Science.gov

Sample records for aerosol particle mass

  1. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    PubMed

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  2. MASS SPECTROMETRY OF INDIVIDUAL AEROSOL PARTICLES. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Typically, in real-time aerosol mass spectrometry (RTAMS), individual airborne particles
    are ablated and ionized with a single focused laser pulse. This technique yields information that
    permits bulk characterization of the particle, but information about the particle's sur...

  3. New mass measurement method of aerosol particle using vibrating probe particle controlled by radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariyama, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2005-11-01

    Aerosol particles with sub-micro meter size inhaled into respiratory systems cause serious damage to human body. In order to evaluate the health effects of the particles, classification methods of the particles with size and mass are needed. Several measurement methods of the particle size are established. However, conventional mass measurement methods are not enough to measure the particles with sub- pico gram. We propose a new mass measurement method of the aerosol particles based on laser trapping. In this method, an optically trapped silica particle is used as a measuring probe particle. The probe particle is trapped at a beam waist of the focused laser light and is forced to vibrate by deflecting the beam waist using AOD. The vibrating probe particle has a resonance frequency because it is governed by the spring-mass-damper system. When an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shifts according to the increase of the total mass. The mass of the aerosol particle can be measured from the shift of the resonance frequency. Experimentally, it is confirmed that the probe particle is governed by the spring-mass-damper system and has a resonance frequency. When a silica fine particle of 3pg in mass used as an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shift occurs as expected in the dynamic system and the fine particle mass can be measured based on the proposed method.

  4. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

  5. Organic aerosol mixing observed by single-particle mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ellis Shipley; Saleh, Rawad; Donahue, Neil M

    2013-12-27

    We present direct measurements of mixing between separately prepared organic aerosol populations in a smog chamber using single-particle mass spectra from the high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Docosane and docosane-d46 (22 carbon linear solid alkane) did not show any signs of mixing, but squalane and squalane-d62 (30 carbon branched liquid alkane) mixed on the time scale expected from a condensational-mixing model. Docosane and docosane-d46 were driven to mix when the chamber temperature was elevated above the melting point for docosane. Docosane vapors were shown to mix into squalane-d62, but not the other way around. These results are consistent with low diffusivity in the solid phase of docosane particles. We performed mixing experiments on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) surrogate systems finding that SOA derived from toluene-d8 (a surrogate for anthropogenic SOA (aSOA)) does not mix into squalane (a surrogate for hydrophobic primary organic aerosol (POA)) but does mix into SOA derived from α-pinene (biogenic SOA (bSOA) surrogate). For the aSOA/POA, the volatility of either aerosol does not limit gas-phase diffusion, indicating that the two particle populations do not mix simply because they are immiscible. In the aSOA/bSOA system, the presence of toluene-d8-derived SOA molecules in the α-pinene-derived SOA provides evidence that the diffusion coefficient in α-pinene-derived SOA is high enough for mixing on the time scale of 1 min. The observations from all of these mixing experiments are generally invisible to bulk aerosol composition measurements but are made possible with single-particle composition data. PMID:24131283

  6. Ambient particle characterization by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry in an urban area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Li, Mei; Huang, Zhengxu; Gao, Wei; Nian, Huiqing; Fu, Zhong; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Zhou, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the composition and possible sources of aerosol particles in Beijing urban area, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed from April 22 to May 4, 2011. 510,341 particles out of 2,953,200 sized particles were characterized by SPAMS in combination with the ART-2a neural network algorithm. The particles were classified as rich-K (39.79%), carbonaceous species (32.7%), industry metal (19.2%), dust (5.7%), and rich-Na (1.76%). Industrial emissions related particles, rich-Fe, rich-Pb, and K-nitrate, were the major components of aerosol particles during haze periods, which were mainly from the steel plants and metal smelting processes around Beijing. Under stagnant meterological conditions, these regional emissions have a vital effect on haze formation. Organic carbon (OC) particles were attributed to biomass burning. NaK-EC was likely to come from local traffic emissions. Internally mixed organic and elemental carbon (OCEC) was found to be from possible sources of local traffic emission and biomass burning. It was found that coarse dust particles were mainly composed of four different types of dust particles, dust-Si, dust-Ca, dust-Al, and dust-Ti. It is the first time that SPAMS was used to study a dust storm in Beijing. Our results showed that SPAMS could be a powerful tool in the identification and apportionment of aerosol sources in Beijing, providing useful reference information for environmental control and management.

  7. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, S.; Horányi, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Sternovsky, Z.; Holzworth, R.; Shimogawa, M.; Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K.; Gumbel, J.; Megner, L.; Baumgarten, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hervig, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer) is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions), 0.5-1 nm, 1-2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately). Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500-3000 cm-3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83-88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1-2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm-3) and for smaller particles, 0.5-1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm) are observed throughout the NLC region, 83-88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86-88 km. The second flight into PMSE alone at 84-88 km, found only

  8. Exploring Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry with Advanced High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Particle Imaging Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical complexity of atmospheric aerosols presents significant challenges both to experimentalists working on aerosol characterization and to modelers trying to parameterize critical aerosol properties. Multi-modal approaches that combine state-of-the-art experimental, theoretical, and modeling methods are becoming increasingly important in aerosol research. This presentation will discuss recent applications of unique high-resolution mass spectrometry and particle imaging tools developed at two Department of Energy's user facilities, the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS), to studies of molecular composition, photochemical aging, and properties of laboratory-generated and field aerosols. Specifically, this presentation will attempt to address the following questions: (a) how do NO2, SO2, and NH3 affect molecular level composition of anthropogenic aerosols?; (b) what factors determine viscosity/surface tension of organic aerosol particles?; (c) how does photolysis affect molecular composition and optical properties of organic aerosols?

  9. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  10. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  11. Beyond single particle mass spectrometry: multidimensional characterisation of individual aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.

    2009-09-10

    The behavior of small aerosol particles depends on a number of their physical and chemical properties, many of which are strongly coupled. The size, internal composition, density, shape, morphology, hygroscopicity, index of refraction, activity as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, and other attributes of individual particles - all play a role in determining particle properties and their impacts. The traditional particle characterization approaches rely on separate parallel measurements that average over an ensemble of particles of different sizes and/or compositions and later attempt to draw correlations between them. As a result such studies overlook critical differences between particles and bulk and miss the fact that individual particles often exhibit major differences. Here we review the recently developed methods to simultaneously measure in-situ and in real time several of the attributes for individual particles using single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT or its second generation SPLAT II. We also discuss novel approaches developed for classification, visualization and mining of large datasets produced by the multidimensional single particle characterization.

  12. Studies of aerosol at a coastal site using two aerosol mass spectrometry instruments and identification of biogenic particle types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Harrison, R. M.; Furutani, H.; Prather, K. A.; Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.

    2005-10-01

    During August 2004 an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS Model 3800-100) and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) were deployed at Mace Head during the NAMBLEX campaign. Single particle data (size, positive and negative mass spectra) from the ATOFMS were imported into ART 2a, a neural network algorithm, which assigns individual particles to clusters on the basis of their mass spectral similarities. Results are very consistent with previous time consuming manual classifications (Dall'Osto et al., 2004). Three broad classes were found: sea-salt, dust and carbon-containing particles, with a number of sub-classes within each. The Aerodyne (AMS) instrument was also used during NAMBLEX, providing online, real time measurements of the mass of non-refractory components of aerosol particles as function of their size. The ATOFMS detected a type of particle not identified in our earlier analysis, with a strong signal at m/z 24, likely due to magnesium. This type of particle was detected during the same periods as pure unreacted sea salt particles and is thought to be biogenic, originating from the sea surface. AMS data are consistent with this interpretation, showing an additional organic peak in the corresponding size range at times when the Mg-rich particles are detected. The work shows the ATOFMS and AMS to be largely complementary, and to provide a powerful instrumental combination in studies of atmospheric chemistry.

  13. Single Particle Fluorescence & Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Biological Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Coffee, K; Riot, V; Woods, B; Steele, P; Gard, E E

    2005-04-25

    Biological Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) is an emerging technique for the detection of biological aerosols, which is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current system uses several orthogonal analytical methods to improve system selectivity, sensitivity and speed in order to maximize its utility as a biological aerosol detection system with extremely low probability of false alarm and high probability of detection. Our approach is to pre-select particles of interest by size and fluorescence prior to mass spectral analysis. The ability to distinguish biological aerosols from background and to discriminate bacterial spores, vegetative cells, viruses and toxins from one another will be shown. Data from particle standards of known chemical composition will be discussed. Analysis of ambient particles will also be presented.

  14. HUMIDITY EFFECTS ON THE MASS SPECTRA OF SINGLE AEROSOL PARTICLES. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-line laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry has developed into a widely used method for chemical characterization of individual aerosol particles. In the present study, the spectra of laboratory-generated particles were obtained as a function of relative humidity to elu...

  15. A rocket-borne mass analyzer for charged aerosol particles in the mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Friedrich, Martin

    2008-10-15

    An electrostatic mass spectrometer for nanometer-sized charged aerosol particles in the mesosphere has been developed and tested. The analyzer is mounted on the forward end of a rocket and has a slit opening for admitting a continuous sample of air that is exhausted through ports at the sides. Within the instrument housing are two sets of four collection plates that are biased with positive and negative voltages for the collection of negative and positive aerosol particles, respectively. Each collection plate spans about an order of magnitude in mass which corresponds to a factor of 2 in radius. The number density of the charge is calculated from the current collected by the plates. The mean free path for molecular collisions in the mesosphere is comparable to the size of the instrument opening; thus, the analyzer performance is modeled by a Monte Carlo computer code that finds the aerosol particles trajectories within the instrument including both the electrostatic force and the forces from collisions of the aerosol particles with air molecules. Mass sensitivity curves obtained using the computer models are near to those obtained in the laboratory using an ion source. The first two flights of the instrument returned data showing the charge number densities of both positive and negative aerosol particles in four mass ranges.

  16. Investigation of Aerosol Surface Area Estimation from Number and Mass Concentration Measurements: Particle Density Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bon Ki; Evans, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    For nanoparticles with nonspherical morphologies, e.g., open agglomerates or fibrous particles, it is expected that the actual density of agglomerates may be significantly different from the bulk material density. It is further expected that using the material density may upset the relationship between surface area and mass when a method for estimating aerosol surface area from number and mass concentrations (referred to as “Maynard’s estimation method”) is used. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate how much the Maynard’s estimation method depends on particle morphology and density. In this study, aerosol surface area estimated from number and mass concentration measurements was evaluated and compared with values from two reference methods: a method proposed by Lall and Friedlander for agglomerates and a mobility based method for compact nonspherical particles using well-defined polydisperse aerosols with known particle densities. Polydisperse silver aerosol particles were generated by an aerosol generation facility. Generated aerosols had a range of morphologies, count median diameters (CMD) between 25 and 50 nm, and geometric standard deviations (GSD) between 1.5 and 1.8. The surface area estimates from number and mass concentration measurements correlated well with the two reference values when gravimetric mass was used. The aerosol surface area estimates from the Maynard’s estimation method were comparable to the reference method for all particle morphologies within the surface area ratios of 3.31 and 0.19 for assumed GSDs 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, when the bulk material density of silver was used. The difference between the Maynard’s estimation method and surface area measured by the reference method for fractal-like agglomerates decreased from 79% to 23% when the measured effective particle density was used, while the difference for nearly spherical particles decreased from 30% to 24%. The results indicate that the use of

  17. Mixing state of ambient aerosols in Nanjing city by single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Xia, Li; Duan, Qing; Zou, Jianan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the mixing state and size-resolved aerosol in Nanjing, measurements were carried out for the period 14th January-1st February 2013 by using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS). A total of 10,864,766 particles were sized with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the range of 0.2-2.0 μm. Of which, 1,989,725 particles were successfully ionized. Aerosol particles employed for analyzing SPAMS data utilized 96% of the hit particles to identify 5 main particle groups. The particle classes include: K-rich particles (K-CN, K-Nitrate, K-Sulfate and K-Secondary), sodium particles, ammonium particles, carbon-rich particles (OC, EC and OCEC) and heavy-metal particles (Fe-Secondary, Pb-Nitrate, Cu-Mn-Secondary and V-Secondary). EC was the largest contributor with a fraction of 21.78%, followed by K-Secondary (17.87%), K-Nitrate (12.68%) and K-CN (11.25%). High particle level and high RH (relative humidity) are two important factors decreasing visibility in Nanjing. Different particle classes have distinct extinction effects. It anti-correlated well with visibility for the K-secondary, sodium, ammonium, EC, Fe-Secondary and K-Nitrate particles. The proportion of EC particles at 0.65-1.4 μm was up to 25% on haze days and was below 10% on clean days.

  18. Mixing state of ambient aerosols in Nanjing city by single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Xia, Li; Duan, Qing; Zou, Jianan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the mixing state and size-resolved aerosol in Nanjing, measurements were carried out for the period 14th January-1st February 2013 by using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS). A total of 10,864,766 particles were sized with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the range of 0.2-2.0 μm. Of which, 1,989,725 particles were successfully ionized. Aerosol particles employed for analyzing SPAMS data utilized 96% of the hit particles to identify 5 main particle groups. The particle classes include: K-rich particles (K-CN, K-Nitrate, K-Sulfate and K-Secondary), sodium particles, ammonium particles, carbon-rich particles (OC, EC and OCEC) and heavy-metal particles (Fe-Secondary, Pb-Nitrate, Cu-Mn-Secondary and V-Secondary). EC was the largest contributor with a fraction of 21.78%, followed by K-Secondary (17.87%), K-Nitrate (12.68%) and K-CN (11.25%). High particle level and high RH (relative humidity) are two important factors decreasing visibility in Nanjing. Different particle classes have distinct extinction effects. It anti-correlated well with visibility for the K-secondary, sodium, ammonium, EC, Fe-Secondary and K-Nitrate particles. The proportion of EC particles at 0.65-1.4 μm was up to 25% on haze days and was below 10% on clean days.

  19. Online Aerosol Mass Spectrometry of Single Micrometer-Sized Particles Containing Poly(ethylene glycol)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M J; Patton, E; Srivastava, A; Martin, S; Fergenson, D; Steele, P; Tobias, H; Gard, E; Frank, M

    2006-10-25

    Analysis of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-containing particles by online single particle aerosol mass spectrometers equipped with laser desorption ionization (LDI) is reported. We demonstrate that PEG-containing particles are useful in the development of aerosol mass spectrometers because of their ease of preparation, low cost, and inherently recognizable mass spectra. Solutions containing millimolar quantities of PEGs were nebulized and, after drying, the resultant micrometer-sized PEG containing particles were sampled. LDI (266 nm) of particles containing NaCl and PEG molecules of average molecular weight <500 generated mass spectra reminiscent of mass spectra of PEG collected by other MS schemes including the characteristic distribution of positive ions (Na{sup +} adducts) separated by the 44 Da of the ethylene oxide units separating each degree of polymerization. PEGs of average molecular weight >500 were detected from particles that also contained t the tripeptide tyrosine-tyrosine-tyrosine or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, which were added to nebulized solutions to act as matrices to assist LDI using pulsed 266 nm and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Experiments were performed on two aerosol mass spectrometers, one reflectron and one linear, that each utilize two time-of-flight mass analyzers to detect positive and negative ions created from a single particle. PEG-containing particles are currently being employed in the optimization of our bioaerosol mass spectrometers for the application of measurements of complex biological samples, including human effluents, and we recommend that the same strategies will be of great utility to the development of any online aerosol LDI mass spectrometer platform.

  20. Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven, and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10 to the -13th to 5.4 x 10 to the -11th g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the particle mass to the 0.86-power. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09, showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol.

  1. Thermal desorption single particle mass spectrometry of ambient aerosol in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jinghao; Wang, Xinning; Li, Jingyan; Xu, Tingting; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    Submicron aerosol volatility, chemical composition, and mixing state were simultaneously measured using a thermodenuder (TD) in-line with a single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) during Nov.12 to Dec. 11 of 2014 in Shanghai. By heating up to 250 °C, the signals of refractory species such as elemental carbon, metallic compounds, and mineral dust in aerosols were enhanced in the mass spectra. At 250 °C, the main particle types present in the size range of 0.2-1.0 μm were biomass burning (37% by number) and elemental carbon (20%). From 1.0 to 2.0 μm, biomass burning (30%), dust (19%) and metal-rich (18%) were the primary particle types. CN- signal remained in the mass spectra of the heated biomass burning particles suggests the existence of some extremely low-volatility nitrogen-containing organics. Laboratory experiments were conducted by burning rice straws, the main source material of biomass burning particles in Southern China, to confirm the less volatile composition contributed by biomass burning. Strong CN- with relative area >0.21 was observed in most of the laboratory-made biomass burning particles when heated above 200 °C and was selected as a new marker to identify the biomass burning particles in the field. The TD-SPAMS measured the size-resolved chemical composition of the individual particle residues at different temperatures and offered more information on the aging processes of primary particles and their sources.

  2. Measurement of internal and external mixtures of test aerosols with a new Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2015-04-01

    The mixing state of atmospheric aerosol particles is a very important property affecting processes such as CCN activation and scattering and absorption of light by the particles, but is challenging to determine. A new Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH) was tested with regards to its capability of measuring internal and external mixture of aerosols using laboratory generated particles. To create the external mixture, solutions of three different salts in deionized water, and a suspension of carbon black (Cabot Corporation) in a mixture of isopropanol and water were nebulized and individually dried, before being passed into a small mixing chamber. To create the internal mixture, equal parts of each solution/suspension were mixed, fed into a single nebulizer, nebulized and dried. The LAAPTOF sampled from the mixing chamber and recorded mass spectra of individual particles. The analysis shows a heterogeneous ensemble of single particle spectra for the external mixture, and a homogeneous ensemble of spectra for the internal mixture. The ability of a fuzzy clustering algorithm to resolve the difference between the two mixing states was also tested.

  3. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Pristine Aerosol Particles During the wet Season of Amazonia - Detection of Primary Biological Particles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Zorn, S. R.; Freutel, F.; Borrmann, S.; Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Flores, M.; Roldin, P.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    The contribution of primary biological aerosol (POA) particles to the natural organic aerosol is a subject of current research. Estimations of the POA contribution to the total aerosol particle concentration range between 25 and 80%, depending on location and season. Especially in the tropical rain forest it is expected that POA is a major source of supermicron, possibly also of submicron particles. During AMAZE (Amazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment), a field project near Manaus, Brazil, in February/March 2008, an Aerodyne ToF-AMS was equipped with a high pressure aerodynamic lens. This high pressure lens (operating pressure 14.6 torr) is designed with the objective to extend the detectable size range of the AMS into the supermicron size range where primary biological particles are expected. Size distribution measured by the AMS were compared with size distribution from an optical particle counter and indicate that the high pressure lens has a 50% cut-off at a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 1 μm, but still has significant transmission up to a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 2 μm, thus extending the detectable size range of the AMS into the coarse mode. The measuring instruments were situated in a container at ground level. The aerosol was sampled through a 40 m vertical, laminar inlet, which was heated and dried to maintain a relative humidity between 30 and 40%. The inlet was equipped with a 7 μm cut-off cyclone. Size distributions recorded with an optical particle counter parallel to the AMS show that the inlet transmitted aerosol particles up to an optically detected diameter of 10 μm. POA particles like plant fragments, pollen, spores, fungi, viruses etc. contain chemical compounds as proteins, sugars, amino acids, chlorophyll, and cellular material as cellulose. Laboratory experiments have been performed in order to identify typical mass spectral patterns of these compounds. These laboratory data were compared to size resolved particle

  4. Identification of characteristic mass spectrometric markers for primary biological aerosol particles and comparison with field data from submicron pristine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freutel, F.; Schneider, J.; Zorn, S. R.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Hoffmann, T.; Martin, S. T.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of primary biological aerosol (PBA) to the total aerosol particle concentration is estimated to range between 25 and 80%, depending on location and season. Especially in the tropical rain forest it is expected that PBA is a major source of particles in the supermicron range, and is also an important fraction of the submicron aerosol. PBA particles like plant fragments, pollen, spores, fungi, viruses etc. contain chemical compounds as proteins, sugars, amino acids, chlorophyll, and cellular material as cellulose. For this reason we have performed mass spectrometric laboratory measurements (Aerodyne C-ToF and W-ToF AMS, single particle laser ablation instrument SPLAT) on pure submicron aerosol particles containing typical PBA compounds in order to identify typical mass spectral patterns of these compounds and to explain the observed fragmentation patterns on the basis of molecular structures. These laboratory data were compared to submicron particle mass spectra obtained during AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment, Brazil, February/March 2008). The results indicate that characteristic m/z ratios for carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, saccharose, levoglucosan, mannitol) can be identified, for example m/z = 60(C2H4O2+) or m/z = 61(C2H5O2+). Certain characteristic peaks for amino acids were also identified in the laboratory experiments. In the field data from AMAZE-08, these characteristic peaks for carbohydrates and amino acids were found, and their contribution to the total organic mass was estimated to about 5%. Fragment ions from peptides and small proteins were also identified in laboratory experiments. Larger proteins, however, seem to become oxidized to CO2+ to a large extend in the vaporizing process of the AMS. Thus, detection of proteins in atmospheric aerosol particles with the AMS appears to be difficult.

  5. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using bio-aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.; Steele, Paul T.; Coffee, Keith R.; Fergenson, David P.; Riot, Vincent J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Gard, Eric E.; Frank, Matthias; Tobias, Herbert J.; Lebrilla, Carlito

    2006-05-01

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  6. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McJimpsey, E L; Steele, P T; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M; Tobias, H J; Lebrilla, C

    2006-03-16

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  7. Mass concentration and mineralogical characteristics of aerosol particles collected at Dunhuang during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Z. X.; Cao, J. J.; Li, X. X.; Okuda, T.; Wang, Y. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2006-03-01

    Measurements were performed in spring 2001 and 2002 to determine the characteristics of soil dust in the Chinese desert region of Dunhuang, one of the ground sites of the Asia-Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The mean mass concentrations of total suspended particle matter during the spring of 2001 and 2002 were 317 mu g m(-3) and 307 mu g m(-3) respectively. Eleven dust storm events were observed with a mean aerosol concentration of 1095 mu g m(-3), while the non-dusty days with calm or weak wind speed had a background aerosol loading of 196 mu g m(-3) on average in the springtime. The main minerals detected in the aerosol samples by X-ray diffraction were illite, kaolinite, chlorite, quartz, feldspar, calcite and dolomite. Gypsum, halite and amphibole were also detected in a few samples. The mineralogical data also show that Asian dust is characterized by a kaolinite to chlorite (K/C) ratio lower than 1 whereas Saharan dust exhibits a K/C ratio larger than 2. Air mass back- trajectory analysis show that three families of pathways are associated with the aerosol particle transport to Dunhuang, but these have similar K/C ratios, which further demonstrates that the mineralogical characteristics of Asian dust are different from African dust.

  8. Ultrasensitive detection of inhaled organic aerosol particles by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parkhomchuk, E V; Gulevich, D G; Taratayko, A I; Baklanov, A M; Selivanova, A V; Trubitsyna, T A; Voronova, I V; Kalinkin, P N; Okunev, A G; Rastigeev, S A; Reznikov, V A; Semeykina, V S; Sashkina, K A; Parkhomchuk, V V

    2016-09-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was shown to be applicable for studying the penetration of organic aerosols, inhaled by laboratory mice at ultra-low concentration ca. 10(3) cm(-3). We synthesized polystyrene (PS) beads, composed of radiocarbon-labeled styrene, for testing them as model organic aerosols. As a source of radiocarbon we used methyl alcohol with radioactivity. Radiolabeled polystyrene beads were obtained by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of synthesized (14)C-styrene initiated by K2S2O8 in aqueous media. Aerosol particles were produced by pneumatic spraying of diluted (14)C-PS latex. Mice inhaled (14)C-PS aerosol consisting of the mix of 10(3) 225-nm particles per 1 cm(3) and 5·10(3) 25-nm particles per 1 cm(3) for 30 min every day during five days. Several millions of 225-nm particles deposited in the lungs and slowly excreted from them during two weeks of postexposure. Penetration of particles matter was also observed for liver, kidneys and brain, but not for a heart. PMID:27281540

  9. A Miniature System for Separating Aerosol Particles and Measuring Mass Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dao; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Dai, Chi-An

    2010-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a new sensing system which consists of two virtual impactors and two quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors for measuring particle mass concentration and size distribution. The virtual impactors utilized different inertial forces of particles in air flow to classify different particle sizes. They were designed to classify particle diameter, d, into three different ranges: d < 2.28 μm, 2.28 μm ≤ d ≤ 3.20 μm, d > 3.20 μm. The QCM sensors were coated with a hydrogel, which was found to be a reliable adhesive for capturing aerosol particles. The QCM sensor coated with hydrogel was used to measure the mass loading of particles by utilizing its characteristic of resonant frequency shift. An integrated system has been demonstrated. PMID:22319317

  10. Assessment of aerosol's mass concentrations from measured linear particle depolarization ratio (vertically resolved) and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemuc, A.; Vasilescu, J.; Talianu, C.; Belegante, L.; Nicolae, D.

    2013-11-01

    Multi-wavelength depolarization Raman lidar measurements from Magurele, Romania are used in this study along with simulated mass-extinction efficiencies to calculate the mass concentration profiles of different atmospheric components, due to their different depolarization contribution to the 532 nm backscatter coefficient. Linear particle depolarization ratio (δpart) was computed using the relative amplification factor and the system-dependent molecular depolarization. The low depolarizing component was considered as urban/smoke, with a mean δpart of 3%, while for the high depolarizing component (mineral dust) a mean δpart of 35% was assumed. For this study 11 months of lidar measurements were analysed. Two study cases are presented in details: one for a typical Saharan dust aerosol intrusion, 10 June 2012 and one for 12 July 2012 when a lofted layer consisting of biomass burning smoke extended from 3 to 4.5 km height. Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds software package (OPAC) classification and conversion factors were used to calculate mass concentrations. We found that calibrated depolarization measurements are critical in distinguishing between smoke-reach aerosol during the winter and dust-reach aerosol during the summer, as well as between elevated aerosol layers having different origins. Good agreement was found between lidar retrievals and DREAM- Dust REgional Atmospheric Model forecasts in cases of Saharan dust. Our method was also compared against LIRIC (The Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code) and very small differences were observed.

  11. Assessment of aerosol's mass concentrations from measured linear particle depolarization ratio (vertically resolved) and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemuc, A.; Vasilescu, J.; Talianu, C.; Belegante, L.; Nicolae, D.

    2013-06-01

    Multiwavelength depolarization Raman lidar measurements from Magurele, Romania are used in this study along with simulated mass-extinction efficiencies to calculate the mass concentrations profiles of different atmospheric components, due to their different depolarization contribution to the 532 nm backscatter coefficient. Linear particle depolarization ratio (δpart) was computed using the relative amplification factor and the system-dependent molecular depolarization. The low depolarizing component was considered as urban/smoke, with a mean δpart of 3%, while for the high depolarizing component (mineral dust) a mean δpart of 35% was assumed. For this study 11 months of lidar measurements were analyzed. Two study cases are presented in details: one for a typical Saharan dust aerosol intrusion, 10 June 2012 and one for 12 July 2012 when a lofted layer consisting of biomass burning smoke extended from 3 to 4.5 km height. Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds software package (OPAC) classification and conversion factors were used to calculate mass concentrations. We found that calibrated depolarization measurements are critical to distinguish between smoke-reach aerosol during the winter and dust-reach aerosol during the summer, as well as between elevated aerosol layers having different origins. Good agreement was found between lidar retrievals and DREAM- Dust REgional Atmospheric Model forecasts in cases of Saharan dust. Our method was also compared against LIRIC (The Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code) and very small differences were observed.

  12. Aerosol Mass Spectrometry via Laser-Induced Incandescence Particle Vaporization Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy B. Onasch

    2011-10-20

    We have successfully developed and commercialized a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) instrument to measure mass, size, and chemical information of soot particles in ambient environments. The SP-AMS instrument has been calibrated and extensively tested in the laboratory and during initial field studies. The first instrument paper describing the SP-AMS has been submitted for publication in a peer reviewed journal and there are several related papers covering initial field studies and laboratory studies that are in preparation. We have currently sold 5 SP-AMS instruments (either as complete systems or as SP modules to existing AMS instrument operators).

  13. Characterisation of indoor airborne particles by using real-time aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M; Charpantidou, E; Loupa, G; Rapsomanikis, S

    2007-10-01

    An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS; TSI 3800) was deployed to Athens (Greece) during August 2003. The instrument provides information on a polydisperse aerosol, acquiring precise aerodynamic diameter (+/-1%) within the range 0.3 to 3 mum and individual particle positive and negative mass spectral data in real time. Sampling was carried out indoors and outdoors at an office in a building on a minor road in the city centre and various outdoor and indoor sources were identified. Specific outdoor particles such as dust and carbon particles were detected in indoor air. The generation of particles from indoor sources was studied and several different types of particle were found to be present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): three were potassium-rich (with differing proportions of carbon) emitted directly in the exhaled mainstream smoke. Two other types arose mainly when the cigarette was left smouldering on an ash-tray. Another particle type exhibited a strong signal at m/z 84, most likely due to a nicotine fragment. The temporal trend of this specific particle type showed likely condensation of semi-volatile constituents on existing potassium-rich particles. A release of insect repellent in the room was also successfully monitored. PMID:17628640

  14. Aerosol mass spectrometry: particle-vaporizer interactions and their consequences for the measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.-M.; Faber, P.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is a frequently used instrument for on-line measurement of the ambient sub-micron aerosol composition. With the help of calibrations and a number of assumptions on the flash vaporization and electron impact ionization processes, this instrument provides robust quantitative information on various non-refractory ambient aerosol components. However, when measuring close to certain anthropogenic or marine sources of semi-refractory aerosols, several of these assumptions may not be met and measurement results might easily be incorrectly interpreted if not carefully analyzed for unique ions, isotope patterns, and potential slow vaporization associated with semi-refractory species. Here we discuss various aspects of the interaction of aerosol particles with the AMS tungsten vaporizer and the consequences for the measurement results: semi-refractory components - i.e., components that vaporize but do not flash-vaporize at the vaporizer and ionizer temperatures, like metal halides (e.g., chlorides, bromides or iodides of Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Pb, Sr, Zn) - can be measured semi-quantitatively despite their relatively slow vaporization from the vaporizer. Even though non-refractory components (e.g., NH4NO3 or (NH4)2SO4) vaporize quickly, under certain conditions their differences in vaporization kinetics can result in undesired biases in ion collection efficiency in thresholded measurements. Chemical reactions with oxygen from the aerosol flow can have an influence on the mass spectra for certain components (e.g., organic species). Finally, chemical reactions of the aerosol with the vaporizer surface can result in additional signals in the mass spectra (e.g., WO2Cl2-related signals from particulate Cl) and in conditioning or contamination of the vaporizer, with potential memory effects influencing the mass spectra of subsequent measurements. Laboratory experiments that investigate these particle-vaporizer interactions are

  15. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs. PMID:17630721

  16. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  17. Sources and characteristics of fine particles over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea using online single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huaiyu; Zheng, Mei; Yan, Caiqing; Li, Xiaoying; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Guo, Zhigang; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2015-03-01

    Marine aerosols over the East China Seas are heavily polluted by continental sources. During the Chinese Comprehensive Ocean Experiment in November 2012, size and mass spectra of individual atmospheric particles in the size range from 0.2 to 2.0 μm were measured on board by a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS). The average hourly particle number (PN) was around 4560±3240 in the South Yellow Sea (SYS), 2900±3970 in the North Yellow Sea (NYS), and 1700±2220 in the Bohai Sea (BS). PN in NYS and BS varied greatly over 3 orders of magnitude, while that in SYS varied slightly. The size distributions were fitted with two log-normal modes. Accumulation mode dominated in NYS and BS, especially during episodic periods. Coarse mode particles played an important role in SYS. Particles were classified using an adaptive resonance theory based neural network algorithm (ART-2a). Six particle types were identified with secondary-containing, aged sea-salt, soot-like, biomass burning, fresh sea-salt, and lead-containing particles accounting for 32%, 21%, 18%, 16%, 4%, and 3% of total PN, respectively. Aerosols in BS were relatively enriched in particles from anthropogenic sources compared to SYS, probably due to emissions from more developed upwind regions and indicating stronger influence of continental outflow on marine environment. Variation of source types depended mainly on origins of transported air masses. This study examined rapid changes in PN, size distribution and source types of fine particles in marine atmospheres. It also demonstrated the effectiveness of high-time-resolution source apportionment by ART-2a. PMID:25766014

  18. Prospects of real-time single-particle biological aerosol analysis: A comparison between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Telle, H. H.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the prospects of real-time, in situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied for the identification and classification of bio-aerosols (including species of potential bio-hazard) within common urban aerosol mixtures. In particular, we address the issues associated with the picking out of bio-aerosols against common background aerosol particles, comparing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with data from a mobile single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (ATOFMS). The data from the latter provide statistical data over an extended period of time, highlighting the variation of the background composition. While single-particle bio-aerosols are detectable in principle, potential problems with small (˜ 1 μm size) bio-aerosols have been identified; constituents of the air mass other than background aerosols, e.g. gaseous CO 2 in conjunction with common background aerosols, may prevent unique recognition of the bio-particles. We discuss whether it is likely that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on its own can provide reliable, real-time identification of bio-aerosol in an urban environment, and it is suggested that more than one technique should be or would have to be used. A case for using a combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman (and/or) laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is made.

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

    2006-12-01

    Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

  20. Aerosol mass spectrometry: particle-vaporizer interactions and their consequences for the measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.-M.; Faber, P.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) is a frequently used instrument for on-line measurement of the ambient sub-micron aerosol composition. With the help of calibrations and a number of assumptions on the flash vaporization and electron impact ionization processes this instrument provides robust quantitative information on various ambient aerosol components. However, when measuring close to certain anthropogenic sources or in marine environments, several of these assumptions may not be met and measurement results might easily be misinterpreted. Here we discuss various aspects of the interaction of aerosol particles with the AMS tungsten vaporizer and the consequences for the measurement results: semi-refractory components, i.e. components that vaporize but do not flash vaporize at the vaporizer and ionizer temperatures, like metal halides (e.g. chlorides, bromides or iodides of Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Pb, Sr, Zn) can be measured semi-quantitatively despite their relatively slow vaporization from the vaporizer. Even though non-refractory components (e.g. NH4NO3 or (NH4)2SO4) vaporize quickly, their differences in vaporization kinetics can result in undesired biases in ion collection efficiency in the measurements. Chemical reactions with water vapor and oxygen from the aerosol flow can have an influence on the mass spectra for certain components (e.g. NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, organic species). Finally, chemical reactions of the aerosol with the vaporizer surface can result in additional signals in the mass spectra (e.g. WO2C2-related signals from particulate Cl) and in conditioning or contamination of the vaporizer with potential memory effects influencing the mass spectra of subsequent measurements. Laboratory experiments that investigate these particle-vaporizer interactions are presented and are discussed together with field results showing that measurements of typical continental or urban aerosols are not significantly affected while laboratory

  1. Detection response of elemental species in single particles using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.J.; Gross, D.S.; Gaelli, M.E.; Prather, K.A.

    1998-12-31

    The introduction of real-time particle mass spectrometry(RTSPMS) techniques creates a powerful tool for the study of particulate pollution on the single particle level. One such technique, aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) provides the aerodynamic size and chemical composition of individual particles. By combining data on size and composition, identification of individual particle classes in ambient outdoor samples is possible. Chemical composition is obtained by performing laser desorption ionization of individual particles using a Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 266 nm. The power of RTSPMS techniques is due to the ability to analyze the chemical composition of a single particle. The application of these techniques to analysis of ambient data has been limited however, because few studies have been performed to assess the ability of RTSPMS techniques to detect a wide range of compounds present in the atmosphere on a quantitative rather than qualitative level. It is known that various elemental species will respond differently to laser desorption mass spectrometric detection due to characteristic absorption cross-section and ionization potentials. In order to determine the capability and biases of RTSPMS techniques for detection of elemental species, a series of in-laboratory and ambient experiments has been performed using controlled conditions. Particles of known concentration have been produced from solution using an aerosol generator and analyzed using ATOFMS to determine responses of individual elements on a single particle level. In addition, side-by-side analyses with traditional sampling methods such as MOUDI impactors provide data to show how ATOFMS measurements correlate with federal reference methods.

  2. Real time analysis of lead-containing atmospheric particles in Beijing during springtime by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Li, Mei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Lei; Gao, Wei; Nian, Huiqing; Zou, Lilin; Fu, Zhong; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), the chemical composition and size distributions of lead (Pb)-containing particles with diameter from 0.1 μm to 2.0 μm in Beijing were analyzed in the spring of 2011 during clear, hazy, and dusty days. Based on mass spectral features of particles, cluster analysis was applied to Pb-containing particles, and six major classes were acquired consisting of K-rich, carboneous, Fe-rich, dust, Pb-rich, and Cl-rich particles. Pb-containing particles accounted for 4.2-5.3%, 21.8-22.7%, and 3.2% of total particle number during clear, hazy and dusty days, respectively. K-rich particles are a major contribution to Pb-containing particles, varying from 30.8% to 82.1% of total number of Pb-containing particles, lowest during dusty days and highest during hazy days. The results reflect that the chemical composition and amount of Pb-containing particles has been affected by meteorological conditions as well as the emissions of natural and anthropogenic sources. K-rich particles and carbonaceous particles could be mainly assigned to the emissions of coal combustion. Other classes of Pb-containing particles may be associated with metallurgical processes, coal combustion, dust, and waste incineration etc. In addition, Pb-containing particles during dusty days were first time studied by SPAMS. This method could provide a powerful tool for monitoring and controlling of Pb pollution in real time. PMID:27085059

  3. Detection of cw-related species in complex aerosol particles deposited on surfaces with an ion trap-based aerosol mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, William A; Reilly, Pete; Whitten, William B

    2007-01-01

    A new type of aerosol mass spectrometer was developed by minimal modification of an existing commercial ion trap to analyze the semivolatile components of aerosols in real time. An aerodynamic lens-based inlet system created a well-collimated particle beam that impacted into the heated ionization volume of the commercial ion trap mass spectrometer. The semivolatile components of the aerosols were thermally vaporized and ionized by electron impact or chemical ionization in the source. The nascent ions were extracted and injected into the ion trap for mass analysis. The utility of this instrument was demonstrated by identifying semivolatile analytes in complex aerosols. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop methods for identifying chemical species related to CW agent exposure. Our efforts focused on detection of CW-related species doped on omnipresent aerosols such as house dust particles vacuumed from various surfaces found in any office building. The doped aerosols were sampled directly into the inlet of our mass spectrometer from the vacuumed particle stream. The semivolatile analytes were deposited on house dust and identified by positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry up to 2.5 h after deposition. Our results suggest that the observed semivolatile species may have been chemisorbed on some of the particle surfaces in submonolayer concentrations and may remain hours after deposition. This research suggests that identification of trace CW agent-related species should be feasible by this technique.

  4. Chemical compositions of black carbon particle cores and coatings via soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry with photoionization and electron ionization.

    PubMed

    Canagaratna, Manjula R; Massoli, Paola; Browne, Eleanor C; Franklin, Jonathan P; Wilson, Kevin R; Onasch, Timothy B; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Fortner, Edward C; Kolb, Charles E; Jayne, John T; Kroll, Jesse H; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2015-05-14

    Black carbon is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosol particle matter (PM) with significant effects on the global radiation budget and on human health. The soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) has been developed and deployed for real-time ambient measurements of refractory carbon particles. In the SP-AMS, black carbon or metallic particles are vaporized through absorption of 1064 nm light from a CW Nd:YAG laser. This scheme allows for continuous "soft" vaporization of both core and coating materials. The main focus of this work is to characterize the extent to which this vaporization scheme provides enhanced chemical composition information about aerosol particles. This information is difficult to extract from standard SP-AMS mass spectra because they are complicated by extensive fragmentation from the harsh 70 eV EI ionization scheme that is typically used in these instruments. Thus, in this work synchotron-generated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light in the 8-14 eV range is used to measure VUV-SP-AMS spectra with minimal fragmentation. VUV-SP-AMS spectra of commercially available carbon black, fullerene black, and laboratory generated flame soots were obtained. Small carbon cluster cations (C(+)-C5(+)) were found to dominate the VUV-SP-AMS spectra of all the samples, indicating that the corresponding neutral clusters are key products of the SP vaporization process. Intercomparisons of carbon cluster ratios observed in VUV-SP-AMS and SP-AMS spectra are used to confirm spectral features that could be used to distinguish between different types of refractory carbon particles. VUV-SP-AMS spectra of oxidized organic species adsorbed on absorbing cores are also examined and found to display less thermally induced decomposition and fragmentation than spectra obtained with thermal vaporization at 200 °C (the minimum temperature needed to quantitatively vaporize ambient oxidized organic aerosol with a continuously heated surface). The particle cores

  5. Fullerene Soot in Eastern China Air: Results from Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Ge, X.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.; Sun, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Collier, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present for the first time, the observation and quantification of fullerenes in ambient airborne particulate using an Aerodyne Soot Particle - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) deployed during 2015 winter in suburban Nanjing, a megacity in eastern China. The laser desorption and electron impact ionization techniques employed by the SP-AMS allow us to differentiate various fullerenes from other aerosol components. Mass spectrum of the identified fullerene soot is consisted by a series of high molecular weight carbon clusters (up to m/z of 2000 in this study), almost identical to the spectral features of commercially available fullerene soot, both with C70 and C60 clusters as the first and second most abundant species. This type of soot was observed throughout the entire study period, with an average mass loading of 0.18 μg/m3, accounting for 6.4% of the black carbon mass, 1.2% of the total organic mass. Temporal variation and diurnal pattern of fullerene soot are overall similar to those of black carbon, but are clearly different in some periods. Combining the positive matrix factorization, back-trajectory and analyses of the meteorological parameters, we identified the petrochemical industrial plants situating upwind from the sampling site, as the major source of fullerene soot. In this regard, our findings imply the ubiquitous presence of fullerene soot in ambient air of industry-influenced area, especially the oil and gas production regions. This study also offers new insights into the characterization of fullerenes from other environmental samples via the advanced SP-AMS technique.

  6. [Application of on-line single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) for studying major components in fine particulate matter].

    PubMed

    Fu, Huai-yu; Yan, Cai-qing; Zheng, Mei; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-ying; Zhang, Yan-jun; Zhou Zhen; Fu, Zhong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2014-11-01

    Based on preliminary studies by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), typical methods for identifying the number of particles (or particle count) for five major components including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in China and abroad were summarized. In this study, combined with the characteristics of single particle mass spectrum by SPAMS, an optimized method is proposed. With field measurement using SPAMS during January 2013 in Beijing, particle counts of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, and EC determined by different methods were compared. The comparison with results of off-line filter analyses for these five components proved that the method proposed in this study is comparable and optimized. We also suggest factors needed to be considered in future application of SPAMS and other areas that require in-depth research. PMID:25639078

  7. Criteria for significance of simultaneous presence of both condensible vapors and aerosol particles on mass transfer (deposition) rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    The simultaneous presence of aerosol particles and condensible vapors in a saturated boundary layer which may affect deposition rates to subcooled surfaces because of vapor-particle interactions is discussed. Scavenging of condensible vapors by aerosol particles may lead to increased particle size and decreased vapor mass fraction, which alters both vapor and particle deposition rates. Particles, if sufficiently concentrated, may also coagulate. Criteria are provided to assess the significance of such phenomena when particles are already present in the mainstream and are not created inside the boundary layer via homogeneous nucleation. It is determined that there is direct proportionality with: (1) the mass concentration of both condensible vapors and aerosol particles; and (2) the square of the boundary layer thickness to particle diameter ratio (delta d sub p) square. Inverse proportionality was found for mainstream to surface temperature difference if thermophoresis dominates particle transport. It is concluded that the square of the boundary layer thickness to particle diameter ratio is the most critical factor to consider in deciding when to neglect vapor-particle interactions.

  8. Fractal morphology, imaging and mass spectrometry of single aerosol particles in flight (CXIDB ID 16)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Loh, N. Duane

    2012-06-20

    This deposition includes the aerosol diffraction images used for phasing, fractal morphology, and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Files in this deposition are ordered in subdirectories that reflect the specifics.

  9. Mass Spectral Observations of Submicron Aerosol Particles and Production of Secondary Organic Aerosol at an Anthropogenically Influenced Site during the Wet Season of GoAmazon2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá, S. S.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Newburn, M. K.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Shilling, J. E.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Alexander, M. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Martin, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    As part of GoAmazon2014, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed to characterize the composition, size, and spectral markers present in submicron atmospheric aerosol particles at a site downwind of Manaus, Brazil, in the central Amazon basin. The focus was on the influence of biogenic-anthropogenic interactions on the measured aerosol particles, especially as related to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Through a combination of meteorology, emissions, and chemistry, the research site was affected by biogenic emissions from the tropical rainforest that were periodically mixed with urban outflow from the Manaus metropolitan area. Results from the first intensive operation period, from 1 February to 31 March 2014, show that for the wet season the PM1 mass concentration had typical values on order of 1 to 2 μg/m3. The organic species were dominant, followed by sulfate. The mass-diameter distribution of the particle population had a prevailing mode between 300 and 400 nm (vacuum aerodynamic diameter, dva), and at times a smaller mode at finer size was also present. Highly oxidized organic material was frequently observed, characterized by a dominant peak at m/z 44. There was a diel trend in the elemental oxygen-to-carbon (O:C) ratio peaking in the afternoon. The analysis of the results aims at delineating the anthropogenic impact on the measurements. Multivariate statistical analysis by positive-matrix factorization (PMF) is applied to the time series of organic particle mass spectra. The factors and their loadings provide information on the relative and time-varying contributions of different sources and processes affecting the organic component of the aerosol particle phase. Relationships between AMS results and measurements from co-located instruments that provide information on anthropogenic and biogenic gas and particle tracers are investigated, toward the goal of improving the understanding of

  10. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) have been investigated with a range of physical and chemical measurements from open-ocean research cruises. This study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) of aMA from five ocean regions to show the following: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMA that can be identified as mainly atmospheric primary marine (ocean derived) aerosol particles (aPMA) is 65 ± 12% hydroxyl, 21 ± 9% alkane, 6 ± 6% amine, and 7 ± 8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model-generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater (gPMA, which has 55 ± 14% hydroxyl, 32 ± 14% alkane, and 13 ± 3% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the gPMA remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll a concentrations, the gPMA alkane group fraction appeared to increase with chlorophyll a concentrations (r = 0.66). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (42 ± 9%) compared to gPMA from nonproductive seawater (22 ± 10%), perhaps due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of

  11. Online laser desorption-multiphoton postionization mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles: molecular source indicators for particles emitted from different traffic-related and wood combustion sources.

    PubMed

    Bente, Matthias; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-12-01

    Direct inlet aerosol mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in applied and fundamental aerosol and nanoparticle research. Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) based techniques for single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-SP-TOFMS) are a promising approach in the chemical analysis of single aerosol particles, especially for the detection of inorganic species and distinction of particle classes. However, until now the detection of molecular organic compounds on a single particle basis has been difficult due to the high laser power densities which are required for the LDI process as well as due to the inherent matrix effects associated with this ionization technique. By the application of a two-step approach, where an IR desorption laser pulse is applied to perform a gentle desorption of organic material from the single particle surface and a second UV-laser performs the soft ionization of the desorbed species, this drawback of laser based single particles mass spectrometry can be overcome. The postionization of the desorbed molecules has been accomplished in this work by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) using a KrF excimer laser (248 nm). REMPI allows an almost fragmentation free trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives from individual single particles (laser desorption-REMPI postionization-single particle-time-of-flight mass spectrometry or LD-REMPI-SP-TOFMS). Crucial system parameters of the home-built aerosol mass spectrometer such as the power densities and the relative timing of both lasers were optimized with respect to the detectability of particle source specific organic signatures using well characterized standard particles. In a second step, the LD-REMPI-SP-TOFMS system was applied to analyze different real world aerosols (spruce wood combustion, gasoline car exhaust, beech wood combustion, and diesel car exhaust). It was possible to distinguish the particles from different

  12. Mass-analysis of Charged Aerosol Particles in a PMSE/NLC Layer by a Rocket-borne Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, S.; Horanyi, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Kohnert, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Holzworth, R.; Shimogawa, M.; Friedrich, M.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Megner, L.; Baumgarten, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.; Hoppe, U.

    2007-12-01

    The first of two "MASS" (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer) rockets was launched from the Andoya Rocket Range at 22:51 UTC on 3 August 2007 into PMSE and NLC approximately 26 minutes after an AIM satellite overpass. The sun was 4 degrees below the horizon and the local riometer indicated that the ionospheric conditions were rather quiet, i.e., day time conditions as far as negative cluster ions are concerned. NLC were seen in the previous hour at 83 km by the ALOMAR RMR lidar pointed along the rocket trajectory and were detected at the same altitude by rocket-borne photometer measurements. The rocket carried an electrostatic mass analyzer for the charged fraction of the aerosol particles and both forward and aft deployable electric field booms. The mass analyzer was mounted on the tip of the payload and pointed in the ram direction. It has a forward inlet slit with area of 25 square centimeters and side vents for air exit. Aerosol particles with different ranges of charge-to-mass ratio are collected within the instrument housing on two sets of four biased collector plates, with one set for positive particles and one set for negative particles. A preliminary analysis of the data shows the density of negative particles with radius greater than 3 nm rising sharply at 83 and continuing to 89 km, collocated with PMSE detected by the ALWIN radar. Particles with 1-2 nm radii with both signs of charge and positive particles with less than1 nm radius were detected at 86-88 km. Initial charge-density estimates are several thousands per cubic centimeter for each of these size ranges. The E field booms detected significant potential variations in the PMSE/NLC region. Further analysis will examine in more detail the effects of aerodynamics, payload charging, and spurious charge generation by particle impacts.

  13. On the Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Spectrum in Alaskan Air Mass Systems: Arctic Haze and Non-Haze Episodes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1983-05-01

    Aerosols in central Alaskan winter air mass system were classified according to size by diffusive separation and light-scattering spectrometry. Particles entering central Alaska from the Pacific Marine environment had number concentrations ranging from 300 to 2000 cm3 (geometric mean 685 cm3) and unimodal size spectra, with maximum in number concentration near 1 × 106 cm radius.Air masses entering Alaska from the Eurasian Arctic possessed a factor of two smaller aerosol number concentrations than Pacific Marine systems (e.g., 150-700 cm3; geometric mean 386 cm3) but contained a factor of two greater particle volume loading within the fine particle radius range 5 × 107 < r < 1 × 105 cm. The particles in Eurasian Arctic air masses were bimodally distributed, with maxima in the particle size spectra near r = 3 × 107 and 5 × 106 cm. Sulfur was the predominant element in all cases studied.A particle depleted region was present in the size spectra obtained for Eurasian Arctic air masses. The deficiency of particles in the 106 cm radius range is interpreted as being the result of thermal coagulation taking place between sulfur-rich nuclei (produced at a rate of 1020 to 1018 g cm3 s1 and in sizes r < 106 cm) and `large' (r 105 cm) imported primary particles. The primary particles are in the removal-resistant Greenfield Gap (r 105 cm) and seem to originate in the central Eurasian region.

