increased and that the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei increased only very

  11. Ground-based aerosol measurements during CHARMEX/ADRIMED campaign at Granada station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Navas-Guzman, Francisco; Guerro-Rascado, Juan Luis; Titos, Gloria; Lyamani, Hassan; Valenzuela, Antonio; Cazorla, Alberto; Olmo, Francisco Jose; Mallet, Marc; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of ChArMEx/ADRIMED (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/; Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) projects, a field experiment based on in situ and remote sensing measurements from surface and airborne platforms was performed. The ADRIMED project aimed to capture the high complexity of the Mediterranean region by using an integrated approach based on intensive experimental field campaign and spaceborne observations, radiative transfer calculations and climate modelling with Regional Climate Models better adapted than global circulation models. For this purpose, measurements were performed at different surface super-sites (including Granada station) over the Occidental Mediterranean region during summer 2013 for creating an updated database of the physical, chemical, optical properties and the vertical distribution of the major "Mediterranean aerosols". Namely, measurements at Granada station were performed on 16 and 17 July 2013, in coincidence with the overpasses of the ATR aircraft over the station. The instrumentation used for the campaign includes both remote sensing instruments (a multiwavelength Raman lidar and a sun photometer) and in-situ measurements (a nephelometer, a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), an Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), a high volume sampler of PM10 and an aethalometer). During the measurement period a mineral dust event was detected, with similar dust load on both days. According to in-situ measurements, the event reached the surface level on 16 of June. Vertically resolved lidar measurements indicated presence of mineral dust layers up to 5 km asl both on 16 and 17 June 2013. Temporal evolution analysis indicated that on 17 June the dust layer decoupled from the boundary layer and disappeared around 14:00 UTC. In addition, lidar and sun-photometer data were used to retrieve volume concentration profiles by means of LIRIC (Lidar

  12. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  13. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  14. Seasonal variability of crustal and marine trace elements in the aerosol at Neumayer station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Rolf; Wöltjen, Janina; Piel, Claudia; Resenberg, Rosa; Wagenbach, Dietmar; König-Langlo, Gert; Kriews, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Atmospheric trace element concentrations were measured from March 1999 to December 2003 at the Air Chemistry Observatory of the German Antarctic station Neumayer, by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupol mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and ion chromatography (IC). This continuous five-year long record derived from weekly aerosol sampling revealed a distinct seasonal summer maximum for elements linked with mineral dust entry (Al, La, Ce, Nd) and a winter maximum for the mostly sea salt derived elements Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca and Sr. The relative seasonal amplitude was around 1.7 and 1.4 for mineral dust (La) and sea salt aerosol (Na), respectively. On average, a significant deviation regarding mean ocean water composition was apparent for Li, Mg and Sr, which could hardly be explained by mirabilite precipitation on freshly formed sea ice. In addition, we observed all over the year, a not clarified high variability of element ratios Li/Na, K/Na, Mg/Na, Ca/Na and Sr/Na. We found an intriguing co-variation of Se concentrations with biogenic sulphur aerosols (methane sulphonate and non-sea salt sulphate), indicating a dominant marine biogenic source for this element, linked with the marine biogenic sulphur source.

  15. Mini Neutron Monitors at Concordia Research Station, Central Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluianov, Stepan; Usoskin, Ilya; Mishev, Alexander; Moraal, Harm; Kruger, Helena; Casasanta, Giampietro; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Two mini neutron monitors are installed at Concordia research station (Dome C, Central Antarctica, 75° 06' S, 123° 23' E, 3,233 m.a.s.l.). The site has unique properties ideal for cosmic ray measurements, especially for the detection of solar energetic particles: very low cutoff rigidity < 0.01 GV, high elevation and poleward asymptotic acceptance cones pointing to geographical latitudes > 75° S. The instruments consist of a standard neutron monitor and a "bare" (lead-free) neutron monitor. The instrument operation started in mid-January 2015. The barometric correction coefficients were computed for the period from 1 February to 31 July 2015. Several interesting events, including two notable Forbush decreases on 17 March 2015 and 22 June 2015, and a solar particle event of 29 October 2015 were registered. The data sets are available at cosmicrays.oulu.fi and nmdb.eu.

  16. Energy Management for Automatic Monitoring Stations in Arctic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Demian

    Automatic weather monitoring stations deployed in arctic regions are usually installed in hard to reach locations. Most of the time they run unsupervised and they face severe environmental conditions: very low temperatures, ice riming, etc. It is usual practice to use a local energy source to power the equipment. There are three main ways to achieve this: (1) a generator whose fuel has to be transported to the location at regular intervals (2) a battery and (3) an energy harvesting generator that exploits a local energy source. Hybrid systems are very common. Polar nights and long winters are typical of arctic regions. Solar radiation reaching the ground during this season is very low or non-existent, depending on the geographical location. Therefore, solar power generation is not very effective. One straightforward, but expensive and inefficient solution is the use of a large bank of batteries that is recharged during sunny months and discharged during the winter. The main purpose of the monitoring stations is to collect meteorological data at regular intervals; interruptions due to a lack of electrical energy can be prevented with the use of an energy management subsystem. Keeping a balance between incoming and outgoing energy flows, while assuring the continuous operation of the station, is the delicate task of energy management strategies. This doctoral thesis explores alternate power generation solutions and intelligent energy management techniques for equipment deployed in the arctic. For instance, harvesting energy from the wind to complement solar generation is studied. Nevertheless, harvested energy is a scarce resource and needs to be used efficiently. Genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and common sense are used to efficiently manage energy flows within a simulated arctic weather station.

  17. Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program at Toolik Field Station, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Data Center at the Toolik Field Station, Alaska established a baseline environmental monitoring program in 2007 to provide a long-term record of key biotic and abiotic variables to the scientific community. We maintain a weather station for a long-term climate record at the field station and monitor the timing of key plant phenological events, bird migration and mammal sightings. With regards to plant phenology, we record event dates such as emergence of first leaves, open flowers and seed dispersal for twelve select species typical of the moist acidic tundra, following the ITEX plant phenology protocol. From 2007 to 2011, we observed earlier emergence of first leaves by approximately one week for species such as the dwarf birch Betula nana, sedge Carex bigelowii and evergreen lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea, while seed dispersal for some of these species was delayed by more than two weeks. We also monitor the arrival and departure dates of thirty bird species common to the Toolik area. Yearlong residents included species such as the common raven, rock and willow ptarmigan, and some migrants such as yellow-billed loons and American tree sparrows could be detected for about four months at Toolik, while long-distance traveling arctic terns stayed only two months during the summer. The timing of bird migration dates did not show any clear trends over the past five years for most species. For the past two decades, we recorded climate data such as air, soil and lake temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and barometric pressure. During this time period, monthly mean air temperatures varied from -31.7 to -12.8 °C in January and from 8.3 to 13.1 °C in July, with no trend over time. Our baseline data on plant phenological changes, timing of bird migration and climate variables are valuable in the light of long-term environmental monitoring efforts as they provide the context for other seasonality projects that are

  18. Characteristics of aerosols and mass closure study at two WMO GAW regional background stations in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Zhang, Renjian; Huan, Ning; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Yangmei; Zhou, Huaigang; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-12-01

    In the summer and winter of 2004 and 2005, size-segregated atmospheric aerosols were sampled with modified Andersen KA200 Multi-stage impactor at two regional background stations in the eastern China, the Shangdianzi station (SDZ) in the suburb of Beijing and the Lin'An station (LA) in the Yangtze river delta region, both are WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station, which represent the regional background of air pollutions of the two rapid developing economical zone of China, the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin region. The aerosol mass size distributions, ionic compositions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and elemental components were analyzed. The mass concentrations for TSP (total suspend particle), PM11 (aerodynamic diameter less than 11 μm), and PM2.1 (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.1 μm) at both sites showed obviously different between the winter and summer, with higher mass concentrations measured in the winter time. All seasonal mean mass concentrations of PM2.1 accounted for over 50% of PM11 at both sites. The aerosol mass closure study indicated that the total mass concentration reconstructed from the aerosol chemical composition agreed well with the measured gravimetric mass at the two stations. The fine aerosol particles at the two stations were composed mainly of sulfate and organic matter. In the summer, more than half of the PM2.1 mass was sulfate, suggesting a dominant contribution of secondary aerosol to the fine particles in these two regions. In the winter, the contribution of nitrate to the fine particles increased significantly due to the lower volatile losses under the cold weather. The proportions of soil type components in the PM2.1 showed similar magnitude in the winter and summer at Lin'An station but significant seasonal differences with higher fractions in the winter at Shangdianzi station. On average EC accounted for about 2%-6% of the fine particle mass (PM2.1) at both sites with proportionally lower EC

  19. Chemical characterization and physico-chemical properties of aerosols at Villum Research Station, Greenland during spring 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, M.; Iversen, L. S.; Svendsen, S. B.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Nielsen, I. E.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Zhang, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Skov, H.; Massling, A.; Bilde, M.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosols on the radiation balance and climate are of special concern in Arctic areas, which have experienced warming at twice the rate of the global average. As future scenarios include increased emissions of air pollution, including sulfate aerosols, from ship traffic and oil exploration in the Arctic, there is an urgent need to obtain the fundamental scientific knowledge to accurately assess the consequences of pollutants to environment and climate. In this work, we studied the chemistry of aerosols at the new Villum Research Station (81°36' N, 16°40' W) in north-east Greenland during the "inauguration campaign" in spring 2015. The chemical composition of sub-micrometer Arctic aerosols was investigated using a Soot Particle Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-ToF-AMS). Aerosol samples were also collected on filters using both a high-volume sampler and a low-volume sampler equipped with a denuder for organic gases. Chemical analyses of filter samples include determination of inorganic anions and cations using ion-chromatography, and analysis of carboxylic acids and organosulfates of anthropogenic and biogenic origin using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). Previous studies found that organosulfates constitute a surprisingly high fraction of organic aerosols during the Arctic Haze period in winter and spring. Investigation of organic molecular tracers provides useful information on aerosol sources and atmospheric processes. The physico-chemical properties of Arctic aerosols are also under investigation. These measurements include particle number size distribution, water activity and surface tension of aerosol samples in order to deduct information on their hygroscopicity and cloud-forming potential. The results of this study are relevant to understanding aerosol sources and processes as well as climate effects in the Arctic, especially during the Arctic haze

  20. Special Challenges in the Operation of International Monitoring System Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastowka, L.; Daly, T.; Anichenko, A.; Galindo, M.; Villagran-Herrera, M.; Mori, S.; Malakhova, M.; Otsuka, R.; Stangel, H.

    2007-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a global treaty that bans nuclear test explosions in any environment. The treaty was opened for signature on 24 September 1996. To date, 177 countries have signed the treaty and 138 have ratified it. Among those having ratified are 34 of 44 required for the treaty to enter into force. The three pillars that support the treaty are the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect test explosions, the International Data Centre (IDC) to produce and distribute both automatic and analyst reviewed data products, and On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify whether a detected event was, in fact, a nuclear test explosion. The IMS is a globally distributed network of four technologies. Three wave-form technologies are designed to detect the waves produced by nuclear test explosions underground, in the air, and underwater. A radionuclide particulate network and noble gas experiment are designed detect radioactive isotopes generated by nuclear explosions. The diverse nature of the network presents a number of special challenges to the Network and Data System Operations Section of the IDC (NDSO), the group responsible for the effective operation of the IMS. One challenge faced by NDSO is the diversity of the equipment and software suppliers. There are currently many companies supplying equipment and technology for the 321 station IMS. This poses problems of consistency in operator training and in the applications of standard operating procedures. One solution to this problem was the development of the Standard Station Interface (SSI). The extensive geographical distribution of the stations presents another, challenge to effective IMS operations. The IMS includes stations in such remote locations as Soccorro Island, Tristan de Cunha, and the Antarctic and Sub-antarctic regions. Each of these locations presents its own set of challenges in terms of environment, logistics, and availability of qualified personnel.

  1. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a technology demonstration on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Scott, V. S.; Kupchock, Andrew W.; Selmer, Patrick A.

    2015-09-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a multi-wavelength lidar instrument developed to enhance Earth Science remote sensing capabilities from the International Space Station. The CATS project was chartered to be an experiment in all senses: science, technology, and management. As a low-cost project following a strict build-to-cost/ build-to-schedule philosophy, CATS is following a new management approach while also serving as a technology demonstration for future NASA missions. This presentation will highlight the CATS instrument and science objectives with emphasis on how the ISS platform enables the specific objectives of the payload. The development process used for CATS and a look at data being produced by the instrument will also be presented.

  3. A lidar system for remote sensing of aerosols and water vapor from NSTS and Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delorme, Joseph F.

    1989-01-01

    The Tropical Atmospheric Lidar Observing System (TALOS) is proposed to be developed as a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for flight aboard the earth orbiting Space Station Freedom. TALOS will be capable of making high resolution vertical profile measurements of tropospheric water and tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols, clouds and temperature.

  4. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  5. Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite.

    PubMed

    Bréon, Francois-Marie; Tanré, Didier; Generoso, Sylvia

    2002-02-01

    Aerosol concentration and cloud droplet radii derived from space-borne measurements are used to explore the effect of aerosols on cloud microphysics. Cloud droplet size is found to be largest (14 micrometers) over remote tropical oceans and smallest (6 micrometers) over highly polluted continental areas. Small droplets are also present in clouds downwind of continents. By using estimates of droplet radii coupled with aerosol load, a statistical mean relationship is derived. The cloud droplet size appears to be better correlated with an aerosol index that is representative of the aerosol column number under some assumptions than with the aerosol optical thickness. This study reveals that the effect of aerosols on cloud microphysics is significant and occurs on a global scale.

  6. Lidar measurements of sub-visible aerosol layers in the free troposphere at a tropical coastal station in Trivandrum, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerabuthiran, Sangaipillai; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Sreeja, Rajappan; Presennakumar, Bhargavan; Muraleedharen Nair, Sivarama Pillai; Ramakrishna Rao, Duggirala; Pillai Mohankumar, Santhibhavan Vasudevan

    2006-12-01

    Lidar observations had been conducted to study the long-range transport of aerosol and their effect at tropical station, Trivandrum during the period of 2001-2003. The presence of aerosol layers was observed on many days below about 5 km during the above period. The monthly values of aerosol extinction coefficient profile showed the presence of aerosol layer in the height region up to about 5 km during the summer monsoon periods. However, during the Asian winter monsoon period the aerosol layers were observed in the altitude region between 0.6 and 3 km. The extinction values were high in the winter season and were typically found to be 3.4×10-4 m-1. The aerosol optical depth was calculated by integrating the extinction values in the aerosol layer region and it was found to be between 0.2 and 0.35. The plausible reasons for the formation of these layers were explained using the wind circulation pattern and air back trajectories.

  7. A continuous plutonium aerosol monitor for use in high radon environments.

    PubMed

    Li, HuiBin; Jia, MingYan; Li, GuoShen; Wang, YinDong

    2012-01-01

    Radon concentration is very high in underground basements and other facilities. Radon concentration in a nuclear facility locates in the granite tunnel can be as high as 10(4) Bq m(-3) in summer. Monitoring plutonium aerosol in this circumstance is seriously interfered by radon daughters. In order to solve this problem, a new continuous aerosol monitor that can monitor very low plutonium aerosol concentration in high radon background was developed. Several techniques were used to reduce interference of radon daughters, and the minimum detectable concentrations in various radon concentrations were measured.

  8. Iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) in aerosols at high altitude Alp stations.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Tania; Steier, Peter; Wallner, Gabriele; Priller, Alfred; Kandler, Norbert; Kaiser, August

    2012-08-21

    Concentrations of gases and particulate matter have been proven to be affected by meteorological and geographical variables from urban locations to high mountain clean air sites. Following our previous research in Vienna, we summarize here new findings about concentration levels of iodine isotopes in aerosols collected at two Alpine meteorological stations, Sonnblick (Austria) and Zugspitze (Germany) during 2001. The present study mainly focuses on the effect of altitude on the anthropogenic concentration of (129)I and on the isotopic ratio (129)I/(127)I. Iodine was separated from matrix elements by using either an anion exchange method or solvent extraction, and was analyzed by ICP-MS and AMS. Over the altitude change from Vienna to Zugspitze and Sonnblick (202 m to 2962 m and 3106 m above sea level), stable iodine level decreased from an average of 0.94 ng m(-3) to 0.52 ng m(-3) and 0.62 ng m(-3), respectively. Similarly, (129)I concentrations at both Alpine stations were about 1 order of magnitude lower (10(4) atoms m(-3)) than values obtained for Vienna (10(5) atoms m(-3)) and reveal a strong vertical concentration gradient of (129)I. A high degree of variability is observed, which is due to wide variation in the origin of air masses. Furthermore, air trajectory analysis demonstrates the importance of large scale air transport mostly from southeast Europe for influencing Sonnblick whereas influence from northwest Europe is strong at Zugspitze. In contrast to (129)I, a higher concentration of (7)Be was found at higher altitude stations compared to Vienna which probably results from its production in the upper atmosphere.

  9. Climate Monitoring Network on Maunakea - Master Station at Summit and Lower Elevation Satellite Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, M. M.; Klasner, F.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Maunakea, a dormant shield volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i, rises 13,796 feet above sea level, making it the highest point in the Pacific Basin. From sea floor to summit, it's the tallest mountain in the world. The high elevation, low air and light pollution, as well as dry weather year round make it the best location in the world for astronomy observations. The summit is home to 13 ground based telescope facilities. Like all alpine regions, it is an extremely fragile and unique ecosystem because of the harsh conditions and short growing seasons located at high altitudes. The summit is home to several federal and/or state protected species. It supports 11 species of arthropods found nowhere else on Earth. Most noted of these is the Wēkiu bug, whose habitat has been altered by the infrastructural development on the mountain. Arthropod habitat model development has highlighted gaps in climate information, for example, lack of climate precipitation data, snow data and reliable temperature data. Furthermore, in tropical regions, precipitation is the most variable climate component due to topography and local winds. The telescopes collect weather data for the purpose of knowing when it is dry and clear for astronomical observation. Although existing weather stations associated with the telescopes meet some weather and climate monitoring needs, it cannot address the full range of issues needed due to technological limitation and site design. Precipitation does not occur often and is likely to be in the form of snow or ice. Snow cover data has not been directly recorded despite astronomical recording of other meteorological data that began in the1960s. Therefore, the need to monitor the weather and climate in a long-term and well-calibrated way is critical for management of the ecosystems on the slopes of Maunakea. Long-term weather and climate monitoring stations are the primary building blocks for research partnerships, which encourage collaboration and ultimately

  10. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. Intercomparison of two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21) indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the filter-adjusted continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Correlations of the ACSM NR-PM1 (non-refractory particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 1 μm) plus elemental carbon (EC) with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM2.5 and Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM1 mass are strong with r2 > 0.7 and r2 > 0.8, respectively. Discrepancies might be attributed to evaporative losses of semi-volatile species from the filter measurements used to adjust the collocated continuous measurements. This suggests that adjusting the ambient aerosol continuous measurements with results from filter analysis introduced additional bias to the measurements. We also recommend to calibrate the ambient aerosol monitoring instruments using aerosol standards rather than gas-phase standards. The fitting approach for ACSM relative ionization for sulfate was shown to improve the comparisons between ACSM and collocated measurements in the absence of calibrated values, suggesting the importance of adding sulfate calibration into the ACSM calibration routine.

  11. The stratospheric aerosol particle measurement by balloon at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E): Outline of special sonde (rubber) campaign JARE 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Morita, T.; Itoh, T.; Shibazaki, K.; Makino, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Tsukamura, K.; Yano, T.; Kondoh, K.; Iwashita, G.

    1985-01-01

    During the period of AMA (Antarctic Middle Atmosphere), various style balloons were used to measure atmospheric parameters at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica. The measurements which were made using balloons specially designed to monitor stratospheric aerosol particles are discussed. This type balloon was first used by JARE (Japan Antarctic Research Expedition) 24th Team in 1983. Until that time, the Japan Antarctic Research Expedition Team had been using only a large plastic balloon to monitor various minor constituents in the stratosphere. The plastic balloon was very useful, but it took a long time to arrange a balloon launching. Additionally, launching time strongly depended on weather conditions. A timely launching of the balloon was carried out with this specially designed sonde.

  12. Optimized Arrangement of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized. PMID:25764058

  13. Probing and monitoring aerosol and atmospheric clouds with an electro-optic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Arnon, S; Kopeika, N S

    1996-09-20

    Monitoring, probing, and sensing characteristics of aerosol clouds is difficult and complicated. Probing the characteristics of aerosols is most useful in the chemical and microelectronic industry for processing control of aerosols and emulsion, decreasing bit error rate in adaptive optical communication systems, and in acquiring data for atmospheric science and environment quality. We present a new mathematical and optical engineering model for monitoring characteristics of aerosol clouds. The model includes the temporal transfer function of aerosol clouds as a variable parameter in an electro-optic oscillator. The frequency of the oscillator changes according to changes in the characteristics of the clouds (density, size distribution, physical thickness, the medium and the particulate refractive indices, and spatial distribution). It is possible to measure only one free characteristic at a given time. An example of a practical system for monitoring the density of aerosol clouds is given. The frequency of the oscillator changes from 1.25 to 0.43 MHz for changes in aerosol density from 2000 to 3000 particulates cm(-3). The advantages of this new method compared with the transmissometer methods are (a) no necessity for line-of-sight measurement geometry, (b) accurate measurement of high optical thickness media is possible, (c) under certain conditions measurements can include characteristics of aerosol clouds related to light scatter that cannot be or are difficult to measure with a transmissometer, and (d) the cloud bandwidth for free space optical communication is directly measurable.

  14. Comparative analysis of hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosols at ZOTTO Siberian background station during summer and winter campaigns of 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryshkevich, T. I.; Mironov, G. N.; Mironova, S. Yu.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Chi, X.; Andreae, M. O.; Mikhailov, E. F.

    2015-09-01

    The results of measurements of hygroscopic properties and chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected from June 10 to 20 and December 15 to 25, 2011, at the ZOTTO background stations (60.8° N, 89.35° E) in Central Siberia are presented. The sorption properties of aerosols are studied with the help of a differential analyzer of absorbed water mass in the relative humidity range of 5 to 99%. It has been found that the hygroscopic growth factor of aerosol particles collected during the winter campaign is on average 45% higher than that of the aerosol collected in the summer campaign, which leads to a 40% decrease in the critical supersaturation threshold of cloud activation of particles. The measurement data are analyzed and parameterized using a new approach that takes into account the concentration effects in the particle—water vapor system at low humidities. Based on the chemical analysis, the content of water-soluble substances in the winter sample is 2.5 times higher than in the summer sample. Here, the amount of sulfates and nitrates increases 20 and 88 times, respectively. A trajectory analysis of air mass motion shows that the increased content of inorganic ions in aerosols for the winter sample is caused by long-range transport of pollutants from industrial areas of Siberia. This difference in the chemical composition is the main source of the observed difference in hygroscopic and condensation properties of the aerosol particles.

  15. Development of aerosol retrieval algorithm for Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Park, Sang Seo; Jeong, Ukkyo; Ahn, Changwoo; Bhartia, Pawan. K.; Torres, Omar; Song, Chang-Keun; Han, Jin-Seok

    2014-05-01

    A scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT2B (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) is planned to be launched in geostationary orbit in 2018. The GEMS employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). This study presents a UV-VIS algorithm to retrieve AOD and SSA from GEMS. The algorithm is based on the general inversion method, which uses pre-calculated look-up table (LUT) with assumed aerosol properties and measurement condition. To calculate LUT, aerosol optical properties over Asia [70°E-145°E, 0°N-50°N] are obtained from AERONET inversion data (level 2.0) at 46 AERONET sites, and are applied to VLIDORT (spur, 2006). Because the backscattering radiance in UV-Visible range has significant sensitivity to radiance absorptivity and size distribution of loading aerosol, aerosol types are classified from AERONET inversion data by using aerosol classification method suggested in Lee et al. (2010). Then the LUTs are calculated with average optical properties for each aerosol type. The GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with OMI level-1B dataset, a provisional data for GEMS measurement. The aerosol types for each measured scene are selected by using both of UVAI and VISAI, and AOD and SSA are simultaneously retrieved by comparing simulated radiance with selected aerosol type and the measured value. The AOD and SSA retrieved from GEMS aerosol algorithm are well matched with OMI products, although the retrieved AOD is slightly higher than OMI value. To detect cloud pixel, spatial standard deviation test of radiance is applied in the

  16. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  17. Light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in two remote stations of the southern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Hu, Zhaofu; Gao, Shaopeng; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-10-01

    Light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols are key considerations in climate forcing research. However, in situ measurement data are limited, especially on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) - the Third Pole of the world. In this study, the mass absorption cross section (MAC) of elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of total suspended particles at two high-altitude stations (Lulang station and Everest station) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were investigated. The mean MACEC values at 632 nm were 6.85 ± 1.39 m2 g-1 and 6.49 ± 2.81 m2 g-1 at these two stations, both of which showed little seasonal variations and were slightly higher than those of EC of uncoated particles, indicating that the enhancement of MACEC by factors such as coating with organic aerosols was not significant. The mean MACWSOC values at 365 nm were 0.84 ± 0.40 m2 g-1 and 1.18 ± 0.64 m2 g-1 at the two stations. Obvious seasonal variations of high and low MACWSOC values appeared in winter and summer, respectively, mainly reflecting photobleaching of light absorption components of WSOC caused by fluctuations in sunlight intensity. Therefore, this phenomenon might also exists in other remote areas of the world. The relative contributions of radiative forcing of WSOC to EC were 6.03 ± 3.62% and 11.41 ± 7.08% at these two stations, with a higher ratio in winter. As a result, both the contribution of WSOC to radiative forcing of carbonaceous aerosols and its seasonal variation need to be considered in radiative forcing related study.

  18. Active Radiation Monitoring on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelfer, T.; Semones, E.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Riman, F.; Flanders, J.; Golightly, M.; Smith, G.

    The space radiation environment in and around the International Space Station (ISS) is currently being monitored by a variety of active and passive radiation measurement systems. There are currently three permanent NASA active radiation monitoring systems onboard the ISS. The first instrument is the ISS Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ISS TEPC) that was activated November 9, 2000. The next instrument brought online was the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) that was activated April 21, 2001. The last instrument to be activated was the Extra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (EV-CPDS) that was turned on April 26, 2002. These three instruments provide the Space Radiation Analysis Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center with real-time radiation environment data, as well as detailed science data that is downloaded on a regular basis. The real-time data is used primarily for flight operations support in the Mission Control Center - Houston. The detailed science data is currently used in support of crew radiation dosemetry efforts, to validate the radiation environment model at the ISS orbit, and to validate shield distribution and interaction models for the ISS. We plan to present data collected by the ISS TEPC, IV-CPDS, and EV-CPDS for the Expedition 3 (August 10, 2001 - December 17, 2001) and Expedition 4 (December 5, 2001 - June 11, 2002)) time periods. Our preliminary measurement results will be presented in terms of environment variables such as orbital altitude and space weather, and shielding variables such as location inside the ISS and orientation of the ISS complex. In addition, the measured radiation dose will be divided into contributions from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and trapped particles.

  19. Developments of aerosol retrieval algorithm for Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) and the retrieval accuracy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Ahn, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.

    2013-12-01

    A scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT2B (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) is planned to be launched in geostationary orbit in 2018. The GEMS employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). By taking the advantage, the OMI UV aerosol algorithm has provided information on the absorbing aerosol (Torres et al., 2007; Ahn et al., 2008). This study presents a UV-VIS algorithm to retrieve AOD and SSA from GEMS. The algorithm is based on the general inversion method, which uses pre-calculated look-up table with assumed aerosol properties and measurement condition. To obtain the retrieval accuracy, the error of the look-up table method occurred by the interpolation of pre-calculated radiances is estimated by using the reference dataset, and the uncertainties about aerosol type and height are evaluated. Also, the GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with measured normalized radiance from OMI, a provisional data set for GEMS measurement, and the results are compared with the values from AERONET measurements over Asia. Additionally, the method for simultaneous retrieve of the AOD and aerosol height is discussed.

  20. Software for Remote Monitoring of Space-Station Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Michelle; Lippincott, Jeff; Chubb, Steve; Whitaker, Jimmy; Gillis, Robert; Sellers, Donna; Sims, Chris; Rice, James

    2003-01-01

    Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) is a suite of application programs that enable geographically dispersed users to monitor scientific payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS). TReK provides local ground support services that can simultaneously receive, process, record, playback, and display data from multiple sources. TReK also provides interfaces to use the remote services provided by the Payload Operations Integration Center which manages all ISS payloads. An application programming interface (API) allows for payload users to gain access to all data processed by TReK and allows payload-specific tools and programs to be built or integrated with TReK. Used in conjunction with other ISS-provided tools, TReK provides the ability to integrate payloads with the operational ground system early in the lifecycle. This reduces the potential for operational problems and provides "cradle-to-grave" end-to-end operations. TReK contains user guides and self-paced tutorials along with training applications to allow the user to become familiar with the system.

  1. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-07-21

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors.

  2. Evaluation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol products at two Aerosol Robotic Network stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Wen; Li, Zhanqing; Xia, Xiangao; Holben, Brent; Levy, Robert; Zhao, Fengsheng; Chen, Hongbin; Cribb, Maureen

    2007-11-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol products have been used to address aerosol climatic issues in many parts of the world, but their quality has yet to be determined over China. This paper presents a thorough evaluation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from MODIS collections 4 (C004) and 5 (C005) at two AERONET sites in northern and southeastern China. Established under the aegis of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) project, the two sites, Xianghe and Taihu, have distinct ecosystems and climate regimes, resulting in differences in retrieval performance. At the rural northeastern site (Xianghe), MODIS C004 retrievals generally overestimate AOD at 550 nm during clean days, with the largest errors occurring during winter. In the warm and humid regions of southeastern China (Taihu), MODIS C004 retrievals overestimate AOD throughout the year. The systematic error at Xianghe is primarily due to the fixed surface reflectance ratio, while as the error at Taihu is mainly caused by the choice of the single scattering albedo (SSA) for the fine model aerosols. Both problems are alleviated considerably in the C005. The comparisons between C005 retrievals and AERONET data show much higher correlation coefficient, lower offset and a slope closer to unity. Also, the variability of AOD retrieval among neighboring pixels is reduced by several factors. The strong overestimation problem at small AOD values was fixed by using dynamic reflectance ratios that vary with the vegetation index and scattering angle. However, significant uncertainties remain because of the use of highly simplified aerosol models.

  3. Design and performance of an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer for continuous operation at monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuch, T. M.; Haudek, A.; Müller, T.; Nowak, A.; Wex, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sizes of aerosol particles depend on the relative humidity of their carrier gas. Most monitoring networks require therefore that the aerosol is dried to a relative humidity below 50% RH to ensure comparability of measurements at different sites. Commercially available aerosol dryers are often not suitable for this purpose at remote monitoring sites. Adsorption dryers need to be regenerated frequently and maintenance-free single column Nafion dryers are not designed for high aerosol flow rates. We therefore developed an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer with a design flow rate of 1 m3/h. Particle transmission efficiency of this dryer has been determined during a 3 weeks experiment. The lower 50% cut-off was found to be below 3 nm at the design flow rate of the instrument. Measured transmission efficiencies are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. One drier has been successfully deployed in the Amazonas river basin. From this monitoring site, we present data from the first 6 months of measurements (February 2008-August 2008). Apart from one unscheduled service, this dryer did not require any maintenance during this time period. The average relative humidity of the dried aerosol was 27.1+/-7.5% RH compared to an average ambient relative humidity of nearly 80% and temperatures around 30°C. This initial deployment demonstrated that these dryers are well suitable for continuous operation at remote monitoring sites under adverse ambient conditions.

  4. Monitoring and tracking the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols using multi-satellite aerosol optical depth retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeger, A. R.; Gupta, P.; Zavodsky, B.; McGrath, K. M.

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to generate a near-real time (NRT) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product capable of providing a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol spatial distribution over the Pacific Ocean in order to better monitor and track the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols. Therefore, we developed a NRT product that takes advantage of observations from both low-earth orbiting and geostationary satellites. In particular, we utilize AOD products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellites. Then, we combine these AOD products with our own retrieval algorithms developed for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-15) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2) to generate a NRT daily AOD composite product. We present examples of the daily AOD composite product for a case study of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution and dust aerosols in mid-March 2014. Overall, the new product successfully tracks this aerosol plume during its trans-Pacific transport to the west coast of North America. However, we identify several areas across the domain of interest from Asia to North America where the new product can encounter significant uncertainties due to the inclusion of the geostationary AOD retrievals. The uncertainties associated with geostationary AOD retrievals are expected to be minimized after the successful launch of the next-generation advanced NOAA GOES-R and recently launched JMA Himawari satellites. Observations from these advanced satellites will ultimately provide an enhanced understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols over the Pacific.

  5. New approach using lidar measurements to characterize spatiotemporal aerosol mass distribution in an underground railway station in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Fortain, A.

    For the first time eye safe lidar measurements were performed at 355 nm simultaneously to in situ measurements in an underground station so as to test the potential interest of active remote sensing measurements to follow the spatiotemporal evolution of aerosol content inside such a confined microenvironment. The purpose of this paper is to describe different methods enabling the conversion of lidar-derived aerosol extinction coefficient into aerosol mass concentrations (PM 2.5 and PM 10). A theoretical method based on a well marked linear regression between mass concentrations simulated from the size distribution and extinction coefficients retrieved from Mie calculations provides averaged mass to optics' relations over the campaign for traffic (6.47 × 10 5 μg m -2) or no traffic conditions (3.73 × 10 5 μg m -2). Two empirical methods enable to significantly reduce CPU time. The first one is based upon the knowledge of size distribution measurements and scattering coefficients from nephelometer and allows retrieving mass to optics' relations for well determined periods or particular traffic conditions, like week-ends, with a good accuracy. The second method, that is more direct, is simply based on the ratio between TEOM concentrations and extinction coefficients obtained from nephelometer. This method is easy to set up but is not suitable for nocturnal measurements where PM stabilization time is short. Lidar signals thus converted into PM concentrations from those approaches with a fine accuracy (30%) provide a spatiotemporal distribution of concentrations in the station. This highlights aerosol accumulation in one side of the station, which can be explained by air displacement from the tunnel entrance. Those results allow expecting a more general use of lidar measurement to survey indoor air quality.

  6. Properties and sources of individual particles and some chemical species in the aerosol of a metropolitan underground railway station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salma, Imre; Pósfai, Mihály; Kovács, Kristóf; Kuzmann, Ernő; Homonnay, Zoltán; Posta, József

    Aerosol samples in PM 10-2.0 and PM 2.0 size fractions were collected on the platform of a metropolitan underground railway station in central Budapest. Individual aerosol particles were studied using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and electron diffraction. The bulk aerosol samples were investigated by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, and they were subjected to chemical speciation analysis for Cr. The particles were classified into groups of iron oxides and iron, carbonates, silicates, quartz and carbonaceous debris. Electron micrographs showed that the Fe-rich particles in the PM 2.0 size fraction typically consisted of aggregates of nano-sized hematite crystals that were randomly oriented, had round shapes and diameters of 5-15 nm. In addition to hematite, a minor fraction of the iron oxide particles also contained magnetite. In addition, the PM 2.0-fraction particles typically had a rugged surface with layered or granular morphologies. Mössbauer spectroscopy suggested that hematite was a major Fe-bearing species in the PM 10-2.0 size fraction; its mass contribution to the Fe was 36%. Further constituents (ferrite, carbides and FeOOH) were also identified. The water soluble amounts of Cr for the underground railway station and city center were similar. In the PM 10-2.0 size fraction, practically all dissolved Cr had an oxidation state of three, which corresponds to ambient conditions. In the PM 2.0 size fraction, however, approximately 7% of the dissolved Cr was present as Cr(VI), which was different from that for the urban aerosol. It is suggested that the increased adverse health effects of aerosol particles in metros with respect to ambient outdoor particles is linked to the differences in the oxidation states, surface properties or morphologies.

  7. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  8. Monitoring and tracking the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols using multi-satellite aerosol optical depth composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeger, Aaron R.; Gupta, Pawan; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to generate a near-real time (NRT) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product capable of providing a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol spatial distribution over the Pacific Ocean, in order to better monitor and track the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols. Therefore, we developed a NRT product that takes advantage of observations from both low-earth orbiting and geostationary satellites. In particular, we utilize AOD products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellites. Then, we combine these AOD products with our own retrieval algorithms developed for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-15) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2) to generate a NRT daily AOD composite product. We present examples of the daily AOD composite product for a case study of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution and dust aerosols in mid-March 2014. Overall, the new product successfully tracks this aerosol plume during its trans-Pacific transport to the west coast of North America as the frequent geostationary observations lead to a greater coverage of cloud-free AOD retrievals equatorward of about 35° N, while the polar-orbiting satellites provide a greater coverage of AOD poleward of 35° N. However, we note several areas across the domain of interest from Asia to North America where the GOES-15 and MTSAT-2 retrieval algorithms can introduce significant uncertainties into the new product.

  9. Automatic data-quality monitoring for continuous GPS tracking stations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T. K.; Wang, C. S.; Chao, B. F.; Chen, C. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2007-10-01

    Taiwan has more than 300 Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking stations maintained by the Ministry of the Interior (MOI), Academia Sinica, the Central Weather Bureau and the Central Geological Survey. In the future, GPS tracking stations may replace the GPS control points after being given a legal status. Hence, the data quality of the tracking stations is an increasingly significant factor. This study considers the feasibility of establishing a system for monitoring GPS receivers. This investigation employs many data-quality indices and examines the relationship of these indices and the positioning precision. The frequency stability of the GPS receiver is the most important index; the cycle slip is the second index and the multipath is the third index. An auto-analytical system for analysing GPS data quality and monitoring the MOI's tracking stations can quickly find and resolve problems, or changes in station environment, to maintain high data quality for the tracking stations.

  10. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  11. Evaluation of river water quality monitoring stations by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying

    2005-07-01

    The development of a surface water monitoring network is a critical element in the assessment, restoration, and protection of stream water quality. This study applied principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the surface water quality-monitoring network in a river where the evaluated variables are monitoring stations. The objective was to identify monitoring stations that are important in assessing annual variations of river water quality. Twenty-two stations used for monitoring physical, chemical, and biological parameters, located at the main stem of the lower St. Johns River in Florida, USA, were selected for the purpose of this study. Results show that 3 monitoring stations were identified as less important in explaining the annual variance of the data set, and therefore could be the non-principal stations. In addition, the PFA technique was also employed to identify important water quality parameters. Results reveal that total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, dissolved nitrate and nitrite, orthophosphate, alkalinity, salinity, Mg, and Ca were the parameters that are most important in assessing variations of water quality in the river. This study suggests that PCA and PFA techniques are useful tools for identification of important surface water quality monitoring stations and parameters.

  12. Evaluation of coarse and fine particulate sources using a portable aerosol monitor in a desert community.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Coleman, Ted

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a portable aerosol monitor as a preliminary screening tool to identify local sources of coarse (PM(10-2.5)) and fine (PM(2.5)) particulate matter within the Coachella Valley, a low-elevation desert community. The portable aerosol monitor proved to be useful in identifying particle sources unique to the region, namely, sand dunes with sparse ground cover (vegetation), a river wash, and diesel truck and freight train traffic. The general limitations relate to discrepancies in the fraction of PM(10-2.5) when compared to regional air quality data and a lack of accurate mass-based data.

  13. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Delaware SIP. As with all components of the SIP, Delaware must implement the program as submitted and approved by EPA....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all components of the SIP, Virginia must implement the program as submitted and approved by EPA....

  15. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Delaware SIP. As with all components of the SIP, Delaware must implement the program as submitted and approved by EPA....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all components of the SIP, Virginia must implement the program as submitted and approved by EPA....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  20. Monitoring of space station life support systems with miniature mass spectrometry and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Wong, Carla M.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy with artificial intelligence is a promising approach for monitoring the performance of the life support systems in the space station. Such an analytical system can provide the selectivity, sensitivity, speed, small size, and decision making intelligence to detect, identify, and quantify trace toxic compounds which may accumulate in the space station habitat.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the...

  3. Inverse atmospheric radiative transfer problems - A nonlinear minimization search method of solution. [aerosol pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.

  4. Evaluation of the pDR-1200 real-time aerosol monitor.

    PubMed

    Benton-Vitz, Kaila; Volckens, John

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the ability of the pDR-1200 real-time aerosol monitor to measure aerosols of varying size, composition, and origin. Particle aspiration and transmission efficiency was characterized at airflow rates of 2 L/min, 5 L/min, and 10 L/min in a wind tunnel in both static and orientation-averaged configurations. At 10 L/min, the particle cut point for 50% penetration of particles through the device (d(50)) was approximately 6 micro m, while at 2 L/min and 5 L/min the d(50) was significantly larger, about 9 micro m (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in particle penetration efficiency between facing-the-wind and orientation-averaged configurations (p(avg) = 0.66). The pDR-1200 response factor, which is defined as the ratio the time-averaged, monitor-reported concentration to a gravimetric filter concentration measured directly downstream of the sensing zone, was evaluated for four aerosol types: Arizona road dust, background ambient aerosol, environmental tobacco smoke, and diesel particulate matter. These aerosols, each of varying refractive index and particle size distribution, produced significant changes in the measured response factor (p < 0.01). The pDR-1200 both overestimated and underestimated (up to a factor of 7) the gravimetrically determined aerosol concentration. These discrepancies further reinforce the need to calibrate the instrument in situ for each aerosol of interest. Inter-instrument variability was generally low for co-located monitors.

  5. Size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at a high-altitude site on the central Tibetan Plateau (Nam Co Station, 4730 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xin; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yuhong; Wen, Tianxue; Zhang, Guoshuai; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition and size distribution characteristics of atmospheric aerosols have important effects on the environment, human health and climate change. In this paper, we study the size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at the remote and pristine site, Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, in the inland Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on collected size-segregated aerosols during 2012. The samples were quantified using the thermal/optical (TOR) method. The overall average concentrations of OC and EC in TSP, PM9.0, PM2.1, and PM1.0 were 4.61 μg m- 3 and 0.19 μg m- 3, 4.52 μg m- 3 and 0.18 μg m- 3, 2.72 μg m- 3 and 0.11 μg m- 3, and 2.11 μg m- 3 and 0.09 μg m- 3, respectively. Generally, the highest concentration of OC and EC in different aerosol size occurred during winter. The low level of EC indicated that direct anthropogenic disturbances in the interior of the TP still remain insignificant. The size distributions of OC and EC concentrations presented bimodal variations. In winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, the peaks for OC were in droplet mode (0.43-0.65 μm) and coarse mode (4.7-5.8 μm); while in the monsoon period, the coarse mode shifted to a smaller size bin (3.3-4.7 μm). The coarse mode may be due to dust particles while the droplet mode may be due to the growth process of particles. For EC, the peaks variations in coarse mode were as same as OC, while the other peaks were complicated: the peaks during winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon seasons exhibited in droplet mode (1.1-2.1 μm, 0.65-1.1 μm, and 0.43-0.65 μm, respectively), and in post-monsoon period, the peak located in condensation mode. The highest peak concentrations for OC and EC occurred in winter and the pre-monsoon period, while the lowest peak values in the monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The size distribution variations may be caused by deposition, gas/particles exchange, hygroscopic growth, external mixing

  6. Atmospheric aerosol characterization during Saharan dust outbreaks at Naples EARLINET station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, Gianluca; Armenante, Mario; Boselli, Antonella; Frontoso, Maria Grazia; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan

    2007-10-01

    The optical properties and the spatial distribution of the tropospheric aerosols over Naples under Saharan dust outbreaks conditions have been studied by means of lidar measurements performed between May 2000 and August 2003 in the frame of the EARLINET project. Climatological analysis of sand plume has been done by comparing normal and dust affected conditions. Results in terms of backscattering and extinction coefficient as well as their integrated quantities show that the aerosol load from the ground level up to 2 Km during Saharan dust transport events is almost the same of normal conditions. This is probably due to the relevant widespread of local aerosol sources, such as vehicular traffic, industrial activities, etc. Nevertheless, when sand outbreaks occur, the extinction to backscattering ratio, i.e. the lidar ratio, clearly shows that the aerosol type in the lowest atmospheric layer changes. Moreover, Saharan dust transport events strong increase both integrated backscatter and optical dept above 2 km.

  7. Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parameswaran, K.; Rose, K. O.; Murthy, B. V. K.; Osborn, M. T.; Mcmaster, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    Aerosol extinction profiles obtained from lidar data at Trivandrum (8.6 deg N, 77 deg E) are compared with corresponding Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II extinction profiles. The agreement between the two is found to be satisfactory. The extinction profiles obtained by both the experiments showed a prominent peak at 23-24 km altitude in the stratosphere. The study revealed large variability in upper tropospheric extinction with location (latitude).

  8. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  9. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  10. International Remote Monitoring Project Argentina nuclear power station remote monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.L.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1998-08-01

    A remote monitoring system, designed to monitor spent fuel transfers from wet to dry storage, was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station at Embalse, Argentina. The system consists of 6 gamma and one neutron radiation sensors. Five gamma sensors utilize RF transmission to communicate with Echelon nodes connected to a Local Operating Network (LON). One gamma and one neutron sensor are hardwired to the LON network. Each sensor Echelon node is bound to a single Datalogger that stores data until it receives an acquisition command to download to the Data Acquisition Software (DASW) database. The data from the Datalogger are transferred and stored in the Data Acquisition Software database, which resides on the IAEA MOS-MUX server. At a pre-determined interval, data from the DASW database are converted into Excel files and transferred to the IAEA database every 24 hours. At an predetermined interval all data are transferred to the distribution server located at the ARN laboratory at Ezeiza, Argentina. Remote access to data from the distribution server will be made from IAEA headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from ABACC in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from the IAEA field office in Buenos Aires, from ARN, and from Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  11. Assessment of aerosol optical and micro-physical features retrieved from direct and diffuse solar irradiance measurements from Skyradiometer at a high altitude station at Merak: Assessment of aerosol optical features from Merak.

    PubMed

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S; Srivastava, A K; Bagare, S P; Singh, R B; Kanawade, V P; Dorjey, Namgyal

    2015-11-01

    Optical and micro-physical features of aerosol are reported using Skyradiometer (POM-01L, Prede, Japan) observations taken from a high-altitude station Merak, located in north-eastern Ladakh of the western trans-Himalayas region during January 2011 to December 2013. The observed daily mean aerosol optical depth (AOD, at 500 nm) at the site varied from 0.01 to 0.14. However, 75 % of the observed AOD lies below 0.05 during the study period. Seasonal peaks of AOD occurred in spring as 0.06 and minimum in winter as 0.03 which represents the aged background aerosols at the site. Yearly mean AOD at 500 nm is found to be around 0.04 and inter-annual variations of AOD is very small (nearly ±0.01). Angstrom exponent (a) varied seasonally from 0.73 in spring to 1.5 in autumn. About 30 % of the observed a lies below 0.8 which are the indicative for the presence of coarse-mode aerosols at the site. The station exhibits absorbing aerosol features which prominently occurred during spring and that may be attributed by the transported anthropogenic aerosol from Indo-Gangatic Plain (IGP). Results were well substantiated with the air mass back-trajectory analysis. Furthermore, seasonal mean of single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) varied from of 0.94 to 0.98 and a general increasing trend is noticed from 400 to 870 nm wavelengths. These features are apparently regional characteristics of the site. Aerosol asymmetry factor (AS) decreases gradually from 400 to 870 nm and varied from 0.66 to 0.69 at 500 nm across the seasons. Dominance of desert-dust aerosols, associated by coarse mode, is indicated by tri-modal features of aerosol volume size distribution over the station during the entire seasons. PMID:26081773

  12. Continuous glucose monitoring has left the station: are you onboard?

    PubMed

    Valentine, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a new technology that is poised to dramatically alter the practice of managing diabetes in the near future. To understand the potential utility of CGM in clinical practice, the goal for monitoring glucose must be redefined. Is obtaining a mere snapshot of the current blood glucose level a satisfactory goal? This differs substantially from a more comprehensive assessment of the patient's current (and immediate future) glycemic status that could be gained through real-time continuous monitoring. The diabetes educator will play a critical role in introducing and implementing the next generation of real-time CGM systems.

  13. Sensitivity of spectral reflectance to aerosol optical properties in UV and visible wavelength range: Preparatory study for aerosol retrieval from Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.

    2011-12-01

    Asia, with its rapid increase in industrialization and population, has been receiving great attention as one of important source regions of pollutants including aerosols and trace gases. Since the spatio-temporal distribution of the pollutants varies rapidly, demands to monitor air quality in a geostationary satellite have increased recently. In these perspectives, the Ministry of Environment of Korea initiated a geostationary satellite mission to launch the Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT in 2017-2018 timeframe. From the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, it has been found that the low surface reflectance and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering in UV wavelength range can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and optical type (or single scattering albedo), over the source regions as well as ocean areas. In addition, GEMS is expected to have finer spatial resolution compared to OMI (13 x 24 km2 at nadir), thereby less affected by sub-pixel clouds. In this study, we present sensitivity of spectral reflectance to aerosol optical properties in ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength range for a purpose to retrieve aerosol optical properties from GEMS. The so called UV-VIS algorithm plans to use spectral reflectance in 350-650 nm. The algorithm retrieves AOT and aerosol type using an inversion method, which adopts pre-calculated lookup table (LUT) for a set of assumed aerosol models. For the aerosol models optimized in Asia areas, the inversion data of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) located in the target areas are selectively used to archive aerosol optical properties. As a result, major aerosol types representing dust, polluted dust, and absorbing/non-absorbing anthropogenic aerosols are constructed and used for the LUT calculations. We analyze the effect of cloud contamination on the retrieved AOT by

  14. Web Information Systems for Monitoring and Control of Indoor Air Quality at Subway Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gi Heung; Choi, Gi Sang; Jang, Joo Hyoung

    In crowded subway stations indoor air quality (IAQ) is a key factor for ensuring the safety, health and comfort of passengers. In this study, a framework for web-based information system in VDN environment for monitoring and control of IAQ in subway stations is suggested. Since physical variables that describing IAQ need to be closely monitored and controlled in multiple locations in subway stations, concept of distributed monitoring and control network using wireless media needs to be implemented. Connecting remote wireless sensor network and device (LonWorks) networks to the IP network based on the concept of VDN can provide a powerful, integrated, distributed monitoring and control performance, making a web-based information system possible.

  15. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR), and a Suspended Matter (SM) EDR that provides aerosol type (dust, smoke, sea salt, and volcanic ash) information. An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. The accuracy of the SM product, however, is found to be very low (20 percent) when compared to Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and AERONET. Several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance have been developed for AOT retrieval. For dust aerosol type retrieval, a new approach that takes advantage of spectral dependence of Rayleigh scattering, surface reflectance, dust absorption in the deep blue (412 nm), blue (440 nm), and mid-IR (2.2 um) has been developed that detects dust with an accuracy of ~80 percent. For smoke plume identification, a source apportionment algorithm that combines fire hot spots with AOT imagery has been developed that provides smoke plume extent with an accuracy of ~70 percent. The VIIRS aerosol products will provide continuity to the current operational use of aerosol products from Aqua and Terra MODIS. These include aerosol data assimilation in Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) global aerosol model, verification of National Weather Service (NWS) dust and smoke forecasts, exceptional events monitoring by different states

  16. Impact of long-range transport on aerosol properties at a regional background station in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiujuan; Shi, Xuefeng; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yu, Bo

    2015-02-01

    The impact of long-range transport on aerosol properties at SDZ regional background station in Northern China during 2005-2010, was analyzed using trajectory clustering method with 3-day, 6-hourly backward trajectories determined by using HYSPLIT 4 model. Eleven clusters were determined by using the two-stage cluster method. PM2.5 levels, aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp) and scattering efficiency (αsp_2.5) of PM2.5 associated with each cluster were calculated. Based on the levels of PM2.5 and σsp, eleven clusters were classified into a relatively "clean" group (group A) and a "polluted" group (group B). The PM2.5 concentration and σsp of group A were lower than that of group B. Group A was mainly composed of the trajectories from northwest, north and northeast, which originated and passed through the emission areas such as Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. Group B mostly consisted of the air masses from the south and southeast, and the ones from the northwest. It was characterized with short and low trajectories over major anthropogenic emission regions in North China Plain (NCP), northwestern Hebei province and Inner Mongolia. The trajectory pathway of the northwest cluster in group B was lowest and slowest among all clusters from northerly direction, which caused the accumulation of pollutants along this pathway. High PM hours were identified in each cluster for each month, and were found mainly in group B, especially during March to October. Except of the contribution of high PM2.5 emissions in NCP, the production of secondary aerosols with the increasing solar radiation and humidity from March to October, and the straw burning that usually occurs in June in NCP are responsible for the high PM2.5 as well. The characteristics of αsp_2.5 of each cluster indicated that the northerly clusters were affected by anthropogenic pollutants mixed with dust, but southerly clusters were only influenced by the pollution aerosols. The αsp_2.5 of dust and anthropogenic

  17. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  18. Winter monsoon variation of lower tropospheric aerosol layers at a tropical coastal station, Trivandrum (8°33' N, 77°E), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, M.; Veerabuthiran, S.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Presennakumar, B.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Muraleedharan Nair, S.; Sreeja, R.

    Tropospheric aerosols play an important role in cloud physics and radiative transfer process. They show a high degree of variability in their characteristics both in space and time. The features of the background aerosol at any location or region depend to a large extent on the local source regions and various meteorological parameters at the time of measurement. Apart from the natural sources in and around the observatory station, anthropogenic additions of aerosols also affect the radiation budget and chemical composition. Besides this, it is realized in recent years that aerosols generated at one place could be transported over long distances by the wind systems and produce consequent effects at locations much farther away from the source. Such transported aerosols may settle as stratified layers in the atmosphere typically in the altitude of 1 to 4 km. These aerosol layers will have important effect in the local climate and atmospheric environment because of their role in radiative transfer process and cloud physics. Lidar observations had been conducted to study the long-range transport of aerosol and their effect at tropical station, Trivandrum during the northern winter period of 2002-2004. The presence of aerosol layers was observed on many days below 4 km during the above period. The high extinction coefficient is observed in the layer region and typically it is found to be 3.4 x 10-4 m-1. The aerosol optical depth is calculated by integrating the extinction values in the aerosol layer region and it is found to be between 0.25 and 0.35. The plausible reasons for the formation of these layers were explained using the wind circulation pattern and air back trajectories.

  19. Field calibrations of a low-cost aerosol sensor at a regulatory monitoring site in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, D. M.; Pillarisetti, A.; Smith, K. R.; Seto, E.

    2014-04-01

    Health effects attributed to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) now rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, but existing monitoring infrastructure cannot adequately characterize spatial and temporal variability in urban PM2.5 concentrations, nor in human population exposures. The development and evaluation of more portable and affordable monitoring instruments based on low-cost sensors may offer a means to supplement and extend existing infrastructure, increasing the density and coverage of empirical measurements and thereby improving exposure science and control. Here, we report on field calibrations of a custom-built, battery-operated aerosol monitoring instrument we developed using low-cost, off-the-shelf optical aerosol sensors. We calibrated our instruments using 1 h and 24 h PM2.5 data from a class III US EPA Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) PM2.5 β-attenuation monitor in continuous operation at a regulatory monitoring site in Oakland, California. We observed negligible associations with ambient humidity and temperature; linear corrections were sufficient to explain 60% of the variance in 1 h reference PM2.5 data and 72% of the variance in 24 h data. Performance at 1 h integration times was comparable to commercially available optical instruments costing considerably more. These findings warrant further exploration of the circumstances under which this class of aerosol sensors may profitably be deployed to generate improved PM2.5 data sets.

  20. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor...

  1. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor...

  2. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor...

  3. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor...

  4. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor...

  5. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic - a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Sedlák, P.; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, V.; Vodička, P.; Trusina, J.

    2015-05-01

    Long-lasting research infrastructures covering the research areas of atmospheric chemistry, meteorology and climatology are of highest importance. The Atmospheric Station (AS) Křešín u Pacova, central Czech Republic, is focused on monitoring of the occurence and long-range transport of greenhouse gases, atmospheric aerosols, selected gaseous atmospheric pollutants and basic meteorological characteristics. The AS and its 250 m tall tower was built according to the recommendations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) and cooperates with numerous national and international projects and monitoring programmes. First measurements conducted at ground started in 2012, vertical profile measurements were added in 2013. A seasonal variability with slightly higher autumn and winter concentrations of elemental and organic carbon was revealed. The suitability of the doubly left-censored Weibull distribution for modelling and interpretation of elemental carbon concentrations, which are often lower than instrumental quantification limits, was verified. Initial data analysis also suggests that in summer, the tower top at 250 m is frequently above the nocturnal surface inversions, thus being decoupled from local influences.

  6. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  7. LOCAL AIR: Local Aerosol monitoring combining in-situ and Remote Sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Caggiano, Rosa; Donvito, Angelo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Sarli, Valentina; Trippetta, Serena

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosols have effects on climate, environment and health. Although the importance of the study of aerosols is well recognized, the current knowledge of the characteristics and their distribution is still insufficient, and there are large uncertainties in the current understanding of the role of aerosols on climate and the environment, both on a regional and local level. Overcoming these uncertainties requires a search strategy that integrates data from multiple platforms (eg, terrestrial, satellite, ships and planes) and the different acquisition techniques (for example, in situ measurements, remote sensing, modeling numerical and data assimilation) (Yu et al., 2006). To this end, in recent years, there have been many efforts such as the creation of networks dedicated to systematic observation of aerosols (eg, European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme-EMEP, European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork-EARLINET, MicroPulse Lidar Network- MPLNET, and Aerosol Robotic NETwork-AERONET), the development and implementation of new satellite sensors and improvement of numerical models. The recent availability of numerous data to the ground, columnar and profiles of aerosols allows to investigate these aspects. An integrated approach between these different techniques could be able to provide additional information, providing greater insight into the properties of aerosols and their distribution and overcoming the limits of each single technique. In fact, the ground measurements allow direct determination of the physico-chemical properties of aerosols, but cannot be considered representative for large spatial and temporal scales and do not provide any information about the vertical profile of aerosols. On the other hand, the remote sensing techniques from the ground and satellite provide information on the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols both in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), mainly characterized by the presence of aerosols originating from

  8. Identification of absorbing organic (brown carbon) aerosols through Sun Photometry: results from AEROCAN / AERONET stations in high Arctic and urban Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G. H.; Chaubey, J. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Hayes, P.; Atkinson, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Light absorbing organic aerosols or brown carbon (BrC) aerosols are prominent species influencing the absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD) of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the UV wavelength region. They, along with dust, play an important role in modifying the spectral AAOD and the spectral AOD in the UV region: this property can be used to discriminate BrC aerosols from both weakly absorbing aerosols such as sulfates as well as strongly absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC). In this study we use available AERONET inversions (level 1.5) retrieved for the measuring period from 2009 to 2013, for the Arctic region (Eureka, Barrow and Hornsund), Urban/ Industrial regions (Kanpur, Beijing), and the forest regions (Alta Foresta and Mongu), to identify BrC aerosols. Using Dubovik's inversion algorithm results, we analyzed parameters that were sensitive to BrC presence, notably AAOD, AAODBrC estimated using the approach of Arola et al. [2011], the fine-mode-aerosol absorption derivative (αf, abs) and the fine-mode-aerosol absorption 2nd derivative (αf, abs'), all computed at a near UV wavelength (440 nm). Temporal trends of these parameters were investigated for all test stations and compared to available volume sampling surface data as a means of validating / evaluating the sensitivity of ostensible sunphotometer indicators of BrC aerosols to the presence of BrC as measured using independent indicators. Reference: Arola, A., Schuster, G., Myhre, G., Kazadzis, S., Dey, S., and Tripathi, S. N.: Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 215-225, doi:10.5194/acp-11-215-2011, 2011

  9. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  10. The Research and Implementation of Three Stages Traffic Stations Intelligent Monitor Systems Based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-ying, Chen; Ting, Xiao; WangTao; Jin-yi, He

    This system used three stage intelligent traffic station subsystems to forecast the path on which vehicle will go. First stage subsystem can forecast road node which adjacented to traffic station. Second stage subsystem was designed for bigger area, for example city, the third stage subsystem was for the larger area between city. Second stage subsystem system used A* based on orientation to calculate shortest path, third stage subsystem calculated critical node of a large area. The system can compose dispersed monitor information, forecast vehicle path, dynamic analysis, hierarchical monitor .It played an important role in ITS.

  11. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A new approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  12. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in Downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was recently developed to provide long-term real-time continuous measurements of ambient non-refractory (i.e., organic, sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, and chloride) submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1). Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the ACSM against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. The collocated measurements included a second ACSM, continuous and integrated sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium measurements, as well as a semi-continuous Sunset organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC) analyzer, continuous tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), 24 h integrated Federal Reference Method (FRM) filters, and continuous scanning electrical mobility system-mixing condensation particle counter (SEMS-MCPC). Intercomparison of the two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21); mass concentration for all chemical species agreed within ±27%, indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. Chemical constituents measured by the ACSM are also compared with those obtained from the continuous measurements from JST. Since the continuous measurement concentrations are adjusted to match the integrated filter measurements, these comparisons reflect the combined uncertainties of the ACSM, continuous, and filter measurements. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Differences between ACSM mass concentrations and the filter-adjusted JST continuous data are 5-27%, 4

  13. Impact of Spatial Resolution on Surface PM2.5 Monitoring using Satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, S.

    2012-12-01

    Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. The VIIRS instrument provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR). The air quality and public health community has been using the 10-km Aqua and Terra MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOT products as a proxy to monitor surface PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles smaller than 2.5 μm in median diameter). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) monitors surface PM2.5 because high concentrations have adverse human health impacts. The monitoring stations are not dense, especially in the rural regions, requiring the EPA and scientific community to use satellite-derived AOT as a proxy to derive surface PM2.5. VIIRS AOT will provide continuity to the use of MODIS AOT and its two different spatial resolutions provide an opportunity to test the impact of spatial resolution on the AOT-PM2.5 relationship. A preliminary comparison of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with in situ L1.5 AERONET data using nearest neighbor matchup criteria for one month (May 2012) shows that the IP and EDR AOT bias is 0.204 and 0.153 respectively, and the precision of IP and EDR AOT is 0.319 and 0.235 respectively. A comparison to Aqua MODIS for the same time period also shows that VIIRS AOT is biased high over land but the magnitudes of bias and precision are lower. Given that this evaluation places the VIIRS aerosol products at the beta maturity level (product is minimally validated, may contain significant errors, and not appropriate for quantitative applications) and algorithm refinements are forthcoming, this study compares the collocated satellite-derived AOT and surface PM2.5 relationship for summer 2012 using

  14. New Chains of Space Weather Monitoring Stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengkuan

    2016-07-01

    Chinese Meridian Project is a ground based space environment monitoring instrument network along 120 degree east meridian line, 30 degree latitude. The observation instruments include active and passive optical instruments: MST radars, Ionosphere digital sounders DSP-4, VHF Coherent Ionosphere Radar, Incoherent ionosphere radar, magnetometers, GPS receivers, and sounding rockets. The instrument network is now being extended to the north in Russian, to the south in Australia, and to the other side of the globe along 60 degree west. The new instrument chain is called the International Space Weather Meridian Circle Program (ISWMCP). NSSC is the leading institute of the program and has already reached agreements with many countries along this circle.

  15. Aerosol model development for environmental monitoring in the coastal atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady A.; Matvienko, Gennady G.

    2007-06-01

    Extinction of radiation in the marine boundary layer is dominated by scattering and absorption due to atmospheric aerosol. It is known, that the extinction of optical radiation visible and near IR spectra in the marine surface layer is determined mainly by scattering and absorption atmospheric aerosol. It influences on a dependence of spectral transmission and extinction both natural, and artificial light that is of interest for a wide range of problems, in particular for radiating problems at studying laws of climate formation, and for lines of the applications connected to the forecast of a signal power in coastal conditions at an estimation of EO systems characteristics. This is important to optical retrievals from satellite, remote sensing at environmental monitoring, backscatter of light to space (including climate forcing), cloud properties etc. In unpolluted regions the greatest effects on near shore scattering extinction will be a result of sea-salt from breaking waves and variations in relative humidity. The role of breaking waves appears to be modulated by wind, tide, swell, wave spectra and coastal conditions. These influences will be superimposed upon aerosol generated by open ocean sea-salt aerosol that varies with wind speed. The focus of our study is the extinction and optical effects due to aerosol in a specific coastal region. This involves linking coastal physical properties to oceanic and meteorological parameters in order to develop predictive algorithms that describe 3-D aerosol structure and variability. The aerosol microphysical model of the marine and coastal atmosphere surface layer is considered. The model distinctive feature is parameterization of amplitude and width of the modes as functions of fetch and wind speed. In the paper the dN/dr behavior depending at change meteorological parameters, heights above sea level, fetch, wind speed and RH is show. On the basis of the developed model with usage of Mie theory for spheres the

  16. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  17. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  18. A new method of satellite-based haze aerosol monitoring over the North China Plain and a comparison with MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wenzhong; Luo, Nana; Zhao, Wenji

    2016-05-01

    With worldwide urbanization, hazy weather has been increasingly frequent, especially in the North China Plain. However, haze aerosol monitoring remains a challenge. In this paper, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements were used to develop an enhanced haze aerosol retrieval algorithm (EHARA). This method can work not only on hazy days but also on normal weather days. Based on 12-year (2002-2014) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol property data, empirical single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (AF) values were chosen to assist haze aerosol retrieval. For validation, EHARA aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values, along with MODIS Collection 6 (C6) dark-pixel and deep blue aerosol products, were compared with AERONET data. The results show that the EHARA can achieve greater AOT spatial coverage under hazy conditions with a high accuracy (73% within error range) and work a higher resolution (1-km). Additionally, this paper presents a comprehensive discussion of the differences between and limitations of the EHARA and the MODIS C6 DT land algorithms.

  19. Satellite-Based Evidence of Wavelength-Dependent Aerosol Absorption in Biomass Burning Smoke Inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jethva, H.; Torres, O.

    2012-01-01

    We provide satellite-based evidence of the spectral dependence of absorption in biomass burning aerosols over South America using near-UV measurements made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005-2007. In the current near-UV OMI aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV), it is implicitly assumed that the only absorbing component in carbonaceous aerosols is black carbon whose imaginary component of the refractive index is wavelength independent. With this assumption, OMI-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) is found to be significantly over-estimated compared to that of AERONET at several sites during intense biomass burning events (August-September). Other well-known sources of error affecting the near-UV method of aerosol retrieval do not explain the large observed AOD discrepancies between the satellite and the ground-based observations. A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols. A sensitivity analysis examining the importance of accounting for the presence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in carbonaceous particles in satellite-based remote sensing was carried out in this work. The results convincingly show that the inclusion of spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption in the radiative transfer calculations leads to a more accurate characterization of the atmospheric load of carbonaceous aerosols.

  20. Aerosol Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO2 were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 × 106 cm−3, were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m−3, were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations

  1. Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling.

    PubMed

    Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H

    2010-07-01

    Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO(2) were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 x 10(6) cm(-3), were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m(-3), were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control

  2. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  3. An Intelligent System for Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Paul P.; Jules, Kenol

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent system for monitoring the microgravity environment quality on-board the International Space Station is presented. The monitoring system uses a new approach combining Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, learning vector quantization, and back propagation neural network to recognize and classify the known and unknown patterns. Finally, fuzzy logic is used to assess the level of confidence associated with each vibrating source activation detected by the system.

  4. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2007-05-02

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  5. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the...

  8. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  9. Monitoring and analysis of combustion aerosol emissions from fast moving diesel trains.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Michael J; Gramotnev, Dmitri K; Gramotnev, Galina; Davison, Brian M; Flegg, Mark B

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we report the results of the detailed monitoring and analysis of combustion emissions from fast moving diesel trains. A new highly efficient monitoring methodology is proposed based on the measurements of the total number concentration (TNC) of combustion aerosols at a fixed point (on a bridge overpassing the railway) inside the violently mixing zone created by a fast moving train. Applicability conditions for the proposed methodology are presented, discussed and linked to the formation of the stable and uniform mixing zone. In particular, it is demonstrated that if such a mixing zone is formed, the monitoring results are highly consistent, repeatable (with typically negligible statistical errors and dispersion), stable with respect to the external atmospheric turbulence and result in an unusual pattern of the aerosol evolution with two or three distinct TNC maximums. It is also shown that the stability and uniformity of the created mixing zone (as well as the repeatability of the monitoring results) increase with increasing length of the train (with an estimated critical train length of ~10 carriages, at the speed of ~150km/h). The analysis of the obtained evolutionary dependencies of aerosol TNC suggests that the major possible mechanisms responsible for the formation of the distinct concentration maximums are condensation (the second maximum) and thermal fragmentation of solid nanoparticle aggregates (third maximum). The obtained results and the new methodology will be important for monitoring and analysis of combustion emissions from fast moving trains, and for the determination of the impact of rail networks on the atmospheric environment and human exposure to combustion emissions.

  10. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs.

  11. A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

  12. Common View Time Transfer Using Worldwide GPS and DMA Monitor Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Wilson G.; McCaskill, Thomas B.; Oaks, Orville J.; Buisson, James A.; Warren, Hugh E.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the on-orbit Navstar clocks and the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor station reference clocks is performed by the Naval Research Laboratory using both broadcast and postprocessed precise ephemerides. The precise ephemerides are produced by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) for each of the GPS space vehicles from pseudo-range measurements collected at five GPS and at five DMA monitor stations spaced around the world. Recently, DMA established an additional site co-located with the US Naval Observatory precise time site. The time reference for the new DMA site is the DoD Master Clock. Now, for the first time, it is possible to transfer time every 15 minutes via common view from the DoD Master Clock to the 11 GPS and DMA monitor stations. The estimated precision of a single common-view time transfer measurement taken over a 15-minute interval was between 1.4 and 2.7 nanoseconds. Using the measurements from all Navstar space vehicles in common view during the 15-minute interval, typically 3-7 space vehicles, improved the estimate of the precision to between 0.65 and 1.13 nanoseconds. The mean phase error obtained from closure of the time transfer around the world using the 11 monitor stations and the 25 space vehicle clocks over a period of 4 months had a magnitude of 31 picoseconds. Analysis of the low noise time transfer from the DoD Master Clock to each of the monitor stations yields not only the bias in the time of the reference clock, but also focuses attention on structure in the behaviour of the reference clock not previously seen. Furthermore, the time transfer provides a a uniformly sampled database of 15-minute measurements that make possible, for the first time, the direct and exhaustive computation of the frequency stability of the monitor station reference clocks. To lend perspective to the analysis, a summary is given of the discontinuities in phase and frequency that occurred in the reference clock at the Master Control Station during

  13. Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Zhao, X.; Kahn, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Remer, L.; Lee, K.-H.; Wang, M.; Laszlo, I.; Nakajima, T.; Maring, H.

    2009-07-01

    As a result of increasing attention paid to aerosols in climate studies, numerous global satellite aerosol products have been generated. Aerosol parameters and underlining physical processes are now incorporated in many general circulation models (GCMs) in order to account for their direct and indirect effects on the earth's climate, through their interactions with the energy and water cycles. There exists, however, an outstanding problem that these satellite products have substantial discrepancies, that must be lowered substantially for narrowing the range of the estimates of aerosol's climate effects. In this paper, numerous key uncertain factors in the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) are articulated for some widely used and relatively long satellite aerosol products including the AVHRR, TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS. We systematically review the algorithms developed for these sensors in terms of four key elements that influence the quality of passive satellite aerosol retrieval: calibration, cloud screening, classification of aerosol types, and surface effects. To gain further insights into these uncertain factors, the NOAA AVHRR data are employed to conduct various tests, which help estimate the ranges of uncertainties incurred by each of the factors. At the end, recommendations are made to cope with these issues and to produce a consistent and unified aerosol database of high quality for both environment monitoring and climate studies.

  14. Engineering Upgrades to the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer for the CTBT International Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Van Davelaar, Peter

    2013-05-13

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the 1990’s and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The utility of such an automated system is the reduction of human intervention and the production of perfectly uniform results. However, maintainability and down time issues threaten this utility, even for systems with over 90% data availability. Engineering upgrades to the RASA are currently being pursued to address these issues, as well as Fukushima lessons learned. Current work includes a new automation control unit, and other potential improvements such as alternative detector cooling and sampling options are under review. This paper presents the current state of upgrades and improvements under investigation

  15. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Lidar Monitoring of Clouds and Aerosols at the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    We report on findings from ongoing polarization lidar research at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). This facility was established in 1987, and the current total of lidar and radiometric measurements is approx. 2,900-h. Research at FARS has been applied to the climatological investigation of cirrus cloud properties for basic research and satellite measurement validation (currently in its 13th year), and studies of contrails, mixed phase clouds, and volcanic and Asian dust aerosols. Among the techniques utilized for monitoring cloud and aerosol properties are triple-wave length linear depolarization measurements, and high (1.5-m by 10-Hz) resolution scanning observations. The usefulness of extended time lidar studies for atmospheric and climate research is illustrated.

  17. An observation-based approach to identify local natural dust events from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, D. Q.; Dan, M.; Wang, T.; Lee, P.

    2012-02-01

    Dust is a major component of atmospheric aerosols in many parts of the world. Although there exist many routine aerosol monitoring networks, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population) or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose a new approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1) high PM10 concentrations; (2) low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3) higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4) lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5) low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the Western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado). During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000-2003 and the other in 2004-2007). The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24 recorded dust events, respectively, while the years of 2000, 2004 and 2005 are the calmest periods, all with single digit dust records. Among these deserts, the Chihuahua Desert (59 cases) and the Sonoran Desert (62 cases) are by far the most active

  18. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, D. Q.; Dan, M.; Wang, T.; Lee, P.