  14. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Yanfang; Shen, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Xu, Jianzhong; Ge, Shun; Yu, Huan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle - aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1). The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC) simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics). The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m-3, with organics (45 %) as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %), nitrate (13.6 %), ammonium (11.1 %), rBC (9.7 %), and chloride (1.3 %). These PM1 species together can reconstruct ˜ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (< 100 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter) were dominated by organics and rBC, while large particles had significant contributions from secondary inorganic species. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA) yielded four OA subcomponents, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking-related OA (COA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA) dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %), but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA) can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand, in contrast to other species

  15. The non-destructive identification of solid over-the-counter medications using single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Jones, A Daniel; Frank, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Single over-the-counter medication tablets were analyzed in real time using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS). Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles dislodged from a single tablet without destroying the shape or markings of each tablet. The solid tablet was placed in a modified-top glass vial and shaken to dislodge and introduce micrometer-sized particles into the SPAMS system. Unique spectra from these particles were obtained in less than 1 s for single tablets of aspirin, ibuprofen, pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, loratadine, or diphenhydramine. The signals obtained allowed the non-destructive identification of an individual tablet in seconds. SPAMS presents an ideal system for high-throughput analysis of solid drugs. PMID:17935106

  16. The real part of the refractive indices and effective densities for chemically segregated ambient aerosols in Guangzhou measured by a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guohua; Bi, Xinhui; Qiu, Ning; Han, Bingxue; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Chen, Duohong; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge on the microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols is essential to better evaluate their radiative forcing. This paper presents an estimate of the real part of the refractive indices (n) and effective densities (ρeff) of chemically segregated atmospheric aerosols in Guangzhou, China. Vacuum aerodynamic diameter, chemical compositions, and light-scattering intensities of individual particles were simultaneously measured by a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) during the fall of 2012. On the basis of Mie theory, n at a wavelength of 532 nm and ρeff were estimated for 17 particle types in four categories: organics (OC), elemental carbon (EC), internally mixed EC and OC (ECOC), and Metal-rich. The results indicate the presence of spherical or nearly spherical shapes for the majority of particle types, whose partial scattering cross-section versus sizes were well fitted to Mie theoretical modeling results. While sharing n in a narrow range (1.47-1.53), majority of particle types exhibited a wide range of ρeff (0.87-1.51 g cm-3). The OC group is associated with the lowest ρeff (0.87-1.07 g cm-3), and the Metal-rich group with the highest ones (1.29-1.51 g cm-3). It is noteworthy that a specific EC type exhibits a complex scattering curve versus size due to the presence of both compact and irregularly shaped particles. Overall, the results on the detailed relationship between physical and chemical properties benefits future research on the impact of aerosols on visibility and climate.

  17. Mass-mobility characterization of flame-made ZrO2 aerosols: primary particle diameter and extent of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, M L; Gröhn, A J; Sorensen, C M; McMurry, P H; Pratsinis, S E

    2012-12-01

    Gas-borne nanoparticles undergoing coagulation and sintering form irregular or fractal-like structures affecting their transport, light scattering, effective surface area, and density. Here, zirconia (ZrO(2)) nanoparticles are generated by scalable spray combustion, and their mobility diameter and mass are obtained nearly in situ by differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass (APM) measurements. Using these data, the density of ZrO(2) and a power law between mobility and primary particle diameters, the structure of fractal-like particles is determined (mass-mobility exponent, prefactor and average number, and surface area mean diameter of primary particles, d(va)). The d(va) determined by DMA-APM measurements and this power law is in good agreement with the d(va) obtained by ex situ nitrogen adsorption and microscopic analysis. Using this combination of measurements and above power law, the effect of flame spray process parameters (e.g., precursor solution and oxygen flow rate as well as zirconium concentration) on fractal-like particle structure characteristics is investigated in detail. This reveals that predominantly agglomerates (physically-bonded particles) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded particles) of nanoparticles are formed at low and high particle concentrations, respectively. PMID:22959835

  18. Mass-Mobility Characterization of Flame-made ZrO2 Aerosols: Primary Particle Diameter & Extent of Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, M.L.; Gröhn, A.J.; Sorensen, C.M.; McMurry, P.H.; Pratsinis, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-borne nanoparticles undergoing coagulation and sintering form irregular or fractal-like structures affecting their transport, light scattering, effective surface area and density. Here, zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles are generated by scalable spray combustion, and their mobility diameter and mass are obtained nearly in-situ by differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass (APM) measurements. Using these data, the density of ZrO2 and a power law between mobility and primary particle diameters, the structure of fractal-like particles is determined (mass-mobility exponent, prefactor and average number and surface area mean diameter of primary particles, dva). The dva determined by DMA-APM measurements and this power law is in good agreement with the dva obtained by ex-situ nitrogen adsorption and microscopic analysis. Using this combination of measurements and above power law, the effect of flame spray process parameters (e.g. precursor solution and oxygen flow rate as well as zirconium concentration) on fractal-like particle structure characteristics is investigated in detail. This reveals that predominantly agglomerates (physically-bonded particles) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded particles) of nanoparticles are formed at low and high particle concentrations, respectively. PMID:22959835

  19. Constraining Aerosol Optical Models Using Ground-Based, Collocated Particle Size and Mass Measurements in Variable Air Mass Regimes During the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Shaun W.; Hansell, Richard A.; Chow, Judith C.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Ji, Qiang; Li, Can; Watson, John G.; Khlystov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2010, NASA Goddard's COMMIT ground-based mobile laboratory was stationed on Dongsha Island off the southwest coast of Taiwan, in preparation for the upcoming 2012 7-SEAS field campaign. The measurement period offered a unique opportunity for conducting detailed investigations of the optical properties of aerosols associated with different air mass regimes including background maritime and those contaminated by anthropogenic air pollution and mineral dust. What appears to be the first time for this region, a shortwave optical closure experiment for both scattering and absorption was attempted over a 12-day period during which aerosols exhibited the most change. Constraints to the optical model included combined SMPS and APS number concentration data for a continuum of fine and coarse-mode particle sizes up to PM2.5. We also take advantage of an IMPROVE chemical sampler to help constrain aerosol composition and mass partitioning of key elemental species including sea-salt, particulate organic matter, soil, non sea-salt sulphate, nitrate, and elemental carbon. Our results demonstrate that the observed aerosol scattering and absorption for these diverse air masses are reasonably captured by the model, where peak aerosol events and transitions between key aerosols types are evident. Signatures of heavy polluted aerosol composed mostly of ammonium and non sea-salt sulphate mixed with some dust with transitions to background sea-salt conditions are apparent in the absorption data, which is particularly reassuring owing to the large variability in the imaginary component of the refractive indices. Extinctive features at significantly smaller time scales than the one-day sample period of IMPROVE are more difficult to reproduce, as this requires further knowledge concerning the source apportionment of major chemical components in the model. Consistency between the measured and modeled optical parameters serves as an important link for advancing remote

  20. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  1. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    lewis, Kristen A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Chakrabarti, Raj; Carrico, Christian M.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Day, Derek E.; Malm, William C.; Laskin, Alexander; Jimenez, Jose L.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Trimborn, Achim; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.

    2009-11-27

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used are Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients reveal a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: 1. Shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; 2. The contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  2. Evaluation of Aerosol Mixing State Classes in the GISS Modele-matrix Climate Model Using Single-particle Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Ault, Andrew; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are composed of multiple chemical species. The aerosol mixing state, which describes how chemical species are mixed at the single-particle level, provides critical information on microphysical characteristics that determine the interaction of aerosols with the climate system. The evaluation of mixing state has become the next challenge. This study uses aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) data and compares the results to those of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies modelE-MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state) model, a global climate model that includes a detailed aerosol microphysical scheme. We use data from field campaigns that examine a variety of air mass regimens (urban, rural, and maritime). At all locations, polluted areas in California (Riverside, La Jolla, and Long Beach), a remote location in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Sugar Pine) and observations from Jeju (South Korea), the majority of aerosol species are internally mixed. Coarse aerosol particles, those above 1 micron, are typically aged, such as coated dust or reacted sea-salt particles. Particles below 1 micron contain large fractions of organic material, internally-mixed with sulfate and black carbon, and few external mixtures. We conclude that observations taken over multiple weeks characterize typical air mass types at a given location well; however, due to the instrumentation, we could not evaluate mass budgets. These results represent the first detailed comparison of single-particle mixing states in a global climate model with real-time single-particle mass spectrometry data, an important step in improving the representation of mixing state in global climate models.

  3. Evaluation of aerosol mixing state classes in the GISS modelE-MATRIX climate model using single-particle mass spectrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Ault, Andrew; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2013-09-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are composed of multiple chemical species. The aerosol mixing state, which describes how chemical species are mixed at the single-particle level, provides critical information on microphysical characteristics that determine the interaction of aerosols with the climate system. The evaluation of mixing state has become the next challenge. This study uses aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) data and compares the results to those of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies modelE-MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state) model, a global climate model that includes a detailed aerosol microphysical scheme. We use data from field campaigns that examine a variety of air mass regimens (urban, rural, and maritime). At all locations, polluted areas in California (Riverside, La Jolla, and Long Beach), a remote location in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Sugar Pine) and observations from Jeju (South Korea), the majority of aerosol species are internally mixed. Coarse aerosol particles, those above 1 µm, are typically aged, such as coated dust or reacted sea-salt particles. Particles below 1 µm contain large fractions of organic material, internally mixed with sulfate and black carbon, and few external mixtures. We conclude that observations taken over multiple weeks characterize typical air mass types at a given location well; however, due to the instrumentation, we could not evaluate mass budgets. These results represent the first detailed comparison of single-particle mixing states in a global climate model with real-time single-particle mass spectrometry data, an important step in improving the representation of mixing state in global climate models.

  4. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak

  5. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore » reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group

  6. Time-resolved mass concentration, composition and sources of aerosol particles in a metropolitan underground railway station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salma, Imre; Weidinger, Tamás; Maenhaut, Willy

    Aerosol samples were collected using a stacked filter unit (SFU) for PM10-2.0 and PM2.0 size fractions on the platform of a metropolitan underground railway station in downtown Budapest. Temporal variations in the PM10 mass concentration and wind speed and direction were determined with time resolutions of 30 and 4 s using a tapered-element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) and a wind monitor, respectively. Sample analysis involved gravimetry for particulate mass, and particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) for elemental composition. Diurnal variation of the PM10 mass concentration exhibited two peaks, one at approximately 07:00 h and the other at approximately 17:00 h. The mean±SD PM10 mass concentration for working hours was 155±55 μg m -3. Iron, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cr concentrations were higher than in outdoor air by factors between 5 and 20, showing substantial enrichment compared to both the average crustal rock composition and the average outdoor aerosol composition. Iron accounted for 40% and 46% of the PM10-2.0 and PM2.0 masses, respectively, and 72% of the PM10 mass was associated with the PM10-2.0 size fraction. The aerosol composition in the metro station (in particular the abundance of the metals mentioned above) is quite different from the average outdoor downtown composition. Mechanical wear and friction of electric conducting rails and bow sliding collectors, ordinary rails and wheels, as well as resuspension, were identified as the primary sources. Possible health implications based on comparison to various limit values and to data available for other underground railways are discussed.

  7. Composition and Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols in a Residential Area of Ireland using Single Particle Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Paul; McGillicuddy, Eoin; Arndt, Jovanna; O'Connor, Ian; Healy, Robert; Venables, Dean; Sodeau, John; Wenger, John

    2015-04-01

    The size-resolved chemical composition of single particles is often sufficiently unique to enable association with a particular source. Single particle mass spectra collected using instruments such as the Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) can be used to identify specific sources of particulate matter, both natural and anthropogenic. In this work, an ATOFMS was deployed in a residential area of Killarney, Ireland, during November-December 2014 to investigate the impact of the various sources of particulate matter upon local air quality. Over 500,000 single particle mass spectra were collected in the sampling period and subsequently grouped into distinct "classes" using a K-means clustering procedure. Based on the presence of key marker species in the mass spectra, the particle classes were then attributed to specific sources. The results indicate that particles generated from solid fuel burning accounted for the vast majority (>75%) of those measured during the sampling period, with similar temporal profiles observed for the three main locally available fuel types - coal, peat and wood. Moreover, these particle classes showed a very strong 24-hour cycle with a significant increase during evening and night-time hours, consistent with the use of fires for residential heating. Further scaling of the ATOFMS data was performed to convert particle number to mass concentration thus enabling the relative contributions of each fuel type to ambient PM2.5 levels to be determined. This information is very useful in assessing the impact of different fuel types on local air quality and is essential for the development of effective strategies for reducing particulate emissions.

  8. A new method for assessing the contribution of Primary Biological Atmospheric Particles to the mass concentration of the atmospheric aerosol.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Cinzia; Marcovecchio, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Primary Biologic Atmospheric Particles (PBAPs) constitute an interesting and poorly investigated component of the atmospheric aerosol. We have developed and validated a method for evaluating the contribution of overall PBAPs to the mass concentration of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The method is based on PM sampling on polycarbonate filters, staining of the collected particles with propidium iodide, observation at epifluorescence microscope and calculation of the bioaerosol mass using a digital image analysis software. The method has been also adapted to the observation and quantification of size-segregated aerosol samples collected by multi-stage impactors. Each step of the procedure has been individually validated. The relative repeatability of the method, calculated on 10 pairs of atmospheric PM samples collected side-by-side, was 16%. The method has been applied to real atmospheric samples collected in the vicinity of Rome, Italy. Size distribution measurements revealed that PBAPs was mainly in the coarse fraction of PM, with maxima in the range 5.6-10 μm. 24-h samples collected during different period of the year have shown that the concentration of bioaerosol was in the range 0.18-5.3 μg m(-3) (N=20), with a contribution to the organic matter in PM10 in the range 0.5-31% and to the total mass concentration of PM10 in the range 0.3-18%. The possibility to determine the concentration of total PBAPs in PM opens up interesting perspectives in terms of studying the health effects of these components and of increasing our knowledge about the composition of the organic fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. PMID:26680730

  9. Monitoring of inorganic ions, carbonaceous matter and mass in ambient aerosol particles with online and offline methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Saarnio, K.; Frey, A.; Saarikoski, S.; Teinilä, K.; Kulmala, M.; Hillamo, R.

    2011-10-01

    Year-long high timeresolution measurements of major chemical components in atmospheric sub-micrometer particles were conducted at an urban background station in Finland 2006-2007. Ions were analyzed using a particle-into-liquid sampler combined with an ion chromatograph (PILS-IC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) by using a semicontinuos OC/EC aerosol carbon analyzer (RT-OCEC), and PM2.5 mass with a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). Long time series provides information on differences between the used measurement techniques as well as information about the diurnal and seasonal changes. Chemical mass closure was constructed by comparing the identified aerosol mass with the measured PM2.5. The sum of all components measured online (ions, particulate organic matter (POM), EC) represented only 65% of the total PM2.5 mass. The difference can be explained by the difference in cutoff sizes (PM1 for online measurements, PM2.5 for total mass) and by evaporation of the semivolatile/volatile components. In general, some differences in results were observed when the results of the continuous/semicontinuous instruments were compared with those of the conventional filter samplings. For non-volatile compounds, like sulfate and potassium, correlation between the filter samples and the PILS was good but greater differences were observed for the semivolatile compounds like nitrate and ammonium. For OC the results of the RT-OCEC were on average 10% larger than those of the filters. When compared to filter measurements, high resolution measurements provide important data on short pollution plumes as well as on diurnal changes. Clear seasonal and diurnal cycles were observed for nitrate and EC.

  10. Number size distribution of aerosols at Mt. Huang and Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Effects of air masses and characteristics of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; An, Junlin; Yin, Yan; Kang, Hanqing

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol number spectra in the range of 10 nm-10 μm were observed at Mt. Huang (Aug. 15-Sep. 15) and Nanjing (Oct. 13-Nov. 15) by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) in 2011. Based on the backward trajectories obtained using the HYSPLIT model, the transport pathways of observed air masses during the study periods were classified into the following four groups: maritime air mass, continental air mass, marine-continental mixed air mass and local air mass. The variations in the aerosol number spectrum and the new particle formation (NPF) events for various types of air masses were discussed, along with meteorological data. The results showed that the average number concentration was 12,540 cm- 3 at Nanjing and only 2791 cm- 3 at Mt. Huang. The aerosol number concentration in Nanjing was 3-7 times higher than that in Mt. Huang; the large discrepancy was in the range of 10-100 nm. Different types of air masses had different effects on number concentration distribution. The number concentration of aerosols was higher in marine air masses, continental air masses and continental-marine mixed air masses at 10-50 nm, 100-500 nm and 50-200 nm, respectively. Under the four types of air masses, the aerosol size spectra had bimodal distributions in Nanjing and unimodal distributions in Mt. Huang (except under continental air masses: HT1). The effects of the diverse air masses on aerosol size segments of the concentration peak in Mt. Huang were stronger than those in Nanjing. The local air masses were dominant at these two sites and accounted for 44% of the total air masses. However, the aerosol number concentration was the lowest in Mt. Huang and the highest in Nanjing when local air masses were present. The number concentrations for foreign air masses increased at Mt. Huang and decreased at Nanjing. Different types of air masses had greater effects on the aerosol spectrum distribution at Mt. Huang than at Nanjing. During the NPF events, the particle growth rates at Mt

  11. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Canagaratna, Manjula; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, Joel; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Davidovits, Paul

    2009-10-01

    To accurately model the radiative forcing of aerosol particles, one must measure in real-time the size, shape, density, chemical composition, and mixing state of ambient particles. This is a formidable challenge because the chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles are highly complex, dependent on the emission sources, the geography and meteorology of the surroundings, and the gas phase composition of the regional atmosphere.

  12. THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A

    2006-10-23

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  13. Collection efficiency of the Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) for internally mixed particulate black carbon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Willis, M. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E. C.; Williams, L. R.; Lambe, A. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-05-26

    The soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) uses an intra-cavity infrared laser to vaporize refractory black carbon (rBC) containing particles, making the particle beam–laser beam overlap critical in determining the collection efficiency (CE) for rBC and associated non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM). This work evaluates the ability of the SP-AMS to quantify rBC and NR-PM mass in internally mixed particles with different thicknesses of organic coating. Using apparent relative ionization efficiencies for uncoated and thickly coated rBC particles, we report measurements of SP-AMS sensitivity to NR-PM and rBC, for Regal Black, the recommended particulate calibration material. Beam width probe (BWP) measurements aremore » used to illustrate an increase in sensitivity for highly coated particles due to narrowing of the particle beam, which enhances the CE of the SP-AMS by increasing the laser beam–particle beam overlap. Assuming complete overlap for thick coatings, we estimate CE for bare Regal Black particles of 0.6 ± 0.1, which suggests that previously measured SP-AMS sensitivities to Regal Black were underestimated by up to a factor of two. The efficacy of the BWP measurements is highlighted by studies at a busy road in downtown Toronto and at a non-roadside location, which show particle beam widths similar to, but greater than that of bare Regal Black and coated Regal Black, respectively. Further BWP measurements at field locations will help to constrain the range of CE for fresh and aged rBC-containing particles. The ability of the SP-AMS to quantitatively assess the composition of internally mixed particles is validated through measurements of laboratory-generated organic coated particles, which demonstrate that the SP-AMS can quantify rBC and NR-PM over a wide range of particle compositions and rBC core sizes.« less

  14. Collection efficiency of the soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) for internally mixed particulate black carbon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Willis, M. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E. C.; Williams, L. R.; Lambe, A. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-12-18

    The soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) uses an intra-cavity infrared laser to vaporize refractory black carbon (rBC) containing particles, making the particle beam–laser beam overlap critical in determining the collection efficiency (CE) for rBC and associated non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM). This work evaluates the ability of the SP-AMS to quantify rBC and NR-PM mass in internally mixed particles with different thicknesses of organic coating. Using apparent relative ionization efficiencies for uncoated and thickly coated rBC particles, we report measurements of SP-AMS sensitivity to NR-PM and rBC, for Regal Black, the recommended particulate calibration material. Beam width probe (BWP) measurements aremore » used to illustrate an increase in sensitivity for highly coated particles due to narrowing of the particle beam, which enhances the CE of the SP-AMS by increasing the laser beam–particle beam overlap. Assuming complete overlap for thick coatings, we estimate CE for bare Regal Black particles of 0.6 ± 0.1, which suggests that previously measured SP-AMS sensitivities to Regal Black were underestimated by up to a factor of 2. The efficacy of the BWP measurements is highlighted by studies at a busy road in downtown Toronto and at a non-roadside location, which show particle beam widths similar to, but greater than that of bare Regal Black and coated Regal Black, respectively. Further BWP measurements at field locations will help to constrain the range of CE for fresh and aged rBC-containing particles. The ability of the SP-AMS to quantitatively assess the composition of internally mixed particles is validated through measurements of laboratory-generated organic coated particles, which demonstrate that the SP-AMS can quantify rBC and NR-PM over a wide range of particle compositions and rBC core sizes.« less

  15. BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry: Reagentless Detection of Individual Airborne Spores and Other Bioagent Particles Based on Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, P T

    2004-07-20

    Better devices are needed for the detection of aerosolized biological warfare agents. Advances in the ongoing development of one such device, the BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system, are described here in detail. The system samples individual, micrometer-sized particles directly from the air and analyzes them in real-time without sample preparation or use of reagents. At the core of the BAMS system is a dual-polarity, single-particle mass spectrometer with a laser based desorption and ionization (DI) system. The mass spectra produced by early proof-of-concept instruments were highly variable and contained limited information to differentiate certain types of similar biological particles. The investigation of this variability and subsequent changes to the DI laser system are described. The modifications have reduced the observed variability and thereby increased the usable information content in the spectra. These improvements would have little value without software to analyze and identify the mass spectra. Important improvements have been made to the algorithms that initially processed and analyzed the data. Single particles can be identified with an impressive level of accuracy, but to obtain significant reductions in the overall false alarm rate of the BAMS instrument, alarm decisions must be made dynamically on the basis of multiple analyzed particles. A statistical model has been developed to make these decisions and the resulting performance of a hypothetical BAMS system is quantitatively predicted. The predictions indicate that a BAMS system, with reasonably attainable characteristics, can operate with a very low false alarm rate (orders of magnitude lower than some currently fielded biodetectors) while still being sensitive to small concentrations of biological particles in a large range of environments. Proof-of-concept instruments, incorporating some of the modifications described here, have already performed well in independent testing.

  16. Preliminary Observations of organic gas-particle partitioning from biomass combustion smoke using an aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.; Sullivan, A. P.; Carrico, C. M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M.; Saarikoski, S.; Worsnop, D. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E.; Malm, W. C.; Lincoln, E.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play important roles in adverse health effects, indirect and direct forcing of Earth’s climate, and visibility degradation. Biomass burning emissions from wild and prescribed fires can make a significant contribution to ambient aerosol mass in many locations and seasons. In order to better understand the chemical properties of particles produced by combustion of wild land fuels, an experiment was conducted in 2009 at the U.S. Forest Service/United States Department of Agriculture (USFS/USDA) Fire Science Laboratory (FSL) located in Missoula, Montana, to measure volatility of open biomass burning emissions for a variety of fuel types. Both isothermal and temperature-dependent volatilization were studied, using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) coupled with thermal denuder. Small quantities (200-800g) of various fuel types, primarily from the U.S., were burned in a large combustion chamber and diluted in two stages in continuous-flow residence chambers. The partitioning of particulate organic mass concentrations by the HR-ToF-AMS was evaluated for each fuel type using nominal dilution ratios characterized both by measuring flow rates in continuous-flow residence chambers and from the concentrations of several conserved tracers. The volatility of biomass burning smoke was found to vary across fuel types. Up to ~60% volatile loss of organic matter was observed as a result of dilution for some smoke samples (e.g., Lodgepole pine and Ponderosa pine). We will investigate relationships between volatility and several parameters such as the absolute mass concentration and chemical composition. We will also examine the behavior of biomass burning tracers, such as AMS m/z 60, under dilution conditions. Previous studies (e.g. Lee et al., AS&T 2010 and Aiken et al., ACP 2009) have observed a strong relationship between OA and AMS m/z 60 in fresh biomass burning smoke. We will examine whether this relationship is altered

  17. Tropopsheric Aerosol Chemistry via Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    A broad overview of size resolved aerosol chemistry in urban, rural and remote regions is evolving from deployment of aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) throughout the northern hemisphere. Using thermal vaporization and electron impact ionization as universal detector of non-refractory inorganic and organic composition, the accumulation of AMS results represent a library of mass spectral signatures of aerosol chemistry. For organics in particular, mass spectral factor analysis provides a procedure for classifying (and simplifying) complex mixtures composed of the hundreds or thousands of individual compounds. Correlations with parallel gas and aerosol measurements (e.g. GC/MS, HNMR, FTIR) supply additional chemical information needed to interpret mass spectra. The challenge is to separate primary and secondary; anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning sources - and subsequent - transformations of aerosol chemistry and microphysics.

  18. [Analysis of Single Particle Aging and Mixing State at an Agriculture Site (Quzhou) in the North China Plain in Summer Using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zi-long; Zeng, Li-mm; Dong, I-Iua-Bin; Li, Mei; Zhu, Tong

    2016-04-15

    To characterize the size distribution and chemical ompsitins f abiet prtices t a agicuturesit intheNorh o Chinese Plain, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed from June 30 to July 8, 2013. A total of 230,152 particles in the size range of 0.2-2.0 pm were chemically analyzed with both positive and negative ion spectra. The results revealed that aerosol could he classified into eight dominant groups, including elemental carbon (EC, 55.5%), organic carbon (OC, 10.7%), alkalis (Na-K, 17.4%), other metals (1.7%), Fe-rich (6.3%), Pb-rich (3.1%), dust (4.8%), and other (0.8%). The observed eight types of particles contained secondary components such as 46NO2-, 62NO3-, 96SO3-, 96SO4-, 97HSO4-, showing that they probably went through different aging processes. The analysis of particle size distribution showed that 700-800 nm was the peak value of all particles, and that dust and Fe particles were mainly in the coarse size range. EC particles subtype group research revealed EC particles tended to be aging with the above mentioned secondary ions and eventually led to a particle type conversion from EC to the less aging ECN and the more serious aging ECS, the diurnal variation of which was obviously negatively correlated, and there was a possibility of forming OC/EC mixture with the adsorption of secondary organic matter on EC surface. PMID:27548937

  19. Determination of alkyl amines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-03-01

    In recent years low molecular weight alkyl amines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkyl amines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkyl amines in aerosol particles. Alkyl amines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg. For the IC approach, a solid phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkyl amines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkyl amines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkyl amines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

  20. Determination of alkylamines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Jia, W. T.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years low molecular weight alkylamines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkylamines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkylamines in aerosol particles. Alkylamines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg (or 0.02-0.04 ng m-3). For the IC approach, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkylamines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkylamines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng (or 0.9-6.4 ng m-3), and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkylamines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

  1. The performance and the characterization of laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LAAP-ToF-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemayel, Rachel; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Hayeck, Nathalie; Van Elteren, Johannes T.; Wortham, Henri; Gligorovski, Sasho

    2016-05-01

    Hyphenated laser ablation-mass spectrometry instruments have been recognized as useful analytical tools for the detection and chemical characterization of aerosol particles. Here we describe the performances of a laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAP-ToF-MS) which was designed for aerodynamic particle sizing using two 405 nm scattering lasers and characterization of the chemical composition of single aerosol particle via ablation/ionization by a 193 nm excimer laser and detection in a bipolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a mass resolving power of m/Δm > 600.

    We describe a laboratory based optimization strategy for the development of an analytical methodology for characterization of atmospheric particles using the LAAP-ToF-MS instrument in combination with a particle generator, a differential mobility analyzer and an optical particle counter. We investigated the influence of particle number concentration, particle size and particle composition on the detection efficiency. The detection efficiency is a product of the scattering efficiency of the laser diodes and the ionization efficiency or hit rate of the excimer laser. The scattering efficiency was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.9 % with an average of 1.1 %; the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 17.0 %. The hit rate exhibited good repeatability with an average value of 63 % and an RSD of 18 %. In addition to laboratory tests, the LAAP-ToF-MS was used to sample ambient air during a period of 6 days at the campus of Aix-Marseille University, situated in the city center of Marseille, France. The optimized LAAP-ToF-MS methodology enables high temporal resolution measurements of the chemical composition of ambient particles, provides new insights into environmental science, and a new investigative tool for atmospheric chemistry and physics, aerosol science and health impact studies.

  2. Aerosol properties, source identification, and cloud processing in orographic clouds measured by single particle mass spectrometry on a Central European mountain site during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, A.; Schneider, J.; Klimach, T.; Mertes, S.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-09-01

    Cloud residues and out-of-cloud aerosol particles with diameters between 150 and 900 nm have been analysed by on-line single particle aerosol mass spectrometry during the six-week study HCCT-2010 in September/October 2010. The measurement location was the mountain Schmücke (937 m a.s.l.) in Central Germany. More than 170 000 bipolar mass spectra from out-of-cloud aerosol particles and more than 14 000 bipolar mass spectra from cloud residual particles were obtained and were classified using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Analysis of the uncertainty of the sorting algorithm was conducted on a subset of the data by comparing the clustering output with particle-by-particle inspection and classification by the operator. This analysis yielded a false classification probability between 13 and 48 %. Additionally, particle types were identified by specific marker ions. The results from the ambient aerosol analysis show that 63 % of the analysed particles belong to clusters indicating a diurnal variation, suggesting that local or regional sources dominate the aerosol, especially for particles containing soot and biomass burning particles. In the cloud residues the relative percentage of large soot-containing particles and particles containing amines was found to be increased compared to the out-of-cloud aerosol, while in general organic particles were less abundant in the cloud residues. In the case of amines this can be explained by the high solubility of the amines, while the large soot-containing particles were found to be internally mixed with inorganics, which explains their activation as cloud condensation nuclei. Furthermore, the results show that during cloud processing, both sulphate and nitrate are added to the residual particles, thereby changing the mixing state and increasing the fraction of particles with nitrate and/or sulphate. This is expected to lead to higher hygroscopicity after cloud evaporation, and therefore to an increase of the particles

  3. Aerosol properties, source identification, and cloud processing in orographic clouds measured by single particle mass spectrometry on a central European mountain site during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, A.; Schneider, J.; Klimach, T.; Mertes, S.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.; Borrmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud residues and out-of-cloud aerosol particles with diameters between 150 and 900 nm were analysed by online single particle aerosol mass spectrometry during the 6-week study Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia (HCCT)-2010 in September-October 2010. The measurement location was the mountain Schmücke (937 m a.s.l.) in central Germany. More than 160 000 bipolar mass spectra from out-of-cloud aerosol particles and more than 13 000 bipolar mass spectra from cloud residual particles were obtained and were classified using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Analysis of the uncertainty of the sorting algorithm was conducted on a subset of the data by comparing the clustering output with particle-by-particle inspection and classification by the operator. This analysis yielded a false classification probability between 13 and 48 %. Additionally, particle types were identified by specific marker ions. The results from the ambient aerosol analysis show that 63 % of the analysed particles belong to clusters having a diurnal variation, suggesting that local or regional sources dominate the aerosol, especially for particles containing soot and biomass burning particles. In the cloud residues, the relative percentage of large soot-containing particles and particles containing amines was found to be increased compared to the out-of-cloud aerosol, while, in general, organic particles were less abundant in the cloud residues. In the case of amines, this can be explained by the high solubility of the amines, while the large soot-containing particles were found to be internally mixed with inorganics, which explains their activation as cloud condensation nuclei. Furthermore, the results show that during cloud processing, both sulfate and nitrate are added to the residual particles, thereby changing the mixing state and increasing the fraction of particles with nitrate and/or sulfate. This is expected to lead to higher hygroscopicity after cloud evaporation, and therefore to an increase of

  4. Toward Quantifying the Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Individual Submicron Atmospheric Aerosol Particles with STXM/NEXAFS and SEM/EDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancey Piens, D.; Kelly, S. T.; OBrien, R. E.; Wang, B.; Petters, M. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols influences their optical and cloud-nucleation properties, and therefore affects climate. Although changes in particle size as a function of relative humidity have often been used to quantify the hygroscopic behavior of submicron aerosol particles, it has been noted that calculations of hygroscopicity based on size contain error due to particle porosity, non-ideal volume additivity and changes in surface tension. We will present a method to quantify the hygroscopic behavior of submicron aerosol particles based on changes in mass, rather than size, as a function of relative humidity. This method results from a novel experimental approach combining scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near-edge x-ray absorption fine spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), as well as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) on the same individual particles. First, using STXM/NEXAFS, our methods are applied to aerosol particles of known composition ‒ for instance ammonium sulfate, sodium bromide and levoglucosan ‒ and validated by theory. Then, using STXM/NEXAFS and SEM/EDX, these methods are extended to mixed atmospheric aerosol particles collected in the field at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility at the Southern Great Planes sampling site in Oklahoma, USA. We have observed and quantified a range of hygroscopic behaviors which are correlated to the composition and morphology of individual aerosol particles. These methods will have implications for parameterizing aerosol mixing state and cloud-nucleation activity in atmospheric models.

  5. Desert Dust Aerosol Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, Using Particle Properties Derived from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.

  6. Air mass origin and its influence on radionuclide activities ( 7Be and 210Pb) in aerosol particles at a coastal site in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    Studies of radionuclide activities in aerosol particles provide a means for evaluating the integrated effects of transport and meteorology on the atmospheric loadings of substances with different sources. Measurements of aerosol mass concentration and specific activities of 7Be and 210Pb in aerosols at Málaga (36° 43' 40″ N; 4° 28' 8″ W) for the period 2000-2006 were used to obtain the relationships between radionuclide activities and airflow patterns by comparing the data grouped by air mass trajectory clusters. The average concentration values of 7Be and 210Pb over the 7 year period have been found to be 4.6 and 0.58 mBq m -3, respectively, with mean aerosol mass concentration of 53.6 μg m -3. The identified air flow types arriving at Málaga reflect the transitional location of the Iberian Peninsula and show significant differences in radionuclide activities. Air concentrations of both nuclides and the aerosol mass concentration are controlled predominantly by the synoptic scenarios leading to the entrance of dust-laden continental flows from northern Africa and the arrival of polar maritime air masses, as implied by the strong correlations found between the monthly frequencies of the different air masses and the specific activities of both radionuclides. Correlations between activity concentrations and precipitation are significant though lower than with air masses.

  7. Single particles measured by a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer onboard the NOAA P-3 aircraft during SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Welti, A.; Sueper, D.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Single particles in the eastern US were characterized by a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (LS-ToF-AMS) onboard the NOAA P-3 aircraft during the Southeastern Nexus (SENEX) campaign. Single particle data were collected for 30 seconds every 5 minutes. Aerosols larger than 200-300 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter can be optically detected by the 405 nm crystal laser and trigger the saving of single particle mass spectra. The measured single particles are internally-mixed as expected. The single particles were classified as prompt, delayed, and null based on the chemical ion signal arrival time difference between prediction from the light scattering signal and measurement by mass spectrometer and the presence or absence of a mass spectrum. On average the number fraction of particles detected as prompt, delayed, and null (no spectrum) is about 30%, 10%, and 60%. The number fraction of these three particle types varied with aerosol size, chemical composition and the investigation region and will be discussed in detail. For example, the number fraction of prompt particles was significantly higher for the flight to the Pennsylvania natural gas shale region on July 6, 2013, which is probably related to the chemical composition (more acidic) and phase of the ambient particles. These particle types and detection efficiency are related to the bouncing effect on the vaporizer and may provide insight into the non-unit AMS collection efficiency. Moreover, most of the particles larger than 800 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter sized with the traditional AMS PToF mode are delayed particles and their mass spectral signals appear to be affected by this process.

  8. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  9. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, Allison; Salcedo, D.; Cubison, Michael J.; Huffman, J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Sueper, D. T.; Kimmel, Joel; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Trimborn, Achim; Northway, Megan; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Schauer, James J.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Fortner, Edward; de Foy, B.; Wang, Jian; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, Junsheng; Zhang, Renyi; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, Luisa T.; Sosa, G.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2009-09-11

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Mass concentrations, diurnal cycles, and size distributions of inorganic and organic species are similar to results from the CENICA supersite in April 2003 with organic aerosol (OA) comprising about half of the fine PM mass. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the high resolution OA spectra identifies three major components: chemically-reduced urban primary emissions (hydrocarbon-like OA, HOA), oxygenated OA (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA) that correlates with levoglucosan and acetonitrile. BBOA includes several very large plumes from regional fires and likely also some refuse burning.

  10. Measuring the temporal evolution of aerosol composition in a remote marine environment influenced by Saharan dust outflow using a new single particle mass spectrometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Nicholas; Williams, Paul; Flynn, Michael; Taylor, Jonathan; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    Refractory material constitutes a significant fraction of the atmospheric aerosol burden and has a strong influence on climate through the direct radiative effect and aerosol-cloud interactions, particularly in cold and mixed phase clouds. Composition of refractory aerosols is traditionally measured using off-line analytical techniques such as filter analyses. However, when using off-line techniques the temporal evolution of the data set is lost, meaning the measurements are difficult to relate to atmospheric processes. Recently, single particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) has proven a useful tool for the on-line study of refractory aerosols with the ability to probe size resolved chemical composition with high temporal resolution on a particle by particle basis. A new Laser Ablation Aerosol Time-of-Flight (LAAP-TOF) SPMS instrument with a modified optical detection system was deployed for ground based measurements at Praia, Cape Verde during the Ice in Cloud - Dust (ICE-D) multi-platform campaign in August 2015. A primary aim of the project was to evaluate the impact of Saharan dust on ice nucleation in mixed phase clouds. The instrument was operated over a 16 day period in which several hundred thousand single particle mass spectra were obtained from air masses with back trajectories traversing the Mid-Atlantic, Sahara Desert and West Africa. The data presented indicate external mixtures of sea salt and silicate mineral dust internally mixed with secondary species that are consistent with long range transport to a remote marine environment. The composition and size distributions measured with the LAAP-TOF are compared with measurements from an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and data from SEM-EDX analysis of filter samples. The particle number fraction identified as silicate mineral from the mass spectra correlates with a fraction of the incandescent particles measured with the SP2. We discuss the suitability of the modified

  11. AMS Measurements in National Parks of Aerosol Mass, Size and Composition, Comparison with Filter Samples and Correlation with Particle Hygroscopicity and Optical Extinction Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M.; Taylor, N. F.; Collins, D. R.; Kumar, N.; Allen, J.; Newburn, M.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-12-01

    We report a comparison of results from aerosol studies at Great Smoky Mountain National Park (2006), Mt. Rainier National Park (2009) and Acadia National Park (2011), all class I visibility areas associated with IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) sites. This collaborative study was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and was done with the cooperation of the National Park Service and the EPA. The atmospheric aerosol composition in these sites is influenced by a number of anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources, providing a rich environment for fundamental aerosol studies. The primary purpose of these studies was to add state-of-the-art aerosol instrumentation to the standard light extinction and aerosol measurements at the site, used to determine parameters for the IMPROVE light extinction reconstruction equation, adopted by the EPA to estimate light extinction from atmospheric aerosol concentrations and Rayleigh scattering. The combination of these diverse measurements also provides significant insight into fundamental aerosol properties such as aging and radiative forcing. New instrumentation included a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Aerodyne Q-AMS-Smoky Mountain Study), a high resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS - Mt. Rainier and Acadia studies) for real time measurements that directly address the relationship between sulfate, nitrate, and OC size and concentration, which is related to cloud and dry gas-to-particle conversion as air masses age during transport, the relationship between WSOC hygroscopic growth and oxygenated organic (OOA) composition, the OCM/OC ratio, and the chemical composition that determines the ambient hygroscopic state. The OCM/OC ratio and organic water uptake was addressed with high-volume and medium volume PM2.5 aerosol samples. Aerosols were collected daily on Teflon coated glass fiber filters (TGFF) in four high-volume PM2.5 samplers

  12. Investigation of the utility of laser-secondary neutral mass spectrometry for the detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in individual atmospheric aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Dambach, Steffen; Galla, Sebastian; Peterson, Richard E; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient aerosol particles is of importance to both human health and climate forcing. Although time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has proven useful for studying the distribution of organic compounds in individual aerosol particles, it is difficult to detect PAHs at relevant concentrations in individual aerosol particles because of their low ion yield. In this study, we explore the potential of using laser secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) to study three PAHs: pyrene, anthracene, and naphthalene. Because of the high volatility of PAHs, a cryostage was required for the analysis to prevent sublimation of the molecules into the vacuum chamber. We studied two laser systems, a 157 nm excimer laser, which is capable of single-photon ionization of the PAHs, and a 193 nm laser, which requires multiphoton ionization. Under optimized conditions for laser power density and primary ion pulse length, 193 nm postionization resulted in a 2-50-fold increase in ion yield over ToF-SIMS. Using the 157 nm laser, the yield was increased by more than 3 orders of magnitude for all 3 PAHs studied. The single-photon postionization process proved superior in terms of both yield enhancement and reduced fragmentation. By using the optimized 157 nm laser system and a cryostage, we were able to detect PAHs on the surface of 2 μm diameter ambient aerosol particles. PMID:21823569

  13. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF AN AEROSOL MASS DISTRIBUTION MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    An aerosol mass monitor has been built to measure the masses of non-volatile aerosols in the range of 0.05 to 5 micrometers aerodynamic particle diameter. The instrument consists of a newly designed spiral duct aerosol centrifuge equipped with highly sensitive quartz sensors for ...

  14. ARTICLES: Influence Factors on Particle Growth for On-line Aerosol Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei-wei; Ti, Ru-fang; Zhang, Zi-Iiang; Zheng, Hai-yang; Fang, Li

    2010-06-01

    An evaporation/condensation flow cell was developed and interfaced with the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer for on-line bioaerosol detection and characterization, which allows matrix addition by condensation onto the laboratory-generated bioaerosol particles. The final coated particle exiting from the condenser is then introduced into the aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer or home-built aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and its aerodynamic size directly effects on the matrix-to-analyte molar ratio, which is very important for MALDI technique. In order to observe the protonated analyte molecular ion, and then determine the classification of biological aerosols, the matrix-to-analyte molar ratio must be appropriate. Four experimental parameters, including the temperature of the heated reservoir, the initial particle size, its number concentration, and the matrix material, were tested experimentally to analyze their influences on the final particle size. This technique represents an on-line system of detection that has the potential to provide rapid and reliable identification of airborne biological aerosols.

  15. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution. PMID:23216158

  16. SCAVENGING OF AEROSOL PARTICLES BY PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne measurements have been made of aerosol particle size distributions (>0.01 micrometer) in aged air masses, in the plumes from several coal power plants and a large Kraft paper mill, and in the emissions from a volcano, before and after rain or snow showers. These measurem...

  17. Single-particle detection efficiencies of aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry during the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M; Beddows, David C S; Freney, Evelyn J; Heal, Mathew R; Donovan, Robert J

    2006-08-15

    During the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment (NAMBLEX) sampling campaign at Mace Head, Ireland, both continental and maritime air masses were sampled. Aerosol was characterized both with a TSI 3800 time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and a MOUDI microorifice impactor, and particle number counts were measured independently with an aerodynamic particle sizer. The data have been analyzed in order to elucidate factors determining the particle detection efficiencies of the ATOFMS. These are broken down according to the efficiency of the inlet system, the hit efficiency on particles which enter the sensing zone of the instrument and the sensitivity of the measured ion signal to the chemical species. A substantial matrix effect depending on the chemical composition of the aerosol sampled at the time was found, which is reflected in variations in the hit efficiency of particles entering the sensing zone of the instrument with the main desorption-ionization laser. This is in addition to the strong inverse power-law dependence of inlet transmission efficiency on particle diameter. The variation in hit efficiency with particle type is likely attributable to differences in the energetics of laser energy absorption, ablation, and ion formation. However, once variations in both inlet transmission and hit efficiencies are taken into account, no additional matrix dependence of ATOFMS response is required to obtain a linear relationship between the ion signal and the concentration of a particular chemical species. The observations show that a constant mass of material is ionized from each particle, irrespective of size. Consequently the integrated ion signal for a given chemical component and particle size class needs to be increased by a factor related to the cube of particle diameter in order to correlate with the airborne mass of that component. PMID:16955903

  18. Direct photolysis of α-pinene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol: effect on particle mass and peroxide content.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Scott A; Blair, Sandra L; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2014-10-01

    Primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA) contain a complex mixture of multifunctional chemicals, many of which are photolabile. Much of the previous work that aimed to understand the chemical evolution (aging) of POA and SOA has focused on the reactive uptake of gas-phase oxidants by particles. By stripping volatile compounds and ozone from α-pinene ozonolysis SOA with three 1-m-long denuders, and exposing the residual particles in a flow cell to near-ultraviolet (λ>300 nm) radiation, we find that condensed-phase photochemistry can induce significant changes in SOA particle size and chemical composition. The particle-bound organic peroxides, which are highly abundant in α-pinene ozonolysis SOA (22 ± 5% by weight), have an atmospheric photolysis lifetime of about 6 days at a 24-h average solar zenith angle (SZA) of 65° experienced at 34° latitude (Los Angeles) in the summer. In addition, the particle diameter shrinks 0.56% per day under these irradiation conditions as a result of the loss of volatile photolysis products. Experiments with and without the denuders show similar results, suggesting that condensed-phase processes dominate over heterogeneous reactions of particles with organic vapors, excess ozone, and gas-phase free radicals. These condensed-phase photochemical processes occur on atmospherically relevant time scales and should be considered when modeling the evolution of organic aerosol in the atmosphere. PMID:25165890

  19. Anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles in a football stadium: Real-time characterization of emissions from cigarette smoking, cooking, hand flares, and color smoke bombs by high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Veres, Patrick R.; Williams, Jonathan; Borrmann, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    Aerosol particles from several anthropogenic sources associated with football stadia including cooking, cigarette smoking, burning of color smoke bombs and hand flares were analyzed by high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. The physical and chemical characteristics of these different aerosols, in particular the organic fraction, were explored in laboratory studies to obtain robust references. These data were compared with field campaign results from a Bundesliga (German football league) match in the Coface Arena (Mainz, Germany) on 20th April 2012. The field measurement revealed a strongly elevated mass concentration of organic aerosols (OA) compared to background levels showing a temporal structure clearly related to the match. PMF analysis established that during the football match event cigarette smoke was the predominant component of submicron organic aerosol (67% of total OA). Cooking emissions from food outlets within the stadium correlated well with the sales figures of the catering stations and were also found to be of relevance (24% of total OA) especially in the period before kickoff. Pyrotechnics were not observed during this football match and no signatures of these sources were found in the mass spectra from the stadium measurements. All species that were elevated during the football match returned to their initial background levels within one hour after the match had finished. This demonstrates a good ventilation capacity of the open-topped Coface Arena.

  20. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Environmental Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; Cliff, John B.

    2010-08-01

    Atmospheric particles influence many aspects of climate, air quality and human health. Understanding the composition, chemistry and behavior of atmospheric aerosols is a key remaining challenge in improving climate models. Furthermore, particles may be traced back to a particular source based on composition, stable isotope ratios, or the presence of particular surface chemistries. Finally, the characterization of atmospheric particles in the workplace plays an important role in understanding the potential for exposure and environmental and human health effects to engineered and natural nanoscale particles. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a useful tool in determining any of several aspects of the structure, composition and chemistry of these particles. Often used in conjunction with other surface analysis and electron microscopy methods, SIMS has been used to determine or confirm reactions on and in particles, the presence of particular organic species on the surface of atmospheric aerosols and several other interesting and relevant findings. Various versions of SIMS instruments – dynamic SIMS, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry or TOF-SIMS, nanoSIMS – have been used to determine specific aspects of aerosol structure and chemistry. This article describes the strengths of each type of SIMS instrument in the characterization of aerosols, along with guidance on sample preparation, specific characterization specific to the particular information sought in the analysis. Examples and guidance are given for each type of SIMS analysis.

  1. Application of FIGAERO (Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to field and chamber organic aerosol: Implications for carboxylic acid formation and gas-particle partitioning from monoterpene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Thornton, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase carboxylic acid containing compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. A prototype operated with acetate negative ion proton transfer chemistry was deployed on the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study a-pinene oxidation, and a modified version was deployed at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and SOAS, in Brent Alabama. We focus here on results from JPAC and Hyytiälä, where we utilized the same ionization method most selective towards carboxylic acids. In all locations, 100's of organic acid compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same composition acids detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. Particulate organics detected by FIGAERO are highly correlated with organic aerosol mass measured by an AMS, providing additional volatility and molecular level information about collected aerosol. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. Moreover the detailed structure in the thermal desorption signals reveals a contribution from thermal decomposition of large molecular weight organics and or oligomers with implications for partitioning measurements and model validation

  2. Characterization of key aerosol, trace gas and meteorological properties and particle formation and growth processes dependent on air mass origins in coastal Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesch, J.; Drewnick, F.; Sinha, V.; Williams, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of aerosols at a certain site can vary depending on season, the air mass source region and distance from sources. Regardless of the environment, new particle formation (NPF) events are one of the major sources for ultrafine particles which are potentially hazardous to human health. Grown particles are optically active and efficient CCN resulting in important implications for visibility and climate (Zhang et al., 2004). The study presented here is intended to provide information about various aspects of continental, urban and marine air masses reflected by wind patterns of the air arriving at the measurement site. Additionally we will be focusing on NPF events associated with different types of air masses affecting their emergence and temporal evolution. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters were performed within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) project. The field campaign took place from mid-November to mid-December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville) and the Atlantic Ocean. Number and mass as well as PAH and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distribution instruments covered the size range 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). In order to evaluate the characteristics of different air masses linking local and regional sources as well as NPF processes, characteristic air mass types were classified dependent on backwards trajectory pathways and local meteorology. Large nuclei mode concentrations in the number size distribution were found within continental and urban influenced air mass types due to frequently occurring NPF events. Exploring individual production and sink variables, sulfuric

  3. Photochemical Aging of Organic Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S. A.; Bateman, A. P.; Dailo, M.; Do, T.; Mang, S. A.; Pan, X.; Underwood, J. S.; Walser, M. L.

    2007-05-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) particles are produced in the atmosphere as a result of oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Primary Organic Aerosol (POA) particles are directly emitted in the atmosphere by their sources. This research focuses on the mechanisms of direct photochemical processes taking place in model SOA and POA particles, the role of such processes in aging of organic aerosol particles, and the effect of photochemistry on particles' physicochemical properties. To address these questions, artificial SOA and POA particles are investigated with several laboratory-based approaches relying on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and mass-spectrometry. SOA particles generated by dark oxidation of d-Limonene, alpha-Pinene, and beta-Pinene by ozone are all found to absorb radiation in the tropospheric actinic window. The UV absorption photolyzes SOA constituents resulting in a release of small VOC molecules back in the gas-phase, and considerable change in SOA chemical composition. For terpenes featuring a terminal double bond, the main SOA photolysis products are invariably found to be formaldehyde and formic acid. Similar observations are obtained for products of ozonolysis of thin films of unsaturated fatty acids and self-assembled monolayers of unsaturated alkenes. For the case of fatty acids, a very detailed mechanism of ozonolysis and subsequent photolysis is proposed. The photolytic activity is primarily attributed to organic peroxides and aldehydes. These results convincingly demonstrate that photochemical processes occurring inside SOA and POA particles age the particles on time scales that are shorter than typical lifetimes of aerosol particles in the atmosphere.