    2012-06-01

    This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population) or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1) high PM10 concentrations; (2) low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3) higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4) lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5) low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado). During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000-2003 and the other in 2004-2007). The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24 recorded dust events, respectively, while the years

  19. Expected trace gas and aerosol retrieval accuracy of the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, U.; Kim, J.; Liu, X.; Lee, K. H.; Chance, K.; Song, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The predicted accuracy of the trace gases and aerosol retrievals from the geostationary environment monitoring spectrometer (GEMS) was investigated. The GEMS is one of the first sensors to monitor NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosols onboard geostationary earth orbit (GEO) over Asia. Since the GEMS is not launched yet, the simulated measurements and its precision were used in this study. The random and systematic component of the measurement error was estimated based on the instrument design. The atmospheric profiles were obtained from Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART) simulations and surface reflectances were obtained from climatology of OMI Lambertian equivalent reflectance. The uncertainties of the GEMS trace gas and aerosol products were estimated based on the OE method using the atmospheric profile and surface reflectance. Most of the estimated uncertainties of NO2, HCHO, stratospheric and total O3 products satisfied the user's requirements with sufficient margin. However, about 26% of the estimated uncertainties of SO2 and about 30% of the estimated uncertainties of tropospheric O3 do not meet the required precision. Particularly the estimated uncertainty of SO2 is high in winter, when the emission is strong in East Asia. Further efforts are necessary in order to improve the retrieval accuracy of SO2 and tropospheric O3 in order to reach the scientific goal of GEMS. Random measurement error of GEMS was important for the NO2, SO2, and HCHO retrieval, while both the random and systematic measurement errors were important for the O3 retrievals. The degree of freedom for signal of tropospheric O3 was 0.8 ± 0.2 and that for stratospheric O3 was 2.9 ± 0.5. The estimated uncertainties of the aerosol retrieval from GEMS measurements were predicted to be lower than the required precision for the SZA range of the trace gas retrievals.

  20. Transient variation of aerosol size distribution in an underground subway station.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Eom, Jin Ki

    2016-06-01

    As the number of people using rapid transit systems (subways) continues to rise in major cities worldwide, increasing attention has been given to the indoor air quality of underground stations. This study intended to observe the change of PM distribution by size in an underground station with PSDs installed located near the main road in downtown Seoul, as well as to examine causes for the changes. The results indicate that the PM suspended in the tunnel flowed into the platform area even in a subway station where the effect of train-induced wind is blocked by installed PSDs, as this flow occurred when the PSDs were opened. The results also indicate that coarse mode particles generated by mechanical friction in the tunnel, such as that between wheels and rail, also flowed into the platform area. The PM either settled or was re-suspended according to size and whether the ventilation in the platform area was in operation or if the platform floor had been washed. The ventilation system was more effective in removing PM of smaller sizes (fine particles) while the wash-out performed after train operations had stopped reduced the suspension of coarse mode particles the next morning. Despite installation of the completely sealed PSDs, inflow of coarse mode particles from the tunnel seems unavoidable, indicating the need for measures to decrease the PM generated there to lower subway user exposure since those particles cannot be reduced by mechanical ventilation alone. This research implicate that coarse PM containing heavy metals (generated from tunnel side) proliferated especially during rush hours, during which it is very important to control those PM in order to reduce subway user exposure to this hazardous PM.

  1. Transient variation of aerosol size distribution in an underground subway station.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Eom, Jin Ki

    2016-06-01

    As the number of people using rapid transit systems (subways) continues to rise in major cities worldwide, increasing attention has been given to the indoor air quality of underground stations. This study intended to observe the change of PM distribution by size in an underground station with PSDs installed located near the main road in downtown Seoul, as well as to examine causes for the changes. The results indicate that the PM suspended in the tunnel flowed into the platform area even in a subway station where the effect of train-induced wind is blocked by installed PSDs, as this flow occurred when the PSDs were opened. The results also indicate that coarse mode particles generated by mechanical friction in the tunnel, such as that between wheels and rail, also flowed into the platform area. The PM either settled or was re-suspended according to size and whether the ventilation in the platform area was in operation or if the platform floor had been washed. The ventilation system was more effective in removing PM of smaller sizes (fine particles) while the wash-out performed after train operations had stopped reduced the suspension of coarse mode particles the next morning. Despite installation of the completely sealed PSDs, inflow of coarse mode particles from the tunnel seems unavoidable, indicating the need for measures to decrease the PM generated there to lower subway user exposure since those particles cannot be reduced by mechanical ventilation alone. This research implicate that coarse PM containing heavy metals (generated from tunnel side) proliferated especially during rush hours, during which it is very important to control those PM in order to reduce subway user exposure to this hazardous PM. PMID:27220501

  2. Long-term MAX-DOAS measurement of trace gases and aerosol in the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoru; Hao, Nan; Hendrick, François; Van Roozendael, Michel; Holla, Robert; Valks, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (Umwelt Forschungsstation Schneefernerhaus, UFS) is located immediately under the summit of Zugspitze (2962 m), the highest mountain of Germany, at a height of 2650 m. The UFS is a rare observation site in Germany with mostly clean and unpolluted air. It is ideal for both stratospheric composition measurements and trace gas measurements in the free-troposphere. It is optimal for detecting pollution events in the free-troposphere, which are indications of short- or long-range transport of air pollutants. A MAX-DOAS instrument has been working in the UFS since February 2011. With the zenith spectrum of each cycle used as the reference, the differential slant column densities (DSCDs) of trace gases are calculated from the spectra with Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The DSCDs of both O4 and NO2 are calculated in two different wavelength intervals, 338-370 nm in the UV region and 440-490 nm in the VIS region. For HCHO and HONO, optimal fitting windows have been determined in the UV region. A retrieval algorithm, based on the radiative transfer model LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, is used to provide information on the vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs) of aerosol and trace gases. Meanwhile, zenith-sky radiance spectra during twilight hours are analyzed using DOAS method to derive the total vertical column densities (VCDs) of O3 and NO2. A zenith spectrum measured in the noon of a summer day was chosen as the reference spectrum. The slant column densities (SCDs) of O3 and NO2, which are the direct product of the DOAS analysis, are then converted into VCDs using the air mass factors (AMFs) derived by radiative transfer calculations. This work presents the results of the MAX-DOAS measurement in the UFS from 2012 to 2015, including aerosol (derived from O4 measurement), NO2, HCHO, and HONO, etc. The vertical profiles as well as the seasonal and diurnal variation

  3. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  4. Absorbing aerosols: are they causing a delayed sunrise? A comparison between plain and plateau IGB stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Lipi

    2016-07-01

    Current study tries to compare black carbon radiative effects at densely populated plain station Varanasi and lesser populated plateau station Ranchi with large forest cover but with numerous open coal mines. While average black carbon mass density (BC) reduced from February to March at Ranchi following an increase in convective instability, it was observed to increase by 150% from Feb to March at Varanasi, as transport from NE forest fires increases. It is observed that absorption due to black carbon of non-fossil fuel origin is prevalent throughout the day at Varanasi, while this contribution is most significant during post sunset hours at Ranchi. Radiative forcing, estimated hourly using chemical model (to derive BC-aod ) and radiative transfer model, indicated that at least 5% of the incoming radiation is always cut-off during any time of the day at Varanasi while this is about 4% at Ranchi. BC effectively causes a delayed sunrise by reducing the incoming radiation at plains of IGB by around 25% which may be crucial for bionetwork.

  5. Development of an Environmental Monitoring Package for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, Ralph M., Jr.; Clifton, Kenneth S.; Vanhooser, Michael T.

    1999-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be launched into space and over the next few years ISS will be assembled on orbit into its final configuration. Experiments will be performed on a continuous basis both inside and outside the station. External experiments will be mounted on attached payload locations specifically designed to accommodate experiments and provide data and power from ISS. From the beginning of the space station program it has been recognized that external experiments will require knowledge of the external environment because it can affect the science being performed and may impact lifetime and operations of the experiments. Recently an effort was initiated to design and develop an Environment Monitoring Package (EMP) was started. This paper describes the derivation of the requirements for the EMP package, the type of measurements that the EMP will make and types of instruments which will be employed to make these measurements.

  6. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  7. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  8. Dose Measurement Results Obtained by Radiation Monitoring System of Russian Segment of International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.; Benghin, V. V.; Volkov, A. N.; Aleksandrin, A. P.; Lyagushin, V. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Tel'Tsov, M. V.; Kutuzov, Yu. V.

    Radiation monitoring system RMS being deployed on the International Space Station is a part of radiation safety system of the station The purpose of the RMS is to provide information for assessment of radiation doses absorbed by the crews during space flights Radiation monitoring system RMS has worked on board of the International Space Station ISS practically continuously beginning from August 2001 RMS consist of 7 units begin itemize item The R-16 dosimeter Two ionization chambers are the sensitive elements of the R-16 dosimeter item Four DB-8 dosimeters with semiconductor radiation detectors item Data collection unit and Utility unit destined for processing and analysis of measurement results end itemize RMS with other ISS systems integration permits to downlink telemetry information and to display radiation parameters to crew In June 2005 the software of data collection unit was updated It permits the RMS telemetry information upgrading to alert the crew when exposure rates exceed set threshold to supply an opportunity of interactive communication the crew and RMS The report contains information on performance of equipment and dose rate measured since August 2001 till December 2005 both in quiet time and during solar proton events Comparison with MIR station R-16 data registered since 1991 year is carried out

  9. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  10. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  11. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simplified conversion to salinity units for use with specific conductance data from monitoring stations that have been normalized to a standard temperature of 25 °C and an equation for the reverse calculation. Although these previously undocumented methods have been shared with many IEP agencies over the last two decades, the sources of the equations and data are identified here so that the original literature can be accessed.

  12. Applications of formal simulation languages in the control and monitoring subsystems of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The notions, benefits, and drawbacks of numeric simulation are introduced. Two formal simulation languages, Simpscript and Modsim are introduced. The capabilities of each are discussed briefly, and then the two programs are compared. The use of simulation in the process of design engineering for the Control and Monitoring System (CMS) for Space Station Freedom is discussed. The application of the formal simulation language to the CMS design is presented, and recommendations are made as to their use.

  13. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  14. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  15. A study on the temporal and spatial variability of absorbing aerosols using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2009-05-01

    Absorbing aerosols, especially mineral dust and black carbon, play key roles in climate change by absorbing solar radiation, heating the atmosphere, and contributing to global warming. In this paper, we first examine the consistency of the Aerosol Index (AI) product as measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments and then analyze these AI data sets to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of UV absorbing aerosols. In contrast to the trend in aerosol optical depth found in the advanced very high-resolution radiometer data, no obvious long-term trend in absorbing aerosols is observed from the time series of AI records. The comparison between the mean annual cycle in the two data sets shows that the cycles agree very well both globally and regionally, indicating a consistency between the AI products from TOMS and OMI. Varimax rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of detrended, deseasonalized AI data proves to be successful in isolating major dust and biomass burning source regions, as well as dust transport. Finally, we find that large, individual events, such as the Kuwait oil fire and Australian smoke plum, are isolated in individual higher-order principal components.

  16. [Observation study on aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing using the ground-based and satellite remote sensing at background station during the regional pollution episodes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Xia, Xiang-Ao; Che, Hui-Zheng; Tang, Jie; Tang, Yi-Xi; Meng, Wei; Dong, Fan

    2014-07-01

    The significant effect of anthropogenic pollutants transportation on the physical and optical properties of regional background atmospheric aerosol was studied by using ground-based and satellite remote sensing data obtained at the atmospheric background station (Shangdianzi, Beijing) of North China during October 1 to 15 in 2011. The aerosol mass concentration and reactive gases concentration increased obviously during periods of October 4-5, October 7-9, and October 11-12. Comparing with the background period of October 1-3, volume concentration increased by a factor of 3-6 for reactive gases such as NO(x), and CO, and a factor of 10-20 for SO2. Mass concentration of PM2.5 was about 200 microg x m(-3) on October 9. During haze period, the AOD at 500 nm varied between 0.60 to 1.00. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was lower than 0.88. And the black carbon concentration increased 4-8 times, which suggested the aerosol absorption was very strong during this pollution episode. The absorption of aerosol particles could cause 100-400 W x m(-2) increase of atmospheric radiation. The surface radiation decreased by about 100-300 W x m(-2) due to the aerosol scattering and absorption. This could cause higher stability of atmosphere, which will significantly affect the cloud and precipitation, and thus the regional weather and climate.

  17. New classification scheme for ozone monitoring stations based on frequency distribution of hourly data.

    PubMed

    Tapia, O; Escudero, M; Lozano, Á; Anzano, J; Mantilla, E

    2016-02-15

    According to European Union (EU) legislation, ozone (O3) monitoring sites can be classified regarding their location (rural background, rural, suburban, urban) or based on the presence of emission sources (background, traffic, industrial). There have been attempts to improve these classifications aiming to reduce their ambiguity and subjectivity, but although scientifically sound, they lack the simplicity needed for operational purposes. We present a simple methodology for classifying O3 stations based on the characteristics of frequency distribution curves which are indicative of the actual impact of combustion sources emitting NO that consumes O3 via titration. Four classes are identified using 1998-2012 hourly data from 72 stations widely distributed in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. Types 1 and 2 present unimodal bell-shaped distribution with very low amount of data near zero reflecting a limited influence of combustion sources while Type 4 has a primary mode close to zero, showing the impact of combustion sources, and a minor mode for higher concentrations. Type 3 stations present bimodal distributions with the main mode in the higher levels. We propose a quantitative metric based on the Gini index with the objective of reproducing this classification and finding empirical ranges potentially useful for future classifications. The analysis of the correspondence with the EUROAIRNET classes for the 72 stations reveals that the proposed scheme is only dependent on the impact of combustion sources and not on climatic or orographic aspects. It is demonstrated that this classification is robust since in 87% of the occasions the classification obtained for individual years coincide with the global classification obtained for the 1998-2012 period. Finally, case studies showing the applicability of the new classification scheme for assessing the impact on O3 of a station relocation and performing a critical evaluation of an air quality monitoring network are

  18. New classification scheme for ozone monitoring stations based on frequency distribution of hourly data.

    PubMed

    Tapia, O; Escudero, M; Lozano, Á; Anzano, J; Mantilla, E

    2016-02-15

    According to European Union (EU) legislation, ozone (O3) monitoring sites can be classified regarding their location (rural background, rural, suburban, urban) or based on the presence of emission sources (background, traffic, industrial). There have been attempts to improve these classifications aiming to reduce their ambiguity and subjectivity, but although scientifically sound, they lack the simplicity needed for operational purposes. We present a simple methodology for classifying O3 stations based on the characteristics of frequency distribution curves which are indicative of the actual impact of combustion sources emitting NO that consumes O3 via titration. Four classes are identified using 1998-2012 hourly data from 72 stations widely distributed in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. Types 1 and 2 present unimodal bell-shaped distribution with very low amount of data near zero reflecting a limited influence of combustion sources while Type 4 has a primary mode close to zero, showing the impact of combustion sources, and a minor mode for higher concentrations. Type 3 stations present bimodal distributions with the main mode in the higher levels. We propose a quantitative metric based on the Gini index with the objective of reproducing this classification and finding empirical ranges potentially useful for future classifications. The analysis of the correspondence with the EUROAIRNET classes for the 72 stations reveals that the proposed scheme is only dependent on the impact of combustion sources and not on climatic or orographic aspects. It is demonstrated that this classification is robust since in 87% of the occasions the classification obtained for individual years coincide with the global classification obtained for the 1998-2012 period. Finally, case studies showing the applicability of the new classification scheme for assessing the impact on O3 of a station relocation and performing a critical evaluation of an air quality monitoring network are

  19. Contributions of local sources, long-range and mountain wind transport for aerosols over an eastern Himalayan high-altitude station in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Singh, Ajay; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Das, Sanat

    A long-term study (2010-2013) on aerosols mass concentrations (PM2.5), number concentrations of size segregated aerosols and mass concentration of total suspended black carbon aerosols has been made over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. Seasonal and diurnal variation of all types of aerosols, their chemical composition and source apportionment revealed that aerosols over this part of Himalaya are mainly of two types; locally generated and long-range transported aerosols. The diurnal variation of aerosols including black carbon showed distinct feature of up-slope mountain wind transport mainly during premonsoon (Mar-May) which brings aerosol particles from low land regions. This present study focuses on the estimation of the individual contributions from local emissions (LE), long-range transport (LRT) and mountain wind transport (MWT) towards the total aerosol loading over Darjeeling. Several strike events (called by local political party) were observed at Darjeeling over the entire period of study (2008-2013) when all the local activities (schools, colleges, offices, vehicular, industrial etc) were stopped fully. Most of the strike events occurred during premonsoon. We have observed three types of events during premonsoon over the entire study period; 1) strike events with the contribution of LRT+MWT with zero local emissions (LE=0), 2) normal days with the contribution of LE+LRT+MWT, 3) normal days with the contribution of LE+MWT with zero long-range contribution (LRT=0). On normal days, the diurnal variation of aerosols during premonsoon showed sharp morning and evening peaks associated to local anthropogenic activities with the effect of up-slope mountain wind during afternoon. During strike events, the morning and evening peaks were absent but a broad peak was observed during afternoon associated to up-slope mountain wind. The increase in aerosol concentrations during afternoon on strike days

  20. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  1. Aerosol resuspension from fabric: implications for personal monitoring in the beryllium industry.

    PubMed

    Bohne, J E; Cohen, B S

    1985-02-01

    The fabric used for work clothing at an industrial site can significantly influence personal monitor (PM) exposure estimates because dust resuspension from clothing can increase the concentration at the sampler inlet. The magnitude of the effect depends on removal forces and on the interaction of the contaminant particles with work garments. Aerosol deposition and resuspension on cotton and Nomex aramid fabrics was evaluated at a beryllium refinery. Electrostatically charged cotton backdrops collected more beryllium than neutral controls, but electronegative Nomex backdrops did not. Moving fabrics collected more beryllium than did stationary controls. When contaminated fabrics were agitated, PMs mounted 2.5 cm in front of the fabric collected more beryllium than monitors above the fabric, positioned to simulate the nose or mouth. The difference between the air concentrations measured by these PMs increased with Be loading and tended to level off for highly contaminated fabric. Cotton resuspended a larger fraction of its contaminant load than Nomex. These results are consistent with current knowledge of the behavior of particles on fabric fibers. Aerosol resuspension from garments is an important consideration in assessing inhalation exposure to toxic dusts. A garment may attract and retain toxic particles. This contamination is then available for later resuspension.

  2. Aerosol resuspension from fabric: implications for personal monitoring in the beryllium industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bohne, J.E. Jr.; Cohen, B.S.

    1985-02-01

    The fabric used for work clothing at an industrial site can significantly influence personal monitor (PM) exposure estimates because dust resuspension from clothing can increase the concentration at the sampler inlet. The magnitude of the effect depends on removal forces and on the interaction of the contaminant particles with work garments. Aerosol deposition and resuspension on cotton and Nomex aramid fabrics was evaluated at a beryllium refinery. Electrostatically charged cotton backdrops collected more beryllium than neutral controls, but electronegative Nomex backdrops did not. Moving fabrics collected more beryllium than did stationary controls. When contaminated fabrics were agitated, PMs mounted 2.5 cm in front of the fabric collected more beryllium than monitors above the fabric, positioned to simulate the nose or mouth. The difference between the air concentrations measured by these PMs increased with Be loading and tended to level off for highly contaminated fabric. Cotton resuspended a larger fraction of its contaminant load than Nomex. These results are consistent with current knowledge of the behavior of particles on fabric fibers. Aerosol resuspension from garments is an important consideration in assessing inhalation exposure to toxic dusts. A garment may attract and retain toxic particles. This contamination is then available for later resuspension.

  3. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  4. Aerosol resuspension from fabric: implications for personal monitoring in the beryllium industry.

    PubMed

    Bohne, J E; Cohen, B S

    1985-02-01

    The fabric used for work clothing at an industrial site can significantly influence personal monitor (PM) exposure estimates because dust resuspension from clothing can increase the concentration at the sampler inlet. The magnitude of the effect depends on removal forces and on the interaction of the contaminant particles with work garments. Aerosol deposition and resuspension on cotton and Nomex aramid fabrics was evaluated at a beryllium refinery. Electrostatically charged cotton backdrops collected more beryllium than neutral controls, but electronegative Nomex backdrops did not. Moving fabrics collected more beryllium than did stationary controls. When contaminated fabrics were agitated, PMs mounted 2.5 cm in front of the fabric collected more beryllium than monitors above the fabric, positioned to simulate the nose or mouth. The difference between the air concentrations measured by these PMs increased with Be loading and tended to level off for highly contaminated fabric. Cotton resuspended a larger fraction of its contaminant load than Nomex. These results are consistent with current knowledge of the behavior of particles on fabric fibers. Aerosol resuspension from garments is an important consideration in assessing inhalation exposure to toxic dusts. A garment may attract and retain toxic particles. This contamination is then available for later resuspension. PMID:3976498

  5. Analysis and Monitoring of the Spatio-temporal Aerosol Patterns over Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, M.; Islam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays climate change is the burning issue and atmospheric aerosols are vital parameter of the global climate system. So, atmospheric aerosols are one of the hot topics for present scientific research. Most remote sensing methods retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) to assess the aerosols and their various effects on environmental and climate system. However, there is lack of studies dealing with monitoring of aerosol patterns over Bangladesh. In this research, we have analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol load over Bangladesh, using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 3 remote sensing data. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to generate a backward trajectory in order to identify the origins of air masses, with the aim of understanding these spatial and temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations. During the last decade, AODs have increased across Bangladesh and revealed a higher AOD concentration in western part but a much cleaner environment in eastern part. An assessment of monthly mean variations in AOD has exhibited maximum AODs in June and minimum AODs in October. Looking over seasonal variations during the last decade over Bangladesh showed maximum AOD values during the summer, while minimum AOD values showed during the post monsoon also an evidence of a decreasing AOD trend showed during the monsoon can be owing to an increase in monsoonal rainfall in Bangladesh, while all other seasons showed increasing trends. Northwestern part of Bangladesh has showed at the top of AOD concentration in winter season during the year 2010. Dense fog activities in northern part of Bangladesh may be the causes of this high AOD distribution. We also documented, the regional AOD variations over seven different divisions of Bangladesh, for which Dhaka and Sylhet divisions showed decreasing trends where all others showed increasing trends. Annual mean AODs have highest levels in

  6. On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a coastal-rural site at El Arenosillo Station (SW - Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorribas, M.; de La Morena, B. A.; Wehner, B.; López, J. F.; Prats, N.; Mogo, S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2011-11-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days). The mean total concentration (NT) was 8660 cm-3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT) and accumulation (NACC) particle size ranges were 2830 cm-3, 4110 cm-3 and 1720 cm-3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm-3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC). Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles moved offshore due to the land breeze and had an impact on the particle burden at noon, especially when the wind was blowing from the NW sector in the morning during summer time. This increased NNUC and NAIT by factors of 3

  7. COLD MAGICS - Continuous Local Deformation Monitoring of an Arctic Geodetic Fundamental Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Ruediger; Bergstrand, Sten

    2010-01-01

    We describe the experience gained in a project to continuously monitor the local tie at the Geodetic Observatory Ny-Alesund. A PC-controlled robotic total station was used to monitor survey prisms that were attached to survey pillars of the local network and the monuments used for geodetic VLBI and GNSS measurements. The monitoring lasted for seven days and had a temporal resolution of six minutes. The raw angle and distance measurements show clear sinusoidal signatures with a daily period, most strongly for a four-day period with 24 hours of sunshine. The derived topocentric coordinates of the survey prisms attached to the GNSS monument and the VLBI radio telescope act as approximation for the local tie. We detect clear signatures at the mm-level. With the current approach we cannot distinguish between real motion of the prisms and potential thermal influences on the instrument used for the observations. However, the project shows that continuous local tie monitoring is feasible today and in the future can and should be used for all geodetic co-location stations.

  8. Urban air pollution monitoring and correlation properties between fixed-site stations.

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Scotto, Fabiana; Lauriola, Paolo; Galassi, Francesca; Montanari, Angela

    2004-10-01

    The rich regional air-monitoring network of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy has been used to quantify the spatial variability of the main pollutants within urban environments and to analyze the correlations between stations. The spatial variability of the concentrations of the majority of pollutants within the city was very high, making it difficult to differentiate and characterize the urban environments and to apply legal limits with uniform criteria. On the other hand, the correlations between the fixed-site monitoring stations were high enough for their data to be retained generally very appropriately for controlling temporal trends. Starting from the high correlation level, a procedure was proposed and tested to derive pollution levels, using short-term measurements, such as passive samplers and mobile-station data. The importance of long-term statistics in urban air pollution mapping was emphasized. Treatment of missing data in time series and quality assurance were indicated as possible fields for applications for the correlation properties.

  9. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  10. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  11. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  12. Recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, John W.; Verostko, Charles E.; Linton, Arthur T.; Burchett, Ray

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters. A preprototype unit that contains an ultraviolet absorbance organic carbon monitor integrated with pH and conductivity sensors is presented. The preprototype has provisions for automated operation and is a reagentless flow-through system without any gas/liquid interfaces. The organic carbon monitor detects by utraviolet absorbance the organic impurities in reclaimed wastewater which may be correlated to the organic carbon content of the water. A comparison of the preprototype organic carbon detection values with actual total organic carbon measurements is presented. The electrolyte double junction concept for the pH sensor and fixed electrodes for both the pH and conductivity sensors are discussed. In addition, the development of a reagentless organic carbon analyzer that incorporates ultraviolet oxidation and infrared detection is presented. Detection sensitivities, hardware development, and operation are included.

  13. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  14. Dark-cycle monitoring of biological subjects on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Sherry; Mian, Arshad

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  15. Chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at Mt. Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in East Asia during biomass burning seasons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Lee, C.; Wang, S.; Chuang, M.; Chia, E.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Lin, J.; Hung, H.; Hsiao, T.; Liang, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) which is located at Mt. Lulin (2,862 m MSL; 23o 28'07"N, 120o52'25"E) in central Taiwan, East Asia, and has been operated since 13 April, 2006. LABS is unique because its location and altitude enhances the global network of GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) in the Southeast Asian region, where no high-elevation baseline station is available. Our site is located between the GAW Waliguan station (3,810 m) on the Tibetan plateau and the Mauna Loa Observatory (3,397m) in Hawaii. We will particularly focus on the results obtained during the spring season, when biomass burning activities prevail in northern Southeast Asia. Chemical characterization of fine and coarse aerosol particles, including water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon, and trace elements, will be presented. Aerosol optical properties, including scattering, absorption, extinction, single scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, and aerosol optical depth, as well as the derived radiative forcing efficiency, will be discussed. Results of cloud condensation nuclei measurements, made intermittently, will also be presented. Trajectory studies indicate that this site experiences a variety of air masses originating from contaminated and clean source regions, giving a distinctive contrast of atmospheric changes. To summarize the results, the maximum values (and monthly means) of these chemical, physical and radiative parameters generally occurred during spring time, especially in March, corresponding to prevailing biomass burning activities in SE Asia. Besides, LABS is also one of the supersites during the 2010-2013 spring campaigns of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) for studying the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate over Southeast Asian region. Results of source (northern Thailand

  16. GIS based assessment of the spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations using pollutant emissions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righini, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Ciucci, A.; Cremona, G.; Piersanti, A.; Vitali, L.; Ciancarella, L.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations is a critical parameter when choosing location of sites and assessing effects on population to long term exposure to air pollution. According to literature, the spatial representativeness of a monitoring site is related to the variability of pollutants concentrations around the site. As the spatial distribution of primary pollutants concentration is strongly correlated to the allocation of corresponding emissions, in this work a methodology is presented to preliminarily assess spatial representativeness of a monitoring site by analysing the spatial variation of emissions around it. An analysis of horizontal variability of several pollutants emissions was carried out by means of Geographic Information System using a neighbourhood statistic function; the rationale is that if the variability of emissions around a site is low, the spatial representativeness of this site is high consequently. The methodology was applied to detect spatial representativeness of selected Italian monitoring stations, located in Northern and Central Italy and classified as urban background or rural background. Spatialized emission data produced by the national air quality model MINNI, covering entire Italian territory at spatial resolution of 4 × 4 km2, were processed and analysed. The methodology has shown significant capability for quick detection of areas with highest emission variability. This approach could be useful to plan new monitoring networks and to approximately estimate horizontal spatial representativeness of existing monitoring sites. Major constraints arise from the limited spatial resolution of the analysis, controlled by the resolution of the emission input data, cell size of 4 × 4 km2, and from the applicability to primary pollutants only.

  17. Linking cluster analysis with synoptic meteorology to characterise chemical climates at six north-west European monitoring stations

    SciTech Connect

    Dorling, S.R.; Davies, T.D.

    1994-12-31

    Synoptic scale atmospheric circulation patterns are often good surrogates for the transport pathway to an individual monitoring station. Davies et al. (1990) supported this idea by showing that the chemistry of precipitation samples collected at United Kingdom monitoring stations were strongly related to the Lamb weather type index, a daily classification of the synoptic circulation influencing United Kingdom weather. Such a classification does not, however, optimise the distinction between airflow from different directions and thus over different pollution source regions.

  18. Long-Range Geo-Monitoring Using Image Assisted Total Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Andreas; Huber, Ben; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Paar, Gerhard

    2014-09-01

    Image Assisted Total Stations (IATS) unify geodetic precision of total stations with areal coverage of images. The concept of using two IATS devices for high-resolution, long-range stereo survey of georisk areas has been investigated in the EU-FP7 project DE-MONTES (www.de-montes.eu). The paper presents the used methodology and compares the main features with other terrestrial geodetic geo-monitoring methods. The theoretically achievable accuracy of the measurement systemis derived and verified by ground truth data of a distant clay pit slope and simulated deformations. It is shown that the stereo IATS concept is able to obtain higher precision in the determination of 3D deformations than other systems of comparable sensor establishment effort.

  19. Application of index of biotic integrity (IBI) to fixed station water quality monitoring sites

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Biological monitoring aspects of Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (SWMS) Fixed Station Ambient Monitoring Network include sampling and analysis of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The principal objective of the biological monitoring portions of SWMS is to assess the health'' or quality of the aquatic environment in given stream reaches. This report deals with two aspects of biological monitoring, structural and physical characteristics of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. These are considered relative to physical and chemical aquatic environmental conditions in an attempt to identify likely causes of any recognizable perturbations of the aquatic biological communities. Specifically, fish are sampled to measure species richness, species composition, trophic structure, fish abundance, and condition. Benthic macroinvertebrates are sampled to allow an assessment of species richness, taxonomic composition, and community structure. Biological monitoring, incorporated into SWMS in 1986, was continued for the third year in 1988 with a repeat of 1986 sampling. This report presents 1988 findings and discusses differences between 1988 and 1987 findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  20. Terrestrial photography as a complementary measurement in weather stations for snow monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2015-04-01

    Snow monitoring constitutes a basic key to know snow behaviour and evolution, which have particular features in semiarid regions (i.e. highly strong spatiotemporal variability, and the occurrence of several accumulation-melting cycles throughout the year). On one hand, traditional snow observation, such as snow surveys and snow pillows have the inconvenience of a limited accessibility during snow season and the impossibility to cover a vast extension. On the other hand, satellite remote sensing techniques, largely employed in medium to large scale regional studies, has the disadvantage of a fixed spatial and temporal resolutions which in some cases are not able to reproduce snow processes at small scale. An economic alternative is the use of terrestrial photography which scales are adapted to the study problem. At the microscale resolution permits the continuous monitoring of snow, adapting the resolution of the observation to the scales of the processes. Besides its use as raw observation datasets to calibrate and validate models' results, terrestrial photography constitutes valuable information to complement weather stations observations. It allows the discriminating possible mistakes in meteorological observations (i.e. overestimation on rain measurements) and a better understanding of snow behaviour against certain weather agents (i.e. blowing snow). Thus, terrestrial photography is a feasible and convenient technique to be included in weather monitoring stations in mountainous areas in semiarid regions.

  1. Monitoring of aerosols in Tsukuba after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant incident in 2011.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    Artificial radionuclides were released into the atmosphere by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident after a strong earthquake on 11 March 2011. Aerosol monitoring at the Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, was started 20 d after the incident. Radionuclides such as (99)Mo/(99m)Tc, (132)Te/(132)I, (129 m)Te/(129)Te, (131)I, (137)Cs, (136)Cs, (134)Cs, (140)Ba/(140)La, (110 m)Ag, and (95)Nb were observed and, with the exception of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, these radionuclides decreased to below the limit of detection in the middle of June. The activity ratio of atmospheric (134)Cs/(137)Cs in aerosols decreased over time almost following physical decays. Therefore, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in the averaged air mass in this study could be regarded as homogeneous although those of several reactors in the Nuclear Power Plant were not ascertained. A further research on the released (137)Cs and (134)Cs would be necessary for the sedimentology of lake sediment. PMID:22071363

  2. Monitoring of aerosols in Tsukuba after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant incident in 2011.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    Artificial radionuclides were released into the atmosphere by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident after a strong earthquake on 11 March 2011. Aerosol monitoring at the Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, was started 20 d after the incident. Radionuclides such as (99)Mo/(99m)Tc, (132)Te/(132)I, (129 m)Te/(129)Te, (131)I, (137)Cs, (136)Cs, (134)Cs, (140)Ba/(140)La, (110 m)Ag, and (95)Nb were observed and, with the exception of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, these radionuclides decreased to below the limit of detection in the middle of June. The activity ratio of atmospheric (134)Cs/(137)Cs in aerosols decreased over time almost following physical decays. Therefore, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in the averaged air mass in this study could be regarded as homogeneous although those of several reactors in the Nuclear Power Plant were not ascertained. A further research on the released (137)Cs and (134)Cs would be necessary for the sedimentology of lake sediment.

  3. Intelligent monitoring and diagnosis systems for the Space Station Freedom ECLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Specific activities in NASA's environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) advanced automation project that is designed to minimize the crew and ground manpower needed for operations are discussed. Various analyses and the development of intelligent software for the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom (SSF) ECLSS are described. The following are also discussed: (1) intelligent monitoring and diagnostics applications under development for the ECLSS domain; (2) integration into the MSFC ECLSS hardware testbed; and (3) an evolutionary path from the baseline ECLSS automation to the more advanced ECLSS automation processes.

  4. On-board predicting algorithm of radiation exposure for the International Space Station radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) has worked on-board the International Space Station (ISS) practically continuously beginning from August 2001. In June 2005, the RMS software was updated. New RMS software detects radiation environment worsening due to solar proton events and informs the crew about this. The algorithm of the on-board radiation environment predict is a part of the new software. This algorithm reveals dose rate increments on high-latitude parts of ISS orbit and calculates estimations of time intervals and dose rate values for ulterior crossings of high-latitude areas. A brief description of the on-board radiation exposure-predict algorithm is presented.

  5. A portable meteorological station plus nuclear radiation monitoring system using a BASIC-8052 micro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mohamad, Ali; Aghabi, Samer; Weiss, Chafic

    2002-03-01

    A portable meteorology station capable of measuring various atmospheric parameters (mainly ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction) was designed and built. The physical quantities were converted to electrical signals using suitable sensors. These signals were then processed and transferred to digital values to be stored in suitable memories. A nuclear radiation alarm system was also built, on the main board, to monitor the nuclear radiation releases levels. The system consists of three main parts: control board, data acquisition board and signals conditioning board. The overall system is controlled by a BASIC-8052 micro-controller.

  6. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  7. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that

  8. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  9. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  10. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  11. Balloonborne measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the austral spring of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.J.; Deshler, T. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports some of the findings of an overall study of the ozone hole over Antarctica. Vertical profiles of ozone and aerosols were measured, and the inclusion of aerosols from the June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was of particular interest. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Continuous monitoring of a large active earth flow using an integrated GPS - automatic total station approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Landslide monitoring has evolved as a crucial tool in civil protection to mitigate and prevent disasters. The research presents an approach to continuous monitoring of a large-scale active earth flow using a system that integrates surface measurements obtained by a GPS and an automatic total station. With the data obtained from the system the landslide can be monitored in near-real-time and surface displacements can be directly utilized to provide early warning of slope movements and to study the behavior of the landslide, e.g. to predict timing and mechanisms of future failure. The Valoria landslide located in the northern Apennines of Italy was reactivated in 2001, 2005 and 2007 damaging roads and endangering houses. A monitoring system was installed in 2007-2008 in the frame of a civil protection plan aimed at risk mitigation. The system consists of an automatic total station measuring about 40 prisms located in the landslide to a maximum distance of 1.800 km; one double-frequency GPS receiver connects in streaming by wireless communication with 4 single-frequency GPS in side the flow. Until December 2007 the monitoring network was operated with periodic static surveying followed by the data post-processing. From September 2007 until March 2008 the landslide deformation was evaluated by periodic surveys with the total station and the GPS system. This first measure showed that the displacements were influenced by the rainfall events and by the snow melting. The total displacements measured vary from centimeter scale in the crown zone, where retrogressive movements were in progress, to over 50 m in the flow track zone. Starting in March 2008 data acquisition by the total station system and GPS were automated in order to allow continuous and near-real-time data processing. The displacement data collected in one and a half year of continuous operation show different acceleration and deceleration phases as a result of the pore water pressure distribution inside the

  13. Monitoring and Testing the Parts Cleaning Stations, Abrasive Blasting Cabinets, and Paint Booths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Tracee M.

    2004-01-01

    I have the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) this summer. One of the EMO's tasks is to make sure the Environmental Management System is implemented to the entire Glenn Research Center (GRC). The Environmental Management System (EMS) is a policy or plan that is oriented toward minimizing an organization's impact to the environment. Our EMS includes the reduction of solid waste regeneration and the reduction of hazardous material use, waste, and pollution. With the Waste Management Team's (WMT) help, the EMS can be implemented throughout the NASA Glenn Research Center. The WMT is responsible for the disposal and managing of waste throughout the GRC. They are also responsible for the management of all chemical waste in the facility. My responsibility is to support the waste management team by performing an inventory on parts cleaning stations, abrasive cabinets, and paint booths through out the entire facility. These booths/stations are used throughout the center and they need to be monitored and tested for hazardous waste and material. My job is to visit each of these booths/stations, take samples of the waste, and analyze the samples.

  14. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m

  15. Long-term Measurements of Submicrometer Aerosol Chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    SciTech Connect

    Parworth, Caroline; Fast, Jerome D.; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Timothy R.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Tilp, Alison; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. Over the period of 19 months (Nov. 20, 2010 – June 2012) highly time resolved (~30 min.) NR-PM1 data was recorded. Using this dataset the value-added product (VAP) of deriving organic aerosol components (OACOMP) is introduced. With this VAP, multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix can be performed on long term data to return organic aerosol (OA) factors that are associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. Three factors were obtained from this VAP including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when nitrate increased due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations showed little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increased and were mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were computed by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. From this model there is evidence to support that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  16. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  17. Future Mission Concept for 3-D Aerosol Monitoring From Space Based on Fusion of Remote Sensing Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Kahn, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.; Cairns, B.; Torres, O.

    2006-05-01

    Fine airborne particles are implicated in adverse impacts on human health. In situ measurements are a critical component of any air quality monitoring system; however, they cover a small fraction of the globe and do not measure aerosols transported aloft or over water. Satellites provide a substantial complementary role, and great strides in aerosol characterization over land from spaceborne platforms are currently taking place. In the passive realm, multiangle sensors such as MISR have unique strengths in determining particle optical depths over land, constraining column-average particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo, and providing stereoscopic layer-top heights for aerosol plumes and spatially heterogeneous layers. Multispectral information at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths (e.g., from TOMS and OMI) and in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) (e.g., from MODIS), as well as polarimetry (e.g., from POLDER and in the future, APS) have complementary strengths for measuring aerosol microphysical properties. Active lidars bring added sensitivity to particle vertical distribution. Fusion of such capabilities, particularly at km-scale resolutions required for aerosol monitoring in urban settings, would further improve our ability to identify and track aerosol air mass types on regional and larger scales, giving added value and context to more detailed particle microphysical and chemical properties that can be measured in situ. In 2005 we submitted a mission concept called the Aerosol Global Interactions Satellite (AEGIS), consisting of a notional multiangle spectropolarimetric imager (MSPI) and high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), to the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey. The MSPI instrument is an advanced version of MISR, improving upon current capabilities by adding near-UV, SWIR, and high-accuracy polarimetric imaging channels, and by widening the sensor swath. HSRL measurements are designed to provide vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter and

  18. Observations of fluorescent aerosol-cloud interactions in the free troposphere at the Sphinx high Alpine research station, Jungfraujoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I.; Lloyd, G.; Bower, K. N.; Connolly, P. J.; Flynn, M. J.; Kaye, P. H.; Choularton, T. W.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2015-09-01

    The fluorescent nature of aerosol at a high Alpine site was studied using a wide-band integrated bioaerosol (WIBS-4) single particle multi-channel ultra violet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectrometer. This was supported by comprehensive cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements with the aims of cataloguing concentrations of bio-fluorescent aerosols at this high altitude site and also investigating possible influences of UV-fluorescent particle types on cloud-aerosol processes. Analysis of background free tropospheric air masses, using a total aerosol inlet, showed there to be a minor but statistically insignificant increase in the fluorescent aerosol fraction during in-cloud cases compared to out of cloud cases. The size dependence of the fluorescent aerosol fraction showed the larger aerosol to be more likely to be fluorescent with 80 % of 10 μm particles being fluorescent. Whilst the fluorescent particles were in the minority (NFl/NAll = 0.27±0.19), a new hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis approach, Crawford et al. (2015) revealed the majority of the fluorescent aerosol were likely to be representative of fluorescent mineral dust. A minor episodic contribution from a cluster likely to be representative of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) was also observed with a wintertime baseline concentration of 0.1±0.4 L-1. Given the low concentration of this cluster and the typically low ice active fraction of studied PBAP (e.g. pseudomonas syringae) we suggest that the contribution to the observed ice crystal concentration at this location is not significant during the wintertime.

  19. Long-term measurements of microphysical properties of marine stratocumulus and aerosols in a new ground-based station located at Tenerife Island (Friolera Peak Lab, 28.6°N, 16.2°W). First results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taima-Hernández, D.; Diaz, J. P.; Exposito, F. J.; González, A.; Pérez, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Clouds are one of the most important regulators of climate because they cover a great percentage of the Earth surface at any time and they interact with solar and infrared radiation. Nowadays one of the most important uncertainties affecting the climate models are the processes related with cloud-aerosols interactions. The aerosols act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, so they can modify the clouds in many ways. In order to check the different parameterizations implemented to resolve these sub-grid processes, it is essential to account with an accurate database of microphysics cloud and aerosols properties. The Canary Islands are located in one of the most important marine stratocumulus regions in the world. The orography of some of these islands allows us to locate a suitable station to establish long-term programs to measure microphysical cloud and aerosols properties. With these aims, a new ground-based station has been installed in the North-East part of the Tenerife Island, Friolera Peak Lab. (28°33'1.16"N, 16°12'1.79"W, 720 masl), where the trade winds regime and the quasi-permanent thermal inversion layer configure a situation where the probability to find marine stratocumulus is high along the year. In a first step two instruments have been installed: a FM100 DMT and an UFP 3031 from TSI, Inc. The FM100 is a robust cloud-particle spectrometer, and allows for computation and real-time display of particle concentration, median volume diameter, equivalent diameter, and liquid water content. The UFP 3031 provides continuous size distribution and number concentration of particles between 20 and 800 nm, with six channels of size resolution: 20-30 nm, 30-50 nm, 50-70 nm, 70-100, 100-200 nm and 200-800 nm. It is an instrument specially designed for long-term monitoring with minimum maintenance. The first results obtained are presented showing that this station is situated in a very clean environment, with values for the number of ultrafine particles lower

  20. Monitoring equipment environment during nuclear plant operation at Salem and Hope Creek generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, A.; Smith, R.J.

    1991-06-01

    Monitoring of environmental parameters has become a significant issue for operating nuclear power plants. While the long-term benefits of plant life extension programs are being pursued with comprehensive environmental monitoring programs, the potential effect of local hot spots at various plant locations needs to be evaluated for its effect on equipment degradation and shortening of equipment qualified life. A significant benefit can be experienced from temperature monitoring when a margin exists between the design versus actual operating temperature. This margin can be translated into longer equipment qualified life and significant reduction in maintenance activities. At PSE and G, the immediate need for monitoring environmental parameters is being accomplished via the use of a Logic Beach Bitlogger. The Bitlogger is a portable data loggings system consisting of a system base, input modules and a communication software package. Thermocouples are installed on selected electrical equipment and cables are run from the thermocouples to the input module of the Bitlogger. Temperature readings are taken at selected intervals, stored in memory, and downloaded periodically to a PC software program, i.e., Lotus. The data is formatted into tabular or graphical documents. Because of their versatility, Bitloggers are being used differently at the authors Nuclear facility. At the Salem Station (2 Units-4 loop Westinghouse PWR), a battery powered, fully portable, calibrated Bitlogger is located in an accessible area inside Containment where it monitors the temperature of various electrical equipment within the Pressurizer Enclosure. It is planned that close monitoring of the local hot spot temperatures in this area will allow them to adjust and reconcile the environmental qualification of the equipment.

  1. Comparison of Satellite Observations of Aerosol Optical Depth to Surface Monitor Fine Particle Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; AlSaadi, Jassim A.; Neil, Doreen O.; Pierce, Robert B.; Pippin, Margartet R.; Roell, Marilee M.; Kittaka, Chieko; Szykman, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Under NASA's Earth Science Applications Program, the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) project examined the relationship between satellite observations and surface monitors of air pollutants to facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network. This report provides a comparison of satellite aerosol optical depth to surface monitor fine particle concentration observations for the month of September 2003 at more than 300 individual locations in the continental US. During September 2003, IDEA provided prototype, near real-time data-fusion products to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed toward improving the accuracy of EPA s next-day Air Quality Index (AQI) forecasts. Researchers from NASA Langley Research Center and EPA used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument combined with EPA ground network data to create a NASA-data-enhanced Forecast Tool. Air quality forecasters used this tool to prepare their forecasts of particle pollution, or particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), for the next-day AQI. The archived data provide a rich resource for further studies and analysis. The IDEA project uses data sets and models developed for tropospheric chemistry research to assist federal, state, and local agencies in making decisions concerning air quality management to protect public health.

  2. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically and thermally

  3. Elimination of redundant thermoluminescent dosemeter monitoring at Oyster Creek nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Oyster Creek direct radiation monitoring network has long been operating using several time-scale measurements. This network is used to assess the radiation levels during normal plant operations as well as to set the background radiation levels used to determine the radiological impact of a nonroutine release of radioactivity from the plant. Through analysis of the behavior of the monthly and quarterly activity of several types of direct radiation monitoring, the successful elimination of redundant and artificially high measurement techniques has been done in concert with providing the community with most efficient direct radiation monitoring methods. Dose rates from external radiation sources are measured around licensed U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) facilities using passive detectors known as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). These detectors provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the are in which they are placed. The detected radiation could be the result of cosmic or naturally occurring origin in the air and on the ground, prior nuclear weapons testing, and activity from a nuclear facility. This paper describes the TLD network placed around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) and the comparisons between TLDs of different manufacturers and of different resident times and the successful elimination of the less accurate monthly TLD for the purpose of cost containment.

  4. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  5. Biofouling monitoring and control program at the Boston Edison Pilgrim Nuclear Station: A twelve year history

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.J.; Armstrong, W.J.; Carucci, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews the history of the Biofouling Monitoring and Control Program at the Boston Edison Company Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The program was initially developed in 1982 in response to serious operations, maintenance and performance related problems due to biofouling in both the circulating and service water systems. Although implemented seven years prior to federal mandates under GL 89-13, this program also satisfies regulatory criteria for biofouling monitoring and control of nuclear service water systems. Since its inception, the impact of macrofouling on plant operation and availability has been significantly reduced. Stringent monitoring for blue mussels, installation of mechanical barriers to horseshoe crabs, improvements in screens, screenwash and debris removal systems, and an on-going commitment to biofouling control have reduced the number of condenser backwashes per year from > 40 (1989) to < 10. Depending on conditions and timing of a backwash, the resulting economic gain from this improvement alone can be 1.5 to more than 4 million dollars a year. Other improvements in related components and the service water system have also resulted in reduced maintenance related problems and an additional cost benefit to the plant. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  7. Adjustable control station with movable monitors and cameras for viewing systems in robotics and teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Real-time video presentations are provided in the field of operator-supervised automation and teleoperation, particularly in control stations having movable cameras for optimal viewing of a region of interest in robotics and teleoperations for performing different types of tasks. Movable monitors to match the corresponding camera orientations (pan, tilt, and roll) are provided in order to match the coordinate systems of all the monitors to the operator internal coordinate system. Automated control of the arrangement of cameras and monitors, and of the configuration of system parameters, is provided for optimal viewing and performance of each type of task for each operator since operators have different individual characteristics. The optimal viewing arrangement and system parameter configuration is determined and stored for each operator in performing each of many types of tasks in order to aid the automation of setting up optimal arrangements and configurations for successive tasks in real time. Factors in determining what is optimal include the operator's ability to use hand-controllers for each type of task. Robot joint locations, forces and torques are used, as well as the operator's identity, to identify the current type of task being performed in order to call up a stored optimal viewing arrangement and system parameter configuration.

  8. Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required.

  9. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs a suite of portable and permanently located gas monitors to insure crew health and safety. These sensors are tasked with functions ranging from fixed mass spectrometer based major constituents analysis to portable electrochemical sensor based combustion product monitoring. An all optical multigas sensor is being developed that can provide the specificity of a mass spectrometer with the portability of an electrochemical cell. The technology, developed under the Small Business Innovation Research program, allows for an architecture that is rugged, compact and low power. A four gas version called the Multi-Gas Monitor was launched to ISS in November 2013 aboard Soyuz and activated in February 2014. The portable instrument is comprised of a major constituents analyzer (water vapor, carbon dioxide, oxygen) and high dynamic range real-time ammonia sensor. All species are sensed inside the same enhanced path length optical cell with a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) targeted at each species. The prototype is controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The optical and electronic approaches are designed for scalability and future versions could add three important acid gases and carbon monoxide combustion product gases to the four species already sensed. Results obtained to date from the technology demonstration on ISS are presented and discussed.

  10. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parworth, Caroline; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Tilp, Alison; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ∼30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations of the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  11. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    SciTech Connect

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations of the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  12. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    DOE PAGES

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations ofmore » the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.« less

  13. Estimation of parameters to monitor state of the ionosphere in a single station mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokrlic, M.; Galas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ionosphere is the dispersive medium and propagation of the electromagnetic waves depend on its frequency. In the Global Positioning System (GPS), after the Selected Availability (SA) has been turned off, ionospheric delay become one of the largest source of error. Relatively low cost of the GPS receivers makes it one of the cheapest tool for studying and monitoring of the ionosphere in a global scale. Especially because the GPS signals are carrying ionospheric characteristics that can be isolated and then studied. For real time applications, demanding high accuracy and availability, it is important to know variable, in time and space, state of the ionosphere in real-time. Ionospheric perturbations can degrade accuracy of the positioning for more than hundred meters and even make positioning impossible or false. Thus, information about state of the ionosphere must be available in real time to enhance availability and to improve navigation accuracy. The state of the ionosphere can be characterized by a couple of basic parameters such as: Total Electron Content (TEC), Rate of TEC (ROT), Rate of change of TEC (ROTI), amplitude scintillation (S4) and phase scintillation (σ_φ). This parameters can be estimated form GPS networks or from a single GPS station. We are developing software tools to measure those parameters in a very challenging single station mode. Some of the modules, like e.g. calculation of S4 and ROT, are validated and some others are still in the testing phase. The tools are needed in order to analyze ionospheric perturbation parameters in real- or near- real time and investigate if some new approaches for generation of corrections can be developed. Our main goal is provision of such corrections, or at least warnings about ionospheric perturbations, to single station PPP (Precise Point Positioning) users. In the poster the algorithms are described and preliminary results are presented.

  14. Timepix-based radiation environment monitor measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Kroupa, Martin; Hoang, Son; Idarraga, John; Amberboy, Clif; Rios, Ryan; Hauss, Jessica; Keller, John; Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Turecek, Daniel; Jakubek, Jan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A number of small, single element radiation detectors, employing the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration's Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) coupled to a specially modified version of the USB-Lite interface for that ASIC provided by the Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP) at the Czech Technical University in Prague, have been developed at the University of Houston and NASA Johnson Space Center. These detectors, officially designated by NASA as Radiation Environment Monitors (REMs), were deployed aboard the International Space Station in late 2012. Six REM units are currently operating on Station Support Computers (SSCs) and returning data on a daily basis. The associated data acquisition software on the SSCs provides both automated data collection and transfer, as well as algorithms to handle adjustment of acquisition rates and recovery and restart of the acquisition software. A suite of ground software analysis tools has been developed to allow rapid analysis of the data and provides a ROOT-based framework for extending data analysis capabilities.

  15. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  16. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  17. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  18. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  19. New idea of geomagnetic monitoring through ENA detection from the International Space Station: ENAMISS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Anna; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Orsini, Stefano; Rubini, Alda; Evangelista, Yuri; Mura, Alessandro; Rispoli, Rosanna; Vertolli, Nello; Carrubba, Elisa; Donati, Alessandro; Di Lellis, Andrea Maria; Plainaki, Christina; Lazzarotto, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) in the Earth's environment has been proven to be a successful technique able to provide detailed information on the ring current plasma population at energies below 100 keV. Indeed, the existing space weather databases usually include a good coverage of Sun and solar wind monitoring. The global imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere/ ionosphere is usually obtained by the high-latitudes monitoring of aurorae, ground magnetic field variations and high-latitude radio emissions. The equatorial magnetic field variations on ground, from which the geomagnetic indices like Dst, Sym-H and Asym-H are derived, include the effects of all current systems (i.e. ring current, Chapman -Ferraro current, tails currents, etc...) providing a kind of global information. Nevertheless, the specific information related to the ring current cannot be easily derived from such indices. Only occasional local plasma data are available by orbiting spacecraft. ENA detection is the only way to globally view the ring current populations. Up-to-now this technique has been used mainly from dedicated high altitude polar orbiting spacecraft, which do not allow a continuous and systematic monitoring, and a discrimination of the particle latitude distribution. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Monitor on the International space Station (ENAMISS) project intends to develop an ENA imager and install it on the ISS for continuous monitoring of the spatially distributed ring current plasma population. ISS is the ideal platform to perform continuous ENA monitoring since its particular low altitude and medium/low latitude orbit allows wide-field ENA images of various magnetospheric regions. The calibrated ENA data, the deconvolved ion distributions and ad-hoc ENA-based new geomagnetic indices will be freely distributed to the space weather community. Furthermore, new services based on plasma circulation models, spacecraft surface charging models and radiation dose models

  20. Comparison of salinity and temperature at continuous monitoring stations and nearby monthly measurement sites in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, L.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Salinity and temperature are crucial state variables affecting estuarine habitat an d, thus, are measured by various San Francisco Estuary programs. This article presents a comparison of salinity and temperature data collected at seven continuo us monitoring stations throughout San Francisco Bay (Figure 1) with data collected monthly by the US Geological Survey (USGS) research vessel ( RV ) Polaris . The data comparison was done to determine if the continuous monitoring stations, which mostly are located near shore and always on structures in the water, are representative of water conditions in the main channel of the estuary where the RV Polaris collects measurements.

  1. Pattern of aerosol mass loading and chemical composition over the atmospheric environment of an urban coastal station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindu, G.; Nair, Prabha R.; Aryasree, S.; Hegde, Prashant; Jacob, Salu

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol sampling was carried out at four locations in and around Cochin (9°58‧ N, 76°17‧ E), an urban area, located on the southwest coast of India. The gravimetric estimates of aerosol mass loading showed wide range from 78 μg m-3 to >450 μg m-3, occasionally reaching values >500 μg m-3, associated with regional source characteristics. Most of the values were above the air quality standard. Both boundary layer and synoptic scale airflow pattern play role in the temporal features in aerosol mass loading and chemical composition. Chemical analysis of the aerosol samples were done for anionic species viz; F-, Cl-, Br-, NO2-,   NO3-,   PO43-,   SO42- and metallic/cationic species viz; Na, Ca, K, Mg, NH4+, Fe, Al, Cu, Mg, Pb, etc using Ion Chromatography, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). At all the locations, extremely high mass concentration of SO42- was observed with the mean value of 13±6.4 μg m-3 indicating the strong anthropogenic influence. Statistical analysis of the chemical composition data was carried out and the principal factors presented. Seasonal variation of these chemical species along with their percentage contributions and regional variations were also examined. Increase in level of Na in aerosol samples indicated the influence of monsoonal activity. Most of the species showed mass concentrations well above those measured over another coastal site Thiruvananthapuram (8°29‧ N, 76°57‧ E) situated ~220 km south of Cochin revealing the highly localized aerosol features.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Monitoring of Aerosol over Selected Urban Areas in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokr, Mohammed; El-Tahan, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    We utilize remote sensing data of atmospheric aerosols from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to explore spatio-temporal patterns over selected urban sites in Egypt during 2000-2015. High resolution (10 x 10 km^2) Level 2, collection 5, quality-controlled product was used. The selected sites are characterized by different human and industrial activities as well as landscape and meteorological attributes. These have impacts on the dominant types and intensity of aerosols. Aerosol robotic network (AERONET) data were used to validate the calculations from MODIS. The suitability of the MODIS product in terms of spatial and temporal coverage as well as accuracy and robustness has been established. Seasonal patterns of aerosol concentration are identified and compared between the sites. Spatial gradient of aerosol is assessed in the vicinity of major aerosol-emission sites (e.g. Cairo) to determine the range of influence of the generated pollution. Peak aerosol concentrations are explained in terms of meteorological events and land cover. The limited trends found in the temporal records of the aerosol measurements will be confirmed using calibrated long-term ground observations. The study has been conducted under the PEER 2-239 research project titled "The Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosols to Climate in Egypt". Project website is CleanAirEgypt.org

  3. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  4. [Mathematical simulation support to the dosimetric monitoring on the Russian segment of the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Mitrikas, V G

    2014-01-01

    To ensure radiation safety of cosmonauts, it is necessary not only to predict, but also to reconstruct absorbed dose dynamics with the knowledge of how long cosmonauts stay in specific space vehicle compartments with different shielding properties and lacking equipment for dosimetric monitoring. In this situation, calculating is one and only way to make a correct estimate of radiation exposure of cosmonaut's organism as a whole (tissue-average dose) and of separate systems and organs. The paper addresses the issues of mathematical simulation of epy radiation environment of standard dosimetric instruments in the Russian segments of the International Space Station (ISS RS). Results of comparing the simulation and experimental data for the complement of dosimeters including ionization chamber-based radiometer R-16, DB8 dosimeters composed of semiconductor detectors, and Pille dosimeters composed of thermoluminescent detectors evidence that the current methods of simulation in support of the ISS RS radiation monitoring provide a sufficiently good agreement between the calculated and experimental data. PMID:25163341

  5. [Mathematical simulation support to the dosimetric monitoring on the Russian segment of the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Mitrikas, V G

    2014-01-01

    To ensure radiation safety of cosmonauts, it is necessary not only to predict, but also to reconstruct absorbed dose dynamics with the knowledge of how long cosmonauts stay in specific space vehicle compartments with different shielding properties and lacking equipment for dosimetric monitoring. In this situation, calculating is one and only way to make a correct estimate of radiation exposure of cosmonaut's organism as a whole (tissue-average dose) and of separate systems and organs. The paper addresses the issues of mathematical simulation of epy radiation environment of standard dosimetric instruments in the Russian segments of the International Space Station (ISS RS). Results of comparing the simulation and experimental data for the complement of dosimeters including ionization chamber-based radiometer R-16, DB8 dosimeters composed of semiconductor detectors, and Pille dosimeters composed of thermoluminescent detectors evidence that the current methods of simulation in support of the ISS RS radiation monitoring provide a sufficiently good agreement between the calculated and experimental data.

  6. Measurement of fine particulate matter nonvolatile and semi-volatile organic material with the Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor.

    PubMed

    Grover, Brett D; Kleinman, Michael; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Cary, Robert A; Hopke, Philip K; Wilson, William E

    2008-01-01

    Semi-volatile organic material (SVOM) in fine particles is not reliably measured with conventional semicontinuous carbon monitors because SVOM is lost from the collection media during sample collection. We have modified a Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor to allow for the determination of SVOM. In a conventional Sunset monitor, gas-phase organic compounds are removed in the sampled airstream by a diffusion denuder employing charcoal-impregnated cellulose filter (CIF) surfaces. Subsequently, particles are collected on a quartz filter and the instrument then determines both the organic carbon and elemental carbon fractions of the aerosol using a thermal/optical method. However, some of the SVOM is lost from the filter during collection, and therefore is not determined. Because the interfering gas-phase organic compounds are removed before aerosol collection, the SVOM can be determined by filtering the particles at the instrument inlet and then replacing the quartz filter in the monitor with a charcoal-impregnated glass fiber filter (CIG), which retains the SVOM lost from particles collected on the inlet filter. The resulting collected SVOM is then determined in the analysis step by measurement of the carbonaceous material thermally evolved from the CIG filter. This concept was tested during field studies in February 2003 in Lindon, UT, and in July 2003 in Rubidoux, CA. The results obtained were validated by comparison with Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) results. The sum of nonvolatile organic material determined with a conventional Sunset monitor and SVOM determined with the modified Sunset monitor agree with the PC-BOSS results. Linear regression analysis of total carbon concentrations determined by the PC-BOSS and the Sunset resulted in a zero-intercept slope of 0.99 +/- 0.02 (R2 = 0.92) and a precision of sigma = +/- 1.5 microg C/m3 (8%).

  7. A Camera and Multi-Sensor Automated Station Design for Polar Physical and Biological Systems Monitoring: AMIGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlander, J. A.; Ross, R.; Scambos, T.; Haran, T. M.; Bauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Automated Meteorology - Ice/Indigenous species - Geophysics Observation System (AMIGOS) consists of a set of measurement instruments and camera(s) controlled by a single-board computer with a simplified Linux operating system and an Iridium satellite modem supporting two-way communication. Primary features of the system relevant to polar operations are low power requirements, daily data uploading, reprogramming, tolerance for low temperatures, and various approaches for automatic resets and recovery from low power or cold shut-down. Instruments include a compact weather station, C/A or dual-frequency GPS, solar flux and reflectivity sensors, sonic snow gages, simplified radio-echo-sounder, and resistance thermometer string in the firn column. In the current state of development, there are two basic designs. One is intended for in situ observations of glacier conditions. The other design supports a high-resolution camera for monitoring biological or geophysical systems from short distances (100 m to 20 km). The stations have been successfully used in several locations for operational support, monitoring rapid ice changes in response to climate change or iceberg drift, and monitoring penguin colony activity. As of June, 2012, there are 9 AMIGOS systems installed, all on the Antarctic continent. The stations are a working prototype for a planned series of upgraded stations, currently termed 'Sentinels'. These stations would carry further instrumentation, communications, and processing capability to investigate ice - ocean interaction from ice tongue, ice shelf, or fjord coastline areas.

  8. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays one of the most burning questions for the science is the rate and the reasons of the recent climate change. Greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere could affect the climate of our planet. However, the relation between the amount of atmospheric GHG and the climate is complex, full with interactions and feedbacks partly poorly known even by now. The only way to understand the processes, to trace the changes, to develop and validate mathematical models for forecasts is the extensive, high precision, continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major component of the European carbon budget. Separation of the fossil fuel signal from the natural biogenic one in the atmosphere is, therefore, a crucial task for quantifying exchange flux of the continental biosphere through atmospheric observations and inverse modelling. An independent method to estimate trace gas emissions is the top-down approach, using atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements combined with simultaneous radiocarbon (14C) observations. As adding fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, therefore, leads not only to an increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere but also to a decrease in the 14C/12C ratio in atmospheric CO2. The ATOMKI has more than two decade long experience in atmospheric 14CO2 monitoring. As a part of an ongoing research project being carried out in Hungary to investigate the amount and temporal and spatial variations of fossil fuel CO2 in the near surface atmosphere we developed a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station. We describe the layout and the operation of the measuring system which is designed for the continuous, unattended monitoring of CO2 mixing ratio in the near surface atmosphere based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. In the station one atmospheric 14CO2 sampling unit is also installed which is developed and widely used since more than one decade by ATOMKI. Mixing ratio of CO2 is

  9. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  10. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  11. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  12. Temporal variability of mineral dust in southern Tunisia: analysis of 2 years of PM10 concentration, aerosol optical depth, and meteorology monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouet, Christel; Taieb Labiadh, Mohamed; Bergametti, Gilles; Rajot, Jean Louis; Marticorena, Béatrice; Sekrafi, Saâd; Ltifi, Mohsen; Féron, Anaïs; des Tureaux, Thierry Henry

    2016-04-01

    The south of Tunisia is a region very prone to wind erosion. During the last decades, changes in soil management have led to an increase in wind erosion. In February 2013, a ground-based station dedicated to the monitoring of mineral dust (that can be seen in this region as a proxy of the erosion of soils by wind) was installed at the Institut des Régions Arides (IRA) of Médenine (Tunisia) to document the temporal variability of mineral dust concentrations. This station allows continuous measurements of surface PM10 concentration (TEOM™), aerosol optical depth (CIMEL sunphotometer), and total atmospheric deposition of insoluble dust (CARAGA automatic sampler). The simultaneous monitoring of meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitations) allows to analyse the factors controlling the variations of mineral dust concentration from the sub-daily to the annual scale. The results from the two first years of measurements of PM10 concentration are presented and discussed. In average on year 2014, PM10 concentration is 56 μg m-3. However, mineral dust concentration highly varies throughout the year: very high PM10 concentrations (up to 1,000 μg m-3 in daily mean) are frequently observed during wintertime and springtime, hardly ever in summer. These episodes of high PM10 concentration (when daily average PM10 concentration is higher than 240 μg m-3) sometimes last several days. By combining local meteorological data, air-masses trajectories, sunphotometer measurements, and satellite imagery, the part of the high PM10concentration due to local emissions and those linked to an advection of dusty air masses by medium and long range transport from the Sahara desert is quantified.

  13. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  14. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  15. Detection of Lightning-produced NOx by Air Quality Monitoring Stations in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Shalev, S.; Saaroni, H.; Ziv, B.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning is the largest natural source for the production of nitrogen oxides (LtNOx) in the troposphere. Since NOx are greenhouse gases, it is important to know the global production rate of LtNOx for climate studies (present estimates range from 2 to 8 Tg per year) and to model its vertical distribution (Ott et al., 2010). One of the key factors for such an estimate is the yield of a single lightning flash, namely the number of molecules produced for each Joule of energy deposited along the lightning channel. We used lightning stroke data from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) together with NOx data obtained from the national network of air quality monitoring stations operated by the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection. Looking for the fingerprints of LtNOx in the general ambient concentrations, usually most affected by pollution from urban sources, we looked only for CG strokes occurring within a radius of 3 km from the location of an air-quality monitoring station. This lowered the number of relevant cases from 605,413 strokes detected in the 2004/5 through 2009/10 seasons to 1,897 strokes. We applied a threshold of > 60kA reducing the number of events to 35. The results showed that there was no consistent rising trend in the NOx concentrations in the hour following the lightning (the lifetime near the ground is expected to be a few hours; Zhang et al., 2003). However, when considering only those events when the prevailing wind was in the direction from the stroke location toward the sensor (7 cases), a clear increase of few ppb following the stroke was observed in 5 cases [see Fig.]. This increase is well correlated with the wind speed, suggesting an effective transport from the stroke location to the sensor. Weaker winds allow dilution and result in smaller observed increases of LtNOx. Separate analysis of additional 17 cases in which the strokes were located < 500 m from the monitoring station (with any peak current above 7 kA) showed no

  16. The spatial-temporal variations in optical properties of atmosphere aerosols over China and its application in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric and climate response to the aerosol forcing are assessed by climate models regionally and globally under the past, present and future conditions. However, large uncertainties exist because of incomplete knowledge concerning the distribution and the physical and chemical properties of aerosols as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Reduction in these uncertainties requires long-term monitoring of detailed properties of different aerosol types. China is one of the heavily polluted areas with high concentration of aerosols in the world. The complex source, composition of China aerosol led to the worse accuracy of aerosol radiative forcing assessment in the world, which urgently calls for improvements on the understanding of China regional aerosol properties. The spatial-temporal properties of aerosol types over China are studied using the radiance measurements and inversions data at 4 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations. Five aerosol classes were identified including a coarse-size dominated aerosol type (presumably dust) and four fine-sized dominated aerosol types ranging from non-absorbing to highly absorbing fine aerosols. The mean optical properties of different aerosol types in China and their seasonal variations were also investigated. Based on the cluster analysis, the improved ground-based aerosol model is applied to the MODIS dark target inversion algorithm. Validation with MODIS official product and CE318 is also included.

  17. Aerosol characteristics at a rural station in southern peninsular India during CAIPEEX-IGOC: physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Bisht, D S; Srivastava, A K; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, M K; Pandey, A K; Tiwari, S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-04-01

    To understand the boundary layer characteristics and pathways of aerosol-cloud interaction, an Integrated Ground Observational Campaign, concurrent with Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment, was conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, under Ministry of Earth Sciences at Mahabubnagar (a rural environment, which is ~100 km away from an urban city Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh), during the period of July-November 2011. Collected samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were analyzed for water-soluble ionic species along with organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). During study period, the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were about 50(±10) and 69(±14) μg m(-3), respectively, which are significantly higher than the prescribed Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards values. The chemical species such as sum of anions and cations from measured chemical constituents were contributed to be 31.27 and 38.49% in PM2.5 and 6.35 and 5.65% to the PM10, whereas carbonaceous species contributed ~17.3 and 20.47% for OC and ~3.0 and 3.10% for EC, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 during study period was ~0.73(±0.2), indicating that the dominance of fine size particles. Carbonaceous analysis results showed that the average concentration of OC was 14 and 8.7 μg m(-3), while EC was 2.1 and 1.5 μg m(-3) for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The ratios between OC and EC were estimated, which were 6.6 and 5.7 for PM10 and PM2.5, suggesting the presence of secondary organic aerosol. Total carbonaceous aerosol accounts 23% of PM10 in which the contribution of OC is 20% and EC is 3%, while 20% of PM2.5 mass in which the contribution of OC is 17% and EC is 3%. Out of the total aerosols mass, water-soluble constituents contributed an average of 45% in PM10 and 38% in PM2.5 including about 39% anions and 6% cations in PM10, while 31% anions and 7% cations in PM2.5 aerosol mass collectively at study site. PMID

  18. Earth Science With the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Joe; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Thomason, Larry; Roell, Marilee; Pitts, Mike; Moore, Randy; Hill, Charles; Flittner, David; Damadeo, Rob; Cisewski, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III is the fourth generation of solar occultation instruments operated by NASA, the first coming under a different acronym, to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. Three flight-ready SAGE III instruments were built by Ball Aerospace in the late 1990s, with one launched aboard the former Russian Aviation and Space Agency (now known as Roskosmos) Meteor-3M platform on 10 December 2001 (continuing until the platform lost power in 2006). Another of the original instruments was manifested for the ISS in the 2004 time frame, but was delayed because of budgetary considerations. Fortunately, that SAGE III/ISS mission was restarted in 2009 with a major focus upon filling an anticipated gap in ozone and aerosol observation in the second half of this decade. Here we discuss the mission architecture, its implementation, and data that will be produced by SAGE III/ISS, including their expected accuracy and coverage. The 52-degree inclined orbit of the ISS is well-suited for solar occultation and provides near-global observations on a monthly basis with excellent coverage of low and mid-latitudes. This is similar to that of the SAGE II mission (1985-2005), whose data set has served the international atmospheric science community as a standard for stratospheric ozone and aerosol measurements. The nominal science products include vertical profiles of trace gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor, along with multi-wavelength aerosol extinction. Though in the visible portion of the spectrum the brightness of the Sun is one million times that of the full Moon, the SAGE III instrument is designed to cover this large dynamic range and also perform lunar occultations on a routine basis to augment the solar products. The standard lunar products were demonstrated during the SAGE III/M3M mission and include ozone, nitrogen dioxide & nitrogen trioxide. The operational flexibility of the SAGE III spectrometer accomplishes

  19. Aerosol characteristics at a rural station in southern peninsular India during CAIPEEX-IGOC: physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Bisht, D S; Srivastava, A K; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, M K; Pandey, A K; Tiwari, S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-04-01

    To understand the boundary layer characteristics and pathways of aerosol-cloud interaction, an Integrated Ground Observational Campaign, concurrent with Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment, was conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, under Ministry of Earth Sciences at Mahabubnagar (a rural environment, which is ~100 km away from an urban city Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh), during the period of July-November 2011. Collected samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were analyzed for water-soluble ionic species along with organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). During study period, the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were about 50(±10) and 69(±14) μg m(-3), respectively, which are significantly higher than the prescribed Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards values. The chemical species such as sum of anions and cations from measured chemical constituents were contributed to be 31.27 and 38.49% in PM2.5 and 6.35 and 5.65% to the PM10, whereas carbonaceous species contributed ~17.3 and 20.47% for OC and ~3.0 and 3.10% for EC, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 during study period was ~0.73(±0.2), indicating that the dominance of fine size particles. Carbonaceous analysis results showed that the average concentration of OC was 14 and 8.7 μg m(-3), while EC was 2.1 and 1.5 μg m(-3) for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The ratios between OC and EC were estimated, which were 6.6 and 5.7 for PM10 and PM2.5, suggesting the presence of secondary organic aerosol. Total carbonaceous aerosol accounts 23% of PM10 in which the contribution of OC is 20% and EC is 3%, while 20% of PM2.5 mass in which the contribution of OC is 17% and EC is 3%. Out of the total aerosols mass, water-soluble constituents contributed an average of 45% in PM10 and 38% in PM2.5 including about 39% anions and 6% cations in PM10, while 31% anions and 7% cations in PM2.5 aerosol mass collectively at study site.

  20. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to

  1. Influence of dust loading on the alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitors for thin deposits of radioactive aerosols.

    PubMed

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D; Alcantara, Raul E; Rodgers, John C; Wasiolek, Piotr T

    2002-12-01

    Alpha-particle continuous air monitors must sometimes be operated in dusty environments where significant dust loading of the filter can be anticipated. It is important to understand how this dust loading affects the response of the continuous air monitors. Not only must a filter be changed if there is a reduction in airflow, but a change may be necessary if the energy resolution deteriorates and the continuous air monitor loses sensitivity and specificity for the radioactive aerosols of interest. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitor filters, particularly under dust loading conditions. Aerosol particles of various sizes were tagged with radon decay products to serve as surrogates for radioactive aerosols of interest such as plutonium or uranium. While the size of radioactive aerosols, filter type, and dust type affected the energy resolution, the thickness of an underlying (nonradioactive) dust layer did not show significant effect for the materials studied and a loading range of 0.01-10 mg x cm(-2). Our results indicate that it is possible for continuous air monitors to detect the release of radioactive aerosols with little deterioration in energy resolution under conditions of significant dust loading provided that the deposited layer of radioactive aerosols remains thin (< or = 0.1 mg x cm(-2)).