  4. Aliphatic and aromatic amines in atmospheric aerosol particles: comparison of three ionization techniques in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and method development.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jiménez, José; Hautala, Sanna; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Laitinen, Totti; Hartonen, Kari; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2012-08-15

    A complete methodology was developed for the determination of ten aliphatic and nine aromatic amines in atmospheric aerosol particles. Before the liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometric separation and determination, the derivatization reaction of the analytes using dansyl chloride was accelerated by ultrasounds. From three different ionization techniques studied electrospray ionization was superior in terms of sensitivity, linearity, repeatability and reproducibility over atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and photoionization for the target analytes. The method developed was validated for the gas phase, 30 nm and total suspended atmospheric aerosol particles. The method quantification limits ranged between 1.8 and 71.7 pg. The accuracy and the potential matrix effects were evaluated using a standard addition methodology. Recoveries from 92.1% to 109.1%, the repeatability from 0.6% to 8.4% and the reproducibility from 2.3% to 9.8% were obtained. The reliability of the methodology was proved by the statistical evaluation. Finally, the developed methodology was applied to the determination of the target analytes in eight size separated ultrafine particulate (Dp=30±4 nm) samples and in eight total suspended particulate samples collected at the SMEAR II station. The mean concentrations for aliphatic amines were between 0.01 and 42.67 ng m(-3) and for aromatic amines between 0.02 and 1.70 ng m(-3). Thirteen amines were quantified for the first time in 30 nm aerosol particles. PMID:22841047

  5. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, S.; Zubler, E. M.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-08-01

    An explicit and detailed treatment of cloud-borne particles allowing for the consideration of aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented into COSMO-Model, the regional weather forecast and climate model of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO). The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol number and mass and additionally alter the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble Aitken and accumulation mode and generating coarse-mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases

  6. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  7. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels

  8. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  9. Intercomparison between a single particle soot photometer and evolved gas analysis in an industrial area in Japan: Implications for the consistency of soot aerosol mass concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Taketani, F.; Pan, X.; Irwin, M.; Symonds, J.

    2016-02-01

    Mass concentrations of soot (typically comprising black and elemental carbon; BC and EC, respectively) aerosols, were measured at Yokosuka city, an industrial region in Japan in the early summer of 2014. The results of laser-induced incandescence (LII) and evolved gas analysis (EGA) techniques were compared using a single particle soot photometer (SP2) and semi-continuous elemental/organic carbon analyzer (EC/OC analyzer), respectively. We revisited the procedure of SP2 calibration with a focus on investigating the relationship between LII intensity (SLII) and refractory BC (rBC) mass per particle (mPP) for some BC-proxies in the laboratory, as well as for ambient rBC particles in order to discuss the uncertainty of the SP2. It was found that the mPP-SLII for the fullerene soot and carbon black particles agreed well within 3% and 10%, respectively, with that for ambient rBC particles. This is the first time to suggest the use of carbon black as a reference material. We also found that the mPP-SLII for the aqueous deflocculated Acheson graphite particles with the correction factor given by Baumgardner et al. (2012) was still biased by around +20% to that for ambient rBC particles. EC quantified by the semi-continuous EC/OC analyzer using a thermal-protocol similar to that of Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE-like), systematically showed higher concentrations than rBC measured by the SP2. The uncertainties related to SP2 cannot fully account for this difference. This result was likely caused by the contribution of charred organic materials to EC, which can be affected significantly by thermal-protocols for the EGA. The consistency and differences between rBC and EC are discussed with regard to comparing their respective mass concentrations.

  10. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  11. Test-Aerosol Generator For Calibrating Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Adams, Alois J.; Schwindt, Christian J.; Hodge, Timothy R.; Mallow, Tim J.; Duong, Anh A.; Bukauskas, Vyto V.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus generates clean, stable aerosol stream for use in testing and calibrating laser-based aerosol-particle counter. Size and concentration of aerosol particles controlled to ensure accurate calibration. Cheap, widely available medical nebulizers used to generate aerosols.

  12. MASS AND COMPOSITION OF AN URBAN AEROSOL AS A FUNCTION OF PARTICLE SIZE FOR SEVERAL VISIBILITY LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atmospheric aerosol sampling analysis experiment at a site near the center of the New York metropolitan area was carried out to delineate relationships existing between degree of visibility and various aerosol characteristics in a polluted atmosphere. Size-fractionated and unf...

  13. Biological particle analysis by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilker, V. L.; Platz, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    An instrument that analyzes the chemical composition of biological particles in aerosol or hydrosol form was developed. Efforts were directed toward the acquisition of mass spectra from aerosols of biomolecules and bacteria. The filament ion source was installed on the particle analysis by mass spectrometry system. Modifications of the vacuum system improved the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. After the modifications were incorporated, detailed mass spectra of simple compounds from the three major classes of biomolecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates were obtained. A method of generating bacterial aerosols was developed. The aerosols generated were collected and examined in the scanning electron microscope to insure that the bacteria delivered to the mass spectrometer were intact and free from debris.

  14. Characterization of submicron particles influenced by mixed biogenic and anthropogenic emissions using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: results from CARES

    SciTech Connect

    Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; Merkel, M.; Knighton, Walter B.; Sun, Y.; Song, Chen; Shilling, John E.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Herndon, Scott C.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berg, Larry K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Subramanian, R.

    2012-09-11

    The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) took place in the Sacramento Valley of California in summer 2010. We present results obtained at Cool, CA, the T1 site of the project ({approx}40 km downwind of urban emissions from Sacramento), where we deployed an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) in parallel with complementary instrumentation to characterize the sources and processes of submicron particles (PM1). Cool is located at the foothill of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where intense biogenic emissions are periodically mixed with urban outflow transported by daytime southwesterly winds from the Sacramento metropolitan area. The particle mass loading was low (3.0 {micro}gm{sup -3} on average) and dominated by organics (80% of the PM1 mass) followed by sulfate (9.9 %). Organics and sulfate appeared to be externally mixed, as suggested by their different time series (r2 = 0.13) and size distributions. Sulfate showed a bimodal distribution with a droplet mode peaking at {approx}400nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter (Dva), and a condensation mode at {approx}150 nm, while organics generally displayed a broad distribution in 60-600nm (Dva). New particle formation and growth events were observed almost every day, emphasizing the roles of organics and sulfate in new particle growth, especially that of organics. The organic aerosol (OA) had a nominal formula of C{sub 1}H{sub 1.38}N{sub 0.004}O{sub 0.44}, thus an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC) ratio of 1.70. Two different oxygenated OA (OOA, 90% of total OA mass) and a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 10 %) were identified by Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high resolution mass spectra. The more oxidized MO-OOA (O/C = 0.54) corresponded to secondary OA (SOA) primarily influenced by biogenic emissions, while the less oxidized LO-OOA (O/C = 0.42) corresponded to SOA associated with urban transport. The HOA factor corresponded to primary emissions mainly

  15. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  16. Probing the bulk viscosity of particles using aerosol optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Rory; Bones, David L.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2012-10-01

    Holographic aerosol optical tweezers can be used to trap arrays of aerosol particles allowing detailed studies of particle properties and processes at the single particle level. Recent observations have suggested that secondary organic aerosol may exist as ultra-viscous liquids or glassy states at low relative humidity, potentially a significant factor in influencing their role in the atmosphere and their activation to form cloud droplets. A decrease in relative humidity surrounding a particle leads to an increased concentration of solute in the droplet as the droplet returns to equilibrium and, thus, an increase in the bulk viscosity. We demonstrate that the timescales for condensation and evaporation processes correlate with particle viscosity, showing significant inhibition in mass transfer kinetics using ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/water droplets as a proxy to atmospheric multi-component aerosol. We go on to study the fundamental process of aerosol coagulation in aerosol particle arrays, observing the relaxation of non-spherical composite particles formed on coalescence. We demonstrate the use of bright-field imaging and elastic light scattering to make measurements of the timescale for the process of binary coalescence contrasting the rheological properties of aqueous sucrose and sodium chloride aerosol over a range of relative humidities.

  17. [Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of a Multi-Day Haze in the Winter of Shijiazhuang Using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-bo; Ren, Yi-bin; Hong, Gang; Lu, Na; Li, Zhi-guo; Li, Lei; Li, Hui-lai; Jin, Wei

    2015-11-01

    A multi-day haze episode occurred in Shijiazhuang during November 18-26, 2014. The characteristics were studied based on the data collected by the single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) located in the automatic monitoring station (20 meters) of Shijiazhuang. In accordance with the source spectral library of atmospheric pollutant emissions in Shijiazhuang, the main sources were distinguished and analyzed. The mass concentration of particulate matters and meteorological conditions being taken in account, the causes of haze in winter were also studied. It turned out that fine particulate matters in the Shijiazhuang air were mainly from 7 different sources: the tracer ion of coal source was Al; the tracer ions of industry sources were OC, Fe, and Pb; the tracer ion of motor vehicle tail gas source was EC; the tracer ions of dust source were Al, Ca and Si; the tracer ions of biomass burning source were K and levoglucosan; the tracer ions of pure secondary inorganic source were SO4-, NO2-, and NO3-, and the tracer ion of dining source was HOC. Of the above mentioned, OC, HOC, EC, HEC, ECOC, rich potassium particles minerals and heavy metals were 8 dominant polluting groups in hazy days. OC and ECOC particles were the majority, which accounted for more than 50% and 20% of the overall measured particles. OC particles were mainly discharged from coal combustion and industrial processes, and ECOC particles were mainly from coal combustion and vehicle exhaust emissions. When haze occurred in Shijiazhuang the proportion of pollutant particles of NH4+, SO4- , NO2- and NO3- increased, of which NH4+ was the most sharply increased. The mixed degree between EC, OC and NH4+, So4-, NO3- in the haze was higher than usual, of which NH4+ was the most sharply increased. In the static and stable weather gaseous (SO2, NO(x), NH3, VOCs) pollutants and particles were difficult to spread and accumulated rapidly, which were discharged from coal combustion, the process of the medical

  18. Oxodicarboxylic acids in atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römpp, Andreas; Winterhalter, Richard; Moortgat, Geert K.

    Fine mode aerosol was collected on quartz fiber filters at several sites across Europe. These samples were analyzed for carboxylic acids by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid (quadrupole and time-of-flight) mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS-TOF). A series of oxodicarboxylic acids (C 7-C 11) was detected. Oxodicarboxylic acids are linear dicarboxylic acids with an additional carbonyl group. Previous measurements of these acids are scarce and their sources are largely unknown. Several structural isomers (different positions of the carbonyl group within the molecule) could be identified and differentiated by the combination of laboratory experiments and high mass accuracy measurements. The homologs with 9-11 carbon atoms were identified for the first time in atmospheric aerosol particles. The concentrations of oxodicarboxylic acids in ambient aerosol samples frequently exceeded those of the corresponding unsubstituted dicarboxylic acids. Oxodicarboxylic acids have been shown to be products of the reaction of dicarboxylic acids with OH radicals in chamber experiments and a reaction mechanism is proposed. Good correlation of oxodicarboxylic acid and hydroxyl radical concentrations was found at two measurement sites (Finland and Crete) of different geographic location and meteorological conditions. The ratios of individual isomers from the field samples are comparable to those of the laboratory experiments. The results of this study imply that the reaction of OH radicals and dicarboxylic acids is an important pathway for the production of oxodicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere. Oxodicarboxylic acids seem to be important intermediates in atmospheric oxidation processes of organic compounds.

  19. Ambient aerosol analysis using aerosol-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, K.A.; Noble, C.A.; Liu, D.Y.; Silva, P.J.; Fergenson, D.F.

    1996-10-01

    We have recently developed a technique, Aerosol-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS), which is capable of real-time determination of the aerodynamic size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. In order to obtain such information, the techniques of aerodynamic particle sizing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry are combined in a single instrument. ATOFMS is being used for the direct analysis of ambient aerosols with the goal of establishing correlations between particle size and chemical composition. Currently, measurements are being made to establish potential links between the presence of particular types of particles with such factors as the time of day, weather conditions, and concentration levels of gaseous smog components such as NO{sub x} and ozone. This data will be used to help establish a better understanding of tropospheric gas-aerosol processes. This talk will discuss the operating principles of ATOFMS as well as present the results of ambient analysis studies performed in our laboratory.

  20. A CLOSURE STUDY OF AEROSOL MASS CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS: COMPARISON OF VALUES OBTAINED WITH FILTERS AND BY DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF MASS DISTRIBUTIONS. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer–aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA–APM) technique (Aero...

  1. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Paul

    2015-10-20

    ) two well-characterized source of soot particles and (b) a flow reactor for controlled OH and/or O3 oxidation of relevant gas phase species to produce well-characterized SOA particles. After formation, the aerosol particles are subjected to physical and chemical processes that simulate aerosol growth and aging. A suite of instruments in our laboratory is used to characterize the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles before and after processing. The Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS) together with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measures particle mass, volume, density, composition (including black carbon content), dynamic shape factor, and fractal dimension. The–ToF-AMS was developed at ARI with Boston College participation. About 120 AMS instruments are now in service (including 5 built for DOE laboratories) performing field and laboratory studies world-wide. Other major instruments include a thermal denuder, two Differential Mobility Analyzers (DMA), a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCN), a Thermal desorption Aerosol GC/MS (TAG) and the new Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). Optical instrumentation required for the studies have been brought to our laboratory as part of ongoing and planned collaborative projects with colleagues from DOE, NOAA and university laboratories. Optical instruments that will be utilized include a Photoacoustic Spectrometer (PAS), a Cavity Ring Down Aerosol Extinction Spectrometer (CRD-AES), a Photo Thermal Interferometer (PTI), a new 7-wavelength Aethalometer and a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction Monitor (CAPS). These instruments are providing aerosol absorption, extinction and scattering coefficients at a range of atmospherically relevant wavelengths. During the past two years our work has continued along the lines of our original proposal. We report on 12 completed and/or continuing projects conducted during the period 08/14 to 0814/2015. These projects are described in

  2. Sources and composition of urban aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M.; Johansson, C.; Mårtensson, M.; Struthers, H.; Ahlm, L.; Nilsson, D.

    2011-09-01

    From May 2008 to March 2009 aerosol emissions were measured using the eddy covariance method covering the size range 0.25 to 2.5 μm diameter (Dp) from a 105 m tower, in central Stockholm, Sweden. Supporting chemical aerosol data were collected at roof and street level. Results show that the inorganic fraction of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and sea salt accounts for approximately 15% of the total aerosol mass <1 μm Dp (PM1) with water soluble soil contributing 11% and water insoluble soil 47%. Carbonaceous compounds were at the most 27% of PM1 mass. It was found that heating the air from the tower to 200 °C resulted in the loss of approximately 60% of the aerosol volume at 0.25 μm Dp whereas only 40% of the aerosol volume was removed at 0.6 μm Dp. Further heating to 300 °C caused very little additional losses <0.6 μm Dp. The chemical analysis did not include carbonaceous compounds, but based on the difference between the total mass concentration and the sum of the analyzed non-carbonaceous materials, it can be assumed that the non-volatile particulate material (heated to 300 °C) consists mainly of carbonaceous compounds, including elemental carbon. Furthermore, it was found that the non-volatile particle fraction <0.6 μm Dp correlated (r2 = 0.4) with the BC concentration at roof level in the city, supporting the assumption that the non-volatile material consists of carbonaceous compounds. The average diurnal cycles of the BC emissions from road traffic (as inferred from the ratio of the incremental concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and BC measured on a densely trafficked street) and the fluxes of non-volatile material at tower level are in close agreement, suggesting a traffic source of BC. We have estimated the emission factors (EFs) for non-volatile particles <0.6 μm Dp to be 2.4±1.4 mg veh-1 km-1 based on either CO2 fluxes or traffic activity data. Light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) EFs were estimated using multiple linear regression and

  3. LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION OF ULTRAFINE AEROSOL PARTICLES. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-line analysis of ultrafine aerosol particle in the 12 to 150 nm size range is performed by
    laser desorption/ionization. Particles are size selected with a differential mobility analyzer and then
    sent into a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer where they are ablated w...

  4. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized bymore » the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was

  5. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    An electrostatic size classification technique was used to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Size-segregated particles were counted with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10- 5 to 10- 11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was applied, but

  6. Inkjet aerosol generator as monodisperse particle number standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Kenjiro; Sakurai, Hiromu; Ehara, Kensei

    2013-05-01

    Inkjet technology can be applied to generate highly monodisperse aerosol particles in micrometer range at a precisely controlled rate. AIST has been developing an inkjet aerosol generator (AIST-IAG), and the device will soon become the secondary measurement standard for aerosol particle number concentration in 0.35 μm to 10 μm range. The AIST-IAG can generate both solid and liquid particles consisting of water-soluble ionic compounds. We first report the characteristics of the particle sizes of the generated particles. The full width half maximum of the particle size distribution is about 2 percent, and the particle diameter of the IAG particles was calibrated as a function of the particle mass within 0.6-10 μm range using polystyrene latex sphere as reference material. Then we report the capability of the AIST-IAG as the particle number standard. The particle generation efficiency ηIAG was defined as the number of aerosol particles exiting from the AIST-IAG divided by the rate of the droplet generation, and the values of ηIAG within 0.35-10 μm is essentially 100%, and the 95% confidence interval of the values is less than 1%. The result strongly supports that the AISTIAG can be used to calibrate the counting efficiency of the optical particle counters in submicrometer to micrometer range.

  7. Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mo; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analyses of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol articles have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

  8. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. PMID:18949817

  9. A numerical determination of the evolution of cloud drop spectra due to condensation on natural aerosol particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, I. Y.; Haenel, G.; Pruppacher, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    The time variation in size of aerosol particles growing by condensation is studied numerically by means of an air parcel model which allows entrainment of air and aerosol particles. Particles of four types of aerosols typically occurring in atmospheric air masses were considered. The present model circumvents any assumption about the size distribution and chemical composition of the aerosol particles by basing the aerosol particle growth on actually observed size distributions and on observed amounts of water taken up under equilibrium by a deposit of the aerosol particles. Characteristic differences in the drop size distribution, liquid water content and supersaturation were found for the clouds which evolved from the four aerosol types considered.

  10. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. ); Cass, G.R. . Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

  11. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with Particle-into-Liquid Sampler - High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (PILS-HPAEC-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarnio, K.; Teinilä, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Hillamo, R.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler (PILS) to a high-performance anion-exchange chromatograph (HPAEC) with the detection by a mass spectrometer (MS) is presented for the online analysis of levoglucosan in ambient particles. The PILS-HPAEC-MS technique enables a fast online analysis of levoglucosan from the particulate samples. The method was tested at an urban background station in Helsinki, Finland, in winter 2011. A comparison with simultaneous levoglucosan measurements from filter samples by the HPAEC-MS was performed and it showed a good agreement between the online and offline methods. Additionally, the online levoglucosan data were compared with the biomass burning tracer fragments measured by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). As there were no local biomass burning sources close to the measurement station, online levoglucosan measurements revealed that most of the particles from biomass burning were either regionally distributed or long-range transported in the urban background of Helsinki. The average levoglucosan concentrations were relatively low (average 0.083 μg m-3) during the measurement campaign. The highest concentration peak measured for levoglucosan (1.4 μg m-3) seemed to originate from biomass burning in Eastern Europe, likely in Estonia, that was transported to Helsinki.

  12. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with particle-into-liquid sampler - high-performance anion-exchange chromatography - mass spectrometry (PILS-HPAEC-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarnio, K.; Teinilä, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Hillamo, R.

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter, and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) to a high-performance anion-exchange chromatograph (HPAEC) with the detection by a mass spectrometer (MS) is presented for the online analysis of levoglucosan in ambient particles. The PILS-HPAEC-MS technique enables a fast online analysis of levoglucosan from the particulate samples. The method was tested at an urban background station in Helsinki, Finland, in winter 2011. A comparison with simultaneous levoglucosan measurements from filter samples by the HPAEC-MS was performed and it showed a good agreement between the online and offline methods. Additionally, the online levoglucosan data were compared with the biomass burning tracer fragments measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). As there were no local biomass burning sources close to the measurement station, online levoglucosan measurements revealed that most of the particles from biomass burning were either regionally distributed or long-range transported in the urban background of Helsinki. The average levoglucosan concentrations were relatively low (average 0.083 μg m-3) during the measurement campaign. The highest concentration peak measured for levoglucosan (1.4 μg m-3) seemed to originate from biomass burning in the Baltic countries, likely in Estonia, that was transported to Helsinki.

  13. THE MASS ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AEROSOL. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mass transfer rate of pure ammonium nitrate between the aerosol and gas phases was
    quantified experimentally by the use of the tandem differential mobility analyzer/scanning mobility
    particle sizer (TDMA/SMPS) technique. Ammonium nitrate particles 80-220 nm in diameter<...

  14. Non-Refractory Submicron Aerosol Mass Loadings during NEAQS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Matthew, B. M.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Quinn, P. K.; Degouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; McKeen, S. A.

    2003-12-01

    During the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) in July-August 2002, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed aboard the NOAA ship RONALD H. BROWN and collected 2-minute averaged data. The AMS, which measures non-refractory components of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between roughly 40 and 1500 nm, produced particle mass spectra as well as aerosol organic, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate mass distributions. A wide variety of air masses were sampled, including clean marine, clean continental, and polluted continental air masses. In general, the volatile particle composition was mostly organic and sulfate with lesser amounts of ammonium and nitrate and the mass loadings typically peaked around 400-600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter. Although the AMS sulfate and ammonium concentrations were highly correlated with the sulfate and ammonium concentrations from the Particle into Liquid (PILS) instrument also deployed on the ship, the AMS and PILS nitrate concentrations were not correlated and at times anti-correlated. In contrast, the AMS nitrate and organic concentrations as well as the AMS nitrate and gas phase alkyl nitrate concentrations were highly correlated. These results suggest that organic nitrate was present in the submicron aerosol phase. The AMS organic concentrations were generally higher than the AMS sulfate concentrations, consistent with other shipboard measurements. Whenever the sulfate concentration increased, the organic concentration also increased, indicating that sulfate and organic aerosol growth are influenced by the same processes or that sulfate may play a role in organic aerosol growth. The exception to this pattern occurred during a sea fog event where the sulfate concentration increased and the organic concentration decreased, probably due to rapid aqueous phase sulfur oxidation and relatively less oxidation of organic compounds. Furthermore, the organic concentration often increased without concurrent increases in

  15. Mass spectroscopy of single aerosols from field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, D.S.; Murphy, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    We are developing an aircraft instrument for the chemical analysis of individual ambient aerosols in real time. In order to test the laboratory version of this instrument, we participated in a field campaign near the continental divide in Colorado in September, 1993. During this campaign, over 5000 mass spectra of ambient aerosols were collected. Analysis of the negative ion spectra shows that sulfate was the most commonly seen component of smaller particles, while nitrate was more common in larger particles. Organic compounds are present in most particles, and we believe we can distinguish inorganic carbon in some particles. Although numerous distinct classes of particles were observed, indicating external mixtures, almost all of these particle types were themselves mixtures of several compounds. Finally, we note that although the field site experienced distinct polluted and unpolluted episodes, aerosol composition did not correlate with gas phase chemistry.

  16. Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Kiang, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    Physical processes which affect stratospheric aerosol particles include nucleation, condensation, evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Quantitative studies of these mechanisms to determine if they can account for some of the observed properties of the aerosol are carried out. It is shown that the altitude range in which nucleation of sulfuric acid-water solution droplets can take place corresponds to that region of the stratosphere where the aerosol is generally found. Since heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mechanism, the stratospheric solution droplets are mainly formed on particles which have been mixed up from the troposphere or injected into the stratosphere by volcanoes or meteorites. Particle growth by heteromolecular condensation can account for the observed increase in mixing ratio of large particles in the stratosphere. Coagulation is important in reducing the number of particles smaller than 0.05 micron radius. Growth by condensation, applied to the mixed nature of the particles, shows that available information is consistent with ammonium sulfate being formed by liquid phase chemical reactions in the aerosol particles. The upper altitude limit of the aerosol layer is probably due to the evaporation of sulfuric acid aerosol particles, while the lower limit is due to mixing across the tropopause.

  17. Contribution of methane to aerosol carbon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, F.; Barmet, P.; Stirnweis, L.; El Haddad, I.; Platt, S. M.; Saurer, M.; Lötscher, C.; Siegwolf, R.; Bigi, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Slowik, J. G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Dommen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Small volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as methane (CH4) have long been considered non-relevant to aerosol formation due to the high volatility of their oxidation products. However, even low aerosol yields from CH4, the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere, would contribute significantly to the total particulate carbon budget. In this study, organic aerosol (OA) mass yields from CH4 oxidation were evaluated at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) smog chamber in the presence of inorganic and organic seed aerosols. Using labeled 13C methane, we could detect its oxidation products in the aerosol phase, with yields up to 0.09

  18. Characterization of ambient aerosols at the San Francisco International Airport using BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, P T; McJimpsey, E L; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Tobias, H J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M

    2006-03-16

    The BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is a rapidly fieldable, fully autonomous instrument that can perform correlated measurements of multiple orthogonal properties of individual aerosol particles. The BAMS front end uses optical techniques to nondestructively measure a particle's aerodynamic diameter and fluorescence properties. Fluorescence can be excited at 266nm or 355nm and is detected in two broad wavelength bands. Individual particles with appropriate size and fluorescence properties can then be analyzed more thoroughly in a dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Over the course of two deployments to the San Francisco International Airport, more than 6.5 million individual aerosol particles were fully analyzed by the system. Analysis of the resulting data has provided a number of important insights relevant to rapid bioaerosol detection, which are described here.

  19. Cluster analysis on mass spectra of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, C.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Mensah, A.; Mentel, T.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOA) are of high importance in the atmosphere. The formation of SOA from the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of selected trees was investigated in the JPAC (Jülich Plant Aerosol Chamber) facility. The VOC (mainly monoterpenes) were transferred into a reaction chamber where vapors were photo-chemically oxidized and formed BSOA. The aerosol was characterized by aerosol mass spectrometry (Aerodyne Quadrupol-AMS). Inside the AMS, flash-vaporization of the aerosol particles and electron impact ionization of the evaporated molecules cause a high fragmentation of the organic compounds. Here, we present a classification of the aerosol mass spectra via cluster analysis. Average mass spectra are produced by combination of related single mass spectra to so-called clusters. The mass spectra were similar due to the similarity of the precursor substances. However, we can show that there are differences in the BSOA mass spectra of different tree species. Furthermore we can distinguish the influence of the precursor chemistry and chemical aging. BSOA formed from plants exposed to stress can be distinguished from BSOA formed under non stressed conditions. Significance and limitations of the clustering method for very similar mass spectra will be demonstrated and discussed.

  20. Regional signatures in the organic composition of marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Keene, William C.; Kieber, David J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2013-05-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer. The organic composition of submicron particles derived from multiple seawater regions have been measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cluster analysis of FTIR organic spectra suggest different spectral signatures based on collection location, seawater composition, and ambient conditions. Measurements including non-refractory aerosol composition from a high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), seawater composition, and wind speed were used to interpret the cluster results, depending on the availability from each campaign. FTIR spectra of ambient particles are compared to FTIR spectra of primary marine particles generated from model ocean systems to infer the ambient particle production mechanisms and aging processes. Recent measurements used in the comparison include ambient and generated marine aerosol particles measured off the coast of California during CalNex in May and June 2010. Remote ambient marine aerosol particles were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey in the eastern Pacific during the EPEACE experiment in July 2011. Ambient and generated marine particles were measured in two different seawater types during WACS 2012 including colder, more productive water off the coast of the northeastern United States and warmer, oligotrophic water in the Sargasso Sea. These particles are also compared with those measured in the southeastern Pacific during VOCALS and the north Atlantic during ICEALOT.

  1. Aerosol Mass Loading, Mixing State, Size and Number in Present Day (2000) and Future (2100): Study with the Advanced Particle Microphysics (APM) module in the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.; Yu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols affect the global energy budget by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical properties, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). One of the key challenges in quantifying the aerosol direct and indirect effects is to deep our understanding about the size distribution, size-resolved composition, and mixing state of aerosols. However, detailed information on size distribution and mixing state is often not available or incomplete in current climate models. Here, we incorporated APM into CESM. APM is a multi-type, multi-component (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, SOA, BC, OC, dust, and sea salt), size-resolved particle microphysics model. Online chemistry, up-to-date nucleation, oxidation aging of medium-volatile and semi-volatile organic gases, aerosol-cloud interaction with stratiform cloud, shallow convection cloud, and deep convection cloud are considered. The amounts of secondary species coated on primary particles, through condensation, coagulation, equilibrium uptake, and aqueous chemistry, are also tracked. Model results are compared with aerosol mass observed by IMPROVE/EMEP, vertical structure of global particle number from aircraft-based field campaigns, particle and cloud condensation nuclei number at ground-based stations, aerosol optical properties retrieved by several satellites. Model results can capture the major characteristics shown in these observations. With this model system, we find that global burdens of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, BC, OC from 2000 to 2100, under scenario RCP 4.5 where total radiative forcing is stabilized before 2100, are decreased by 44%, 50%, 43%, 40%, 40%, respectively. Dust and sea salt increase slightly. Global burdens of secondary species coated on BCOC, dust, and sea salt are deceased by 34%, 30% and 60%, respectively. Global averaged aerosol number in the lower troposphere (from surface to 3 km) is significantly decreased, especially for particles smaller than

  2. Quantification of aerosol chemical composition using continuous single particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, C.-H.; McGuire, M. L.; Godri, K. J.; Slowik, J. G.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-07-01

    Mass concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) were determined from real time single particle data in the size range 0.1-3.0 μm measured by an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) at urban and rural sites in Canada. To quantify chemical species within individual particles measured by an ATOFMS, ion peak intensity of m/z -97 for sulphate, -62 for nitrate, +18 for ammonium, +43 for OC, and +36 for EC were scaled using the number and size distribution data by an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). Hourly quantified chemical species from ATOFMS single-particle analysis were compared with collocated fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) chemical composition measurements by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at a rural site, a Gas-Particle Ion Chromatograph (GPIC) at an urban site, and a Sunset Lab field OCEC analyzer at both sites. The highest correlation was found for nitrate, with correlation coefficients (Pearson r) of 0.89 (ATOFMS vs. GPIC) and 0.85 (ATOFMS vs. AMS). ATOFMS mass calibration factors, determined for the urban site, were used to calculate mass concentrations of the major PM2.5 chemical components at the rural site near the US border in southern Ontario. Mass reconstruction using the ATOFMS mass calibration factors agreed very well with the PM2.5 mass concentrations measured by a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM, r = 0.86) at the urban site and a light scattering monitor (DustTrak, r = 0.87) at the rural site. In the urban area nitrate was the largest contributor to PM2.5 mass in the winter, while organics and sulphate contributed ~64 % of the summer PM2.5 in the rural area, suggesting a strong influence of regional/trans-boundary pollution. The mass concentrations of five major species in ten size-resolved particle-types and aerosol acidity of each particle-type were determined for the rural site. On a mass basis

  3. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2014-04-01

    Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1&minus10), black carbon (BC) and number of particles (N3: number of particles with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 3 nm, and N10: higher than 10 nm) concentrations at the high-altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. At MSC, PM10 (12 μg m-3) and N7 (2140 # cm-3) three-year arithmetic average concentrations were higher than those measured at other high-altitude sites in central Europe during the same period (PM10: 3-9 μg m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 μg m-3) were equal to or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 μg m-3). These differences were attributed to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and to the higher importance of the biogenic precursor emissions and new particle formation (NPF) processes, and to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African air outbreaks (PM1&minus10: 13 μg m-3, PM1: 8 μg m-3 and BC: 0.3 μg m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 μg m-3, PM1: 4 μg m-3 and BC: 0.1 μg m-3). PM and BC concentrations increased in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest in winter, due to the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter). The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes that mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles, with maxima at midday in the

  4. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, A.K.

    1984-09-07

    This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  5. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle component-based factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, C. A.; Moran, M. D.; Makar, P. A.; Gong, S.; Gong, W.; Zhang, J.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Lu, G.; Brook, J. R.; Mihele, C.; Li, Q.; Sills, D.; Strawbridge, K. B.; McGuire, M. L.; Evans, G. J.

    2012-09-01

    Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007) in Southern Ontario, Canada, were used to evaluate predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and two other carbonaceous species, black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO), made for this summertime period by Environment Canada's AURAMS regional chemical transport model. Particle component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON) and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON) to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factors. A novel diagnostic model evaluation was performed by investigating model POA bias as a function of HOA mass concentration and indicator ratios (e.g. BC/HOA). Eight case studies were selected based on factor analysis and back trajectories to help classify model bias for certain POA source types. By considering model POA bias in relation to co-located BC and CO biases, a plausible story is developed that explains the model biases for all three species. At the rural sites, daytime mean PM1 POA mass concentrations were under-predicted compared to observed HOA concentrations. POA under-predictions were accentuated when the transport arriving at the rural sites was from the Detroit/Windsor urban complex and for short-term periods of biomass burning influence. Interestingly, the daytime CO concentrations were only slightly under-predicted at both rural sites, whereas CO was over-predicted at the urban Windsor site with a normalized mean bias of 134%, while good agreement was observed at Windsor for the comparison of daytime PM1 POA and HOA mean values, 1.1 μg m-3 and 1.2 μg m-3, respectively. Biases in model POA predictions also trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. Periods of POA over-prediction were most evident at the urban site on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer. This model behaviour can be explained by a combination of model under

  6. Size-Segregated Aerosol Composition and Mass Loading of Atmospheric Particles as Part of the Pacific Northwest 2001(PNW2001) Air Quality Study In Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Barrie, L. A.; Shutthanadan, S.; Cliff, S.; Cahill, T.

    2001-12-01

    In mid-August, 2001, an aircraft-based air-quality study was performed in the Puget Sound, WA, area entitled PNW2001 (http://www.pnl.gov/pnw2001). The objectives of this field campaign were the following: 1. reveal information about the 3-dimensional distribution of ozone, its gaseous precursors and fine particulate matter during weather conditions favoring air pollution; 2. derive information about the accuracy of urban and biogenic emissions inventories that are used to drive the air quality forecast models; and 3. examine the accuracy of modeled ozone concentration with that observed. In support of these efforts, we collected time-averaged ( { ~}10 minute averages), size-segregated, aerosol composition and mass-loading information using ex post facto analysis techniques of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (s-XRF), proton induced x-ray emissions(PIXE), proton elastic scattering (PESA), and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). This is the first time these analysis techniques have been used together on samples collected from aircraft using an optimized 3-stage rotating drum impactor. In our presentation, we will discuss the aerosol components in three aerosol size fractions as identified by statistical analysis of multielemental data (including total mass, H, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb) and relate variations in these components to physical aerosol properties, other gaseous trace constituents and to air mass origin.

  7. Characteristics of aerosolized ice forming marine biogenic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.

    Ice particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere existing as the sole constituents of glaciated cirrus clouds or coexisting with supercooled liquid droplets in mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol particles serving as heterogeneous ice nuclei for ice crystal formation impact the global radiative balance by modification of cloud radiative properties, and thus climate. Atmospheric ice formation is not a well understood process and represents great uncertainty for climate prediction. The oceans which cover the majority of the earth's surface host nearly half the total global primary productivity and contribute to the greatest aerosol production by mass. However, the effect of biological activity on particle aerosolization, particle composition, and ice nucleation is not well established. This dissertation investigates the link between marine biological activity, aerosol particle production, physical/chemical particle characteristics, and ice nucleation under controlled laboratory conditions. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions of particles from bursting bubbles generated by plunging water jets and aeration through frits in a seawater mesocosm containing bacteria and/or phytoplankton cultures, were measured as a function of biological activity. Total particle production significantly increases primarily due to enhanced aerosolization of particles ≤100 nm in diameter attributable to the presence and growth of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hygroscopicity measurements indicate primary organic material associated with the sea salt particles, providing additional evidence for the importance of marine biological activity for ocean derived aerosol composition. Ice nucleation experiments show that these organic rich particles nucleate ice efficiently in the immersion and deposition modes, which underscores their importance in mixed-phase and cirrus cloud formation processes. In separate ice nucleation experiments employing pure cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nannochloris

  8. FTIR Analysis of Functional Groups in Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, S. M.; McKenzie, G.; Dransfield, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are suspensions of particulate matter composed of compounds formed from chemical reactions of organic species in the atmosphere. Atmospheric particulate matter can have impacts on climate, the environment and human health. Standardized techniques to analyze the characteristics and composition of complex secondary organic aerosols are necessary to further investigate the formation of SOA and provide a better understanding of the reaction pathways of organic species in the atmosphere. While Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can provide detailed information about the elemental composition of a sample, it reveals little about the chemical moieties which make up the particles. This work probes aerosol particles deposited on Teflon filters using FTIR, based on the protocols of Russell, et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 114, 2009) and the spectral fitting algorithm of Takahama, et al (submitted, 2012). To validate the necessary calibration curves for the analysis of complex samples, primary aerosols of key compounds (e.g., citric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium benzoate) were generated, and the accumulated masses of the aerosol samples were related to their IR absorption intensity. These validated calibration curves were then used to classify and quantify functional groups in SOA samples generated in chamber studies by MIT's Kroll group. The fitting algorithm currently quantifies the following functionalities: alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, amines, aromatics, carbonyls and carboxylic acids.

  9. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle-component-based factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, C. A.; Moran, M. D.; Makar, P. A.; Gong, S.; Gong, W.; Zhang, J.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Lu, G.; Brook, J. R.; Mihele, C.; Li, Q.; Sills, D.; Strawbridge, K. B.; McGuire, M. L.; Evans, G. J.

    2012-02-01

    Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007) in southern Ontario (ON), Canada, were used to evaluate Environment Canada's regional chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA). Environment Canada's operational numerical weather prediction model and the 2006 Canadian and 2005 US national emissions inventories were used as input to the chemical transport model (named AURAMS). Particle-component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON) and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON) to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factors. Co-located carbon monoxide (CO), PM2.5 black carbon (BC), and PM1 SO4 measurements were also used for evaluation and interpretation, permitting a detailed diagnostic model evaluation. At the urban site, good agreement was observed for the comparison of daytime campaign PM1 POA and HOA mean values: 1.1 μg m-3 vs. 1.2 μg m-3, respectively. However, a POA overprediction was evident on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer. Biases in model POA predictions trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. This trend has several possible explanations, including (1) underweighting of urban locations in particulate matter (PM) spatial surrogate fields, (2) overly-coarse model grid spacing for resolving urban-scale sources, and (3) lack of a model particle POA evaporation process during dilution of vehicular POA tail-pipe emissions to urban scales. Furthermore, a trend in POA bias was observed at the urban site as a function of the BC/HOA ratio, suggesting a possible association of POA underprediction for diesel combustion sources. For several time periods, POA overprediction was also observed for sulphate-rich plumes, suggesting that our model POA fractions for the PM2.5 chemical speciation profiles may be too high for these point sources. At the rural Harrow site

  10. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern~Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2013-10-01

    Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1-10), black carbon (BC) and particle number (N) concentrations at the high altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. The MSC site registered higher PM10 (12 μg m-3) and N > 7 nm (2209 # cm-3) concentrations than those measured at other high altitude sites in central Europe (PM10: 3-9 μg m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 μg m-3) were equal or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 μg m-3). These differences were attributed to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions and to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and new particle formation (NPF) processes at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African outbreaks (PM1-10: 13 μg m-3, PM1: 8 μg m-3 and BC: 0.3 μg m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 μg m-3, PM1: 4 μg m-3 and BC: 0.1 μg m-3). Because of the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter), PM and BC concentrations showed a marked increase in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest during winter. The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes which mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to Saturday, followed by a significant

  11. New Particle Formation and Secondary Organic Aerosol in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M.; Yue, D.; Guo, S.; Hu, W.; Huang, X.; He, L.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Air pollution in Beijing has been a major concern due to being a mega-city and green Olympic Games requirements. Both long term and intensive field measurements have been conducted at an Urban Air Quality Monitoring Station in the campus of Peking University since 2004. Aerosol characteristics vary seasonally depending on meteorological conditions and source emissions. Secondary compositions of SNA (sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) and SOA (secondary organic aerosol) become major fraction of fine particles, which may enhance aerosol impacts on visibility and climate change. The transformation processes of new particle formation (NPF) and secondary organic aerosol have been focused on. It was found that gaseous sulfuric acid, ammonia, and organic compounds are important precursors to NPF events in Beijing and H2SO4-NH3-H2O ternary nucleation is one of the important mechanisms. The contributions of condensation and neutralization of sulfuric acid, coagulation, and organics to the growth of the new particles are estimated as 45%, 34%, and 21%, respectively. Tracer-based method to estimate biogenic and anthropogenic SOA was established by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Secondary organic tracers derived from biogenic (isoprene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene) and anthropogenic (toluene) contributed 32% at urban site and 35% at rural site, respectively. Other source apportionment techniques were also used to estimate secondary organic aerosols, including EC tracer method, water soluble organic carbon content, chemical mass balance model, and AMS-PMF method.

  12. Standard aerosols for particle velocimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepark, A.; Ozarski, R.; Thomson, J. A. L.

    1976-01-01

    System consists of laser-scattering counter (LSC) and photographic system. Photographic system provides absolute method of measuring aerosol size-distribution independently of their light scattering properties. LSC comprises 1-mW He/Ne laser, input optics, collecting optics, photodetector, and signal-processing electronics.

  13. The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Jensen, Eric J.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The particles remain in the Tropics for most of their life, and during this period of time a size distribution is developed by a combination of coagulation, growth by heteromolecular condensation, and mixing with air parcels containing preexisting sulfate particles. The aerosol eventually migrates to higher latitudes and descends across isentropic surfaces to the lower stratosphere. The aerosol is removed from the stratosphere primarily at mid- and high latitudes through various processes, mainly by isentropic transport across the tropopause from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  14. Submicron Aerosol Particle Losses in Metalized Bags.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, Alice

    1980-07-01

    Two new types of conducting bags were tested for aerosol particle storage and sampling, a 3M Company Velostat bag and a bag constructed from 3M Type 2100 Static Shielding Film. The half-lives of unipolar, unit-charged 0.025 m, 0.050 m and 0.090 m sized aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag and the film bag were 130, 190 and 270 min and 40, 70 and 180 min, respectively. These results depend upon the history of bag filling. The values given here apply to bags which had not previously been filled on the day of experimentation. The lifetimes exhibited by the aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag are the longest found to data.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols I: uranium concentration in aerosols as a function of time and particle size.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Cheng, Yung Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L; Traub, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing DU were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time, particularly within the first minute after a shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s after perforation, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% after 30 min. The initial and maximum uranium concentrations were lower in the Bradley vehicle than those observed in the Abrams tank, and the concentration levels decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in a cyclone sampler, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h after perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages ranged from 38 to 72% for the Abrams tank with conventional armor. In most cases, it varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Neither the Abrams tank with DU armor nor the Bradley vehicle results were specifically correlated with particle size and can best be represented by their average uranium mass concentrations of 65

  16. Rocket-borne probes for charged mesospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, S.; Horanyi, M.; Sternovsky, Z.

    We describe a series of rocket-borne probes for detecting charged solid particles in the ionosphere. The first type of probe is a flat charge-collecting surface on the skin of the rocket. Behind this surface is a permanent magnet that shields the probe from electrons. The current that is recorded is thus from heavier charged aerosol particles. This heavy charge carrier current is converted to a charge number density. A probe launched from White Sands in November 1998 detected a narrow layer at 86 km consistent with sporadic E layer of metallic ions. Two launches were made from the Andoya Rocket Range (Norway) during the MIDAS SOLSTICE campaign in the summer of 2001. Layers of positively and negatively charged aerosol particles were detected on both flights, but inadvertent positive ion collection complicated the analysis. Subsequent payloads included a second probe that supplemented the magnetic field with a positive bias voltage to improve positive ion rejection. Three launches were made from Andoya during the MIDAS MacWAVE campaign in July 2003 with this dual-probe package. Within PMSE, the probes measured an aerosol particle distribution, clearly resolving small positive, small negative, and large negative particles. A new mass-analyzing probe is being developed in which electric fields within the nosecone deflect charged aerosol particles admitted at the nosecone tip. This probe takes advantage of the reduced density behind the shock front to increase the mean free path within the instrument so that cryopumping is not required. The new probe has three pairs of collection surfaces with opposite polarities for collecting (1) electrons and light ions, (2) particles with mass 150-103 amu, and (3) particles with mass 103 -- 2 x 104 amu.

  17. Aerosol particles and the formation of advection fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A study of numerical simulation of the effects of concentration, particle size, mass of nuclei, and chemical composition on the dynamics of warm fog formation, particularly the formation of advection fog, is presented. This formation is associated with the aerosol particle characteristics, and both macrophysical and microphysical processes are considered. In the macrophysical model, the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content, and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion, turbulent momentum, and turbulent energy transfers are taken into account. In the microphysical model, the supersaturation effect is incorporated with the surface tension and hygroscopic material solution. It is shown that the aerosol particles with the higher number density, larger size nuclei, the heavier nuclei mass, and the higher ratio of the Van't Hoff factor to the molecular weight favor the formation of the lower visibility advection fogs with stronger vertical energy transfer during the nucleation and condensation time period.

  18. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  19. Overview of submicron aerosol characterization in China using an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; He, L.; Gong, Z.; Hu, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    China is one of the most rapidly developing countries in the world, but in the meantime it is suffering from severe air pollution due to heavy industrial/metropolitan emissions. Most previous aerosol studies in China were based on filter sampling followed by laboratory analysis, which provided datasets at a coarse time resolution like a day. The coarse time resolution of the aerosol datasets cannot match the actual faster variation of aerosol properties in the real atmosphere, which strongly favors highly time-resolved on-line measurement techniques. In recent years, our group deployed an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) in different ambient atmospheres in China, including Beijing (urban), Shanghai (urban), Shenzhen (urban), Jiaxing (suburban), and Kaiping (rural). In this presentation, we will overview these on-line AMS measurement results to characterize the properties of submicron particles in China atmosphere, such as chemical composition, size distribution, diurnal variation, elemental composition, primary and secondary organic aerosol constitution, etc. The newly-developed AMS-PMF modeling techniques were utilized to quantitatively differentiate the contributions from fossil fuel combustion, cooking emissions, biomass burning, as well as secondary organic aerosol to ambient organic aerosol loadings in China. These AMS results have provided new outlook of the formation mechanisms of high aerosol pollution in China.

  20. Characterization of urban aerosol using aerosol mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, M. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Griffin, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, C. H.; Lefer, B.; Rappenglück, B.

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter was measured during August and September of 2006 in Houston as part of the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project. Aerosol size and composition were determined using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer. Aerosol was dominated by sulfate (4.1 ± 2.6 μg m-3) and organic material (5.5 ± 4.0 μg m-3), with contributions of organic material from both primary (˜32%) and secondary (˜68%) sources. Secondary organic aerosol appears to be formed locally. In addition, 29 aerosol filter samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine relative concentrations of organic functional groups. Houston aerosols are less oxidized than those observed elsewhere, with smaller relative contributions of carbon-oxygen double bonds. These particles do not fit 1H NMR source apportionment fingerprints for identification of secondary, marine, and biomass burning organic aerosol, suggesting that a new fingerprint for highly urbanized and industrially influenced locations be established.

  1. Composition and formation of organic aerosol particles in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Sinha, B.; Shiraiwa, M.; Gunthe, S. S.; Artaxo, P.; Gilles, M. K.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Smith, M.; Weigand, M.; Martin, S. T.; Pöschl, U.; Andreae, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    We applied scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (STXM-NEXAFS) analysis to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of aerosol samples from a pristine tropical environment, the Amazon Basin. The samples were collected in the Amazonian rainforest during the rainy season and can be regarded as a natural background aerosol. The samples were found to be dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles in the fine and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) in the coarse mode. Lab-generated SOA-samples from isoprene and terpene oxidation as well as pure organic compounds from spray-drying of aqueous solution were measured as reference samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the microphysical and chemical properties of a tropical background aerosol in the submicron size range and its internal mixing state. The lab-generated SOA and pure organic compounds occurred as spherical and mostly homogenous droplet-like particles, whereas the Amazonian SOA particles comprised a mixture of homogeneous droplets and droplets having internal structures due to atmospheric aging. In spite of the similar morphological appearance, the Amazon samples showed considerable differences in elemental and functional group composition. According to their NEXAFS spectra, three chemically distinct types of organic material were found and could be assigned to the following three categories: (1) particles with a pronounced carboxylic acid (COOH) peak similar to those of laboratory-generated SOA particles from terpene oxidation; (2) particles with a strong hydroxy (COH) signal similar to pure carbohydrate particles; and (3) particles with spectra resembling a mixture of the first two classes. In addition to the dominant organic component, the NEXAFS spectra revealed clearly resolved potassium (K) signals for all analyzed particles. During the rainy season and in the absence of anthropogenic influence, active biota is

  2. Holographic interferometry for aerosol particle characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Matthew J.; Subedi, Nava R.

    2015-01-01

    Using simulations based on Mie theory, this work shows how double-exposure digital holography can be used to measure the change in size of an expanding, or contracting, spherical particle. Here, a single particle is illuminated by a plane wave twice during its expansion: once when the particle is 27 λ in radius, and again when it is 47 λ. A hologram is formed from each illumination stage from the interference of the scattered and unscattered, i.e., incident, light. The two holograms are then superposed to form a double exposure. By applying the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory to the double-exposed hologram, a silhouette-like image of the particle is computationally reconstructed that is superposed with interference fringes. These fringes are a direct result of the change in particle size occurring between the two illumination stages. The study finds that expansion on the scale of ~ 6 λ is readily discerned from the reconstructed particle image. This work could be important for improved characterization of single and multiple aerosol particles in situ. For example, by illuminating an aerosol particle with infrared light, it may be possible to measure photothermally induced particle expansion, thus providing insight into a particle's material properties simultaneous with an image of the particle.

  3. Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols I: Uranium Concentration in Aerosols as a Function of Time and Particle Size

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Traub, Richard J.

    2009-03-01

    During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing depleted uranium were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time particularly within the first minute after the shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% 30 min after perforation. In the Bradley vehicle, the initial (and maximum) uranium concentration was lower than those observed in the Abrams tank and decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in the cyclone samplers, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h post perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages from the Abrams tank tests ranged from 38% to 72% and, in most cases, varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Results with the Bradley vehicle ranged from 18% to 29% and were not specifically correlated with particle size.

  4. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  5. Aerosol particle analysis by Raman scattering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, K.H.; Tang, I.N.

    1992-10-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy is a very versatile tool for chemical characterization of micron-sized particles. Such particles are abundant in nature, and in numerous energy-related processes. In order to elucidate the formation mechanisms and understand the subsequent chemical transformation under a variety of reaction conditions, it is imperative to develop analytical measurement techniques for in situ monitoring of these suspended particles. In this report, we outline our recent work on spontaneous Raman, resonance Raman and non-linear Raman scattering as a novel technique for chemical analysis of aerosol particles as well as supersaturated solution droplets.

  6. The hygroscopicity of indoor aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-07-01

    A system to study the hygroscopic growth of particle was developed by combining a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) with a wetted wall reactor. This system is capable of mimicking the conditions in human respiratory tract, and measuring the particle size change due to the hygroscopic growth. The performance of the system was tested with three kinds of particles of known composition, NaCl, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and (NH{sub 4})HS0{sub 4} particles. The hygroscopicity of a variety of common indoor aerosol particles was studied including combustion aerosols (cigarette smoking, cooking, incenses and candles) and consumer spray products such as glass cleaner, general purpose cleaner, hair spray, furniture polish spray, disinfectant, and insect killer. Experiments indicate that most of the indoor aerosols show some hygroscopic growth and only a few materials do not. The magnitude of hygroscopic growth ranges from 20% to 300% depending on the particle size and fraction of water soluble components.

  7. Real-time detection method and system for identifying individual aerosol particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric E.; Coffee, Keith R.; Frank, Matthias; Tobias, Herbert J.; Fergenson, David P.; Madden, Norm; Riot, Vincent J.; Steele, Paul T.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2007-08-21

    An improved method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are collimated, tracked, and screened to determine which ones qualify for mass spectrometric analysis based on predetermined qualification or selection criteria. Screening techniques include one or more of determining particle size, shape, symmetry, and fluorescence. Only qualifying particles passing all screening criteria are subject to desorption/ionization and single particle mass spectrometry to produce corresponding test spectra, which is used to determine the identities of each of the qualifying aerosol particles by comparing the test spectra against predetermined spectra for known particle types. In this manner, activation cycling of a particle ablation laser of a single particle mass spectrometer is reduced.