  2. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  3. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  4. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P < 0.05) relationship to cardiovascular admissions. An increment of 1 ppm in CO predicted an increase of 4% to 20% in cardiovascular admissions. Respiratory admissions were associated with PM10, which had about 1% increase in risk of admission per 10 ug/m3 increment in PM10. Exposure to CO and PM10 increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

  5. Functional requirements for Waste Area Grouping 6 Monitoring Station 3 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Fiuzat, A.A. )

    1991-06-01

    The surface Waste Area Grouping (WAG)6 at ORNL may undergo many changes in the future as part of the closure activities. Changes in surface characteristics will cause changes in runoff characteristics of the MS 3 watershed. Appropriate assumptions are to be made in this project regarding the future surface conditions of the watershed. The extent to which the assumed surface conditions will affect the project objectives (defined in Section 1.0) is to be identified. The purpose of this FRD is to establish performance requirements for MS 3 consisting of the following: (1) The expected range of discharges passing through the station and the required accuracy levels for discharge measurements. (2) The equipment required to measure the expected discharges at the required accuracy levels. (3) The sampling requirements for monitoring water quality. (4) The hydraulic requirements for the discharge conveyance structure to be located under the IWMF access road. (5) The design loads to be used for the bridge over the IWMF access road. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  7. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  8. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  9. Chemical composition of size-segregated aerosol collected all year-round at Concordia Station (Dome C, Antarctica). Transport processes and climatic implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Frosini, Daniele; Galli, Gaia; Ghedini, Costanza; Rugi, Francesco; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita

    2010-05-01

    Ice-core stratigraphies of chemical components of atmospheric gases and aerosols trapped in the snow layers by scavenging processes are a powerful tool in understanding past climatic and environmental changes. The deep ice core drilled at Dome C in the framework of the EPICA project allowed reconstructing the last 8 glacial-interglacial cycles and highlightened the complex relationships between climatic forcings and environmental feedback processes. In interpreting ice core records as a function of past climatic variations, some difficulties arise from uncertainties in considering selected chemical species as reliable markers of climatic and environmental processes and in attributing the different load and composition of aerosols over Antarctica to changes in source intensity (such as aridity, wind strength, emersion of continental platform by sea-level lowering etc..) and/or to variations in atmospheric processes (such as meridional and zonal atmospheric circulation, polar vortex intensity, scavenging efficiency, transport pathways etc..). Besides, two new aspects are actually under discussions: the possible use of Na as sea-ice cover marker (via frost flower formation on the sea-ice surface during the pack-ice formation) and the identification of continental source areas for mineral dust reaching internal regions of Antarctica during glacial and interglacial periods. In order to better address such controversial issues, since 2005 a continuous, high temporal resolution size-segregated aerosol and surface snow sampling has been performed at Dome C (central East Antarctic Plateau, 75° 06' S, 123° 23' E), in the framework of "Station Concordia" Project (a Italian PNRA- French IPEV joint program). The chemical analysis of size-segregated aerosol and daily superficial snow samples, collected all year-round for more than 4 years, can contribute to clarify some of the above mentioned topics. In particular: the possible seasonal pattern of sea spray aerosol could be

  10. Measurement and analysis of black carbon aerosols over a tropical semi-arid station in Kadapa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begam, G. Reshma; Vachaspati, C. Viswanath; Ahammed, Y. Nazeer; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Babu, S. Suresh; Reddy, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents aerosol light absorption measurements using a seven channel Aethalometer (AE-42), recorded during September 2011-November 2012 over a tropical semi-arid site in Kadapa, India. The annual average black carbon (BC) mass concentration ([BC]) during the studied period was 2.20 ± 0.78 μg m- 3 which is in agreement when compared to other sites of similar environment. Strong seasonal variation was observed with high values during winter (2.87 ± 0.81 μg m- 3) and low in monsoon (1.30 ± 0.31 μg m- 3) season, which could be attributed to regional synoptic meteorology and long range transport. The two peaks in diurnal variations of [BC] were observed during morning between 06:00 and 08:00 h local time (LT) and in the evening around 19:00-21:00 h LT, with a minimum peak in the afternoon (~ 16:00 h LT) which is strongly correlated with the boundary layer dynamics, local and regional sources, and associated meteorology. The relationships between measured [BC] and the corresponding meteorological parameters for the studied region were also analysed. The estimated monthly mean spectral absorption coefficient values range from 0.56 to 1.15 with an average of 0.90, which suggests high BC/OC ratio and possible source of emission of aerosols is fossil fuel burning. Trajectory cluster analysis showed significant impact of long range transport of BC aerosols towards the observational site during the period of study.

  11. Measurements of aerosol-cloud interactions, including on-line particle chemical composition, at the Jungfraujoch Global Atmospheric Watch Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, P. I.; Bower, K. N.; Gallagher, M. W.; Choularton, T. W.; Weingartner, E.; Corrigan, C.; Baltensperger, U.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Atmospheric Watch research laboratory is located in the Sphinx building, 3580 m asl; 46.55oN, 7.98oE on the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps. The site is exposed to a wide range of conditions and frequently samples long range transported lower free tropospheric air, and is exposed to cloudy conditions. The Paul Scherrer Institute have previously developed a dual inlet system that allows measurements of the total sub-micron aerosol population (dry residuals and interstitial particles) and interstitial particles alone to be made alternately every few minutes. During July 2002 an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was coupled to the dual inlet and was used to sample the composition of both the total particle distribution and the interstitial fraction and hence derive the mass loadings of the dry droplet residuals. In out of cloud conditions the aerosol composition can be linked to air mass history and age of the air mass. Microphysical measurements include cloud droplet size distributions made using an FSSP and also a new phase Doppler anemometry system. A comparison between these probes will be made. Two different types of cloud droplet spectra were observed. In the first type a large number of cloud droplets were measured with a single, narrow drop size distribution and modal diameter of around 10 um. In the second type, a bimodal cloud droplet spectrum occurred with a smaller mode (by number) at around 20 um, in addition to the 10 um mode. The aerosol mass spectrometry shows that the composition of the residuals from the two spectrum types is very different, the former type being composed mainly of sulphate, the latter a combination of nitrate, sulphate and organic material. We have also shown that the organic material observed is highly oxidized. We argue that the bimodality arises as a result of mixing of cloud droplets below the site that have been activated separately: the larger a less numerous mode in the widespread strato-cumulus forming under low

  12. Characterization and quantification of aerosol chemical species present below and within cloud over an eastern Himalayan high altitude hill station in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    2016-07-01

    There are two main processes through which aerosols and gases get scavenged by rain called below-cloud scavenging or "washout" and in-cloud scavenging or "rainout". The first process refers to the washout of the aerosols and gases present below the cloud during precipitation events by raindrops along their fall. The second process corresponds to the condensation of water vapor on aerosol particles during the formation of cloud droplets and incorporation of gases surrounding the droplets by aqueous-phase reactions. However, the most efficient pathway to remove the atmospheric pollutants is below cloud scavenging which is a major pointer of ecosystem, biogeochemical cycle as well as the climate change. A study has been conducted in 2014 and 2015 monsoon (June-September) in Darjeeling (27.01 ° N, 88.15 ° E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The study was focused on the below-cloud and in-cloud scavenging of various aerosol ionic species. Attempt was also made to estimate the contribution of in-cloud scavenging and below-cloud scavenging by collecting rain samples sequentially for different rain events. Sea-salt (Na+, sea-Mg2+, Cl- and sea-SO4 2-) and soil dust (non-sea Ca2+, non-sea-Mg2+) species show sharp decrease in concentration for each of the rain sample. This indicates that these species were mostly accumulated below the cloud and washed out during rain. Their concentrations were thus decreased sharply as rains progressed. On the other hand, non-SO4-2 and NH4+ showed different behavior. Their concentrations decreased sharply at the initial stage of the rain and then remained almost constant with rainfall. This explains wash out of these two species at the initial stage of the rain and their contribution from "within the cloud". NH4 + and non-sea-SO4 2- could thus act as cloud condensation nuclei over this part of Himalaya. A strong correlation between these two species indicates their association as (NH4)2SO4. Acidity

  13. Microfluidic Electrochemical Sensor for On-line Monitoring of Aerosol Oxidative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeff; Boonsong, Kanokporn; Sun, Yele; Collett, Jeffrey; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has a significant impact on human morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity are poorly defined. A leading hypothesis states that airborne PM induces harm by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in and around human tissues, leading to oxidative stress. We report here, a system employing a microfluidic electrochemical sensor coupled directly to a Particle-into-Liquid-Sampler (PILS) system to measure aerosol oxidative activity in an on-line format. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol assay (DTT assay) where after oxidized by PM, the remaining reduced DTT was analyzed by the microfluidic sensor. The sensor consists of an array of working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic device. Cobalt (II) phthalocyanine (CoPC)-modified carbon paste was used as the working electrode material allowing selective detection of reduced DTT. The electrochemical sensor was validated off-line against the traditional DTT assay using filter samples taken from urban environments and biomass burning events. After off-line characterization, the sensor was coupled to a PILS to enable on-line sampling/analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. Urban dust and industrial incinerator ash samples were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber and analyzed for their oxidative activity. The on-line sensor reported DTT consumption rates (oxidative activity) in good correlation with aerosol concentration (R2 from 0.86–.97) with a time-resolution of approximately 3 minutes. PMID:22651886

  14. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  15. Development of an Inline Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Banelle R.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to microgravity during spaceflight causes bone loss. Calcium and other metabolic byproducts are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is essential to determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. Previous US Space Shuttle (SS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to cross contamination between users and fluid system instabilities. Currently, urine voids must be collected manually in a flexible plastic bag containing a known tracer quantity. The crew member must completely mix the bag then withdraw a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The current bag system accuracy is highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures the void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After operations, the ISS UMS delivers the urine to the WHC for normal processing then flushes its plumbing with a small water volume. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, greatly reduces cross contamination between urine voids (< 0.5 ml urine), and provides accurate volume measurements (< +/- 2% error for 100 to 1000 ml void volumes). The system performance has been validated with extensive ground tests and reduced gravity aircraft flights. The lockersized ISS UMS is currently being modified to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian ACY hardware. The operation principles, characteristics, and results are outlined in the paper.

  16. Radiation Monitoring System in Service Module of International Space Station. Eight Years of Functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Petrov, Vladislav; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Volkov, Aleksey; Nikolaev, Igor; Nechaev, Oleg; Lishnevskii, Andrey; Tel, Mikhail

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) installed on board the Russian module (RM) of the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) is an important part of radiation safety system of a spacecraft. RMS function practically continuously beginning from 1 August 2001 year. Integration the RMS with other systems of RM permits to transmit measured values to the Earth by the telemetry and to reflect the radiation environment data directly to crew by the personal com-puter. There is a possibility to correct the RMS software directly on board the ISS. It permits improve greatly a confidence, reliability and validity of an information obtaining. The report presents the data about the equipment functioning and results of dose rate measurements during the period from the August of 2001 up to the August of 2009 both for normal radiation environ-ment and during solar particle events (SPE). Comparison of an absorbed dose rate measured by the detectors located in various points of the RM showed that difference of doses measured in low and high shielded areas of the RM at undisturbed radiation conditions is notably stable and not exceeds a factor of 2. At the same time during the disturbances caused by SPE it can reach of 30. This fact confirms the efficiency of a crew passage in the high-shielded area for decreasing SCR dose. Comparison data obtained with the RMS silicon detectors with the R-16 ionizing chamber data showed that for equal shielding conditions the measured values coincide with accuracy rather then 20On the whole the dose rate dynamics for various solar cycle periods and during the SPE demonstrates reasonably high regularity of crewmembers dose. But it is clear that onboard and personal dosimetric control is necessary for implementation of ALARA principle and minimization of the crewmembers personal doses.

  17. Radiation environment on board Russian segment of International space station measured by raditon monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, V.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Lyagushin, V.; Volkov, A.

    The operative radiation monitoring system (RMS) was installed on board the Russian segment of the International Space Station (RS ISS) and has been functioning since August 1, 2001.The RMS permits to measure the absorbed dose rate in 4 points of the RS ISS. In every point of measurement two semiconductor detectors one of which has no shielding and the other one has a lead spherical screen with thickness of 3 gc m-2, have been installed. The measurement results are beingprocessed and analyzed on board and simultaneously are being transmitted to the ground for estimating the radiat ion environment and hazard for the crew members and for the hardware verifying as well. For one year of RMS functioning the continuous massive of data on dose rate distribution inside RS ISS was formed. It permits to investigate the radiation environment characteristics under quiet conditions and during solar proton events (SPE). Regularities of behavior of the cosmic ray depth-dose curve for various radiation conditions in the near-earth space and during SPE were established on the basis of these data analysis. These curves permit to calculate the dose of cosmonaut's exposure with taking into account its dynamics if the shielding function of the ISS areas in which the crew members were during the exposure are known. During the future functioning of the RSM the results that will expand the massive of data for the period of solar minimum will be obtained. This will permit to investigate in detail the radiation environment inside the RS ISS depending on various helio -geophysical characteristics during its flight in various regions of the near-earth space.

  18. Assessing the measurement of aerosol single scattering albedo by Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift Single Scattering Monitor (CAPS PMssa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perim de Faria, Julia; Bundke, Ulrich; Onasch, Timothy B.; Freedman, Andrew; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The necessity to quantify the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate forcing is already well known; assessing this impact requires continuous and systematic measurements of the aerosol optical properties. Two of the main parameters that need to be accurately measured are the aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo (SSA, defined as the ratio of particulate scattering to extinction). The measurement of single scattering albedo commonly involves the measurement of two optical parameters, the scattering and the absorption coefficients. Although there are well established technologies to measure both of these parameters, the use of two separate instruments with different principles and uncertainties represents potential sources of significant errors and biases. Based on the recently developed cavity attenuated phase shift particle extinction monitor (CAPS PM_{ex) instrument, the CAPS PM_{ssa instrument combines the CAPS technology to measure particle extinction with an integrating sphere capable of simultaneously measuring the scattering coefficient of the same sample. The scattering channel is calibrated to the extinction channel, such that the accuracy of the single scattering albedo measurement is only a function of the accuracy of the extinction measurement and the nephelometer truncation losses. This gives the instrument an accurate and direct measurement of the single scattering albedo. In this study, we assess the measurements of both the extinction and scattering channels of the CAPS PM_{ssa through intercomparisons with Mie theory, as a fundamental comparison, and with proven technologies, such as integrating nephelometers and filter-based absorption monitors. For comparison, we use two nephelometers, a TSI 3563 and an Aurora 4000, and two measurements of the absorption coefficient, using a Particulate Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). We also assess the indirect absorption coefficient

  19. Inflight Microbial Monitoring - An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Roman, Monsi; Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms including potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The potential to introduce new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Current microbial monitoring methods require enrichment of microorganisms and a 48-hour incubation time resulting in an increase in microbial load, detecting a limited number of unidentified microorganisms. An expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted.

  20. Determining PM2.5 calibration curves for a low-cost particle monitor: common indoor residential aerosols.

    PubMed

    Dacunto, Philip J; Klepeis, Neil E; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Repace, James L; Ott, Wayne R; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2015-11-01

    Real-time particle monitors are essential for accurately estimating exposure to fine particles indoors. However, many such monitors tend to be prohibitively expensive for some applications, such as a tenant or homeowner curious about the quality of the air in their home. A lower cost version (the Dylos Air Quality Monitor) has recently been introduced, but it requires appropriate calibration to reflect the mass concentration units required for exposure assessment. We conducted a total of 64 experiments with a suite of instruments including a Dylos DC1100, another real-time laser photometer (TSI SidePak™ Model AM-510 Personal Aerosol Monitor), and a gravimetric sampling apparatus to estimate Dylos calibration factors for emissions from 17 different common indoor sources including cigarettes, incense, fried bacon, chicken, and hamburger. Comparison of minute-by-minute data from the Dylos with the gravimetrically calibrated SidePak yielded relationships that enable the conversion of the raw Dylos particle counts less than 2.5 μm (in #/0.01 ft(3)) to estimated PM2.5 mass concentration (e.g. μg m(-3)). The relationship between the exponentially-decaying Dylos particle counts and PM2.5 mass concentration can be described by a theoretically-derived power law with source-specific empirical parameters. A linear relationship (calibration factor) is applicable to fresh or quickly decaying emissions (i.e., before the aerosol has aged and differential decay rates introduce curvature into the relationship). The empirical parameters for the power-law relationships vary greatly both between and within source types, although linear factors appear to have lower uncertainty. The Dylos Air Quality Monitor is likely most useful for providing instantaneous feedback and context on mass particle levels in home and work situations for field-survey or personal awareness applications.

  1. Determining PM2.5 calibration curves for a low-cost particle monitor: common indoor residential aerosols.

    PubMed

    Dacunto, Philip J; Klepeis, Neil E; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Repace, James L; Ott, Wayne R; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2015-11-01

    Real-time particle monitors are essential for accurately estimating exposure to fine particles indoors. However, many such monitors tend to be prohibitively expensive for some applications, such as a tenant or homeowner curious about the quality of the air in their home. A lower cost version (the Dylos Air Quality Monitor) has recently been introduced, but it requires appropriate calibration to reflect the mass concentration units required for exposure assessment. We conducted a total of 64 experiments with a suite of instruments including a Dylos DC1100, another real-time laser photometer (TSI SidePak™ Model AM-510 Personal Aerosol Monitor), and a gravimetric sampling apparatus to estimate Dylos calibration factors for emissions from 17 different common indoor sources including cigarettes, incense, fried bacon, chicken, and hamburger. Comparison of minute-by-minute data from the Dylos with the gravimetrically calibrated SidePak yielded relationships that enable the conversion of the raw Dylos particle counts less than 2.5 μm (in #/0.01 ft(3)) to estimated PM2.5 mass concentration (e.g. μg m(-3)). The relationship between the exponentially-decaying Dylos particle counts and PM2.5 mass concentration can be described by a theoretically-derived power law with source-specific empirical parameters. A linear relationship (calibration factor) is applicable to fresh or quickly decaying emissions (i.e., before the aerosol has aged and differential decay rates introduce curvature into the relationship). The empirical parameters for the power-law relationships vary greatly both between and within source types, although linear factors appear to have lower uncertainty. The Dylos Air Quality Monitor is likely most useful for providing instantaneous feedback and context on mass particle levels in home and work situations for field-survey or personal awareness applications. PMID:26487426

  2. Measuring of urban ultrafine aerosol as a part of regular air pollution monitoring activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejkrlík, Libor; Plachá, Helena

    2015-04-01

    Number size distribution of UFP has been measured since June 2012 to present time (end of 2014) at a background urban site in Northern Bohemia in the frame of UltraSchwarz Project. The project sustainability guarantees at least five years further measuring thus this highly specific activity already becomes part of existing air pollution monitoring system of Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Number concentrations of UFP were measured by SMPS in a diameter range of 10 to 800 nm in 7 channels with time resolution of 10 minutes. For the purposes of this study the data were re-arranged into series of one-hour means in three size categories: nucleation mode (10-30 nm), Aitken mode (30-100 nm) and accumulation mode (100-800 nm). At the same measuring site 7 other air pollutants (PM1-BC, NO, NOX, NO2, O3, PM10 and SO2) were measured with identical time resolution. The successive daily courses of submicron particles in three size modes as well as of seven other ambient air pollutants were drawn in the form of 3D surface diagrams expressing different behavior of specific substances in the course of 26 months of continuous measuring campaign, allowing for analysis of both diurnal and seasonal changes. The three modes of UFP manifest diverse pictures, the nucleation mode is apparent mainly during warm seasons, the particles in Aitken mode behave rather indifferently to the period of the year and the accumulation mode has close relationship to coarse particles. Month by month correlation analysis indicate that nucleation mode nanoparticles are positively correlated especially with increasing O3 and SO2 concentration and that there exists connection between Aitken and accumulation modes and nitrogen oxides. In order to better understand fine time patterns we plan to calculate moving correlation indices over shorter time periods. Good idea would also be to make use of large database of data from nearby stations of CHMI to analyze the role of meteorological conditions.

  3. Total suspended solids concentrations and yields for water-quality monitoring stations in Gwinnett County, Georgia, 1996-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. As of 2009, continuous streamflow and water-quality data as well as discrete water-quality samples were being collected for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. This report provides statistical summaries of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations for 730 stormflow and 710 base-flow water-quality samples collected between 1996 and 2009 for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. Annual yields of TSS were estimated for each of the 14 watersheds using methods described in previous studies. TSS yield was estimated using linear, ordinary least-squares regression of TSS and explanatory variables of discharge, turbidity, season, date, and flow condition. The error of prediction for estimated yields ranged from 1 to 42 percent for the stations in this report; however, the actual overall uncertainty of the estimated yields cannot be less than that of the observed yields (± 15 to 20 percent). These watershed yields provide a basis for evaluation of how watershed characteristics, climate, and watershed management practices affect suspended sediment yield.

  4. Evaluation of a Gas Chromatograph-Differential Mobility Spectrometer for Potential Water Monitoring on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental monitoring for manned spaceflight has long depended on archival sampling, which was sufficient for short missions. However, the longer mission durations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have shown that enhanced, real-time monitoring capabilities are necessary in order to protect both the crewmembers and the spacecraft systems. Over the past several years, a number of real-time environmental monitors have been deployed on the ISS. Currently, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the station air are monitored by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), a small, lightweight gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer. For water monitoring, real-time monitors are used for total organic carbon (TOC) and biocide analysis. No information on the actual makeup of the TOC is provided presently, however. An improvement to the current state of environmental monitoring could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for VOCs in air samples, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. The major hurdle for this effort lies in the liberation of the target analytes from the water matrix. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target VOCs at the concentrations at which they are routinely detected in archival water samples from the ISS. We will compare the results of these studies with those obtained from the instrumentation routinely used to analyze archival water samples.

  5. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  6. Monitoring the impact of aerosol contamination on the drought-induced decline of gross primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Weizhong; Zhu, Qiuan; Chen, Huai; Fang, Xiuqin; Zhang, Tinglong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

    2015-04-01

    Southwestern China experienced a period of severe drought from September 2009 to May 2010. It led to widespread decline in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) in the springtime of 2010 (March to May). However, this study observed a spatial inconsistency between drought-impacted vegetation decline and the precipitation deficit. Significant aerosol loads that correspond to inconsistent areas were also observed during the drought period. After analyzing both MODIS GPP/NPP Collection 5 (C5) and the newer Collection 5.5 (C55) data, a large area observed to be experiencing GPP decline in the eastern part of the study area proved to be unreliable. Based on EVI data, after atmospherically contaminated data were screened from analysis, approximately 20% of the study area exhibited browning whereas 33% displayed no change or greening and the remaining area (approximately 47%) lacked sufficient data to document changing conditions. Correlation analysis showed that fire occurrences, aerosol optical depth, and precipitation anomalies during the two drought periods (from September to February and from March to May) all contributed to a decrease in GPP. C55 data remains vulnerable to aerosol contamination due to a much higher correlation coefficient with aerosol optical depth compared to C5 data. In the future, users of remotely sensed data should be cautious of and take into account impacts related to atmospheric contamination, even during drought periods.

  7. The effect of local sources on particle size and chemical composition and their role in aerosol-cloud interactions at Puijo measurement station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portin, H.; Leskinen, A.; Hao, L.; Kortelainen, A.; Miettinen, P.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Komppula, M.

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between aerosols and liquid water clouds were studied during autumns 2010-2011 at a semiurban measurement station on Puijo tower in Kuopio, Finland. Cloud interstitial and total aerosol size distributions, particle chemical composition and hygroscopicity and cloud droplet size distribution were measured, with a focus on comparing clean air masses with those affected by local sources. On average, the polluted air contained more particles than the clean air masses, and generally the concentrations decreased during cloud events. Cloud processing was found to take place, especially in the clean air masses, and to a lesser extent in the polluted air. Some, mostly minor, differences in the average particle chemical composition between the air masses were observed. The average size and number concentration of activating particles were quite similar for both air masses, producing average droplet populations with only minor distinctions. As a case study, a long cloud event was analyzed in detail, with a special focus on the emissions from local sources, including a paper mill and a heating plant. This revealed larger variations in particle and cloud properties than the analysis of the whole data set. Clear differences in the total (between 214 and 2200 cm-3) and accumulation mode particle concentrations (between 62 and 169 cm-3) were observed. Particle chemical composition, especially the concentrations of organics (between 0.42 and 1.28 μg m-3) and sulfate (between 0.16 and 4.43 μg m-3), varied considerably. This affected the hygroscopic growth factor: for example, for 100 nm particles the range was from 1.21 to 1.45 at 90% relative humidity. Particularly, large particles, high hygroscopicities and elevated amounts of inorganics were linked with the pollutant plumes. Moreover, the particle hygroscopicity distributions in the polluted air were clearly bimodal, indicating externally mixed aerosol. The variable conditions also had an impact on cloud droplet

  8. Characterization and monitoring of microbial species in the international space station drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duc, M. T. La; Vankateswaran, K.; Sumner, R.; Pierson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this study is to develop procedures to characterize the microbial quality of the drinking water for the International Space Station (ISS) and shuttle at various stages of water treatment.

  9. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2004-03-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has already succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. As funding for this project, scheduled to commence December 1, 2002, had only been in place for less than half of the reporting period, project progress has been less than for other reporting periods. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made and several cruises are planned for the summer/fall of 2003 to test equipment, techniques and compatibility of systems. En route to reaching the primary goal of the Consortium, the establishment of a monitoring station on the sea floor, the following achievements have been made: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning sensors

  10. Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the

  11. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  12. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, B. P.; Huang, D.; Jie Li, Y.; Schurman, M. I.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Chan, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 on the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA), characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and sulfate are found to be dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear mealtime concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during mealtimes, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and the influence of continental air masses.

  13. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian Megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, B. P.; Huang, D.; Li, Y. J.; Schurman, M. I.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Chan, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 at the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA), characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and sulfate are found dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear meal-time concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during meal times, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a~lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and influence of continental air masses.

  14. Analysis of outdoor radon progeny concentration measured at the Spanish radioactive aerosol automatic monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D; Vargas, A; Ortega, X

    2009-05-01

    An analysis of 10-year radon progeny data, provided by the Spanish automatic radiological surveillance network, in relation to meteorology is presented. Results show great spatial variability depending mainly on the station location and thus, the surrounding radon exhalation rate. Hourly averages show the typical diurnal cycle with an early morning maximum and a minimum at noon, except for one mountain station, which shows an inverse behaviour. Monthly averaged values show lower concentrations during months with higher atmospheric instability.

  15. MISR Aerosol Air Mass Type Mapping over Mega-City: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, F.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Most aerosol air-quality monitoring in mega-city environments is done from scattered ground stations having detailed chemical and optical sampling capabilities. Satellite instruments such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can retrieve total-column Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), along with some information about particle microphysical properties. Although the particle property information from MISR is much less detailed than that obtained from the ground sampling stations, the coverage is extensive, making it possible to put individual surface observations into the context of regional aerosol air mass types. This paper presents an analysis of MISR aerosol observations made coincident with aircraft and ground-based instruments during the INTEX-B field campaign. These detailed comparisons of satellite aerosol property retrievals against dedicated field measurements provide the opportunity to validate the retrievals quantitatively at a regional level, and help to improve aerosol representation in retrieval algorithms. Validation of MISR retrieved AOD and other aerosol properties over the INTEX-B study region in and around Mexico City will be presented. MISR’s ability to distinguish among aerosol air mass types will be discussed. The goal of this effort is to use the MISR aerosol property retrievals for mapping both aerosol air mass type and AOD gradients in mega-city environments over the decade-plus that MISR has made global observations.

  16. On the influence of biomass burning on the seasonal CO2 signal as observed at monitoring stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittenberg, U.; Heimann, Martin; Esse, G.; McGuire, A.D.; Sauf, W.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the role of biomass burning in simulating the seasonal signal in both prognostic and diagnostic analyses. The prognostic anaysis involved the High-Resolution Biosphere Model, a prognostic terrestrial biosphere model, and the coupled vegetation fire module, which together produce a prognostic data set of biomass burning. The diagnostic analysis invovled the Simple Diagnostic Biosphere Model (SDBM) and the Hao and Liu [1994] diagnostic data set of bimass burning, which have been scaled to global 2 and 4 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The monthly carbon exchange fields between the atmosphere and the biosphere with a spatial resolution of 0.5?? ?? 0.5??, the seasonal atmosphere-ocean exchange fields, and the emissions from fossil fuels have been coupled to the three-dimensional atmospheric transport model TM2. We have chosen eight monitoring stations of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration network to compare the predicted seasonal atmospheric CO2 signals with those deduced from atmosphere-biosphere carbon exchange fluxes without any contribution from biomass burning. The prognostic analysis and the diagnostic analysis with global burning emissions of 4 Pg C yr-1 agree with respect to the change in the amplitude of the seasonal CO2 concentration introduced through biomass burning. We find that the seasonal CO2 signal at stations in higher northern latitudes (north of 30??N) is marginally influenced by biomass burning. For stations in tropical regions an increase in the CO2 amplitude of more an 1 oppmv (up to 50% with respect to the observed trough to peak amplitude) has been calculated. Biomass burning at stations farther south accounts for an increase in the CO2 amplitude of up to 59% (0.6 ppmv). A change in the phase of the seasonal CO2 signal at tropical and southern stations has been shown to be strongly influenced by the onset of biomass burning in southern tropical Africa and America. Comparing simulated and observed seasonal CO2 signals

  17. Aerosol physical properties and their impact on climate change processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Piskozub, Jacek; Drozdowska, Violetta; Gutowska, Dorota; Rozwadowska, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing aerosols involves the specification of not only their spatial and temporal distributions but their multi-component composition, particle size distribution and physical properties as well. Due to their light attenuation and scattering properties, aerosols influence radiance measured by satellite for ocean color remote sensing. Studies of marine aerosol production and transport are important for many earth sciences such as cloud physics, atmospheric optics, environmental pollution studies, and interaction between ocean and atmosphere. It was one of the reasons for the growth in the number of research programs dealing with marine aerosols. Sea salt aerosols are among the most abundant components of the atmospheric aerosol, and thus it exerts a strong influence on radiation, cloud formation, meteorology and chemistry of the marine atmosphere. An accurate understanding and description of these mechanisms is crucial to modeling climate and climate change. This work provides information on combined aerosol studies made with lidars and sun photometers onboard the ship and in different coastal areas. We concentrate on aerosol optical thickness and its variations with aerosol advections into the study area. We pay special attention to the problem of proper data collection and analyses techniques. We showed that in order to detect the dynamics of potential aerosol composition changes it is necessary to use data from different stations where measurements are made using the same techniques. The combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides comprehensive picture of aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01

  18. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  19. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  20. A design for an intelligent monitor and controller for space station electrical power using parallel distributed problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is on defining a set of communicating processes for intelligent spacecraft secondary power distribution and control. The computer hardware and software implementation platform for this work is that of the ADEPTS project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The electrical power system design which was used as the basis for this research is that of Space Station Freedom, although the functionality of the processes defined here generalize to any permanent manned space power control application. First, the Space Station Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) hardware to be monitored is described, followed by a set of scenarios describing typical monitor and control activity. Then, the parallel distributed problem solving approach to knowledge engineering is introduced. There follows a two-step presentation of the intelligent software design for secondary power control. The first step decomposes the problem of monitoring and control into three primary functions. Each of the primary functions is described in detail. Suggestions for refinements and embelishments in design specifications are given.

  1. Three-year monitoring of stable isotopes of precipitation at Concordia Station, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenni, Barbara; Scarchilli, Claudio; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Ciardini, Virginia; Dreossi, Giuliano; Grigioni, Paolo; Bonazza, Mattia; Cagnati, Anselmo; Karlicek, Daniele; Risi, Camille; Udisti, Roberto; Valt, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Past temperature reconstructions from Antarctic ice cores require a good quantification and understanding of the relationship between snow isotopic composition and 2 m air or inversion (condensation) temperature. Here, we focus on the French-Italian Concordia Station, central East Antarctic plateau, where the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice cores were drilled. We provide a multi-year record of daily precipitation types identified from crystal morphologies, daily precipitation amounts and isotopic composition. Our sampling period (2008-2010) encompasses a warmer year (2009, +1.2 °C with respect to 2 m air temperature long-term average 1996-2010), with larger total precipitation and snowfall amounts (14 and 76 % above sampling period average, respectively), and a colder and drier year (2010, -1.8 °C, 4 % below long-term and sampling period averages, respectively) with larger diamond dust amounts (49 % above sampling period average). Relationships between local meteorological data and precipitation isotopic composition are investigated at daily, monthly and inter-annual scale, and for the different types of precipitation. Water stable isotopes are more closely related to 2 m air temperature than to inversion temperature at all timescales (e.g. R2 = 0.63 and 0.44, respectively for daily values). The slope of the temporal relationship between daily δ18O and 2 m air temperature is approximately 2 times smaller (0.49 ‰ °C-1) than the average Antarctic spatial (0.8 ‰ °C-1) relationship initially used for the interpretation of EPICA Dome C records. In accordance with results from precipitation monitoring at Vostok and Dome F, deuterium excess is anti-correlated with δ18O at daily and monthly scales, reaching maximum values in winter. Hoar frost precipitation samples have a specific fingerprint with more depleted δ18O (about 5 ‰ below average) and higher deuterium excess (about 8 ‰ above average) values than other precipitation

  2. First Measurements of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has sensors recording air and ground temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided, daily, during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. The capability of multiple, consistent, and simultaneous data is essential for meaningful interpretation of near-surface processes including the characterization of soil thermal properties. The Martian atmosphere is generally transparent to solar radiation, but atmospheric dust absorbs solar radiation and heats the atmosphere, while UV radiation ionizes atmospheric gases and is harmful to any potential Martian organisms (past or present). For this reason, knowledge of the UV radiation flux at the surface of Mars is important for the understanding habitability conditions, one of the main goals of the MSL mission. Moreover UV radiation is a significant driver in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and surface. In this paper we present a first analysis of REMS measurements, the status of the different sensors and the potential of REMS for Mars environmental studies. REMS Team: C. Armiens, I. Carrasco, F. Gómez, A. Lepinette, J. Martín, J. Martínez-Frías, L. Mora, S. Navarro, V. Peinado, J. Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. Romeral, E. Sebastián, J. Torres, J. Verdasca (Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km. 4, 28850 Torrej

  3. Aerosol disturbances of the stratosphere after eruption of Grimsvötn volcano (Iceland, May 21, 2011) according to observations at lidar network stations of CIS countries CIS-LiNet in Minsk, Tomsk, and Vladivostok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgii, Sergey I.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Makeev, Andrey P.; Nevzorov, Aleksey V.; Shmirko, Konstantin A.; Pavlov, Andrey N.; Stolyarchuk, Sergey Y.; Bukin, Oleg A.; Chaykovskii, Anatoly P.; Osipenko, Fyodor P.; Trifonov, Dimitar A.

    2012-11-01

    In 2010 and first half of 2011, a background aerosol content was observed in the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. The report presents the observations of aerosol disturbances of the stratosphere in the second half of 2011, which were performed at lidar network stations of CIS countries CIS-LiNet in Minsk (53.9°N 27.6°E), Tomsk (56.5°N; 85.0°E), and Vladivostok (43.0°N 131.9°E). Data of lidar measurements at the sensing wavelengths of 353, 355, and 532 nm indicate that increased aerosol content was observed since June - July almost until the end of 2011 in the lower stratosphere up to the altitudes ~ 18 km. A well-defined, temporally stable aerosol layer was observed until October 2011 in the altitude interval ~ (13-17) km. The trajectory analysis of air mass transport in the stratosphere according to NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL with employment of CALIPSO satellite data shows that the increased aerosol content observed was most likely due to transport of eruption products of Grimsvötn volcano (May 21, 2011, Iceland: 64.4°N 17.3°W).

  4. The E-PROFILE network of automatic LIDARS and ceilometers for operational monitoring of cloud base, aerosols and volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefele, Alexander; Martucci, Giovanni; Haffelin, Martial; Besson, Florence; Lehmann, Volker

    2014-05-01

    During the last years it has been shown that ceilometers are cost effective instruments for vertical profiling of aerosols with proven skills for volcanic plumes detection. As a reaction to the eruptions of the Icelandic volcanoes in 2010 and 2011 and upon recommendation of the COST ES0702 action EG-CLIMET, EUMETNET created the E-PROFILE activity as part of the observation programme which is supported by 18 national meteorological services. E-PROFILE is the continuation of the operational RADAR wind-profiler network E-WINPROF. The new objective of E-PROFILE is to integrate the approximately 700 ceilometers of the E-PROFILE country members into a European network providing vertical profiles for the monitoring of cloud base, aerosols and volcanic ash. A standardized calibration procedure is being developed in collaboration with the COST Action ES1303 TOPROF to provide profile information homogeneously across the network. The information will be distributed in real time and visualized on an interactive map. We present a detailed description of the activity and report on the current status of the development.