  8. Real-Time Detection Method And System For Identifying Individual Aerosol Particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric Evan; Fergenson, David Philip

    2005-10-25

    A method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are compared against and identified with substantially matching known particle types by producing positive and negative test spectra of an individual aerosol particle using a bipolar single particle mass spectrometer. Each test spectrum is compared to spectra of the same respective polarity in a database of predetermined positive and negative spectra for known particle types and a set of substantially matching spectra is obtained. Finally the identity of the individual aerosol particle is determined from the set of substantially matching spectra by determining a best matching one of the known particle types having both a substantially matching positive spectrum and a substantially matching negative spectrum associated with the best matching known particle type.

  9. Direct measurements of mass-specific optical cross sections of single-component aerosol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Radney, James G; Ma, Xiaofei; Gillis, Keith A; Zachariah, Michael R; Hodges, Joseph T; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2013-09-01

    The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols vary widely, being dependent upon particle composition, morphology, and mixing state. This diversity and complexity of aerosols motivates measurement techniques that can discriminate and quantify a variety of single- and multicomponent aerosols that are both internally and externally mixed. Here, we present a new combination of techniques to directly measure the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections of laboratory-generated aerosols that are relevant to atmospheric studies. Our approach employs a tandem differential mobility analyzer, an aerosol particle mass analyzer, cavity ring-down and photoacoustic spectrometers, and a condensation particle counter. This suite of instruments enables measurement of aerosol particle size, mass, extinction and absorption coefficients, and aerosol number density, respectively. Taken together, these observables yield the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections without the need to model particle morphology or account for sample collection artifacts. Here we demonstrate the technique in a set of case studies which involve complete separation of aerosol by charge, separation of an external mixture by mass, and discrimination between particle types by effective density and single-scattering albedo. PMID:23875772

  10. Aerosol chemical mass closure during the EUROTRAC-2 AEROSOL Intercomparison 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cafmeyer, Jan; Chi, Xuguang

    2002-04-01

    The field work for the AEROSOL Intercomparison 2000 took place from 4 to 14 April 2000 at Melpitz, Germany. One objective was to assess to which extent aerosol chemical mass closure could be obtained for the site. For this purpose, we operated four filter samplers in parallel (mostly using 12-h collections): two Gent PM10 stacked filter unit (SFU) samplers (one with coarse and fine Nuclepore polycarbonate filters, the other with a Gelman Teflo filter as fine filter) and two single filter holders (one with PM2.5 inlet, the other with PM10 inlet) with Whatman QM-A quartz fibre filters. All samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing; the samples from the first SFU were analysed for 42 elements by a combination of particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, those from the other SFU for major anions and cations by ion chromatography. All quartz filters were analysed for organic carbon and elemental carbon by a thermal-optical transmission technique. Aerosol chemical mass closure calculations were done for the separate fine (PM2) and coarse (2-10 μm) size fractions. As gravimetric PM data we used the averages from the parallel SFU collections. For reconstituting this PM, nine aerosol types (or components) were considered. Crustal matter, organic aerosol and nitrate were the major aerosol types in the coarse size fraction; the dominant aerosol types in the fine fraction were organic aerosol, nitrate and sulphate. The included components explained 116% and 86% of the gravimetric PM in the coarse and fine size fractions, respectively.

  11. Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.B.

    1990-10-24

    As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  13. Condensation on Aerosol Particles and its Inhibition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peter Shen King

    The atmospheric aerosol is of primary importance in the formation of precipitation. Except in the neighbourhood of large sources of pollution most of the atmospheric particles are of natural origin, but human contribution is increasing at such a rate that within a comparatively short time it may equal nature's. Such an increase in the atmospheric particulate load may have significant effects on the distribution and intensity of precipitation. There is a general perception that most of the atmospheric particulate load is soluble in water or has some soluble component and soluble particles condense water more readily than insoluble. In this work a study is made of the solubility of the atmospheric aerosol at various relative humidities. The results confirm that much of the atmospheric aerosol is indeed soluble, but that the soluble proportion is highly variable. This result has significant implications for studies of air pollution in which the respirable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol is deduced from the results of long term dichotomous sampling. Results are also presented of studies in which an attempt was made to inhibit the condensation of water on man-made and adventitious particles with a view to modifying their possible climatic effects. This work has demonstrated that certain agents, notably long chain amines, do indeed have an inhibiting effect on the condensation of water on particles which have been exposed to them, but that the effect of the agents so far tested is not sufficiently great to be of immediate practical importance. It is concluded that further advances must await more precise methods of producing small supersaturations reliably and reproducibly.

  14. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  15. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) single particle analysis of metallurgy plant emissions.

    PubMed

    Arndt, J; Deboudt, K; Anderson, A; Blondel, A; Eliet, S; Flament, P; Fourmentin, M; Healy, R M; Savary, V; Setyan, A; Wenger, J C

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition of single particles deposited on industrial filters located in three different chimneys of an iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) alloy manufacturing plant have been compared using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). Very similar types of particles were observed using both analytical techniques. Calcium-containing particles dominated in the firing area of the sintering unit, Mn and/or Al-bearing particles were observed at the cooling area of the sintering unit, while Mn-containing particles were dominant at the smelting unit. SEM-EDX analysis of particles collected downstream of the industrial filters showed that the composition of the particles emitted from the chimneys is very similar to those collected on the filters. ATOFMS analysis of ore samples was also performed to identify particulate emissions that could be generated by wind erosion and manual activities. Specific particle types have been identified for each emission source (chimneys and ore piles) and can be used as tracers for source apportionment of ambient PM measured in the vicinity of the industrial site. PMID:26708757

  16. Physicochemical variations in atmospheric aerosols recorded at sea onboard the Atlantic-Mediterranean 2008 Scholar Ship cruise (Part I): Particle mass concentrations, size ratios, and main chemical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Bhatia, Ravinder; Spiro, Baruch; Hanvey, Melanie

    2010-07-01

    We report on ambient atmospheric aerosols present at sea during the Atlantic-Mediterranean voyage of Oceanic II (The Scholar Ship) in spring 2008. A record was obtained of hourly PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 particle size fraction concentrations and 24-h filter samples for chemical analysis which allowed for comparison between levels of crustal particles, sea spray, total carbon, and secondary inorganic aerosols. On-board monitoring was continuous from the equatorial Atlantic to the Straits of Gibraltar, across the Mediterranean to Istanbul, and back via Lisbon to the English Channel. Initially clean air in the open Atlantic registered PM 10 levels <10 μg m -3 but became progressively polluted by increasingly coarse PM as the ship approached land. Away from major port cities, the main sources of atmospheric contamination identified were dust intrusions from North Africa (NAF), smoke plumes from biomass burning in sub-Saharan Africa and Russia, industrial sulphate clouds and other regional pollution sources transported from Europe, sea spray during rough seas, and plumes emanating from islands. Under dry NAF intrusions PM 10 daily mean levels averaged 40-60 μg m -3 (30-40 μg m -3 PM 2.5; c. 20 μg m -3 PM 1), peaking briefly to >120 μg m -3 (hourly mean) when the ship passed through curtains of higher dust concentrations amassed at the frontal edge of the dust cloud. PM 1/PM 10 ratios ranged from very low during desert dust intrusions (0.3-0.4) to very high during anthropogenic pollution plume events (0.8-1).

  17. Spatial Variability of CCN Sized Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, A.; Väänänen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The computational limitations restrict the grid size used in GCM models, and for many cloud types they are too large when compared to the scale of the cloud formation processes. Several parameterizations for e.g. convective cloud formation exist, but information on spatial subgrid variation of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs) sized aerosol concentration is not known. We quantify this variation as a function of the spatial scale by using datasets from airborne aerosol measurement campaigns around the world including EUCAARI LONGREX, ATAR, INCA, INDOEX, CLAIRE, PEGASOS and several regional airborne campaigns in Finland. The typical shapes of the distributions are analyzed. When possible, we use information obtained by CCN counters. In some other cases, we use particle size distribution measured by for example SMPS to get approximated CCN concentration. Other instruments used include optical particle counters or condensational particle counters. When using the GCM models, the CCN concentration used for each the grid-box is often considered to be either flat, or as an arithmetic mean of the concentration inside the grid-box. However, the aircraft data shows that the concentration values are often lognormal distributed. This, combined with the subgrid variations in the land use and atmospheric properties, might cause that the aerosol-cloud interactions calculated by using mean values to vary significantly from the true effects both temporary and spatially. This, in turn, can cause non-linear bias into the GCMs. We calculate the CCN aerosol concentration distribution as a function of different spatial scales. The measurements allow us to study the variation of these distributions within from hundreds of meters up to hundreds of kilometers. This is used to quantify the potential error when mean values are used in GCMs.

  18. Experimental Assessment of Collection Efficiency of Submicron Aerosol Particles by Cloud Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Ardon-Dryer, K.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    goes through a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), which rejects aerosol particles and transmits larger particles that are either droplet residuals or coagulated particles. The larger particles are sent to the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument for chemical composition analysis. PALMS is a true single-particle instrument and gives information on the size and the chemical composition of each particle. Coagulated particles from the MIT-CFC have mass spectral signatures from both the aerosol particles and the droplet residuals, while the droplet residual contains no signature of the aerosol particles. To our knowledge, this is the first time coagulation has been seen on a single-particle basis. We will present the collection efficiency data of a suite of dust particles with well-defined types, sizes and concentrations under atmospherically relevant temperatures and relative humidity conditions.

  19. Chemical evolution of multicomponent aerosol particles during evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardini, Alessandro; Riipinen, Ilona; Pagels, Joakim; Eriksson, Axel; Worsnop, Douglas; Switieckli, Erik; Kulmala, Markku; Bilde, Merete

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have an important but not well quantified effect on climate and human health. Despite the efforts made in the last decades, the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not fully understood. The uncertainty is partly due to the complex chemical composition of the particles which comprise inorganic and organic compounds. Many organics (like dicarboxylic acids) can be present both in the gas and in the condensed phase due to their low vapor pressure. Clearly, an understanding of this partition is crucial to address any other issue in atmospheric physics and chemistry. Moreover, many organics are water soluble, and their influence on the properties of aqueous solution droplets is still poorly characterized. The solid and sub-cooled liquid state vapor pressures of some organic compounds have been previously determined by measuring the evaporation rate of single-compound crystals [1-3] or binary aqueous droplets [4-6]. In this work, we deploy the HTDMA technique (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) coupled with a 3.5m laminar flow-tube and an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) for determining the chemical evolution during evaporation of ternary droplets made of one dicarboxylic acid (succinic acid, commonly found in atmospheric samples) and one inorganic compound (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) in different mixing ratios, in equilibrium with water vapor at a fixed relative humidity. In addition, we investigate the evaporation of multicomponent droplets and crystals made of three organic species (dicarboxylic acids and sugars), of which one or two are semi-volatile. 1. Bilde M. and Pandis, S.N.: Evaporation Rates and Vapor Pressures of Individual Aerosol Species Formed in the Atmospheric Oxidation of alpha- and beta-Pinene. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2001. 2. Bilde M., et al.: Even-Odd Alternation of Evaporation Rates and Vapor Pressures of C3-C9 Dicarboxylic Acid Aerosols

  20. Estimation of aerosol mass scattering efficiencies under high mass loading: case study for the megacity of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Chen, Changhong; Gao, Jian; Wang, Shuxiao; Watson, John G; Wang, Hongli; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Buying; Zhou, Min; Chow, Judith C; Pitchford, Marc L; Hao, Jiming

    2015-01-20

    Aerosol mass scattering efficiency (MSE), used for the scattering coefficient apportionment of aerosol species, is often studied under the condition of low aerosol mass loading in developed countries. Severe pollution episodes with high particle concentration frequently happened in eastern urban China in recent years. Based on synchronous measurement of aerosol physical, chemical, and optical properties at the megacity of Shanghai for two months during autumn 2012, we studied MSE characteristics at high aerosol mass loading. Their relationships with mass concentrations and size distributions were examined. It was found that MSE values from the original US IMPROVE algorithm could not represent the actual aerosol characteristics in eastern China. It results in an underestimation of the measured ambient scattering coefficient by 36%. MSE values in Shanghai were estimated to be 3.5 ± 0.55 m(2)/g for ammonia sulfate, 4.3 ± 0.63 m(2)/g for ammonia nitrate, and 4.5 ± 0.73 m(2)/g for organic matter, respectively. MSEs for three components increased rapidly with increasing mass concentration in low aerosol mass loading, then kept at a stable level after a threshold mass concentration of 12–24 μg/m(3). During severe pollution episodes, particle growth from an initial peak diameter of 200–300 nm to a peak diameter of 500–600 nm accounts for the rapid increase in MSEs at high aerosol mass loading, that is, particle diameter becomes closer to the wavelength of visible lights. This study provides insights of aerosol scattering properties at high aerosol concentrations and implies the necessity of MSE localization for extinction apportionment, especially for the polluted regions. PMID:25495050

  1. The Impact of Aerosol Particle Mixing State on the Hygroscopicity of Sea Spray Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Schill, Steven R; Collins, Douglas B; Lee, Christopher; Morris, Holly S; Novak, Gordon A; Prather, Kimberly A; Quinn, Patricia K; Sultana, Camille M; Tivanski, Alexei V; Zimmermann, Kathryn; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2015-06-24

    Aerosol particles influence global climate by determining cloud droplet number concentrations, brightness, and lifetime. Primary aerosol particles, such as those produced from breaking waves in the ocean, display large particle-particle variability in chemical composition, morphology, and physical phase state, all of which affect the ability of individual particles to accommodate water and grow into cloud droplets. Despite such diversity in molecular composition, there is a paucity of methods available to assess how particle-particle variability in chemistry translates to corresponding differences in aerosol hygroscopicity. Here, an approach has been developed that allows for characterization of the distribution of aerosol hygroscopicity within a chemically complex population of atmospheric particles. This methodology, when applied to the interpretation of nascent sea spray aerosol, provides a quantitative framework for connecting results obtained using molecular mimics generated in the laboratory with chemically complex ambient aerosol. We show that nascent sea spray aerosol, generated in situ in the Atlantic Ocean, displays a broad distribution of particle hygroscopicities, indicative of a correspondingly broad distribution of particle chemical compositions. Molecular mimics of sea spray aerosol organic material were used in the laboratory to assess the volume fractions and molecular functionality required to suppress sea spray aerosol hygroscopicity to the extent indicated by field observations. We show that proper accounting for the distribution and diversity in particle hygroscopicity and composition are important to the assessment of particle impacts on clouds and global climate. PMID:27162963

  2. Investigating types and sources of organic aerosol in Rocky Mountain National Park using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurman, M. I.; Lee, T.; Sun, Y.; Schichtel, B. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts of atmospheric particles are highlighted in remote areas where visibility and ecosystem health can be degraded by even relatively low particle concentrations. Submicron particle size, composition, and source apportionment were explored at Rocky Mountain National Park using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. This summer campaign found low average, but variable, particulate mass (PM) concentrations (max = 93.1 μg m-3, avg. = 5.13 ± 2.72 μg m-3) of which 75.2 ± 11.1% is organic. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosol (LV-OOA, 39.3% of PM1 on average) identified using Positive Matrix Factorization appears to be mixed with ammonium sulfate (3.9% and 16.6% of mass, respectively), while semi-volatile OOA (27.6%) is correlated with ammonium nitrate (nitrate: 4.3%); concentrations of these mixtures are enhanced with upslope (SE) surface winds from the densely populated Front Range area, indicating the importance of transport. A local biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, 8.4%) source is suggested by mass spectral cellulose combustion markers (m/z 60 and 73) limited to brief, high-concentration, polydisperse events (suggesting fresh combustion), a diurnal maximum at 22:00 local standard time when campfires were set at adjacent summer camps, and association with surface winds consistent with local campfire locations. The particle characteristics determined here represent typical summertime conditions at the Rocky Mountain site based on comparison to ~10 years of meteorological, particle composition, and fire data.

  3. Investigating types and sources of organic aerosol in Rocky Mountain National Park using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurman, M. I.; Lee, T.; Sun, Y.; Schichtel, B. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-07-01

    The environmental impacts of atmospheric particles are highlighted in remote areas where visibility and ecosystem health can be degraded by even relatively low particle concentrations. Submicron particle size, composition, and source apportionment were explored at Rocky Mountain National Park using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. This summer campaign found low average, but variable, particulate mass (PM) concentrations (max = 93.1 μg m-3, avg. = 5.13 ± 2.72 μg m-3) of which 75.2 ± 11.1% is organic. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosol (LV-OOA, 39.3% of PM1 on average) identified using Positive Matrix Factorization appears to be mixed with ammonium sulfate (3.9 and 16.6% of mass, respectively), while semi-volatile OOA (27.6%) is correlated with ammonium nitrate (nitrate: 4.3%); concentrations of these mixtures are enhanced with upslope (SE) surface winds from the densely populated Front Range area, indicating the importance of transport. A local biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, 8.4%) source is suggested by mass spectral cellulose combustion markers (m/zs 60 and 73) limited to brief, high-concentration, polydisperse events (suggesting fresh combustion), a diurnal maximum at 22:00 local standard time (LST) when campfires were set at adjacent summer camps, and association with surface winds consistent with local campfire locations. The particle characteristics determined here represent typical summertime conditions at the Rocky Mountain site based on comparison to ∼10 years of meteorological, particle composition, and fire data.

  4. Particle size influences aerosol deposition in guinea pigs during bronchoconstriction

    SciTech Connect

    Praud, J.P.; Macquin-Mavier, I.; Wirquin, V.; Meignan, M.; Harf, A.

    1986-03-01

    The role of two factors determining the deposition of aerosols in the respiratory tract was investigated: the particle size and the nature of the airflow in the airways. An aerosol of Tc99 m-DTPA was generated, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of either 3 ..mu..m (Bird nebulizer) or 0.5 ..mu..m (Jouan nebulizer). The vehicle was either saline (S) or histamine (H) at a concentration which was previously shown to induce a 50% decrease of specific airway conductance. Spontaneously breathing guinea pigs were exposed during 2 minutes to the aerosol, then killed and the radioactivity in the pharynx, the trachea, the large bronchi and the remaining parenchyma was measured. Results are evaluated as the percentage of total radioactivity in the respiratory tract (mean +/- SEM). Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in the pattern of deposition for large particles (3 ..mu..m) during bronchoconstriction: the more proximal deposition can be ascribed to inertial impaction. Particle size should be clearly defined during histamine challenge in experimental animals.

  5. Hydrolysis of organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang; Shilling, John E.; Song, Chen; Hiranuma, Naruki; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2012-10-19

    Organonitrate (ON) groups are important substituents in secondary organic aerosols. Model simulations and laboratory studies indicate a large fraction of ON groups in aerosol particles, but much lower quantities are observed in the atmosphere. Hydrolysis of ON groups in aerosol particles has been proposed recently. To test this hypothesis, we simulated formation of ON molecules in a reaction chamber under a wide range of relative humidity (0% to 90%). The mass fraction of ON groups (5% to 20% for high-NOx experiments) consistently decreased with increasing relative humidity, which was best explained by hydrolysis of ON groups at a rate of 4 day-1 (lifetime of 6 hours) for reactions under relative humidity greater than 20%. In addition, we found that secondary nitrogen-containing molecules absorb light, with greater absorption under dry and high-NOx conditions. This work provides the first evidence for particle-phase hydrolysis of ON groups, a process that could substantially reduce ON group concentration in the atmosphere.

  6. Mass Spectrometry of Atmospheric Aerosol: 1 nanometer to 1 micron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, D. R.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    The role of aerosol particles remains the largest uncertainty in quantitatively assessing past, current and future climate change. The principal reason for that uncertainty arises from the need to characterize and model composition and size dependent aerosol processes, ranging from nanometer to micron scales. Aerosol mass spectrometry results have shown that about half the sub-micron aerosol composition is composed of highly oxygenated organics that are not well understood in terms of photochemical reaction mechanisms (Jimenez et al, 2009). This work has included application of high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) in order to determine elemental and functional group composition of complex organic components. Recently, we have applied similar ToFMS to determine the composition of ambient ions, molecules and clusters, potentially involved in formation and growth of nano-particles (Junninen et al, 2010). Observed organic anions (molecular weight range 200-500 Th) have similar chemical composition as the least volatile secondary organics observed in fine particles; while organic cations are dominated by amines and pyridines. During nucleation events, anions are dominated by sulphuric acid cluster ions (Ehn et al, 2010). In both nanometer and micrometer size ranges, the goal to elucidate the roles of inorganic and organic species, particularly how particle evolution and physical properties depend on mixed compositions. Recent results will be discussed, including ambient and experimental chamber observations. Ehn et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 14897-14946, 2010 Jimenez et al, Science, 326, 1525-1529, 2009 Junninen et al, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1039-1053, 2010

  7. Mass size distributions of elemental aerosols in industrial area

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Mona; Mohamed, Amer; Ahmed, Abdel-Rahman; Nazmy, Hyam

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor aerosol particles were characterized in industrial area of Samalut city (El-minia/Egypt) using low pressure Berner cascade impactor as an aerosol sampler. The impactor operates at 1.7 m3/h flow rate. Seven elements were investigated including Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu, Mn and Pb using atomic absorption technique. The mean mass concentrations of the elements ranged from 0.42 ng/m3 (for Ba) to 89.62 ng/m3 (for Fe). The mass size distributions of the investigated elements were bi-modal log normal distribution corresponding to the accumulation and coarse modes. The enrichment factors of elements indicate that Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu and Mn are mainly emitted into the atmosphere from soil sources while Pb is mostly due to anthropogenic sources. PMID:26644919

  8. The Impact of Aerosol Particle Mixing State on the Hygroscopicity of Sea Spray Aerosol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol particles influence global climate by determining cloud droplet number concentrations, brightness, and lifetime. Primary aerosol particles, such as those produced from breaking waves in the ocean, display large particle–particle variability in chemical composition, morphology, and physical phase state, all of which affect the ability of individual particles to accommodate water and grow into cloud droplets. Despite such diversity in molecular composition, there is a paucity of methods available to assess how particle–particle variability in chemistry translates to corresponding differences in aerosol hygroscopicity. Here, an approach has been developed that allows for characterization of the distribution of aerosol hygroscopicity within a chemically complex population of atmospheric particles. This methodology, when applied to the interpretation of nascent sea spray aerosol, provides a quantitative framework for connecting results obtained using molecular mimics generated in the laboratory with chemically complex ambient aerosol. We show that nascent sea spray aerosol, generated in situ in the Atlantic Ocean, displays a broad distribution of particle hygroscopicities, indicative of a correspondingly broad distribution of particle chemical compositions. Molecular mimics of sea spray aerosol organic material were used in the laboratory to assess the volume fractions and molecular functionality required to suppress sea spray aerosol hygroscopicity to the extent indicated by field observations. We show that proper accounting for the distribution and diversity in particle hygroscopicity and composition are important to the assessment of particle impacts on clouds and global climate. PMID:27162963

  9. Determination of organic compounds from wood combustion aerosol nanoparticles by different gas chromatographic systems and by aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Totti; Martín, Sara Herrero; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Pavón, José Luis Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Organic compounds in atmospheric nanoparticles have an effect on human health and the climate. The determination of these particles is challenged by the difficulty of sampling, the complexity of sample composition, and the trace-level concentrations of the compounds. Meeting the challenge requires the development of sophisticated sampling systems for size-resolved particles and the optimization of sensitive, accurate and simple analytical techniques and methods. A new sampling system is proposed where particles are charged with a bipolar charger and size-segregated with a differential mobility analyzer. This system was successfully used to sample particles from wood pyrolysis with particle sizes 30-100nm. Particles were analyzed by four techniques: comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry, and aerosol mass spectrometry (aerosol MS). In the chromatographic techniques, particles were collected on a filter and analyzed off-line after sample preparation, whereas in the aerosol MS, particle analysis was performed directly from the particle source. Target compounds of the samples were polyaromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes. The analytical techniques were compared and their advantages and disadvantages were evaluated. The sampling system operated well and target compounds were identified in low concentrations. PMID:19945113

  10. Reactive uptake of HOCl to laboratory generated sea salt particles and nascent sea-spray aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, N. R.; Ryder, O. S.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Field observations suggest that the reactive uptake of HOCl on marine aerosol particles is an important source of chlorine radicals, particularly under low NOx conditions. However to date, laboratory measurements disagree on the magnitude of the reactive uptake coefficient for HOCl by a factor of 5 (γ(HOCl) ranges between 0.0004 and 0.0018), and there are no measurements of γ(HOCl) on nascent sea-spray aerosol. Here, we present measurements of the reactive uptake of HOCl to laboratory generated sodium chloride and sea-spray aerosol particles generated in a novel Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART), coupled to an entrained aerosol flow reactor and Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Measurements of γ(HOCl) retrieved here are compared against those in the literature, and the role of organic coatings on nascent sea-spray aerosol is explored.

  11. Real-time chemical analysis of aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    An important aspect of environmental atmospheric monitoring requires the characterization of airborne microparticles and aerosols. Unfortunately, traditional sample collection and handling techniques are prone to contamination and interference effects that can render an analysis invalid. These problems can be avoided by using real-time atmospheric sampling techniques followed by immediate mass spectrometric analysis. The former is achieved in these experiments via a two state differential pumping scheme that is attached directly to a commercially available quadruple ion trap mass spectrometer. Particles produced by an external particle generator enter the apparatus and immediately pass through two cw laser/fiberoptic based detectors positioned two centimeters apart. Timing electronics measure the time between detection events, estimate the particles arrival in the center of the ion trap and control the firing of a YAG laser. Ions produced when the UV laser light ablates the particle`s surface are stored by the ion trap for mass analysis. Ion trap mass spectrometers have several advantages over conventional time-of-flight instruments. First, they are capable of MS/MS analysis by the collisional dissociation of a stored species, This permits complete chemical characterization of airborne samples. Second, ion traps are small and lend themselves to portable, field oriented applications.

  12. Experimental Assessment of Collection Efficiency of Submicron Aerosol Particles by Cloud Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Oo, K.; Brown, M. D.; Dhaniyala, S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    An experimental setup has been constructed to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The collection efficiency study is a prelude to studying contact nucleation, which is a potentially important ice nucleation mode that is not well-understood. This laboratory setup is a step closer to experimentally assessing the importance of contact nucleation. Water droplets with 20 micron diameter and submicron aerosol particles are brought into contact in an injector situated inside a chilled glass flow tube. The water droplets that collect aerosol particles are allowed to pass through a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), which accepts large droplets and rejects aerosol particles that have not coagulated with the water droplets. The collected droplets are sent into the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument which performs in situ chemical analysis of a single particle. The number of aerosol particles collected by the single water droplet is quantified by calibrating the PALMS with known concentrations of aerosol particles. The water droplets contain a known amount of ammonium sulfate for identification purpose in the mass spectrometry. Preliminary results from the experiment will be discussed and compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies.

  13. Preliminary Results of Aerosol Chemical Composition Measurements in the Gulf of Maine with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    The New England Air Quality Study is a multi-institutional research project to improve understanding of the atmospheric processes that control the production and distribution of air pollutants in the New England region. During July-August, 2002 a large, collaborative, intensive period of atmospheric measurement and model comparisons took place. As part of this study, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed aboard the NOAA ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Gulf of Maine. The AMS measures semi-volatile components of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between roughly 40 and 1500 nm. During this study, the AMS collected 2-minute averaged particle mass spectra as well as speciated organic, sulfate, and nitrate size distributions. Sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium nitrate components of the aerosol, which are relatively non-volatile at the AMS heater temperature, were not detected with the AMS. A wide variety of air masses were sampled during the intensive period, including clean marine, clean continental, and polluted continental air masses. In general, the volatile particle composition was mostly organic and sulfate with lesser amounts of nitrate. Furthermore, particle mass loadings typically peaked around 400-600 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Several events with high aerosol organic, sulfate, and/or nitrate mass loadings were observed and the atmospheric processes that cause them will be discussed.

  14. Organic Aerosols in Rural and Remote Atmospheric Environments: Insights from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Jimenez, J.; Ulbrich, I.; Dunlea, E.; Decarlo, P.; Huffman, A.; Allan, J.; Coe, H.; Alfarra, R.; Canagaratna, M.; Onasch, T.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D.; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Shimono, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Drewnick, F.; Schneider, J.; Middlebrook, A.; Bahreini, R.; Cotrell, L.; Griffin, R.; Leaitch, R.; Li, S.; Hayden, K.; Rautiainen, J.

    2006-12-01

    Organic matter usually accounts for a large fraction of the fine particle mass in rural and remote atmospheres. However, little is known about the sources and properties of this material. Here we report findings on the characteristics and the major types of organic aerosols (OA) in urban downwind, high elevation, forested, and marine atmospheres based on analyses of more than 20 highly time resolved AMS datasets sampled from various locations in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere. Organic aerosol components are extracted from these datasets using a custom multiple component mass spectral analysis technique and the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) method. These components are evaluated according to their extracted mass spectra and correlations to aerosol species, such as sulfate, nitrate, and elemental carbon, and gas-phase tracer compounds, such as CO and NOx. We have identified a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) component similar in mass spectra to the hydrocarbon substances observed at urban locations. We have also identified several oxygenated OA (OOA) components that show different fragmentation patterns and oxygen to carbon ratios in their mass spectra. Two OOA components a highly oxygenated that has mass spectrum resembling that of fulvic acid (a model compound representative for highly processed/oxidized organics in the environment) and a less oxygenated OOA component, whose spectrum is dominated with ions that are mainly associated with carbonyls and alcohols, are very frequently observed at various rural/remote sites. The oxygenated OOA component is more prevalent at downwind sites influenced by urban transport and the less oxygenated shows correlation to biogenic chamber OA at some locations. Compared to the total OOA concentration, HOA is generally very small and accounts for < 10% of the total OA mass at rural/remote sites. The comparisons between the concentrations of HOA and primary OA (POA) that would be predicted according to inert

  15. Contribution of isoprene-derived organosulfates to free tropospheric aerosol mass.

    PubMed

    Froyd, K D; Murphy, S M; Murphy, D M; de Gouw, J A; Eddingsaas, N C; Wennberg, P O

    2010-12-14

    Recent laboratory studies have demonstrated that isoprene oxidation products can partition to atmospheric aerosols by reacting with condensed phase sulfuric acid, forming low-volatility organosulfate compounds. We have identified organosulfate compounds in free tropospheric aerosols by single particle mass spectrometry during several airborne field campaigns. One of these organosulfates is identified as the sulfate ester of IEPOX, a second generation oxidation product of isoprene. The patterns of IEPOX sulfate ester in ambient data generally followed the aerosol acidity and NO(x) dependence established by laboratory studies. Detection of the IEPOX sulfate ester was most sensitive using reduced ionization laser power, when it was observed in up to 80% of particles in the tropical free troposphere. Based on laboratory mass calibrations, IEPOX added > 0.4% to tropospheric aerosol mass in the remote tropics and up to 20% in regions downwind of isoprene sources. In the southeastern United States, when acidic aerosol was exposed to fresh isoprene emissions, accumulation of IEPOX increased aerosol mass by up to 3%. The IEPOX sulfate ester is therefore one of the most abundant single organic compounds measured in atmospheric aerosol. Our data show that acidity-dependent IEPOX uptake is a mechanism by which anthropogenic SO(2) and marine dimethyl sulfide emissions generate secondary biogenic aerosol mass throughout the troposphere. PMID:21098310

  16. Glass transition measurements in mixed organic and organic/inorganic aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dette, Hans Peter; Qi, Mian; Schröder, David; Godt, Adelheid; Koop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The recent proposal of a semi-solid or glassy state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles has sparked intense research in that area. In particular, potential effects of a glassy aerosol state such as incomplete gas-to-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organics, inhibited chemical reactions and water uptake, and the potential to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei have been identified so far. Many of these studies use well-studied proxies for oxidized organics such as sugars or other polyols. There are, however, few measurements on compounds that do exist in atmospheric aerosol particles. Here, we have performed studies on the phase state of organics that actually occur in natural SOA particles arising from the oxidation of alpha-pinene emitted in boreal forests. We have investigated the two marker compounds pinonic acid and 3-methylbutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) and their mixtures. 3-MBCTA was synthesized from methyl isobutyrate and dimethyl maleate in two steps. In order to transfer these substances into a glassy state we have developed a novel aerosol spray drying technique. Dilute solutions of the relevant organics are atomized into aerosol particles which are dried subsequently by diffusion drying. The dried aerosol particles are then recollected in an impactor and studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which provides unambiguous information on the aerosols' phase state, i.e. whether the particles are crystalline or glassy. In the latter case DSC is used to determine the glass transition temperature Tg of the investigated samples. Using the above setup we were able to determine Tg of various mixtures of organic aerosol compounds as a function of their dry mass fraction, thus allowing to infer a relation between Tg and the O:C ratio of the aerosols. Moreover, we also studied the glass transition behavior of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles, including the effects of liquid-liquid phase separation upon drying.

  17. Characterization of ice-nucleating bacteria using on-line electron impact ionization aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Slowik, J G; Schaupp, C; Amato, P; Saathoff, H; Möhler, O; Prévôt, A S H; Baltensperger, U

    2015-04-01

    The mass spectral signatures of airborne bacteria were measured and analyzed in cloud simulation experiments at the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) facility. Suspensions of cultured cells in pure water were sprayed into the aerosol and cloud chambers forming an aerosol which consisted of intact cells, cell fragments and residual particles from the agar medium in which the bacteria were cultured. The aerosol particles were analyzed with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer equipped with a newly developed PM2.5 aerodynamic lens. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using the multilinear engine (ME-2) source apportionment was applied to deconvolve the bacteria and agar mass spectral signatures. The bacteria mass fraction contributed between 75 and 95% depending on the aerosol generation, with the remaining mass attributed to agar. We present mass spectra of Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria typical for ice-nucleation active bacteria in the atmosphere to facilitate the distinction of airborne bacteria from other constituents in ambient aerosol, e.g. by PMF/ME-2 source apportionment analyses. Nitrogen-containing ions were the most salient feature of the bacteria mass spectra, and a combination of C4 H8 N(+) (m/z 70) and C5 H12 N(+) (m/z 86) may be used as marker ions. PMID:26149110

  18. Rocket-borne probes for charged ionospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiley, B.; Sternovsky, Z.; Robertson, S.; Horanyi, M.

    2003-10-01

    A series of rocket-borne probes is described for detecting charged solid particles in the ionosphere. The probes are flat charge-collecting surfaces on the skin of the rocket that have behind them a permanent magnet that magnetically insulates the probe from electrons. Several probes have also had a small positive bias of several volts to reduce collection of light molecular ions. The current that is recorded is thus from heavier charged particles and this is converted to a charge number density. Several summer launches into the polar mesosphere have found charged aerosol layers at the altitudes of noctilucent clouds and polar summer mesospheric radar echoes. A new probe is being developed in which electric deflection is used to determine the mass of the particles. This probe takes advantage of the reduced density behind the shock front to increase the mean free path within the instrument, so that cryopumping is not required.

  19. Initial size distributions and hygroscopicity of indoor combustion aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Hopke, P.K.

    1993-10-01

    Cigarette smoke, incense smoke, natural gas flames, propane fuel flames, and candle flames are contributors of indoor aerosol particles. To provide a quantitative basis for the modeling of inhaled aerosol deposition pattern, the hygroscopic growth of particles from these five sources as well as the source size distributions were measured. Because the experiments were performed on the bases of particles of single size, it provided not only the averaged particle`s hygroscopic growth of each source, but also the detailed size change for particles of different sizes within the whole size spectrum. The source particle size distribution measurements found that cigarette smoke and incense smoke contained particles in the size range of 100-700 nm, while the natural gas, propane, and candle flames generated particles between 10 and 100 nm. The hygroscopic growth experiments showed that these combustion aerosol particles could grow 10% to 120%, depending on the particle sizes and origins. 18 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. [Hygroscopic Properties of Aerosol Particles in North Suburb of Nanjing in Spring].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Ze-feng; Li, Yan-weil; Qin, Xin; Miao, Qing; Shen, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The hygroscopic properties of submicron aerosol particles have significant effects on spectral distribution, CCN activation, climate forcing, human health and so on. A Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) was utilized to analyze the hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northern suburb of Nanjing during 16 April to 21 May, 2014. At relative humidity (RH) of 90%, for particles with dry diameters 30-230 nm, the probability distribution of GF (GF-PDF) shows a distinct bimodal pattern, with a dominant more-hygroscopic group and a smaller less-hygroscopic group. A contrast analysis between day and night suggests that, aerosol particles during day time have a stronger hygroscopicity and a higher number fraction of more-hygroscopic group than that at night overall. Aerosol particles during night have a higher degree of externally mixed state. Backward trajectory analysis using HYSPLIT mode reveals that, the sampling site is mainly affected by three air masses. For aitken nuclei, northwest continental air masses experience a longer aging process and have a stronger hygroscopicity. For condensation nuclei, east air masses have a stronger hygroscopicity and have a higher number fraction of more-hygroscopic group. Aerosol particles in local air masses have a high number fraction of more-hygroscopic group in the whole diameter range. PMID:26387289

  1. Characterization of aerosol composition, concentrations, and sources at Baengnyeong Island, Korea using an aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyoung; Choi, Jinsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Ahn, Junyoung; Park, Jin Soo; Atwood, Samuel A.; Schurman, Misha; Choi, Yongjoo; Chung, Yoomi; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-11-01

    To improve understanding of the sources and chemical properties of particulate pollutants on the western side of the Korean Peninsula, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measured non-refractory fine (PM1) particles from May to November, 2011 at Baengnyeong Island, South Korea. Organic matter and sulfate were generally the most abundant species and exhibited maximum concentrations of 36 μg/m3 and 39 μg/m3, respectively. Nitrate concentrations peaked at 32 μg/m3 but were typically much lower than sulfate and organic matter concentrations. May, September, October, and November featured the highest monthly average concentrations, with lower concentrations typically observed from June through August. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis and individual case studies revealed that transport from eastern China, an area with high SO2 emissions, was associated with high particulate sulfate concentrations at the measurement site. Observed sulfate aerosol sometimes was fully neutralized by ammonium but often was acidic; the average ammonium to sulfate molar ratio was 1.49. Measured species size distributions revealed a range of sulfate particle size distributions with modes between 100 and 600 nm. Organic aerosol source regions were widespread, including contributions from eastern China and South Korea. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis indicated three "factors," or types of organic aerosol, comprising one primary, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and two oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) components, including a more oxidized (MO-OOA) and a less oxidized (LO-OOA) oxidized organic aerosol. On average, HOA and OOA contributed 21% and 79% of the organic mass (OM), respectively, with the MO-OOA fraction nearly three times as abundant as the LO-OOA fraction. Biomass burning contributions to observed OM were low during the late spring/early summer agricultural burning season in eastern China, since

  2. Factor analysis of combined organic and inorganic aerosol mass spectra from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. L.; Zhang, Q.; Schwab, J. J.; Yang, T.; Ng, N. L.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2012-09-01

    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the merged high resolution mass spectra of organic and inorganic aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements to investigate the sources and evolution processes of submicron aerosols in New York City in summer 2009. This new approach is able to study the distribution of organic and inorganic species in different types of aerosols, the acidity of organic aerosol (OA) factors, and the fragment ion patterns related to photochemical processing. In this study, PMF analysis of the unified AMS spectral matrix resolved 8 factors. The hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and cooking OA (COA) factors contain negligible amounts of inorganic species. The two factors that are primarily ammonium sulfate (SO4-OA) and ammonium nitrate (NO3-OA), respectively, are overall neutralized. Among all OA factors the organic fraction of SO4-OA shows the highest degree of oxidation (O/C = 0.69). Two semi-volatile oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, i.e., a less oxidized (LO-OOA) and a more oxidized (MO-OOA), were also identified. MO-OOA represents local photochemical products with a diurnal profile exhibiting a pronounced noon peak, consistent with those of formaldehyde (HCHO) and Ox(= O3 + NO2). The NO+/NO2+ ion ratio in MO-OOA is much higher than that in NO3-OA and in pure ammonium nitrate, indicating the formation of organic nitrates. The nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA) factor contains ~25% of acidic inorganic salts, suggesting the formation of secondary OA via acid-base reactions of amines. The size distributions of OA factors derived from the size-resolved mass spectra show distinct diurnal evolving behaviors but overall a progressing evolution from smaller to larger particle mode as the oxidation degree of OA increases. Our results demonstrate that PMF analysis of the unified aerosol mass spectral matrix which contains both inorganic and organic aerosol signals may enable the deconvolution of more OA factors and gain more insights into the

  3. Comparison between CARIBIC Aerosol Samples Analysed by Accelerator-Based Methods and Optical Particle Counter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Andersson, S. M.; Weigelt, A.; Hermann, M.; Assmann, D.; Voigtländer, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P. J. F.; Zahn, A.

    2014-08-01

    Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on a Instrument Container) passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9-12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT) and the tropical mid troposphere (MT) were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC) is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with the following accelerator-based methods: particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA). Data from 48 flights during 1 year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  4. Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Andersson, S. M.; Weigelt, A.; Hermann, M.; Assmann, D.; Voigtländer, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P. J. F.; Zahn, A.

    2014-04-01

    Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9-12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT) and the tropical mid troposphere (MT) were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC) is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with accelerator-based methods particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA). Data from 48 flights during one year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  5. Characterization and source apportionment of organic aerosol using offline aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daellenbach, K. R.; Bozzetti, C.; Křepelová, A.; Canonaco, F.; Wolf, R.; Zotter, P.; Fermo, P.; Crippa, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Sosedova, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, R.-J.; Poulain, L.; Szidat, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; El Haddad, I.

    2015-08-01

    Field deployments of the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) have significantly advanced real-time measurements and source apportionment of non-refractory particulate matter. However, the cost and complex maintenance requirements of the AMS make impractical its deployment at sufficient sites to determine regional characteristics. Furthermore, the negligible transmission efficiency of the AMS inlet for supermicron particles significantly limits the characterization of their chemical nature and contributing sources. In this study, we utilize the AMS to characterize the water-soluble organic fingerprint of ambient particles collected onto conventional quartz filters, which are routinely sampled at many air quality sites. The method was applied to 256 particulate matter (PM) filter samples (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) collected at 16 urban and rural sites during summer and winter. We show that the results obtained by the present technique compare well with those from co-located online measurements, e.g. AMS or Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The bulk recoveries of organic aerosol (60-91 %) achieved using this technique, together with low detection limits (0.8 μg of organic aerosol on the analyzed filter fraction) allow its application to environmental samples. We will discuss the recovery variability of individual hydrocarbon, oxygen containing and other ions. The performance of such data in source apportionment is assessed in comparison to ACSM data. Recoveries of organic components related to different sources as traffic, wood burning and secondary organic aerosol are presented. This technique, while subjected to the limitations inherent to filter-based measurements (e.g. filter artifacts and limited time resolution) may be used to enhance the AMS capabilities in measuring size-fractionated, spatially-resolved long-term datasets.

  6. Characterization and source apportionment of organic aerosol using offline aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daellenbach, K. R.; Bozzetti, C.; Křepelová, A.; Canonaco, F.; Wolf, R.; Zotter, P.; Fermo, P.; Crippa, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Sosedova, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, R.-J.; Poulain, L.; Szidat, S.; Baltensperger, U.; El Haddad, I.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Field deployments of the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) have significantly advanced real-time measurements and source apportionment of non-refractory particulate matter. However, the cost and complex maintenance requirements of the AMS make its deployment at sufficient sites to determine regional characteristics impractical. Furthermore, the negligible transmission efficiency of the AMS inlet for supermicron particles significantly limits the characterization of their chemical nature and contributing sources. In this study, we utilize the AMS to characterize the water-soluble organic fingerprint of ambient particles collected onto conventional quartz filters, which are routinely sampled at many air quality sites. The method was applied to 256 particulate matter (PM) filter samples (PM1, PM2.5, and PM10, i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1, 2.5, and 10 µm, respectively), collected at 16 urban and rural sites during summer and winter. We show that the results obtained by the present technique compare well with those from co-located online measurements, e.g., AMS or Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The bulk recoveries of organic aerosol (60-91 %) achieved using this technique, together with low detection limits (0.8 µg of organic aerosol on the analyzed filter fraction) allow its application to environmental samples. We will discuss the recovery variability of individual hydrocarbon ions, ions containing oxygen, and other ions. The performance of such data in source apportionment is assessed in comparison to ACSM data. Recoveries of organic components related to different sources as traffic, wood burning, and secondary organic aerosol are presented. This technique, while subjected to the limitations inherent to filter-based measurements (e.g., filter artifacts and limited time resolution) may be used to enhance the AMS capabilities in measuring size-fractionated, spatially resolved long-term data sets.

  7. Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical review of the most recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2012-06-29

    This manuscript presents an overview of the most recent instrument developments for the field and laboratory applications of mass spectrometry (MS) to investigate the chemistry and physics of atmospheric aerosols. A range of MS instruments, employing different sample introduction methods, ionisation and mass detection techniques are used both for ‘online’ and ‘offline’ characterisation of aerosols. Online MS techniques enable detection of individual particles with simultaneous measurement of particle size distributions and aerodynamic characteristics and are ideally suited for field studies that require high temporal resolution. Offline MS techniques provide a means for detailed molecular-level analysis of aerosol samples, which is essential to gain fundamental knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry, mechanisms of particle formation and atmospheric aging. Combined, complementary MS techniques provide comprehensive information on the chemical composition, size, morphology and phase of aerosols – data of key importance for evaluating hygroscopic and optical properties of particles, their health effects, understanding their origins and atmospheric evolution. Over the last few years, developments and applications of MS techniques in aerosol research have expanded remarkably as evident by skyrocketing publication statistics. Finally, the goal of this review is to present the most recent developments in the field of aerosol mass spectrometry for the time period of late 2010 to early 2012, which have not been conveyed in previous reviews.

  8. Detection of brake wear aerosols by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Dall'Osto, M.; Olatunbosun, O. A.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-03-01

    Brake dust particles were characterised using an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) operated using two inlet configurations, namely the aerodynamic lens (AFL) inlet and countersunk nozzle inlet. Laboratory studies show that dust particles are characterised by mass spectra containing ions deriving from Fe and Ba and although highly correlated to each other, the Fe and Ba signals were mostly detected using the nozzle inlet with relatively high laser desorption energies. When using the AFL, only [56Fe] and [-88FeO2] ions were observed in brake dust spectra generated using lower laser desorption pulse energies, and only above 0.75 mJ was the [138Ba] ion detected. When used with the preferred nozzle inlet configuration, the [-88FeO2] peak was considered to be the more reliable tracer peak, because it is not present in other types of dust (mineral, tyre, Saharan etc). As shown by the comparison with ambient data from a number of locations, the aerodynamic lens is not as efficient in detecting brake wear particles, with less than 1% of sampled particles attributed to brake wear. Five field campaigns within Birmingham (background, roadside (3) and road tunnel) used the nozzle inlet and showed that dust particles (crustal and road) accounted for between 3.1 and 65.9% of the particles detected, with the remaining particles being made up from varying percentages of other constituents.

  9. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR AN OFFICE AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses an evaluation of the effect of percent outdoor air supplied and occupation level on the particle size distributions and mass concentrations for a typical office building. (NOTE: As attention has become focused on indoor air pollution control, it has become i...

  10. Real-time characterization of the size and chemical composition of individual particles in ambient aerosol systems in Riverside, California

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.A.; Prather, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric aerosols, although ubiquitous, are highly diverse and continually fluctuating systems. A typical aerosol system may consist of particles with diameters between {approximately}0.002 {mu}m and {approximately}200 {mu}m. Even in rural or pristine areas, atmospheric particle concentration is significant, with concentrations up to 10{sup 8} particles/cm{sup 3} not being uncommon. Chemical composition of atmospheric particles vary from simple water droplets or acidic ices to soot particles and cigarette smoke. Due to changes in atmospheric conditions, processes such as nucleation, coagulation or heterogeneous chemistry may effect both physical and chemical properties of individual particles over relatively short time intervals. Recently, aerosol measurement techniques are focusing on determining the size and/or chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. This research group has recently developed aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), a technique which allows for real-time determination of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Single particle measurements are performed in one instrument using dual laser aerodynamic particle sizing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Aerosol-time-of-flight mass spectrometry is briefly described in several other abstracts in this publication.

  11. Particle size distributions of several commonly used seeding aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswy, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of experimentation, no solid particle powder could be found which produced an aerosol with a narrow particle size distribution when fluidization was the only flow process used in producing the aerosol. The complication of adding particle size fractionation processes to the aerosol generation effort appears to be avoidable. In this regard, a simple sonic orifice is found to be effective in reducing the percentage of agglomerates in the several metal oxide powders tested. Marginally beneficial results are obtained for a 0.5/99.5 percent by weight mixture of the flow agent and metal oxide powder. However, agglomeration is observed to be enhanced when the flow agent percentage is increased to 5 percent. Liquid atomization using the Collison nebulizer as well as a version of the Laskin nozzle resulted in polydispersed aerosols with particle size distributions heavily weighted by the small particle end of the size spectrum. The aerosol particle size distributions produced by the vaporization/condensation seeder are closer to the ideal monodispersed aerosol than any of the other aerosols tested. In addition, this seeding approach affords a measure of control over particle size and particle production rate.

  12. Mass spectrometric airborne measurements of submicron aerosol and cloud residual composition in tropic deep convection during ACRIDICON-CHUVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; Fütterer, Daniel; Walser, Adrian; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Airborne measurements of submicron aerosol and cloud particles were conducted in the region of Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign in September 2014. ACRIDICON-CHUVA aimed at the investigation of convective cloud systems in order to get a better understanding and quantification of aerosol-cloud-interactions and radiative effects of convective clouds. For that, data from airborne measurements within convective cloud systems are combined with satellite and ground-based data. We used a C-ToF-AMS (Compact-Time-of-Flight-Aerosol-Mass-Spectrometer) to obtain information on aerosol composition and vertical profiles of different aerosol species, like organics, sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride. The instrument was operated behind two different inlets: The HASI (HALO Aerosol Submicrometer Inlet) samples aerosol particles, whereas the CVI (Counterflow Virtual Impactor) samples cloud droplets and ice particles during in-cloud measurements, such that cloud residual particles can be analyzed. Differences in aerosol composition inside and outside of clouds and cloud properties over forested or deforested region were investigated. Additionally, the in- and outflow of convective clouds was sampled on dedicated cloud missions in order to study the evolution of the clouds and the processing of aerosol particles. First results show high organic aerosol mass concentrations (typically 15 μg/m3 and during one flight up to 25 μg/m3). Although high amounts of organic aerosol in tropic air over rainforest regions were expected, such high mass concentrations were not anticipated. Next to that, high sulphate aerosol mass concentrations (about 4 μg/m3) were measured at low altitudes (up to 5 km). During some flights organic and nitrate aerosol was observed with higher mass concentrations at high altitudes (10-12 km) than at lower altitudes, indicating redistribution of boundary layer particles by convection. The cloud residuals measured during in

  13. Method for determining aerosol particle size device for determining aerosol particle size

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

  14. Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Matthew A.

    Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment

  15. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  16. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  17. Optimized sparse-particle aerosol representations for modeling cloud-aerosol interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, Laura; McGraw, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sparse representations of atmospheric aerosols are needed for efficient regional- and global-scale chemical transport models. Here we introduce a new framework for representing aerosol distributions, based on the method of moments. Given a set of moment constraints, we show how linear programming can be used to identify collections of sparse particles that approximately maximize distributional entropy. The collections of sparse particles derived from this approach reproduce CCN activity of the exact model aerosol distributions with high accuracy. Additionally, the linear programming techniques described in this study can be used to bound key aerosol properties, such as the number concentration of CCN. Unlike the commonly used sparse representations, such as modal and sectional schemes, the maximum-entropy moment-based approach is not constrained to pre-determined size bins or assumed distribution shapes. This study is a first step toward a new aerosol simulation scheme that will track multivariate aerosol distributions with sufficient computational efficiency for large-scale simulations.

  18. Single-particle measurements of phase partitioning between primary and secondary organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ellis Shipley; Donahue, Neil M; Ahern, Adam T; Ye, Qing; Lipsky, Eric

    2016-07-18

    Organic aerosols provide a measure of complexity in the urban atmosphere. This is because the aerosols start as an external mixture, with many populations from varied local sources, that all interact with each other, with background aerosols, and with condensing vapors from secondary organic aerosol formation. The externally mixed particle populations start to evolve immediately after emission because the organic molecules constituting the particles also form thermodynamic mixtures - solutions - in which a large fraction of the constituents are semi-volatile. The external mixtures are thus well out of thermodynamic equilibrium, with very different activities for many constituents, and yet also have the capacity to relax toward equilibrium via gas-phase exchange of semi-volatile vapors. Here we describe experiments employing quantitative single-particle mass spectrometry designed to explore the extent to which various primary organic aerosol particle populations can interact with each other or with secondary organic aerosols representative of background aerosol populations. These methods allow us to determine when these populations will and when they will not mix with each other, and then to constrain the timescales for that mixing. PMID:27092377

  19. Factor analysis of combined organic and inorganic aerosol mass spectra from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. L.; Zhang, Q.; Schwab, J. J.; Yang, T.; Ng, N. L.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2012-05-01

    The high resolution mass spectra of organic and inorganic aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements were first combined into positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis to investigate the sources and evolution processes of atmospheric aerosols. The new approach is able to study the mixing of organic aerosols (OA) and inorganic species, the acidity of OA factors, and the fragment ion patterns related to photochemical processing. In this study, PMF analysis of the unified AMS spectral matrices resolved 8 factors for the submicron aerosols measured at Queens College in New York City in summer 2009. The hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and cooking OA (COA) contain very minor inorganic species, indicating the different sources and mixing characteristics between primary OA and secondary species. The two factors that are primarily ammonium sulfate (SO4-OA) and ammonium nitrate (NO3-OA), respectively, are overall neutralized, of which the OA in SO4-OA shows the highest oxidation state (O/C = 0.69) among OA factors. The semi-volatile oxygenated OA comprises two components, i.e., a less oxidized (LO-OOA) and a more oxidized (MO-OOA). The MO-OOA represents a local photochemical product with the diurnal profile exhibiting a pronounced noon peak, consistent with those of formaldehyde (HCHO) and Ox (= O3+NO2). The much higher NO+/NO2+ fragment ion ratio in MO-OOA than that from ammonium nitrate alone provides evidence for the formation of organic nitrates. The amine-related nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA) contains ~25% of acidic inorganic salts, elucidating the formation of secondary OA from amines in acidic environments. The size distributions derived from 3-dimensional size-resolved mass spectra show distinct diurnal evolving behaviors for different OA factors, but overall a progressing evolution from smaller to larger particle mode as a function of oxidation states. Our results demonstrate that PMF analysis by incorporating inorganic aerosols is of importance for

  20. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Glyoxal: Effects of Seed Aerosol on Particle Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, Jay; Waxman, Eleanor; Coburn, Sean; Klein, Felix; Koenig, Theodore; Krapf, Manuel; Kumar, Nivedita; Wang, Siyuan; Baltensperger, Urs; Dommen, Josef; Prévôt, Andre; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Conventional models of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production neglect aqueous-phase processing mechanisms, thereby excluding potentially important SOA formation pathways. These missing pathways may be an important factor in the inability of current models to fully explain SOA yields and oxidation states. Molecules identified as important precursors to SOA generated through aqueous-phase include glyoxal, which is an oxidation product of numerous organic gases. Glyoxal SOA formation experiments were conducted in the PSI smog chamber as a function of seed composition, relative humidity (RH, 60 to 85%), and the presence/absence of gaseous ammonia, affecting particle acidity. In a typical experiment, the chamber was filled with the selected seed aerosol (NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, NaNO3, or K2SO4), after which glyoxal was generated by the brief (i.e. a few minutes) exposure of acetylene to UV light. The experiment was then allowed to proceed undisturbed for several hours. Each experiment consisted of several UV exposures, followed by a dilution phase at constant RH to investigate the gas/particle partitioning behavior of the generated SOA. Gas-phase glyoxal was monitored by an LED-CE-DOAS system, while the particle composition was measured using online aerosol mass spectrometry (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS) and offline analysis of collected filter samples. SOA composition was observed to depend strongly on seed type, with increased imidazole formation evident during experiments with (NH4)2SO¬4 and K2SO4 seeds relative to those with NaCl and NaNO3. Additionally, experiments conducted in the presence of ammonia showed large enhancements in both imidazole content and total SOA yield. Analysis of mass spectral markers indicates reversible uptake of glyoxal but irreversible particle-phase production of the imidazole-containing SOA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using the Multilinear Engine (ME-2) was applied to the AMS mass spectral time series to quantify factors related to

  1. The effect of aerosol vertical profiles on satellite-estimated surface particle sulfate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Zifeng; Wang, Jun; Ferrare, Richard A.; Newsom, Rob K.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-02-15

    The aerosol vertical distribution is an important factor in determining the relationship between satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and ground-level fine particle pollution concentrations. We evaluate how aerosol profiles measured by ground-based lidar and simulated by models can help improve the association between AOD retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and fine particle sulfate (SO4) concentrations using matched data at two lidar sites. At the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) site, both lidar and model aerosol profiles marginally improve the association between SO4 concentrations and MISR fractional AODs, as the correlation coefficient between cross-validation (CV) and observed SO4 concentrations changes from 0.87 for the no-scaling model to 0.88 for models scaled with aerosol vertical profiles. At the GSFC site, a large amount of urban aerosols resides in the well-mixed boundary layer so the column fractional AODs are already excellent indicators of ground-level particle pollution. In contrast, at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) site with relatively low aerosol loadings, scaling substantially improves model performance. The correlation coefficient between CV and observed SO4 concentrations is increased from 0.58 for the no-scaling model to 0.76 in the GEOS-Chem scaling model, and the model bias is reduced from 17% to 9%. In summary, despite the inaccuracy due to the coarse horizontal resolution and the challenges of simulating turbulent mixing in the boundary layer, GEOS-Chem simulated aerosol profiles can still improve methods for estimating surface aerosol (SO4) mass from satellite-based AODs, particularly in rural areas where aerosols in the free troposphere and any long-range transport of aerosols can significantly contribute to the column AOD.

  2. Transmission electron microscopy study of aerosol particles from the brown hazes in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weijun; Shao, Longyi

    2009-05-01

    Airborne aerosol collections were performed in urban areas of Beijing that were affected by regional brown haze episodes over northern China from 31 May to 12 June 2007. Morphologies, elemental compositions, and mixing states of 810 individual aerosol particles of different sizes were obtained by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The phases of some particles were verified using selected-area electron diffraction. Aerosol particle types less than 10 μm in diameter include mineral, complex secondary (Ca-S, K-, and S-rich), organic, soot, fly ash, and metal (Fe-rich and Zn-bearing). Most soot, fly ash, and organic particles are less than 2 μm in diameter. Approximately 84% of the analyzed mineral particles have diameters between 2 and 10 μm, while 81% of the analyzed complex secondary and metal particles are much smaller, from 0.1 to 2 μm. Trajectory analysis with fire maps show that southerly air masses arriving at Beijing have been transported through many agricultural biomass burning sites and heavy industrial areas. Spherical fly ash and Fe-rich particles were from industrial emissions, and abundant K-rich and organic particles likely originated from field burning of crop residues. Abundant Zn-bearing particles are associated with industrial activities and local waste incinerators. On the basis of the detailed analysis of 443 analyzed aerosol particles, about 70% of these particles are internally mixed with two or more aerosol components from different sources. Most mineral particles are covered with visible coatings that contain N, O, Ca (or Mg), minor S, and Cl. K- and S-rich particles tend to be coagulated with fly ash, soot, metal, and fine-grained mineral particles. Organic materials internally mixed with K- and S-rich particles can be their inclusions and coatings.

  3. Identifying Metals as Marker for Waste Burning Aerosol Particles in New Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sudhanshu

    2012-07-01

    {Identifying Metals as Marker for Waste Burning Aerosol Particles in New Delhi } Tracing of aerosol sources is an important task helpful for making control strategy, and for climate change study. However, it is a difficult job as aerosols have several sources, involve in complex atmospheric processing, degradation and removal processes. Several approaches have been used for this task, e.g., models, which are based on the input of chemical species; stable- and radio-isotope compositions of certain species; chemical markers in which trace metals are the better options because they persist in atmosphere until the life of a particle. For example, K and Hg are used for biomass and coal burning tracings, respectively. Open waste burning has recently been believed to be a considerable source of aerosols in several mega cities in India and China. To better understand this source contribution in New Delhi aerosols, we have conducted aerosol sampling at a landfill site (Okhla), and in proximity (within 1 km distance) of this site. Aerosol filter samples were acid digested in microwave digestion system and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma -- high resolution mass spectrometry (ICP-HRMS) for getting metal signatures in particles. The metals, e.g., Sn, Sb and As those are found almost negligible in remote aerosols, are maximized in these waste burning aerosols. Sample collected in other location of New Delhi also shows the considerable presence of these metals in particles. Preliminary studies of isotopic ratios of these metals suggested that these metals, especially Sn can be used as marker for tracing the open waste burning sources of aerosols in New Delhi.

  4. Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles and CCN activity of nearly hydrophobic particles in the urban atmosphere over Japan during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shuhei; Setoguchi, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Ikeda, Yuka; Sawada, Yuuki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the hygroscopicity of 150 nm particles and the number-size distributions and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of nearly hydrophobic particles in aerosols over Nagoya, Japan, during summer. We analyzed the correlations between the number concentrations of particles in specific hygroscopic growth factor (g) ranges and the mass concentrations of chemical components. This analysis suggests the association of nearly hydrophobic particles with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, elemental carbon and semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), that of less hygroscopic particles with SV-OOA and nitrate and that of more hygroscopic particles with low-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and sulfate. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of organics was derived based on the g distributions and chemical composition of 150 nm particles. The κ of the organics correlated positively with the fraction of the total organic mass spectral signal at m/z 44 and the volume fraction of the LV-OOA to the organics, indicating that organics with highly oxygenated structures including carboxylic acid groups contribute to the water uptake. The number-size distributions of the nearly hydrophobic particles with g around 1.0 and 1.1 correlated with the mass concentrations of chemical components. The results show that the chemical composition of the particles with g around 1.0 was different between the Aitken mode and the accumulation mode size ranges. An analysis for a parameter Fmax of the curves fitted to the CCN efficiency spectra of the particles with g around 1.0 suggests that the coating by organics associated with SV-OOA elevated the CCN activity of these particles.

  5. Characterizing an extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) source for the online mass spectrometry analysis of organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, Peter J; Kalberer, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Organic compounds comprise a major fraction of tropospheric aerosol and understanding their chemical complexity is a key factor for determining their climate and health effects. We present and characterize here a new online technique for measuring the detailed chemical composition of organic aerosols, namely extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Aerosol particles composed of soluble organic compounds were extracted into and ionized by a solvent electrospray, producing molecular ions from the aerosol with minimal fragmentation. We demonstrate here that the technique has a time resolution of seconds and is capable of making stable measurements over several hours. The ion signal in the MS was linearly correlated with the mass of aerosol delivered to the EESI source over the range tested (3-600 μg/m(3)) and was independent of particle size and liquid water content, suggesting that the entire particle bulk is extracted for analysis. Tandem MS measurements enabled detection of known analytes in the sub-μg/m(3) range. Proof-of-principle measurements of the ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosol (20 μg/m(3)) revealed the formation of a variety of oxidation products in good agreement with previous offline studies. This demonstrates the technique's potential for studying the product-resolved kinetics of aerosol-phase chemistry at a molecular level with high sensitivity and time resolution. PMID:23710930

  6. Using Raman-lidar-based regularized microphysical retrievals and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements for the characterization of biomass burning aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Stefanos; Nicolae, Doina; Böckmann, Christine; Vasilescu, Jeni; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Labzovskii, Lev; Toanca, Florica; Papayannis, Alexandros

    2015-10-01

    In this work we extract the microphysical properties of aerosols for a collection of measurement cases with low volume depolarization ratio originating from fire sources captured by the Raman lidar located at the National Institute of Optoelectronics (INOE) in Bucharest. Our algorithm was tested not only for pure smoke but also for mixed smoke and urban aerosols of variable age and growth. Applying a sensitivity analysis on initial parameter settings of our retrieval code was proved vital for producing semi-automatized retrievals with a hybrid regularization method developed at the Institute of Mathematics of Potsdam University. A direct quantitative comparison of the retrieved microphysical properties with measurements from a Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (CToF-AMS) is used to validate our algorithm. Microphysical retrievals performed with sun photometer data are also used to explore our results. Focusing on the fine mode we observed remarkable similarities between the retrieved size distribution and the one measured by the AMS. More complicated atmospheric structures and the factor of absorption appear to depend more on particle radius being subject to variation. A good correlation was found between the aerosol effective radius and particle age, using the ratio of lidar ratios (LR: aerosol extinction to backscatter ratios) as an indicator for the latter. Finally, the dependence on relative humidity of aerosol effective radii measured on the ground and within the layers aloft show similar patterns.

  7. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    The MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris, using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), giving detailed information on the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of black carbon (BC), measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), BC, and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy)). Plotting the equivalent ratios of different organic aerosol species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in London, Mexico City, and in New England, USA. Using the measured SOA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species together with organic aerosol formation

  8. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  9. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 μm in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles <100 nm generated by means of jets

  10. Aerosol Charge Model Consistent with Flight Data from the ECOMA/MASS Rocket Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappmiller, S.; Robertson, S. H.; Rapp, M.; Gumbel, J.; Horanyi, M.; Sternovsky, Z.; Friedrich, M.; Baumgarten, G.; Latteck, R.

    2009-12-01

    In August of 2007 two sounding rockets were launched from the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway carrying the MASS instrument (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer). The instrument detects charged aerosols in four different mass ranges on four pairs of biased collector plates, one set for positive particles and one set for negative particles. The first sounding rocket was launched into PMSE and NLC on 3 August. The solar zenith angle was 93 degrees and NLC were seen in the previous hour at 83 km by the ALOMAR RMR lidar. NLC were also detected at the same altitude by rocket-borne photometer measurements. The data from the MASS instrument shows a negatively charged population with radii >3 nm in the 83-89 km altitude range, which is collocated with PMSE detected by the ALWIN radar. Smaller particles, 1-2 nm in radius with both positive and negative polarity were detected between 86-88 km. Positively charged particles <1 nm in radius were detected at the same altitude. A charging model is developed to investigate the coexistence of positively and negatively charged aerosols in the NLC environment. Natanson’s rate equations are used for the attachment of free electrons and ions and the model includes charging by photo-electron emission and photo-detachment. Although the MASS flight occurred during night time conditions, the solar flux was still significant to affect the charge state of the aerosols. The calculations are done assuming three types of particles with different photo-electron charging properties: 1) Icy NLC particles, 2) Hematite particles of meteoric origin as condensation nuclei, and 3) Hematite particles coated with ice. The charge model results are consistent with the MASS rocket data, displaying both positively and negatively charged aerosols for small radii and only negatively charged particles for large radii.

  11. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D; Schilling, Katherine A; Loza, Christine L; Craven, Jill S; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-16

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process. PMID:23818634

  12. Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.

    1998-10-06

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data. 2 figs.

  13. Unraveling the Complexity of Atmospheric Aerosol: Insights from Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Zhao, Yunzhu; Samburova, Vera; Gannet Hallar, A.; Lowenthal, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol organic matter (AOM) is a complex mixture of thousands of organic compounds, which may have significant influence on the climate-relevant properties of atmospheric aerosols. An improved understanding of the molecular composition of AOM is needed to evaluate the effect of aerosol composition upon aerosol physical properties. Products of gas, aqueous and particle phase reactions contribute to the aerosol organic mass. Thus, ambient aerosols carry a complex array of AOM components with variable chemical signatures depending upon its origin and aerosol life-cycle processes. In this work, ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize ambient aerosol AOM collected at the Storm Peak Laboratory (3210 m a.s.l.) near Steamboat Springs, CO. Thousands of molecular formulas were assigned in the mass range of m/z 100-800 after negative-ion electrospray ionization. Using multivariate statistical analysis, correlations between the site meteorological conditions and specific molecular compositions were identified. For example, days with strong UV radiation and high temperature were found to contain large numbers of biogenic SOA molecular formulas. Similarly, days with high relative humidity and high sulfate concentrations were found to contain many sulfur-containing compounds, suggesting their aqueous phase formation.

  14. Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses: 1. Aged pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1991-12-01

    A 4-year Alaska chemical data set of aerosols or "dust" in the air clearly reveals a mixture of distinct aerosol components with different and interesting chemical composition, one or two being ascribed to pollution imported to Alaska by winds all the way from other continents. Of particular note is a strong chemical contrast between what we imagine to be highly scavenged, orographically lifted, northern Pacific air (Pacific marine air mass) and stagnant Arctic air (polar air mass), the latter containing seasonal average concentrations of between 2-4 times the concentration of the former, at least for pollution markers noncrustal vanadium, noncrustal manganese, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and antimony. The findings concur our old discovery that Arctic air is persistently polluted (Arctic haze), but Pacific air is relatively clean, in spite of the fact that Alaska is downwind of major pollution sources in the Orient. This is remarkable. In this the first of a two-part paper, we concentrate on the pollution component found primarily during incursion of Arctic polar air. Two major occurrences of visual haze with optical depths of approximately 0.2 and elevated aerosol concentration lasting about a month (spring 1985 and 1986) were affiliated with strong incoming transport of polar air, temperatures ranging from 10° to 20°C below normal (polar air) and air trajectory hindcasts leading back to industrial pollution sources in Eurasia. These long-range transport pollution events brought metal-rich aerosol of removal-resistant submicron particles. The size, chemistry, and meteorology all strongly suggest the presence of a well-aged (10-100 day) polluted air mass. An important implication is that in spring a large fraction of the Arctic polar air mass becomes charged with by-products of industrial pollution. In this multiyear chemical data set one finds a notable summer-winter contrast, changing by factors of 2 to 4 for pollution markers As, Se, Sb, and noncrustal

  15. Comparative study of single particle characterisation by Transmission Electron Microscopy and time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry in the London atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steve; Ward, Mike; Lin, Ray; Brydson, Rik; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M.

    2012-12-01

    Size fractionated airborne particle samples were collected from the top of the BT Tower and a ground-based site in Regents Park in London by deploying MOUDI instruments at the two locations. Particles were examined by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) and selected area electron diffraction patterns to determine the morphology, crystallinity and composition of individual particles in aggregated and non-aggregated forms. Eight different types of particles were observed which were common both to the ground-based location and some 160 m above the conurbation of London at the top of the BT Tower. Of these different types, amorphous carbonaceous aggregates (soot-like) containing C and O and often extending to the inclusion of Ca, K and Fe were the most common type of particles that occurred across all stages of the impactors but were most common in the fractions <1.2 μm. Other types of particles included beam-sensitive sulphur-rich particles containing Na and Cl that were present in crystalline and amorphous forms. Iron and titanium were common elements in other types of particles. Concurrent ATOFMS measurements were taken at the Regents Park site and 13 particle types were found. An intercomparison of the two techniques found three types of particle (out of eight) identified by the TEM, which had analogues (but not direct equivalents) in the ATOFMS clusters. Many of the particle types identified by the ATOFMS are vacuum-volatile (e.g. nitrates) and are therefore not seen by the TEM. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the two techniques are considered and it is concluded that both have major weaknesses but that they tend to complement one another.

  16. Aerosol number size distributions over a coastal semi urban location: Seasonal changes and ultrafine particle bursts.

    PubMed

    Babu, S Suresh; Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2016-09-01

    Number-size distribution is one of the important microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols that influence aerosol life cycle, aerosol-radiation interaction as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Making use of one-yearlong measurements of aerosol particle number-size distributions (PNSD) over a broad size spectrum (~15-15,000nm) from a tropical coastal semi-urban location-Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram), the size characteristics, their seasonality and response to mesoscale and synoptic scale meteorology are examined. While the accumulation mode contributed mostly to the annual mean concentration, ultrafine particles (having diameter <100nm) contributed as much as 45% to the total concentration, and thus constitute a strong reservoir, that would add to the larger particles through size transformation. The size distributions were, in general, bimodal with well-defined modes in the accumulation and coarse regimes, with mode diameters lying in the range 141 to 167nm and 1150 to 1760nm respectively, in different seasons. Despite the contribution of the coarse sized particles to the total number concentration being meager, they contributed significantly to the surface area and volume, especially during transport of marine air mass highlighting the role of synoptic air mass changes. Significant diurnal variation occurred in the number concentrations, geometric mean diameters, which is mostly attributed to the dynamics of the local coastal atmospheric boundary layer and the effect of mesoscale land/sea breeze circulation. Bursts of ultrafine particles (UFP) occurred quite frequently, apparently during periods of land-sea breeze transitions, caused by the strong mixing of precursor-rich urban air mass with the cleaner marine air mass; the resulting turbulence along with boundary layer dynamics aiding the nucleation. These ex-situ particles were observed at the surface due to the transport associated with boundary layer dynamics. The particle growth rates from

  17. Modelling non-equilibrium secondary organic aerosol formation and evaporation with the aerosol dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model ADCHAM

    SciTech Connect

    Roldin, P.; Eriksson, A. C.; Nordin, E. Z.; Hermansson, E.; Mogensen, Ditte; Rusanen, A.; Boy, Michael; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Zelenyuk, Alla; Pagels, J.

    2014-08-11

    We have developed the novel Aerosol Dynamics, gas- and particle- phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM). The model combines the detailed gas phase Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2, an aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module (which considers acid catalysed oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation reactions in the particle phase and non-ideal interactions between organic compounds, water and inorganic ions) and a kinetic multilayer module for diffusion limited transport of compounds between the gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk phase. In this article we describe and use ADCHAM to study: 1) the mass transfer limited uptake of ammonia (NH3) and formation of organic salts between ammonium (NH4+) and carboxylic acids (RCOOH), 2) the slow and almost particle size independent evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, and 3) the influence of chamber wall effects on the observed SOA formation in smog chambers.

  18. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1986-01-01

    A method for separating gaseous samples from a contained atmosphere that includes aerosol particles uses the step of repelling particles from a gas permeable surface or membrane by heating the surface to a temperature greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere. The resulting thermophoretic forces maintain the gas permeable surface clear of aerosol particles. The disclosed apparatus utilizes a downwardly facing heated plate of gas permeable material to combine thermophoretic repulsion and gravity forces to prevent particles of any size from contacting the separating plate surfaces.

  19. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Wilson, K. R.

    2011-03-01

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the α-pinene + O3 reaction (αP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the αP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the αP spectra suggest that the evaporation of αP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from diffusivity within the αP particles being sufficiently slow that they do not exhibit the expected liquid-like behavior and perhaps exist in a glassy state. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that, although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  20. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Wilson, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the α-pinene + O3 reaction (αP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the αP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the αP spectra suggest that the evaporation of αP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the αP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  1. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    SciTech Connect

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  2. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions. PMID

  3. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Hogancamp, Kristina U.; Parsons, Michael S.; Rogers, Donna M.; Norton, Olin P.; Nagel, Brian A.; Alderman, Steven L.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30×30×29cm3 nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5to12standardm3/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150°C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7standardm3/min, high mass concentrations (˜25mg/m3) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  4. Aerosol particle properties in a South American megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulke, Ana; Torres-Brizuela, Marcela; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cancelada, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    The subtropical city of Buenos Aires is located on the western shore of Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of Argentina. It is the second largest metropolitan area in South America, with a population density of around 14 thousand people per km2. When all 24 counties of the Great Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area are included it is the third-largest conurbation in Latin America, with a population of around fifteen million inhabitants. The generalized worldwide trend to concentrate human activities in urban regions that continue to expand in area, threatens the local and regional environment. Air pollution in the Buenos Aires airshed is due to local sources (mainly the mobile sources, followed by the electric power plants and some industries) and to distant sources (like biomass burning, dust, marine aerosols and occasionally volcanic ash) whose products arrive in the city area due to the regional transport patterns. Previous research suggests that ambient aerosol particle concentrations should be considered an air quality problem. A field campaign was conducted in Buenos Aires in 2011 in order to characterize some aerosol particles properties measured for the first time in the city. Measurements began in mid- April and continued until December. The field observations were done in a collaborative effort between the Universities of Mexico (UNAM) and Buenos Aires (UBA). A suite of instruments was installed on the roof of an UBA laboratory and classroom buildings (34.54° S, 58.44° W) at an altitude of approximately 30 m above sea level. The measurements included the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) larger than approximately 50 nm, the mass concentration of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), the scattering (Bscat) and absorption (Babs) coefficients at 550 nm and the vertical profiles of backscattered light from aerosols at a wavelength of 910 nm using a ceilometer. In addition, a weather station recorded the meteorological

  5. Time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry: Measuring gaseous iodine species after selective uptake in lab-generated aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundel, Michael; Ries, Marco; Schott, Mathias; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    Reactive iodine species play an important role in the marine atmospheric chemistry. Recent studies show that iodine containing compounds (e.g. I2 and ICl) are involved in the tropospheric ozone depletion, the enrichment of iodine in marine aerosols and the formation of new particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Various laboratory and field measurements report that molecular iodine (I2) and organoiodine compounds (e.g. CH3I, CH2I2) are the most important precursors for reactive iodine in the MBL[1],[2]. However, the identification and quantification of reactive iodine containing compounds are still analytical challenges. Here, we present a new application of the time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS) for the quantification of gaseous I2 and ICl in real-time. Time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry enables the real-time analysis of the particle size, the particle mass and the chemical composition of non-refractory aerosols[3]. The aerosol enters the ToF-AMS through a critical orifice of 100 μm inner diameter. An aerodynamic lens system focuses the particles in a size range of 50-600 nm as a narrow beam into the vacuum system. While most of the air is removed by a skimmer, the particle beam is transmitted into the particle-sizing chamber. After passing the particle-sizing chamber, the non-refractory particles are flash-vaporized on a heated tungsten surface (500-600 °C) and then ionized by electron impact. The generated ions are extracted by an orthogonal extractor into the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, where the time resolved particle mass detection is performed. Since gaseous compounds are removed inside the ToF-AMS, a direct measurement of gaseous iodine species is not possible. Therefore gaseous iodine species have to be transferred from the gas phase to the particle phase before entering the ToF-AMS. For this purpose α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) particles were used as selective sampling probes for I2 and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene (1,3,5-TMB

  6. Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3- aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Hannah M.; Draper, Danielle C.; Ayres, Benjamin R.; Ault, Andrew P.; Bondy, Amy L.; Takahama, S.; Modini, Robert; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Knote, Christoph; Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Bingbing; Fry, Juliane L.

    2015-09-25

    The inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 1 June to 15 July 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA), an ion chromatograph coupled with a wet rotating denuder and a steam-jet aerosol collector for monitoring of ambient inorganic gas and aerosol species, revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3 ) concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of coarse mode mineral or sea spray aerosol species, particularly Na+ and Ca2+, and with a shift towards aerosol with larger (1 to 2.5 um) diameters. We suggest this nitrate aerosol forms by multiphase reactions of HNO3 and particles, reactions that are facilitated by transport of mineral dust and sea spray aerosol from a source within the United States. The observed high aerosol acidity prevents the formation of NH4NO3, the inorganic nitrogen species often dominant in fine-mode aerosol at higher pH. Calculation of the rate of the heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 on mineral aerosol supports the conclusion that aerosol NO3 is produced primarily by this process, and is likely limited by the availability of mineral dust surface area. Modeling of NO3 and HNO3 by thermodynamic equilibrium models (ISORROPIA II and E-AIM) reveals the importance of including mineral cations in the southeastern United States to accurately balance ion species and predict gas/aerosol phase partitioning.

  7. Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A new alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of interest. At the present time we have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and we have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Work on the data processing, display and alarm functions is being done in parallel with the particle sampling work and will be reported separately at a later date. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Contributions of Acid-Catalysed Processes to Secondary Organic Aerosol Mass - A Modelling pproach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervens, B.; Feingold, G.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    A significant fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass is formed by chemical and/or physical processes. However, the amount of organic material found in ambient organic aerosols cannot be explained with current models. Recently, several laboratory studies have been published which suggest that also acid-catalyzed processes that occur either in particles or at their surfaces (heterogeneous) might contribute significantly to mass formation. However, to date there is no general conclusion about the efficiency of such processes due to the great diversity of species and experimental conditions. We present a compilation of literature data (thermodynamic and kinetic) of these processes. The aerosol yields of (i) additional species which are thought previously not contribute to SOA formation (e.g. isoprene, aliphatic aldehydes) and (ii) species which form apparently higher SOA masses on acidic seed aerosols are reported and compared to input data of previous SOA models. Available kinetic data clearly exclude aldol condensation as a significant process for SOA formation on a time scale of typical aerosol life times. Using aerosol size distributions and gas phase concentrations measured during NEAQS2002 as model input data, we show that (even under assumption of equilibrium conditions) these additional processes only contribute a minor fraction to the organic aerosol mass.

  9. Estimating Marine Aerosol Particle Volume and Number from Maritime Aerosol Network Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Smirnov, A.; Hsu, N. C.; Munchak, L. A.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass) are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The average solution MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the best solution dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data.

  10. Experimental Assessment of Collection Efficiency of Submicron Aerosol Particles by Cloud Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. W.; Ardon-Dryer, K.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The interplay between aerosol particles and water droplets in the atmosphere, especially in clouds, influences both aerosol and cloud properties. The major uncertainty in our understanding of climate arises in the indirect effect of aerosol and their ability to impact cloud formation and consequently alter the global radiative balance. The collision between a water droplet and aerosol particles that results in coalescence is termed "collection" or "coagulation". Coagulation can lead to aerosol removal from the atmosphere or induce ice nucleation via contact freezing. There is a theoretical collection efficiency minimum of particles with diameter between 0.1-2 µm, called the "Greenfield Gap". Experimental effort, however, was limited to drizzle and rain drops until recently, and has not constrained parameters that describe particle collection efficiency by cloud droplets. Collection efficiency is also an important parameter for assessing contact freezing, the least known ice nucleation mechanism today. Experimentally assessing collection efficiency can prove the existence of the "Greenfield Gap" and lay the foundation for studying contact freezing. We recently constructed the MIT-Contact Freezing Chamber (MIT-CFC) to study coagulation experimentally. A stream of 40 µm cloud droplets fall freely into the chamber and collide with aerosol particles with known size and concentration. The outflow goes through a series of dryers before entering the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument for chemical composition analysis. PALMS is a true single-particle instrument and gives information on the size and the chemical composition of each particle. Coagulated particles from the MIT-CFC have mass spectral signatures of both the aerosol particles and the droplet residuals, while the droplet residual contains no signature of the aerosol particles. To our knowledge, this is the first time coagulation has been seen on a single-particle basis. We will

  11. Modeling Gas-Particle Partitioning of SOA: Effects of Aerosol Physical State and RH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Seinfeld, J.

    2011-12-01

    Aged tropospheric aerosol particles contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. In liquid aerosol particles non-ideal mixing of all species determines whether the condensed phase undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation or whether it is stable in a single mixed phase, and whether it contains solid salts in equilibrium with their saturated solution. The extended thermodynamic model AIOMFAC is able to predict such phase states by representing the variety of organic components using functional groups within a group-contribution concept. The number and composition of different condensed phases impacts the diversity of reaction media for multiphase chemistry and the gas-particle partitioning of semivolatile species. Recent studies show that under certain conditions biogenic and other organic-rich particles can be present in a highly viscous, semisolid or amorphous solid physical state, with consequences regarding reaction kinetics and mass transfer limitations. We present results of new gas-particle partitioning computations for aerosol chamber data using a model based on AIOMFAC activity coefficients and state-of-the-art vapor pressure estimation methods. Different environmental conditions in terms of temperature, relative humidity (RH), salt content, amount of precursor VOCs, and physical state of the particles are considered. We show how modifications of absorptive and adsorptive gas-particle mass transfer affects the total aerosol mass in the calculations and how the results of these modeling approaches compare to data of aerosol chamber experiments, such as alpha-pinene oxidation SOA. For a condensed phase in a mixed liquid state containing ammonium sulfate, the model predicts liquid-liquid phase separation up to high RH in case of, on average, moderately hydrophilic organic compounds, such as first generation oxidation products of alpha-pinene. The computations also reveal that treating liquid phases as ideal

  12. Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2013-10-01

    During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from < 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 μg m-3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

  13. Influence of air mass origin on aerosol properties at a remote Michigan forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; Wallace, H. W.; Pressley, S. N.; Erickson, M. H.; Jobson, B. T.; Lamb, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    The northern Great Lakes region of North America is a large, relatively pristine area. To date, there has only been limited study of the atmospheric aerosol in this region. During summer 2009, a detailed characterization of the atmospheric aerosol was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) as part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX). Measurements included particle size distribution, water-soluble composition, and CCN activity. Aerosol properties were strongly dependent on the origin of the air masses reaching the site. For ∼60% of the study period, air was transported from sparsely populated regions to the northwest. During these times aerosol loadings were low, with mean number and volume concentrations of 1630 cm-3 and 1.91 μm3 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol during clean periods was dominated by organics, and exhibited low hygroscopicities (mean κ = 0.18 at s = 0.3%). When air was from more populated regions to the east and south (∼29% of the time), aerosol properties reflected a stronger anthropogenic influence, with 85% greater particle number concentrations, 2.5 times greater aerosol volume, six times more sulfate mass, and increased hygroscopicity (mean k = 0.24 at s = 0.3%). These trends are have the potential to influence forest-atmosphere interactions and should be targeted for future study.

  14. Characterization of organic aerosols in Beijing using an aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junke; Wang, Yuesi; Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zirui; Ji, Dongsheng; Sun, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Fine particle of organic aerosol (OA), mostly arising from pollution, are abundant in Beijing. To achieve a better understanding of the difference in OA in summer and autumn, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, Aerodyne Research Inc., USA) was deployed in urban Beijing in August and October 2012. The mean OA mass concentration in autumn was 30±30 μg m-3, which was higher than in summer (13±6.9 μg m-3). The elemental analysis found that OA was more aged in summer (oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios were 0.41 and 0.32 for summer and autumn, respectively). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis identified three and five components in summer and autumn, respectively. In summer, an oxygenated OA (OOA), a cooking-emission-related OA (COA), and a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) were indentified. Meanwhile, the OOA was separated into LV-OOA (low-volatility OOA) and SV-OOA (semi-volatile OOA); and in autumn, a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA) was also found. The SOA (secondary OA) was always the most important OA component, accounting for 55% of the OA in the two seasons. Back trajectory clustering analysis found that the origin of the air masses was more complex in summer. Southerly air masses in both seasons were associated with the highest OA loading, while northerly air masses were associated with the lowest OA loading. A preliminary study of OA components, especially the POA (primary OA), in different periods found that the HOA and COA all decreased during the National Day holiday period, and HOA decreased at weekends compared with weekdays.

  15. Polarization resolved angular optical scattering of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Pan, Y.; Wang, C.; Videen, G.; Cao, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Real-time detection and identification of bio-aerosol particles are crucial for the protection against chemical and biological agents. The strong elastic light scattering properties of airborne particles provides a natural means for rapid, non-invasive aerosol characterization. Recent theoretical predictions suggested that variations in the polarization dependent angular scattering cross section could provide an efficient means of classifying different airborne particles. In particular, the polarization dependent scattering cross section of aggregate particles is expected to depend on the shape of the primary particles. In order to experimentally validate this prediction, we built a high throughput, sampling system, capable of measuring the polarization resolved angular scattering cross section of individual aerosol particles flowing through an interrogating volume with a single shot of laser pulse. We calibrated the system by comparing the polarization dependent scattering cross section of individual polystyrene spheres with that predicted by Mie theory. We then used the system to study different particles types: Polystyrene aggregates composed 500 nm spheres and Bacillus subtilis (BG, Anthrax simulant) spores composed of elongated 500 nm × 1000 nm cylinder-line particles. We found that the polarization resolved scattering cross section depends on the shape of the constituent elements of the aggregates. This work indicates that the polarization resolved scattering cross section could be used for rapid discrimination between different bio-aerosol particles.

  16. A portable optical particle counter system for measuring dust aerosols.

    PubMed

    Marple, V A; Rubow, K L

    1978-03-01

    A portable battery-operated optical particle counter/multichannel analyzer system has been developed for the numbers size distribution and number concentration measurement of light-absorbing irregular-shaped dust particles. An inertial impactor technique has been used to obtain calibration curves by relating the magnitude of the optical counter's signal to the particle's aerodynamic or Stokes' diameter. These calibrations have been made for aerosols of coal, potash, silica, rock (copper ore), and Arizona road dust particles. PMID:645547

  17. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Smith, J. D.; Kolesar, K.

    2010-12-01

    VUV mass spectra for two distinct aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures have been measured. The two aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the α-pinene + O3 reaction (αP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct, T-dependent changes in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In stark contrast, the αP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in good agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the αP spectra suggest that the evaporation of αP particles is not governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the αP particles existing as a glass instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth experiments, which indicate that OA formation is describable through equilibrium partitioning, we put forward a sequential partitioning model wherein secondary OA is rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable through equilibrium partitioning theory, the thermodynamic properties of formed OA particles may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  18. A COMPARISON OF PARTICLE MASS SPECTROMETERS DURING THE 1999 ATLANTA SUPERSITES EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the Atlanta SuperSite Experiment, four particle mass spectrometers were operated together for the first time: NOAA's PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry), U. C. Riverside's ATOFMS (Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry), U. Delaware's RSMS-II (Rapid Si...

  19. Retrieval of particle size distribution from aerosol optical thickness using an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jiandong; Li, Jinxuan

    2015-10-01

    Particle size distribution is essential for describing direct and indirect radiation of aerosols. Because the relationship between the aerosol size distribution and optical thickness (AOT) is an ill-posed Fredholm integral equation of the first type, the traditional techniques for determining such size distributions, such as the Phillips-Twomey regularization method, are often ambiguous. Here, we use an approach based on an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IPSO) to retrieve aerosol size distribution. Using AOT data measured by a CE318 sun photometer in Yinchuan, we compared the aerosol size distributions retrieved using a simple genetic algorithm, a basic particle swarm optimization algorithm and the IPSO. Aerosol size distributions for different weather conditions were analyzed, including sunny, dusty and hazy conditions. Our results show that the IPSO-based inversion method retrieved aerosol size distributions under all weather conditions, showing great potential for similar size distribution inversions.

  20. Fluorescence preselection of bioaerosol for single-particle mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stowers, M A; van Wuijckhuijse, A L; Marijnissen, J C M; Kientz, Ch E; Ciach, T

    2006-11-20

    We have designed, constructed, and tested a system that pre-selects the biological fraction of airborne particles from the overall aerosol. The preselection is based on fluorescence emission excited by a continuous 266 nm laser beam. This beam is one of two cw beams used to measure the aerodynamic particle size of sampled particles. The intention in our system is that single particles, based on size and fluorescence emission, can be selected and further examined for chemical composition by mass spectrometry. PMID:17086265

  1. New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2014-08-01

    Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.

  2. Bromide content of sea-salt aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, R.; von Glasow, R.; Sander, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2002-10-01

    Bromide can be depleted from sea-salt aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and converted to reactive gas-phase species like Br, BrO, and HOBr, which affect ozone chemistry. Air pollution can enhance the bromine release from sea-salt aerosols and thus inject additional bromine into the MBL. During the winter monsoon the northern Indian Ocean is strongly affected by air pollution from the Indian subcontinent and Asia. As part of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), aerosol particles were sampled with stacked filter units (SFU) on the NCAR Hercules C-130 aircraft during February-March 1999. We determined the vertical and latitudinal distribution of the major inorganic aerosol components (NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and the Br- content of the coarse aerosol to examine the role of the bromine release on the gas-phase chemistry in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Indian Ocean. The aerosol mass and composition varied significantly with air mass origin and sampling location. In the northern part of the Indian Ocean (5°-15°N, 66°-73°E), high concentrations of pollution-derived inorganic species were found in the marine boundary layer extending from the sea surface to about 1.2 km above sea level. In this layer, the average mass concentration of all aerosol species detected by our technique was comparable to pollution levels observed in industrialized regions. In the Southern Hemisphere (1°-9°S, 66°- 73°E), the aerosol concentrations rapidly declined to remote background levels. A chloride loss from the coarse aerosol particles was observed in parallel to the latitudinal gradient of the non sea salt SO42- burden. In most of the samples, Br- was depleted from the sea-salt aerosols. However, we found an enrichment in bromide in aerosols affected by air masses originating over strong pollution sources in India (Bombay, Calcutta). In these cases the additional pollution-derived Br from organo-halogen additives in petrol

  3. Polarization properties of aerosol particles over western Japan: classification, seasonal variation, and implications for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Osada, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Wang, Zhe; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Zifa

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based observation of the polarization properties of aerosol particles using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) was made from 27 October 2013, to 31 December 2015, at a suburban site in the Kyushu area of Japan. We found that the depolarization ratio (DR, the fraction of s-polarized signal in the total backward light scattering signal) of aerosol particles showed prominent seasonal variability, with peaks in spring (0.21-0.23) and winter (0.19-0.23), and a minimum value (0.09-0.14) in summer. The aerosol compositions in both fine mode (aerodynamic diameter of particle, Dp < 2.5 µm) and coarse mode (2.5 µm < Dp < 10 µm), and the size-dependent polarization characteristics were analyzed for long-range transport dust particles, sea salt, and anthropogenic pollution-dominant aerosols. The DR value increased with increasing particle size, and DR = 0.1 was a reliable threshold value to identify the sphericity of supermicron (Dp > 1 µm) particles. Occurrence of substandard air quality days in Kyushu was closely related with mixed type (coexistence of anthropogenic pollutants and dust particles in the atmosphere), especially in winter and spring, indicating that dust events in the Asian continent played a key role in the cross-boundary transport of continental pollution. Backward trajectory analysis demonstrated that air masses originating from the western Pacific contained large amounts of spherical particles due to the influence of sea salt, especially in summer; however, for air masses from the Asian continent, the dependence of number fraction of spherical particles on air relative humidity was insignificant, indicating the predominance of less-hygroscopic substances (e.g., mineral dust), although the mass concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants were elevated.

  4. Characterization and source apportionment of submicron aerosol with aerosol mass spectrometer during the PRIDE-PRD 2006 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, R.; Takegawa, N.; Zheng, M.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Gong, Y.; Lu, K.; Deng, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2011-01-01

    Size-resolved chemical compositions of non-refractory submicron aerosol were measured using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) at the rural site Back Garden (BG), located ~50 km northwest of Guangzhou in July 2006. This paper characterized the submicron aerosol particles of regional air pollution in Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the Southern China. Organics and sulfate dominated the submicron aerosol compositions, with average mass concentrations of 11.8±8.4 μg m-3 and 13.5±8.7 μg m-3, respectively. Unlike other air masses, the air masses originated from Southeast-South and passing through the PRD urban areas exhibited distinct bimodal size distribution characteristics for both organics and sulfate: the first mode peaked at vacuum aerodynamic diameters (Dva)~200 nm and the second mode occurred at Dva from 300-700 nm. With the information from AMS, it was found from this study that the first mode of organics in PRD regional air masses was contributed by both secondary organic aerosol formation and combustion-related emissions, which is different from most findings in other urban areas (first mode of organics primarily from combustion-related emissions). The analysis of AMS mass spectra data by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model identified three sources of submicron organic aerosol including hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). The strong correlation between HOA and EC indicated primary combustion emissions as the major source of HOA while a close correlation between SV-OOA and semi-volatile secondary species nitrate as well as between LV-OOA and nonvolatile secondary species sulfate suggested secondary aerosol formation as the major source of SV-OOA and LV-OOA at the BG site. However, LV-OOA was more aged than SV-OOA as its spectra was highly correlated with the reference spectra of fulvic acid, an indicator of aged and

  5. Characterization and source apportionment of submicron aerosol with aerosol mass spectrometer during the PRIDE-PRD 2006 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, R.; Takegawa, N.; Zheng, M.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Gong, Y.; Lu, K.; Deng, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2011-07-01

    Size-resolved chemical compositions of non-refractory submicron aerosol were measured using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) at the rural site Back Garden (BG), located ~50 km northwest of Guangzhou in July 2006. This paper characterized the submicron aerosol particles of regional air pollution in Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the southern China. Organics and sulfate dominated the submicron aerosol compositions, with average mass concentrations of 11.8 ± 8.4 μg m-3 and 13.5 ± 8.7 μg m-3, respectively. Unlike other air masses, the air masses originated from Southeast-South and passing through the PRD urban areas exhibited distinct bimodal size distribution characteristics for both organics and sulfate: the first mode peaked at vacuum aerodynamic diameters (Dva) ∼200 nm and the second mode occurred at Dva from 300-700 nm. With the information from AMS, it was found from this study that the first mode of organics in PRD regional air masses was contributed by both secondary organic aerosol formation and combustion-related emissions, which is different from most findings in other urban areas (first mode of organics primarily from combustion-related emissions). The analysis of AMS mass spectra data by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model identified three sources of submicron organic aerosol including hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). The strong correlation between HOA and EC indicated primary combustion emissions as the major source of HOA while a close correlation between SV-OOA and semi-volatile secondary species nitrate as well as between LV-OOA and nonvolatile secondary species sulfate suggested secondary aerosol formation as the major source of SV-OOA and LV-OOA at the BG site. However, LV-OOA was more aged than SV-OOA as its spectra was highly correlated with the reference spectra of fulvic acid, an indicator of aged and

  6. 337 nm matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of single aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    He, L; Murray, K K

    1999-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectra were obtained from single particles injected directly into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Aerosol particles were generated at atmospheric pressure using a piezoelectric single-particle generator or a pneumatic nebulizer and introduced into the mass spectrometer through a series of narrow-bore tubes. Particles were detected by light scattering that was used to trigger a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser and the ions produced by laser desorption were mass separated in a two-stage reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. MALDI mass spectra of single particles containing bradykinin, angiotensin II, gramicidin S, vitamin B(12) or gramicidin D were obtained at mass resolutions greater than 400 FWHM. For the piezoelectric particle generator, the efficiency of particle delivery was estimated to be approximately 0.02%, and 50 pmol of sample were consumed for each mass spectrum. For the pneumatic nebulizer, mass spectra could be obtained from single particles containing less than 100 amol of analyte, although the sample consumption for a typical mass spectrum was over 400 pmol. PMID:10491586

  7. Identification of an organic coating on marine aerosol particles by TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, Heikki; Juhanoja, Jyrki; Kupiainen, Kaarle

    2002-08-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in atmospheric processes. It has been suggested that as marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants. This theory has been supported only by indirect evidence. Recently, we gave new morphological indication of such organic coating without however providing molecular speciation. Here we have studied the surface of marine aerosol particles by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), which is very suitable for surface research due to its unique combination of surface sensitivity and the detailed molecular information obtained. Spectra from the outermost surface gave high intensity for palmitic acid and lower peaks for other fatty acids. According to TOF-SIMS images, palmitic acid was distributed on small particles, similar with the marine particles. Sputtering stripped palmitic acid and revealed the inner core of the sea-salt particles. Our results show that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the studied aerosol particles.

  8. SAGE II aerosol validation - Selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Russell, Philip B.; Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Ferry, Guy V.; Livingston, John M.; Rosen, James N.; Osborn, Mary T.; Kritz, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements obtained during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II is tested. The SAGE II measurements are compared with correlative aerosol measurements taken during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986 with impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers on a U-2 aircraft, an upward pointing lidar on a P-3 aircraft, and balloon-borne optical particle counters. The data for July 29, 1986 are discussed in detail. The aerosol measurements taken on this day at an altitude of 20.5 km produce particulate extinction values which validate the SAGE II values for similar wavelengths.

  9. Single particle characterization, source apportionment, and aging effects of ambient aerosols in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Laura Grace

    Composed of a mixture of chemical species and phases and existing in a variety of shapes and sizes, atmospheric aerosols are complex and can have serious influence on human health, the environment, and climate. In order to better understand the impact of aerosols on local to global scales, detailed measurements on the physical and chemical properties of ambient particles are essential. In addition, knowing the origin or the source of the aerosols is important for policymakers to implement targeted regulations and effective control strategies to reduce air pollution in their region. One of the most ground breaking techniques in aerosol instrumentation is single particle mass spectrometry (SPMS), which can provide online chemical composition and size information on the individual particle level. The primary focus of this work is to further improve the ability of one specific SPMS technique, aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), for the use of identifying the specific origin of ambient aerosols, which is known as source apportionment. The ATOFMS source apportionment method utilizes a library of distinct source mass spectral signatures to match the chemical information of the single ambient particles. The unique signatures are obtained in controlled source characterization studies, such as with the exhaust emissions of heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) operating on a dynamometer. The apportionment of ambient aerosols is complicated by the chemical and physical processes an individual particle can undergo as it spends time in the atmosphere, which is referred to as "aging" of the aerosol. Therefore, the performance of the source signature library technique was investigated on the ambient dataset of the highly aged environment of Riverside, California. Additionally, two specific subsets of the Riverside dataset (ultrafine particles and particles containing trace metals), which are known to cause adverse health effects, were probed in greater detail. Finally

  10. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Daniel J; Hickey, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene) in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process. PMID:19337412

  11. Transition metal associations with primary biological particles in sea spray aerosol generated in a wave channel.

    PubMed

    Guasco, Timothy L; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A; Pedler, Byron E; Ault, Andrew P; Collins, Douglas B; Zhao, Defeng; Kim, Michelle J; Ruppel, Matthew J; Wilson, Scott C; Pomeroy, Robert S; Grassian, Vicki H; Azam, Farooq; Bertram, Timothy H; Prather, Kimberly A

    2014-01-21

    In the ocean, breaking waves generate air bubbles which burst at the surface and eject sea spray aerosol (SSA), consisting of sea salt, biogenic organic species, and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). Our overall understanding of atmospheric biological particles of marine origin remains poor. Here, we perform a control experiment, using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer to measure the mass spectral signatures of individual particles generated by bubbling a salt solution before and after addition of heterotrophic marine bacteria. Upon addition of bacteria, an immediate increase occurs in the fraction of individual particle mass spectra containing magnesium, organic nitrogen, and phosphate marker ions. These biological signatures are consistent with 21% of the supermicrometer SSA particles generated in a previous study using breaking waves in an ocean-atmosphere wave channel. Interestingly, the wave flume mass spectral signatures also contain metal ions including silver, iron, and chromium. The nascent SSA bioparticles produced in the wave channel are hypothesized to be as follows: (1) whole or fragmented bacterial cells which bioaccumulated metals and/or (2) bacteria-derived colloids or biofilms which adhered to the metals. This study highlights the potential for transition metals, in combination with specific biomarkers, to serve as unique indicators for the presence of marine PBAP, especially in metal-impacted coastal regions. PMID:24328130

  12. The effects of loaded carrier mass and formulation mass on aerosolization efficiency in dry powder inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gill, Charlotte; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that particle-particle impaction may influence aerosolization properties in carrier-based dry powder inhalers, through transfer of kinetic energy from large carriers to surface-deposited active drug. The importance of particle-particle collision has yet to be compared against other mechanisms that could lead to drug liberation, such as particle-wall impaction and turbulence. In particular, particle-particle collisions are difficult to model in silico due to computational restrictions. This study investigated the effects of dry powder inhaler particle-particle collisions in vitro using an established carrier-drug model dry powder inhalation formulation. Spherical polystyrene beads of median size 82.80 μm were chosen as a model carrier as they were of uniform size, shape, surface area, density, porosity and hardness and thus eliminated potential variables that would have conflicted with the study. This model carrier was geometrically blended with micronized salbutamol sulphate (loaded blend). The correlation between the mass of loaded blend (5-40 mg) in the Rotahaler® DPI device and resulting fine particle fraction (FPF) was examined at a constant flow rate of 60 L.min(-1). In a second experiment, the mass of loaded blend was kept constant and a variable amount of blank carrier particles were added to the Rotahaler® device to ascertain if additional "blank" carrier particles affected the final FPF. The efficiency of aerosolization remained constant with varying amounts of blank carrier particles as determined by the fine particle fraction of the emitted dose (FPFED) and fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD). No statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD values were observed for increasing masses of blank carrier. In addition, no statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD between the two experiments was obtained. These observations suggest that particle-particle collisions are not a driving mechanism responsible for

  13. Chemical characterization of aerosol particles by laser Raman spectroscopy. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, K.H.

    1999-12-01

    The importance of aerosol particles in many branches of science, such as atmospheric chemistry, combustion, interfacial science, and material processing, has been steadily growing during the past decades. One of the unique properties of these particles is the very high surface-to-volume ratios, thus making them readily serve as centers for gas-phase condensation and heterogeneous reactions. These particles must be characterized by size, shape, physical state, and chemical composition. Traditionally, optical elastic scattering has been applied to obtain the physical properties of these particle (e.g., particle size, size distribution, and particle density). These physical properties are particularly important in atmospheric science as they govern the distribution and transport of atmospheric aerosols.

  14. Chemical composition and characteristics of ambient aerosols and rainwater residues during Indian summer monsoon: Insight from aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, Sachchida N.

    2016-07-01

    Real time composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) is measured via Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the first time during Indian summer monsoon at Kanpur, a polluted urban location located at the heart of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP). Submicron aerosols are found to be dominated by organics followed by nitrate. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA) via positive matrix factorization (PMF) revealed several types of secondary/oxidized and primary organic aerosols. On average, OA are completely dominated by oxidized OA with a very little contribution from biomass burning OA. During rain events, PM1 concentration is decreased almost by 60%, but its composition remains nearly the same. Oxidized OA showed slightly more decrease than primary OAs, probably due to their higher hygroscopicity. The presence of organo nitrates (ON) is also detected in ambient aerosols. Apart from real-time sampling, collected fog and rainwater samples were also analyzed via AMS in offline mode and in the ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma - Optical emission spectrometry) for elements. The presence of sea salt, organo nitrates and sulfates has been observed. Rainwater residues are also dominated by organics but their O/C ratios are 15-20% lower than the observed values for ambient OA. Alkali metals such as Ca, Na, K are found to be most abundant in the rainwater followed by Zn. Rainwater residues are also found to be much less oxidized than the aerosols present inside the fog water, indicating presence of less oxidized organics. These findings indicate that rain can act as an effective scavenger of different types of pollutants even for submicron particle range. Rainwater residues also contain organo sulfates which indicate that some portion of the dissolved aerosols has undergone aqueous processing, possibly inside the cloud. Highly oxidized and possibly hygroscopic OA during monsoon period compared to other seasons (winter, post monsoon), indicates that they can act

  15. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  16. Numerical investigation of the coagulation mixing between dust and hygroscopic aerosol particles and its impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, I.-Chun; Chen, Jen-Ping; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Chung-Kuang Chou, Charles; Chen, Wei-Nai

    2015-05-01

    A statistical-numerical aerosol parameterization was incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to study the coagulation mixing process focusing on a dust storm event that occurred over East Asia. Simulation results show that the coagulation mixing process tends to decrease aerosol mass, surface area, and number concentrations over the dust source areas. Over the downwind oceanic areas, aerosol concentrations generally increased due to enhanced sedimentation as particles became larger upon coagulation. The mixture process can reduce the overall single-scattering albedo by up to 10% as a result of enhanced core with shell absorption by dust and reduction in the number of scattering particles. The enhanced dry deposition speed also altered the vertical distribution. In addition, the ability of aerosol particles to serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) increased from around 107 m-3 to above 109 m-3 over downwind areas because a large amount of mineral dust particles became effective CCN with solute coating, except over the highly polluted areas where multiple collections of hygroscopic particles by dust in effect reduced CCN number. This CCN effect is much stronger for coagulation mixing than by the uptake of sulfuric acid gas on dust, although the nitric acid gas uptake was not investigated. The ability of dust particles to serve as ice nuclei may decrease or increase at low or high subzero temperatures, respectively, due to the switching from deposition nucleation to immersion freezing or haze freezing.

  17. Characterization of Aerosol Particles around an Open Pit Coal Mine in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Ebert, Doerthe; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    PM10 around open pit coal mines in Germany frequently exceeds the 24 hours limit value of 50 ?g/m3. To comply with current EU regulations appropriate mitigation strategies have to be developed. For this goal accurate source apportionment is an indispensable prerequisite. In this study characterization of the dust immission was performed by electronmicroscopic individual particle analysis. Particles were collected close to the open pit mine from January 2007 until February 2008 with a two stage cascade impactor (aerodynamic particle diameter: 0.4 - 1 μm and 1 - 10 μm). The size, shape, and chemical composition of more than 30,000 particles were determined by automated scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The most abundant particle groups encountered are secondary aerosol particles, soot, silicates, silicate/coal mixtures, coal, sulfates, carbonates, Fe-rich particles and (aged) sea salt. The relative abundance of the different particle groups is highly variable as function of the specific meteorological conditions. It can be distinguished between at least three different scenarios, which were found to cause exceeding of the daily PM10 limit value. a) high concentrations of silicates and silicate/coal mixtures which can be assigned to mining activities, b) high concentrations of secondary aerosol particles and soot (urban background), occurring during inversion periods with stagnant air masses, and c) high concentrations of (aged) sea salt indicating direct transport of air masses from the North Sea. PM2.5 and PM1 are always dominated by urban background aerosol (secondary aerosol particles and soot). Following these results, significant reduction potentials for PM10 only exist for the contribution of the open pit mine (silicates, silicate/coal mixed particles) and for urban background aerosols (secondary aerosol particles and soot). As the contribution of the open pit mine is mainly apparent in the PM10-2.5 fraction

  18. [Size distributions of aerosol particles and the impact on visibility in winter of Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qian; Li, Zi-Hua; Yang, Jun; Pu, Mei-Juan

    2011-09-01

    High resolution instruments were used to investigate the relationship between aerosol size distribution characteristics and meteorological factors, and its possible influence on visibility in urban Nanjing from November to December 2009. Results show that the size distribution of aerosol number concentration showed a bimodal shape with the main peak value concentrating at particle sizes of 0.04-0.1 microm. Mass concentration distribution presented a bimodal shape with the two peak values concentrating at particle sizes of 0.5-0.7 microm and 2.7 microm, and the surface area concentration distribution presented two peaks from 0.1 to 0.5 microm and from 0.5 to 0.9 microm. It is found that the diurnal and interdiurnal variations of particle concentrations are obvious. Human activities and variation of atmospheric stability had great effect on daily variation of particle concentrations, while meteorological conditions such as precipitation, wind, relative humidity and so on had strong influence on interdiurnal variation. The aerosol size distribution was significantly affected by relative humidity. When RH was lower than 54%, number concentration of aerosol particles less than 1 microm in diameter increased gradually as RH increased, and concentration of particles with diameter larger than 1 microm almost had no change. When RH was higher than 54%, number concentration of aerosol particles ranging from 0.01 to 0.2 microm and from 2.7 to 10 microm decreased with the increase of RH, in contrast, concentration of aerosol particles between 0.5 and 1.5 microm in diameter increased. In addition, the particle number size distributions were different in rainy, foggy, sunny and haze weather conditions. Compared to sunny day, concentration of particles with different sizes all decreased in rainy day. In foggy weather, The number concentration of aerosol particles ranging from 0.01 to 0.3 microm and from 2.7 to 10 microm decreased, and aerosol particles between 0.3 and 2.7 microm

  19. A preliminary analysis of the surface chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles in a typical urban area of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengzheng; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyan; Ni, Runxiang; Li, Jinjuan; Deng, Liqun; Lu, Defeng; Cheng, Xueli; Duan, Pengli; Li, Wenjun

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle samples were collected using an Ambient Eight Stage (Non-Viable) Cascade Impactor Sampler in a typical urban area of Beijing from 27th Sep. to 5th Oct., 2009. The surface chemistry of these aerosol particles was analyzed using Static Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static TOF-SIMS). The factors influencing surface compositions were evaluated in conjunction with the air pollution levels, meteorological factors, and air mass transport for the sampling period. The results show that a variety of organic ion groups and inorganic ions/ion groups were accumulated on the surfaces of aerosol particles in urban areas of Beijing; and hydrophobic organic compounds with short- or middle-chain alkyl as well as hydrophilic secondary inorganic compounds were observed. All these compounds have the potential to affect the atmospheric behavior of urban aerosol particles. PM1.1-2.1 and PM3.3-4.7 had similar elements on their surfaces, but some molecules and ionic groups demonstrated differences in Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry spectra. This suggests that the quantities of elements varied between PM1.1-2.1 and PM3.3-4.7. In particular, more intense research efforts into fluoride pollution are required, because the fluorides on aerosol surfaces have the potential to harm human health. The levels of air pollution had the most significant influence on the surface compositions of aerosol particles in our study. Hence, heavier air pollution was associated with more complex surface compositions on aerosol particles. In addition, wind, rainfall, and air masses from the south also greatly influenced the surface compositions of these urban aerosol particles. PMID:27593274

  20. Identification of aerosol types over an urban site based on air-mass trajectory classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, G. V.; Devara, P. C. S.; Aher, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Columnar aerosol properties retrieved from MICROTOPS II Sun Photometer measurements during 2010-2013 over Pune (18°32‧N; 73°49‧E, 559 m amsl), a tropical urban station in India, are analyzed to identify aerosol types in the atmospheric column. Identification/classification is carried out on the basis of dominant airflow patterns, and the method of discrimination of aerosol types on the basis of relation between aerosol optical depth (AOD500 nm) and Ångström exponent (AE, α). Five potential advection pathways viz., NW/N, SW/S, N, SE/E and L have been identified over the observing site by employing the NOAA-HYSPLIT air mass back trajectory analysis. Based on AE against AOD500 nm scatter plot and advection pathways followed five major aerosol types viz., continental average (CA), marine continental average (MCA), urban/industrial and biomass burning (UB), desert dust (DD) and indeterminate or mixed type (MT) have been identified. In winter, sector SE/E, a representative of air masses traversed over Bay of Bengal and Eastern continental Indian region has relatively small AOD (τpλ = 0.43 ± 0.13) and high AE (α = 1.19 ± 0.15). These values imply the presence of accumulation/sub-micron size anthropogenic aerosols. During pre-monsoon, aerosols from the NW/N sector have high AOD (τpλ = 0.61 ± 0.21), and low AE (α = 0.54 ± 0.14) indicating an increase in the loading of coarse-mode particles over Pune. Dominance of UB type in winter season for all the years (i.e. 2010-2013) may be attributed to both local/transported aerosols. During pre-monsoon seasons, MT is the dominant aerosol type followed by UB and DD, while the background aerosols are insignificant.

  1. Carbon in southeastern U.S. aerosol particles: Empirical estimates of secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Charles L.; Hidy, George M.; Tanenbaum, Shelley; Edgerton, Eric; Hartsell, Benjamin; Jansen, John

    Fine particles in the southeastern United States are rich in carbon: Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network measurements from 2001 through 2004 indicate that fine particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5) at two inland urban sites, Atlanta, GA and Birmingham, AL, contain 9 and 11% black carbon (BC) by mass, respectively, on average. For neighboring rural or urban Gulf Coast sites, the range is 4-7% BC. Organic carbon (OC) ranges from 25 to 27% in the inland cities, and 19-24% at the rural or Gulf Coast locations. Evidence in the literature suggests that a substantial fraction of the OC found in the Southeast is produced by atmospheric chemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Estimation of the fraction of OC from primary and secondary sources is difficult from first principles, because the chemistry is complex and incompletely understood, and the emission sources are both anthropogenic and natural. As an alternative, measurement-based models can be used to estimate empirically the primary and secondary source contributions. Three complementary empirical models are described and applied using the SEARCH database. The methods include (a) a multiple regression model employing markers for primary and secondary carbon using gas and particle data, (b) a carbon mass balance using carbon and CO data, along with certain assumptions about the OC/CO ratios in primary emissions for different urban and rural conditions, and (c) exploitation of isotopic measurements of carbon along with the BC and OC data. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) represents ˜20-60% of mean OC, depending upon location and season. The results are sensitive to estimates of emissions of primary OC and BC.

  2. Unique DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles for studying aerosol transport

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harding, Ruth N.; Hara, Christine A.; Hall, Sara B.; Vitalis, Elizabeth A.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Jones, A. Daniel; Day, James A.; Tur-Rojas, Vincent R.; Jorgensen, Trond; Herchert, Edwin; et al

    2016-03-22

    Data are presented for the first use of novel DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles that have been developed to track the fate of airborne contaminants in populated environments. Until DNATrax (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) particles were developed, there was no way to rapidly validate air transport models with realistic particles in the respirable range of 1–10 μm in diameter. The DNATrax particles, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and tested with the assistance of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, are the first safe and effective materials for aerosol transport studies that are identified by DNA molecules. The usemore » of unique synthetic DNA barcodes overcomes the challenges of discerning the test material from pre-existing environmental or background contaminants (either naturally occurring or previously released). The DNATrax particle properties are demonstrated to have appropriate size range (approximately 1–4.5 μm in diameter) to accurately simulate bacterial spore transport. As a result, we describe details of the first field test of the DNATrax aerosol test particles in a large indoor facility.« less

  3. Analysis of charged aerosols in the mesosphere during the MASS/ECOMA rocket campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappmiller, Scott Robert

    In the polar summer mesosphere ice particles grow sufficiently large to scatter sunlight, giving rise to visible cloud displays called Noctilucent Clouds (NLC). In August of 2007, two sounding rockets were launched from the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway carrying the newly developed MASS instrument (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer) to study NLC. The instrument detects charged aerosols in four different mass ranges on four pairs of biased collector plates, one set for positive particles and one set for negative particles. The first sounding rocket was launched into a Polar Mesospheric Summer echo (PMSE) and into a NLC on 3 August. The solar zenith angle was 93 degrees and NLC were seen in the previous hour at 83 km by the ALOMAR RMR lidar. NLC were also detected at the same altitude by rocket-borne photometer measurements. The data from the MASS instrument shows a negatively charged population with radii >3 nm in the 83--89 km altitude range, which is collocated with PMSE detected by the ALWIN radar. Smaller particles, 1--2 nm in radius with both positive and negative polarity were detected between 86--88 km. Positively charged particles <1 nm in radius were detected at the same altitude. This is the first time the charge number densities of positive and negative NLC particles have been measured simultaneously. A charging model is developed to investigate the coexistence of positively and negatively charged aerosols in the NLC environment as measured by the MASS instrument. Natanson's rate equations are used for the attachment of free electrons and ions and the model includes charging by photo-electron emission and photo-detachment. Although the MASS flight occurred during twilight conditions, the solar UV flux was still sufficient to affect the charge state of the aerosols. The calculations are done assuming three types of particles with different photo-electron charging properties: (1) Icy NLC particles, (2) Hematite particles of meteoric origin as

  4. Selection of quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, Michael; Pfeifer, Sascha; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Size-segregated quasi monodisperse particles are essential for e.g. fundamental research concerning cloud microphysical processes. Commonly a DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) is used to produce quasi-monodisperse submicron particles. Thereto first, polydisperse aerosol particles are bipolarly charged by a neutralizer, and then selected according to their electrical mobility with the DMA [Knutson et al. 1975]. Selecting a certain electrical mobility with a DMA results in a particle size distribution, which contains singly charged particles as well as undesired multiply charged larger particles. Often these larger particles need to either be removed from the generated aerosol or their signals have to be corrected for in the data inversion and interpretation process. This problem becomes even more serious when considering super-micron particles. Here we will present two different techniques for generating quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles with no or only an insignificant number of larger sized particles being present. First, we use a combination of a cyclone with adjustable aerodynamic cut-off diameter and our custom-built Maxi-DMA [Raddatz et al. 2013]. The cyclone removes particles larger than the desired ones prior to mobility selection with the DMA. This results in a reduction of the number of multiply charged particles of up to 99.8%. Second, we utilize a new combination of cyclone and PCVI (Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor), which is based on purely inertial separation and avoids particle charging. The PCVI instrument was previously described by Boulter et al. (2006) and Kulkarni et al. (2011). With our two setups we are able to produce quasi-monodisperse aerosol particles in the diameter range from 0.5 to 4.4 µm without a significant number of larger undesired particles being present. Acknowledgements: This work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. References

  5. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  6. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric characterization of organic aerosol from European and Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic aerosol constitutes a substantial fraction (20-90%) of submicrometer aerosol mass, playing an important role in air quality and human health. Over the past few years, ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) has been applied to elucidate the chemical composition of ambient aerosols. However, most of the UHRMS studies used direct infusion without prior separation by liquid chromatography, which may cause the loss of individual compound information and interference problems. In the present study, urban ambient aerosol with particle diameter < 2.5 μm was collected in Mainz, Germany and Beijing, China, respectively. Two pretreatment procedures were applied to extract the organic compounds from the filter samples: One method uses a mixture of acetonitrile and water, the other uses pure water and prepared for the extraction of humic-like substances. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer in both negative and the positive modes. The effects of pretreatment procedures on the characterization of organic aerosol and the city-wise difference in chemical composition of organic aerosol will be discussed in detail.

  7. Light scattering and absorption properties of aerosol particles in the urban environment of Granada, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    Surface measurements of optical and physical aerosol properties were made at an urban site, Granada (Spain) (37.18°N, 3.58°W, 680 m a.s.l), during winter 2005-2006. Measurements included the aerosol scattering, σsca, and backscattering coefficients, σbsca, at three wavelengths (450, 550 and 700 nm) measured at low relative humidity (RH<50%) by an integrating nephelometer, the absorption coefficient at 670 nm, σabs, measured with a multi-angle absorption photometer, and aerosol size distribution in the 0.5-20 μm aerodynamic diameter range registered by an aerodynamic aerosol sizer (APS-3321, TSI). The hourly average of σsca (550 nm) ranged from 2 to 424 M m -1 with an average value of 84±62 M m -1 (±S.D.). The Angstrom exponent presented an average value of 1.8±0.3, suggesting a large fraction of fine particles at the site, an observation confirmed by aerosol size distribution measurements. The hourly average of σabs (670 nm) ranged from 1.7 to 120.5 M m -1 with an average value of 28±20 M m -1. The results indicate that the aerosol absorption coefficient in Granada was relatively large. The largest σsca value was associated with air masses that passed over heavily polluted European areas and local stagnation conditions. High absorbing aerosol level was obtained during dust transport from North Africa probably due to the presence of hematite. Based on the measured scattering and absorption coefficients, a very low average value of the single scattering albedo of 0.66±0.11 at 670 nm was calculated, suggesting that urban aerosols in this region contain a large fraction of absorbing material. A clear diurnal pattern was observed in scattering and absorption coefficients and particle concentrations with two local maxima occurring in early morning and late evening. This behavior can be explained in terms of local conditions that control the particle sources associated with traffic and upward mixing of the aerosol during the daytime development of a

  8. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2010-04-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is being investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS). The determinations of the three functional groups' contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups) and precursor ion (nitro groups) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photo-oxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounted for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photo-oxidation) of the organic carbon. The diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively differentiate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to distinguish the sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assesses a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional group mass spectra of all

  9. Characterization of near-highway submicron aerosols in New York City with a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. L.; Zhang, Q.; Schwab, J. J.; Chen, W.-N.; Bae, M.-S.; Hung, H.-M.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ng, N. L.; Jayne, J.; Massoli, P.; Williams, L. R.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of the variations of mass concentration, chemical composition and size distributions of submicron aerosols near roadways is of importance for reducing exposure assessment uncertainties in health effects studies. The goal of this study is to deploy and evaluate an Atmospheric Sciences Research Center-Mobile Laboratory (ASRC-ML), equipped with a suite of rapid response instruments for characterization of traffic plumes, adjacent to the Long Island Expressway (LIE) - a high-traffic highway in the New York City Metropolitan Area. In total, four measurement periods, two in the morning and two in the evening were conducted at a location approximately 30 m south of the LIE. The mass concentrations and size distributions of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured in situ at a time resolution of 1 min by an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, along with rapid measurements (down to 1 Hz) of gaseous pollutants (e.g. HCHO, NO2, NO, O3, and CO2, etc.), black carbon (BC), and particle number concentrations and size distributions. Particulate organics varied dramatically during periods with high traffic influences from the nearby roadway. The variations were mainly observed in the hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), a surrogate for primary OA from vehicle emissions. The inorganic species (sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate) and oxygenated OA (OOA) showed much smoother variations indicating minor impacts from traffic emissions. The concentration and chemical composition of NR-PM1 also varied differently on different days depending on meteorology, traffic intensity and vehicle types. Overall, organics dominated the traffic-related NR-PM1 composition (>60%) with HOA accounting for a major fraction of OA. The traffic-influenced organics showed two distinct modes in mass-weighted size distributions, peaking at ∼120 nm and 500 nm (vacuum aerodynamic diameter, Dva), respectively. OOA and inorganic species appear to be

  10. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenningsson, I. B.; Hansson, H.-C.; Wiedensohler, A.; Ogren, J. A.; Noone, K. J.; Hallberg, A.

    1992-11-01

    A Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA) was used to study the hygroscopic growth of individual ambient aerosol particles in the Po Valley, Italy. The measurements were made during the GCE fog experiment in November 1989. During fog, the interstitial aerosol (Dp(at ambient relative humidity)<5µm) was sampled. Two modes of particles with different hygroscopic growth were found for 0.030µmparticles in the two modes were almost equal. The mean growth factor at 85% r.h. was 1.44±0.14 for the more-hygroscopic mode and 1.1±0.07 for the less-hygroscopic mode. The growth factors and the proportion of the particles that were less hygroscopic varied considerably from day to day, but no significant size dependence was seen. Comparison of growth factors for pure salt particles and the measured growth factors indicates that both hygroscopic modes contain a major insoluble part. The effect of the external mixing of hygroscopic properties on the activation of particles to fog droplets is discussed and the fraction of particles that were activated as a function of particle size is predicted. Comparison with the measured scavenging fraction as a function of particle size shows that the hygroscopic properties of the individual particle are as important as the particle size in determining if it will be activated in a fog.

  11. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing

  12. Aerosol and CCN properties at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica: seasonality, new particle formation events and properties around precipitation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; De Backer, Hugo; Herenz, Paul; Wex, Heike; Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, several complementary ground-based instruments for measuring the aerosol composition of the Antarctic atmosphere have been operated at the Belgian Antarctic research station Princess Elisabeth, in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (71.95° S, 23.35° E, 1390 m asl.). In addition, three ground-based remote sensing instruments for cloud and precipitation observations have been installed for continuous operation, including a ceilometer (cloud base height, type, vertical extent), a 24 Ghz micro-rain radar (vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (cloud base temperature). The station is inhabited from November to end of February and operates under remote control during the other months. In this contribution, the general aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties will be described with a special focus on new particle formation events and around precipitation events. New particle formation events are important for the atmospheric aerosol budget and they also show that aerosols are not only transported to Antarctica but are also produced there, also inland. Aerosols are essential for cloud formation and therefore also for precipitation, which is the only source for mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet. Measured aerosol properties comprise size distribution, total number, total mass concentration, mass concentration of light-absorbing aerosol and absorption coefficient and total scattering coefficient. In addition, a CCN counter has been operated during austral summers 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The baseline total number concentration N-total was around some hundreds of particles/cm3. During new particle formation events N-total increased to some thousands of particles/cm3. Simultaneous measurements of N-total, size distribution and CCN number revealed that mostly the number of particles smaller than 100 nm increased and that the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei increased only very

  13. Processing of aerosol particles within the Habshan pollution plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D.; Jensen, T.; Buseck, P. R.

    2015-03-01

    The Habshan industrial site in the United Arab Emirates produces a regional-scale pollution plume associated with oil and gas processing, discharging high loadings of sulfates and chlorides into the atmosphere, which interact with the ambient aerosol population. Aerosol particles and trace gas chemistry at this site were studied on two flights in the summer of 2002. Measurements were collected along vertical plume profiles to show changes associated with atmospheric processing of particle and gas components. Close to the outlet stack, particle concentrations were over 10,000 cm-3, dropping to <2000 cm-3 in more dilute plume around 1500 m above the stack. Particles collected close to the stack and within the dilute plume were individually measured for size, morphology, composition, and mixing state using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Close to the stack, most coarse particles consisted of mineral dust and NaCl crystals from burning oil brines, while sulfate droplets dominated the fine mode. In more dilute plume, at least 1500 m above the stack, the particle spectrum was more diverse, with a significant increase in internally mixed particle types. Dilute plume samples consisted of coarse NaCl/silicate aggregates or NaCl-rich droplets, often with a sulfate component, while fine-fraction particles were of mixed cation sulfates, also internally mixed with nanospherical soot or silicates. Thus, both chloride and sulfate components of the pollution plume rapidly reacted with ambient mineral dust to form coated and aggregate particles, enhancing particle size, hygroscopicity, and reactivity of the coarse mode. The fine-fraction sulfate-bearing particles formed in the plume contribute to regional transport of sulfates, while coarse sulfate-bearing fractions locally reduced the SO2 loading through sedimentation. The chloride- and sulfate-bearing internally mixed particles formed in the plume markedly changed the

  14. Comparison of two methods for obtaining quantitative mass concentrations from aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry measurements.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xueying; Bhave, Prakash V; Prather, Kimberly A

    2006-09-01

    Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) measurements provide continuous information on the aerodynamic size and chemical composition of individual particles. In this work, we compare two approaches for converting unscaled ATOFMS measurements into quantitative particle mass concentrations using (1) reference mass concentrations from a co-located micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) with an accurate estimate of instrument busy time and (2) reference number concentrations from a co-located aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Aerodynamic-diameter-dependent scaling factors are used for both methods to account for particle transmission efficiencies through the ATOFMS inlet. Scaling with APS data retains the high-resolution characteristics of the ambient aerosol because the scaling functions are specific for each hourly time period and account for a maximum in the ATOFMS transmission efficiency curve for larger-sized particles. Scaled mass concentrations obtained from both methods are compared with co-located PM(2.5) measurements for evaluation purposes. When compared against mass concentrations from a beta attenuation monitor (BAM), the MOUDI-scaled ATOFMS mass concentrations show correlations of 0.79 at Fresno, and the APS-scaled results show correlations of 0.91 at Angiola. Applying composition-dependent density corrections leads to a slope of nearly 1 with 0 intercept between the APS-scaled absolute mass concentration values and BAM mass measurements. This paper provides details on the methodologies used to convert ATOFMS data into continuous, quantitative, and size-resolved mass concentrations that will ultimately be used to provide a quantitative estimate of the number and mass concentrations of particles from different sources. PMID:16944899

  15. Dominant Aerosol Particle Type/Mixture Identification at Worldwide Locations Using the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Schafer, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol absorption results in atmospheric heating for various forms of particulate matter - we address means of partitioning mineral dust, pollution (e.g., black and brown carbon), and mixtures of the two using remote sensing techniques. Remotely sensed spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer measurements can be used to calculate the absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) at 440, 675, and 870 nm. The spectral change in AAOD with wavelength on logarithmic scales provides the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE). Recently, a few studies have shown that the relationship between aerosol absorption (i.e., AAE or SSA) and aerosol size [i.e., Angstrom exponent (AE) or fine mode fraction (FMF) of the AOD] can estimate the dominant aerosol particle types/mixtures (i.e., dust, pollution, and dust and pollution mixtures) [Bergstrom et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010; Lee et al. 2010; Giles et al., 2011]. To evaluate these methods, approximately 20 AERONET sites were grouped into various aerosol categories (i.e., dust, mixed, urban/industrial, and biomass burning) based on aerosol types/mixtures identified in previous studies. For data collected between 1999 and 2010, the long-term data set was analyzed to determine the magnitude of spectral AAOD, perform a sensitivity study on AAE by varying the spectral AOD and SSA, and identify dominant aerosol particle types/mixtures. An assessment of the spectral AAOD showed, on average, that the mixed (dust and pollution) category had the highest absorption (AAE ~1.5) followed by biomass burning (AAE~1.3), dust (AAE~1.7), and urban/industrial (AAE~1.2) categories with AAOD (440 nm) varying between 0.03 and 0.09 among these categories. Perturbing input parameters based on the expected uncertainties for AOD (±0.01) and SSA [±0.03; for cases where AOD(440 nm)>0.4], the sensitivity study showed the perturbed AAE mean varied from the unperturbed

  16. Analysis of secondary organic aerosols from ozonolysis of isoprene by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Sato, Kei; Hirokawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Okumura, Motonori; Tohno, Susumu; Imamura, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    To understand the mechanism of formation of the secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) produced by the ozonolysis of isoprene, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to identify the semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) produced in both the gaseous and the aerosol phases and to estimate the gas-aerosol partitioning of each SVOC in chamber experiments. To aid in the identification of the SVOCs, the products were also studied with negative ion-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS), which can selectively detect carboxylic acids and hydroperoxides. The gaseous products were observed by on-line PTR-MS and NI-CIMS, whereas the SVOCs in SOAs collected on a filter were vaporized by heating the filter and were then analysed by off-line PTR-MS and NI-CIMS. The formation of oligomeric hydroperoxides involving a Criegee intermediate as a chain unit was observed in both the gaseous and the aerosol phases by NI-CIMS. PTR-MS also detected oligomeric hydroperoxides as protonated molecules from which a H2O molecule was eliminated, [M-OH]+. In the aerosol phase, oligomers involving formaldehyde and methacrolein as chain units were observed by PTR-MS in addition to oligomeric hydroperoxides. The gas-aerosol partitioning of each component was calculated from the ion signals in the gaseous and aerosol phases measured by PTR-MS. From the gas-aerosol partitioning, the saturated vapour pressures of the oligomeric hydroperoxides were estimated. Measurements by a fast-mobility-particle-sizer spectrometer revealed that the increase of the number density of the particles was complete within a few hundred seconds from the start of the reaction.

  17. Impact of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wen Z.; Zhao, Wen J.; Luo, Na N.

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and atmospheric particles can diffuse and absorb solar radiation, and directly affect plant photosynthesis and related protein expression. In this study, for the first time, we performed an extensive investigation of the effects of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins by combining Geographic Information System and proteomic approaches. Data on particles with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm (PM1) from different locations across the city of Beijing and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the past 6 years (2007-2012) were collected. In order to make the study more reliable, we segregated the influence of soil pollution by measuring the heavy metal content. On the basis of AOD and PM1, two regions corresponding to strong and weak diffuse solar radiations were selected for analyzing the changes in the expression of plant proteins. Our results demonstrated that in areas with strong diffuse solar radiations, plant ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was expressed at higher levels, but oxygen evolved in enhancer protein and light-harvesting complex II protein were expressed at lower levels. The expression of ATP synthase subunit beta and chlorophyll a-b binding protein were similar in both regions. By analyzing the changes in the expression of these leaf proteins and their functions, we conclude that aerosols and atmospheric particles stimulate plant photosynthesis facilitated by diffuse solar radiations.

  18. Effect of particle size of bronchodilator aerosols on lung distribution and pulmonary function in patients with chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D M; Solomon, M A; Tolfree, S E; Short, M; Spiro, S G

    1987-06-01

    The particle size of bronchodilator aerosols may be important in determining the site of deposition in the lung and their therapeutic effect. The distribution of aerosols (labelled with technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacetic acid) of two different particle sizes has been studied by gamma camera imaging. The particles had mass median aerodynamic diameters (geometric standard deviations) of 1.4 (1.4) and 5.5 (2.3) micron, and they were administered from a jet nebuliser to eight patients with chronic severe stable asthma. There was no significant difference in peripheral lung deposition with the two aerosols in any patient. The bronchodilator effect of the two aerosols was determined from cumulative dose-response studies. To avoid large doses that might mask possible differences in effect due to aerosol size, small, precisely determined incremental amounts of salbutamol (25-250 micrograms total lung dose) were used. The two doses were given via a nebuliser on separate occasions and the bronchodilator response was measured from FEV1, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow 30 minutes after each dose. Bronchodilatation was similar with the two aerosols at each dose of salbutamol. There was therefore no difference in distribution within the lung or any difference in bronchodilator effect between an aerosol of small (1.4 micron) particle size and an aerosol of 5.5 microns in patients with severe but stable asthma. PMID:3660305

  19. Aerosol and bioaerosol particles in a dental office.

    PubMed

    Polednik, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    This study reports comprehensive aerosol and bioaerosol measurements in a dental office. The highest submicrometer particle concentrations were observed during dental grinding and they were on average 16 times higher than the indoor background. Certain metallic trace elements and total carbon concentrations were significantly elevated (>10 times) in the particles deposited in the operating room. Dental procedures also contributed to increased bacterial contamination that may pose a health risk both for dental personnel and patients. PMID:25218707

  20. Ice Nucleation Activity of Various Agricultural Soil Dust Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Thea; Höhler, Kristina; Funk, Roger; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Nadolny, Jens; Steinke, Isabelle; Suski, Kaitlyn J.; Ullrich, Romy; Wagner, Robert; Weber, Ines; DeMott, Paul J.; Möhler, Ottmar

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations at the cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) suggest that agricultural soil dust has an ice nucleation ability that is enhanced up to a factor of 10 compared to desert dust, especially at temperatures above -26 °C (Steinke et al., in preparation for submission). This enhancement might be caused by the contribution of very ice-active biological particles. In addition, soil dust aerosol particles often contain a considerably higher amount of organic matter compared to desert dust particles. To test agricultural soil dust as a source of ice nucleating particles, especially for ice formation in warm clouds, we conducted a series of laboratory measurements with different soil dust samples to extend the existing AIDA dataset. The AIDA has a volume of 84 m3 and operates under atmospherically relevant conditions over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and humidity. By controlled adiabatic expansions, the ascent of an air parcel in the troposphere can be simulated. As a supplement to the AIDA facility, we use the INKA (Ice Nucleation Instrument of the KArlsruhe Institute of Technology) continuous flow diffusion chamber based on the design by Rogers (1988) to expose the sampled aerosol particles to a continuously increasing saturation ratio by keeping the aerosol temperature constant. For our experiments, soil dust was dry dispersed into the AIDA vessel. First, fast saturation ratio scans at different temperatures were performed with INKA, sampling soil dust aerosol particles directly from the AIDA vessel. Then, we conducted the AIDA expansion experiment starting at a preset temperature. The combination of these two different methods provides a robust data set on the temperature-dependent ice activity of various agriculture soil dust aerosol particles with a special focus on relatively high temperatures. In addition, to extend the data set, we investigated the role of biological and organic matter in more

  1. Investigating Types and Sources of Organic Aerosol in Rocky Mountain National Park Using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurman, M. I.; Lee, T.; Sun, Y.; Schichtel, B. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Study (RoMANS) focuses on identifying pathways and sources of nitrogen deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Past work has combined measurements from a range of instrumentation such as annular denuders, PILS-IC, Hi-Vol samplers, and trace gas analyzers. Limited information from early RoMANS campaigns is available regarding organic aerosol. While prior measurements have produced a measure of total organic carbon mass, high time resolution measures of organic aerosol concentration and speciation are lacking. One area of particular interest is characterizing the types, sources, and amounts of organic nitrogen aerosol. Organic nitrogen measurements in RMNP wet deposition reveal a substantial contribution to the total reactive nitrogen deposition budget. In this study an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in summer 2010 at RMNP to investigate organic aerosol composition and its temporal variability. The species timeline and diurnal species variations are combined with meteorological data to investigate local transport events and chemistry; transport from the Colorado Front Range urban corridor appears to be more significant for inorganic species than for the overall organic aerosol mass. Considerable variation in organic aerosol concentration is observed (0.5 to 20 μg/m3), with high concentration episodes lasting between hours and two days. High resolution AMS data are analyzed for organic aerosol, including organic nitrogen species that might be expected from local biogenic emissions, agricultural activities, and secondary reaction products of combustion emissions. Positive matrix factorization reveals that semi-volatile oxidized OA, low-volatility oxidized OA, and biomass burning OA comprise most organic mass; the diurnal profile of biomass burning OA peaks at four and nine pm and may arise from local camp fires, while constant concentrations of

  2. A dual-wavelength single particle aerosol fluorescence monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Paul H.; Stanley, Warren R.; Foot, Virginia; Baxter, Karen; Barrington, Stephen J.

    2005-10-01

    Laser diodes and light-emitting diodes capable of continuous sub-300 nm radiation emission will ultimately represent optimal excitation sources for compact and fieldable bio-aerosol monitors. However, until such devices are routinely available and whilst solid-state UV lasers remain relatively expensive, other low-cost sources of UV can offer advantages. This paper describes one such prototype that employs compact xenon discharge UV sources to excite intrinsic fluorescence from individual particles within an ambient aerosol sample. The prototype monitor samples ambient air via a laminar sheathed-flow arrangement such that particles within the sample flow column are rendered in single file as they intersect the beam from a continuous-wave 660nm diode laser. Each individual particle produces a scattered light signal from which an estimate of particle size (down to ~1 um) may be derived. This same signal also initiates the sequential firing (~10 us apart) of two xenon sources which irradiate the particle with UV pulses centred upon ~280 nm and ~370 nm wavelength, optimal for excitation of bio-fluorophores tryptophan and NADH respectively. For each excitation wavelength, fluorescence is detected across two bands embracing the peak emissions of the same bio-fluorophores. Thus, for each particle, a 2-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix is recorded together with an estimate of particle size. Current measurement rates are up to ~125 particles/s (limited by the xenon recharge time), corresponding to all particles for concentrations up to ~2 x 104 particles/l. Developments to increase this to ~500 particles/s are in hand. Analysis of results from aerosols of E.coli, BG spores, and a variety of non-biological materials are given.

  3. Elucidating determinants of aerosol composition through particle-type-based receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Corbin, J. C.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in Southern Ontario to characterize the size and chemical composition of individual particles. Particle-type-based receptor modelling of these data was used to investigate the determinants of aerosol chemical composition in this region. Individual particles were classified into particle-types and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to their temporal trends to separate and cross-apportion particle-types to factors. The extent of chemical processing for each factor was assessed by evaluating the internal and external mixing state of the characteristic particle-types. The nine factors identified helped to elucidate the coupled interactions of these determinants. Nitrate-laden dust was found to be the dominant type of locally emitted particles measured by ATOFMS. Several factors associated with aerosol transported to the site from intermediate local-to-regional distances were identified: the Organic factor was associated with a combustion source to the north-west; the ECOC Day factor was characterized by nearby local-to-regional carbonaceous emissions transported from the south-west during the daytime; and the Fireworks factor consisted of pyrotechnic particles from the Detroit region following holiday fireworks displays. Regional aerosol from farther emissions sources were reflected through three factors: two biomass burning factors and a highly chemically processed long range transport factor. The biomass burning factors were separated by PMF due to differences in chemical processing which were caused in part by the passage of two thunderstorm gust fronts with different air mass histories. The remaining two factors, ECOC Night and Nitrate Background, represented the night-time partitioning of nitrate to pre-existing particles of different origins. The distinct meteorological conditions observed during this month-long study in the summer of 2007 provided a unique range

  4. Elucidating determinants of aerosol composition through particle-type-based receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Corbin, J. C.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in southern Ontario to characterize the size and chemical composition of individual particles. Particle-type-based receptor modelling of these data was used to investigate the determinants of aerosol chemical composition in this region. Individual particles were classified into particle-types and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to their temporal trends to separate and cross-apportion particle-types to factors. The extent of chemical processing for each factor was assessed by evaluating the internal and external mixing state of the characteristic particle-types. The nine factors identified helped to elucidate the coupled interactions of these determinants. Nitrate-laden dust was found to be the dominant type of locally emitted particles measured by ATOFMS. Several factors associated with aerosol transported to the site from intermediate local-to-regional distances were identified: the Organic factor was associated with a combustion source to the north-west; the ECOC Day factor was characterized by nearby local-to-regional carbonaceous emissions transported from the south-west during the daytime; and the Fireworks factor consisted of pyrotechnic particles from the Detroit region following holiday fireworks displays. Regional aerosol from farther emissions sources was reflected through three factors: two Biomass Burning factors and a highly chemically processed Long Range Transport factor. The Biomass Burning factors were separated by PMF due to differences in chemical processing which were in part elucidated by the passage of two thunderstorm gust fronts with different air mass histories. The remaining two factors, ECOC Night and Nitrate Background, represented the night-time partitioning of nitrate to pre-existing particles of different origins. The distinct meteorological conditions observed during this month-long study in the summer of 2007 provided a unique

  5. Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor.

    PubMed

    Kaye, P; Stanley, W R; Hirst, E; Foot, E V; Baxter, K L; Barrington, S J

    2005-05-16

    We describe a prototype low-cost multi-channel aerosol fluorescence sensor designed for unattended deployment in medium to large area bio-aerosol detection networks. Individual airborne particles down to ~1mum in size are detected and sized by measurement of light scattered from a continuous-wave diode laser (660nm). This scatter signal is then used to trigger the sequential firing of two xenon sources which irradiate the particle with UV pulses at ~280 nm and ~370 nm, optimal for excitation of bio-fluorophores tryptophan and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) respectively. For each excitation wavelength, fluorescence is detected across two bands embracing the peak emissions of the same bio-fluorophores. Current measurement rates are up to ~125 particles/s, corresponding to all particles for concentrations up to 1.3 x 104 particles/l. Developments to increase this to ~500 particles/s are in hand. Device sensitivity is illustrated in preliminary data recorded from aerosols of E.coli, BG spores, and a variety of non-biological materials. PMID:19495264

  6. Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, P. H.; Stanley, W. R.; Hirst, E.; Foot, E. V.; Baxter, K. L.; Barrington, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    We describe a prototype low-cost multi-channel aerosol fluorescence sensor designed for unattended deployment in medium to large area bio-aerosol detection networks. Individual airborne particles down to ~1μm in size are detected and sized by measurement of light scattered from a continuous-wave diode laser (660nm). This scatter signal is then used to trigger the sequential firing of two xenon sources which irradiate the particle with UV pulses at ~280 nm and ~370 nm, optimal for excitation of bio-fluorophores tryptophan and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) respectively. For each excitation wavelength, fluorescence is detected across two bands embracing the peak emissions of the same bio-fluorophores. Current measurement rates are up to ~125 particles/s, corresponding to all particles for concentrations up to 1.3 x 104 particles/l. Developments to increase this to ~500 particles/s are in hand. Device sensitivity is illustrated in preliminary data recorded from aerosols of E.coli, BG spores, and a variety of non-biological materials.

  7. Airborne minerals and related aerosol particles: Effects on climate and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Buseck, Peter R.; Pósfai, Mihály

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the troposphere and exert an important influence on global climate and the environment. They affect climate through scattering, transmission, and absorption of radiation as well as by acting as nuclei for cloud formation. A significant fraction of the aerosol particle burden consists of minerals, and most of the remainder— whether natural or anthropogenic—consists of materials that can be studied by the same methods as are used for fine-grained minerals. Our emphasis is on the study and character of the individual particles. Sulfate particles are the main cooling agents among aerosols; we found that in the remote oceanic atmosphere a significant fraction is aggregated with soot, a material that can diminish the cooling effect of sulfate. Our results suggest oxidization of SO2 may have occurred on soot surfaces, implying that even in the remote marine troposphere soot provided nuclei for heterogeneous sulfate formation. Sea salt is the dominant aerosol species (by mass) above the oceans. In addition to being important light scatterers and contributors to cloud condensation nuclei, sea-salt particles also provide large surface areas for heterogeneous atmospheric reactions. Minerals comprise the dominant mass fraction of the atmospheric aerosol burden. As all geologists know, they are a highly heterogeneous mixture. However, among atmospheric scientists they are commonly treated as a fairly uniform group, and one whose interaction with radiation is widely assumed to be unpredictable. Given their abundances, large total surface areas, and reactivities, their role in influencing climate will require increased attention as climate models are refined. PMID:10097046

  8. Aerosols in Santiago de Chile: A study using receptor modeling with X-ray fluorescence and single particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Carlos M.; Artaxo, Paulo; Van Grieken, René

    Between 15 January and 26 February 1987, 51 fine and coarse mode aerosol samples were collected at the Universidad de Santiago de Chile Planetarium using a dichotomous sampler. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for up to 17 elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb). Aerosol particles were individually studied by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA). The data set consisting of aerosol elemental concentrations and meteorological variables was subjected to Principal Factor Analysis (PFA), allowing the identification of six fine mode particle source classes (soil, industrial, sulfate particles, traffic, residual oil, wood-burnings), and five coarse mode particle source classes (soil, industrial, traffic, residual oil, sulfate particles). Both PFA solutions explained about 81 and 90% of the total variance in the data set, respectively. The regression of elemental mass concentrations on the Absolute Principal Factor Scores allowed the estimation of the contribution of the different source classes to the Santiago aerosol. Within the fine fraction, secondary SO 42- particles were responsible for about 49% of the fine mode aerosol mass concentration, while 26, 13, 6.4 and 5.6% were attributed to wood-burning/car exhausts, residual oil combustion, soil dust/metallurgical, and soil dust/wood-burning releases, respectively. The coarse fraction source apportionment was mainly dominated by soil dust, accounting for 74% of the coarse mode aerosol mass concentration. A composite of soil dust and industrial release accounted for 13%; a composite of secondary sulfates contributed with 9%; a composite of soil dust and automotive emissions, and secondary sulfates were responsible for 4 and 0.03% of the coarse aerosol mass concentration, respectively. EPMA results are in satisfactory agreement with those from the bulk analysis and allowed the identification of eight particle types in both fine

  9. The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES): PM2.5 mass and aerosol component concentrations and sampler intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Van Loy, M; Bahadori, T; Wyzga, R; Hartsell, B; Edgerton, E

    2000-08-01

    The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES) was designed to provide high-quality measurements of PM2.5, its components, and co-varying pollutants for an air pollution epidemiology study in Atlanta, GA. Air pollution epidemiology studies have typically relied on available data on particle mass often collected using filter-based methods. Filter-based PM2.5 sampling is susceptible to both positive and negative errors in the measurement of aerosol mass and particle-phase component concentrations in the undisturbed atmosphere. These biases are introduced by collection of gas-phase aerosol components on the filter media or by volatilization of particle phase components from collected particles. As part of the ARIES, we collected daily 24-hr PM2.5 mass and speciation samples and continuous PM2.5 data at a mixed residential-light industrial site in Atlanta. These data facilitate analysis of the effects of a wide variety of factors on sampler performance. We assess the relative importance of PM2.5 components and consider associations and potential mechanistic linkages of PM2.5 mass concentrations with several PM2.5 components. For the 12 months of validated data collected to date (August 1, 1998-July 31, 1999), the monthly average Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM2.5 mass always exceeded the proposed annual average standard (12-month average = 20.3 +/- 9.5 micrograms/m3). The particulate SO4(2-) fraction (as (NH4)2SO4) was largest in the summer and exceeded 50% of the FRM mass. The contribution of (NH4)2SO4 to FRM PM2.5 mass dropped to less than 30% in winter. Particulate NO3- collected on a denuded nylon filter averaged 1.1 +/- 0.9 micrograms/m3. Particle-phase organic compounds (as organic carbon x 1.4) measured on a denuded quartz filter sampler averaged 6.4 +/- 3.1 micrograms/m3 (32% of FRM PM2.5 mass) with less seasonal variability than SO4(2-). PMID:11002607

  10. Dust and Pollution Aerosol Air Mass Mapping from Satellite Multi-angle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, R. A.; Nelson, D. L.; Yau, K. S.; Martonchik, J.; Diner, D. J.; Gaitley, B. J.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Quinn, P. R.; Clarke, A. R.; Howell, S.; McNaughton, C.; Reid, J.; Holben, B.; Wendisch, M.; Petzold, A.

    2006-12-01

    One objective of the NASA Earth Observing System's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is to map aerosol air mass types, based on retrieved column-average particle microphysical properties. Early results demonstrated the ability to distinguish three-to-five bins over the 0.1 to 2.5 micron aerosol size range, about two-to-four groupings of single-scattering albedo, and to separate spherical from randomly oriented non- spherical particles, under good but not ideal viewing conditions. These results relied heavily on the MISR Research Aerosol Retrieval algorithm, which allows flexibility in choosing retrieval patch size and location, component aerosol properties and mixtures, and mixture acceptance criteria, compared to early versions of the MISR Standard algorithm, designed to routinely process the entire global data set. Early mid-visible column aerosol optical depth results were validated against surface-based sun photometer measurements. The corresponding particle property results appeared qualitatively promising, but formal validation requires quantitative constraints on component particle properties and mixtures in a range of natural settings, available mainly from the combination of height-resolved and total column data collected by surface and airborne instruments during field campaigns. This presentation will highlight the latest detailed, multi-platform case studies, as well as MISR regional mapping, of smoke, Saharan dust, and mixtures of pollution aerosol and desert dust collected during the INTEX, SAMUM, and UAE-2 campaigns, respectively. The broader implications of these results for global, and especially regional, aerosol climate and air quality studies will also be discussed. This work is performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Chemical characterization of submicron aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, R.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Andreae, M. O.

    2002-08-01

    Submicron aerosol particles (Dp < 1 μm) were sampled with stacked filter units on the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Hercules C-130 aircraft during February-March 1999 as a contribution to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). We determined the vertical and spatial distribution of the major aerosol components (NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, methyl sulfonic acid, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, oxalate, organic carbon, and black carbon) over the Indian Ocean to examine the role of pollution aerosols on indirect and direct radiative forcing. High pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean down to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) located between the equator and 10°S. In the northern part of the Indian Ocean (5°-15°N, 66°-73°E), high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosol and pollution-derived inorganic species were found in a layer extending from the sea surface to about 3.5 km asl. In this layer, the average mass concentration of all aerosol species detected by our technique ranged between 7 and 34 μg m-3, comparable to pollution levels observed in industrialized regions. In the Southern Hemisphere (1°-9°S, 66°-73°E), the aerosol concentrations rapidly declined to remote background levels of about 2 μg m-3. The concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfate (the main light scattering component) ranged from maximum values of 12.7 μg m-3 in the Northern Hemisphere to 0.2 μg m-3 in the Southern Hemisphere. Carbonaceous aerosol contributes between 40% and 60% to the fine aerosol mass of all determined components. An unusually high fraction of black carbon (up to 16% in the polluted areas) is responsible for its high light absorption coefficient.