  5. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  6. Characterization and source apportionment of aerosol light extinction with a coupled model of CMB-IMPROVE in Hangzhou, Yangtze River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Yu-fen; Feng, Yin-chang; Zheng, Xian-jue; Jiao, Li; Hong, Sheng-mao; Shen, Jian-dong; Zhu, Tan; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Qi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics and sources of aerosol light extinction in the Yangtze River Delta of China, a campaign was carried out in Hangzhou from December 2013 to November 2014. Hourly data for air pollutants including PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO, and aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficient and aerosol absorbing coefficient was obtained in the environmental air quality automatic monitoring station. Meteorological parameters were measured synchronously in the automated meteorology monitoring station. Additionally, around seven sets of ambient PM2.5 samples per month were collected and analyzed during the campaign. The annual mean aerosol scattering coefficient, aerosol absorbing coefficient and aerosol single scattering albedo measured in this study was 514 ± 284 Mm- 1, 35 ± 20 Mm- 1 and 94% respectively. The aerosol extinction coefficient reconstructed using the modified IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment) formula was compared to the measured extinction coefficient. Better correlations could be found between the measured and reconstructed extinction coefficient when RH was under 90%. A coupled model of CMB (chemical mass balance) and modified IMPROVE was used to apportion the sources of aerosol light extinction in Hangzhou. Vehicle exhaust, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate were identified as the most significant sources for aerosol light extinction, accounted for 30.2%, 24.1% and 15.8% respectively.

  7. Monitoring aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions of long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metternich, P.; Georgii, H.-W.; Groeneveld, K. O.

    1983-04-01

    Collection of atmospheric samples was performed at Malta, a semi-remote environment in the Mediterranean, in case of long-range transport studies of pollutants and natural substances. Using PIXE as a non-destructive trace-element analytical tool, the elemental composition of these samples was determined. Atmospheric concentrations obtained in this study were of one magnitude higher than those observed over the open North Alantic in purely marine air. For most of the anomalously enriched elements in the Mediterranean aerosol, the high concentrations can be explained by long-range transport.

  8. Characterization of Custom-Designed Charge-Coupled Devices for Applications to Gas and Aerosol Monitoring Sensorcraft Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Farnsworth, Glenn R.; Garcia, Christopher S.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    Custom-designed charge-coupled devices (CCD) for Gas and Aerosols Monitoring Sensorcraft instrument were developed. These custom-designed CCD devices are linear arrays with pixel format of 512x1 elements and pixel size of 10x200 sq m. These devices were characterized at NASA Langley Research Center to achieve a full well capacity as high as 6,000,000 e-. This met the aircraft flight mission requirements in terms of signal-to-noise performance and maximum dynamic range. Characterization and analysis of the electrical and optical properties of the CCDs were carried out at room temperature. This includes measurements of photon transfer curves, gain coefficient histograms, read noise, and spectral response. Test results obtained on these devices successfully demonstrated the objectives of the aircraft flight mission. In this paper, we describe the characterization results and also discuss their applications to future mission.

  9. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  10. A Novel Method to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Thickness from High-Resolution Optical Satellite Images for Air Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; Wilson, R. T.; Milton, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data has many important applications including atmospheric correction of satellite imagery and monitoring of particulate matter air pollution. Current data products are generally available at a kilometre-scale resolution, but many applications require far higher resolutions. For example, particulate matter concentrations vary on a metre-scale, and thus data products at a similar scale are required to provide accurate assessments of particle densities and allow effective monitoring of air quality and analysis of local air quality effects on health. A novel method has been developed which retrieves per-pixel AOT values from high-resolution (~30m) satellite data. This method is designed to work over a wide range of land covers - including both bright and dark surfaces - and requires only standard visible and near-infrared data, making it applicable to a range of data from sensors such as Landsat, SPOT and Sentinel-2. The method is based upon an extension of the Haze Optimized Transform (HOT). The HOT was originally designed for assessing areas of thick haze in satellite imagery by calculating a 'haziness' value for each pixel in an image as the distance from a 'Clear Line' in feature space, defined by the high correlation between visible bands. Here, we adapt the HOT method and use it to provide AOT data instead. Significant extensions include Monte Carlo estimation of the 'Clear Line', object-based correction for land cover, and estimation of AOT from the haziness values through radiative transfer modelling. This novel method will enable many new applications of AOT data that were impossible with previously available low-resolution data, and has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the air quality on health, the accuracy of satellite image atmospheric correction and the role of aerosols in the climate system.

  11. Data from the Woodland land-subsidence monitoring station, Yolo County, California, water years 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    A land-subsidence monitoring study was initiated in 1985 for the purpose of collecting data in Sacramento Valley, California, to document land-surface subsidence and to measure sediment compaction in response to ground-water pumping. Lithologic and geophysical logs obtained from the deeper of two boreholes drilled in 1987 near Woodland, California, are presented. The results of geotechnical and hydraulic laboratory tests on four sediment core samples extracted at 137, 151, 301, and 474 feet below land surface from a third borehole, drilled in 1990, are also reported. Construction of the extensometer well and the piezometer wells and equipment installed in the boreholes are described and illustrated. Data measured or recorded at the Woodland land- subsidence monitoring station from December 1987 through September 1992 are presented in tabular and graphic formats. These data include water levels from five piezometers, barometric pressure, and cumulative net sediment compaction.

  12. Monitoring the initial pulmonary absorption of two different beclomethasone dipropionate aerosols employing a human lung reperfusion model

    PubMed Central

    Freiwald, Matthias; Valotis, Anagnostis; Kirschbaum, Andreas; McClellan, Monika; Mürdter, Thomas; Fritz, Peter; Friedel, Godehard; Thomas, Michael; Högger, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Background The pulmonary residence time of inhaled glucocorticoids as well as their rate and extend of absorption into systemic circulation are important facets of their efficacy-safety profile. We evaluated a novel approach to elucidate the pulmonary absorption of an inhaled glucocorticoid. Our objective was to monitor and compare the combined process of drug particle dissolution, pro-drug activation and time course of initial distribution from human lung tissue into plasma for two different glucocorticoid formulations. Methods We chose beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) delivered by two different commercially available HFA-propelled metered dose inhalers (Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™ and Ventolair®/Qvar™). Initially we developed a simple dialysis model to assess the transfer of BDP and its active metabolite from human lung homogenate into human plasma. In a novel experimental setting we then administered the aerosols into the bronchus of an extracorporally ventilated and reperfused human lung lobe and monitored the concentrations of BDP and its metabolites in the reperfusion fluid. Results Unexpectedly, we observed differences between the two aerosol formulations Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™ and Ventolair®/Qvar™ in both the dialysis as well as in the human reperfusion model. The HFA-BDP formulated as Ventolair®/Qvar™ displayed a more rapid release from lung tissue compared to Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™. We succeeded to explain and illustrate the observed differences between the two aerosols with their unique particle topology and divergent dissolution behaviour in human bronchial fluid. Conclusion We conclude that though the ultrafine particles of Ventolair®/Qvar™ are beneficial for high lung deposition, they also yield a less desired more rapid systemic drug delivery. While the differences between Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™ and Ventolair®/Qvar™ were obvious in both the dialysis and lung perfusion experiments, the latter allowed to record time courses

  13. Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Hara, Yukari; Xie, Chenbo; Uno, Itsushi; Yumimoto, Keiya; Wang, Zifa; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2008-12-01

    Observations of tropospheric aerosols (mineral dust, air-pollution aerosols, etc.) and clouds are being conducted using a network of two-wavelength (1064nm, 532nm) polarization (532nm) lidars in the East Asian region. Currently, the lidars are operated continuously at 23 locations in Japan, Korea, China, Mongolia and Thailand. A real-time data processing system was developed for the network, and the data products such as the attenuated backscatter coefficients and the estimated extinction coefficients for non-spherical and spherical aerosols are generated automatically for online network stations. The data are used in the real-time monitoring of Asian dust as well as in the studies of regional air pollution and climate change.

  14. Ionospheric delay gradient monitoring for GBAS by GPS stations near Suvarnabhumi airport, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rungraengwajiake, Sarawoot; Supnithi, Pornchai; Saito, Susumu; Siansawasdi, Nattapong; Saekow, Apitep

    2015-10-01

    Ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) is an important augmentation system that provides the differential corrections and integrity information from the reference stations to the aircrafts for precision approach and landing. It is known that the nonuniform ionospheric characteristics called "ionospheric delay gradient" can cause the errors in differential corrections degrading the accuracy and safety level if they are undetected by the reference stations. Since the characteristics of the ionosphere are different for each region, the ionospheric delay gradient observations in equatorial and low-latitude regions are necessary for developing the suitable ionospheric threat models. The purpose of this work is to analyze the ionospheric delay gradients observed by three GPS stations near Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok, Thailand, which is located in the low-latitude region. The ionospheric irregularities in this region are mainly caused by the plasma bubble, which usually occurs after sunset. The GPS data with plasma bubble occurrence during the September equinox 2011 and 2012 are therefore analyzed. In addition, the data analysis procedure utilizing the rate of total electron content change index for this region is proposed. The results show that the ionospheric delay gradients observed in the west-east direction appear higher than the south-north direction, varying from 28 to 178 mm/km during plasma bubble occurrences.

  15. Coastal monitoring through video systems: best practices and architectural design of a new video monitoring station in Jesolo (Veneto, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archetti, Renata; Vacchi, Matteo; Carniel, Sandro; Benetazzo, Alvise

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the location of the shoreline and monitoring foreshore changes through time represent a fundamental task for correct coastal management at many sites around the world. Several authors demonstrated video systems to be an essential tool for increasing the amount of data available for coastline management. These systems typically sample at least once per hour and can provide long-term datasets showing variations over days, events, months, seasons and years. In the past few years, due to the wide diffusion of video cameras at relatively low price, the use of video cameras and of video images analysis for environmental control has increased significantly. Even if video monitoring systems were often used in the research field they are most often applied with practical purposes including: i) identification and quantification of shoreline erosion, ii) assessment of coastal protection structure and/or beach nourishment performance, and iii) basic input to engineering design in the coastal zone iv) support for integrated numerical model validation Here we present the guidelines for the creation of a new video monitoring network in the proximity of the Jesolo beach (NW of the Adriatic Sea, Italy), Within this 10 km-long tourist district several engineering structures have been built in recent years, with the aim of solving urgent local erosion problems; as a result, almost all types of protection structures are present at this site: groynes, detached breakwaters.The area investigated experienced severe problems of coastal erosion in the past decades, inclusding a major one in the last November 2012. The activity is planned within the framework of the RITMARE project, that is also including other monitoring and scientific activities (bathymetry survey, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamics and morphodynamic modeling). This contribution focuses on best practices to be adopted in the creation of the video monitoring system, and briefly describes the

  16. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  17. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  18. Advanced monitoring of water systems using in situ measurement stations: data validation and fault detection.

    PubMed

    Alferes, Janelcy; Tik, Sovanna; Copp, John; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    In situ continuous monitoring at high frequency is used to collect water quality information about water bodies. However, it is crucial that the collected data be evaluated and validated for the appropriate interpretation of the data so as to ensure that the monitoring programme is effective. Software tools for data quality assessment with a practical orientation are proposed. As water quality data often contain redundant information, multivariate methods can be used to detect correlations, pertinent information among variables and to identify multiple sensor faults. While principal component analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the original variable data set, monitoring of some statistical metrics and their violation of confidence limits can be used to detect faulty or abnormal data and can help the user apply corrective action(s). The developed algorithms are illustrated with automated monitoring systems installed in an urban river and at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant.

  19. On the identification of representative in situ soil moisture monitoring stations for the validation of SMAP soil moisture products in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Mei Sun; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Monerris, Alessandra; Rüdiger, Christoph; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2016-06-01

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture complicates the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture products using in situ monitoring stations. Therefore, a standard methodology for selecting the most representative stations for the purpose of validating satellites and land surface models is essential. Based on temporal stability and geostatistical studies using long-term soil moisture records, intensive ground measurements and airborne soil moisture products, this study investigates the representativeness of soil moisture monitoring stations within the Yanco study area for the validation of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products at 3 km for radar, 9 km for radar-radiometer and 36 km for radiometer pixels. This resulted in the identification of a number of representative stations according to the different scales. Although the temporal stability method was found to be suitable for identifying representative stations, stations based on the mean relative difference (MRD) were not necessarily the most representative of the areal average. Moreover, those identified from standard deviation of the relative difference (SDRD) may be dry-biased. It was also found that in the presence of heterogeneous land use, stations should be weighted based on proportions of agricultural land. Airborne soil moisture products were also shown to provide useful a priori information for identifying representative locations. Finally, recommendations are made regarding the design of future networks for satellite validation, and specifically the most representative stations for the Yanco area.

  20. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring and characterization: An emission control strategy to protect tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, V. L.; do Valles, T. V.; de Oliveira, T. B.; de Almeida, A. C.; Maia, L. F. P. G.; Saint'Pierre, T. D.; Gioda, A.

    2013-12-01

    Human activity represents one of the most harmful activities for biodiversity. Population growth has caused increasing interferences in natural areas suffering agriculture or urbanization. As a consequence, tropical forests are at risk, since they shelter more than half of the global biodiversity. In this context, protected areas are indeed important to preserve natural populations as well as threatened habitats. Aerosol samples were collected in two protected areas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to quantify water-soluble species and evaluate anthropogenic influences considering secondary aerosol formation and organic compounds. Samplings were conducted at the National Park of Serra dos Orgãos (Parnaso) and the National Forest Mario Xavier (Flonamax) during 24 h every six days using a high-volume sampler from July 2010 to June 2012 (PM10) and from July 2011 to August 2012 (TSP), respectively. The aerosol mass was determined by Gravimetry. The water-soluble ionic composition (WSIC) was obtained by Ion Chromatography in order to determine the major anions (Br-, Cl-, F-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-) and cations (Li+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+); total water-soluble carbon (TWSC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were determined by a TOC analyzer and the elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry. PM10 average concentrations ranged from 11.1 to 67.6 μg m-3 and TSP from 5.7 to 242.6 μg m-3. Regarding the ions, the highest cation concentration was measured for Na+ at both Parnaso and Flonamax sites, respectively, 2.9 and 6.1 μg m-3. Both sites are near to the coast, justifying these results. On the other hand, SO42- was the predominant anion measured at both sites with average concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 2.7 μg m-3. Around 50% of sulphate had a non-marine origin in the former site, while in the latter the percentage was of circa 40%. The correlation between NO3- and nss-SO42- was much stronger at Parnaso (r = 0

  1. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  2. The effects of bronchodilator-inhaler aerosol propellants on respiratory gas monitors.

    PubMed

    Elliot, W R; Raemer, D B; Goldman, D B; Philip, J H

    1991-04-01

    Spurious readings from a mass spectrometer have been reported following the administration of aerosol bronchodilators. We quantified the response of various respiratory gas analyzers to the aerosol propellant of albuterol inhalant (Proventil). The mass spectrometer systems tested, two Advantage systems, a SARA system, and a Model 6000 Ohmeda system, all displayed artifactual readings in response to the albuterol propellant. Each metered dose of the Proventil brand of albuterol contains 4 ml of Freon 11 (trichloromonofluoromethane) and 11 ml of Freon 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). The concentration of propellant was expressed in doses/L, where each liter of gas contains 0.4 vol % of Freon 11 and 1.1 vol % of Freon 12 per dose. In proportion to the concentration of albuterol propellant, the two Advantage systems showed substantial readings of isoflurane (%) when no isoflurane was present (13% and 16% per dose/L) and reduced readings of enflurane (-8% and -10% per dose/L) and carbon dioxide (CO2) (-3 and +5 mm Hg per dose/L). The SARA system showed substantial CO2 readings when no CO2 was present (5 mm Hg per dose/L) and displayed small enflurane readings (0.1% per dose/L) when no enflurane was present. The Model 6000 unit showed CO2 readings when no CO2 was present (5 mm Hg per dose/L). Neither the Raman spectrometer, the infrared spectrometers, nor the piezoadsorptive analyzer we tested showed an artifactual effect of albuterol propellant on any of its readings. Simulation and clinical tests demonstrated that a single dose of albuterol propellant into a breathing circuit at the onset of inspiration resulted in concentrations of 0.8 and 0.3 dose/L, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1906529

  3. Monitoring of earthquake precursors by multi-parameter stations in Eskisehir region (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, G.; Ugurluoglu, D. Y.; Adar, N.; Yalcin, T.; Yaltirak, C.; Streil, T.; Oeserd, V. O.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the geochemical and hydrogeological effects of earthquakes on fluids in aquifers, particularly in a seismically active area such as Eskisehir (Turkey) where the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault Zone stretches over the region. The study area is also close to the North Anatolian Fault Zone generating devastating earthquakes such as the ones experienced in 1999, reactivating the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault. In the studied area, Rn and CO2 gas concentrations, redox potential, electrical conductivity, pH, water level, water temperature, and the climatic parameters were continuously measured in five stations for about a year. Based on the gathered data from the stations, some ambiguous anomalies in geochemical parameters and Rn concentration of groundwater were observed as precursors several days prior to an earthquake. According to the mid-term observations of this study, well-water level changes were found to be a good indicator for seismic estimations in the area, as it comprises naturally filtered anomalies reflecting only the changes due to earthquakes. Also, the results obtained from this study suggest that both the changes in well-water level and gas-water chemistry need to be interpretated together for more accurate estimations. Valid for the studied area, it can be said that shallow earthquakes with epicentral distances of <30 km from the observation stations have more influence on hydrochemical parameters of groundwater and well-water level changes. Although some hydrochemical anomalies were observed in the area, it requires further observations in order to be able to identify them as precursors.

  4. Relativistic electron precipitation at International Space Station: Space weather monitoring by Calorimetric Electron Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Asaoka, Yoichi; Torii, Shoji; Terasawa, Toshio; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tadahisa; Shimizu, Yuki; Akaike, Yosui; Mori, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    The charge detector (CHD) of the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has a huge geometric factor for detecting MeV electrons and is sensitive to relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events. During the first 4 months, CALET CHD observed REP events mainly at the dusk to midnight sector near the plasmapause, where the trapped radiation belt electrons can be efficiently scattered by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Here we show that interesting 5-20 s periodicity regularly exists during the REP events at ISS, which is useful to diagnose the wave-particle interactions associated with the nonlinear wave growth of EMIC-triggered emissions.

  5. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The primary objective of the group has been to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently achieved reality via the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology's (NIUST) solicitation for proposals for research to be conducted at the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, have had to be postponed and the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles sacrificed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort is being

  6. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  7. The Fennec Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Network: monitoring the Saharan Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobby, Matt

    2013-04-01

    The Fennec Automatic Weather Station (AWS) network consists of eight stations installed across the Sahara desert, with four in remote locations in the central desert, where no previous meteorological observations have existed. The AWS measure temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction, short-wave and long-wave radiation (upwelling and downwelling), ground heat flux and ground temperature. Data are recorded every 3 minutes 20 seconds i.e. at three times the temporal resolution of the World Meteorological Organisation's standard ten-minute reporting for winds and wind gusts. Variations in wind speeds on shorter time scales are recorded through the use of second and third order moments of 1-Hz data. Using the Iridium RUDICS service, data are transmitted in near real time (1 hour lag) to the UK, where calibrations are applied and data are uploaded to the GTS, for assimilation into forecast models. In this presentation we describe this unique dataset, sources of error, and possible application for understanding key features of the region. We will discuss the use of the second moment of the wind-speed distribution in improving estimates of the dust-generating potential of observed winds.

  8. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  9. Relationship between total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Speciated NMHCs by Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station (PAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Ou Yang, C.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Total NMHC observations were made in some of the EPA air quality stations (AQS) across Taiwan, along with measurements of ozone, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10. This network is also complimented by another eight-station network, called photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), to provide hourly observations of 56 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, the relationship of the total NMHC and PAMS NMHC observations for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites were cross-examined. It was found that both the hourly mixing ratios and variations of the summed PAMS NMHC values were in excellent agreement with the total NMHC data, with the summed PAMS NMHC observations accounted for at least 80% of the total NMHC observations. However, when looking into the VOC emission database, the PAMS NMHC emissions only contributed 58% of the total NMHC emissions. This then leads to about 30% difference in the traditionally observed NMHCs and estimated emissions. The three-dimensional Eulerian air quality model (PAMS-AQM) was used to simulate both the total NMHC and individual PAMS NMHCs, which showed that the sum of the simulated PAMS NMHCs agreed well with the observed PAMS values. However, the modeled total VOC values were significantly higher than the observed total NMHC values, and such findings were consistent among all four stations. This and the above findings combine to suggest that the customarily labeled "total NMHC" reported by almost all air quality stations are underestimates by about 30%. This underestimate is rather uncertain for two reasons: One, both total NMHC and PAMS speciated NMHC measurements underestimate VOC levels in ambient air. Since both types of measurements use the same method of flame ionization detection, it is less sensitive to oxygen containing VOCs (OVOCs), e.g., aldehydes, esters, ketones, ether, acids, etc. than other VOCs. In contrast, the PAMS measurements only target 56 PAMS NMHCs although more directly, and OVOCs also are

  10. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  11. Long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration baseline station at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Kevin D.; Cahill, Thomas A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Harris, Joyce M.

    1999-08-01

    Size-segregated measurements of aerosol mass and composition are used to determine the composition and seasonal variations of natural and anthropogenic aerosols at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) from 1993 through 1996. Although the springtime transport of Asian dust to MLO is a well-documented phenomenon, this study shows that fine anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfur, black carbon, and enriched trace metals such as As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, are also routinely transported to MLO each spring. It is estimated that at least one third of the sulfate measured at MLO during the spring is anthropogenic. In addition, indirect measurements indicate that the organic aerosol concentrations are often comparable to the sulfate concentrations. This study also combines size- and time-resolved aerosol composition measurements with isentropic, backward air-mass trajectories and gas measurements of 222Rn, CH4, CO, and CO2 to identify some potential source regions of the anthropogenic aerosols. Three types of long-range transport episodes are identified: (1) anthropogenic aerosols mixed with Asian dust, (2) Asian pollution with relatively small amounts of soil dust, and (3) biomass burning emissions from North America. This study shows that anthropogenic aerosols and gases can be efficiently transported to MLO from both Asia and North America during the spring.

  12. Multi-year investigations of aerosols from an island station, Port Blair, in the Bay of Bengal: climatology and source impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseema Beegum, S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Pandey, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    Long-term measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) using multi-wavelength solar radiometer (MWR) for a period of seven years (from 2002 to 2008) from the island location, Port Blair (11.63° N, 92.7° E, PBR) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), along with the concurrent measurements of the size distribution of near-surface aerosols, have been analyzed to delineate the climatological features of aerosols over eastern BoB. In order to identity the contribution of different aerosol types from distinct sources, concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis has been employed. Climatologically, AODs increase from January to reach peak value of ~0.4 (at 500 nm) in March, followed by a weak decrease towards May. Over this general pattern, significant modulations of intra-seasonal time scales, caused by the changes in the relative strength of distinctively different sources, are noticed. The derivative (α') of the Angstrom wavelength exponent α in the wavelength domain, along with CWT analysis, are used to delineate the different important aerosol types that influence this remote island. Corresponding changes in the aerosol size distributions are inferred from the numerical inversion of the spectral AODs as well from (surface) measurements. The analyses revealed that advection plays a major role in modifying the aerosol properties over the remote island location, the potential sources contributing to the accumulation mode (coarse mode) aerosols over eastern BoB being the East Asia and South China regions (Indian mainland and the oceanic regions).

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. ...

  14. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  15. LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, George W.; Brunton, Adam N.; Bannister, Nigel P.; Pearson, James F.; Ward, Martin; Stevenson, Tim J.; Watson, D. J.; Warwick, Bob; Whitehead, S.; O'Brian, Paul; White, Nicholas; Jahoda, Keith; Black, Kevin; Hunter, Stanley D.; Deines-Jones, Phil; Priedhorsky, William C.; Brumby, Steven P.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Vestrand, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Irving, Thomas H.; Price, Steve; Eckersley, Steve; Renouf, Ian; Smith, Mark; Parmar, Arvind N.; McHardy, I. M.; Uttley, P.; Lawrence, A.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design of Lobster-ISS, an X-ray imaging all-sky monitor (ASM) to be flown as an attached payload on the International Space Station. Lobster-ISS is the subject of an ESA Phase-A study which will begin in December 2001. With an instantaneous field of view 162 x 22.5 degrees, Lobster-ISS will map almost the complete sky every 90 minute ISS orbit, generating a confusion-limited catalogue of ~250,000 sources every 2 months. Lobster-ISS will use focusing microchannel plate optics and imaging gas proportional micro-well detectors; work is currently underway to improve the MCP optics and to develop proportional counter windows with enhanced transmission and negligible rates of gas leakage, thus improving instrument throughput and reducing mass. Lobster-ISS provides an order of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity of X-ray ASMs, and will, for the first time, provide continuous monitoring of the sky in the soft X-ray region (0.1-3.5 keV). Lobster-ISS provides long term monitoring of all classes of variable X-ray source, and an essential alert facility, with rapid detection of transient X-ray sources such as Gamma-Ray Burst afterglows being relayed to contemporary pointed X-ray observatories. The mission, with a nominal lifetime of 3 years, is scheduled for launch on the Shuttle c.2009.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide monitoring with an automatic DOAS station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    1998-08-01

    During the last few years UV-Vis spectrometers were developed at the FISBAT Institute and are used for application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy method to detect many atmospheric trace gases playing important roles in the stratospheric chemistry. After several test both in laboratory and in Antarctic region, one of the spectrometers, called GASCOD2/2, was modified in collaboration with ENEA for unattended and automatic measurement in extreme high-latitude environment. The instrument was installed in December 1995 in the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay. The aim of this research is to study the dentrification processes during the formation of the so-called ozone hole over the Antarctic region. The preliminary results for the first year of nitrogen dioxide measurement are presented and discussed.

  17. The development of a volatile organics concentrator for use in monitoring Space Station water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodek, Itamar; Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Stolki, Thomas J.; Valentine, James R.; Trabanino, Rudy; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A breadboard concept of a volatile organics concentrator (VOC) is manufactured and tested for optimized water-quality analysis in a space environment. The VOC system is attached to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to analyze the volatile chemicals relevant to the operation of Space Station Freedom. The preliminary tests include: (1) comparisons with analyses based on direct on-column injections of standards; (2) analyses of iodinated volatile organics; (3) comparisons of nitrogen vs helium as the chromatography carrier gas; and (4) measurements of collection efficiency. The VOC can analyze EPA method-624 analytes at comparable detection using flame-ionization detection and can analyze volatile iodinated compounds. The breadboard has good reproducibility and can use nitrogen as a carrier gas; good results are noted for the collection and concentration levels and for water removal.

  18. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  19. Recent Rainfall and Aerosol Chemistry From Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landing, W. M.; Shelley, R.; Kadko, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This project was devoted to testing the use of Be-7 as a tracer for quantifying trace element fluxes from the atmosphere to the oceans. Rainfall and aerosol samples were collected between June 15, 2011 and July 27, 2013 at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) located near the eastern end of the island of Bermuda. Collectors were situated near ground level, clear of surrounding vegetation, at a meteorological monitoring station in front of the BIOS laboratory, about 10 m above sea level. This is a Bermuda Air Quality Program site used for ambient air quality monitoring. To quantify the atmospheric deposition of Be-7, plastic buckets were deployed for collection of fallout over ~3 week periods. Wet deposition was collected for trace element analysis using a specially modified "GEOTRACES" N-CON automated wet deposition collector. Aerosol samples were collected with a Tisch TE-5170V-BL high volume aerosol sampler, modified to collect 12 replicate samples on acid-washed 47mm diameter Whatman-41 filters, using procedures identical to those used for the US GEOTRACES aerosol program (Morton et al., 2013). Aerosol and rainfall samples were analyzed for total Na, Mg, Al, P, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Pb, Th, and U using ICPMS. Confirming earlier data from Bermuda, strong seasonality in rainfall and aerosol loading and chemistry was observed, particularly for aerosol and rainfall Fe concentrations when Saharan dust arrives in July/August with SE trajectories.

  20. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  1. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-08-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. A year into the life of this cooperative agreement, we note the following achievements: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (A) Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, (B) Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning sensors, (C) Adaptation of SDI's Angulate program to use acoustic slant ranges and DGPS data to compute and map the bottom location of the vertical array, (D) Progress in T''0'' delay and timing issues for improved control in data recording, (E) Successful deployment and recovery of the VLA twice during an October, 2003 cruise, once in 830m water, once in 1305m water, (F) Data collection and recovery from the DATS data logger, (G) Sufficient

  2. Automated delineation and characterization of watersheds for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations active in 2010 in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Gonzales, Sophia L.; Maltby, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, developed computer scripts and applications to automate the delineation of watershed boundaries and compute watershed characteristics for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations in Texas that were active during 2010. Microsoft Visual Basic applications were developed using ArcGIS ArcObjects to format the source input data required to delineate watershed boundaries. Several automated scripts and tools were developed or used to calculate watershed characteristics using Python, Microsoft Visual Basic, and the RivEX tool. Automated methods were augmented by the use of manual methods, including those done using ArcMap software. Watershed boundaries delineated for the monitoring stations are limited to the extent of the Subbasin boundaries in the USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset, which may not include the total watershed boundary from the monitoring station to the headwaters.

  3. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  5. New methods for microbial contamination monitoring: an experiment on board the MIR orbital station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, V.; Gaia, E.; Battocchio, L.; Pitzurra, M.; Savino, A.; Pasquarella, C.; Vago, T.; Cotronei, V.

    1997-01-01

    Experiment T2, carried out during the Euromir'95 mission, was an important step toward innovative methods for spacecraft microbial contamination monitoring. A new standard sampling technique permitted samples to be analysed by different means. On board, two analysis methods were tested in parallel: Bioluminescence and Miniculture. In turn, downloaded samples are being analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a powerful and promising method for the rapid detection, identification and quantification of pathogens and biofouling agents in closed manned habitats.

  6. Two years of near real-time chemical composition of submicron aerosols in the region of Paris using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, J.-E.; Favez, O.; Sciare, J.; Crenn, V.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Bonnaire, N.; Močnik, G.; Dupont, J.-C.; Haeffelin, M.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.

    2015-03-01

    Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements have been successfully used towards a better understanding of non-refractory submicron (PM1) aerosol chemical properties based on short-term campaigns. The recently developed Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) has been designed to deliver quite similar artifact-free chemical information but for low cost, and to perform robust monitoring over long-term periods. When deployed in parallel with real-time black carbon (BC) measurements, the combined data set allows for a quasi-comprehensive description of the whole PM1 fraction in near real time. Here we present 2-year long ACSM and BC data sets, between mid-2011 and mid-2013, obtained at the French atmospheric SIRTA supersite that is representative of background PM levels of the region of Paris. This large data set shows intense and time-limited (a few hours) pollution events observed during wintertime in the region of Paris, pointing to local carbonaceous emissions (mainly combustion sources). A non-parametric wind regression analysis was performed on this 2-year data set for the major PM1 constituents (organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and source apportioned BC) and ammonia in order to better refine their geographical origins and assess local/regional/advected contributions whose information is mandatory for efficient mitigation strategies. While ammonium sulfate typically shows a clear advected pattern, ammonium nitrate partially displays a similar feature, but, less expectedly, it also exhibits a significant contribution of regional and local emissions. The contribution of regional background organic aerosols (OA) is significant in spring and summer, while a more pronounced local origin is evidenced during wintertime, whose pattern is also observed for BC originating from domestic wood burning. Using time-resolved ACSM and BC information, seasonally differentiated weekly diurnal profiles of these constituents were investigated and helped to identify the main

  7. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  8. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the JIP

  9. The Space Station neutral gas environment and the concomitant requirements for monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, George

    1988-01-01

    At 340 km, for typical conditions, the neutral atmospheric density is several times 10E8/cc and is thus more abundant than the ionized component by several factors of 10. At that altitude, the principal series is atomic oxygen with 10 percent N2, and 1 percent He, and trace amounts of O2, H, N, NO, and Ar. The constituent densities are highly variable with local time, latitude, and geophysical indices. The physical interaction with surfaces at orbital velocity leads to large buildup of density on forward faces and great depletions in the wakes of objects. Chemical reactions lead to major modifications in constituent densities as in the case of the conversion of most colliding oxygen atoms to oxygen bearing molecules. The neutral environment about an orbiting body is thus a complex product of many variables even without a source of neutral contaminants. The addition of fluxes of gases emanating from the orbiting vehicle, as will be the case for the Space Station, with the associated physical and chemical interactions adds another level of complexity to the character of the environment and mandates a sophisticated measurement capability if the neutral environment is to be quantitatively characterized.

  10. Monitoring atmospheric nitrous oxide background concentrations at Zhongshan Station, east Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenjuan; Bian, Lingen; Wang, Can; Zhu, Renbin; Zheng, Xiangdong; Ding, Minghu

    2016-09-01

    At present, continuous observation data for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations are still lacking, especially in east Antarctica. In this paper, nitrous oxide background concentrations were measured at Zhongshan Station (69°22'25″S, 76°22'14″E), east Antarctica during the period of 2008-2012, and their interannual and seasonal characteristics were analyzed and discussed. The mean N2O concentration was 321.9nL/L with the range of 320.5-324.8nL/L during the five years, and it has been increasing at a rate of 0.29% year(-1). Atmospheric N2O concentrations showed a strong seasonal fluctuation during these five years. The concentrations appeared to follow a downtrend from spring to autumn, and then increased in winter. Generally the highest concentrations occurred in spring. This trend was very similar to that observed at other global observation sites. The overall N2O concentration at the selected global sites showed an increasing annual trend, and the mean N2O concentration in the Northern Hemisphere was slightly higher than that in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result could be representative of atmospheric N2O background levels at the global scale. This study provided valuable data for atmospheric N2O concentrations in east Antarctica, which is important to study on the relationships between N2O emissions and climate change. PMID:27593286

  11. Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

    1996-01-23

    Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

  12. Optical properties of urban aerosols, aircraft emissions, and heavy-duty diesel trucks using aerosol light extinction measurements by an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, A.; Massoli, P.; Wood, E. C.; Allan, J. D.; Fortner, E.; Yu, Z.; Herndon, S. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Onasch, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of optical property characterization of ambient particulate during several field deployments where measurements of aerosol light extinction (σep) are obtained using an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex). The CAPS PMex is able to provide extinction measurements with 3-σ detection limit of 3 Mm-1 for 1s integration time. The CAPS PMex (630 nm) is integrated in the Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory where a co-located Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) provides particle light absorption coefficient at 632 nm. The combination of the CAPS with the MAAP data allows estimating the single scattering albedo (ω) of the ambient aerosol particles. The ARI mobile laboratory was deployed in winter 2010 at the Chicago O’Hare International Airport to measure gas phase and particulate emissions from different aircraft engines, and during summer 2010 in Oakland, CA, to characterize vehicular gaseous and particulate emissions (mainly exhaust from heavy-duty diesel trucks) from the Caldecott Tunnel. We provide estimates of black carbon emission factors from individual aircraft engines and diesel trucks, in addition to characterizing the optical properties of these ambient samples studying fleet-average emissions for both light-duty passenger vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Two CAPS PMex instruments (measuring σep at 630 and 532 nm) were also deployed during the CalNex 2010 study (May 14 - June 16) at the CalTech ground site in Pasadena, CA. During the same time, a photo-acoustic spectrometer (PAS, DMT) and an aethalometer instrument (Magee Sci.) measured particle light absorption of submicron aerosol particles from the same sample line as the CAPS PMex monitors. We combine these data to provide multi-wavelength ω trends for the one-month campaign. Our results show the high potential of the CAPS as light weight, compact instrument to perform precise and accurate σep measurements of

  13. Telemycology - A novel approach to monitoring environmental microbial load in Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Brown, H. D.; Taylor, R. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The currently available methods for monitoring environmental microbial load call for the cultivation of microbes on laboratory media, a time- and material-consuming task that is potentially hazardous. Telemycology proposed in this communication is designed to eliminate the need for growing microbes, especially fungi, on board the spacecraft and to shift the bulk of the work-load to the ground-based Microbiology Laboratory. The system is based on the principle of trapping microbial propagules on a membrane filter, treating it with a microbe-enhancing reagent, and examining under a microscope down-linked to the central laboratory equipped with a synchronized televideo, telerobotics, and image banking system.

  14. A comparison of ground-level air quality data with New York State Department of Environmental Conservation monitoring stations data in South Bronx, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Carlos; Zimmerman, Rae; Thurston, George; Clemente, Jessica; Gorczynski, John; Zhong, Mianhua; Blaustein, Martin; Chi Chen, Lung

    2004-10-01

    The South Bronx is a low-income, minority community in New York City. It has one of the highest asthma rates in the country, which community residents feel is related to poor air quality. Community residents also feel that the air quality data provided by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) through its network of monitoring stations do not reflect the poor quality of the air they breathe. This is due to the fact that these monitoring stations are located 15 m above ground. In the year 2001 this project collected air quality data at three locations in the study area. They were collected close to ground-level at a height of 4 m by a mobile laboratory placed in a van as part of the South Bronx Environmental Health and Policy Study. This paper compares data collected by the project with data from DEC's monitoring stations in Bronx County during the same periods. The goal of the comparison is to gain a better understanding of differences in measured air quality concentrations at these different heights. Although there is good agreement in the data among DEC stations there are some important differences between ground-level measurements and DEC data. For PM2.5 the measured concentrations by the van were similar to those recorded by DEC stations. In the case of ozone, the concentrations recorded at ground level were similar or lower than those recorded by DEC stations. For NO2, however, the concentrations recorded at ground level were over twice as high as those recorded by DEC. In the case of SO2, ground level measurements were substantially higher in August but very similar in the other two periods. CO concentrations measured at ground-level tend to be 60-90% higher than those recorded by DEC monitoring stations. Despite these differences, van measurements of SO2 and CO concentrations were well below EPA standards.