  12. Dispersion of aerosol particles in the atmosphere: Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haszpra, Tímea; Lagzi, István; Tél, Tamás

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of dispersion and deposition of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is an essential issue, because they have an effect on the biosphere and atmosphere. Moreover, aerosol particles have different transport properties and chemical and physical transformations in the atmosphere compared to gas phase air pollutants. The motion of a particle is described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The large-scale dynamics in the horizontal direction can be described by the equations of passive scalar advection, but in the vertical direction a well-defined terminal velocity should be taken into account as a term added to the vertical wind component. In the planetary boundary layer turbulent diffusion has an important role in the particle dispersion, which is taken into account by adding stochastic terms to the deterministic equations above. Wet deposition is also an essential process in the lower levels of the atmosphere, however, its precise parameterization is a challenge. For the simulations the wind field and other necessary data were taken from the ECMWF ERA-Interim database. In the case of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (March-April 2011) radioactive aerosol particles were also released in the planetary boundary layer. Simulations (included the continuous and varying emission from the nuclear power plant) will be presented for the period of 14-23 March. Results show that wet deposition also has to be taken into consideration in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Furthermore, dynamical system characteristics are evaluated for the aerosol particle dynamics. The escape rate of particles was estimated both with and without turbulent diffusion, and in both cases when there was no wet deposition and also when wet deposition was taken into consideration.

  13. Design of Aerosol Particle Coating: Thickness, Texture and Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, B.; Pratsinis, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell particles preserve the performance (e.g. magnetic, plasmonic or opacifying) of a core material while modifying its surface with a shell that facilitates (e.g. by blocking its reactivity) their incorporation into a host liquid or polymer matrix. Here coating of titania (core) aerosol particles with thin silica shells (films or layers) is investigated at non-isothermal conditions by a trimodal aerosol dynamics model, accounting for SiO2 generation by gas phase and surface oxidation of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapor, coagulation and sintering. After TiO2 particles have reached their final primary particle size (e.g. upon completion of sintering during their flame synthesis), coating starts by uniformly mixing them with HMDSO vapor that is oxidized either in the gas phase or on the particles’ surface resulting in SiO2 aerosols or deposits, respectively. Sintering of SiO2 deposited onto the core TiO2 particles takes place transforming rough into smooth coating shells depending on process conditions. The core-shell characteristics (thickness, texture and efficiency) are calculated for two limiting cases of coating shells: perfectly smooth (e.g. hermetic) and fractal-like. At constant TiO2 core particle production rate, the influence of coating weight fraction, surface oxidation and core particle size on coating shell characteristics is investigated and compared to pertinent experimental data through coating diagrams. With an optimal temperature profile for complete precursor conversion, the TiO2 aerosol and SiO2-precursor (HMDSO) vapor concentrations have the strongest influence on product coating shell characteristics. PMID:23729833

  14. Mass distributions and morphological and chemical characterization of urban aerosols in the continental Balkan area (Belgrade).

    PubMed

    Đorđević, D; Buha, J; Stortini, A M; Mihajlidi-Zelić, A; Relić, D; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2016-01-01

    This work presents characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of urban central Balkans area, using a size-segregated aerosol sampling method, calculation of mass distributions, SEM/EDX characterization, and ICP/MS analysis. Three types of mass distributions were observed: distribution with a pronounced domination of coarse mode, bimodal distribution, and distribution with minimum at 1 μm describing the urban aerosol. SEM/EDX analyses have shown morphological difference and variation in the content of elements in samples. EDX spectra demonstrate that particles generally contain the following elements: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, K, Si, S. Additionally, the presence of As, Br, Sn, and Zn found in air masses from southeast segment points out the anthropogenic activities most probably from mining activities in southeastern part of Serbia. The ratio Al/Si equivalent to the ratio of desert dust was associated with air masses coming from southeastern and southwestern segments, pointing to influences from North Africa and Middle East desert areas whereas the Al/Si ratio in other samples is significantly lower. In several samples, we found high values of aluminum in the nucleation mode. Samples with low share of crustal elements in the coarse mode are collected when Mediterranean air masses prevailed, while high share in the coarse mode was associated with continental air masses that could be one of the approaches for identification of the aerosol origin. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26347417

  15. Sources markers in aerosols, oceanic particles and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliot, A.

    2009-02-01

    This review presents some diagnostic criteria used for identifying and quantifying terrestrial organic matter inputs to the ocean. Coupled to the isotopic composition of total organic carbon, the analysis of stable biomarkers permits to trace higher plant contributions in aerosols, dusts, sedimenting particles and dissolved phase in the water column and ultimately in recent and ancient sediments and soils. Some applications are presented, based on the analysis of n-alkyl compounds by a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids and wax esters). Another approach has been developed using the analysis of macromolecular compounds present in higher plants. Abundances of the phenolic compounds from lignin, benzene carboxylic acids obtained during cupric oxide oxidation, Curie pyrolysis are used to characterise terrestrial organic matter sources and inputs. Finally due to the importance of biomass burning in continent-ocean transfers, biomarkers are presented in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon class and for monosaccharide derivatives from the breakdown of cellulose.

  16. Stable Carbon Fractionation In Size Segregated Aerosol Particles Produced By Controlled Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalaite, Agne; Garbaras, Andrius; Garbariene, Inga; Ceburnis, Darius; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Puida, Egidijus; Kvietkus, Kestutis; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning is the largest source of primary fine fraction carbonaceous particles and the second largest source of trace gases in the global atmosphere with a strong effect not only on the regional scale but also in areas distant from the source . Many studies have often assumed no significant carbon isotope fractionation occurring between black carbon and the original vegetation during combustion. However, other studies suggested that stable carbon isotope ratios of char or BC may not reliably reflect carbon isotopic signatures of the source vegetation. Overall, the apparently conflicting results throughout the literature regarding the observed fractionation suggest that combustion conditions may be responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of the present study was to gather more quantitative information on carbonaceous aerosols produced in controlled biomass burning, thereby having a potential impact on interpreting ambient atmospheric observations. Seven different biomass fuel types were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size segregated particles. Size segregated aerosol particles were collected using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The largest negative fractionation was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation was observed during the buckwheat shells combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for direct analysis of aerosol particle samples.

    PubMed

    Bontempi, E; Zacco, A; Benedetti, D; Borgese, L; Colombi, P; Stosnach, H; Finzi, G; Apostoli, P; Buttini, P; Depero, L E

    2010-04-14

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a great impact on the environment and on human health. Routine analysis of the particles usually involves only the mass determination. However, chemical composition and phases provide fundamental information about the particles' origins and can help to prevent health risks. For example, these particles may contain heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and Cd, which can adversely affect human health. In this work, filter samples were collected in Brescia, an industrial town located in Northern Italy. In order to identify the chemical composition and the phases of the atmospheric aerosols, the samples were analysed by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry with a laboratory instrument and X-ray microdiffraction at Synchrotron Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington (Cheshire, UK). The results are discussed and correlated to identify possible pollution sources. The novelty of this analytical approach is that filter samples for TXRF were analysed directly and did not require chemical pretreatment to leach elements from the aerosol particulates. The results of this study clearly show that TXRF is a powerful technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols on 'as-received' filters, thereby leaving samples intact and unaltered for possible subsequent analyses by other methods. In addition, the low detection limits for many elements (low ng/cm2) indicate that this method may hold promise in various application fields, such as nanotechnology. PMID:20480822

  18. Reactive uptake of N2O5 by aerosol particles containing mixtures of humic acid and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Badger, Claire L; Griffiths, Paul T; George, Ingrid; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Cox, R Anthony

    2006-06-01

    The kinetics of reactive uptake of N2O5 on submicron aerosol particles containing humic acid and ammonium sulfate has been investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) and aerosol composition using a laminar flow reactor coupled with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) to characterize the aerosol. For single-component humic acid aerosol the uptake coefficient, gamma, was found to increase from 2 to 9 x 10(-4) over the range 25-75% RH. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude below those typically observed for single-component sulfate aerosols (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2003, 5, 3453-3463;(1) Atmos. Environ. 2000, 34, 2131-2159(2)). For the mixed aerosols, gamma was found to decrease with increasing humic acid mass fraction and increase with increasing RH. For aerosols containing only 6% humic acid by dry mass, a decrease in reactivity of more than a factor of 2 was observed compared with the case for single-component ammonium sulfate. The concentration of liquid water in the aerosol droplets was calculated using the aerosol inorganic model (for the ammonium sulfate component) and a new combined FTIR-DMA system (for the humic acid component). Analysis of the uptake coefficients using the water concentration data shows that the change in reactivity cannot be explained by the change in water content alone. We suggest that, due to its surfactant properties, the main effect of the humic acid is to reduce the mass accommodation coefficient for N2O5 at the aerosol particle surface. This has implications for the use of particle hygroscopicity data for predictions of the rate of N2O5 hydrolysis. PMID:16722713

  19. Modal structure of chemical mass size distribution in the high Arctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillamo, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Aurela, Minna; MäKelä, Timo; Maenhaut, Willy; Leek, Caroline

    2001-11-01

    Chemical mass size distributions of aerosol particles were measured in the remote marine boundary layer over the central Arctic Ocean as part of the Atmospheric Research Program on the Arctic Ocean Expedition 1996 (AOE-96). An inertial impaction method was used to classify aerosol particles into different size classes for subsequent chemical analysis. The particle chemical composition was determined by ion chromatography and by the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. Continuous particle size spectra were extracted from the raw data using a data inversion method. Clear and varying modal structures for aerosols consisting of primary sea-salt particles or of secondary particles related to dimethyl sulfide emissions were found. Concentration levels of all modes decreased rapidly when the distance from open sea increased. In the submicrometer size range the major ions found by ion chromatography were sulfate, methane sulfonate, and ammonium. They had most of the time a clear Aitken mode and one or two accumulation modes, with aerodynamic mass median diameters around 0.1 μm, 0.3 μm, and between 0.5-1.0 μm, respectively. The overall submicron size distributions of these three ions were quite similar, suggesting that they were internally mixed over most of this size range. The corresponding modal structure was consistent with the mass size distributions derived from the particle number size distributions measured with a differential mobility particle sizer. The Aitken to accumulation mode mass ratio for nss-sulfate and MSA was substantially higher during clear skies than during cloudy periods. Primary sea-salt particles formed a mode with an aerodynamic mass median diameter around 2 μm. In general, the resulting continuous mass size distributions displayed a clear modal structure consistent with our understanding of the two known major source mechanisms. One is the sea-salt aerosol emerging from seawater by bubble bursting. The other is related to

  20. Toward new techniques to measure heterogeneous oxidation of aerosol: Electrodynamic Balance-Mass Spectrometry (EDB-MS) and Aerosol X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, M. I.; Heine, N.; Xu, B.; Davies, J. F.; Kirk, B. B.; Kostko, O.; Alayoglu, S.; Wilson, K. R.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical composition and physical properties of aerosol can be changed via heterogeneous oxidation with the OH radical. However, the physical state of the aerosol influences the kinetics of this reaction; liquid particles with a high diffusion coefficient are expected to be well mixed and homogenously oxidized, while oxidation of solid, diffusion-limited aerosol is expected to occur primarily on the surface, creating steep chemical gradients within the particle. We are working to develop several new techniques to study the heterogeneous oxidation of different types of aerosol. We are developing a "modular" electrodynamic balance (EDB) that will enable us to study heterogeneous oxidation at aqueous interfaces using a mass-spectrometer (and potentially other detection techniques). Using a direct analysis in real time (DART) interface, preliminary droplet train measurements have demonstrated single-droplet mass spectrometry to be possible. With long reaction times in our EDB, we will be able to study heterogeneous oxidation of a wide variety of organic species in aqueous droplets. Additionally, we are working to use aerosol photoemission and velocity map imaging (VMI) to study the surface of aerosol particles as they undergo heterogeneous oxidation. With VMI, we're able to collect electrons with a 4π collection efficiency over conventional electron energy analyzers. Preliminary results looking at the ozonolysis of squalene using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) show that heterogeneous oxidation kinetic data can be extracted from photoelectron spectra. By moving to X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), we will determine elemental and chemical composition of the aerosol surface. Thus, aerosol XPS will provide information on the steep chemical gradients that form as diffusion-limited aerosol undergo heterogeneous oxidation.

  1. Towards an integrated optical single aerosol particle lab.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Marcel; Probst, Karl; Fallnich, Carsten

    2012-01-21

    We present a manipulation and characterization system for single airborne particles which is integrated onto a microscope slide. Trapped particles are manipulated by means of radiation pressure and characterized by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Optical fibers are used to deliver the trapping laser light as well as to collect the Raman scattered light, allowing for a flexible usage of the device. The system features a sample chamber which is separated from an aerosol-flooded injection chamber by means of a light guiding glass-capillary. The coupling of this device with an aerosol optical tweezers setup to selectively load its trapping sites is demonstrated. Finally, a route towards chip-integrated handling and processing of multiple particles is shown and the first results are presented. PMID:22105700

  2. Studies of Ice Nucleating Aerosol Particles in Arctic Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research is to improve the understanding of ice nucleating aerosol particles (IN) and the role they play in ice formation in Arctic clouds. IN are important for global climate issues in a variety of ways. The primary effect is their role in determining the phase (liquid or solid) of cloud particles. The microscale impact is on cloud particle size, growth rate, shape, fall speed, concentration, radiative properties, and scavenging of gases and aerosols. On a larger scale, ice formation affects the development of precipitation (rate, amount, type, and distribution), latent heat release (rate and altitude), ambient humidity, the persistence of clouds, and cloud albedo. The overall goals of our FIRE 3 research are to characterize the concentrations and variability of Arctic IN during the winter-spring transition, to compare IN measurements with ice concentrations in Arctic clouds, and to examine selected IN samples for particle morphology and chemical there are distinguishable chemical signatures. The results can be combined with other measurements of aerosols, gaseous species, and cloud characteristics in order to understand the processes that determine the phase and concentration of cloud particles.

  3. Surface Chemistry at Size-Selected Nano-Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    A method has been developed to conduct surface chemistry and extract surface kinetic rates from size-selected aerosol nanoparticles. The measurements encompass broad ranges of particle size, phase, and composition. Results will be presented on the uptake of water by aerosolized soot nanoparticles of radius between 10 and 40 nm. Water uptake was monitored by tandem differential mobility analysis (T-DMA), which is capable of measuring changes in particle diameter as little as 0.2 nm. Soot particles were produced in an ethene diffusion flame and extracted into an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The particles were subjected to various thermal and oxidative treatments, and the effects of these treatments on the ability of soot to adsorb monolayer quantities of water was determined. The results are important because soot nucleates atmospheric cloud particles. More generally, the results represent one of the first kinetic and mechanistic studies of gas-phase nanoparticle reactivity. Co-author: Henry Ajo, University of Minnesota

  4. The effect of phase partitioning of semivolatile compounds on the measured CCN activity of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romakkaniemi, S.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Nenes, A.; Raatikainen, T.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the CCN activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1) how big fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles before activation in the CCN counter? (2) How much the CCN activity can be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? The results show that, to increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions) is needed. We used nitric acid as a test compound. A concentration of several ppb or higher is needed for measurable effect. In the case of particle evaporation, we used ammonium nitrate as a test compound and found that it partially evaporates before maximum supersaturation is reached in the CCN counter, thus causing an underestimation of CCN activity. The effect of evaporation is clearly visible in all supersaturations, leading to an underestimation of the critical dry diameter by 10 to 15 nanometres in the case of ammonium nitrate particles in different supersaturations. This result was also confirmed by measurements in supersaturations between 0.1 and 0.7%.

  5. Analysis of individual biological particles by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Platz, R. M.; Vilker, V. L.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A method is developed for the detection and identification of biological particles introduced in aerosol form into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The bacterial aerosol is generated by nebulizing an ethanol suspension. The particles are introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer in the form of a beam, where they are individually volatilized on a V-type rhenium filament and ionized by electron impaction. It is shown that the average intensity of a mass peak is obtained from the pulse height distribution of about a thousand ion pulses from different particles. Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus are used in the studies. Differences between the relative intensities of mass peaks in the spectra from P. putida and B. subtilis are found and may provide a method for differentiation of microorganisms. The results for the two species agree reasonably well with those reported by Kistemaker et al. (1975) and Schulten et al. (1973). However, there exist some differences between the two spectra in the high mass range due to the difference in the pyrolysis conditions.

  6. Contrasting trends of mass and optical properties of aerosols over the Northern Hemisphere from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dickinson, R. E.; Su, L.; Trenberth, K. E.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact both human health and climate. PMX is the mass concentration of aerosol particles that have aerodynamic diameters less than X μm, PM10 was initially selected to measure the environmental impact of aerosols. Recently, it was realized that fine particles are more hazardous than larger ones and should be measured. Consequently, observational data for PM2.5 have been obtained but only for a much shorter period than that of PM10. Optical extinction of aerosols, the inverse of meteorological visibility, is sensitive to particles less than 1.0 μm. These fine particles only account for a small part of total mass of aerosols although they are very efficient in light extinction. Comparisons are made between PM10 and PM2.5 over the period when the latter is available and with visibility data for a longer period. PM10 has decreased by 44% in Europe from 1992 to 2009, 33% in the US from 1993 to 2010, 10% in Canada from 1994 to 2009, and 26% in China from 2000 to 2010. However, in contrast, aerosol optical extinction increased 7% in the US, 10% in Canada, and 18% in China during the above study periods. The reduction of optical extinction over Europe of 5% is also much less than the 44% reduction in PM10. Over its short period of record PM2.5 decreased less than PM10. Hence, PM10 is neither a good measure of changes in smaller particles or of their long-term trends, a result that has important implications for both climate impact and human health effects. The increased fraction of anthropogenic aerosol emission, such as vehicle exhaust, to total atmospheric aerosols partly explains this contrasting trend of optical and mass properties of aerosols.

  7. Contrasting trends of mass and optical properties of aerosols over the Northern Hemisphere from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. C.; Dickinson, R. E.; Su, L.; Trenberth, K. E.

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect both human health and climate. PMX is the mass concentration of aerosol particles that have aerodynamic diameters less than X μm, PM10 was initially selected to measure the environmental impact of aerosols. Recently, it was realized that fine particles are more hazardous than larger ones and should be measured. Consequently, observational data for PM2.5 have been obtained but only for a much shorter period than that of PM10. Optical extinction of aerosols, the inverse of meteorological visibility, is sensitive to particles less than 1.0 μm. These fine particles only account for a small part of total mass of aerosols although they are very efficient in light extinction. Comparisons are made between PM10 and PM2.5 over the period when the latter is available and with visibility data for a longer period. PM10 has decreased by 44% in Europe from 1992 to 2009, 33% in the US from 1993 to 2010, 10% in Canada from 1994 to 2009, and 26% in China from 2000 to 2011. However, in contrast, aerosol optical extinction has increased 7% in the US, 10% in Canada, and 18% in China during the above study periods. The reduction of optical extinction over Europe of 5% is also much less than the 44% reduction in PM10. Over its short period of record PM2.5 decreased less than PM10. Hence, PM10 is neither a good measure of changes in smaller particles nor of their long-term trends, a result that has important implications for both climate impact and human health effects. The increased fraction of anthropogenic aerosol emission, such as from vehicle exhaust, to total atmospheric aerosols partly explains this contrasting trend of optical and mass properties of aerosols.

  8. Endotoxin in Size-Separated Metal Working Fluid Aerosol Particles.

    PubMed

    Dahlman-Höglund, Anna; Lindgren, Åsa; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger

    2016-08-01

    Patients with airway symptoms working in metal working industries are increasing, despite efforts to improve the environmental air surrounding the machines. Our aim was to analyse the amount of endotoxin in size-separated airborne particles of metal working fluid (MWF) aerosol, by using the personal sampler Sioutas cascade impactor, to compare filter types, and to compare the concentration of airborne endotoxin to that of the corresponding MWFs. In a pilot field study, aerosols were collected in two separate machine halls on totally 10 occasions, using glass fibre and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters in parallel at each station. Airborne endotoxin was distributed over all size fractions. While a major part was found in the largest size fraction (72%, 2.5-10 µm), up to 8% of the airborne endotoxin was detected in the smallest size fraction (<0.25 µm). Comparing the efficiency of the filter types, a significantly higher median endotoxin level was found with glass fibres filters collecting the largest particle-size fraction (1.2-fold) and with PTFE filters collecting the smallest ones (5-fold). The levels of endotoxin in the size-separated airborne particle fractions correlated to those of the MWFs supporting the aerosol-generating machines. Our study indicates that a significant part of inhalable aerosols of MWFs consists of endotoxin-containing particles below the size of intact bacteria, and thus small enough to readily reach the deepest part of the lung. Combined with other chemical irritants of the MWF, exposure to MWF aerosols containing endotoxin pose a risk to respiratory health problems. PMID:27268595

  9. The influence of meteoric smoke particles on stratospheric aerosol properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Graham; Brooke, James; Dhomse, Sandip; Plane, John; Feng, Wuhu; Neely, Ryan; Bardeen, Chuck; Bellouin, Nicolas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Colin; Abraham, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The ablation of metors in the thermosphere and mesosphere introduces a signficant source of particulate matter into the polar upper stratosphere. These meteoric smoke particles (MSP) initially form at nanometre sizes but in the stratosphere have grown to larger sizes (tens of nanometres) following coagulation. The presence of these smoke particles may represent a significant mechanism for the nucleation of polar stratospheric clouds and are also known to influence the properties of the stratospheric aerosol or Junge layer. In this presentation we present findings from experiments to investigate the influence of the MSP on the Junge layer, carried out with the UM-UKCA composition-climate model. The UM-UKCA model is a high-top (up to 80km) version of the general circulation model with well-resolved stratospheric dynamics, includes the aerosol microphysics module GLOMAP and has interactive sulphur chemistry suitable for the stratosphere and troposphere (Dhomse et al., 2014). We have recently added to UM-UKCA a source of meteoric smoke particles, based on prescribing the variation of the smoke particles from previous simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). In UM-UKCA, the MSP particles are transported within the GLOMAP aerosol framework, alongside interactive stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol. For the experiments presented here, we have activated the interaction between the MSP and the stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol. The MSP provide an important sink term for the gas phase sulphuric acid simulated in the model, with subsequent effects on the formation, growth and temporal evolution of stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol particles. By comparing simulations with and without the MSP-sulphur interactions we quantify the influence of the meteoric smoke on the properties of volcanically-quiescent Junge layer. We also investigate the extent to which the MSP may modulate the effects from SO2 injected into the stratosphere from volcanic

  10. Characterization of new particle and secondary aerosol formation during summertime in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Gong, S. L.; Shen, X. J.; Yang, S.

    2011-07-01

    Size-resolved aerosol number and mass concentrations and the mixing ratios of O3 and various trace gases were continuously measured at an urban station before and during the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (5 June to 22 September, 2008). 23 new particle formation (NPF) events were identified; these usually were associated with changes in wind direction and/or rising concentrations of gas-phase precursors or after precipitation events. Most of the NPF events started in the morning and continued to noon as particles in the nucleation mode grew into the Aitken mode. From noon to midnight, the aerosols grew into the accumulation mode through condensation and coagulation. Ozone showed a gradual rise starting around 10:00 local time, reached its peak around 15:00 and then declined as the organics increased. The dominant new particle species were organics (40-75% of PM1) and sulphate; nitrate and ammonium were more minor contributors.

  11. Size-spectra of trace elements in urban aerosol particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ondov, J.M.; Divita, F. Jr.; Suarez, A.

    1994-12-31

    Knowledge of composition and size of atmospheric aerosol particles is needed to elucidate their sources, atmospheric transformation processes, contributions to visibility reduction, and respiratory and environmental deposition. In a previous communication, we described size spectra and hygroscopic growth of arsenic, selenium, antimony, and zinc in College Park, Maryland, an urban, nonindustrial area located near Washington, D.C., wherein, concentrations of these elements are influenced largely by sulfate-containing aerosol transported from the Ohio River valley region, more than 200 km west of the area, and local coal utility plants and incinerators located 20 to 50 km from the sampling site. At College Park, mass median aerodynamic diameters (mmad) versus relative humidity (RH) data for these elements fell along different curves for samples influenced by local and distant aerosols; i.e., the curve for distant sources lay below the curve for local sources, at larger mmads for the same RH. In this paper we discuss size spectra, distribution parameters, and hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles bearing trace elements in aerosol collected in Camden, New Jersey, a heavily industrial area in which major sources, including an antimony roaster and municipal incinerator, lie in close proximity (i.e., 5 to 15 km) to the site.

  12. A size-composition resolved aerosol model for simulating the dynamics of externally mixed particles: SCRAM (v 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S.; Sartelet, K. N.; Seigneur, C.

    2015-06-01

    The Size-Composition Resolved Aerosol Model (SCRAM) for simulating the dynamics of externally mixed atmospheric particles is presented. This new model classifies aerosols by both composition and size, based on a comprehensive combination of all chemical species and their mass-fraction sections. All three main processes involved in aerosol dynamics (coagulation, condensation/evaporation and nucleation) are included. The model is first validated by comparison with a reference solution and with results of simulations using internally mixed particles. The degree of mixing of particles is investigated in a box model simulation using data representative of air pollution in Greater Paris. The relative influence on the mixing state of the different aerosol processes (condensation/evaporation, coagulation) and of the algorithm used to model condensation/evaporation (bulk equilibrium, dynamic) is studied.

  13. The Effect of Particle Size on Iron Solubility in Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, A. R.; Majestic, B. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Herckes, P.

    2012-12-01

    The long range transport of mineral dust aerosols, which contain approximately 3% iron by mass, results in an estimated 14-16 Tg of iron deposited into the oceans annually; however, only a small percentage of the deposited iron is soluble. In high-nutrient, low chlorophyll ocean regions iron solubility may limit phytoplankton primary productivity. Although the atmospheric transport processes of mineral dust aerosols have been well studied, the role of particle size has been given little attention. In this work, the effect of particle size on iron solubility in atmospheric aerosols is examined. Iron-containing minerals (illite, kaolinite, magnetite, goethite, red hematite, black hematite, and quartz) were separated into five size fractions (10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and <0.25μm) and extracted into buffer solutions simulating environments in the transport of aerosol particles for 150 minutes. Particle size was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Soluble iron content of the extracted mineral solutions was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Extracted mineral solutions were also analyzed for Fe(II) and Fe(III) content using a ferrozine/UV-VIS method. Preliminary results show that differences in solution composition are more important than differences in size. When extracted into acetate and cloudwater buffers (pH 4.25-4.3), < 0.3% of the Fe in iron oxides (hematite, magnetite, and goethite) is transferred to solution as compared to ~0.1-35% for clays (kaolinite and illite). When extracted into a marine aerosol solution (pH 1.7), the percentage of Fe of the iron oxides and clays transferred to solution increases to approximately 0.5-3% and 5-70%, respectively. However, there is a trend of increased %Fe in the minerals transferred to solution in the largest and smallest size fractions (~0.01-0.3% and ~0.5-35% for iron oxides and clays, respectively), and decreased %Fe in the minerals transferred to solution in the mid

  14. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103–104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 21% of those measured by reference instruments for polydisperse aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +130% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. PMID:23473056

  15. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particles in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Microanalysis of Aerosol Impactor Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Herein is reported activities to support the characterization of the aerosol in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) collected during the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA) missions in 1994. Through a companion proposal, another group was to measure the size distribution of aerosols in the 0.008 to 2 micrometer diameter range and to collect for us impactor samples of particles larger than about 0.02 gm. In the first year, we conducted laboratory studies related to particulate deposition patterns on our collection substrates, and have performed the analysis of many ASHOE/MAESA aerosol samples from 1994 using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). We have been building an "aerosol climatology" with these data that documents the types and relative abundances of particles observed at different latitudes and altitudes. The second year (and non-funded extension periods) saw continued analyses of impactor aerosol samples, including more ASHOE/MAESA samples, some northern hemisphere samples from the NASA Stratospheric Photochemistry Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) program for comparison, and a few aerosol samples from the NASA Stratospheric TRacers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) program. A high-resolution field emission microscope was used for the analysis and re-analysis of a number of samples to determine if this instrument was superior in performance to our conventional electron microscope. In addition, some basic laboratory studies were conducted to determine the minimum detectable and analyzable particle size for different types of aerosols. In all, 61 aerosol samples were analyzed, with a total of over 30,000 individual particle analyses. In all analyzed samples, sulfate particles comprised the major aerosol number fraction. It must be stressed that particles composed of more than one species, for example sulfate and organic carbon, were classified

  16. Combined volatility and mass spectrometric measurements of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuelsson, E.; Buchholz, A.; Hallquist, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Mentel, T.; Spindler, C.

    2009-04-01

    The volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of mixtures of biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) has been investigated in the SAPHIR facility in Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, by using a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VTDMA). The standard VTDMA setup comprises three main parts: 1) An initial DMA, where a nearly monodisperse size fraction of the aerosol particles is selected (typically 100 or 150 nm), 2) the oven unit, i.e. four ovens in parallel where each oven includes a heating and adsorption section where the evaporation and adsorption of the volatile fraction occurs and 3) a final SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) system where the residual particle number distribution is measured. For this measurement campaign the set-up also contained a Quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne QAMS). The temperature of the ovens can be varied between 298 and well above 573 K. In parallel to the final SMPS the AMS was used for chemical composition and density measurements. When the system was dedicated for AMS measurements the initial DMA was bypassed to improve the aerosol concentration. However, the produced SOA has a narrow size distribution still making it possible to follow small changes in the aerosol peak diameter. A general feature of the thermo-denuder system is that a less volatile SOA gives a larger residual particle size distribution compared to more volatile SOA. The experiments conducted were based on photochemical oxidation of selected terpene mixtures. A reference boreal mixture of terpenes, consisting of α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, ^-3-carene, and ocimene was used as base case. Secondary organic aerosol was formed from the precursor compounds by reaction with O3/H2O/OH in SAPHIR on the first day. The particles were kept in the chamber for up to two further days and were exposed to natural sunlight and OH radicals to initiate close to natural chemical ageing. The VTDMA results show that SOA

  17. Laboratory studies of collection efficiency of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets on a single-droplet basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardon-Dryer, K.; Huang, Y.-W.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental setup has been constructed to measure the collection efficiency (CE) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets. Droplets of a dilute aqueous ammonium sulfate solution with an average radius of 21.6 μm fall freely into a chamber and collide with sub-micrometer polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere particles of known sizes and concentrations. Two relative humidity (RH) conditions, 15 ± 3 % and 88 ± 3 %, hereafter termed "low" and "high", respectively, were varied with different particles sizes and concentrations. After passing through the chamber, the droplets and aerosol particles were sent to the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument to determine chemical compositions on a single-droplet basis. "Coagulated droplets" (droplets that collected aerosols) had mass spectra that contained signatures from both an aerosol particle and a droplet residual. CE values range from 2.0 × 10-1 to 1.6 for the low-RH case and from 1.5 × 10-2 to 9.0 × 10-2 for the high-RH case. CE values were, within experimental uncertainty, independent of the aerosol concentrations. CE values in this study were found to be in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. To our knowledge, this is the first collection experiment performed on a single-droplet basis with atmospherically relevant conditions such as droplet sizes, droplet charges and flow.

  18. Ozone and secondary aerosol formation — Analysis of particle observations in the 2009 SHARP campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowin, J.; Yu, X.; Laulainen, N.; Iedema, M.; Lefer, B. L.; Anderson, D.; Pernia, D.; Flynn, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Particulate matters (PM) play important roles in the formation and transformation of ozone. Although photooxidation of volatile organic compounds with respect to ozone formation in the gas phase is well understood, many unknowns still exist in heterogeneous mechanisms that process soot, secondary aerosols (both inorganic and organic), and key radical precursors such as formaldehyde and nitrous acid. Our main objective is to answer two key science questions: 1) will reduction of fine PM reduce ozone formation? 2) What sources of PM are most culpable? Are they from local chemistry or long-range transport? The field data collected in the 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) by our group at the Moody Tower consist of 1) real-time photolysis rates of ozone precursors, 2) particle size distributions, 3) organic carbon and elemental carbon, and 4) an archive of single particle samples taken with the Time Resolved Aerosol Collector (TRAC) sampler. The time resolution of the TRAC sampler is 30 minutes for routine measurements, and 15 minutes during some identified “events” (usually in the mid-afternoon) of high ozone and secondary organic or sulfate particle formation. The latter events last typically about an hour. Five ozone exceedance days occurred during the 6 weeks of deployment. Strong correlation between photochemical activities and organic carbon was observed. Initial data analysis indicates that secondary organic aerosol is a major component of the carbonaceous aerosols observed in Houston. Soot, secondary sulfate, seal salt, and mineral dust particles are determined from single particle analysis using scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microcopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Compared with observations in 2000, the mass percentage of organics is higher (60 vs. 30%), and lower for sulfate (20% vs. 32%). On-going data analysis will focus on the composition, sources, and transformation of primary and

  19. Microscopy and Spectroscopy Techniques to Guide Parameters for Modeling Mineral Dust Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veghte, D. P.; Moore, J. E.; Jensen, L.; Freedman, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol particles are the second largest emission by mass into the atmosphere and contribute to the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing. Due to the variation in size, composition, and shape, caused by physical and chemical processing, uncertainty exists as to whether mineral dust causes a net warming or cooling effect. We have used Cavity Ring-Down Aerosol Extinction Spectroscopy (CRD-AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to measure extinction cross sections and morphologies of size-selected, non-absorbing and absorbing mineral dust aerosol particles. We have found that microscopy is essential for characterizing the polydispersity of the size selection of non-spherical particles. Through the combined use of CRD-AES, microscopy, and computation (Mie theory and Discreet Dipole Approximation), we have determined the effect of shape on the optical properties of additional species including clay minerals, quartz, and hematite in the sub-micron regime. Our results have shown that calcite can be treated as polydisperse spheres while quartz and hematite need additional modeling parameters to account for their irregularity. Size selection of clay minerals cannot be performed due to their irregular shape, but microscopy techniques can be used to better quantify the particle aspect ratio. Our results demonstrate a new method that can be used to extend cavity ring-down spectroscopy for the measurement of the optical properties of non-spherical particles. This characterization will lead to better aerosol extinction parameters for modeling aerosol optical properties in climate models and satellite retrieval algorithms.

  20. In-Situ Characterization of Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Interstitial, and background Particles using Single Particle Mass Spectrometer, SPLAT II

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Earle, Michael; Easter, Richard C.; Korolev, Alexei; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter; Macdonald, A. M.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Strapp, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol indirect effect remains the most uncertain aspect of climate change modeling because proper test requires knowledge of individual particles sizes and compositions with high spatial and temporal resolution. We present the first deployment of a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) that is operated in a dual data acquisition mode to measure all the required individual particle properties with sufficient temporal resolution to definitively resolve the aerosol-cloud interaction in this exemplary case. We measured particle number concentrations, asphericity, and individual particle size, composition, and density with better than 60 seconds resolution. SPLAT II measured particle number concentrations between 70 particles cm-3and 300 particles cm-3, an average particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. Found that most particles are composed of oxygenated organics, many of which are mixed with sulfates. Biomass burn particles some with sulfates were prevalent, particularly at higher altitudes, and processed sea-salt was observed over the ocean. Analysis of cloud residuals shows that with time cloud droplets acquire sulfate by the reaction of peroxide with SO2. Based on the particle mass spectra and densities we find that the compositions of cloud condensation nuclei are similar to those of background aerosol but, contain on average ~7% more sulfate, and do not include dust and metallic particles. A comparison between the size distributions of background, activated, and interstitial particles shows that while nearly none of the activated particles is smaller than 115 nm, more than 80% of interstitial particles are smaller than 115 nm. We conclude that for this cloud the most important difference between CCN and background aerosol is particle size although having more sulfate also helps.

  1. Morphology and Optical Properties of Mixed Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Mehrnoush M.; Krieger, Ulrich; Rudich, Yinon; Marcolli, Claudia; Peter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Experiments and modeling studies have shown that deliquesced aerosols can be present not only as one-phase system containing organics, inorganic salts and water, but often as two-phase systems consisting of a predominantly organic and a predominantly inorganic aqueous phase 1,2. Recent laboratory studies conducted with model mixtures representing tropospheric aerosols1,2,3, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from smog chamber experiments4, and field measurements5 suggest that liquid- liquid phase separations (LLPS) is indeed a common phenomenon in mixed organic/ ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. During LLPS, particles may adopt different morphologies mainly core- shell and partially engulfed. A core- shell configuration will have consequences for heterogeneous chemistry and hygroscopicity and as a result will alter the optical properties of the particles since the aqueous inorganic-rich phase will be totally enclosed by a probably highly viscous organic coating with low diffusivity for reactants and water. The primary objective of this project is to establish a method for investigating the morphology of mixed inorganic and absorbing organic compounds of atmospheric relevance and study their radiative properties before, during, and after phase transitions mainly during LLPS. This will be the first study looking into the radiative effect of LLPS in detail. In this first experiment, the behavior of single droplets of carminic acid (CA)/ AS/ H2O mixture was monitored during relative humidity (RH) cycles using optical microscopy. The same mixture particle was levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and the change in its absorption properties was measured at varying RH. We also intend to determine the occurrence of LLPS in accumulation- sized particles and the change in their absorption using a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer. If LLPS alters the absorptive properties of the suggested model aerosols significantly, absorption measurements of accumulation mode

  2. Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles Emitted by a Passenger Car Engine Fueled by Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, J. M.; Gross, D. S.; Dutcher, D. D.; Drayton, M.; Kittelson, D.; McMurry, P.

    2007-12-01

    With concerns of national security, climate change, and human health, many people have called for oil independence for the United States and for the creation of alternative fuels. Ethanol has been widely praised as a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, due to the fact that it can be produced locally. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the energy balance of ethanol production versus consumption, but there have been fewer studies of the environmental and health impacts of emissions from combustion of ethanol/gasoline mixtures such as those burned in the modern vehicle fleet. To study the particulate emissions from such fuels, different ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures with 0, 20, 40, and 85% ethanol were burned in a dynamometer-mounted automobile engine. The engine exhaust was diluted and sampled with two aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (TSI 3800 ATOFMS), sampling different particle size ranges (50-500 nm and 150-3000 nm, respectively), to measure size and composition of the emitted aerosol particles. A variety of other aerosol characterization techniques were also employed to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles, the mass emission rate from the engine, and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle emissions. Here we will focus on results from the ATOFMS, which provides us with a particle size and mass spectra - for both negative and positive ions - for each particle that is sampled. Particles being emitted were found to contain primarily PAHs, elemental carbon (EC), nitrates, and sulfates. Particles were analyzed to investigate trends in particle composition as a function of fuel ethanol content, particle size, and for the types of particles emitted. A trend in particle type as a function of fuel ethanol content was evident in smaller particles, and trends in composition as a function of particle size were visible across the entire size range sampled.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of optically levitated aerosol: a technique to quantitatively map the viscosity of suspended aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, C; Hosny, N A; Tong, H; Seville, P C; Gallimore, P J; Davidson, N M; Athanasiadis, A; Botchway, S W; Ward, A D; Kalberer, M; Kuimova, M K; Pope, F D

    2016-08-21

    We describe a technique to measure the viscosity of stably levitated single micron-sized aerosol particles. Particle levitation allows the aerosol phase to be probed in the absence of potentially artefact-causing surfaces. To achieve this feat, we combined two laser based techniques: optical trapping for aerosol particle levitation, using a counter-propagating laser beam configuration, and fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of molecular rotors for the measurement of viscosity within the particle. Unlike other techniques used to measure aerosol particle viscosity, this allows for the non-destructive probing of viscosity of aerosol particles without interference from surfaces. The well-described viscosity of sucrose aerosol, under a range of relative humidity conditions, is used to validate the technique. Furthermore we investigate a pharmaceutically-relevant mixture of sodium chloride and salbutamol sulphate under humidities representative of in vivo drug inhalation. Finally, we provide a methodology for incorporating molecular rotors into already levitated particles, thereby making the FLIM/optical trapping technique applicable to real world aerosol systems, such as atmospheric aerosols and those generated by pharmaceutical inhalers. PMID:27430158

  4. Surface tensions, viscosities, and diffusion constants in mixed component single aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdek, Bryan; Marshall, Frances; Song, Young-Chul; Haddrell, Allen; Reid, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Surface tension and viscosity are important aerosol properties but are challenging to measure on individual particles owing to their small size and mass. Aerosol viscosity impacts semivolatile partitioning from the aerosol phase, molecular diffusion in the bulk of the particle, and reaction kinetics. Aerosol surface tension impacts how particles activate to serve as cloud condensation nuclei. Knowledge of these properties and how they change under different conditions hinders accurate modelling of aerosol physical state and atmospheric impacts. We present measurements made using holographic optical tweezers to directly determine the viscosity and surface tension of optically trapped droplets containing ~1-4 picolitres of material (corresponding to radii of ~5-10 micrometres). Two droplets are captured in the experimental setup, equilibrated to a relative humidity, and coalesced through manipulation of the relative trap positions. The moment of coalescence is captured using camera imaging as well as from elastically backscattered light connected to an oscilloscope. For lower viscosity droplets, the relaxation in droplet shape to a sphere follows the form of a damped oscillator and gives the surface tension and viscosity. For high viscosity droplets, the relaxation results in a slow merging of the two droplets to form a sphere and the timescale of that process permits determination of viscosity. We show that droplet viscosity and surface tension can be quantitatively determined to within <10% of the expected value for low viscosity droplets and to better than 1 order of magnitude for high viscosity droplets. Examples illustrating how properties such as surface tension can change in response to environmental conditions will be discussed. Finally, a study of the relationship between viscosity, diffusion constants, vapour pressures, and reactive uptake coefficients for a mixed component aerosol undergoing oxidation and volatilisation will be discussed.

  5. Code System to Calculate Particle Penetration Through Aerosol Transport Lines.

    1999-07-14

    Version 00 Distribution is restricted to US Government Agencies and Their Contractors Only. DEPOSITION1.03 is an interactive software program which was developed for the design and analysis of aerosol transport lines. Models are presented for calculating aerosol particle penetration through straight tubes of arbitrary orientation, inlets, and elbows. An expression to calculate effective depositional velocities of particles on tube walls is derived. The concept of maximum penetration is introduced, which is the maximum possible penetrationmore » through a sampling line connecting any two points in a three-dimensional space. A procedure to predict optimum tube diameter for an existing transport line is developed. Note that there is a discrepancy in this package which includes the DEPOSITION 1.03 executable and the DEPOSITION 2.0 report. RSICC was unable to obtain other executables or reports.« less

  6. Morphological characterization of soot aerosol particles during LACIS Experiment in November (LExNo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A.; Wennrich, C.; Stratmann, F.; Wex, H.; Henning, S.; Mentel, T. F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Schneider, J.; Walter, S.; Lieberwirth, I.

    2010-06-01

    Combined mobility and aerodynamic measurements were used to characterize the morphology of soot particles in an experimental campaign on the hygroscopic growth and activation of an artificial biomass burning aerosol. A custom-made, single-stage low-pressure impactor and two aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) operating in the free molecular regime were used to measure the vacuum aerodynamic diameter of mobility-selected artificial soot particles that were produced in a spark discharge generator and then modified by condensation of ammonium hydrogen sulfate or levoglucosan as a coating to change their hydroscopic activity. Transmission electron microscope images revealed a relationship between the electrical mobility diameter and the diameter of the enveloping sphere, thus enabling evaluation of the effective density of soot agglomerates. A fractal description of the morphology of the soot aggregates allowed for evaluation of the average mass of the hygroscopic material per particle. The average mass of the hygroscopic material per particle was also measured directly with the two AMS instruments, and the agreement between the two methods was found satisfactory. This tandem approach allows detection of small changes in the particle effective density and morphology caused by condensation of organic material.

  7. The vertical distribution of Martian aerosol particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    Using approximately 410 limb-viewing observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), we retrieve the vertical distribution of Martian dust and water ice aerosol particle sizes. We find that dust particles have an effective radius of 1.0 µm over much of the atmospheric column below 40 km throughout the Martian year. This includes the detached tropical dust layers detected in previous studies. Little to no variation with height is seen in dust particle size. Water ice clouds within the aphelion cloud belt exhibit a strong sorting of particle size with height, however, and the effective radii range from >3 µm below 20 km to near 1.0 µm at 40 km altitude. Conversely, water ice clouds in the seasonal polar hoods show a near-uniform particle size with an effective radius of approximately 1.5 µm throughout the atmospheric column.

  8. ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC ORGANIC AEROSOLS BY MASS SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    High resolution mass spectroscopy has been found to be a useful means of characterizing the organic fraction of urban aerosols. Quantitative accuracy, however, was limited, particularly for compounds of low abundance. Some ambiguities were found in the assignment of origins of io...

  9. A single-particle characterization of a mobile Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System for exposure studies

    PubMed Central

    Freney, Evelyn J; Heal, Mathew R; Donovan, Robert J; Mills, Nicholas L; Donaldson, Kenneth; Newby, David E; Fokkens, Paul HB; Cassee, Flemming R

    2006-01-01

    Background An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used to investigate the size and chemical composition of fine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in the size range 0.2–2.6 μm produced by a Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES) contained within the Mobile Ambient Particle Concentrator Exposure Laboratory (MAPCEL). The data were collected during a study of human exposure to CAPs, in Edinburgh (UK), in February-March 2004. The air flow prior to, and post, concentration in the VACES was sampled in turn into the ATOFMS, which provides simultaneous size and positive and negative mass spectral data on individual fine particles. Results The particle size distribution was unaltered by the concentrator over the size range 0.2–2.6 μm, with an average enrichment factor during this study of ~5 (after dilution of the final air stream). The mass spectra from single particles were objectively grouped into 20 clusters using the multivariate K-means algorithm and then further grouped manually, according to similarity in composition and time sequence, into 8 main clusters. The particle ensemble was dominated by pure and reacted sea salt and other coarse inorganic dusts (as a consequence of the prevailing maritime-source climatology during the study), with relatively minor contributions from carbonaceous and secondary material. Very minor variations in particle composition were noted pre- and post-particle concentration, but overall there was no evidence of any significant change in particle composition. Conclusion These results confirm, via single particle analysis, the preservation of the size distribution and chemical composition of fine ambient PM in the size range 0.2–2.6 μm after passage through the VACES concentration instrumentation. PMID:16723024

  10. Urban increments of gaseous and aerosol pollutants and their sources using mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main environmental concerns in urban areas, where anthropogenic emissions strongly affect air quality. This work presents the first spatially resolved detailed characterization of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic equivalent diameter daero ≤ 2.5 µm) in two major Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. The measurements were performed in March 2014 using a mobile platform. In both cities, the non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 was characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) using a recently developed lens which increases the transmission of super-micron particles. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) and several trace gases including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were also measured. The chemical composition of PM2.5 was found to be very similar in the two cities. Organic aerosol (OA) constituted the largest fraction, explaining on average about 52 to 60 % of the PM2.5 mass. Four sources of OA were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF): hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, from traffic emissions), biomass burning OA (BBOA, from biomass combustion), residential influenced OA (RIOA, probably mostly from cooking processes with possible contributions from waste and coal burning), and oxygenated OA (OOA, related to secondary aerosol formation). OOA was the major OA source during nighttime, explaining on average half of the OA mass, while during daytime mobile measurements the OA was affected by point sources and dominated by the primary fraction. A strong increase in the secondary organic and inorganic components was observed during periods with transport of air masses from northern Germany, while the primary local emissions accumulated during periods with temperature inversions. Mobile measurements offered the identification of different source regions within the urban areas and the assessment of the extent to which pollutants concentrations exceeded regional background

  11. Detailed mass size distributions of elements and species, and aerosol chemical mass closure during fall 1999 at Gent, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Cafmeyer, Jan; Dubtsov, Sergei; Chi, Xuguang

    2002-04-01

    A 10-stage microorifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) and a 12-stage small deposit area low pressure impactor (SDI) were operated at Gent from 6 September to 30 October 1999. Thirty-four parallel samples (of typically 24 h) were collected. The MOUDI samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, and for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) by a thermal-optical transmission technique. The SDI samples were analysed for 27 elements by PIXE. PM and OC exhibited typically a rather similar bimodal size distribution, with most of their mass in the submicrometer size range. EC was predominantly associated with fine particles, with maximum typically at around 0.2 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD). Sulphur was also mainly in the fine size range, but with maximum at 0.5 μm EAD. Other elements with mainly a fine mode were V, Ni, As, Se and Pb. The crustal elements (Al, Si, Ti, Fe, Zr) exhibited mostly a unimodal coarse mode size distribution, with maximum at about 4 μm EAD. Other elements with mainly a coarse mode were Na, Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ga and Sr. The elements K, Zn and Rb were generally bimodal. Aerosol chemical mass closure calculations indicated that organic aerosol and crustal matter were the major aerosol types in the supermicrometer size range, and that the dominant aerosol types in the submicrometer fraction were organic aerosol and sulphate. On average, 74% of the gravimetric PM was accounted for by the aerosol types considered.

  12. Tracking Water Diffusion Fronts in a Highly Viscous Aerosol Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Field measurements indicate that atmospheric secondary aerosol particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state [1]. In contrast to liquid state particles, the gas phase equilibration is kinetically limited and governed by condensed phase diffusion. In recent water diffusion experiments on highly viscous single aerosol particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) we observed a characteristic shift behavior of the Mie whispering gallery modes (WGM) indicative of the changing radial structure of the particle, thus providing us with an experimental method to track the diffusion process inside the particle. When a highly viscous, homogeneous particle is exposed to an abrupt increase in relative humidity, the rapid gas phase diffusion and strong concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the condensed phase lead to extremely steep water concentration gradients inside the particle, reminiscent of diffusion fronts. The resulting quasi step-like concentration profile motivates the introduction of a simple core-shell model describing the morphology of the non-equilibrium particle during humidification. The subsequent particle growth and reduction of the shell refractive index can be observed as red and blueshift behavior of the WGM, respectively. The shift pattern can be attributed to a core-shell radius ratio and particle radius derived from model calculations [2]. If supplemented with growth information obtained from the WGM redshift and thermodynamic equilibrium data, we can infer a comprehensive picture of the time evolution of the diffusion fronts in the framework of our core-shell model. The measured time dependent concentration profile is then compared with simulations solving the non-linear diffusion equation [3] [1] Virtanen, A., et al., Nature, 467, 824-827, 2010 [2] Kaiser, T., Schweiger, G., Computers in Physics, Vol. 7, No. 6, 682-686, Nov/Dec 1993 [3] Zobrist, B., Soonsin, V., Luo, B.P., Peter, T. et al., Phys. Chem. Chem

  13. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate. PMID:20944744

  14. Aerosol composition and properties variation at the ground and over the column under different air masses advection in South Italy.