  15. Monitoring Direct Effects of Delta, Atlas, and Titan Launches from Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Boyle, Shannon R.; Hall, Patrice; Oddy, Donna M.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Duncan, Brean W.

    1998-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects that could arise from direct impacts of the launch exhaust (e.g., blast, heat), deposition of exhaust products of the solid rocket motors (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide), or other effects such as noise. Here we: 1) review previous reports, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements for Delta, Atlas, and Titan vehicles and pad areas to clarity the magnitude of potential impacts; 2) summarize observed effects of 15 Delta, 22 Atlas, and 8 Titan launches; and 3) develop a spatial database of the distribution of effects from individual launches and cumulative effects of launches. The review of previous studies indicated that impacts from these launches can occur from the launch exhaust heat, deposition of exhaust products from the solid rocket motors, and noise. The principal effluents from solid rocket motors are hydrogen chloride (HCl), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), water (H2O), hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The exhaust plume interacts with the launch complex structure and water deluge system to generate a launch cloud. Fall out or rain out of material from this cloud can produce localized effects from acid or particulate deposition. Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch vehicles differ in the number and size of solid rocket boosters and in the amount of deluge water used. All are smaller and use less water than the Space Shuttle. Acid deposition can cause damage to plants and animals exposed to it, acidify surface water and soil, and cause long-term changes to community composition and structure from repeated exposure. The magnitude of these effects depends on the intensity and frequency of acid deposition.

  16. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part I: Elemental Carbon and Iron–Soot Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Birch, M. Eileen; Ku, Bon-Ki; Evans, Douglas E.; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:514–31.)] Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this Issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported here, in Part I, while results for PAHs are reported in Part II [Birch ME. (Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2011; 55: 1037–47.)]. Respirable EC area concentrations inside the facility were about 6–68 times higher than outdoors, while personal breathing zone samples were up to 170 times higher. PMID:21965464

  17. Evaluation and field calibration of the Miniram PDM-3 aerosol monitor for measuring respirable and total coal dust.

    PubMed

    Middendorf, P J; Lehocky, A H; Williams, P L

    1999-01-01

    The MIE Miniram PDM-3 is a real-time aerosol dust monitor designed to measure dust based on Mie scattering. It has an optional in-line filter that, when attached to a constant flow air sampling pump, allows a gravimetric air sample to be collected from the same air stream that passes through the Miniram sensing chamber. This study compared real-time Miniram digital respirable and total dust readings with concentrations from an in-line 5 microns polyvinyl chloride filter connected to a constant flow pump and with results from traditional respirable and total dust samples. Area samples were collected at three coal-fired power generating facilities over a 2-month period. Traditional respirable dust concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 10.8 mg/m3. In the monitored range of concentrations the Miniram respirable concentrations and the in-line respirable dust concentrations were not significantly different (p > or = 0.05), nor were the Miniram in-line filter concentrations and the side-by-side respirable dust concentrations significantly different (p > or = 0.05). However, the Miniram respirable concentrations and the traditional respirable concentrations were significantly different (p = 0.02). The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) procedure CALIS, which meets the statistical requirements for developing calibration lines for two variables each measured with error, is used to develop field calibration curves for the comparisons between direct-reading instrument concentrations and concentrations from traditional National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health methods for total and respirable dust.

  18. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  19. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Keillor, Martin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morin, Marc P.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of 131I reached levels of 3.0 * 10*2 Bqm*3 in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas 133Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm*3. While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  20. Analysis of solar cosmic ray measured by radiation monitoring system of Russian segment of International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, V. V.; Petrov, V. M.; Kireeva, S. A.; Markov, A. V.; Volkov, A. N.; Aleksandrin, A. P.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Kutuzov, Y. V.; Morozov, O. V.; Teltsov, M. V.

    Beginning with August 2001 a radiation monitoring system (RMS) has been functioning on board the Russian segment of ISS. Distinction of this system from all previous ones consists in the possibility of measuring in real time the dose rate in fixed points of the module and estimating such important parameters of radiation field as dose depth curve and spatial nonuniformity of the field in dynamics. The obtained characteristics permit to estimate and forecast dose values practically in any point of the station for which there is shielding function including representative points of a body. As an equal system can be recommended for a manned interplanetary spacecraft it is of great interest to analyze the RMS's functioning during solar proton events that took place during the ISS flight. Dose values measured during four solar proton events by the RMS's dosimeters in different points of the Russian module are given. Dose values estimated on the basis of these data are compared with the doses measured by the "referent" dosimeter R-16 for verification of radiation monitoring accuracy. Estimations of equivalent dose of representative organs and adequate effective dose calculated for spherical phantom are presented. Possible sources of errors are analyzed and some recommendations for their reducing are given.

  1. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, W.H.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, M. R.; Schoonyan, A. L.; Stewart, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS) successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Fish Community Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and Lower Trophic Level Assessment (see Forage and Coldwater Task Group reports). In 2015, LEBS also initiated a Lake Erie Central Basin Trawling survey in response to the need for forage fish data from Management Unit 3 (as defined by the Yellow Perch Task Group). Results from these surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Fish Community Goals and Objectives. Our 2015 vessel operations were initiated in early April and continued into late November. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 121 bottom trawls covering 83.2 ha of lake-bottom and catching 105,600 fish totaling 4,065 kg during four separate trawl surveys in the western and central basins of Lake Erie. We deployed and lifted 9.5 km of gillnet, which caught an additional 805 fish, 100 (337 kg) of which were the native coldwater predators Lake Trout, Burbot, and Lake Whitefish (these data are reported in the 2016 Coldwater Task Group report). We also conducted 317 km of hydroacoustic survey transects (reported in the 2016 Forage Task Group report), collected 114 lower trophic (i.e. zooplankton and benthos) samples, and obtained 216 water quality observations (e.g., temperature profiles, and water samples). The LEBS also assisted CLC member agencies with the maintenance and expansion of GLATOS throughout all three Lake Erie sub-basins. Within the following report sections, we describe results from three trawl surveys – the spring and autumn Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and the East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment – and

  2. Comparison of the SidePak personal monitor with the Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Tongeren, Martie; Galea, Karen S; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; MacCalman, Laura; Cherrie, John W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and the TSI portable photometer SidePak to measure airborne oil mist particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters below 10 μm, 2.5 μm and 1 μm (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1)). Three SidePaks each fitted with either a PM(10), PM(2.5) or a PM(1) impactor and an APS were run side by side in a controlled chamber. Oil mist from two different mineral oils and two different drilling fluid systems commonly used in offshore drilling technologies were generated using a nebulizer. Compared to the APS, the SidePaks overestimated the concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) by one order of magnitude and PM(1) concentrations by two orders of magnitude after exposure to oil mist for 3.3-6.5 min at concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 18.1 mg m(-3) for PM(10), 0.002 to 3.96 mg m(-3) for PM(2.5) and 0.001 to 0.418 mg m(-3) for PM(1) (as measured by the APS). In a second experiment a SidePak monitor previously exposed to oil mist overestimated PM(10) concentrations by 27% compared to measurements from another SidePak never exposed to oil mist. This could be a result of condensation of oil mist droplets in the optical system of the SidePak. The SidePak is a very useful instrument for personal monitoring in occupational hygiene due to its light weight and quiet pump. However, it may not be suitable for the measurement of particle concentrations from oil mist.

  3. Comparison of the SidePak personal monitor with the Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Tongeren, Martie; Galea, Karen S; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; MacCalman, Laura; Cherrie, John W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and the TSI portable photometer SidePak to measure airborne oil mist particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters below 10 μm, 2.5 μm and 1 μm (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1)). Three SidePaks each fitted with either a PM(10), PM(2.5) or a PM(1) impactor and an APS were run side by side in a controlled chamber. Oil mist from two different mineral oils and two different drilling fluid systems commonly used in offshore drilling technologies were generated using a nebulizer. Compared to the APS, the SidePaks overestimated the concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) by one order of magnitude and PM(1) concentrations by two orders of magnitude after exposure to oil mist for 3.3-6.5 min at concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 18.1 mg m(-3) for PM(10), 0.002 to 3.96 mg m(-3) for PM(2.5) and 0.001 to 0.418 mg m(-3) for PM(1) (as measured by the APS). In a second experiment a SidePak monitor previously exposed to oil mist overestimated PM(10) concentrations by 27% compared to measurements from another SidePak never exposed to oil mist. This could be a result of condensation of oil mist droplets in the optical system of the SidePak. The SidePak is a very useful instrument for personal monitoring in occupational hygiene due to its light weight and quiet pump. However, it may not be suitable for the measurement of particle concentrations from oil mist. PMID:21528134

  4. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  5. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  6. Space Station Freedom biomedical monitoring and countermeasures: Biomedical facility hardware catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This hardware catalog covers that hardware proposed under the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures Development Program supported by the Johnson Space Center. The hardware items are listed separately by item, and are in alphabetical order. Each hardware item specification consists of four pages. The first page describes background information with an illustration, definition and a history/design status. The second page identifies the general specifications, performance, rack interface requirements, problems, issues, concerns, physical description, and functional description. The level of hardware design reliability is also identified under the maintainability and reliability category. The third page specifies the mechanical design guidelines and assumptions. Described are the material types and weights, modules, and construction methods. Also described is an estimation of percentage of construction which utilizes a particular method, and the percentage of required new mechanical design is documented. The fourth page analyzes the electronics, the scope of design effort, and the software requirements. Electronics are described by percentages of component types and new design. The design effort, as well as, the software requirements are identified and categorized.

  7. Efficient method for optimal placing of water quality monitoring stations for an ungauged basin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhyoun; Paik, Kyungrock; Yoo, Do Guen; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    A core problem in monitoring water quality of a river basin is identifying an optimal positioning of a limited number of water-sampling sites. Various optimality criteria have been suggested for this selection process in earlier studies. However, the search for sets of sampling sites that satisfy such criteria poses a challenging optimization problem, especially for a large basin. Here, we show that for particular types of objective functions, the optimization procedure can be dramatically simplified via an analogy with the formulation of Shannon entropy. On this basis, we propose an efficient algorithm that can easily determine the optimal location of water quality sampling sites in a river network. The proposed algorithm can be used standalone or in conjunction with a heuristic optimization algorithm such as a genetic algorithm. For the latter, the proposed algorithm filters only competitive candidates and makes a contribution to reducing the problem size significantly. The superior performance of the proposed method is demonstrated via its application to actual river networks examined in earlier studies, in which the proposed method determines more optimal solutions in a shorter computation time. The idea presented in this study can also be applied to other problems in which the objective function can be formulated in a similar functional form. PMID:24269932

  8. Evaluation of 25 y of environmental monitoring data around Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam, India.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S; Brindha, J Thulasi; Sreedevi, K R; Manu, Anitha; Thilakavathi, A; Ramkumar, S; Santhanakrishnan, V; Balagurunathan, M R; Jesan, T; Kannan, V; Hegde, A G

    2010-12-01

    The Environmental Survey Laboratory at Kalpakkam, India carries out elaborate monitoring programme involving atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic samples for radioactivity to evaluate the impact of operating two pressurised heavy water reactors. This paper presents the evaluation of 25 y (1983-2008) data. Statistical analysis of the environmental data for different radionuclides showed that the data best fits log-normal distribution. The data analysed showed that fission products such as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and (131)I were due to global fallout only. A ratio of 0.2 was obtained for (90)Sr to (137)Cs in air filter samples, only during Chernobyl accident period. The transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr for rice was computed to be 0.23 and 0.03 and vegetables 0.25 and 0.10, respectively. Activation products (3)H and (41)Ar are the only radionuclides that are related to MAPS operation. A strong correlation (r = 0.9) was observed between (3)H activity in air and (3)H discharged to the atmosphere. A similar correlation (r = 0.8) was observed in (3)H concentration in seawater and (3)H discharged in the liquid waste. The annual internal dose due to (3)H and annual external dose due to (41)Ar evaluated in the last 25 y show that the members of the public received less than 2 % of the dose limit (1 mSv y(-1)) set by ICRP 72.

  9. Two years of near real-time chemical composition of submicron aerosols in the region of Paris using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSm) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, J.-E.; Favez, O.; Sciare, J.; Crenn, V.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Bonnaire, N.; Močnik, G.; Dupont, J.-C.; Haeffelin, M.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.

    2014-09-01

    Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements have been successfully used towards a better understanding of non-refractory submicron (PM1) aerosol chemical properties based on short-term campaign. The recently developed Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) has been designed to deliver quite similar artefact-free chemical information but for low-cost, and to perform robust monitoring over long-term period. When deployed in parallel with real-time Black Carbon (BC) measurements, the combined dataset allows for a quasi-comprehensive description of the whole PM1 fraction in near real-time. Here we present a 2 year long ACSM and BC datasets, between mid-2011 and mid-2013, obtained at the French atmospheric SIRTA supersite being representative of background PM levels of the region of Paris. This large dataset shows intense and time limited (few hours) pollution events observed during wintertime in the region of Paris pointing to local carbonaceous emissions (mainly combustion sources). A non-parametric wind regression analysis was performed on this 2 year dataset for the major PM1 constituents (organic matter, nitrate, sulphate and source apportioned BC) and ammonia in order to better refine their geographical origins and assess local/regional/advected contributions which information are mandatory for efficient mitigation strategies. While ammonium sulphate typically shows a clear advected pattern, ammonium nitrate partially displays a similar feature, but less expected, it also exhibits a significant contribution of regional and local emissions. Contribution of regional background OA is significant in spring and summer while a more pronounced local origin is evidenced during wintertime which pattern is also observed for BC originating from domestic wood burning. Using time-resolved ACSM and BC information, seasonally differentiated weekly diurnal profiles of these constituents were investigated and helped to identify the main parameters controlling their temporal

  10. Monitoring drought using spi and z-score for different time scales for Shiraz Station in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.; Amin, S.; Nazemosadat, S. M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a probability index for monitoring drought. This drought index was recently developed to detect drought and wet periods for different time scales in various regions of the world. By precipitation data transform different time scale could be made and Z-Score of the new data will be calculated to compare categories of the drought severity for a specified region. The form of Probability Density Function (PDF) which defined SPI is a very important factor because applying different PDFs will return different SPI values for the same precipitation data. In this research, thirty four years (1967 to 2001) monthly precipitation data of the agricultural weather station of Shiraz, was used to calculate SPI and Z-Score values for different time scales: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 36 months. The Kolmogorov-Smirinov (K-S) test was used to check the goodness of fit of every data set. The K-S statistical results showed that the data fitted Pearson type III and gamma probability density when the time scales were less than 12 months, in other cases the normal probability density best fits precipitation data and when the normal probability density was used SPI and Z-Score were in a close agreement. Therefore, the corresponding conclusion is that when the time scale is increasing a closer agreement between SPI and Z-Score of the data could be achieved. Time series plots of SPIs indicated that the time scales less than 12 months had enormous fluctuations such that identifying drought and wet periods were not so clear. However, plots of 24-months SPI and 36-months SPI plots obviously could identify drought and wet periods of the region clearly. The duration, attenuation and intensity for any particular month during our historical records were time scale depended. The results of this study also showed that long-term drought of early 1960s and last part of 1970s impacted Shiraz station. Based on our research results we recommend the agriculturist use

  11. Automated permanent resistivity monitoring of charge and discharge processes of subsurface aquifer at the Membach station, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceuster, J.; Kaufmann, O.; van Camp, M. J.; Lecocq, T.

    2010-12-01

    Permanent monitoring of changes in soil properties is of increasing interest in many engineering applications such as management of groundwater contamination, landslide and sinkhole risks prevention, detection of saline water intrusion, comprehension of charge and discharge processes of subsurface aquifer. As geophysical investigations allow detecting contrasts in physical properties of the subsurface, field and lab experiments have been conducted for a few years to assess the reliability of these methods to monitor temporal changes in soil properties. Among the methods available, DC resistivity tomography is recognized as one of the most promising techniques. In order to assess the efficiency of electrical resistivity in monitoring charge and discharge processes of subsurface aquifer, and also to better model hydrological effects on the gravity measurements, an on-going field experiment is conducted at the Membach station located in the eastern part of Belgium. This geophysical station is equipped with an accelerometer, seismometers and a superconducting gravimeter, installed at the end of a 130 m long tunnel excavated in a low-porosity argillaceous sandstone mount at 48.5 m depth. Continuous gravimetric observations have been taken since August 1995. Since 2004 rainfall and soil moisture changes are measured in situ. In July 2010, an automated permanent geoelectrical acquisition system was installed to monitor subsurface resistivity variations during a test period of about 6 months. The aim of this experiment is to better understand charge and discharge processes of the subsurface aquifer, which are expected to be mainly due to rainfall variations. This aquifer is localized at the top of the weathered bedrock at a depth of 4 to 5 meters. The acquisition system consists in a straight profile of 48 buried electrodes (with a 2 meters spacing) connected to a Syscal R1 resistivimeter which is automatically controlled by a computer. Resistivity measurements are taken

  12. Aerosol classification using EARLINET measurements for an intensive observational period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network) organized an intensive observation period during summer 2012. This campaign aimed at the provision of advanced observations of physical and chemical aerosol properties, at the delivery of information about the 3D distribution of European atmospheric aerosols, and at the monitoring of Saharan dust intrusions events. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) participated in the ACTRIS campaign through the addition of measurements according to the EARLINET schedule as well as daily lidar-profiling measurements around sunset by 11 selected lidar stations for the period from 8 June - 17 July. EARLINET observations during this almost two-month period are used to characterize the optical properties and vertical distribution of long-range transported aerosol over the broader area of Mediterranean basin. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, Angstrom exponents) are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on EARLINET observations of frequently observed aerosol types is used to classify aerosols into seven separate types. The summertime Mediterranean basin is prone to African dust aerosols. Two major dust events were studied. The first episode occurred from the 18 to 21 of the June and the second one lasted from 28 June to 6 July. The lidar ratio within the dust layer was found to be wavelength independent with mean values of 58±14 sr at 355 nm and 57±11 sr at 532 nm. For the particle linear depolarization ratio, mean values of 0.27±0.04 at 532 nm have been found. Acknowledgements. The financial support for EARLINET in the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Project by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 654169 and previously under grant agreement no. 262254 in the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2000-01-01

    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  14. In situ submicron organic aerosol characterization at a boreal forest research station during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 using soft and hard ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, A. L.; Äijälä, M.; Corrigan, A. L.; Junninen, H.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Russell, L. M.; Williams, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-11-01

    The chemical composition of submicron aerosol during the comprehensive field campaign HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 at Hyytiälä, Finland, is presented. The focus lies on online measurements of organic acids, which were achieved by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). These measurements were accompanied by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of filter samples, all showing a high degree of correlation. The soft ionization mass spectrometer alternated between gas-phase measurements solely and measuring the sum of gas and particle phase. The AMS measurements of C, H and O elemental composition show that the aerosol during the campaign was highly oxidized, which appears reasonable due to high and prolonged radiation during the boreal summer measurement period as well as the long transport times of some of the aerosol. In order to contrast ambient and laboratory aerosol, an average organic acid pattern, measured by APCI-IT-MS during the campaign, was compared to terpene ozonolysis products in a laboratory reaction chamber. Identification of single organic acid species remains a major challenge due to the complexity of the boreal forest aerosol. Unambiguous online species identification was attempted by the combinatorial approach of identifying unique fragments in the MS2 mode of standards, and then comparing these results with MS2 field spectra. During the campaign, unique fragments of limonene-derived organic acids (limonic acid and ketolimononic acid) and of the biomass burning tracer vanillic acid were detected. Other specific fragments (neutral loss of 28 Da) in the MS2 suggest the occurrence of semialdehydes. Furthermore, an approach to determine the average molecular weight of the aerosol is presented. The campaign average organic molecular weight was determined to be 300 g mol-1. However, a plume of aged biomass burning aerosol, arriving at Hyytiälä from Russia

  15. In-situ submicron organic aerosol characterization at a boreal forest research station during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 using soft and hard ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, A. L.; Äijälä, M.; Corrigan, A. L.; Junninen, H.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Russell, L. M.; Williams, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-07-01

    The chemical composition of submicron aerosol during the comprehensive field campaign HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 at Hyytiälä, Finland is presented. The focus lies on online measurements of organic acids, which was achieved by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). These measurements were accompanied by Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of filter samples, all showing a high degree of correlation. The soft ionization mass spectrometer alternated between gas phase measurements solely and measuring the sum of gas- and particle-phase. The AMS measurements of C, H and O elemental composition show that the aerosol during the campaign was highly oxidized, which appears reasonable due to high and prolonged radiation during the boreal summer measurement period as well as the long transport times of some of the aerosol. In order to contrast ambient and laboratory aerosol, an average organic acid pattern, measured by APCI-IT-MS during the campaign, was compared to terpene ozonolysis products in a laboratory reaction chamber. Identification of single organic acid species remains a major challenge due to the complexity of the boreal forest aerosol. Unambiguous online species identification was attempted by the combinatorial approach of identifying unique fragments in the MS2-mode of standards, and then comparing these results with MS2 field spectra. During the campaign, unique fragments of limonene derived organic acids (limonic acid and ketolimononic acid) and of the biomass burning tracer vanillic acid were detected. Other specific fragments (neutral loss of 28 Da) in the MS2 suggest the occurrence of semialdehydes. Furthermore, an approach to determine the average molecular weight of the aerosol is presented. The campaign average organic molecular weight was determined to be 300 g mol-1. However, a plume of aged biomass burning aerosol, arriving at Hyytiälä from Russia

  16. Hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at monitoring stations for suspended particulate matter in and south of Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    No data has been found of continuous monitoring of radioactive materials in the atmosphere in Fukushima area after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident on March 11, 2011, although it greatly contributes to accurate evaluation of the internal exposure dose, to reconstruction of emission time series of released radionuclides, and to validation of numerical simulations by atmospheric transport models. Then, we have challenged to retrieve the radioactivity in atmospheric aerosols collected every hour on a filter tape of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitoring system with beta ray attenuation method used at air pollution monitoring stations in east Japan. A test measurement for hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was successfully performed with a Ge detector for the used filter tapes during March 15-23, 2011, at three stations in Fukushima City 60 km northwest of the FD1NPP and four stations in southwest Ibaraki prefecture more than 150 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The data in Fukushima City revealed high Cs-137 concentrations of 10-30 Bq m-3 from the evening of March 15 to the early morning of March 16, when a large amount of radioactive materials was simultaneously deposited on the land surface by precipitation according to the measurement of radiation dose rate. Higher Cs-137 concentrations of 10-50 Bq m-3 were also found from the afternoon of March 20 to the morning of March 21, and which could not be detected by the radiation dose rate due to no precipitation. In contrast, much higher concentrations with the maximum of 320 Bq m-3 in southwest Ibaraki than in Fukushima City were found on the morning of March 15 and 21 under strong temperature inversion near the surface. The polluted air masses with high radioactive materials were passed away within a few hours as a plume in southwest Ibaraki, while the high Cs-137 concentrations lasted for 10-16 hours in Fukushima City where the polluted air masses after their transport

  17. Modern state of cycle chemistry monitoring systems at thermal power stations according to the experience gained at the moscow power engineering institute and Element research and production center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoshina, O. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Nazarenko, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    Information about the development history of cycle chemistry monitoring systems is presented. The first pilot monitoring system at the Ryazan district power station is briefly described including the characteristics of the analyzers used in the system. The main principles for constructing monitoring systems are formulated. The characteristics of the monitoring systems that were designed and put in operation in the period from 2008 to 2011 are given together with a list of instruments and sample preparation devices used in them. The main advantages of modern analyzers used for chemical monitoring purposes are pointed out. Some problems affecting the operation of monitoring system equipment in the startup and transient operating modes of main power-generating equipment are specially mentioned.

  18. Winds measured by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) during Curiosity's Bagnold Dunes Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Claire E.; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Navarro Lopez, Sara; Marin Jimenez, Mercedes; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Richardson, Mark I.

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's damaged wind sensor has trouble measuring winds coming from behind the rover, due to the loss of its side-pointing boom during landing. During the Bagnold Dunes Campaign, however, the rover was turned to permit measurements of winds from missing directions, capturing upslope/downslope day-night flow on the slopes of Aeolis Mons and blocking of wind in the lee of a dune.The rover's heading is generally determined by the drive direction and often varies little over many tens of sols. Good wind measurements are made when the wind comes from the hemisphere to the front of the rover, but there are sometimes long periods during which winds from certain directions (i.e., at certain times of sol) are largely missed. Since rover turns are often precluded by rover safety and other operational constraints, it is usually not possible to turn to measure such winds properly.During the Bagnold Dunes Campaign, wind measurements were prioritized to provide context for aeolian dune studies. Rover headings were optimized for three wind investigations covering a period of about 90 sols. The first investigation characterized the wind field on approach to the dunes, with the rover turned to face two unusual headings for several sols each and monitoring focused on the 'missing' winds / times of sol. This confirmed the expected primary wind pattern of daytime roughly upslope winds (from ~NW/N) and nighttime downslope winds (from ~S/SE) on the slopes of Aeolis Mons, with significant sol-to-sol variability in e.g. the timing of the reversals. Comparison with the previous year suggests an increasingly upslope-downslope pattern as Curiosity approached the slope.The second investigation studied changes to the wind pattern in the lee of the Namib Dune. This revealed the blocking of northerly winds by the large dune, leaving primarily a westerly component to the daytime winds with weaker wind speeds.The third investigation characterized the wind field at the side of Namib Dune. The

  19. Monitoring spatio-temporal aerosol patterns over Pakistan based on MODIS, TOMS and MISR satellite data and a HYSPLIT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan; Qureshi, Salman; Blaschke, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Three different satellite-borne sensors, namely the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), were used to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over several cities in Pakistan. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for trajectory analysis in order to reconstruct the origins of air masses and understand the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations. Recent MODIS aerosol data (2002-2008) and earlier TOMS data (1979-2001) revealed increasing concentrations of aerosols over Pakistan and adjacent areas. Validation of MODIS and MISR derived aerosol optical depths (AODs) with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 2007 demonstrated that the MISR data was more accurate when close to the ocean, while the MODIS was more accurate over vegetated areas. The relationship between MODIS and MISR AOD data from 2002 to 2008 was analyzed, revealing a strong correlation between the two datasets. An assessment of seasonal variability in AOD for industrial, urban, semi-urban, rural, and semi-arid areas revealed maximum AOD values during the summer over all the areas investigated. Back trajectory analyses indicated that while winter air masses reaching Pakistan had travelled long distances, summer air masses had travelled only short distances. The higher aerosol concentrations during the summer are interpreted to be a result of the air masses spending more time over land during the summer than they do during the winter. While monsoonal rainfall tends to reduce aerosol concentrations by washing aerosols out of the atmosphere, this effect is mainly restricted to the eastern and south-eastern parts of Pakistan.

  20. Scanning Mobile Lidar for Aerosol Tracking and Biological Aerosol Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tingyao; Bergant, Klemen; Filipčič, Andrej; Forte, Biagio; Gao, Fei; Stanič, Samo; Veberič, Darko; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2010-05-01

    fluorescence signals at 295 nm is estimated to be 2 km. The measurements of the time-series indicate that the mobile lidar is capable of detecting and profiling clouds and aerosols in its detection range. Our future plans include establishing an automated, unattended environmental monitoring system that will allow full time continuous measurements in the desired solid angle around the lidar station.

  1. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B monitoring and research program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongzhao; Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Gao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring satellite instrument, and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely. The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, confirms the consistency between them. The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD, the AERONET AOD, and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products. The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased. However, the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°, while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals. The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.

  2. DAILY VARIATION IN ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated as a part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). A high volume (113 liters/minute) sampler was used at the Allen Park community air monitoring station to collect PM2.5 for analysis by ga...

  3. Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data

  4. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R.; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K.; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments – and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards. PMID:27790191

  5. Estimation of surface anthropogenic radioactivity concentrations from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Hirouchi, J; Yamazawa, H; Hirao, S; Moriizumi, J

    2015-04-01

    A method of estimating surface radioactivity concentrations of key anthropogenic radionuclides from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at a monitoring station (MS) was discussed. In the estimation, a realistic assumption on geometric distribution of source and obstacles around the detector of the MS including the infiltration of radionuclides into the ground was used and the results were compared with ones with a commonly used assumption of a uniformly distributed plane source. The surface radioactivity concentration was determined by comparing the count rates at the full-energy peak ranges between observation and calculation with an electron-photon transport code EGS5. It was shown that the estimated absolute values of concentration differed by a factor of ∼1.5 depending on the assumption of infiltration depth. The estimated surface concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were in good agreement with ones determined by the in situ measurements with an HPGe detector and the cumulative values of daily surface depositions. PMID:25313172

  6. Statistical analysis of long-term monitoring data for persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere at 20 monitoring stations broadly indicates declining concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deguo; MacLeod, Matthew; Hung, Hayley; Cousins, Ian T

    2014-11-01

    During recent decades concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere have been monitored at multiple stations worldwide. We used three statistical methods to analyze a total of 748 time series of selected POPs in the atmosphere to determine if there are statistically significant reductions in levels of POPs that have had control actions enacted to restrict or eliminate manufacture, use and emissions. Significant decreasing trends were identified in 560 (75%) of the 748 time series collected from the Arctic, North America, and Europe, indicating that the atmospheric concentrations of these POPs are generally decreasing, consistent with the overall effectiveness of emission control actions. Statistically significant trends in synthetic time series could be reliably identified with the improved Mann-Kendall (iMK) test and the digital filtration (DF) technique in time series longer than 5 years. The temporal trends of new (or emerging) POPs in the atmosphere are often unclear because time series are too short. A statistical detrending method based on the iMK test was not able to identify abrupt changes in the rates of decline of atmospheric POP concentrations encoded into synthetic time series.

  7. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  8. Lidar and Laser Technology for NASA'S Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) Payload on The International Space Station (JEM-EF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Mark; Stevenson, Gary; Hovis, Floyd; Gavert, William; Dang, Xung; Darab, Abe; Chuang, Ti; Burns, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the ISS lidar technology provided by Fibertek, Inc. in support of the NASA GSFC CATS mission and provides an assessment of the in-flight systems performance and lessons learned. During February the systems successfully operated in space for more than 300 hours using 25 W average power lasers and photon counting of aerosol atmospheric returns.

  9. Aerosol measurements at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodhaine, Barry A.; Deluisi, John J.; Harris, Joyce M.; Houmere, Pamela; Bauman, Sene

    1986-09-01

    Some results are given regarding the aerosol measurement program conducted by the NOAA at their atmospheric monitoring observatory at Amundsen-Scott Station, South Pole. The program consists of the continuous measurement of condensation nuclei (CN) concentration and aerosol scattering extinction coefficient. A time series of sodium, chlorine, and sulfur concentrations shows that the sulfur and CN records are similar and that the sodium, chlorine, and extinction coefficient records are similar. Large episodes of sodium are measured at the ground in the austral winter and are apparently caused by large-scale warming and weakening of the surface temperature inversion. The CN data show an annual cycle with a maximum exceeding 100 per cubic centimeter in the austral summer and a minimum of about 10 per cubic centimeter in the winter. The extinction coefficient data show an anual cycle markedly different from that of CN with a maximum in late winter, a secondary maximum in summer, and a minimum in May.

  10. Size segregated mass concentration and size distribution of near surface aerosols over a tropical Indian semi-arid station, Anantapur: Impact of long range transport.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra Kumar, K; Narasimhulu, K; Balakrishnaiah, G; Suresh Kumar Reddy, B; Rama Gopal, K; Reddy, R R; Moorthy, K Krishna; Suresh Babu, S

    2009-10-15

    Regular measurements of size segregated as well as total mass concentration and size distribution of near surface composite aerosols, made using a ten-channel Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) cascade impactor during the period of September 2007-May 2008 are used to study the aerosol characteristics in association with the synoptic meteorology. The total mass concentration varied from 59.70+/-1.48 to 41.40+/-1.72 microg m(-3), out of which accumulation mode dominated by approximately 50%. On a synoptic scale, aerosol mass concentration in the accumulation (submicron) mode gradually increased from an average low value of approximately 26.92+/-1.53 microg m(-3) during the post monsoon season (September-November) to approximately 34.95+/-1.32 microg m(-3) during winter (December-February) and reaching a peak value of approximately 43.56+/-1.42 microg m(-3) during the summer season (March-May). On the contrary, mass concentration of aerosols in the coarse (supermicron) mode increased from approximately 9.23+/-1.25 microg m(-3)during post monsoon season to reach a comparatively high value of approximately 25.89+/-1.95 microg m(-3) during dry winter months and a low value of approximately 8.07+/-0.76 microg m(-3) during the summer season. Effective radius, a parameter important in determining optical (scattering) properties of aerosol size distribution, varied between 0.104+/-0.08 microm and 0.167+/-0.06 microm with a mean value of 0.143+/-0.01 microm. The fine mode is highly reduced during the post monsoon period and the large and coarse modes continue to remain high (replenished) so that their relative dominance increases. It can be seen that among the two parameters measured, correlation of total mass concentration with air temperature is positive (R(2)=0.82) compared with relative humidity (RH) (R(2)=0.75). PMID:19640569

  11. The AERONET network: atmospheric aerosol research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The AERONET network is one of the most developed ground-based networks for aerosol monitoring. Solar radiance extinction, aureole brightness and sky light polarization measurements are used by the AERONET inversion retrieval algorithm to derive a variety of aerosol particle properties and parameters that are important for estimations of aerosol influences on air quality and climate change. In 2008 the AERONET has been extended in Ukraine: in addition to Sevastopol site (operated since 2006) the sunphotometer CIMEL CE318-2 has been installed at Kyiv site. New generation of sunphotometer (CE318N) has been used widely since 2011 in various sites of Ukraine as mobile station together with portable sunphotometer Microtops II. This article presents a short description of the AERONET, its development in Ukraine and prospects for future atmospheric research.

  12. The NOAA-NASA OMI/GOME-2 Near-Real-Time Monitoring System of Volcanic SO2 and Aerosol Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G.; Schroeder, W.; Krueger, A. J.; Yang, K.; Carn, S. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Guffanti, M.; Levelt, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the NASA EOS/Aura research satellite and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument on the Metop-A satellite allow measurement of SO2 concentrations at UV wavelengths with daily global coverage. SO2 is detected from space using its strong absorption band structure in the near UV (300-320 nm) as well as in IR bands near 7.3 and 8.6 μm. UV SO2 measurements are very robust and are insensitive to the factors that confound IR data. SO2 and ash can be detected in a very fresh volcanic eruption cloud due to sunlight backscattering and ash presence can be confirmed by UV derived aerosol index measurements. When detected in Near Real-Time (NRT) it can be used as aviation alerts to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with reduced false alarm ratios and permit more robust detection and tracking of volcanic clouds. NRT observations of SO2 and volcanic ash using UV measurements (OMI and GOME-2) and well as IR measurements can be incorporated into data products compatible with Decision Support Tools (DSTs) in use at Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) in Washington and Anchorage, and the USGS Volcano Observatories. In this presentation we show the latest NASA and NOAA Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution (OSDPD) developments of an online NRT image and data product distribution system. The system generates eruption alerts, NRT global composite images and SO2, Aerosol Index and Cloud Reflectivity images for 28 volcano regions, as well as up to 15 days of digital data files in McIDAS, NetCDF, GeoTIFF and gif formats for the OMI and GOME-2 instruments. Products are infused into DSTs including the Volcanic Ash Coordination Tool (VACT), under development by the NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory and the FAA’s Oceanic Weather Product Development Team (OWPDT), to monitor and track, drifting volcanic clouds and aerosol index.

  13. FTIR reflectance of selected minerals and their mixtures: implications for ground temperature-sensor monitoring on Mars surface environment (NASA/MSL-Rover Environmental Monitoring Station).

    PubMed

    Martín-Redondo, M Paz; Martínez, Eduardo Sebastian; Sampedro, M Teresa Fernández; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Martinez-Frias, Jesus

    2009-07-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) is one of NASA/MSL's instruments, which has been designed for measuring ambient pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, UV radiation, and air and ground temperature (GT). The GT-sensor is dedicated to measure the real temperature of the Martian surface, integrating the IR energy coming from the ground. The existing IR spectral data of Martian dust, rocks and sediments allow for comparing the Martian spectra with the spectra of different terrestrial minerals and lithologies, and those of their alteration and weathering products. The FTIR reflectance of a set of selected astrobiologically significant minerals (including oxides, oxi/hydroxides, sulfates, chlorides, opal and clays) and basalt (as the main and most widespread volcanic Martian rock) was measured, considering different mixing amounts, and covering the specific working wavelength range of the REMS' GT-sensor. The results obtained show important percentage increases or decreases of reflectance in the entire wavelength range (e.g. basalt-hematite vs. basalt-magnetite) and specific variations limited to some spectral bands (e.g. basalt-smectite vs. basalt-jasper). The basalt reflectance percentage increases or decreases, even up to 100%, depending on the mixing of the different minerals. This unequivocally confirms the need for considering the chemical-mineralogical assemblages (and their textures) for any investigation and interpretation of Mars surface environment. Some complementary applications of this research on our planet, either in relation to the specific performances and characteristics of the GT-sensor autonomous recalibration system, or those oriented to carrying out similar studies on different types of terrestrial environmental settings, are also described.

  14. Validations of GOES-R ABI Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciren, P.; Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Liu, H.; Zhou, M.