    PubMed

    Pavese, G; Lettino, A; Calvello, M; Esposito, F; Fiore, S

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol composition and properties variation under the advection of different air masses were investigated, as case studies, by contemporary measurements over the atmospheric column and at the ground in a semi-rural site in South Italy. The absence of local strong sources in this area allowed to characterize background aerosol and to compare particle mixing effects under various atmospheric circulation conditions. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ǻngström parameters from radiometric measurements allowed the detection and identification of polluted, dust, and volcanic atmospheric conditions. AODs were the input for a suitable model to evaluate the columnar aerosol composition, according to six main atmospheric components (water-soluble, soot, sea salt accumulation, sea salt coarse, mineral dus,t and biological). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of particulate sampled with a 13-stage impactor at the ground showed not only fingerprints typical of the different air masses but also the effects of transport and aging on atmospheric particles, suggesting processes that changed their chemical and optical properties. Background columnar aerosol was characterized by 72% of water-soluble and soot, in agreement with ground-based findings that highlighted 60% of contribution from anthropogenic carbonate particles and soot. In general, a good agreement between ground-based and columnar results was observed. Under the advection of trans-boundary air masses, water-soluble and soot were always present in columnar aerosol, whereas, in variable percentages, sea salt and mineral particles characterized both dust and volcanic conditions. At the ground, sulfates characterized the amorphous matrix produced in finer stages by the evaporation of solutions of organic and inorganic aerosols. Sulfates were also one of the key players involved in heterogeneous chemical reactions, producing complex secondary aerosol, as such clay-sulfate internally mixed particle externally mixed

  15. Chemical and statistical interpretation of sized aerosol particles collected at an urban site in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsitouridou, Roxani; Papazova, Petia; Simeonova, Pavlina; Simeonov, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    The size distribution of aerosol particles (PM0.015-PM18) in relation to their soluble inorganic species and total water soluble organic compounds (WSOC) was investigated at an urban site of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. The sampling period was from February to July 2007. The determined compounds were compared with mass concentrations of the PM fractions for nano (N: 0.015 < Dp < 0.06), ultrafine (UFP: 0.015 < Dp < 0.125), fine (FP: 0.015 < Dp < 2.0) and coarse particles (CP: 2.0 < Dp < 8.0) in order to perform mass closure of the water soluble content for the respective fractions. Electrolytes were the dominant species in all fractions (24-27%), followed by WSOC (16-23%). The water soluble inorganic and organic content was found to account for 53% of the nanoparticle, 48% of the ultrafine particle, 45% of the fine particle and 44% of the coarse particle mass. Correlations between the analyzed species were performed and the effect of local and long-range transported emissions was examined by wind direction and backward air mass trajectories. Multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) of the collected data was performed in order to reveal the specific data structure. Possible sources of air pollution were identified and an attempt is made to find patterns of similarity between the different sized aerosols and the seasons of monitoring. It was proven that several major latent factors are responsible for the data structure despite the size of the aerosols - mineral (soil) dust, sea sprays, secondary emissions, combustion sources and industrial impact. The seasonal separation proved to be not very specific. PMID:24007436

  16. [Chemical Composition of the Single Particle Aerosol in Winter in Nanning Using SPAMS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-lin; Song, Hong-jun; Chen, Zhi-ming; Huang, Jiong-li; Yang, Jun-chao; Mao, Jing-ying; Li, Hong; Liang, Gui-yun; Mo, Zhao-yu

    2016-02-15

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was performed to characterize the PM2.5 in Nanning from 15 to 24 February 2015. The correlation (R2) between the PM2.5 number concentration and the mass concentration of PM2.5 obtained using SPAMS was 0.76. The particle number concentration could reflect the atmospheric pollution situation to some degree. The Art-2a classification method was used to classify the chemical composition of PM2.5. The results showed that the principal chemical constituents were elemental carbon, organic elements carbon hybrid particles, organic carbon, rich potassium particles, mineral substance, rich sodium particles, second inorganic particles, levoglucosan and other heavy metals. Among them, the composition of elemental carbon was the highest, followed by organic carbon and rich potassium particles. The particle size of 80% of PM2.5 was mainly concentrated in the range of 0.2 microm to 1.0 microm with a peak value occurring at 0. 62 microm. The particle size distribution characteristics of different chemical components were similar. The number concentration of the chemical components in PM2.5 had the same variation tread with the mass concentration of PM2.5 over time. To a certain extent, the change in chemical composition could reflect the instantaneous pollution source. PMID:27363128

  17. Submicron aerosol mass balance at urban and semirural sites in the Milan area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putaud, J. P.; van Dingenen, Rita; Raes, Frank

    2002-11-01

    During the Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono (PIPAPO) field campaign (May-June 1998), aerosol measurements were performed at an urban site and a semirural site to determine the particulate matter chemical composition in the Milan area. Aerosol samples were collected on filters for subsequent chemical analysis using virtual impactors. Possible sampling artifacts for semivolatile particulate species were addressed. Our NH4NO3 measurements were successfully compared with artifact free wet denuder-wet aerosol collector sampler data. Positive sampling artifacts for organic species were corrected using the back-to-back filter technique, allowing us to assess the lower limit for particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations. Aerosol size distributions were measured on-line with differential mobility analyzers (DMA). The variations in the submicron aerosol mass concentration estimated from chemical analyses compared well with the variations in the submicron particle volume calculated from number size distributions. At both sites, 70% of the PM10 mass was found in the submicron fraction. The mean submicron aerosol mass concentrations were 28 μg m-3 and 20 μg m-3 at the urban site and the semirural site, respectively. The correlations between NH4+ and NO3- + 2SO4= indicate that strong acids were fully neutralized at both sites. At the urban site the submicron concentrations of NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and POC were 8.1 μg m-3, 6.3 μg m-3, and 6.4 μgC m-3, respectively. At the semi-rural site, these concentrations were 4.9 μg m-3, 4.0 μg m-3, and 5.6 μgC m-3, respectively. These results show that sulfate and nitrate contribute about the same amount to submicron aerosol mass concentration, and that particulate organic matter (POM) could be the major component of the aerosol submicron mass in the Milan region, especially in semirural areas. The correlation between normalized concentrations of POM and O3 observed at the semirural site suggests that POM results at least

  18. The rate of equilibration of viscous aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David O.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    The proximity of atmospheric aerosol particles to equilibrium with their surrounding condensable vapours can substantially impact their transformations, fate and impacts and is the subject of vibrant research activity. In this study we first compare equilibration timescales estimated by three different models for diffusion through aerosol particles to assess any sensitivity to choice of model framework. Equilibration times for diffusion coefficients with varying dependencies on composition are compared for the first time. We show that even under large changes in the saturation ratio of a semi-volatile component (es) of 1-90 % predicted equilibration timescales are in agreement, including when diffusion coefficients vary with composition. For condensing water and a diffusion coefficient dependent on composition, a plasticising effect is observed, leading to a decreased estimated equilibration time with increasing final es. Above 60 % final es maximum equilibration times of around 1 s are estimated for comparatively large particles (10 µm) containing a relatively low diffusivity component (1 × 10-25 m2 s-1 in pure form). This, as well as other results here, questions whether particle-phase diffusion through water-soluble particles can limit hygroscopic growth in the ambient atmosphere. In the second part of this study, we explore sensitivities associated with the use of particle radius measurements to infer diffusion coefficient dependencies on composition using a diffusion model. Given quantified similarities between models used in this study, our results confirm considerations that must be taken into account when designing such experiments. Although quantitative agreement of equilibration timescales between models is found, further work is necessary to determine their suitability for assessing atmospheric impacts, such as their inclusion in polydisperse aerosol simulations.

  19. Effects of Organic-Inorganic Interactions on the Hygroscopicity of Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Lienhard, D.; Krieger, U. K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity is an important property affecting size as well as phase transitions and viscosity of soluble or partially soluble particles following changes in ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The effects of hygroscopic particle growth on the water contents and physical states of aerosol phases in turn may significantly affect multiphase chemistry, the direct effect of aerosols on climate, and the ability of specific particles to act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. The hygroscopic growth of organic-inorganic mixtures in stable or metastable equilibrium with the RH of the surrounding air is governed by chemical thermodynamics and can be described, in principle, by adequate thermodynamic models. Organic-inorganic interactions involving dissolved ionic species in liquid (potentially highly viscous) phases tend to deviate substantially from ideal mixing and can lead to hygroscopicity behaviour deviating from simple linear additivity assumptions at given RH. The latter assumptions are employed in the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule, which is typically found to describe hygroscopic mass growth well in the RH range of completely liquid aerosol systems. We present a comparison and discussion of thermodynamic calculations based on the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and hygroscopic growth factor data from new measurements with an electrodynamic balance (EDB) as well as data from the literature. We focus on the different hygroscopicity features below the full deliquescence RH of multicomponent organic-inorganic systems. Experiments and model calculations are performed for different multicomponent systems showing varying degrees of organic-inorganic miscibility, including liquid-liquid phase separation, hygroscopicity, and hysteresis effects between metastable and stable gas-aerosol equilibria. It is found that depending on the hygroscopicity of the organic aerosol fraction

  20. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-08-26

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or ‘interstitial’ aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation.

  1. Physical and Optical/Radiative Characteristics of Aerosol and Cloud Particles in Tropical Cirrus: Importance in Radiation Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Howard, S. D.; Foster, T. C.; Hallett, J.; Arnott, W. P.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Whether cirrus clouds heat or cool the Earth-atmosphere system depends on the relative importance of the cloud shortwave albedo effect and the cloud thermal greenhouse effect. Both are determined by the distribution of ice condensate with cloud particle size. The microphysics instrument package flown aboard the NASA DC-8 in TOGA/COARE included an ice crystal replicator, a 2D Greyscale Cloud Particle Probe and a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Aerosol Probe. In combination, the electro-optical instruments permitted particle size measurements between 0.5 micrometer and 2.6 millimeter diameter. Ice crystal replicas were used to validate signals from the electrooptical instruments. Both optical and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to analyze aerosol and ice particle replicas between 0.1 micrometer and several 100 micrometer diameter. In first approximation, the combined aerosol-cloud particle spectrum in several clouds followed a power law N alpha D(sup -2.5). Thus, large cloud particles carried most of the condensate mass, while small cloud and aerosol particles determined the surface area. The mechanism of formation of small particles is growth of (hygroscopic, possibly ocean-derived) aerosol particles along the Kohler curves. The concentration of small particles is higher and less variable in space and time, and their tropospheric residence time is longer, than those of large cloud particles because of lower sedimentation velocities. Small particles shift effective cloud particle radii to sizes much smaller than the mean diameter of the cloud particles. This causes an increase in shortwave reflectivity and IR emissivity, and a decrease in transmissivity. Occasionally, the cloud reflectivity increased with altitude (decreasing temperature) stronger than did cloud emissivity, yielding enhanced radiative cooling at higher altitudes. Thus, cirrus produced by deep convection in the tropics may be critical in controlling processes whereby energy from warm

  2. Effect of aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers on the lung in mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic humidifiers silently generate water droplets as a cool fog and produce most of the dissolved minerals in the fog in the form of an aerosolized “white dust.” However, the health effect of these airborne particles is largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers and to investigate their effect on the lung tissue of mice. Methods An ultrasonic humidifier was operated with tap water, high-silica water, ultrapure water, or other water types. In a chamber (0.765 m3, ventilation ratio 11.5 m3/hr), male ICR mice (10-week-old) were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol-containing vapor generated by the humidifier. After exposure for 7 or 14 days, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected from each mouse and examined by microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and light and electron microscopy. Results Particles generated from the humidifier operated with tap water had a mass concentration of 0.46 ± 0.03 mg/m3, number concentration of (5.0 ± 1.1) × 104/cm3, and peak size distribution of 183 nm. The particles were phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung of mice. Inhalation of particles caused dysregulation of genes related to mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, MHC molecules and endocytosis, but did not induce any signs of inflammation or tissue injury in the lung. Conclusion These results indicate that aerosol particles released from ultrasonic humidifiers operated with tap water initiated a cellular response but did not cause severe acute inflammation in pulmonary tissue. Additionally, high mineral content tap water is not recommended and de-mineralized water should be recommended in order to exclude any adverse effects. PMID:24359587

  3. Graphical techniques for interpreting the composition of individual aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hui; Rahn, Kenneth A.; Zhuang, Guoshun

    A graphical technique that uses X- Y and ternary plots is presented for interpreting elemental data for individual aerosol particles. By revealing the multiple functional relationships between the elements, it offers more insight into the groups of particles and the transitions between them than traditional techniques such as factor analysis and cluster analysis alone are able to. For a sample of dust storm aerosol from Beijing in March 2002, X-Y plots revealed areas, lines, and "dots" that represented clays, smooth transitions to asymptotes of pure single-component minerals, and pure minor minerals or special particles, respectively. Ternary plots further revealed ratios of elements and potential minerals. Careful use of cluster analysis revealed subgroups of particles that were not separated by clear borders. The dust storm had three major components, clay/quartz (Al 2O 3, SiO 2, etc.), basic calcium (CaO, CaCO 3), and salts (sulfate, phosphate, chloride). Some sulfates, including CaSO 4 and (NH 4) xH 2-xSO 4, were mixed with the quartz and clay. A five-step sequence that combines graphics, basic statistics, cluster analysis, and SEM photography seems to extract the maximum information from suites of single particles.

  4. Evolution of wavelength-dependent mass absorption cross sections of carbonaceous aerosols during the 2010 DOE CARES campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Subramanian, R.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Jobson, B. T.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of aerosol radiative forcing require process level optical property models that are built on precise and accurate field observations. Evolution of aerosol optical properties for urban influenced carbonaceous aerosol undergoing transport and mixing with rural air masses was a focal point of the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects (CARES) campaign near Sacramento, CA in summer 2010. Urban aerosol was transported from Sacramento, CA (T0) to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains to a rural site located near Cool, CA (T1). Aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients were measured at the T0 and T1 sites using integrated photoacoustic acoustic/nephelometer instruments (PASS-3 and PASS-UV) at 781, 532, 405, and 375 nm. Single particle soot photometry (SP2) instrumentation was used to monitor black carbon (BC) mass at both sites. Combining data from these sensors allows estimate of the wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficient (MAC(λ)) and partitioning of MAC(λ) into contributions from the BC core and from enhancements from coating of BC cores. MAC(λ) measured in this way is free of artifacts associated with filter-based aerosol absorption measurements and takes advantage of the single particle sensitivity of the SP2 instrument, allowing observation of MAC(λ) on 10 minute and faster time scales. Coating was observed to enhance MAC(λ) by 20 - 30 % and different wavelength dependence for MAC(λ) was observed for urban and biomass burning aerosol. Further, T0 - T1 evolution of MAC(λ) was correlated with separately measured NO/NOy ratios and CO/CO2 ratios to understand the effects of aging & transport on MAC(λ) and the implications of aerosol processing that links air quality to radiative forcing on a regional scale. Aircraft observations made from the Gulfstream-1 during CARES are also analyzed to enhance process level understanding of the optical properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosol in the urban-rural interface.

  5. Influence of flow rate on aerosol particle size distributions from pressurized and breath-actuated inhalers.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Chan, H K; Brown, K F

    1998-01-01

    Particle size distribution of delivered aerosols and the total mass of drug delivered from the inhaler are important determinants of pulmonary deposition and response to inhalation therapy. Inhalation flow rate may vary between patients and from dose to dose. The Andersen Sampler (AS) cascade impactor operated at flow rates of 30 and 55 L/min and the Marple-Miller Impactor (MMI) operated at flow rates of 30, 55, and 80 L/min were used in this study to investigate the influence of airflow rate on the particle size distributions of inhalation products. Total mass of drug delivered from the inhaler, fine particle mass, fine particle fraction, percentage of nonrespirable particles, and amount of formulation retained within the inhaler were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry for several commercial bronchodilator products purchased in the marketplace, including a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), breath-actuated pressurized inhaler (BAMDI), and three dry powder inhalers (DPIs), two containing salbutamol sulphate and the other containing terbutaline sulphate. Varying the flow rate through the cascade impactor produced no significant change in performance of the pressurized inhalers. Increasing the flow rate produced a greater mass of drug delivered and an increase in respirable particle mass and fraction from all DPIs tested. PMID:10346666

  6. Laboratory studies of collection efficiency of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets on a single droplet basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardon-Dryer, K.; Huang, Y.-W.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    An experimental setup has been constructed to measure the Collection Efficiency (CE) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets. Water droplets of a dilute aqueous ammonium sulfate solution with a radius of ~20 μm fall freely into a chamber and collide with sub-micrometer Polystyrene Latex Sphere (PSL) particles of variable size and concentrations. Two RH conditions, ~15 and ~88%, hereafter termed "Low" and "High", respectively, were varied with different particles size and concentrations. After passing through the chamber, the droplets and aerosol particles were sent to the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument to determine chemical compositions on a single particle basis. Coagulated droplets had mass spectra that contain signatures from both an aerosol particle and a droplet residual. CE values range from 5.7 × 10-3 to 4.6 × 10-2 for the Low RH and from 6.4 × 10-3 to 2.2 × 10-2 for the High RH cases. CE values were, within experimental uncertainty, independent of the aerosol concentrations. CE values in this work were found to be in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. To our knowledge, this is the first coagulation experiment performed on a single droplet basis.

  7. Observation of Asian Mineral Dust Particles in Japan by a Single-Particle Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, J.; Takahashi, K.; Matsumi, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Shimizu, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Asian mineral dust (Kosa) particles, emitted from the desert area of inland China, are characteristic of East Asian aerosols. The Kosa particles are important as regional carriers of various materials, especially in spring when the stormy dusts are transported to Japan and Pacific Ocean. In this study, the chemical mixing state of each atmospheric aerosol was measured individually by a laser-based time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) to discuss chemical changes of Kosa particles during the transport. Observation was conducted at Tsukuba (36.05°N, 140.12°E) in April and May 2004. The LIDAR measurement was also carried out to determine the Kosa events. To classify the source of the air mass, the NOAA-HYSPLIT backward trajectory was applied. For the TOFMS instrument, particles with μm and sub-μm diameters were detected. The polarity of ion detection was altered every minute. During 30 days, the numbers of logged mass spectra (MS) were 5993 and 4382 for positive and negative ions, respectively. When the MS of ambient aerosols were compared with that of the standard Kosa sample, sulfate- and nitrate-mixed Kosa particles were found. To explore the mixing state of particles further, classification of the particles by the ART-2a algorithm was adopted. NO2-, NO3-, HSO4-, SiO2-, SiO3-, Cl- and NaCl2- were focused. Finally, particles were classified to 4 categories as A: sulfate and sulfate-rich mineral; B: sulfate-poor mineral; C: sea salt; D: unidentified. The relative fractions of A were 30 % and 1 % for a Kosa event and a maritime air mass, respectively. Note that the air mass for Kosa event case passed over the coast region of China, where SOx emission was intensive. It was reasonable that sulfate was internally mixed with Kosa particles and transported to Japan. Consequently, it was confirmed experimentally that Kosa particles are important as carriers of pollutants in the rim region of Pacific Ocean. Comparison with the observation in 2005 is also shown.

  8. Origin of nitrocatechols and alkylated-nitrocatechols in atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Nicolas; Sylvestre, Alexandre; Ravier, Sylvain; Detournay, Anais; Bruns, Emily; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Prevot, Andre

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning constitutes one of the major sources of aerosol particles in most of the environments during winter. If a lot of information is available in the literature on the primary fraction of biomass burning aerosol particles, almost nothing is known regarding the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) from the chemical mixture emitted by this source. Recently methylated nitrocatechol have been identified in atmospheric particles collected in winter. These compounds are strongly associated with biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan and are suspected to be of secondary origin since they can be formed through the oxidation of cresol significantly emitted by biomass burning. However, nitrocatechols are particularly difficult to analyze using classical techniques like HPLC-MS or GC-MS. In the present study, we adopt a new analytical approach. Direct analysis in real time (DART), introduced by Cody et al. (2005), allows direct analysis of gases, liquids, solids and materials on surfaces. Thus, for particles collected onto filters, the sample preparation step is simplified as much as possible, avoiding losses and reducing to the minimum the analytical procedure time. Two analytic modes can be used. In positive mode, [MH]+ ions are formed by proton transfer reaction ; whereas in negative ionization mode, [MH]-, M- and [MO2]- ions are formed. DART source enables soft ionization and produces simple mass spectra suitable for analysis of complex matrices, like organic aerosol, in only a few seconds. For this study, the DART source was coupled to a Q-ToF mass spectrometer (Synapt G2 HDMS, Waters), with a mass resolution up to 40 000. The analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples, collected in Marseille during winter 2011 (APICE project), with the DART/Q-ToF approach highlighted the abundance of nitrocatechols and alkylated nitrocatechols. Their temporal trends were also very similar to those of levoglucosan or dihydroabietic acid well known tracers of biomass

  9. Seasonal differences of urban organic aerosol composition - an ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, A. G.; Calvo, A. I.; Dietzel, M.; Kalberer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The understanding of the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols, their properties and reactivity are important for assessing aerosol effects upon both global climate change and human health. The composition of organic aerosols is poorly understood mainly due to their highly complex chemical composition with several thousand compounds. In the present study the water-soluble organic fraction of ambient particles collected at an urban site in Cambridge, UK, during different seasons were analysed with ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. For several thousand peaks in the mass specta (between 3000-6000) an elemental composition could be assigned and summer samples generally contained more components than winter samples. Up to 80% of the peaks in the mass spectra contain nitrogen and/or sulphur functional groups and only about 20% of the compounds contain only C, H and O atoms. In summer the fraction of compounds with oxidized nitrogen and sulphur groups increases compared to winter indicating a photo-chemical formation route of these multifunctional compounds. In addition to oxidized nitrogen compounds a large number of highly unsaturated reduced nitrogen-containing compounds were detected, corresponding likely to cyclic amines. A significant number of oxidized PAHs have been detected in summer samples, which were not present in winter, indicating again photo-chemical aging processes. Both, amines and long-chain aliphatic acids (also frequently observed in these urban samples) are likely signatures of biomass burning and primary biological sources. Potential biomass burning markers are discussed. Particle-phase oligomerisation reactions have only been observed to a very limited degree. Compounds larger than m/z 350 almost exclusively contained N and/or S functional groups indicating that the high molecular weight compounds in these organic aerosol extracts might be mainly due to particle-phase heterogeneous reactions of organic compounds with inorganic

  10. Modeling Rayleigh Scattering of Aerosol Particles.

    PubMed

    Harczuk, Ignat; Vahtras, Olav; Ågren, Hans

    2016-05-12

    Rayleigh scattering of naturally polarized light was studied for systems with atmospheric relevance representing growing water clusters with adsorbed cis-pinonic acid. The scattering intensity was computed from the static and dynamical polarizabilities of the clusters obtained by a recently derived methodology for classical polarizabilities, in which Applequist equations for interacting polarizable dipoles are used together with point-dipoles and polarizabilities obtained by quantum chemistry and decomposed into the atomic domain by the so-called LoProp transformation generalized for frequency dependence. The Applequist interaction was found to yield scattering intensities 20% larger for a cluster consisting of 1000 water molecules, as compared to the method where all of the polarizabilities of molecules are added without interactions. It was confirmed that scattering intensity depends quadratically on the number of water molecules in the cluster, and that it also increases quadratically with increase in the mass constituent of the foreign substance. The adsorption of the cis-pinonic acid increases the contribution to the scattering intensity stemming from the anisotropic polarizability, as compared to the isotropic contribution. The ramifications of the method in predicting Rayleigh scattering and the earth's albedo with respect to man-made and natural gas emission are briefly discussed. PMID:27097131

  11. Derivation of Aerosol Columnar Mass from MODIS Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify performance, aerosol transport models (ATM) compare aerosol columnar mass (ACM) with those derived from satellite measurements. The comparison is inherently indirect since satellites derive optical depths and they use a proportionality constant to derive the ACM. Analogously, ATMs output a four dimensional ACM distribution and the optical depth is linearly derived. In both cases, the proportionality constant requires a direct intervention of the user by prescribing the aerosol composition and size distribution. This study introduces a method that minimizes the direct user intervention by making use of the new aerosol products of MODIS. A parameterization is introduced for the derivation of columnar aerosol mass (AMC) and CCN concentration (CCNC) and comparisons between sunphotometer, MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and in-measurements are shown. The method still relies on the scaling between AMC and optical depth but the proportionality constant is dependent on the MODIS derived r$_{eff}$,\\eta (contribution of the accumulation mode radiance to the total radiance), ambient RH and an assumed constant aerosol composition. The CCNC is derived fkom a recent parameterization of CCNC as a function of the retrieved aerosol volume. By comparing with in-situ data (ACE-2 and TARFOX campaigns), it is shown that retrievals in dry ambient conditions (dust) are improved when using a proportionality constant dependent on r$ {eff}$ and \\eta derived in the same pixel. In high humidity environments, the improvement inthe new method is inconclusive because of the difficulty in accounting for the uneven vertical distribution of relative humidity. Additionally, two detailed comparisons of AMC and CCNC retrieved by the MAS algorithm and the new method are shown. The new method and MAS retrievals of AMC are within the same order of magnitude with respect to the in-situ measurements of aerosol mass. However, the proposed method is closer to the in-situ measurements than

  12. Acidic species and chloride depletion in coarse aerosol particles in the US east coast.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Gao, Yuan

    2008-12-15

    To investigate the interactions of water-soluble acidic species associated with coarse mode aerosol particles (1.8-10 microm) and chlorine depletion, ten sets of size-segregated aerosol samples were collected by a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Newark, New Jersey on the U.S. east coast. The samples were grouped into two categories according to the air-mass back trajectories and mass ratios of sodium to magnesium and calcium: Group I was primarily impacted by marine air mass and Group II was dominated by the continental air mass. In Group I, the concentrations of coarse mode nitrate and chloride depletion showed a strong correlation (R2=0.88). Without considering other cations, nitrate was found to account for all of the chloride depletion in coarse particles for most samples. The association of coarse mode nitrate with sea-salt particles is favored when the mass ratio of sodium to calcium is approximately equal to or greater than unity. Excess sulfate accounts for a maximum of 33% of chloride depletion in the coarse particles. Regarding chloride depletion in the different particle sizes, excess nitrate and sulfate account for 89% of the chloride depletion in the particle size range of 1.8-3.2 microm in the sample from July 13-14; all of the determined dicarboxylic acids and mono-carboxylic acids cannot compensate for the rest of the chloride depletion. In Group II, high percentages of chloride depletion were not observed. With nitrate being dominant in chlorine depletion observed at this location, N-containing species from pollution emissions may have profound impact on atmospheric composition through altering chlorine chemistry in this region. PMID:18973925

  13. Organic aerosol mass spectral signatures from wood-burning emissions: Influence of burning conditions and wood type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, S.; Alfarra, M. R.; Schreiber, D.; Mohr, M.; PréVôT, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2008-05-01

    Wood-burning for domestic heating purposes is becoming more important owing to the increasing use of wood as a renewable fuel. Particle emissions from residential wood combustion contribute substantially to particulate matter during winter. An Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer was used to study the variability of the mass spectra of organic aerosol particles emitted from the burning of different wood types as a function of burning conditions and burning technologies. Previously found wood-burning mass fragment markers in ambient air and for levoglucosan such as m/z 60, 73, and 29 were confirmed as a feature of wood-burning aerosol. They were enhanced during the flaming phase and reduced in the smoldering phase when burning was conducted in a small wood stove. The mass spectra during the smoldering phase were dominated by oxygenated species and exhibited a strong resemblance to the mass spectrum of fulvic acid which is used as a model compound for highly oxidized aerosol. A strong resemblance between the mass spectra of fulvic acid and organic particles emitted during wood-burning in an automatic furnace was found. In general, we found larger differences in the mass spectra between flaming and smoldering phases of one wood type than between different wood types within the same phase. Furthermore it was observed that during one experiment where white fir bark was burned the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the total organic matter was very high (˜30%) compared to other wood-burning experiments (0.4-2.2%).

  14. Direct gravimetric determination of aerosol mass concentration in central antarctica.

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In Antarctica, experimental difficulties due to extreme conditions have meant that aerosol mass has rarely been measured directly by gravimetry, and only in coastal areas where concentrations were in the range of 1-7 μg m(-3). The present work reports on a careful differential weighing methodology carried out for the first time on the plateau of central Antarctica (Dome C, East Antarctica). To solve problems of accurate aerosol mass measurements, a climatic room was used for conditioning and weighing filters. Measurements were carried out in long stages of several hours of readings with automatic recording of temperature/humidity and mass. This experimental scheme allowed us to sample from all the measurements (up to 2000) carried out before and after exposure, those which were recorded under the most stable humidity conditions and, even more importantly, as close to each other as possible. The automatic reading of the mass allowed us in any case to obtain hundreds of measurements from which to calculate average values with uncertainties sufficiently low to meet the requirements of the differential weighing procedure (±0.2 mg in filter weighing, between ±7% and ±16% both in aerosol mass and concentration measurements). The results show that the average summer aerosol mass concentration (aerodynamic size ≤10 μm) in central Antarctica is about 0.1 μg m(-3), i.e., about 1/10 of that of coastal Antarctic areas. The concentration increases by about 4-5 times at a site very close to the station. PMID:21141836

  15. Linking variations in sea spray aerosol particle hygroscopicity to composition during two microcosm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Sara D.; Cornwell, Gavin C.; Helgestad, Taylor M.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Lee, Christopher; Novak, Gordon A.; Sultana, Camille M.; Wang, Xiaofei; Bertram, Timothy H.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2016-07-01

    The extent to which water uptake influences the light scattering ability of marine sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles depends critically on SSA chemical composition. The organic fraction of SSA can increase during phytoplankton blooms, decreasing the salt content and therefore the hygroscopicity of the particles. In this study, subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors at 85 % relative humidity (GF(85 %)) of predominately submicron SSA particles were quantified during two induced phytoplankton blooms in marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs). One MART was illuminated with fluorescent lights and the other was illuminated with sunlight, referred to as the "indoor" and "outdoor" MARTs, respectively. Optically weighted GF(85 %) values for SSA particles were derived from measurements of light scattering and particle size distributions. The mean optically weighted SSA diameters were 530 and 570 nm for the indoor and outdoor MARTs, respectively. The GF(85 %) measurements were made concurrently with online particle composition measurements, including bulk composition (using an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer) and single particle (using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer) measurement, and a variety of water-composition measurements. During both microcosm experiments, the observed optically weighted GF(85 %) values were depressed substantially relative to pure inorganic sea salt by 5 to 15 %. There was also a time lag between GF(85 %) depression and the peak chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations by either 1 (indoor MART) or 3-to-6 (outdoor MART) days. The fraction of organic matter in the SSA particles generally increased after the Chl a peaked, also with a time lag, and ranged from about 0.25 to 0.5 by volume. The observed depression in the GF(85 %) values (relative to pure sea salt) is consistent with the large observed volume fractions of non-refractory organic matter (NR-OM) comprising the SSA. The GF(85 %) values exhibited a reasonable negative

  16. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in Northwest China: insights from High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, M.; Ge, X.; Ren, J.; Qin, D.

    2014-06-01

    An aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP) to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 12 July-7 August 2012. The average PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC) measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m-3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105μg m-3), with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. The organics was consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC) of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high-resolution mass spectra of organic aerosols (OA) identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA) emission sources (traffic and food cooking) and two secondary OA (SOA) types - a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns both with peak at ~07:00-11:00 (BJT: UTC +8) corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking OA (COA) peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ∼07:00-15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak at ~08:00-13:00. The later morning and early afternoon peak in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by mixing down of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during night time. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA also showed similarity with that of

  17. Tying Biological Activity to Changes in Sea Spray Aerosol Chemical Composition via Single Particle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Collins, D. B.; Axson, J. L.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In remote marine environments, sea spray aerosols (SSA) often represent the greatest aerosol burden, thus having significant impacts on direct radiative interactions and cloud processes. Previous studies have shown that SSA is a complex mixture of inorganic salts and an array of dissolved and particulate organic components. Enrichment of SSA organic content is often correlated to seawater chlorophyll concentrations, a measure of oceanic biological activity. As the physical and chemical properties of aerosols control their radiative effects, recent studies conducted by the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment have endeavored to further elucidate the ties between marine biological activity and primary SSA chemical composition using highly time resolved single particle analyses. A series of experiments performed in the recently developed Marine Aerosol Reference Tank evaluated the effect of changing marine microbial populations on SSA chemical composition, which was monitored via an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a variety of offline spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Each experiment was initiated using unfiltered and untreated seawater, thus maintaining a high level of biogeochemical complexity. This study is the first of its kind to capture daily changes in the primary SSA mixing state over the growth and death of a natural phytoplankton bloom. Increases in organic aerosol types (0.4-3 μm), internally and externally mixed with sea salt, could not be correlated to chlorophyll concentrations. Maximum production of these populations occurred two to four days after the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence peaked in intensity. This work is in contrast to the current paradigm of correlating SSA organic content to seawater chlorophyll concentration.

  18. Relating Aerosol Mass and Optical Depth in the Summertime Continental Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Wagner, N.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Attwood, A. R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brown, S. S.; McComiskey, A. C.; Gordon, T. D.; Welti, A.; Carlton, A. G.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD), the column-integrated ambient aerosol light extinction, is determined from satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements. AOD is the parameter most often used to validate earth system model simulations of aerosol mass. Relating aerosol mass to AOD, however, is problematic due to issues including aerosol water uptake as a function of relative humidity (RH) and the complicated relationship between aerosol physicochemical properties and light extinction. Measurements of aerosol microphysical, chemical, and optical properties help to constrain the relationship between aerosol mass and optical depth because aerosol extinction at ambient RH is a function of the abundance, composition and size distribution of the aerosol. We use vertical profiles of humidity and dry aerosol extinction observed in the southeastern United States (U.S.) to examine the relationship between submicron aerosol mass concentration and extinction at ambient RH. We show that the κ-Köhler parameterization directly, and without additional Mie calculations, describes the change in extinction with varying RH as a function of composition for both aged aerosols typical of the polluted summertime continental boundary layer and the biomass burning aerosols we encountered. We calculate how AOD and the direct radiative effect in the eastern U.S. have likely changed due to trends in aerosol composition in recent decades. We also examine the sensitivity of AOD to the RH profile and to aerosol composition, size distribution and abundance.

  19. Chemical imaging of ambient aerosol particles: Observational constraints on mixing state parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alpert, Peter; Knopf, Daniel A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Moffet, Ryan C.

    2015-09-01

    A new parameterization for quantifying the mixing state of aerosol populations has been applied for the first time to samples of ambient particles analyzed using spectro-microscopy techniques. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (STXM/NEXAFS) and computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX) were used to probe the composition of the organic and inorganic fraction of individual particles collected on 27 and 28 June during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects study in the Central Valley, California. The first field site, T0, was located in downtown Sacramento, while T1 was located near the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mass estimates of the aerosol particle components were used to calculate mixing state metrics, such as the particle-specific diversity, bulk population diversity, and mixing state index, for each sample. The STXM data showed evidence of changes in the mixing state associated with a buildup of organic matter confirmed by collocated measurements, and the largest impact on the mixing state was due to an increase in soot dominant particles during this buildup. The mixing state from STXM was similar between T0 and T1, indicating that the increased organic fraction at T1 had a small effect on the mixing state of the population. The CCSEM/EDX analysis showed the presence of two types of particle populations: the first was dominated by aged sea-salt particles and had a higher mixing state index (indicating a more homogeneous population); the second was dominated by carbonaceous particles and had a lower mixing state index.

  20. Chemical Imaging of Ambient Aerosol Particles: Observational Constraints on Mixing State Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alpert, Peter A.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Moffet, Ryan

    2015-09-28

    A new parameterization for quantifying the mixing state of aerosol populations has been applied for the first time to samples of ambient particles analyzed using spectro-microscopy techniques. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (STXM/NEXAFS) and computer controlled scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX) were used to probe the composition of the organic and inorganic fraction of individual particles collected on June 27th and 28th during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects (CARES) study in the Central Valley, California. The first field site, T0, was located in downtown Sacramento, while T1 was located near the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mass estimates of the aerosol particle components were used to calculate mixing state metrics, such as the particle-specific diversity, bulk population diversity, and mixing state index, for each sample. Both microscopy imaging techniques showed more changes over these two days in the mixing state at the T0 site than at the T1 site. The STXM data showed evidence of changes in the mixing state associated with a build-up of organic matter confirmed by collocated measurements and the largest impact on the mixing state was due to an increase in soot dominant particles during this build-up. The CCSEM/EDX analysis showed the presence of two types of particle populations; the first was dominated by aged sea salt particles and had a higher mixing state index (indicating a more homogeneous population), the second was dominated by carbonaceous particles and had a lower mixing state index.

  1. Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) During AMAZE-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. The presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 μm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as 'viable aerosols' or 'fluorescent bioparticles' (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. First data analyses show a pronounced peak of FBAP at diameters around 2-3 μm. In this size range the biogenic particle fraction was

  2. Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffet, Ryan Christopher

    Knowledge of aerosol physical, chemical, optical properties is essential for judging the effect that particulates have on human health, climate and visibility. The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) is capable of measuring, in real-time, the size and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols. This was exemplified by the recent deployments of the ATOFMS to Mexico City and Riverside. The ATOFMS provided rapid information about the major particle types present in the atmosphere. Industrial sources of particles, such as fine mode particles containing lead, zinc and chloride were detected in Mexico City. The rapid time response of the ATOFMS was also exploited to characterize a coarse particle concentrator used in human health effects studies. The ATOFMS showed the ability to detect changes in particle composition with a time resolution of 15 min during short 2 hour human exposure studies. As a major component of this work, an optical measurement has been added to the ATOFMS. The scattered light intensity was acquired for each sized and chemically analyzed particle. This scattering information together with the particle aerodynamic diameter, enabled the refractive index and density of the aerosol to be retrieved. This method was validated in the laboratory using different test particles such as oils, aqueous salt solutions and black carbon particles. It was found that the nozzle-type inlet does not evaporate aqueous salt particles as has been observed for aerodynamic lens inlets. These new optical and microphysical measurements were integrated into the ATOFMS for field deployment in Riverside and Mexico City. For both cities, the different mixing states were found to have unique refractive indexes and densities. A fraction of the strongly absorbing elemental carbon particles were observed to have a spherical morphology due to heavy mixing with secondary species. In addition to the quantitative refractive index and effective density measurements

  3. Characteristics of the water-soluble components of aerosol particles in Hefei, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xue-liang; Shi, Chun-e; Wu, Bi-wen; Yang, Yuan-jian; Jin, Qi; Wang, Hong-lei; Zhu, Song; Yu, Caixia

    2016-04-01

    Size-classified daily aerosol mass concentrations and concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were measured in Hefei, China, in four representative months between September 2012 and August 2013. An annual average mass concentration of 169.09 μg/m(3) for total suspended particulate (TSP) was measured using an Andersen Mark-II cascade impactor. The seasonal average mass concentration was highest in winter (234.73 μg/m(3)) and lowest in summer (91.71 μg/m(3)). Water-soluble ions accounted for 59.49%, 32.90%, 48.62% and 37.08% of the aerosol mass concentration in winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively, which indicated that ionic species were the primary constituents of the atmospheric aerosols. The four most abundant ions were NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and NH4(+). With the exception of Ca(2+), the mass concentrations of water-soluble ions were in an intermediate range compared with the levels for other Chinese cities. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the dominant fine-particle species, which were bimodally distributed in spring, summer and fall; however, the size distribution became unimodal in winter, with a peak at 1.1-2.1 μm. The Ca(2+) peak occurred at approximately 4.7-5.8 μm in all seasons. The cation to anion ratio was close to 1.4, which suggested that the aerosol particles were alkalescent in Hefei. The average NO3(-)/SO4(2-) mass ratio was 1.10 in Hefei, which indicated that mobile source emissions were predominant. Significant positive correlation coefficients between the concentrations of NH4(+) and SO4(2-), NH4(+) and NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were also indicated, suggesting that aerosol particles may be present as (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, and NH4NO3. PMID:27090692

  4. Estimate of municipal refuse incinerator contribution to Philadelphia aerosol using single particle analysis—II. Ambient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamane, Y.

    In a study to differentiate between municipal refuse incinerator particles and other particles in urban air, samples were collected on Teflon and nuclepore filters in dichotomous samplers and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The samples included ambient aerosol from two sites in the Philadelphia area, representing different meteorological conditions. The same samples were previously analyzed by bulk techniques including X-ray fluorescence and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Particles emitted from incinerators rich in Zn, Cl and K were clearly identified in ambient samples, both in the coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine aerosol fraction (<2.5 μm). The contribution of incinerators emission was from zero up to 10% of the coarse aerosol mass. Similar particles that contained also Zn and Cl were observed, but they did not originate in refuse incineration. Minerals and biologicals were the most dominant components of the coarse aerosol fraction; sulfates dominate the fine fraction. One of the case studies provided evidence for the missing chlorine in the fine fraction. Apparently fine chlorides emitted from incinerators reacted with ambient sulfates to form mixed sulfates of Zn and K. Good agreement was obtained between the measured coarse aerosol mass concentration and the one estimated by electron microscopy.

  5. Heterogeneous oxidation of saturated organic aerosols by hydroxyl radicals: uptake kinetics, condensed-phase products, and particle size change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Vlasenko, A.; Slowik, J. G.; Broekhuizen, K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2007-08-01

    The kinetics and reaction mechanism for the heterogeneous oxidation of saturated organic aerosols by gas-phase OH radicals were investigated under NOx-free conditions. The reaction of 150 nm diameter Bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles with OH was studied as a proxy for chemical aging of atmospheric aerosols containing saturated organic matter. An aerosol reactor flow tube combined with an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to study this system. Hydroxyl radicals were produced by 254 nm photolysis of O3 in the presence of water vapour. The kinetics of the heterogeneous oxidation of the BES particles was studied by monitoring the loss of a mass fragment of BES with the ToF-AMS as a function of OH exposure. We measured an initial OH uptake coefficient of γ0=1.3 (±0.4), confirming that this reaction is highly efficient. The density of BES particles increased by up to 20% of the original BES particle density at the highest OH exposure studied, consistent with the particle becoming more oxidized. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis showed that the major particle-phase reaction products are multifunctional carbonyls and alcohols with higher molecular weights than the starting material. Volatilization of oxidation products accounted for a maximum of 17% decrease of the particle volume at the highest OH exposure studied. Tropospheric organic aerosols will become more oxidized from heterogeneous photochemical oxidation, which may affect not only their physical and chemical properties, but also their hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation activity.

  6. Development of Soft Ionization for Particulate Organic Detection with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Trimborn, A; Williams, L R; Jayne, J T; Worsnop, D R

    2008-06-19

    During this DOE SBIR Phase II project, we have successfully developed several soft ionization techniques, i.e., ionization schemes which involve less fragmentation of the ions, for use with the Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS). Vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization was demonstrated in the laboratory and deployed in field campaigns. Vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization allows better identification of organic species in aerosol particles as shown in laboratory experiments on single component particles, and in field measurements on complex multi-component particles. Dissociative electron attachment with lower energy electrons (less than 30 eV) was demonstrated in the measurement of particulate organics in chamber experiments in Switzerland, and is now a routine approach with AMS systems configured for bipolar, negative ion detection. This technique is particularly powerful for detection of acidic and other highly oxygenated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) chemical functionality. Low energy electron ionization (10 to 12 eV) is also a softer ionization approach routinely available to AMS users. Finally, Lithium ion attachment has been shown to be sensitive to more alkyl-like chemical functionality in SOA. Results from Mexico City are particularly exciting in observing changes in SOA molecular composition under different photochemical/meteorological conditions. More recent results detecting biomass burns at the Montana fire lab have demonstrated quantitative and selective detection of levoglucosan. These soft ionization techniques provide the ToF-AMS with better capability for identifying organic species in ambient atmospheric aerosol particles. This, in turn, will allow more detailed study of the sources, transformations and fate of organic-containing aerosol.

  7. Radial inhomogeneities in particle composition of single, levitated aerosol particles observed by Mie resonance spectroscopy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, U. K.; Steimer, S.; Lienhard, D.; Bastelberger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have indicated that organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere may exist in an amorphous semi-solid or even solid (i.e. glassy) state, e.g. [1]. The influence of highly viscous and glassy states on the timescale of aerosol particle equilibration with respect to water vapor have been investigated for some model systems of atmospheric aerosol, e.g. [2,3]. In particular, it has been shown that the kinetics of the water absorption/desorption process is controlled entirely by liquid-phase diffusion of water molecules for a highly viscous aerosol particle. A liquid phase diffusion model based on numerically solving the non-linear diffusion equation predicts strong internal gradients in water concentration when condensed phase diffusion impedes the water uptake from the gas phase [2]. Here we observe and quantify the internal concentration gradients in single, levitated, micron size aerosol particles of aqueous MBTCA (3-methyl-1,2,3-Butanetricarboxylic acid) and shikimic acid using elastic Mie resonance spectroscopy. A single, aqueous particle is levitated in an electro-dynamic balance (for details see [2]), dried for several days at room temperature, cooled to the target temperature and exposed to a rapid change in relative humidity. In addition to measuring the elastically backscattered light of a 'white light ' LED source and recording the full spectrum with a spectrograph as in [2], we use a tunable diode laser (TDL) to scan high resolution TE- and TM spectra. This combination allows observing various Mie resonance mode orders simultaneously. Since we perform the experiment at low temperatures and low humidities the changes in the Mie-spectra due to water uptake are sufficiently slow to resolve the kinetics. Experimental Mie resonance spectra are inverted to concentration profiles of water within the particle by applying the numerical diffusion model [2] in conjunction with Mie calculations of multilayered spheres [4]. Potential implications for

  8. Solid versus Liquid Particle Sampling Efficiency of Three Personal Aerosol Samplers when Facing the Wind

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Anthony, T. Renee; Van Dyke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the facing-the-wind sampling efficiency of three personal aerosol samplers as a function of particle phase (solid versus liquid). Samplers examined were the IOM, Button, and a prototype personal high-flow inhalable sampler head (PHISH). The prototype PHISH was designed to interface with the 37-mm closed-face cassette and provide an inhalable sample at 10 l min−1 of flow. Increased flow rate increases the amount of mass collected during a typical work shift and helps to ensure that limits of detection are met, particularly for well-controlled but highly toxic species. Two PHISH prototypes were tested: one with a screened inlet and one with a single-pore open-face inlet. Personal aerosol samplers were tested on a bluff-body disc that was rotated along the facing-the-wind axis to reduce spatiotemporal variability associated with sampling supermicron aerosol in low-velocity wind tunnels. When compared to published data for facing-wind aspiration efficiency for a mouth-breathing mannequin, the IOM oversampled relative to mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency for all sizes and particle types (solid and liquid). The sampling efficiency of the Button sampler was closer to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency than the IOM for solid particles, but the screened inlet removed most liquid particles, resulting in a large underestimation compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. The open-face PHISH results showed overestimation for solid particles and underestimation for liquid particles when compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. Substantial (and statistically significant) differences in sampling efficiency were observed between liquid and solid particles, particularly for the Button and screened-PHISH, with a majority of aerosol mass depositing on the screened inlets of these samplers. Our results suggest that large droplets have low penetration efficiencies

  9. Isotope source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol as a function of particle size and thermal refractiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalaite, Agne; Holzinger, Rupert; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Röckmann, Thomas; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The stable carbon isotopes can be used to get information about sources and processing of carbonaceous aerosol. We will present results from source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol as a function of particle size thermal refractiveness. Separate source apportionment for particles smaller than 200 nm and for different carbon volatility classes are rarely reported and give new insights into aerosol sources in the urban environment. Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for the organic carbon (OC) fraction and total carbon (TC) of MOUDI impactor samples that were collected on a coastal site (Lithuania) during the winter 2012 and in the city of Vilnius (Lithuania) during the winter of 2009. The 11 impactor stages spanned a size range from 0.056 to 18 μm, but only the 6 stages in the submicron range were analysed. The δ13C values of bulk total carbon (δ13CTC) were determined with an elemental analyser (Flash EA 1112) coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (EA - IRMS). Meanwhile δ13COC was measured using thermal-desorption isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) system. This allows a rough separation of the more volatile OC fraction (desorbed in the oven of IRMS up to 250 0C) from the more refractory fraction (desorbed up to 400 0C). In this study we investigated the composition of organic aerosol desorbed from filter samples at different temperatures using the thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS) technique. During winter-time in Lithuania we expect photochemistry and biogenic emissions to be of minor importance. The main sources of aerosol carbon should be fossil fuel and biomass combustion. In both sites, the coastal and the urban site, δ13C measurements give a clear indication that the source contributions differ for small and large particles. Small particles < 200 nm are depleted in 13C with respect to larger particles by 1 - 2 ‰Ṫhis shows that OC in small particle

  10. Aerosol effective density measurement using scanning mobility particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance with the estimation of involved uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Bighnaraj; Aggarwal, Shankar G.; Sinha, Deepak; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have used a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to estimate the effective density of aerosol particles. This approach is tested for aerosolized particles generated from the solution of standard materials of known density, i.e. ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN) and sodium chloride (SC), and also applied for ambient measurement in New Delhi. We also discuss uncertainty involved in the measurement. In this method, dried particles are introduced in to a differential mobility analyser (DMA), where size segregation is done based on particle electrical mobility. Downstream of the DMA, the aerosol stream is subdivided into two parts. One is sent to a condensation particle counter (CPC) to measure particle number concentration, whereas the other one is sent to the QCM to measure the particle mass concentration simultaneously. Based on particle volume derived from size distribution data of the SMPS and mass concentration data obtained from the QCM, the mean effective density (ρeff) with uncertainty of inorganic salt particles (for particle count mean diameter (CMD) over a size range 10-478 nm), i.e. AS, SC and AN, is estimated to be 1.76 ± 0.24, 2.08 ± 0.19 and 1.69 ± 0.28 g cm-3, values which are comparable with the material density (ρ) values, 1.77, 2.17 and 1.72 g cm-3, respectively. Using this technique, the percentage contribution of error in the measurement of effective density is calculated to be in the range of 9-17 %. Among the individual uncertainty components, repeatability of particle mass obtained by the QCM, the QCM crystal frequency, CPC counting efficiency, and the equivalence of CPC- and QCM-derived volume are the major contributors to the expanded uncertainty (at k = 2) in comparison to other components, e.g. diffusion correction, charge correction, etc. Effective density for ambient particles at the beginning of the winter period in New Delhi was measured to be 1.28 ± 0.12 g cm-3

  11. Aerosol effective density measurement using scanning mobility particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance with the estimation of involved uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, B.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Sinha, D.; Gupta, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we have used scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to estimate the effective density of aerosol particles. This approach is tested for aerosolized particles generated from the solution of standard materials of known density, i.e. ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN) and sodium chloride (SC), and also applied for ambient measurement in New Delhi. We also discuss uncertainty involved in the measurement. In this method, dried particles are introduced in to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), where size segregation was done based on particle electrical mobility. At the downstream of DMA, the aerosol stream is subdivided into two parts. One is sent to a condensation particle counter (CPC) to measure particle number concentration, whereas other one is sent to QCM to measure the particle mass concentration simultaneously. Based on particle volume derived from size distribution data of SMPS and mass concentration data obtained from QCM, the mean effective density (ρeff) with uncertainty of inorganic salt particles (for particle count mean diameter (CMD) over a size range 10 to 478 nm), i.e. AS, SC and AN is estimated to be 1.76 ± 0.24, 2.08 ± 0.19 and 1.69 ± 0.28 g cm-3, which are comparable with the material density (ρ) values, 1.77, 2.17 and 1.72 g cm-3, respectively. Among individual uncertainty components, repeatability of particle mass obtained by QCM, QCM crystal frequency, CPC counting efficiency, and equivalence of CPC and QCM derived volume are the major contributors to the expanded uncertainty (at k = 2) in comparison to other components, e.g. diffusion correction, charge correction, etc. Effective density for ambient particles at the beginning of winter period in New Delhi is measured to be 1.28 ± 0.12 g cm-3. It was found that in general, mid-day effective density of ambient aerosols increases with increase in CMD of particle size measurement but particle photochemistry is an important

  12. Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to pyrethrin aerosol: effects of aerosol particle size, concentration, and exposure conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of laboratory studies were conducted to assess effect of droplet size on efficacy of pyrethrin aerosol against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, the confused flour beetle. A vertical flow aerosol exposure chamber that generated a standardized particle size diameter was used for...

  13. Microscopic Characterization of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particle Aging in the Outflow from Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, R. C.; Henn, T. R.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Fast, J.; Barnard, J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Cliff, S.S.; Perry, K. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2009-09-16

    This study was part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area during spring 2006. The physical and chemical transformations of particles aged in the outflow from Mexico City were investigated for the transport event of 22 March 2006. A detailed chemical analysis of individual particles was performed using a combination of complementary microscopy and micro-spectroscopy techniques. The applied techniques included scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structur