    2009-12-01

    High temporal resolution observations from geostationary platform provide unique benefits for monitoring the development of air pollution event. Especially, observations of multi-visible channels in the future GOES-R ABI provide more capability for characterizing air quality. GOES-R ABI Air Quality products include Aerosol detection product and suspended matter/AOD product. The first one is to detect the presence of smoke/dust; the second one is to quantify the amount of particles in the air in terms of light attenuation, and consequently inferred concentration of particles. In this presentation, we focus on the demonstration of the performance of the developed products through a comprehensive validation process. In the current pre-launch stage, MODIS radiances at bands similar to those of ABI are used as proxy. As for the suspended matter/AOD product, truth data include observations from ground-based instruments at the AERONET stations, MODIS collection 5 aerosol products, and aerosol product from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation). For aerosol detection product, truth data include MODIS RGB images and CALIPO Vertical Feature Mask Products. Through comparisons with global observations from MODIS, point observations from AERONET, and narrow-track observations from CALIPSO, accuracy and precision (for AOD only) are evaluated for both products. In addition, a validation system which includes not only the evaluation with historical data, but also monitoring the products qualities with near-real time observations, is presented.

  15. Validation of the assimilation of satellite-based aerosol measurements into a chemical transport model using aerosol component information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Dmytro; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion

    Aerosol monitoring is of growing interest due to the impact of aerosol particle concentration on human health and the global climate. The key question of this paper is to understand how the assimilation of satellite atmospheric aerosol observations with enhanced observation and background covariance matrices improves the capability of a chemical transport model in reproducing the distribution of tropospheric particles. The task of this study is a validation of assimilation results by using ground-based AERONET measurements for 2006-2008 at stations from Europe and Africa regions. The study is carried out using the Model for Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH operated at DLR). As measurement input vector for as-similation satellite data from SCIAMACHY and AATSR instruments onboard ENVISAT was used. Synergetic Aerosol Retrieval (SYNAER) observational and model data have been cou-pled by means of data the two-dimensional variational assimilation. SYNAER measurements are able to distinguish between different aerosol components such as water-soluble, soot, sea salt and long-range transported mineral aerosols. The final analysis is highly dependent on the specification of the error covariance matrices. Since observation and background error covari-ance matrices are not perfectly known, a large potential for improvements of the analyses is offered by methods allowing their constructing and tuning. In this study, a method proposed by Desroziers and Ivanov (2001) is used to tune background and observational error statistics of the 2D-Var assimilation procedure by using information content analysis of the retrieval algorithm.

  16. Comprehensive Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Variations in Atmospheric Radionuclides just after the Fukushima Accident by Analyzing Filter-tapes of Operational Air Pollution Monitoring Stations in Eastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-04-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011, many datasets have been available of deposition density of radionuclides in soils in eastern Japan. By contrast, no time-series data of atmospheric radionuclides has been measured in the Fukushima prefecture (FP), although very limited data is available in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS. As a result, atmospheric transport models simulating the atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of radionuclides have large uncertainty, as well as the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. One year after the accident, we collected the used filter-tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated by local governments in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. The SPM monitoring stations are mostly located in the urban and/or industrial area to measure the hourly mass concentration of SPM less than 10 μm in diameter for health effect due to atmospheric aerosols. By measuring radionuclides in SPM on the filter-tapes, we retrieved hourly atmospheric Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan. Until now, we measured hourly radiocesium at around 100 SPM sites in the southern Tohoku region (ST) including the FP and in the TMA. By analysing the dataset, about 10 plumes/polluted air masses with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, and some plumes were newly detected in this study. And the spatio-temporal distributions of atmospheric Cs-137 were clearly shown for all the plumes. The east coast area of the FP where the FD1NPS was located in the centre was attacked several times by the plumes, and suffered the highest time-integrated Cs-137 concentration during the period among the ST and TMA

  17. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  18. Four-year long-path monitoring of ambient aerosol extinction at a central European urban site: dependence on relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skupin, A.; Ansmann, A.; Engelmann, R.; Seifert, P.; Müller, T.

    2016-02-01

    The ambient aerosol particle extinction coefficient is measured with the Spectral Aerosol Extinction Monitoring System (SÆMS) along a 2.84 km horizontal path at 30-50 m height above ground in the urban environment of Leipzig (51.3° N, 12.4° E), Germany, since 2009. The dependence of the particle extinction coefficient (wavelength range from 300 to 1000 nm) on relative humidity up to almost 100 % was investigated. The main results are presented. For the wavelength of 550 nm, the mean extinction enhancement factor was found to be 1.75 ± 0.4 for an increase of relative humidity from 40 to 80 %. The respective 4-year mean extinction enhancement factor is 2.8 ± 0.6 for a relative-humidity increase from 40 to 95 %. A parameterization of the dependency of the urban particle extinction coefficient on relative humidity is presented. A mean hygroscopic exponent of 0.46 for the 2009-2012 period was determined. Based on a backward trajectory cluster analysis, the dependence of several aerosol optical properties for eight air flow regimes was investigated. Large differences were not found, indicating that local pollution sources widely control the aerosol conditions over the urban site. The comparison of the SÆMS extinction coefficient statistics with respective statistics from ambient AERONET sun photometer observations yields good agreement. Also, time series of the particle extinction coefficient computed from in situ-measured dry particle size distributions and humidity-corrected SÆMS extinction values (for 40 % relative humidity) were found in good overall consistency, which verifies the applicability of the developed humidity parameterization scheme. The analysis of the spectral dependence of particle extinction (Ångström exponent) revealed an increase of the 390-881 nm Ångström exponent from, on average, 0.3 (at 30 % relative humidity) to 1.3 (at 95 % relative humidity) for the 4-year period.

  19. Improved aerosol retrieval algorithm using Landsat images and its application for PM10 monitoring over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nana; Wong, Man Sing; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Xiao, Fei

    2015-02-01

    Aerosol retrieval using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been well researched over the past decade. However, the application is limited to global- and regional-scale studies, which may not be applicable for urban areas due to its low spatial resolution. To overcome the limitation, this paper proposed an improved aerosol retrieval algorithm for Landsat images (ImAero-Landsat) at spatial resolution of 30 m. This ImAero-Landsat algorithm has been improved in the following two aspects: (i) it does not require a comprehensive look up table and thus it is more efficient in AOT retrieval; and (ii) it can be operated in both bright and dark surfaces. The derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) images were validated with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) measurements as well as MODIS MOD04 AOT products. Small root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 0.11 and 0.14 and mean absolute difference (MAD) of 0.07 and 0.11 between ImAero-Landsat AOT, with MODIS MOD04 and AERONET products were observed. By correlating with ground based PM10 concentrations, the ImAero-Landsat method outperforms (r2 = 0.32) than MOD04 AOT products (r2 = 0.23). In addition, the accuracy of estimating PM10 can be improved to r2 = 0.55 when the derived AOT was integrated with meteorological parameters. The accuracy is similar to the results derived from AERONET AOT (r2 = 0.62). This study offers a simple and accurate method to investigate aerosol optical thickness at detailed city-scale. Environmental authorities may use the derived methods for deriving aerosol distribution maps and pinpointing the sources of pollutants in urban areas.

  20. Long term variability in aerosol optical depth and its modulation at different time scales observed at a Western Indo-Gangetic Plain station, Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Beegum, S. N.; Lodhi, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term measurements of Spectral Aerosol Optical Depths (AOD) in the spectral range 340 - 1020 nm have been done for a period of 11.5 years (from 2001 to 2012) using Microtops Sunphotometers at Delhi (28.63°N, 77.33°E, 238 m msl) in the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP). The measurements show consistently high AODs during the entire period of observation with strong seasonal and spectral variations. Significant variability is also observed in the variations of Angstrom exponent, α and its derivative, α' suggesting the prevalence of multi-modal aerosol size-distributions at Delhi. The coarse mode natural aerosols dominate during summer (March-June) and monsoon (July-September) seasons, whereas, fine/accumulation mode enhances during post monsoon (October-November) and winter (December-February) seasons. The AODs shows a weak but statistically significant (in 95% confidence level) decreasing trend ~ -0.02/year at 500 nm. Climatologically, AODs at the shorter (340 nm) and the mid-visible wavelengths (500 nm) show higher values during May-June and October-November and lower values during March and September. While at longer wavelengths (870 and 1020 nm), the highest values of AOD are observed during June and the least values during September. The time series of AOD has also been analyzed to delineate the significant modulations by different time scale atmospheric motions or circulations. Wavelet spectra of the time-series data have revealed the presence of periodicities varying from intra-seasonal to inter-annual time scales in significant amplitudes. The meteorological parameters at different pressure levels also show similar pattern of periodicities with certain interesting observations. While the shorter periodicities in aerosol parameters were strongly correlated with the corresponding oscillations in the near surface meteorological parameters, the inter-annual oscillations were found to be associated with the circulation pattern in the Upper troposphere

  1. Trends, Distribution and Frequency Analyses of Ozone Data From Three Monitoring Stations in Baton Rouge, Louisiana for the Years 1995 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasinc, L.; Kezele, N.; Pompe, M.; McGlynn, S.

    2007-12-01

    Troposphere ozone concentrations exhibit pronounced, characteristic diurnal and seasonal cycles. These cycles are usually well-defined. However, additional oscillations can also occur; these are generally much smaller in amplitude than the 1-day or 1-year cycles and they might be attributable to anthropogenic influences (e.g., specific man-induced meteorological and chemical influences on an individual monitoring station, periodic maintenance activities, etc). Indeed, it is possible that the spectral analysis of photochemical pollution data could pinpoint hidden conditions that affect particular monitoring stations. Such an analysis, one based on Fourier transform methods, was applied to long-term data from 3 American monitoring stations. As would be expected, strong signals were found for the 1-day and 1-year periods; however, some weaker signals, ones probably associable with anthropogenic affairs, were also observed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the transformed data sets in order to identify these periods and make pollution ranking. Periods of 0.5, 3.5-days and 7-days, as well as a number of other cycles, were found and can be considered to be markers of anthropogenic influences. European and American data will be compared and the effects of Hurricane Katrina will be examined.

  2. Variability in rainfall at monitoring stations and derivation of a long-term rainfall intensity record in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caster, Joshua; Sankey, Joel B.

    2016-04-11

    In this study, we examine rainfall datasets of varying temporal length, resolution, and spatial distribution to characterize rainfall depth, intensity, and seasonality for monitoring stations along the Colorado River within Marble and Grand Canyons. We identify maximum separation distances between stations at which rainfall measurements might be most useful for inferring rainfall characteristics at other locations. We demonstrate a method for applying relations between daily rainfall depth and intensity, from short-term high-resolution data to lower-resolution longer-term data, to synthesize a long-term record of daily rainfall intensity from 1950–2012. We consider the implications of our spatio-temporal characterization of rainfall for understanding local landscape change in sedimentary deposits and archaeological sites, and for better characterizing past and present rainfall and its potential role in overland flow erosion within the canyons. We find that rainfall measured at stations within the river corridor is spatially correlated at separation distances of tens of kilometers, and is not correlated at the large elevation differences that separate stations along the Colorado River from stations above the canyon rim. These results provide guidance for reasonable separation distances at which rainfall measurements at stations within the Grand Canyon region might be used to infer rainfall at other nearby locations along the river. Like other rugged landscapes, spatial variability between rainfall measured at monitoring stations appears to be influenced by canyon and rim physiography and elevation, with preliminary results suggesting the highest elevation landform in the region, the Kaibab Plateau, may function as an important orographic influence. Stations at specific locations within the canyons and along the river, such as in southern (lower) Marble Canyon and eastern (upper) Grand Canyon, appear to have strong potential to receive high-intensity rainfall that

  3. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in agency

  4. Comparison of radioactivity data measured in PM10 aerosol samples at two elevated stations in northern Italy during the Fukushima event.

    PubMed

    Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika; Cinelli, Giorgia; Previti, Alberto; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2012-12-01

    The follow-up of Fukushima radioactive plume resulting from the 11th March 2011 devastating tsunami is discussed for two Italian stations in the northern Apennines: Mt. Cimone (Modena) and Montecuccolino (Bologna). Radioactivity data collected at both stations are described, including comparison between local natural background of airborne particulate and artificial radioactivity referable to the arrival of the radioactive plume and its persistence and evolution. Analysis of back-trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. The Fukushima plume was first detected on 3rd April 2011 when high volume sampling revealed the presence of the artificial radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs. The highest activity concentrations of these nuclides were detected on 5th April 2011 at the Montecuccolino site. Fukushima radioactivity data at the two stations were usually comparable, suggesting a good vertical mixing of the plume; discrepancies were occasional and attributed to different occurrence of wet removal, typically characterized by a scattered spatial pattern. To understand the relevance to the local population of the extra dose due to the Fukushima plume, atmospheric activities of the related artificial nuclides were compared to those of the main natural radionuclides in ambient particulate, and found to be lower by over one order of magnitude. Radiation doses referable to Fukushima, maximized for a whole year occurrence at the highest activity level observed at our stations in the weeks affected by the Japanese plume, were estimated at 1.1 μSv/year.

  5. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  6. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K.; Kelly, T.; Hanft, E.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Walker, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the U.S. EPA's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The U.S. EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to examine ecosystem exposure to nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution and with greater accuracy than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, NC from September 8th-October 8th, 2010. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by comparing duplicate units and accuracy was evaluated by comparing duplicate MARGAs to duplicate reference denuder/filter packs. The MARGA utilizes a Wet Rotating Denuder (WRD) to collect gases, while aerosols are collected by a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC). Both the WRD and the SJAC produce aqueous sample streams, which are analyzed by online ion chromatography for anions and cations. The reference denuder/filter pack consisted of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and phosphorous acid (H3PO3) coated denuders followed by a Teflon filter, a nylon filter, and a citric acid coated cellulose filter. The assessment of the MARGA units focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3 and NH3 and aerosol SO4-, NO3- and NH4+. To evaluate accuracy, hourly MARGA concentrations were averaged over 12 hours to match with 12-hour integrated concentrations from the reference system. The concentrations were compared using linear regression with performance goals of slope between 0.8-1.2 and y-intercept between -10 ppb and 10 ppb. Accuracy was further quantified as the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between 12-hour MARGA and reference concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤ 40%. The precision of

  7. Observations in Lidar Station of St. Petersburg State University for Ecological Safety Studyies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchenko, Vladislav; Melnikova, Irina; Samulenkov, Dmitriy; Sapunov, Maksim

    2016-06-01

    The solution of many problems associated with the air pollution, radiative regime of the earth's surface and atmosphere, global and local environmental changes and climate, facing humanity in the early 21st century, require detailed and regular information on atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. For monitoring atmospheric pollutants especially effective were the methods of laser sounding of the atmosphere, which provide a vertical profile of aerosol parameters to a height of 20 km In this regard, at the beginning of the 21st century created a continental networks of lidar sounding stations. Over Europe there is a network EARLINET. Laser station, built on the basis of St. Petersburg State University has become the first Russian station that acceded to the European research network. The article briefly presents the technical features of the equipment and demonstrates the first results of the observations.

  8. Measurement instruments for automatically monitoring the water chemistry of reactor coolant at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors. Selection of measurement instruments and experience gained from their operation at Russian and foreign NPSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yu. A.

    2007-12-01

    An analytical review is given of Russian and foreign measurement instruments employed in a system for automatically monitoring the water chemistry of the reactor coolant circuit and used in the development of projects of nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors and the nuclear station project AES 2006. The results of experience gained from the use of such measurement instruments at nuclear power stations operating in Russia and abroad are presented.

  9. Particulate Matter 2.5 and Black Carbon concentrations in underground San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A.; Williams, N.; Quartey, R.; Quintana, M.; Bell, B.; Biswas, N.; Hunter, S.; Marks-Block, T.; Yu, X.

    2013-12-01

    A previous Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 study within Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train stations found that concentrations of PM 2.5 at San Francisco's (SF) Embarcadero station were significantly high relative to within the rail system. To follow up on that study, PM 2.5 data was collected within other underground BART stations and the streets surrounding them using the DustTrak Aerosol monitor that measures concentrations every second. In addition, black carbon (BC) data was collected using a microAeth aerosol monitor that also measures concentrations every minute. During each day that measurements were made along three different train routes originating from West Oakland BART station: 1) toward the San Francisco Civic Center station: en route to the Lake Merritt station in Oakland; and toward the Downtown Berkeley station. All of these stations are located underground, and at each one the DustTrak instrument was taken from the train to the ticket level, and on each route data was collected outside of the stations. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were recorded only on the San Francisco route. The highest PM 2.5 concentrations were recorded at SF underground stations, particularly at Embarcadero where concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m3 at train level. These values were much greater than those obtained outside the station, which ranged between 10-20 μg/m3. Other stations along the route to Civic Center had values ranging from 30-64 μg/m3, higher than stations along the route to the Downtown Berkeley station (17-42 μg/m3 ) and the Lake Merritt station (10-38 μg/m3). PM concentrations outside of stations were lower, ranging from 14-33 μg/m3 and 8-27 μg/m3 outside 12th Street Oakland City Center and Lake Merritt stations respectively. Additionally, PM concentration was directly related to depth at all stations. For example, one day at Embarcadero the highest concentrations from train to middle to top level were 119, 84, and 59 μg/m3 respectively. We believe the

  10. Demonstration of the Applicability of Novel Photoacoustic Aerosol Monitor for Optical Absorption Coefficient Determination. Laboratory and Field Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Schnaiter, M.; Linke, C.; Vragel, M.; Filep, Á.; Fődi, L.; Motika, G.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2009-04-01

    Despite of its importance, the possibilities to determine the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols is very limited due to lack of the reliable on-line instruments. Therefore there is an increasing concern for novel methods promising more accurate and reliable results in this field. The accuracy and reliability of the available on-line instruments like SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer), MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer), are limited by the weakness of the spectral resolution or the sampling artefact of filter matrix during the light attenuation measurement on the deposited filter. These methods neither suitable for direct determination of the light absorption by aerosols nor dispose the capability of the source apportionment. In this work we present a novel photoacoustic based instrument for direct light absorption measurements in the atmosphere and demonstrate the suitability of that both in laboratory and field circumstances. We have developed a novel Multi Wavelength PhotoAcoustic System (WaSul-MuWaPas) based on the diode laser pumped, high repetition rate, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its frequency converted harmonics for direct determination of light absorption by aerosols. This instrument has designed to make in situ measurements at four different wavelengths simultaneously from the NIR to the UV wavelength range (1064nm, 532nm, 355nm, 266nm). The Wasul-MuWaPas measures directly the optical absorption coefficient on airborne particles, not belong to the integrated plate type technique (filter-free operation), operating at wide wavelength range (source apportionment possibilities), due to the possibilities of the wavelength independent cell constant determination the measurement method is absolute. Because of these the Wasul-MuWaPas system may become one of the best candidate for absorption measurements of various atmospheric aerosols such as black carbon, mineral dust, and secondary organic and inorganic aerosols as well as for source

  11. The relative influence of the anthropogenic air pollutants on the atmospheric turbidity factors measured at an urban monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K; Hamid, R H; El-Hussainy, F; Ghitas, Ahmed E; Beheary, M M; Abdel-Moneim, Khaled M

    2006-09-15

    This work is based on simultaneous measurements of direct solar radiation along with other chemical measurements, with the objective of investigating the diurnal and seasonal variations of atmospheric turbidity factors (i.e., Linke's factor, Angström's coefficient, and aerosol optical depth). Relationships between atmospheric turbidity factors, expressing the solar radiation extinction, and anthropogenic air pollutants were also evaluated. The frequency of occurrence of the individual indices has been established to describe the sky conditions. The preliminary results obtained indicate high variability of aerosol loading, leading to high turbidity for most of the year. Annual averages of 0.2 and 6 with standard deviations of 0.096 and 0.98 were found for Angström and Linke turbidities, respectively. On the base of the frequency of occurrence, it has been found that over 50% of the dataset are around 0.25 and 6.3 for Angström and Linke turbidities, respectively. On average, the month of September experienced the highest turbidity, while December experienced the lowest. A possible reason for this is that the vertical distribution of the aerosol particles moves up in September due to the extent of the Sudan monsoon trough. We also note that spring values of the turbidity factors are closer to summer values, whereas the pronounced difference between the summer values in comparison with the winter values may be attributed to relatively greater difference in the water vapor level in the atmosphere.

  12. Distinct impact of different types of aerosols on surface solar radiation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Zhou, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    Observations of surface direct solar radiation (DSR) and visibility, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), together with the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) taken from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, were investigated to gain insight into the impact of aerosol pollution on surface solar radiation in China. The surface DSR decreased during 2004-2014 compared with 1993~2003 over eastern China, but no clear reduction was observed in remote regions with cleaner air. Significant correlations of visibility, PM2.5, and regionally averaged AOT with the surface DSR over eastern China indicate that aerosol pollution greatly affects the energy available at the surface. The net loss of surface solar radiation also reduces the surface ground temperature over eastern China. However, the slope of the linear variation of the radiation with respect to atmospheric visibility is distinctly different at different stations, implying that the main aerosol type varies regionally. The largest slope value occurs at Zhengzhou and indicates that the aerosol absorption in central China is the highest, and lower slope values suggest relatively weakly absorbing types of aerosols at other locations. The spatial distribution of the linear slopes agrees well with the geographical distribution of the absorbing aerosols derived from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations and Ozone Monitoring Instrument over China. The regional correlation between a larger slope value and higher absorbance properties of aerosols indicates that the net effects of aerosols on the surface solar energy and corresponding climatic effects are dependent on both aerosol amount and optical properties.

  13. Evolution of aerosol loading in Santiago de Chile between 1997 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, Kristina; Gallardo, Laura

    2015-04-01

    While aerosols produced by major cities are a significant component of anthropogenic climate forcing as well as an important factor in public health, many South American cities have not been a major focus of aerosol studies due in part to relatively few long-term observations in the region. Here we present a synthesis of the available data for the emerging megacity of Santiago, Chile. We report new results from a recent NASA AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) site in the Santiago basin, combining these with previous AERONET observations in Santiago as well as with a new assessment of the 11-station air quality monitoring network currently administered by the Chilean Environment Ministry (MMA, Ministerio del Medio Ambiente) to assess changes in aerosol composition since 1997. While the average surface concentration of pollution components (specifically PM2.5 and PM10) has decreased, no significant change in total aerosol optical depth was observed. However, changes in aerosol size and composition are suggested by the proxy measurements. Previous studies have revealed limitations in purely satellite-based studies over Santiago due to biases from high surface reflection in the region, particularly in summer months (e.g. Escribano et al 2014). To overcome this difficulty and certain limitations in the air quality data, we next incorporate analysis of aerosol products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument along with those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, both on NASA's Terra satellite, to better quantify the high bias of MODIS. Thus incorporating these complementary datasets, we characterize the aerosol over Santiago over the period 1997 to 2014, including the evolution of aerosol properties over time and seasonal dependencies in the observed trends. References: Escribano et al (2014), "Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth over a Subtropical Urban Area: The Role of Stratification and Surface

  14. Genotoxic monitoring and benzene exposure assessment of gasoline station workers in metropolitan Bangkok: sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA).

    PubMed

    Tunsaringkarn, Tanasorn; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Soogarun, Suphan; Siriwong, Wattasit; Rungsiyothin, Anusorn; Zapuang, Kalaya; Robson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Early warning of the potential of mutagens or carcinogens caused by benzene exposure that might occur in gasoline station workers can be achieved by examining 2 major biomarkers: sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), a urinary metabolite of benzene. The main objective of this study was to assess benzene exposure and monitor the genotoxic effect of gasoline station workers in Bangkok, Thailand. Blood and urine samples were collected from 33 gasoline station workers, working in Pathumwan district area, central Bangkok, Thailand, for SCE and t,t-MA analysis, from April to June 2009. Control samples were collected from 30 office workers and students in the same area at the same period. Our results indicated significantly higher frequencies of SCE in gasoline exposed workers were than in controls (p<0.01), independent of gender. Urinary t,t-MA and t,t-MA/creatinine levels of gasoline exposed workers were also significantly higher than the control groups (p<0.05) were significantly higher in women than men workers (p<0.01). Calculated chromosomal damage relative risk (RR) of gasoline station workers was 3.00 (95% CI = 1.81 - 4.98, p<0.001) compared to controls. The gasoline exposed workers had potentially higher risk of chromosomal damage and cancer development because of direct contact to benzene.

  15. On the sensitivity of long-term magnetotelluric monitoring in Southern Italy and source-dependent robust single station transfer function variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Telesca, Luciano; Tripaldi, Simona

    2014-06-01

    Since 2007, a permanent magnetotelluric (MT) monitoring station has been working in the seismic area of the Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy) in order to investigate the stability of the MT transfer function. The station was installed in a rural area near the supposed seismogenic fault of the strong earthquake (Mw = 6.9) that struck the Agri Valley in 1857. Analysing about 4 yr of MT data characterized by a low seismic activity, the long-term systematic variations of robust single station MT transfer function estimates were observed in two different sounding period ranges. First, a significant seasonal component of variability for short periods was noted; these short periods were up to 16 s and were linked to variations in wetting/drying of soil moisture in the shallower layers. Second, a connection between the monitored estimates and global geomagnetic activity, Ap index, was found, particularly in the [20-100 s] period range. Analysing remote reference results and tipper estimates in shorter monitoring window, it was shown that such effect cannot be explained by a local or incoherent noise, and a large-scale coherent source should be claimed. We show that this effect is subtle because it produces smooth estimates, satisfying the dispersion relationship between apparent resistivity and phase, with small error bars. As the global geomagnetic activity level increases, robust estimators, like the median value, can be considered as a representative of the estimates due to the natural source, and they tend to stabilize when the Ap index approaches 10. It is also worth noting that our monitored time window includes the recent global minimum of solar activity which occurred in 2009, thus enhancing the estimate dependence on the Ap index.

  16. Measurement of Fukushima Aerosol Debris in Sequim and Richland, WA and Ketchikan, AK

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kiddy, Robert A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Landen, Jonathan W.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Litke, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thompson, Robert C.; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Biegalski, Steven R.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol collections were initiated at several locations by PNNL shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake of May 2011. Aerosol samples were transferred to laboratory high-resolution gamma spectrometers for analysis. Similar to treaty monitoring stations operating across the Northern hemisphere, iodine and other isotopes which could be volatilized at high temperature were detected. Though these locations are not far apart, they have significant variations with respect to water, mountain-range placement, and local topography. Variation in computed source terms will be shown to bound the variability of this approach to source estimation.

  17. Continuous Gravity Monitoring in South America with Superconducting and Absolute Gravimeters: More than 12 years time series at station TIGO/Concepcion (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Hase, Hayo; Armin, Böer; Andreas, Güntner; Rongjiang, Wang

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) of BKG, the superconducting gravimeter SG 038 was set up in December 2002 at station Concepcion / Chile to record temporal gravity variations with highest precision. Since May 2006 the time series was supported by weekly observations with the absolute gravimeter FG5-227, proving the large seasonal variations of up to 30 μGal and establishing a gravity reference station in South America. With the move of the whole observatory to the new location near to La Plata / Argentina the series was terminated. Results of almost continuously monitoring gravity variations for more than 12 years are presented. Seasonal variations are interpreted with respect of global and local water storage changes and the impact of the 8.8 Maule Earthquake in February 2010 is discussed.

  18. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K. A.; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.; Hanft, E. A.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Beachley, G. M.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Otjes, R. P.

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina from 8 September-8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3 and NH3 and aerosol SO4-, NO3- and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs), with a performance goal of <25%. The accuracy of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) for each MU relative to the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤40%. Accuracy was also evaluated by using linear regression, where MU concentrations were plotted against the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations. From this, a linear least squares line of best fit was applied. The goal was for the slope of the line of best fit to be between 0.8 and 1.2. The MARGA performed well in comparison to the denuder/filter pack for SO2, SO42- and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3- could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3- by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3- were calculated for

  19. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K. A.; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.; Hanft, E. A.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Beachley, G. M.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Otjes, R. P.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at an hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, from 8 September to 8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3, and NH3 and aerosol SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs), with a performance goal of ≤ 25%. The accuracy of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the MARPD for each MU relative to the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤ 40%. Accuracy was also evaluated by using linear regression, where MU concentrations were plotted against the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations. From this, a linear least squares line of best fit was applied. The goal was for the slope of the line of best fit to be between 0.8 and 1.2. The MARGA performed well in comparison to the denuder/filter pack for SO2, SO42-, and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3- could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3- by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3- were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack

  20. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.J.; Fusegni, L.J.; McFarland, W.J.; Andreone, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ``Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment`` to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG`s at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem.

  1. Assessing environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in Portugal: An approach for the selection of the Portuguese monitoring stations in line with Directive 2013/39/EU.

    PubMed

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2016-02-01

    In line with the Directive 2013/39/EU the most representative surface waters, regarding pharmaceuticals contamination, were selected based on a Portuguese nationwide monitoring exercise. To meet this purpose, and given that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as the major point sources of pharmaceuticals environmental contamination, the occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment (ERA) of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, belonging to several therapeutic classes were assessed in 15 WWTPs (influents (WWIs) and effluents (WWEs)), from five different regions during one year (4 sampling campaigns). Results showed that all samples were contaminated with at least 1, and up to 8 from the 11 targeted pharmaceuticals. The highest concentrations observed were 150 and 33 μg L(-1) for WWI and WWE, respectively. Regarding temporal and spacial influence, winter, Alentejo, Algarve and Center regions presented higher mass loads. The ERA posed by 7 of the selected pharmaceuticals presented a risk quotient higher than 1 to the three trophic levels. Our findings highlighted that the rivers Mondego, Tagus, Ave, Trancão, Fervença and Xarrama should be selected as surface water monitoring stations. This study gives a good overview on pharmaceuticals contamination in WWTPs and its impact on surface waters in Portugal. Thus, a more integrative approach to rank and prioritize pharmaceuticals, based on an integrated assessment of ERA and exposure of surface water, was provided to support the future selection of the 6 most representative monitoring stations in Portugal, as required by the above mentioned directive. PMID:26624957

  2. Assessing environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in Portugal: An approach for the selection of the Portuguese monitoring stations in line with Directive 2013/39/EU.

    PubMed

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2016-02-01

    In line with the Directive 2013/39/EU the most representative surface waters, regarding pharmaceuticals contamination, were selected based on a Portuguese nationwide monitoring exercise. To meet this purpose, and given that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as the major point sources of pharmaceuticals environmental contamination, the occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment (ERA) of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, belonging to several therapeutic classes were assessed in 15 WWTPs (influents (WWIs) and effluents (WWEs)), from five different regions during one year (4 sampling campaigns). Results showed that all samples were contaminated with at least 1, and up to 8 from the 11 targeted pharmaceuticals. The highest concentrations observed were 150 and 33 μg L(-1) for WWI and WWE, respectively. Regarding temporal and spacial influence, winter, Alentejo, Algarve and Center regions presented higher mass loads. The ERA posed by 7 of the selected pharmaceuticals presented a risk quotient higher than 1 to the three trophic levels. Our findings highlighted that the rivers Mondego, Tagus, Ave, Trancão, Fervença and Xarrama should be selected as surface water monitoring stations. This study gives a good overview on pharmaceuticals contamination in WWTPs and its impact on surface waters in Portugal. Thus, a more integrative approach to rank and prioritize pharmaceuticals, based on an integrated assessment of ERA and exposure of surface water, was provided to support the future selection of the 6 most representative monitoring stations in Portugal, as required by the above mentioned directive.

  3. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  4. Development of a continuous aerosol mass concentration measurement device.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Thomas, D; Contal, P; Subra, I

    2003-08-01

    A dynamic aerosol mass concentration measurement device has been developed for personal sampling. Its principle consists in sampling the aerosol on a filter and monitoring the change of pressure drop over time (Delta P). Ensuring that the linearity of the Delta P = f(mass of particles per unit area of filter) relationship has been well established, the change of concentration can be deduced. The response of the system was validated in the laboratory with a 3.5 microm alumina aerosol (mass median diameter) generated inside a 1-m(3) ventilated enclosure. As the theory predicted that the mass sensitivity of the system would vary inversely with the square of the particle diameter, only sufficiently fine aerosols were able to be measured. The system was tested in the field in a mechanical workshop in the vicinity of an arc-welding station. The aerosol produced by welding is indeed particularly well-adapted due to the sub-micronic size of the particles. The device developed, despite this limitation, has numerous advantages over other techniques: robustness, compactness, reliability of calibration, and ease of use.

  5. New Particle Formation and Secondary Organic Aerosol in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M.; Yue, D.; Guo, S.; Hu, W.; Huang, X.; He, L.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Air pollution in Beijing has been a major concern due to being a mega-city and green Olympic Games requirements. Both long term and intensive field measurements have been conducted at an Urban Air Quality Monitoring Station in the campus of Peking University since 2004. Aerosol characteristics vary seasonally depending on meteorological conditions and source emissions. Secondary compositions of SNA (sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) and SOA (secondary organic aerosol) become major fraction of fine particles, which may enhance aerosol impacts on visibility and climate change. The transformation processes of new particle formation (NPF) and secondary organic aerosol have been focused on. It was found that gaseous sulfuric acid, ammonia, and organic compounds are important precursors to NPF events in Beijing and H2SO4-NH3-H2O ternary nucleation is one of the important mechanisms. The contributions of condensation and neutralization of sulfuric acid, coagulation, and organics to the growth of the new particles are estimated as 45%, 34%, and 21%, respectively. Tracer-based method to estimate biogenic and anthropogenic SOA was established by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Secondary organic tracers derived from biogenic (isoprene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene) and anthropogenic (toluene) contributed 32% at urban site and 35% at rural site, respectively. Other source apportionment techniques were also used to estimate secondary organic aerosols, including EC tracer method, water soluble organic carbon content, chemical mass balance model, and AMS-PMF method.

  6. A preliminary human factors planning and design outline of parameters related to space station windows and CCTV monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The question of the merits of placing windows on proposed future space stations is addressed. The use of windows for human visual capabilities is compared to using closed circuit television. Placement and field of view, as well as the number of windows is discussed.

  7. A permanent Raman lidar station in the Amazon: description, characterization, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barja, B.; Pauliquevis, T.; Gouveia, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Santos, R. M. N.; Oliveira, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    A permanent UV Raman lidar station, designed to perform continuous measurements of aerosols and water vapor and aiming to study and monitor the atmosphere from weather to climatic time scales, became operational in the central Amazon in July 2011. The automated data acquisition and internet monitoring enabled extended hours of daily measurements when compared to a manually operated instrument. This paper gives a technical description of the system, presents its experimental characterization and the algorithms used for obtaining the aerosol optical properties and identifying the cloud layers. Data from one week of measurements during the dry season of 2011 were analyzed as a mean to assess the overall system capability and performance. Both Klett and Raman inversions were successfully applied. A comparison of the aerosol optical depth from the lidar and from a co-located Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer showed a correlation coefficient of 0.86. By combining nighttime measurements of the aerosol lidar ratio (50-65 sr), back-trajectory calculations and fire spots observed from satellites, we showed that observed particles originated from biomass burning. Cirrus clouds were observed in 60% of our measurements. Most of the time they were distributed into three layers between 11.5 and 13.4 km a.g.l. The systematic and long-term measurements being made by this new scientific facility have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the climatic implications of the anthropogenic changes in aerosol concentrations over the pristine Amazonia.

  8. Type-segregated aerosol effects on regional monsoon activity: A study using ground-based experiments and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Devara, P. C. S.; Sonbawne, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Classification of observed aerosols into key types [e.g., clean-maritime (CM), desert-dust (DD), urban-industrial/biomass-burning (UI/BB), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and mixed-type aerosols (MA)] would facilitate to infer aerosol sources, effects, and feedback mechanisms, not only to improve the accuracy of satellite retrievals but also to quantify the assessment of aerosol radiative impacts on climate. In this paper, we report the results of a study conducted in this direction, employing a Cimel Sun-sky radiometer at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India during 2008 and 2009, which represent two successive contrasting monsoon years. The study provided an observational evidence to show that the local sources are subject to heavy loading of absorbing aerosols (dust and black carbon), with strong seasonality closely linked to the monsoon annual rainfall cycle over Pune, a tropical urban station in India. The results revealed the absence of CM aerosols in the pre-monsoon as well as in the monsoon seasons of 2009 as opposed to 2008. Higher loading of dust aerosols is observed in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of 2009; majority may be coated with fine BC aerosols from local emissions, leading to reduction in regional rainfall. Further, significant decrease in coarse-mode AOD and presence of carbonaceous aerosols, affecting the aerosol-cloud interaction and monsoon-rain processes via microphysics and dynamics, is considered responsible for the reduction in rainfall during 2009. Additionally, we discuss how optical depth, contributed by different types of aerosols, influences the distribution of monsoon rainfall over an urban region using the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) aerosol reanalysis. Furthermore, predictions of the Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) simulations combined with HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) cluster model are also discussed in support of the

  9. Carbonaceous aerosols in the Western Mediterranean during summertime and their contribution to the aerosol optical properties at ground level: First results of the ChArMEx-ADRIMED 2013 intensive campaign in Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Dulac, Francois; Feron, Anais; Crenn, Vincent; Sarda Esteve, Roland; Baisnee, Dominique; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Hamonou, Eric; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Nicolas, Jose B.; Bourrianne, Thierry; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre; Mocnik, Grisa; Drinovec, Luka; Marpillat, Alexandre; Serrie, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the CORSiCA (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica) and the ANR-ADRIMED programs, a large set of real-time measurements of carbonaceous aerosols was deployed in June 2013 at the Cape Corsica atmospheric supersite (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/reports.asp?StationID=2076203042). Submicron organic aerosols (OA) were monitored every 30 min using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor</