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Sample records for aerosol particle number

  1. Estimating Marine Aerosol Particle Volume and Number from Maritime Aerosol Network Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Smirnov, A.; Hsu, N. C.; Munchak, L. A.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass) are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The average solution MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the best solution dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data.

  2. Limits of DPUI application associated with the number of particles within actinide aerosols.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Raynaud, P; Blanchin, N; Mièle, A

    2007-01-01

    Dose per unit intake (DPUI) of radionuclides is obtained using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. After inhalation exposure, the first model calculates the fraction of activity deposited within the different regions of the respiratory tract, assuming that the aerosol contains an infinite number of particles. Using default parameters for workers, an exposure to one annual limit of intake (ALI) corresponds to an aerosol of 239PuO2 containing approximately 1 x 10(6) particles. To reach such an exposure, very low particle number might be involved especially for compounds having a high specific activity. This study provides examples of exposures to actinide aerosols for which the number of particles is too low for a standard application of the ICRP model. These examples, which involve physical studies of aerosols collected at the workplace and interpretation of bioassay data, show that the number of particles of the aerosol can be the main limit for the application of DPUI after inhalation exposure.

  3. Number-size distribution of aerosol particles and new particle formation events in tropical and subtropical Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Kawata, R.; Furutani, H.; Uematsu, M.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.

    2016-10-01

    Number-size distributions of aerosol particles with diameters of 10-500 nm in the marine boundary layer were observed continually onboard the R/V Hakuho Maru over the equatorial and subtropical North Pacific and South Pacific during December 2011-March 2012. Number-size distributions over each area were parameterized using a sum of up to three lognormal functions. Bi-modal size distributions with peak diameters at 30-80 nm (Aitken mode) and 100-200 nm (accumulation mode) were observed frequently. Larger peak diameters of Aitken and accumulation modes were observed over the eastern equator, where 5-day backward trajectories showed that the air masses had derived from high-chlorophyll oceanic regions without precipitation. Smaller peak diameters and low concentrations were often observed over the North Pacific. The trajectories show that such air mass originated from oceanic regions with less chlorophyll, exhibiting high precipitation frequency. New particle formation (NPF) events have often been observed over the mid-latitude eastern South Pacific with a low condensation sink (CS) and some dimethyl sulfide, although none was observed over the equator, where CS was higher. The lesser CS condition at NPF events was mostly correlated with local precipitation or precipitation along the trajectories within 1 day. These results suggest that differences of the number-size distribution and occasions of NPF events among sea areas most closely accord with precipitation along the trajectories.

  4. Indoor/outdoor radon decay products associated aerosol particle-size distributions and their relation to total number concentrations.

    PubMed

    Moriizumi, Jun; Yamada, Shinya; Xu, Yang; Matsuki, Satoru; Hirao, Shigekazu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2014-07-01

    The activity size distributions of indoor and outdoor radioactive aerosol associated with short-lived radon decay products were observed at Nagoya, Japan, for some periods from 2010 to 2012, following the indoor observation by Mostafa et al. [Mostafa, A. M. A., Tamaki, K., Moriizumi, J., Yamazawa, H. and Iida, T. The weather dependence of particle size distribution of indoor radioactive aerosol associated with radon decay products. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 146: (1-3), 19-22 (2011)]. The tendency of smaller indoor activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) after rainfalls showed in the previous study was not consistently obtained, while the consistent tendency of less indoor radioactive particles with diameters in the accumulation mode was observed again after rainfalls. The indoor aerosols showed activity size distributions similar to the outdoor ones. Non-radioactive aerosol particle concentrations measured with a laser particle counter suggested a somewhat liner relationship with AMAD.

  5. Aerosol- and updraft-limited regimes of cloud droplet formation: influence of particle number, size and hygroscopicity on the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutter, P.; Su, H.; Trentmann, J.; Simmel, M.; Rose, D.; Gunthe, S. S.; Wernli, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-09-01

    We have investigated the formation of cloud droplets under pyro-convective conditions using a cloud parcel model with detailed spectral microphysics and with the κ-Köhler model approach for efficient and realistic description of the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aerosol particles. Assuming a typical biomass burning aerosol size distribution (accumulation mode centred at 120 nm), we have calculated initial cloud droplet number concentrations (NCD) for a wide range of updraft velocities (w=0.25-20 m s-1) and aerosol particle number concentrations (NCN=200-105 cm-3) at the cloud base. Depending on the ratio between updraft velocity and particle number concentration (w/NCN), we found three distinctly different regimes of CCN activation and cloud droplet formation: (1) An aerosol-limited regime that is characterized by high w/NCN ratios (>≈10-3 m s-1 cm3), high maximum values of water vapour supersaturation (Smax>≈0.5%), and high activated fractions of aerosol particles (NCN/NCN>≈90%). In this regime NCD is directly proportional to NCN and practically independent of w. (2) An updraft-limited regime that is characterized by low w/NCN ratios (<≈10-4 m s-1 cm3), low maximum values of water vapour supersaturation (Smax<≈0.2%), and low activated fractions of aerosol particles (NCD/NCN<≈20%). In this regime NCD is directly proportional to w and practically independent of NCN. (3) An aerosol- and updraft-sensitive regime (transitional regime), which is characterized by parameter values in between the two other regimes and covers most of the conditions relevant for pyro-convection. In this regime NCD depends non-linearly on both NCN and w. In sensitivity studies we have tested the influence of aerosol particle size distribution and hygroscopicity on NCD. Within the range of effective hygroscopicity parameters that is characteristic for continental atmospheric aerosols (κ≈0.05-0.6), we found that NCD depends rather weakly on the actual value of κ

  6. Single-particle characterization of atmospheric aerosols collected at Gosan, Korea, during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment field campaign using low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hong; Cheng, Fangqin; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-11-01

    A quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), namely low-Z (atomic number) particle EPMA, was used to characterize the chemical compositions of the individual aerosol particles collected at the Gosan supersite, Jeju Island, Korea, as a part of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). On 4-10 April 2001 just before a severe dust storm arrived, seven sets of aerosol samples were obtained by a seven-stage May cascade impactor with a flow rate of 20 L/min. Overall 11,200 particles on stages 1-6 with cutoff diameters of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 microm, respectively, were examined and classified based on their secondary electron images and X-ray spectra. In general, sea salt particles were the most frequently encountered, followed by mineral dust, organic carbon (OC)-like, (NH4)2SO4/NH4HSO4-containing, elemental carbon (EC)-like, Fe-rich, and K-rich particles. Sea salt and mineral dust particles had a higher relative abundance on stages 1-5, whereas OC-like, (NH4)2SO4/NH4HSO4-containing, Fe-rich, and K-rich particles were relatively abundant on stage 6. The analysis on relative number abundances of various particle types combined with 72-hr backward air mass trajectories indicated that a lot of reacted sea salt and reacted mineral dust (with airborne NOx and SO2 or their acidic products) and OC-like particles were carried by the air masses passing over the Yellow Sea (for sample "10 April") and many NH4HSO4/ (NH4)2SO4-containing particles were carried by the air masses passing over the Sea of Japan and Korea Strait (for samples "4-9 April"). It was concluded that the atmosphere over Jeju Island was influenced by anthropogenic SO2 and NOx, organic compounds, and secondary aerosols when Asian dust was absent.

  7. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  8. Nozzles for Focusing Aerosol Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE ( DD -MM-YYYY) October 2009 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES...Figures Figure 1. The design of the first-generation aerodynamic focusing nozzle for aerosol particles used for SPFS and TAOS instrument prototypes...Some nozzles were fabricated in aluminum and some in steel. It has been used for SPFS and TAOS measurement technologies both in the laboratory and

  9. Evidence for anthropogenic impact on number concentration and sulfate content of cloud-processed aerosol particles over the North-Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dingenen, Rita; Raes, Frank; Jensen, Niels R.

    1995-10-01

    Aerosol properties were measured during two transects over the North Atlantic between Halifax (Nova Scotia, Canada) and the Moroccan coast. Measurements of the chemical composition of total aerosol, of the black carbon concentration and of the number size distributions with particle diameter Dp in the range 16 nm < Dp < 1 μm were made. The e-folding lifetime of the black carbon aerosol, coming from the northeast American continent and transported eastward over the ocean, was estimated to be 15 hours. The non-sea-salt (nss) fraction of the sulfate concentrations encountered during this campaign spans a 3 order of magnitude range (0.02 μm m-3 to 19 μm m-3) and shows a high correlation with black carbon. The measured bimodal aerosol size distributions were analysed in order to yield number concentrations of the nuclei and the accumulation mode (ACM), the latter being interpreted as cloud-processed particles and thus as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). A strong positive correlation was found between ACM number concentration and nss-sulfate load over the whole concentration range, i.e. for clean to polluted air masses. Furthermore, our regression between nss-sulfate and ACM number concentration also agrees well with results from other investigators where CCN or cloud droplet concentrations were related to nss-sulfate at a variety of geographical locations and degrees of pollution. The composite data set shows that the nss-sulfate-CCN relationship from baseline conditions to anthropogenically conditioned aerosol, happens via a smooth transition which can be described by a linear regression on a logarithmic scale.

  10. Organic aerosol processing in tropical deep convective clouds: Development of a new model (CRM-ORG) and implications for sources of particle number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. N.; Julin, J.; Riipinen, I.; Ekman, A. M. L.

    2015-10-01

    The difficulty in assessing interactions between atmospheric particles and clouds is due in part to the chemical complexity of the particles and to the wide range of length and timescales of processes occurring simultaneously during a cloud event. The new Cloud-Resolving Model with Organics (CRM-ORG) addresses these interactions by explicitly predicting the formation, transport, uptake, and re-release of surrogate organic compounds consistent with the volatility basis set framework within a nonhydrostatic, three-dimensional cloud-resolving model. CRM-ORG incorporates photochemical production, explicit condensation/evaporation of organic and inorganic vapors, and a comprehensive set of four different mechanisms describing particle formation from organic vapors and sulfuric acid. We simulate two deep convective cloud events over the Amazon rain forest in March 1998 and compare modeled particle size distributions with airborne observations made during the time period. The model predictions agree well with the observations for Aitken mode particles in the convective outflow (10-14 km) but underpredict nucleation mode particles by a factor of 20. A strong in-cloud particle formation process from organic vapors alone is necessary to reproduce even relatively low ultrafine particle number concentrations (~1500 cm-3). Sensitivity tests with variable initial aerosol loading and initial vertical aerosol profile demonstrate the complexity of particle redistribution and net gain or loss in the cloud. In-cloud particle number concentrations could be enhanced by as much as a factor of 3 over the base case simulation in the cloud outflow but were never reduced by more than a factor of 2 lower than the base. Additional sensitivity cases emphasize the need for constrained estimates of surface tension and affinity of organic vapors to ice surfaces. When temperature-dependent organic surface tension is introduced to the new particle formation mechanisms, the number concentration of

  11. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels

  12. The Impact of Aerosol Particle Mixing State on the Hygroscopicity of Sea Spray Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Schill, Steven R; Collins, Douglas B; Lee, Christopher; Morris, Holly S; Novak, Gordon A; Prather, Kimberly A; Quinn, Patricia K; Sultana, Camille M; Tivanski, Alexei V; Zimmermann, Kathryn; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2015-06-24

    Aerosol particles influence global climate by determining cloud droplet number concentrations, brightness, and lifetime. Primary aerosol particles, such as those produced from breaking waves in the ocean, display large particle-particle variability in chemical composition, morphology, and physical phase state, all of which affect the ability of individual particles to accommodate water and grow into cloud droplets. Despite such diversity in molecular composition, there is a paucity of methods available to assess how particle-particle variability in chemistry translates to corresponding differences in aerosol hygroscopicity. Here, an approach has been developed that allows for characterization of the distribution of aerosol hygroscopicity within a chemically complex population of atmospheric particles. This methodology, when applied to the interpretation of nascent sea spray aerosol, provides a quantitative framework for connecting results obtained using molecular mimics generated in the laboratory with chemically complex ambient aerosol. We show that nascent sea spray aerosol, generated in situ in the Atlantic Ocean, displays a broad distribution of particle hygroscopicities, indicative of a correspondingly broad distribution of particle chemical compositions. Molecular mimics of sea spray aerosol organic material were used in the laboratory to assess the volume fractions and molecular functionality required to suppress sea spray aerosol hygroscopicity to the extent indicated by field observations. We show that proper accounting for the distribution and diversity in particle hygroscopicity and composition are important to the assessment of particle impacts on clouds and global climate.

  13. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  14. Long-term observations of tropospheric particle number size distributions and equivalent black carbon mass concentrations in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmili, Wolfram; Weinhold, Kay; Rasch, Fabian; Sonntag, André; Sun, Jia; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Bastian, Susanne; Schladitz, Alexander; Löschau, Gunter; Cyrys, Josef; Pitz, Mike; Gu, Jianwei; Kusch, Thomas; Flentje, Harald; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Meinhardt, Frank; Schwerin, Andreas; Bath, Olaf; Ries, Ludwig; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtz, Klaus; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) is a cooperative atmospheric observation network, which aims at improving the scientific understanding of aerosol-related effects in the troposphere. The network addresses research questions dedicated to both climate- and health-related effects. GUAN's core activity has been the continuous collection of tropospheric particle number size distributions and black carbon mass concentrations at 17 observation sites in Germany. These sites cover various environmental settings including urban traffic, urban background, rural background, and Alpine mountains. In association with partner projects, GUAN has implemented a high degree of harmonisation of instrumentation, operating procedures, and data evaluation procedures. The quality of the measurement data is assured by laboratory intercomparisons as well as on-site comparisons with reference instruments. This paper describes the measurement sites, instrumentation, quality assurance, and data evaluation procedures in the network as well as the EBAS repository, where the data sets can be obtained (doi:10.5072/guan).

  15. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  16. Aerosol Mass Loading, Mixing State, Size and Number in Present Day (2000) and Future (2100): Study with the Advanced Particle Microphysics (APM) module in the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.; Yu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols affect the global energy budget by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical properties, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). One of the key challenges in quantifying the aerosol direct and indirect effects is to deep our understanding about the size distribution, size-resolved composition, and mixing state of aerosols. However, detailed information on size distribution and mixing state is often not available or incomplete in current climate models. Here, we incorporated APM into CESM. APM is a multi-type, multi-component (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, SOA, BC, OC, dust, and sea salt), size-resolved particle microphysics model. Online chemistry, up-to-date nucleation, oxidation aging of medium-volatile and semi-volatile organic gases, aerosol-cloud interaction with stratiform cloud, shallow convection cloud, and deep convection cloud are considered. The amounts of secondary species coated on primary particles, through condensation, coagulation, equilibrium uptake, and aqueous chemistry, are also tracked. Model results are compared with aerosol mass observed by IMPROVE/EMEP, vertical structure of global particle number from aircraft-based field campaigns, particle and cloud condensation nuclei number at ground-based stations, aerosol optical properties retrieved by several satellites. Model results can capture the major characteristics shown in these observations. With this model system, we find that global burdens of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, BC, OC from 2000 to 2100, under scenario RCP 4.5 where total radiative forcing is stabilized before 2100, are decreased by 44%, 50%, 43%, 40%, 40%, respectively. Dust and sea salt increase slightly. Global burdens of secondary species coated on BCOC, dust, and sea salt are deceased by 34%, 30% and 60%, respectively. Global averaged aerosol number in the lower troposphere (from surface to 3 km) is significantly decreased, especially for particles smaller than

  17. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, S.; Zubler, E. M.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-01-01

    An explicit and detailed treatment of cloud-borne particles allowing for the consideration of aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented in the regional weather forecast and climate model COSMO. The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snow flakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snow flakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. However, the processes not only impact the total aerosol number and mass, but also the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble accumulation mode and generating coarse mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases the cloud droplet number concentration with possible implications for the ice

  18. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, S.; Zubler, E. M.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-08-01

    An explicit and detailed treatment of cloud-borne particles allowing for the consideration of aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented into COSMO-Model, the regional weather forecast and climate model of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO). The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol number and mass and additionally alter the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble Aitken and accumulation mode and generating coarse-mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases

  19. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  20. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    PubMed

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  1. Test-Aerosol Generator For Calibrating Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Adams, Alois J.; Schwindt, Christian J.; Hodge, Timothy R.; Mallow, Tim J.; Duong, Anh A.; Bukauskas, Vyto V.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus generates clean, stable aerosol stream for use in testing and calibrating laser-based aerosol-particle counter. Size and concentration of aerosol particles controlled to ensure accurate calibration. Cheap, widely available medical nebulizers used to generate aerosols.

  2. Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.B.

    1990-10-24

    As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  4. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2014-04-01

    Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1&minus10), black carbon (BC) and number of particles (N3: number of particles with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 3 nm, and N10: higher than 10 nm) concentrations at the high-altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. At MSC, PM10 (12 μg m-3) and N7 (2140 # cm-3) three-year arithmetic average concentrations were higher than those measured at other high-altitude sites in central Europe during the same period (PM10: 3-9 μg m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 μg m-3) were equal to or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 μg m-3). These differences were attributed to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and to the higher importance of the biogenic precursor emissions and new particle formation (NPF) processes, and to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African air outbreaks (PM1&minus10: 13 μg m-3, PM1: 8 μg m-3 and BC: 0.3 μg m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 μg m-3, PM1: 4 μg m-3 and BC: 0.1 μg m-3). PM and BC concentrations increased in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest in winter, due to the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter). The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes that mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles, with maxima at midday in the

  5. Optimized sparse-particle aerosol representations for modeling cloud-aerosol interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, Laura; McGraw, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sparse representations of atmospheric aerosols are needed for efficient regional- and global-scale chemical transport models. Here we introduce a new framework for representing aerosol distributions, based on the method of moments. Given a set of moment constraints, we show how linear programming can be used to identify collections of sparse particles that approximately maximize distributional entropy. The collections of sparse particles derived from this approach reproduce CCN activity of the exact model aerosol distributions with high accuracy. Additionally, the linear programming techniques described in this study can be used to bound key aerosol properties, such as the number concentration of CCN. Unlike the commonly used sparse representations, such as modal and sectional schemes, the maximum-entropy moment-based approach is not constrained to pre-determined size bins or assumed distribution shapes. This study is a first step toward a new aerosol simulation scheme that will track multivariate aerosol distributions with sufficient computational efficiency for large-scale simulations.

  6. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern~Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2013-10-01

    Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1-10), black carbon (BC) and particle number (N) concentrations at the high altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. The MSC site registered higher PM10 (12 μg m-3) and N > 7 nm (2209 # cm-3) concentrations than those measured at other high altitude sites in central Europe (PM10: 3-9 μg m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 μg m-3) were equal or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 μg m-3). These differences were attributed to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions and to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and new particle formation (NPF) processes at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African outbreaks (PM1-10: 13 μg m-3, PM1: 8 μg m-3 and BC: 0.3 μg m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 μg m-3, PM1: 4 μg m-3 and BC: 0.1 μg m-3). Because of the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter), PM and BC concentrations showed a marked increase in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest during winter. The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes which mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to Saturday, followed by a significant

  7. Intercomparison of aerosol instruments: number concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, E O; Sinclair, D; Tu, K W; Hinchliffe, L; Franklin, H

    1982-05-01

    An intercomparison of aerosol instruments conducted February 23-27, 1981, at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) focused on five instruments: the Pollak and TSI condensation nucleus counters; the Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer (ASAS-X); and two aerosol electrometers. Test aerosols of sodium chloride and ammonium fluorescein generated by nebulization/electrostatic classification were used to obtain 195 lines of comparison data. Concentrations measured by the ASAS-X and the TSI aerosol electrometer averaged respectively 1.388 and 1.581 times that measured by the Pollak. These ratios were very stable during the week and there was little effect of particle size or material. Most other comparisons were equally stable. However, a review of past work at EML and elsewhere led to the disturbing conclusion that these ratios may change from year to year, or from season to season. A filter sample was taken from microscopy, concurrent with readings from the ASAS-X and the TSI condensation nucleus counters. In this sample, the two instruments differed by 20%. Within its 20% uncertainty, the filter result matched both the TSI and ASAS-X readings.

  8. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103–104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 21% of those measured by reference instruments for polydisperse aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +130% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. PMID:23473056

  9. The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Jensen, Eric J.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The particles remain in the Tropics for most of their life, and during this period of time a size distribution is developed by a combination of coagulation, growth by heteromolecular condensation, and mixing with air parcels containing preexisting sulfate particles. The aerosol eventually migrates to higher latitudes and descends across isentropic surfaces to the lower stratosphere. The aerosol is removed from the stratosphere primarily at mid- and high latitudes through various processes, mainly by isentropic transport across the tropopause from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  10. Aerosol particle number concentration measurements in five European cities using TSI-3022 condensation particle counter over a three-year period during health effects of air pollution on susceptible subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Pasi; Hämeri, Kaarle; Paatero, Pentti; Kulmala, Markku; Bellander, Tom; Berglind, Niklas; Bouso, Laura; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Sunyer, Jordi; Cattani, Giorgio; Marconi, Achille; Cyrys, Josef; von Klot, Stephanie; Peters, Annette; Zetzsche, Katrin; Lanki, Timo; Pekkanen, Juha; Nyberg, Fredrik; Sjövall, Billy; Forastiere, Francesco

    2005-08-01

    In this study, long-term aerosol particle total number concentration measurements in five metropolitan areas across Europe are presented. The measurements have been carried out in Augsburg, Barcelona, Helsinki, Rome, and Stockholm using the same instrument, a condensation particle counter (TSI model 3022). The results show that in all of the studied cities, the winter concentrations are higher than the summer concentrations. In Helsinki and in Stockholm, winter concentrations are higher by a factor of two and in Augsburg almost by a factor of three compared with summer months. The winter maximum of the monthly average concentrations in these cities is between 10,000 cm(-3) and 20,000 cm(-3), whereas the summer min is approximately 5000-6000 cm(-3). In Rome and in Barcelona, the winters are more polluted compared with summers by as much as a factor of 4-10. The winter maximum in both Rome and Barcelona is close to 100,000 cm(-3), whereas the summer minimum is > 10,000 cm(-3). During the weekdays the maximum of the hourly average concentrations in all of the cities is detected during the morning hours between 7 and 10 a.m. The evening maxima were present in Barcelona, Rome, and Augsburg, but these were not as pronounced as the morning ones. The daily maxima in Helsinki and Stockholm are close or even lower than the daily minima in the more polluted cities. The concentrations between these two groups of cities are different with a factor of about five during the whole day. The study pointed out the influence of the selection of the measurement site and the configuration of the sampling line on the observed concentrations.

  11. Fog-Influenced Submicron Aerosol Number Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikova, N.; Zdimal, V.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of fog on aerosol particle number size distributions (PNSD) in submicron range. Thus, five-year continuous time series of the SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) data giving information on PNSD in five minute time step were compared with detailed meteorological records from the professional meteorological station Kosetice in the Czech Republic. The comparison included total number concentration and PNSD in size ranges between 10 and 800 nm. The meteorological records consist from the exact times of starts and ends of individual meteorological phenomena (with one minute precision). The records longer than 90 minutes were considered, and corresponding SMPS spectra were evaluated. Evaluation of total number distributions showed considerably lower concentration during fog periods compared to the period when no meteorological phenomenon was recorded. It was even lower than average concentration during presence of hydrometeors (not only fog, but rain, drizzle, snow etc. as well). Typical PNSD computed from all the data recorded in the five years is in Figure 1. Not only median and 1st and 3rd quartiles are depicted, but also 5th and 95th percentiles are plotted, to see the variability of the concentrations in individual size bins. The most prevailing feature is the accumulation mode, which seems to be least influenced by the fog presence. On the contrary, the smallest aerosol particles (diameter under 40 nm) are effectively removed, as well as the largest particles (diameter over 500 nm). Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the projects GAUK 62213 and SVV-2013-267308. Figure 1. 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th percentile of aerosol particle number size distributions recorded during fog events.

  12. Warming-induced increase in aerosol number concentration likely to moderate climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Asmi, Ari; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kajos, Maija K.; Äijälä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Holst, Thomas; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Arneth, Almut; Birmili, Wolfram; van der Gon, Hugo Denier; Hamed, Amar; Hoffer, András; Laakso, Lauri; Laaksonen, Ari; Richard Leaitch, W.; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Pryor, Sara C.; Räisänen, Petri; Swietlicki, Erik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the climate system directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Apart from black carbon aerosol, aerosols cause a negative radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and substantially mitigate the warming caused by greenhouse gases. In the future, tightening of controls on anthropogenic aerosol and precursor vapour emissions to achieve higher air quality may weaken this beneficial effect. Natural aerosols, too, might affect future warming. Here we analyse long-term observations of concentrations and compositions of aerosol particles and their biogenic precursor vapours in continental mid- and high-latitude environments. We use measurements of particle number size distribution together with boundary layer heights derived from reanalysis data to show that the boundary layer burden of cloud condensation nuclei increases exponentially with temperature. Our results confirm a negative feedback mechanism between the continental biosphere, aerosols and climate: aerosol cooling effects are strengthened by rising biogenic organic vapour emissions in response to warming, which in turn enhance condensation on particles and their growth to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. This natural growth mechanism produces roughly 50% of particles at the size of cloud condensation nuclei across Europe. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere interactions are crucial for aerosol climate effects and can significantly influence the effects of anthropogenic aerosol emission controls, both on climate and air quality.

  13. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  14. The hygroscopicity of indoor aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-07-01

    A system to study the hygroscopic growth of particle was developed by combining a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) with a wetted wall reactor. This system is capable of mimicking the conditions in human respiratory tract, and measuring the particle size change due to the hygroscopic growth. The performance of the system was tested with three kinds of particles of known composition, NaCl, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and (NH{sub 4})HS0{sub 4} particles. The hygroscopicity of a variety of common indoor aerosol particles was studied including combustion aerosols (cigarette smoking, cooking, incenses and candles) and consumer spray products such as glass cleaner, general purpose cleaner, hair spray, furniture polish spray, disinfectant, and insect killer. Experiments indicate that most of the indoor aerosols show some hygroscopic growth and only a few materials do not. The magnitude of hygroscopic growth ranges from 20% to 300% depending on the particle size and fraction of water soluble components.

  15. Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter

  16. Selection of quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, Michael; Pfeifer, Sascha; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Size-segregated quasi monodisperse particles are essential for e.g. fundamental research concerning cloud microphysical processes. Commonly a DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) is used to produce quasi-monodisperse submicron particles. Thereto first, polydisperse aerosol particles are bipolarly charged by a neutralizer, and then selected according to their electrical mobility with the DMA [Knutson et al. 1975]. Selecting a certain electrical mobility with a DMA results in a particle size distribution, which contains singly charged particles as well as undesired multiply charged larger particles. Often these larger particles need to either be removed from the generated aerosol or their signals have to be corrected for in the data inversion and interpretation process. This problem becomes even more serious when considering super-micron particles. Here we will present two different techniques for generating quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles with no or only an insignificant number of larger sized particles being present. First, we use a combination of a cyclone with adjustable aerodynamic cut-off diameter and our custom-built Maxi-DMA [Raddatz et al. 2013]. The cyclone removes particles larger than the desired ones prior to mobility selection with the DMA. This results in a reduction of the number of multiply charged particles of up to 99.8%. Second, we utilize a new combination of cyclone and PCVI (Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor), which is based on purely inertial separation and avoids particle charging. The PCVI instrument was previously described by Boulter et al. (2006) and Kulkarni et al. (2011). With our two setups we are able to produce quasi-monodisperse aerosol particles in the diameter range from 0.5 to 4.4 µm without a significant number of larger undesired particles being present. Acknowledgements: This work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. References

  17. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  18. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  19. Influence of the external mixing state of atmospheric aerosol on derived CCN number concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, H.; McFiggans, G.; Henning, S.; Stratmann, F.

    2010-05-01

    We derived the range of particle hygroscopicities ($\\kappa$) that occurs in the atmosphere, based on literature data of measured hygroscopic growth or based on chemical composition. The derived $\\kappa$-values show that the atmospheric aerosol often is an external mixture with respect to hygroscopicity. Mean $\\kappa$ were derived for urban, rural, and marine aerosols for the different hygroscopic modes. Using these $\\kappa$ and exemplary particle number size distributions for the different aerosols, the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) was derived for two cases, (1) accounting for the less hygroscopic fraction of particles and (2) assuming all particles to have $\\kappa$ of the more hygroscopic mode. NCCN derived from measured particle hygroscopicity is overestimated for case (2). Overestimation of NCCN is largest for fresh continental aerosol and less pronounced for marine aerosol. With $\\kappa$ derived from bulk aerosol composition data, only the hygroscopicity of more soluble aerosol particles is captured. Bulk or even size-resolved composition data will be insufficient to predict NCCN under many conditions unless independent information about particle mixing state is available.

  20. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <10(3); Medium, 10(3)-10(4); and High, >10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.].

  1. Aerosol particles and the formation of advection fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A study of numerical simulation of the effects of concentration, particle size, mass of nuclei, and chemical composition on the dynamics of warm fog formation, particularly the formation of advection fog, is presented. This formation is associated with the aerosol particle characteristics, and both macrophysical and microphysical processes are considered. In the macrophysical model, the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content, and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion, turbulent momentum, and turbulent energy transfers are taken into account. In the microphysical model, the supersaturation effect is incorporated with the surface tension and hygroscopic material solution. It is shown that the aerosol particles with the higher number density, larger size nuclei, the heavier nuclei mass, and the higher ratio of the Van't Hoff factor to the molecular weight favor the formation of the lower visibility advection fogs with stronger vertical energy transfer during the nucleation and condensation time period.

  2. Differentiation of hydrophobic from hydrophilic submicrometer aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Juozaitis, A.; Ulevicius, V.; Girgzdys, A. ); Willeke, K. )

    1993-02-01

    A method has been developed that differentiates hydrophobic from hydrophilic submicrometer aerosol particles in air environments containing polydisperse aerosols composed of different chemical species. First, a narrow particle size range is extracted from the polydisperse aerosol by an electrostatic aerosol classifier. Then the monodisperse aerosols of different origins are exposed to preselected supersaturation levels and are size-classified again by a second electrostatic classifier. Hydrophobic aerosol particles pass through the second classifier when its size window matches that of the first classifier. Hydrophilic aerosol particles grow to a larger size and are removed by the second classifier. The method has been applied in the field by measuring the fraction of hydrophobic atmospheric particles in a suburb of Vilnius, Lithuania, during a period of high emission of hydrophobic soot particles from residential coal and industrial oil burning in winter. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Spatial Variability of CCN Sized Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, A.; Väänänen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The computational limitations restrict the grid size used in GCM models, and for many cloud types they are too large when compared to the scale of the cloud formation processes. Several parameterizations for e.g. convective cloud formation exist, but information on spatial subgrid variation of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs) sized aerosol concentration is not known. We quantify this variation as a function of the spatial scale by using datasets from airborne aerosol measurement campaigns around the world including EUCAARI LONGREX, ATAR, INCA, INDOEX, CLAIRE, PEGASOS and several regional airborne campaigns in Finland. The typical shapes of the distributions are analyzed. When possible, we use information obtained by CCN counters. In some other cases, we use particle size distribution measured by for example SMPS to get approximated CCN concentration. Other instruments used include optical particle counters or condensational particle counters. When using the GCM models, the CCN concentration used for each the grid-box is often considered to be either flat, or as an arithmetic mean of the concentration inside the grid-box. However, the aircraft data shows that the concentration values are often lognormal distributed. This, combined with the subgrid variations in the land use and atmospheric properties, might cause that the aerosol-cloud interactions calculated by using mean values to vary significantly from the true effects both temporary and spatially. This, in turn, can cause non-linear bias into the GCMs. We calculate the CCN aerosol concentration distribution as a function of different spatial scales. The measurements allow us to study the variation of these distributions within from hundreds of meters up to hundreds of kilometers. This is used to quantify the potential error when mean values are used in GCMs.

  4. Ultrafine aerosol size distribution: A study of new particle formation in the atmosphere. Final report on DOE Grant number: DE-FG02-91ER61205

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, Peter H.; Eisele, Fred

    1998-12-31

    This project involved studies pertinent to the formation of new particles by homogeneous nucleation in the atmosphere. The research focused on (1) the development of instrumentation to measure size distributions of freshly nucleated particles in the 3 to 10 nm diameter range, (2) laboratory studies of particle thermodynamic and transport properties relevant to nucleation in the atmosphere, and (3) field measurements of new particle formation by homogeneous nucleation. Highlights of the achievements under this grant are summarized briefly. A complete list of publications and presentations supported by the grant is given.

  5. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  6. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  7. Phase transition behaviour of sodium oleate aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nájera, Juan J.

    Field measurements have shown that organic surfactants are significant components of atmospheric aerosols. While fatty acids, among other surfactants, are prevalent in the atmosphere, the influence of these species on the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols remains not fully characterized. In order to assess the phase in which particles may exist, a detailed study of the deliquescence of a model surfactant aerosol has been carried out. Sodium oleate was chosen as a surfactant proxy relevant in atmospheric aerosol. Sodium oleate micelle aerosol particles were generated nebulizing a sodium oleate aqueous solution. In this study, the water uptake and phase transition of sodium oleate aerosol particles have been studied in a room temperature aerosol flow tube system (AFT) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Aerosol morphology and elemental composition were also analysed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) techniques. The particles are homogeneously distributed as ellipsoidal-shape aggregates of micelles particles with an average size of ˜1.1 μm. The deliquescence by the sodium oleate aerosol particles was monitored by infrared extinction spectroscopy, where the dried aerosol particles were exposed to increasing relative humidity as they passed through the AFT. Observations of the infrared absorption features of condensed phase liquid water enable to determine the sodium oleate deliquescence phase transition at 88±2%.

  8. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm3. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 104 /cm3 and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  9. Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) During AMAZE-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. The presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 μm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as 'viable aerosols' or 'fluorescent bioparticles' (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. First data analyses show a pronounced peak of FBAP at diameters around 2-3 μm. In this size range the biogenic particle fraction was

  10. Aerosol particles from tropical convective systems: 2. Cloud bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Tomoko; Buseck, Peter R.; Reeves, J. Michael

    2005-05-01

    Aerosol particles were collected at the altitudes of cloud bases during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. The particles consist of ammonium sulfate (45-90% by number), sea salt (5-45%), mineral dust (1-20%), and anthropogenic materials such as soot and fly ash (<3%). Ammonium sulfate particles have rather uniform, submicron sizes (mostly 0.5 μm across). Sea-salt particles are larger, apparently having been deliquesced. However, submicron particles are also common. Many contain Na and mixed cation sulfates in addition to NaCl. Mineral dust consists largely of tabular clay particles. Samples from the 28 July flight contain much mineral dust, probably because of transport from the Saharan Desert. Aggregates of sea salt and mineral dust, ammonium sulfate, and soot particles are common. Such mixed aggregates are especially abundant in in-cloud samples. Cirrus samples from CRYSTAL-FACE contain many H2SO4 droplets (Kojima et al., 2004), but acidic sulfate particles are rare at the altitudes of cloud bases. H2SO4 probably formed at higher altitudes through oxidation of SO2 in cloud droplets. Sea salt and mineral dust have been reported to be abundant in cloud particles collected using a counterflow virtual impactor (Cziczo et al., 2004), suggesting that these particles were incorporated into the convective systems from the cloud bases and akted as ice nuclei while being vertically transported.

  11. Single-particle Analyses of Compositions, Morphology, and Viscosity of Aerosol Particles Collected During GoAmazon2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, K.; Gong, Z.; Bateman, A. P.; Martin, S. T.; Cirino, G. G.; Artaxo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Single-particle analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows composition and morphology of individual aerosol particles collected during the GoAmazon2014 campaign. These TEM results indicate aerosol types and mixing states, both of which are important for evaluating particle optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei activity. The samples were collected at the T3 site, which is located in the Amazon forest with influences from the urban pollution plume from Manaus. Samples were also collected from the T0 site, which is in the middle of the jungle with minimal to no influences of anthropogenic sources. The aerosol particles mainly originated from 1) anthropogenic pollution (e.g., nanosphere soot, sulfate), 2) biogenic emissions (e.g., primary biogenic particles, organic aerosols), and 3) long-range transport (e.g., sea salts). We found that the biogenic organic aerosol particles contain homogeneously distributed potassium. Particle viscosity is important for evaluating gas-particle interactions and atmospheric chemistry for the particles. Viscosity can be estimated from the rebounding behavior at controlled relative humidities, i.e., highly viscous particles display less rebound on a plate than low-viscosity particles. We collected 1) aerosol particles from a plate (non-rebounded), 2) those that had rebounded from the plate and were then captured onto an adjacent sampling plate, and 3) particles from ambient air using a separate impactor sampler. Preliminary results show that more than 90% of non-rebounded particles consisted of nanosphere soot with or without coatings. The coatings mostly consisted of organic matter. Although rebounded particles also contain nanosphere soot (number fraction 64-69%), they were mostly internally mixed with sulfate, organic matter, or their mixtures. TEM tilted images suggested that the rebounded particles were less deformed on the substrate, whereas the non-rebounded particles were more deformed, which could

  12. Initial size distributions and hygroscopicity of indoor combustion aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Hopke, P.K.

    1993-10-01

    Cigarette smoke, incense smoke, natural gas flames, propane fuel flames, and candle flames are contributors of indoor aerosol particles. To provide a quantitative basis for the modeling of inhaled aerosol deposition pattern, the hygroscopic growth of particles from these five sources as well as the source size distributions were measured. Because the experiments were performed on the bases of particles of single size, it provided not only the averaged particle`s hygroscopic growth of each source, but also the detailed size change for particles of different sizes within the whole size spectrum. The source particle size distribution measurements found that cigarette smoke and incense smoke contained particles in the size range of 100-700 nm, while the natural gas, propane, and candle flames generated particles between 10 and 100 nm. The hygroscopic growth experiments showed that these combustion aerosol particles could grow 10% to 120%, depending on the particle sizes and origins. 18 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Vertical Transport of Aerosol Particles across Mountain Topography near the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Schill, S.; Freeman, S.; Bertram, T. H.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Transport of aerosol particles is known to affect air quality and is largely dependent on the characteristic topography of the surrounding region. To characterize this transport, aerosol number distributions were collected with an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS, DMT) during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) in and around the Los Angeles Basin in Southern California. Increases in particle number concentration and size were observed over mountainous terrain north of Los Angeles County. Chemical analysis and meteorological lagrangian trajectories suggest orographic lifting processes, known as the "chimney effect". Implications for spatial transport and distribution will be discussed.

  14. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Oritz, Carlos A.; Marlow, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  15. Particle size distributions of several commonly used seeding aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswy, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of experimentation, no solid particle powder could be found which produced an aerosol with a narrow particle size distribution when fluidization was the only flow process used in producing the aerosol. The complication of adding particle size fractionation processes to the aerosol generation effort appears to be avoidable. In this regard, a simple sonic orifice is found to be effective in reducing the percentage of agglomerates in the several metal oxide powders tested. Marginally beneficial results are obtained for a 0.5/99.5 percent by weight mixture of the flow agent and metal oxide powder. However, agglomeration is observed to be enhanced when the flow agent percentage is increased to 5 percent. Liquid atomization using the Collison nebulizer as well as a version of the Laskin nozzle resulted in polydispersed aerosols with particle size distributions heavily weighted by the small particle end of the size spectrum. The aerosol particle size distributions produced by the vaporization/condensation seeder are closer to the ideal monodispersed aerosol than any of the other aerosols tested. In addition, this seeding approach affords a measure of control over particle size and particle production rate.

  16. Laser velocimeter seed particle sizing by the whisker particle collector and laser aerosol spectrometer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosswy, F. L.; Kingery, M. K.; Schaefer, H. J.; Pfeifer, H. J.

    1989-07-01

    Two different aerosol particle sizing systems, the Whisker Particle Collector (WPC) and the Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS), were evaluated for sizing aerosol particles in the size range of 0.1 to 3.0 micrometers. The evaluation tests were conducted using an aerosol of alumina (Al2O3) particles, an aerosol commonly used to provide light scattering particles for laser velocimeter measurements in high temperature flows. The LAS and WPC measurements were then compared for samples taken from the alumina particle aerosols. Some difficulty was encountered in directly comparing these measurements. Other operational aspects of the two systems were also compared including on-line/off-line data presentation capabilities, field portability and measurement limitations at the small particle end of the size range of interest.

  17. Resuspension of Aerosol Particles from Evaporated Rain Drops to the Coarse Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Ganguly, D.; Singh, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation scavenging (i.e., wet removal) has long been recognized as one of the major removal processes for tropospheric aerosol particles, and the dominant one for accumulation-mode size particles. When rain drops evaporate, the aerosol material contained in drops is resuspended, and this process has received much less attention. Unlike the resuspension from evaporated cloud droplets, the aerosol particles resuspended from evaporated rain drops have much larger sizes than most of the aerosol particles that acted as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), became cloud borne, and then were collected by rain drops, because each rain drop generally collects thousands of cloud droplets. Here we present some aspects of this resuspension process obtained from modeling studies. First, we investigate some details of the process using a simple drop-size resolved model of raindrop evaporation in sub-saturated air below cloud base. Using these results, we then investigate different treatments of this process in a global aerosol and climate model that employs a modal aerosol representation. Compared to the model's original treatment of this process in which rain-borne aerosol is resuspended to the mode that it came from with its original size, the new treatment that resuspends to the coarse mode produces notable reductions in global CCN concentrations, as well as sulfate, black carbon, and organic aerosol mass, because the resuspended aerosol particles have much shorter lifetimes due to their larger sizes. Somewhat surprisingly, there are also notable reductions in coarse-mode sea salt and mineral dust burdens. These species are resuspended to the coarse mode in both the original and new treatments, but these resuspended particles are fewer in number and larger in size in the new treatment. This finding highlights some issues of the modal aerosol treatment for coarse mode particles.

  18. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  19. On the contribution of organics to the North East Atlantic aerosol number concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, Jakub; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Monahan, Ciaran; Beddows, David; O'Dowd, Colin

    2012-12-01

    k-means statistical-cluster analysis of submicron aerosol size distributions is combined with coincident humidity tandem differential mobility analyser data, leading to five unique aerosol categories for hygroscopic growth factors (HGFs): low sea-salt background marine, high sea-salt background marine, coastal nucleation, open ocean nucleation and anthropogenically influenced scenarios. When considering only marine conditions, and generic aerosol species associated with this environment (e.g. non-sea-salt sulfate, sea-salt, partly soluble organic matter and water insoluble organic matter), the two-year annual average contribution to aerosol number concentration from the different generic species was made up as follows: 46% (30-54%) of partially modified ammonium sulfate particles; 23% (11-40%) of partially modified sea-salt; and the remaining 31% (25-35%) contribution attributed to two distinct organic species as evidenced by different, but low, HGFs. The analysis reveals that on annual timescales, ˜30% of the submicron marine aerosol number concentration is sourced from predominantly organic aerosol while 60% of the anthropogenic aerosol number is predominantly organic. Coastal nucleation events show the highest contribution of the lowest HGF mode (1.19), although this contribution is more likely to be influenced by inorganic iodine oxides. While organic mass internally mixed with inorganic salts will lower the activation potential of these mixed aerosol types, thereby potentially reducing the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), pure organic water soluble particles are still likely to be activated into cloud droplets, thereby increasing the concentration of CCN. A combination of dynamics and aerosol concentrations will determine which effect will prevail under given conditions.

  20. Particle number concentrations over Europe in 2030: the role of emissions and new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlm, L.; Julin, J.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.; Riipinen, I.

    2013-04-01

    The aerosol particle number concentration is a key parameter when estimating impacts of aerosol particles on climate and human health. We use a three-dimensional chemical transport model with detailed microphysics, PMCAMx-UF, to simulate particle number concentrations over Europe in the year 2030, by applying emission scenarios for trace gases and primary aerosols. The scenarios are based on expected changes in anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and primary aerosol particles with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) focusing on a photochemically active period. For the baseline scenario, which represents a best estimate of the evolution of anthropogenic emissions in Europe, PMCAMx-UF predicts that the total particle number concentration (Ntot) will decrease by 30-70% between 2008 and 2030. The number concentration of particles larger than 100 nm (N100), a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, is predicted to decrease by 40-70% during the same period. The predicted decrease in Ntot is mainly a result of reduced new particle formation due to the expected reduction in SO2 emissions, whereas the predicted decrease in N100 is a result of both decreasing condensational growth and reduced primary aerosol emissions. For larger emission reductions, PMCAMx-UF predicts reductions of 60-80% in both Ntot and N100 over Europe. Sensitivity tests reveal that a reduction in SO2 emissions is far more efficient than any other emission reduction investigated, in reducing Ntot. For N100, emission reductions of both SO2 and PM2.5 contribute significantly to the reduced concentration, even though SO2 plays the dominant role once more. The impact of SO2 for both new particle formation and growth over Europe may be expected to be somewhat higher during the simulated period with high photochemical activity than during times of the year with less incoming solar radiation. The predicted reductions in both Ntot and N100 between 2008 and 2030

  1. Particle number concentrations over Europe in 2030: the role of emissions and new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlm, L.; Julin, J.; Fountoukis, C.; Pandis, S. N.; Riipinen, I.

    2013-10-01

    The aerosol particle number concentration is a key parameter when estimating impacts of aerosol particles on climate and human health. We use a three-dimensional chemical transport model with detailed microphysics, PMCAMx-UF, to simulate particle number concentrations over Europe in the year 2030, by applying emission scenarios for trace gases and primary aerosols. The scenarios are based on expected changes in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and primary aerosol particles with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) focusing on a photochemically active period, and the implications for other seasons are discussed. For the baseline scenario, which represents a best estimate of the evolution of anthropogenic emissions in Europe, PMCAMx-UF predicts that the total particle number concentration (Ntot) will decrease by 30-70% between 2008 and 2030. The number concentration of particles larger than 100 nm (N100), a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, is predicted to decrease by 40-70% during the same period. The predicted decrease in Ntot is mainly a result of reduced new particle formation due to the expected reduction in SO2 emissions, whereas the predicted decrease in N100 is a result of both decreasing condensational growth and reduced primary aerosol emissions. For larger emission reductions, PMCAMx-UF predicts reductions of 60-80% in both Ntot and N100 over Europe. Sensitivity tests reveal that a reduction in SO2 emissions is far more efficient than any other emission reduction investigated, in reducing Ntot. For N100, emission reductions of both SO2 and PM2.5 contribute significantly to the reduced concentration, even though SO2 plays the dominant role once more. The impact of SO2 for both new particle formation and growth over Europe may be expected to be somewhat higher during the simulated period with high photochemical activity than during times of the year with less incoming solar radiation. The predicted

  2. Ambient measurement of fluorescent aerosol particles with a WIBS in the Yangtze River Delta of China: potential impacts of combustion-related aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiawei; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Minghui; Kuhn, Uwe; Xie, Zhouqing; Cheng, Yafang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Su, Hang

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence characteristics of aerosol particles in a polluted atmosphere were studied using a wideband integrated bioaerosol spectrometer (WIBS-4A) in Nanjing, Yangtze River Delta area of China. We observed strong diurnal and day-to-day variations of fluorescent aerosol particles (FAPs). The average number concentrations of FAPs (1-15 µm) detected in the three WIBS measurement channels (FL1: 0.6 cm-3, FL2: 3.4 cm-3, FL3: 2.1 cm-3) were much higher than those observed in forests and rural areas, suggesting that FAPs other than bioaerosols were detected. We found that the number fractions of FAPs were positively correlated with the black carbon mass fraction, especially for the FL1 channel, indicating a large contribution of combustion-related aerosols. To distinguish bioaerosols from combustion-related FAPs, we investigated two classification schemes for use with WIBS data. Our analysis suggests a strong size dependence for the fractional contributions of different types of FAPs. In the FL3 channel, combustion-related particles seem to dominate the 1-2 µm size range while bioaerosols dominate the 2-5 µm range. The number fractions of combustion-related particles and non-combustion-related particles to total aerosol particles were ˜ 11 and ˜ 5 %, respectively.

  3. Formation and growth of indoor air aerosol particles as a result of D-limonene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, E.; Kulmala, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Taipale, R.; Rinne, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    Oxidation of D-limonene, which is a common monoterpene, can lead to new aerosol particle formation in indoor environments. Thus, products containing D-limonene, such as citrus fruits, air refresheners, household cleaning agents, and waxes, can act as indoor air aerosol particle sources. We released D-limonene into the room air by peeling oranges and measured the concentration of aerosol particles of three different size ranges. In addition, we measured the concentration of D-limonene, the oxidant, and the concentration of ozone, the oxidizing gas. Based on the measurements we calculated the growth rate of the small aerosol particles, which were 3-10 nm in diameter, to be about 6300nmh-1, and the losses of the aerosol particles that were due to the coagulation and condensation processes. From these, we further approximated the concentration of the condensable vapour and its source rate and then calculated the formation rate of the small aerosol particles. For the final result, we calculated the nucleation rate and the maximum number of molecules in a critical cluster. The nucleation rate was in the order of 105cm-3s-1 and the number of molecules in a critical-sized cluster became 1.2. The results were in agreement with the activation theory.

  4. Vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration in the troposphere over Siberia derived from airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Machida, Toshinobu; Kozlov, Alexandr; Malyskin, Sergei; Simonenkov, Denis; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosols particles is very important when estimating aerosol radiative effects. To date there are a lot of research programs aimed to study aerosol vertical distribution, but only a few ones exist in such insufficiently explored region as Siberia. Monthly research flights and several extensive airborne campaigns carried out in recent years in Siberian troposphere allowed the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration to be summarized. In-situ aerosol measurements were performed in a wide range of particle sizes by means of improved version of the Novosibirsk-type diffusional particle sizer and GRIMM aerosol spectrometer Model 1.109. The data on aerosol vertical distribution enabled input parameters for the empirical equation of Jaenicke (1993) to be derived for Siberian troposphere up to 7 km. Vertical distributions of aerosol number concentration in different size ranges averaged for the main seasons of the year will be presented. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00526). Jaenicke R. Tropospheric aerosols, in Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions, edited by P.V. Hobs. -Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1993.- P. 1-31.

  5. Measurement of the nucleation of atmospheric aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Nieminen, Tuomo; Sipilä, Mikko; Manninen, Hanna E; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dal Maso, Miikka; Aalto, Pasi P; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Laaksonen, Ari; Kerminen, Veli-Matti

    2012-09-01

    The formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles and their subsequent growth have been observed frequently at various locations all over the world. The atmospheric nucleation rate (or formation rate) and growth rate (GR) are key parameters to characterize the phenomenon. Recent progress in measurement techniques enables us to measure atmospheric nucleation at the size (mobility diameter) of 1.5 (±0.4) nm. The detection limit has decreased from 3 to 1 nm within the past 10 years. In this protocol, we describe the procedures for identifying new-particle-formation (NPF) events, and for determining the nucleation, formation and growth rates during such events under atmospheric conditions. We describe the present instrumentation, best practices and other tools used to investigate atmospheric nucleation and NPF at a certain mobility diameter (1.5, 2.0 or 3.0 nm). The key instruments comprise devices capable of measuring the number concentration of the formed nanoparticles and their size, such as a suite of modern condensation particle counters (CPCs) and air ion spectrometers, and devices for characterizing the pre-existing particle number concentration distribution, such as a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS). We also discuss the reliability of the methods used and requirements for proper measurements and data analysis. The time scale for realizing this procedure is 1 year.

  6. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Paul

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  7. A conceptual framework for mixing structures in individual aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weijun; Sun, Jiaxing; Xu, Liang; Shi, Zongbo; Riemer, Nicole; Sun, Yele; Fu, Pingqing; Zhang, Jianchao; Lin, Yangting; Wang, Xinfeng; Shao, Longyi; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the particle size- and age-dependent mixing structures of individual particles in clean and polluted air. Aerosols were classified into eight components: sea salt, mineral dust, fly ash, metal, soot, sulfates, nitrates, and organic matter (OM). Based on our aerosol classification, a particle that consists of two or more aerosol components can be defined as an internally mixed particle. Otherwise, it is considered to be an externally mixed particle. Within the internally mixed particle class, we identified four heterogeneous mixing structures: core-shell, dumbbell, OM coating, and dispersed OM, as well as one homogeneous-like mixing structure. Homogeneous-like mixing mainly occurred in fine particles (<1 µm), while the frequency of heterogeneously mixed particles increased with particle size. Our study demonstrated that particle mixing structures depend on particle size and location and evolve with time. OM-coating and core-shell structures are important indicators for particle aging in air as long as they are distant from specific emission sources. Long-range transported particles tended to have core-shell and OM-coating structures. We found that secondary aerosol components (e.g., sulfates, nitrates, and organics) determined particle mixing structures, because their phases change following particle hydration and dehydration under different relative humidities. Once externally mixed particles are transformed into internally mixed particles, they cannot revert to their former state, except when semivolatile aerosol components are involved. Categorizing mixing structures of individual particles is essential for studying their optical and hygroscopic properties and for tracing the development of their physical or chemical properties over time.

  8. SAGE II aerosol validation: selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Livingston, J M; Russell, P B; Pueschel, R F; Rosen, J N; Osborn, M T; Kritz, M A; Snetsinger, K G; Ferry, G V

    1989-06-20

    Correlative aerosol measurements taken at a limited number of altitudes during coordinated field experiments are used to test the validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements taken by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II Sun photometer. In particular, results are presented from correlative measurement missions that were conducted during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986. Correlative sensors included impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers aboard an U-2-airplane, an upward pointing lidar aboard a P-3 airplane, and balloon-borne optical particle counters (dustsondes). The main body of this paper focuses on the July 29, 1986, validation experiment, which minimized the many difficulties (e.g., spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, imperfect coincidences) that can complicate the validation process. On this day, correlative aerosol measurements taken at an altitude of 20.5 km agreed with each other within their respective uncertainties, and particulate extinction values calculated at SAGE II wavelengths from these measurements validated corresponding SAGE II values. Additional validation efforts on days when measurement and logistical conditions were much less favorable for validation are discussed in an appendix.

  9. Experimental Determination of Chemical Diffusion within Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Evan H.; Imre, D.; Beranek, Josef; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2013-02-28

    Formation, properties, transformations, and temporal evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) particles strongly depend on particle phase. Recent experimental evidence from a number of groups indicates that SOA is in a semi-solid phase, the viscosity of which remained unknown. We find that when SOA is made in the presence of vapors of volatile hydrophobic molecules the SOA particles absorb and trap them. Here, we illustrate that it is possible to measure the evaporation rate of these molecules that is determined by their diffusion in SOA, which is then used to calculate a reasonably accurate value for the SOA viscosity. We use pyrene as a tracer molecule and a-pinene SOA as an illustrative case. It takes ~24 hours for half the pyrene to evaporate to yield a viscosity of 10^8 Pa s for a-pinene. This viscosity is consistent with measurements of particle bounce and evaporation rates. We show that viscosity of 10^8 Pa s implies coalescence times of minutes, consistent with the findings that SOA particles are spherical. Similar measurements on aged SOA particles doped with pyrene yield a viscosity of 10^9 Pa s, indicating that hardening occurs with time, which is consistent with observed decrease in water uptake and evaporation rate with aging.

  10. Processes Controlling the Seasonal Cycle of Arctic Aerosol Number and Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G.; Croft, B.; Martin, R.; Leaitch, W. R.; Tunved, P.; Breider, T. J.; D'Andrea, S.; Pierce, J. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Kodros, J.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements at high-Arctic sites show a strong seasonal cycle in aerosol number and size. The number of aerosols with diameters larger than 20 nm exhibits a maximum in late spring associated with a dominant accumulation mode, and a second maximum in the summer associated with a dominant Aitken mode. Seasonal-mean aerosol effective diameter ranges from about 160 nm in summer to 250 nm in winter. This study interprets these seasonal cycles with the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol microphysics model. We find improved agreement with in situ measurements (SMPS) of aerosol size at both Alert, Nunavut, and Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard following model developments: 1) increase the efficiency of wet scavenging in the Arctic summer and 2) represent coagulation between interstitial aerosols and aerosols activated to form cloud droplets. Our simulations indicate that the dominant summer-time Aitken mode is associated with increased efficiency of wet removal, which limits the number of larger aerosols and promotes local new-aerosol formation. We also find an important role of interstitial coagulation in clouds in the Arctic, which limits the number of Aitken-mode aerosols in the non-summer seasons when direct wet removal of these aerosols is inefficient. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is particularly pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions which have poorly understood climate impacts. Especially influenced are the climatic roles of atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we present evidence that ammonia (NH3) emissions from migratory-seabird guano (dung) are the primary contributor to summertime free ammonia levels recently measured in the Canadian Arctic atmosphere. These findings suggest that ammonia from seabird guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of new-particle formation, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Canada. Chemical transport model simulations show that these newly formed particles can grow by vapour

  11. The optical manipulation and characterisation of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jonathan P.

    2008-08-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in many areas of science, ranging from atmospheric chemistry and physics, to pharmaceutical aerosols and drug delivery to the lungs, to combustion science and spray drying. The development of new methods for characterising the properties and dynamics of aerosol particles is of crucial importance if the complex role that particles play is to be more fully understood. Optical tweezers provide a valuable new tool to address fundamental questions in aerosol science. Single or multiple particles 1-15 μm in diameter can be manipulated for indefinite timescales. Linear and non-linear Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies can be used to probe particle composition, phase, component mixing state, and size. In particular, size can be determined with nanometre accuracy, allowing accurate measurements of the thermodynamic properties of aerosols, the kinetics of particle transformation and of light absorption. Further, the simultaneous manipulation of multiple particles in parallel optical traps provides a method for performing comparative measurements on particles of different composition. We will present some latest work in which optical tweezers are used to characterise aerosol dynamics, demonstrating that optical tweezers can find application in studies of hygroscopicity, the mixing state of different chemical components, including the phase separation of immiscible phases, and the kinetics of chemical transformation.

  12. [Hygroscopic Properties of Aerosol Particles in North Suburb of Nanjing in Spring].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Ze-feng; Li, Yan-weil; Qin, Xin; Miao, Qing; Shen, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The hygroscopic properties of submicron aerosol particles have significant effects on spectral distribution, CCN activation, climate forcing, human health and so on. A Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) was utilized to analyze the hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northern suburb of Nanjing during 16 April to 21 May, 2014. At relative humidity (RH) of 90%, for particles with dry diameters 30-230 nm, the probability distribution of GF (GF-PDF) shows a distinct bimodal pattern, with a dominant more-hygroscopic group and a smaller less-hygroscopic group. A contrast analysis between day and night suggests that, aerosol particles during day time have a stronger hygroscopicity and a higher number fraction of more-hygroscopic group than that at night overall. Aerosol particles during night have a higher degree of externally mixed state. Backward trajectory analysis using HYSPLIT mode reveals that, the sampling site is mainly affected by three air masses. For aitken nuclei, northwest continental air masses experience a longer aging process and have a stronger hygroscopicity. For condensation nuclei, east air masses have a stronger hygroscopicity and have a higher number fraction of more-hygroscopic group. Aerosol particles in local air masses have a high number fraction of more-hygroscopic group in the whole diameter range.

  13. Equilibrium absorptive partitioning theory between multiple aerosol particle modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooks, Matthew; Connolly, Paul; Topping, David; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-10-01

    An existing equilibrium absorptive partitioning model for calculating the equilibrium gas and particle concentrations of multiple semi-volatile organics within a bulk aerosol is extended to allow for multiple involatile aerosol modes of different sizes and chemical compositions. In the bulk aerosol problem, the partitioning coefficient determines the fraction of the total concentration of semi-volatile material that is in the condensed phase of the aerosol. This work modifies this definition for multiple polydisperse aerosol modes to account for multiple condensed concentrations, one for each semi-volatile on each involatile aerosol mode. The pivotal assumption in this work is that each aerosol mode contains an involatile constituent, thus overcoming the potential problem of smaller particles evaporating completely and then condensing on the larger particles to create a monodisperse aerosol at equilibrium. A parameterisation is proposed in which the coupled non-linear system of equations is approximated by a simpler set of equations obtained by setting the organic mole fraction in the partitioning coefficient to be the same across all modes. By perturbing the condensed masses about this approximate solution a correction term is derived that accounts for many of the removed complexities. This method offers a greatly increased efficiency in calculating the solution without significant loss in accuracy, thus making it suitable for inclusion in large-scale models.

  14. New mass measurement method of aerosol particle using vibrating probe particle controlled by radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariyama, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2005-11-01

    Aerosol particles with sub-micro meter size inhaled into respiratory systems cause serious damage to human body. In order to evaluate the health effects of the particles, classification methods of the particles with size and mass are needed. Several measurement methods of the particle size are established. However, conventional mass measurement methods are not enough to measure the particles with sub- pico gram. We propose a new mass measurement method of the aerosol particles based on laser trapping. In this method, an optically trapped silica particle is used as a measuring probe particle. The probe particle is trapped at a beam waist of the focused laser light and is forced to vibrate by deflecting the beam waist using AOD. The vibrating probe particle has a resonance frequency because it is governed by the spring-mass-damper system. When an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shifts according to the increase of the total mass. The mass of the aerosol particle can be measured from the shift of the resonance frequency. Experimentally, it is confirmed that the probe particle is governed by the spring-mass-damper system and has a resonance frequency. When a silica fine particle of 3pg in mass used as an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shift occurs as expected in the dynamic system and the fine particle mass can be measured based on the proposed method.

  15. Hygroscopic growth of urban aerosol particles during the 2009 Mirage-Shanghai Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xingnan; Tang, Chen; Yin, Zi; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Kong, Lingdong; Yang, Xin; Gao, Wei; Geng, Fuhai

    2013-01-01

    The hygroscopic properties of submicrometer urban aerosol particles were studied during the 2009 Mirage-Shanghai Campaign. The urban aerosols were composed of more-hygroscopic and nearly-hydrophobic particles, together with a trace of less-hygroscopic particles. The mean hygroscopicity parameter κ of the more-hygroscopic mode varied in the range of 0.27-0.39 depending on particle size. The relative abundance of the more-hygroscopic particles at any size was ca. 70%, slightly increasing with particle size. The number fraction of the nearly-hydrophobic particles fluctuated between 0.1 and 0.4 daily, in accordance with traffic emissions and atmospheric diffusion. The results from relative humidity dependence on hygroscopic growth and chemical analysis of fine particles indicated that particulate nitrate formation through the homogenous gas-phase reaction was suppressed under ammonia-deficient atmosphere in summer whereas the equilibrium was broken by more available NH3 during adverse meteorological conditions.

  16. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1986-01-01

    A method for separating gaseous samples from a contained atmosphere that includes aerosol particles uses the step of repelling particles from a gas permeable surface or membrane by heating the surface to a temperature greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere. The resulting thermophoretic forces maintain the gas permeable surface clear of aerosol particles. The disclosed apparatus utilizes a downwardly facing heated plate of gas permeable material to combine thermophoretic repulsion and gravity forces to prevent particles of any size from contacting the separating plate surfaces.

  17. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 μm in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles <100 nm generated by means of jets

  18. Measurement of mass distribution of chemical species in aerosol particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosols may be generated through the nebulizing of solutions and the evaporation of their solvent, leaving the dry solute particles. Attention is presently given to a method for the direct determination of the masses of chemical species in individual aerosol particles on a continuous, real-time basis, using mass spectrometry. After the aerosol particles are introduced into the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, the particles impinge on a hot rhenium filament in the mass spectrometer's ion source. The resulting vapor plume is ionized by electron bombardment, and a pulse of ions is generated by each particle. The intensities of different masses in the ion pulses can then be measured by the mass spectrometer.

  19. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. ); Cass, G.R. . Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

  20. Regional signatures in the organic composition of marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Keene, William C.; Kieber, David J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2013-05-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer. The organic composition of submicron particles derived from multiple seawater regions have been measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cluster analysis of FTIR organic spectra suggest different spectral signatures based on collection location, seawater composition, and ambient conditions. Measurements including non-refractory aerosol composition from a high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), seawater composition, and wind speed were used to interpret the cluster results, depending on the availability from each campaign. FTIR spectra of ambient particles are compared to FTIR spectra of primary marine particles generated from model ocean systems to infer the ambient particle production mechanisms and aging processes. Recent measurements used in the comparison include ambient and generated marine aerosol particles measured off the coast of California during CalNex in May and June 2010. Remote ambient marine aerosol particles were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey in the eastern Pacific during the EPEACE experiment in July 2011. Ambient and generated marine particles were measured in two different seawater types during WACS 2012 including colder, more productive water off the coast of the northeastern United States and warmer, oligotrophic water in the Sargasso Sea. These particles are also compared with those measured in the southeastern Pacific during VOCALS and the north Atlantic during ICEALOT.

  1. Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles and CCN activity of nearly hydrophobic particles in the urban atmosphere over Japan during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shuhei; Setoguchi, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Ikeda, Yuka; Sawada, Yuuki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the hygroscopicity of 150 nm particles and the number-size distributions and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of nearly hydrophobic particles in aerosols over Nagoya, Japan, during summer. We analyzed the correlations between the number concentrations of particles in specific hygroscopic growth factor (g) ranges and the mass concentrations of chemical components. This analysis suggests the association of nearly hydrophobic particles with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, elemental carbon and semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), that of less hygroscopic particles with SV-OOA and nitrate and that of more hygroscopic particles with low-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and sulfate. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of organics was derived based on the g distributions and chemical composition of 150 nm particles. The κ of the organics correlated positively with the fraction of the total organic mass spectral signal at m/z 44 and the volume fraction of the LV-OOA to the organics, indicating that organics with highly oxygenated structures including carboxylic acid groups contribute to the water uptake. The number-size distributions of the nearly hydrophobic particles with g around 1.0 and 1.1 correlated with the mass concentrations of chemical components. The results show that the chemical composition of the particles with g around 1.0 was different between the Aitken mode and the accumulation mode size ranges. An analysis for a parameter Fmax of the curves fitted to the CCN efficiency spectra of the particles with g around 1.0 suggests that the coating by organics associated with SV-OOA elevated the CCN activity of these particles.

  2. Polarization resolved angular optical scattering of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Pan, Y.; Wang, C.; Videen, G.; Cao, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Real-time detection and identification of bio-aerosol particles are crucial for the protection against chemical and biological agents. The strong elastic light scattering properties of airborne particles provides a natural means for rapid, non-invasive aerosol characterization. Recent theoretical predictions suggested that variations in the polarization dependent angular scattering cross section could provide an efficient means of classifying different airborne particles. In particular, the polarization dependent scattering cross section of aggregate particles is expected to depend on the shape of the primary particles. In order to experimentally validate this prediction, we built a high throughput, sampling system, capable of measuring the polarization resolved angular scattering cross section of individual aerosol particles flowing through an interrogating volume with a single shot of laser pulse. We calibrated the system by comparing the polarization dependent scattering cross section of individual polystyrene spheres with that predicted by Mie theory. We then used the system to study different particles types: Polystyrene aggregates composed 500 nm spheres and Bacillus subtilis (BG, Anthrax simulant) spores composed of elongated 500 nm × 1000 nm cylinder-line particles. We found that the polarization resolved scattering cross section depends on the shape of the constituent elements of the aggregates. This work indicates that the polarization resolved scattering cross section could be used for rapid discrimination between different bio-aerosol particles.

  3. Estimation of particle number size distributions from mass based model simulations and comparison to observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, Christa; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric Chemistry Transport Model system COSMO-MUSCAT was used to determine the particle mass concentrations of dust and anthropogenically emitted aerosol particles over Europe. The model system consists of the online coupled code of the operational forecast model COSMO (Schättler et al., 2009) and the chemistry-transport model MUSCAT (Wolke et al., 2012). For a four-months-period in 2008 (May to August), the dust and anthropogenic aerosol mass concentrations for six different species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon and sea salt) were simulated. For the dust, five different size bins were used and a representative particle size and density were assumed for each size bin. Afterwards, the number concentration was calculated. For the anthropogenic aerosol, lognormal modes were assumed with a representative mode diameter, sigma and density for each component. These parameters were then used to convert the simulated mass concentrations to number concentrations and number size distributions for each component. Those individual size distributions can then be summed up to a total particle number size distribution. A first comparison with measurement data from the Cape Verde Islands showed a good agreement between observed and simulated dust particle size distributions. Both, the shape of the number size distributions and the order of magnitude of the particle number concentrations compared well. Only for the smallest size bin, observed numbers were occasionally higher, which can be explained by anthropogenic or biomass burning aerosol, which is included in the measurements of the total particle size distributions but was not included in the model runs. Comparisons of measured and simulated size distributions of the anthropogenic aerosol will be available soon. In case the data are available, we will also present an estimation of the particle number concentrations with the aerosol microphysical aerosol module ext-M7 for the duration of a

  4. Particle size analysis of radioactive aerosols formed by irradiation of argon using 65 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Noguchi, H; Tanaka, Su; Kanda, Y; Oki, Y; Iida, T; Sato, K; Tsuda, S

    2002-04-01

    The size distributions of 38Cl and 39Cl aerosols formed from the irradiation of argon gas containing di-octyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols by 65 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were measured to study the formation mechanism of radioactive aerosols in high-energy radiation fields. Both the number size distribution and the activity-weighted size distribution were measured using an electrical low-pressure impactor. It was found that the 35Cl and 39Cl aerosols are formed by attachment of the radioactive atoms generated by the neutron-induced reaction to the DOP aerosol particles.

  5. Characteristics of aerosolized ice forming marine biogenic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.

    Ice particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere existing as the sole constituents of glaciated cirrus clouds or coexisting with supercooled liquid droplets in mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol particles serving as heterogeneous ice nuclei for ice crystal formation impact the global radiative balance by modification of cloud radiative properties, and thus climate. Atmospheric ice formation is not a well understood process and represents great uncertainty for climate prediction. The oceans which cover the majority of the earth's surface host nearly half the total global primary productivity and contribute to the greatest aerosol production by mass. However, the effect of biological activity on particle aerosolization, particle composition, and ice nucleation is not well established. This dissertation investigates the link between marine biological activity, aerosol particle production, physical/chemical particle characteristics, and ice nucleation under controlled laboratory conditions. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions of particles from bursting bubbles generated by plunging water jets and aeration through frits in a seawater mesocosm containing bacteria and/or phytoplankton cultures, were measured as a function of biological activity. Total particle production significantly increases primarily due to enhanced aerosolization of particles ≤100 nm in diameter attributable to the presence and growth of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hygroscopicity measurements indicate primary organic material associated with the sea salt particles, providing additional evidence for the importance of marine biological activity for ocean derived aerosol composition. Ice nucleation experiments show that these organic rich particles nucleate ice efficiently in the immersion and deposition modes, which underscores their importance in mixed-phase and cirrus cloud formation processes. In separate ice nucleation experiments employing pure cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nannochloris

  6. New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2014-08-01

    Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.

  7. Aerosol particle properties in a South American megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulke, Ana; Torres-Brizuela, Marcela; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cancelada, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    The subtropical city of Buenos Aires is located on the western shore of Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of Argentina. It is the second largest metropolitan area in South America, with a population density of around 14 thousand people per km2. When all 24 counties of the Great Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area are included it is the third-largest conurbation in Latin America, with a population of around fifteen million inhabitants. The generalized worldwide trend to concentrate human activities in urban regions that continue to expand in area, threatens the local and regional environment. Air pollution in the Buenos Aires airshed is due to local sources (mainly the mobile sources, followed by the electric power plants and some industries) and to distant sources (like biomass burning, dust, marine aerosols and occasionally volcanic ash) whose products arrive in the city area due to the regional transport patterns. Previous research suggests that ambient aerosol particle concentrations should be considered an air quality problem. A field campaign was conducted in Buenos Aires in 2011 in order to characterize some aerosol particles properties measured for the first time in the city. Measurements began in mid- April and continued until December. The field observations were done in a collaborative effort between the Universities of Mexico (UNAM) and Buenos Aires (UBA). A suite of instruments was installed on the roof of an UBA laboratory and classroom buildings (34.54° S, 58.44° W) at an altitude of approximately 30 m above sea level. The measurements included the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) larger than approximately 50 nm, the mass concentration of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), the scattering (Bscat) and absorption (Babs) coefficients at 550 nm and the vertical profiles of backscattered light from aerosols at a wavelength of 910 nm using a ceilometer. In addition, a weather station recorded the meteorological

  8. A rocket-borne mass analyzer for charged aerosol particles in the mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Friedrich, Martin

    2008-10-15

    An electrostatic mass spectrometer for nanometer-sized charged aerosol particles in the mesosphere has been developed and tested. The analyzer is mounted on the forward end of a rocket and has a slit opening for admitting a continuous sample of air that is exhausted through ports at the sides. Within the instrument housing are two sets of four collection plates that are biased with positive and negative voltages for the collection of negative and positive aerosol particles, respectively. Each collection plate spans about an order of magnitude in mass which corresponds to a factor of 2 in radius. The number density of the charge is calculated from the current collected by the plates. The mean free path for molecular collisions in the mesosphere is comparable to the size of the instrument opening; thus, the analyzer performance is modeled by a Monte Carlo computer code that finds the aerosol particles trajectories within the instrument including both the electrostatic force and the forces from collisions of the aerosol particles with air molecules. Mass sensitivity curves obtained using the computer models are near to those obtained in the laboratory using an ion source. The first two flights of the instrument returned data showing the charge number densities of both positive and negative aerosol particles in four mass ranges.

  9. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Turco, R. P.; Ogren, J. A.; Yantosca, R. M.

    2011-10-01

    New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) as well as cloud CN (CCN), a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends consistent with these predictions. The analysis also suggests, owing to larger observed CN reductions at remote sites than can be explained by the basic nucleation mechanism, that dimethylsulphide (DMS) emissions may be decreasing worldwide with increasing global temperatures, implying a positive DMS-based cloud feedback forcing of the climate ("CLAW"). The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates, and possibly on DMS emissions, may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  10. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Turco, R. P.; Ogren, J. A.; Yantosca, R. M.

    2012-03-01

    New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) as well as cloud CN (CCN), a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends that are consistent in sign with, but are larger in magnitude than, the predicted temperature effects. The possible reasons for larger observed long-term CN reductions at remote sites are discussed. The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates and other chemical and microphysical processes may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  11. LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION OF ULTRAFINE AEROSOL PARTICLES. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-line analysis of ultrafine aerosol particle in the 12 to 150 nm size range is performed by
    laser desorption/ionization. Particles are size selected with a differential mobility analyzer and then
    sent into a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer where they are ablated w...

  12. Numerical investigation of the coagulation mixing between dust and hygroscopic aerosol particles and its impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, I.-Chun; Chen, Jen-Ping; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Chung-Kuang Chou, Charles; Chen, Wei-Nai

    2015-05-01

    A statistical-numerical aerosol parameterization was incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to study the coagulation mixing process focusing on a dust storm event that occurred over East Asia. Simulation results show that the coagulation mixing process tends to decrease aerosol mass, surface area, and number concentrations over the dust source areas. Over the downwind oceanic areas, aerosol concentrations generally increased due to enhanced sedimentation as particles became larger upon coagulation. The mixture process can reduce the overall single-scattering albedo by up to 10% as a result of enhanced core with shell absorption by dust and reduction in the number of scattering particles. The enhanced dry deposition speed also altered the vertical distribution. In addition, the ability of aerosol particles to serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) increased from around 107 m-3 to above 109 m-3 over downwind areas because a large amount of mineral dust particles became effective CCN with solute coating, except over the highly polluted areas where multiple collections of hygroscopic particles by dust in effect reduced CCN number. This CCN effect is much stronger for coagulation mixing than by the uptake of sulfuric acid gas on dust, although the nitric acid gas uptake was not investigated. The ability of dust particles to serve as ice nuclei may decrease or increase at low or high subzero temperatures, respectively, due to the switching from deposition nucleation to immersion freezing or haze freezing.

  13. Characterization of a Quadrotor Unmanned Aircraft System for Aerosol-Particle-Concentration Measurements.

    PubMed

    Brady, James M; Stokes, M Dale; Bonnardel, Jim; Bertram, Timothy H

    2016-02-02

    High-spatial-resolution, near-surface vertical profiling of atmospheric chemical composition is currently limited by the availability of experimental platforms that can sample in constrained environments. As a result, measurements of near-surface gradients in trace gas and aerosol particle concentrations have been limited to studies conducted from fixed location towers or tethered balloons. Here, we explore the utility of a quadrotor unmanned aircraft system (UAS) as a sampling platform to measure vertical and horizontal concentration gradients of trace gases and aerosol particles at high spatial resolution (1 m) within the mixed layer (0-100 m). A 3D Robotics Iris+ autonomous quadrotor UAS was outfitted with a sensor package consisting of a two-channel aerosol optical particle counter and a CO2 sensor. The UAS demonstrated high precision in both vertical (±0.5 m) and horizontal positions (±1 m), highlighting the potential utility of quadrotor UAS drones for aerosol- and trace-gas measurements within complex terrain, such as the urban environment, forest canopies, and above difficult-to-access areas such as breaking surf. Vertical profiles of aerosol particle number concentrations, acquired from flights conducted along the California coastline, were used to constrain sea-spray aerosol-emission rates from coastal wave breaking.

  14. Phosphorus-bearing Aerosol Particles From Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenholzner, J. H.; Schroettner, H.; Poelt, P.; Delgado, H.; Caltabiano, T.

    2003-12-01

    Particles rich in P or bulk geochemical data of volcanic aerosol particles showing high P contents are known from many volcanic plumes (Stanton, 1994; Obenholzner et al., 2003). FESEM/EDS analysis of individual particles obtained from the passively degassing plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mx. (1997) and from the plume of Stromboli (May 2003) show P frequently. Even at the high resolution of the FESEM, euhedral apatite crystals could not be observed. At Popocatepetl (1997) spherical Ca-P-O particles are common. Fluffy, fractal or botryoidal particles also can contain EDS-detectable amounts of P. The EDS spectrum of such particles can comprise various elements. However most particles show P, S and Cl. P-S and P-S-metal species are known in chemistry but do they occur in volcanic plumes? Stoichiometric considerations had been made in the past suggesting the existence of P-S species in plumes (Stanton 1994), gas sampling and remote gas monitoring systems have not detected yet such molecules in plumes. The particle spectrum of the reawakened Popocateptel volcano might be related to accumulation of volatiles at the top of a magma chamber during the phase of dormancy. P-Fe rich, Ca-free aggregates are also known from the eruption of El Chichon 1982 (SEM/EDS by M. Sheridan, per. comm. 08-24-2003). Persistently active volcanoes (i.e. Stromboli) represent a different category according to continuous degassing and aerosol particle formation. A particle collector ( ca. 90 ml/min) accompanied a COSPEC helicopter flight at Stromboli (May 15, 2003) after one of the rare types of sub-plinian events on April 5 2003. P-bearing particles are very common. For instance, an Fe oxide grain (diam. = 2 æm) is partially covered by fluffy and euhedral P-bearing matter. The elements detected are P, Cl, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and (Fe). The fluffy and the euhedral (rhombohedral?) matter show in SE-BSE-mix image almost identical grey colors. At Stromboli and Popocatepetl particles on which

  15. Aerosol particle microphotography and glare-spot absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, S; Holler, S; Li, J H; Serpengüzel, A; Auffermann, W F; Hill, S C

    1995-04-01

    The relative intensities of glare spots in the image of an electrodynamically trapped aerosol droplet are measured experimentally with an aerosol particle microscope and calculated theoretically. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with these experiments and indicate that the intensities of these spots are extremely sensitive to the imaginary part of the refractive index. Experimentally, we obtain the molecular absorption spectrum of an impurity within a droplet by recording the spectrum of an individual glare spot produced by broadband illumination.

  16. SAGE II aerosol validation - Selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Russell, Philip B.; Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Ferry, Guy V.; Livingston, John M.; Rosen, James N.; Osborn, Mary T.; Kritz, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements obtained during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II is tested. The SAGE II measurements are compared with correlative aerosol measurements taken during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986 with impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers on a U-2 aircraft, an upward pointing lidar on a P-3 aircraft, and balloon-borne optical particle counters. The data for July 29, 1986 are discussed in detail. The aerosol measurements taken on this day at an altitude of 20.5 km produce particulate extinction values which validate the SAGE II values for similar wavelengths.

  17. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

  18. Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mo; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analyses of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol articles have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

  19. Aerosol and Cloud-Nucleating Particle Observations during an Atmospheric River Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Petters, M.; Suski, K. J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Schill, G. P.; Rocci, K.; Boose, Y.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G.; Al-Mashat, H.; Moore, K.; Prather, K. A.; Rothfuss, N.; Taylor, H.; Leung, L. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Mei, F.; Hubbe, J. M.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, J. R.; Fairall, C. W.; Creamean, J.; White, A. B.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The multi-agency CalWater 2015 project occurred over North Central CA and the Eastern Pacific during January to March 2015 (Spackman et al., this session). The goals of the campaign were to document the structure of atmospheric rivers (ARs) that deliver much of the water vapor associated with major winter storms along the U.S. West Coast and to investigate the modulating effect of aerosols on precipitation. Aerosol sources that may influence orographic cloud properties for air lifted over the mountains in California in winter include pollution, biomass burning, soil dusts and marine aerosols, but their roles will also be influenced by transport, vertical stratification, and scavenging processes. We present results from a comprehensive study of aerosol distributions, compositions, and cloud nucleating properties during an intense winter storm during February 2015, including data from an NSF-supported measurement site at Bodega Bay, from the DOE-ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment that included sampling on the NOAA RV Ron Brown offshore and the G-1 aircraft over ocean and land, and with context provided by other NOAA aircraft and remote sensing facilities. With a special focus on the coastal site, we discuss changes in aerosol distributions, aerosol hygroscopicity, and number concentrations of fluorescent particles, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles (INPs) during the AR event. We compare with periods preceding and following the event. For example, total aerosol number and surface area concentrations at below 0.5 μm diameter decreased from typical values of a few thousand cm-3 and 100 μm2 cm-3, respectively, to a few hundred cm-3 and 10 μm2cm-3 at Bodega Bay during the AR event. CCN concentrations were similarly lower, but hygroscopicity parameter (kappa) increased from typical values of 0.2 to values > 0.5 during the AR.INP and fluorescent particle number concentrations were generally lower during the AR event than at any other

  20. Retrievals of Aerosol and Cloud Particle Microphysics Using Polarization and Depolarization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The recent availability of theoretical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering of light by realistic polydispersions of spherical and nonspherical particles and the strong dependence of the Stokes scattering matrix on particle size, shape, and refractive index make polarization and depolarization measurements a powerful particle characterization tool. In this presentation I will describe recent applications of photopolarimetric and lidar depolarization measurements to remote sensing characterization of tropospheric aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), and contrails. The talk will include (1) a short theoretical overview of the effects of particle microphysics on particle single-scattering characteristics; (2) the use of multi-angle multi-spectral photopolarimetry to retrieve the optical thickness, size distribution, refractive index, and number concentration of tropospheric aerosols over the ocean surface; and (3) the application of the T-matrix method to constraining the PSC and contrail particle microphysics using multi-spectral measurements of lidar backscatter and depolarization.

  1. Biogenic Potassium Salt Particles as Seeds for Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Sinha, Bärbel; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Smith, Mackenzie; Su, Hang; Artaxo, Paulo; Chen, Qi; Cheng, Yafang; Elbert, Wolfgang; Gilles, Mary K.; Kilcoyne, Arthur L. D.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Weigand, Markus; Martin, Scot T.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2012-08-01

    The fine particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei in pristine Amazonian rainforest air consist mostly of secondary organic aerosol. Their origin is enigmatic, however, because new particle formation in the atmosphere is not observed. Here, we show that the growth of organic aerosol particles can be initiated by potassium-salt-rich particles emitted by biota in the rainforest. These particles act as seeds for the condensation of low- or semi-volatile organic compounds from the atmospheric gas phase or multiphase oxidation of isoprene and terpenes. Our findings suggest that the primary emission of biogenic salt particles directly influences the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei and affects the microphysics of cloud formation and precipitation over the rainforest.

  2. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  3. Aggregate Morphology Evolution by Sintering: Number & Diameter of Primary Particles

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, Max L.; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of fractal-like agglomerates (physically-bonded) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded) is important in aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles, and in monitoring combustion emissions and atmospheric particles. It influences also particle mobility, scattering, and eventually performance of nanocomposites, suspensions and devices made with such particles. Here, aggregate sintering by viscous flow of amorphous materials (silica, polymers) and grain boundary diffusion of crystalline ceramics (titania, alumina) or metals (Ni, Fe, Ag etc.) is investigated. A scaling law is found between average aggregate projected area and equivalent number of constituent primary particles during sintering: from fractal-like agglomerates to aggregates and eventually compact particles (e.g. spheres). This is essentially a relation independent of time, material properties and sintering mechanisms. It is used to estimate the equivalent primary particle diameter and number in aggregates. The evolution of aggregate morphology or structure is quantified by the effective fractal dimension (Df) and mass-mobility exponent (Dfm) and the corresponding prefactors. The Dfm increases monotonically during sintering converging to 3 for a compact particle. Therefore Dfm and its prefactor could be used to gauge the degree or extent of sintering of agglomerates made by a known collision mechanism. This analysis is exemplified by comparison to experiments of silver nanoparticle aggregates sintered at different temperatures in an electric tube furnace. PMID:23658467

  4. Aggregate Morphology Evolution by Sintering: Number & Diameter of Primary Particles.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-04-01

    The structure of fractal-like agglomerates (physically-bonded) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded) is important in aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles, and in monitoring combustion emissions and atmospheric particles. It influences also particle mobility, scattering, and eventually performance of nanocomposites, suspensions and devices made with such particles. Here, aggregate sintering by viscous flow of amorphous materials (silica, polymers) and grain boundary diffusion of crystalline ceramics (titania, alumina) or metals (Ni, Fe, Ag etc.) is investigated. A scaling law is found between average aggregate projected area and equivalent number of constituent primary particles during sintering: from fractal-like agglomerates to aggregates and eventually compact particles (e.g. spheres). This is essentially a relation independent of time, material properties and sintering mechanisms. It is used to estimate the equivalent primary particle diameter and number in aggregates. The evolution of aggregate morphology or structure is quantified by the effective fractal dimension (Df ) and mass-mobility exponent (Dfm ) and the corresponding prefactors. The Dfm increases monotonically during sintering converging to 3 for a compact particle. Therefore Dfm and its prefactor could be used to gauge the degree or extent of sintering of agglomerates made by a known collision mechanism. This analysis is exemplified by comparison to experiments of silver nanoparticle aggregates sintered at different temperatures in an electric tube furnace.

  5. Urban organic aerosols measured by single particle mass spectrometry in the megacity of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Harrison, R. M.

    2012-05-01

    During the month of October 2006, as part of the REPARTEE-I experiment (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) an Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at an urban background location in the city of London, UK. Fifteen particle types were classified, some of which were already discussed (Dall'Osto et al., 2009a,b; Harrison et al., 2012). In this manuscript the origins and properties of four unreported particle types postulated to be due to locally generated aerosols, independent of the air mass type advected into London, are examined. One particle type, originating from lubricating oil (referred to as Ca-EC), was associated with morning rush hour traffic emissions. A second particle type, composed of both inorganic and organic species (called Na-EC-OC), was found enhanced in particle number concentration during evening time periods, and is likely to originate from a source operating at this time of day, or more probably from condensation of semi-volatile species. A third class, internally mixed with organic carbon and sulphate (called OC), was found to spike both in the morning and evenings although it could not unambiguously associated with a specific source or atmospheric process. The fourth class (Secondary Organic Aerosols - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon; SOA-PAH) exhibited maximum frequency during the warmest part of the day, and a number of factors point towards secondary aerosol production from traffic-related volatile aromatic compounds. Single particle mass spectra of this particle type showed an oxidized polycyclic aromatic compound signature. A comparison of ATOFMS particle class data is then made with factors obtained by Positive Matrix Factorization and PAH signatures obtained from Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data (Allan et al., 2010). Both the Ca-EC and OC particle types correlate with primary Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA, R2 = 0.65 and 0.50 respectively), and Na-EC-OC correlates weakly with the AMS

  6. Particle number fluctuations in the microcanonical ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begun, V. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Kostyuk, A. P.; Zozulya, O. S.

    2005-05-01

    Particle number fluctuations are studied in the microcanonical ensemble. For the Boltzmann statistics we deduce exact analytical formulas for the microcanonical partition functions in the case of noninteracting massless neutral particles and charged particles with zero net charge. The particle number fluctuations are calculated and we find that in the microcanonical ensemble they are suppressed in comparison to the fluctuations in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles. This remains valid in the thermodynamic limit too, so that the well-known equivalence of all statistical ensembles refers to average quantities, but does not apply to fluctuations. In the thermodynamic limit we are able to calculate the particle number fluctuations in the system of massive bosons and fermions when the exact conservation laws of both the energy and charge are taken into account.

  7. Single-particle characterization of summertime arctic aerosols collected at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Jung, Hae-Jin; Chung, Hyeok; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2010-04-01

    Single-particle characterization of summertime Arctic aerosols is useful to understand the impact of air pollutants on the polar atmosphere. In the present study, a quantitative single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was used to characterize 8100 individual particles overall in 16 sets of aerosol samples collected at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway on 25-31 July, 2007. Based on their X-ray spectral and secondary electron image data of individual particles, 13 particle types were identified, in which particles of marine origin were the most abundant, followed by carbonaceous and mineral dust particles. A number of aged (reacted) sea salt (and mixture) particles produced by the atmospheric reaction of genuine sea-salts, especially with NO(x) or HNO(3), were significantly encountered in almost all the aerosol samples. They greatly outnumbered genuine sea salt particles, implying that the summertime Arctic atmosphere, generally regarded as a clean background environment, is disturbed by anthropogenic air pollutants. The main sources of airborne NO(x) (or HNO(3)) are probably ship emissions around the Arctic Ocean, industry emission from northern Europe and northwestern Siberia, and renoxification of NO(3)(-) within or on the melting snow/ice surface.

  8. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, A.K.

    1984-09-07

    This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  9. Characterization of lead-containing aerosol particles in Xiamen during and after Spring Festival by single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuhui; Chen, Liqi; Yan, Jinpei; Chen, Hangyu

    2017-02-15

    To comparatively analyze lead (Pb)-containing particles during and after the Chinese Spring Festival (SF), real-time single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was conducted in Xiamen during February 9-19 and March 4-14, 2013. Pb-containing particles were found in 2.4% and 5.3% of the total particle numbers during and after SF, respectively. Based on the SPAMS mass spectral results, the Pb-containing particles were classified into three major types and 11 subtypes: Pb-rich particles comprising Pb-nitrate, Pb-sulfate and Pb-chloride; K-rich particles comprising K-nitrate, K-sulfate, K-metal, K-carbonaceous, K-phosphate, and K-chloride; and metal particles including Fe-rich and Mn-nitrate particles. During SF, lower contributions of Pb-containing particles were due to the effect of the SF holiday. Firework emissions contributed little to the Pb-containing particles. K-rich particles were a major contribution to Pb-containing particles during SF, accounting for approximately 70% of the total number of Pb-containing particles. After SF, significantly increased Pb-containing particles were observed, coincided with NO2 and SO2, due to increased industrial activities and other anthropogenic activities, and Pb-rich particles increased to approximately 50.3% of the total number of Pb-containing particles. Local industrial emissions and the stagnant meteorological conditions resulted in the higher concentrations of Pb-containing particles in the early morning after SF, especially Pb-nitrate particles. This study provides data on the in-situ monitoring of Pb emissions during and after SF and could be helpful for the mitigation of Pb pollution.

  10. FTIR Analysis of Functional Groups in Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, S. M.; McKenzie, G.; Dransfield, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are suspensions of particulate matter composed of compounds formed from chemical reactions of organic species in the atmosphere. Atmospheric particulate matter can have impacts on climate, the environment and human health. Standardized techniques to analyze the characteristics and composition of complex secondary organic aerosols are necessary to further investigate the formation of SOA and provide a better understanding of the reaction pathways of organic species in the atmosphere. While Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can provide detailed information about the elemental composition of a sample, it reveals little about the chemical moieties which make up the particles. This work probes aerosol particles deposited on Teflon filters using FTIR, based on the protocols of Russell, et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 114, 2009) and the spectral fitting algorithm of Takahama, et al (submitted, 2012). To validate the necessary calibration curves for the analysis of complex samples, primary aerosols of key compounds (e.g., citric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium benzoate) were generated, and the accumulated masses of the aerosol samples were related to their IR absorption intensity. These validated calibration curves were then used to classify and quantify functional groups in SOA samples generated in chamber studies by MIT's Kroll group. The fitting algorithm currently quantifies the following functionalities: alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, amines, aromatics, carbonyls and carboxylic acids.

  11. Heterogeneous particle deaggregation and its implication for therapeutic aerosol performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    Aerosolization performance of dry powder blends of drugs for the treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases have been reported in three previous articles. In vitro aerosolization was performed at defined shear stresses (0.624-13.143 N/m(2)). Formulations were characterized aerodynamically and powder aerosol deaggregation equations (PADE) and corresponding linear regression analyses for pharmaceutical aerosolization were applied. Particle deaggregation is the result of overcoming fundamental forces acting at the particle interface. A new method, PADE, describing dry powder formulation performance in a shear stress range has been developed which may allow a fundamental understanding of interparticulate and surface forces. The application of PADE predicts performance efficiency and reproducibility and supports rational design of dry powder formulations. The analogy of aerosol performance with surface molecular adsorption has important implications. Expressions describing surface adsorption were intended to allow elucidation of mechanisms involving surface heterogeneity, lateral interaction, and multilayer adsorption of a variety of materials. By using a similar expression for drug aerosolization performance, it is conceivable that an analogous mechanistic approach to the evaluation of particulate systems would be possible.

  12. Accelerated simulation of stochastic particle removal processes in particle-resolved aerosol models

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, J.H.; Michelotti, M.D.; Riemer, N.; Heath, M.T.; West, M.

    2016-10-01

    Stochastic particle-resolved methods have proven useful for simulating multi-dimensional systems such as composition-resolved aerosol size distributions. While particle-resolved methods have substantial benefits for highly detailed simulations, these techniques suffer from high computational cost, motivating efforts to improve their algorithmic efficiency. Here we formulate an algorithm for accelerating particle removal processes by aggregating particles of similar size into bins. We present the Binned Algorithm for particle removal processes and analyze its performance with application to the atmospherically relevant process of aerosol dry deposition. We show that the Binned Algorithm can dramatically improve the efficiency of particle removals, particularly for low removal rates, and that computational cost is reduced without introducing additional error. In simulations of aerosol particle removal by dry deposition in atmospherically relevant conditions, we demonstrate about 50-times increase in algorithm efficiency.

  13. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Daniel J; Hickey, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene) in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process. PMID:19337412

  14. Composition and formation of organic aerosol particles in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Sinha, B.; Shiraiwa, M.; Gunthe, S. S.; Artaxo, P.; Gilles, M. K.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Smith, M.; Weigand, M.; Martin, S. T.; Pöschl, U.; Andreae, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    We applied scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (STXM-NEXAFS) analysis to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of aerosol samples from a pristine tropical environment, the Amazon Basin. The samples were collected in the Amazonian rainforest during the rainy season and can be regarded as a natural background aerosol. The samples were found to be dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles in the fine and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) in the coarse mode. Lab-generated SOA-samples from isoprene and terpene oxidation as well as pure organic compounds from spray-drying of aqueous solution were measured as reference samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the microphysical and chemical properties of a tropical background aerosol in the submicron size range and its internal mixing state. The lab-generated SOA and pure organic compounds occurred as spherical and mostly homogenous droplet-like particles, whereas the Amazonian SOA particles comprised a mixture of homogeneous droplets and droplets having internal structures due to atmospheric aging. In spite of the similar morphological appearance, the Amazon samples showed considerable differences in elemental and functional group composition. According to their NEXAFS spectra, three chemically distinct types of organic material were found and could be assigned to the following three categories: (1) particles with a pronounced carboxylic acid (COOH) peak similar to those of laboratory-generated SOA particles from terpene oxidation; (2) particles with a strong hydroxy (COH) signal similar to pure carbohydrate particles; and (3) particles with spectra resembling a mixture of the first two classes. In addition to the dominant organic component, the NEXAFS spectra revealed clearly resolved potassium (K) signals for all analyzed particles. During the rainy season and in the absence of anthropogenic influence, active biota is

  15. Unique DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles for studying aerosol transport

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Ruth N.; Hara, Christine A.; Hall, Sara B.; Vitalis, Elizabeth A.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Jones, A. Daniel; Day, James A.; Tur-Rojas, Vincent R.; Jorgensen, Trond; Herchert, Edwin; Yoder, Richard; Wheeler, Elizabeth K.; Farquar, George R.

    2016-03-22

    Data are presented for the first use of novel DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles that have been developed to track the fate of airborne contaminants in populated environments. Until DNATrax (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) particles were developed, there was no way to rapidly validate air transport models with realistic particles in the respirable range of 1–10 μm in diameter. The DNATrax particles, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and tested with the assistance of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, are the first safe and effective materials for aerosol transport studies that are identified by DNA molecules. The use of unique synthetic DNA barcodes overcomes the challenges of discerning the test material from pre-existing environmental or background contaminants (either naturally occurring or previously released). The DNATrax particle properties are demonstrated to have appropriate size range (approximately 1–4.5 μm in diameter) to accurately simulate bacterial spore transport. As a result, we describe details of the first field test of the DNATrax aerosol test particles in a large indoor facility.

  16. Unique DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles for studying aerosol transport

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, Ruth N.; Hara, Christine A.; Hall, Sara B.; ...

    2016-03-22

    Data are presented for the first use of novel DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles that have been developed to track the fate of airborne contaminants in populated environments. Until DNATrax (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) particles were developed, there was no way to rapidly validate air transport models with realistic particles in the respirable range of 1–10 μm in diameter. The DNATrax particles, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and tested with the assistance of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, are the first safe and effective materials for aerosol transport studies that are identified by DNA molecules. The usemore » of unique synthetic DNA barcodes overcomes the challenges of discerning the test material from pre-existing environmental or background contaminants (either naturally occurring or previously released). The DNATrax particle properties are demonstrated to have appropriate size range (approximately 1–4.5 μm in diameter) to accurately simulate bacterial spore transport. As a result, we describe details of the first field test of the DNATrax aerosol test particles in a large indoor facility.« less

  17. Individual-Particle Analysis of Aerosols From Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Posfai, M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Buseck, P. R.

    2001-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected on the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the Safari 2000 Experiment. Individual aerosol particles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The objective of the study is to characterize the major aerosol emissions from biomass burning over southern Africa, with emphasis on the sizes, shapes, compositions, mixing states, and surface coatings of the aerosols. Aging and reaction of smoke aerosols with plume transport were investigated. Particulate emissions from combustion of different vegetation types and at different burning phases were compared. Preliminary results show that aerosols from biomass burning mainly consist of amorphous carbonaceous spherules ("tar balls"); soot; K salts including KCl, K2SO4, and probably KNO3 mixed with organic particles; and Ca-bearing particles including Ca carbonate, phosphate, and sulfate. Minor amounts of sea salt and minerals such as quartz, mica, smectite, and gypsum are also present. The relative concentrations of tar balls increase with distance from the fires. More KCl particles occur in fresh smoke plumes close to fire sources, whereas more K2SO4 and KNO3 particles are present in aged smoke. This change indicates that KCl forming from the fire was converted to K2SO4 and KNO3 through reactions with S- and N-bearing species emitted from biomass burning. The conversion of KCl resembles that of NaCl in sea salt particles, suggesting similar reaction mechanisms with the aging of smoke. More soot is present in smoke from flaming grass fires than bush and wood fires, which is probably related to the high fraction of flaming combustion of grass fires. The high abundance of organic particles and soluble salt may affect the hygroscopic properties of biomass burning aerosols and influence their role as cloud condensation nuclei

  18. Non-spherical aerosol transport under oscillatory shear flows at low-Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachar Berman, Lihi; Delorme, Yann; Hofemeier, Philipp; Frankel, Steven; Sznitman, Josue

    2014-11-01

    Most airborne particles are intrinsically non-spherical. In particular, non-spherical particles with high aspect ratios, such as fibers, are acknowledged to be more hazardous than their spherical counterparts due to their ability to penetrate into deeper lung regions, causing serious pulmonary diseases. Not only do particle properties such as size, shape, and density have a major impact on particle transport, for non-spherical aerosols, their orientations also greatly influence particle trajectories due to modified lift and drag characteristics. Until present, however, most of our understanding of the dynamics of inhaled particles in the deep airways of the lungs has been limited to spherical particles only. In the present work, we seek to quantify through numerical simulations the transport of non-spherical airborne particles and their deposition under oscillatory shear flows at low Reynolds numbers, characteristic of acinar airways. Here, the Euler-Lagrangian model is used to solve the translational movement of a fiber, whereas the Eulerian rotational equations are introduced and solved to predict detailed unsteady fiber orientations. Overall, our efforts provide new insight into realistic dynamics of inhaled non-spherical aerosols under characteristic breathing motions.

  19. Impacts of new particle formation on aerosol cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity in Shanghai: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Xu, C.; Li, X.; Kong, L.; Tao, J.; Cheng, T.; Zhang, R.; Chen, J.; Qiao, L.; Lou, S.; Wang, H.; Chen, C.

    2014-07-01

    New particle formation (NPF) events and their impacts on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were investigated using continuous measurements collected in urban Shanghai from 1 to 30 April 2012. During the campaign, NPF occurred in 8 out of the 30 days and enhanced CCN number concentration (NCCN) by a actor of 1.2-1.8, depending on supersaturation (SS). The NPF event on 3 April 2012 was chosen as an example to investigate the NPF influence on CCN activity. In this NPF event, secondary aerosols were produced continuously and increased PM2.5 mass concentration at a~rate of 4.33 μg cm-3 h-1, and the growth rate (GR) and formation rate (FR) were on average 5 nm h-1 and 0.36 cm-3 s-1, respectively. The newly formed particles grew quickly from nucleation mode (10-20 nm) into CCN size range. NCCN increased rapidly at SS of 0.4-1.0% but weakly at SS of 0.2%. Correspondingly, aerosol CCN activities (fractions of activated aerosol particles in total aerosols, NCCN / NCN) were significantly enhanced from 0.24-0.60 to 0.30-0.91 at SS of 0.2-1.0% due to the NPF. On the basis of the κ-Köhler theory, aerosol size distributions and chemical composition measured simultaneously were used to predict NCCN. There was a good agreement between the predicted and measured NCCN (R2 = 0.96, Npredicted / Nmeasured = 1.04). This study reveals that NPF exerts large impacts on aerosol particle abundance and size spectra, thus significantly promotes NCCN and aerosol CCN activity in this urban environment. The GR of NPF is the key factor controlling the newly formed particles to become CCN at all SS levels, whereas the FR is an effective factor only under high SS (e.g. 1.0%) conditions.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon in Biomass Burning Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Peng; Aiona, Paige K.; Li, Ying; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning are a significant source of brown carbon (BrC) in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the molecular composition of freshly-emitted biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) samples collected during test burns of selected biomass fuels: sawgrass, peat, ponderosa pine, and black spruce. We characterize individual BrC chromophores present in these samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector and a high-resolution mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that both the overall BrC absorption and the chemical composition of light-absorbing compounds depend significantly on the type of biomass fuels and burning conditions. Common BrC chromophores in the selected BBOA samples include nitro-aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, and polyphenols spanning a wide range of molecular weights, structures, and light absorption properties. A number of biofuel-specific BrC chromophores are observed, indicating that some of them may be used as potential markers of BrC originating from different biomass burning sources. On average, ~50% of the light absorption above 300 nm can be attributed to a limited number of strong BrC chromophores, which may serve as representative light-absorbing species for studying atmospheric processing of BrC aerosol. The absorption coefficients of BBOA are affected by solar photolysis. Specifically, under typical atmospheric conditions, the 300 nm absorbance decays with a half-life of 16 hours. A “molecular corridors” analysis of the BBOA volatility distribution suggests that many BrC compounds in the fresh BBOA have low volatility (<1 g m-1) and will be retained in the particle phase under atmospherically relevant conditions.

  1. The weather dependence of particle size distribution of indoor radioactive aerosol associated with radon decay products.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, A M A; Tamaki, K; Moriizumi, J; Yamazawa, H; Iida, T

    2011-07-01

    This study was performed to measure the activity size distribution of aerosol particles associated with short-lived radon decay products in indoor air at Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. The measurements were performed using a low pressure Andersen cascade impactor under variable meteorological conditions. The results showed that the greatest activity fraction was associated with aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with a small fraction of nucleation mode (10-100 nm). Regarding the influence of the weather conditions, the decrease in the number of accumulation particles was observed clearly after rainfall without significant change in nucleation particles, which may be due to a washout process for the large particles.

  2. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  3. Measurements of aerosol chemistry during new particle formation events at a remote rural mountain site.

    PubMed

    Creamean, Jessie M; Ault, Andrew P; Ten Hoeve, John E; Jacobson, Mark Z; Roberts, Gregory C; Prather, Kimberly A

    2011-10-01

    Determining the major sources of particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) represents a critical step in the development of a more fundamental understanding of aerosol impacts on cloud formation and climate. Reported herein are direct measurements of the CCN activity of newly formed ambient particles, measured at a remote rural site in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Northern California. Nucleation events in the winter of 2009 occurred during two pristine periods following precipitation, with higher gas-phase SO(2) concentrations during the second period, when faster particle growth occurred (7-8 nm/h). Amines, as opposed to ammonia, and sulfate were detected in the particle phase throughout new particle formation (NPF) events, increasing in number as the particles grew to larger sizes. Interestingly, long-range transport of SO(2) from Asia appeared to potentially play a role in NPF during faster particle growth. Understanding the propensity of newly formed particles to act as CCN is critical for predicting the effects of NPF on orographic cloud formation during winter storms along the Sierra Nevada Mountain range. The potential impact of newly formed particles in remote regions needs to be compared with that of transported urban aerosols when evaluating the impact of aerosols on clouds and climate.

  4. Processing of aerosol particles within the Habshan pollution plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D.; Jensen, T.; Buseck, P. R.

    2015-03-01

    The Habshan industrial site in the United Arab Emirates produces a regional-scale pollution plume associated with oil and gas processing, discharging high loadings of sulfates and chlorides into the atmosphere, which interact with the ambient aerosol population. Aerosol particles and trace gas chemistry at this site were studied on two flights in the summer of 2002. Measurements were collected along vertical plume profiles to show changes associated with atmospheric processing of particle and gas components. Close to the outlet stack, particle concentrations were over 10,000 cm-3, dropping to <2000 cm-3 in more dilute plume around 1500 m above the stack. Particles collected close to the stack and within the dilute plume were individually measured for size, morphology, composition, and mixing state using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Close to the stack, most coarse particles consisted of mineral dust and NaCl crystals from burning oil brines, while sulfate droplets dominated the fine mode. In more dilute plume, at least 1500 m above the stack, the particle spectrum was more diverse, with a significant increase in internally mixed particle types. Dilute plume samples consisted of coarse NaCl/silicate aggregates or NaCl-rich droplets, often with a sulfate component, while fine-fraction particles were of mixed cation sulfates, also internally mixed with nanospherical soot or silicates. Thus, both chloride and sulfate components of the pollution plume rapidly reacted with ambient mineral dust to form coated and aggregate particles, enhancing particle size, hygroscopicity, and reactivity of the coarse mode. The fine-fraction sulfate-bearing particles formed in the plume contribute to regional transport of sulfates, while coarse sulfate-bearing fractions locally reduced the SO2 loading through sedimentation. The chloride- and sulfate-bearing internally mixed particles formed in the plume markedly changed the

  5. Number Size distribution of Atmospheric Submicron Aerosols in Thirteen Sites across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Min; Wang, Zhibin; Yue, Dingli

    2013-04-01

    Number concentration and size distribution (15-600nm) of atmospheric submicron aerosols have been measured in thirteen sites across China during several campaigns from 2006 to 2011. All the sampling sites are categorized into four types, including five urban sites, four suburban sites, three regional sites and two cruise measurements along the eastern coast of China. Spatial and temporal variation of aerosols in nucleation mode (with particle diameter between 15 and 25 nm), Aitken mode (with particle diameter between 25 and 90 nm) as well as accumulation mode (with particle diameter between 90 and 600 nm) in all sites are investigated. Particle number concentration in urban and suburban sites are 2-5 times higher than in regional and sites and cruise measurements. Higher concentration of nucleation mode particles as well as more new particle formation events are found in urban and suburban sites than in regional sites and cruise measurements, indicating high formation rates in the urban sites due to anthropogenic emission of new particles formation precursors. Aitken mode particles are abundant in both urban sites and suburban sites, with larger variation in urban sites than in suburban sites. Accumulation mode particles present higher concentration in winter than in summer. Diurnal trend of both Aitken and accumulation mode shows a bimodal pattern, while the pattern of Aitken mode particles is much more obvious in urban sites but can be barely found in cruise measurements. Particle concentration in accumulation mode and Aitken mode have a week correlation, with aerosols in different sites occupying different Aitken/Accumulation region. Log-normal modal fitting treatment are also used on particle size distribution data to provide the modal pattern as well as the aging information. Particle size distribution shows bimodal or trimodal patterns in most cases in urban sites. However, in regional sites and cruise measurements, the unimodal fit can always do a good job

  6. Magnetic targeting of aerosol particles for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ally, Javed; Martin, Benjamin; Behrad Khamesee, Mir; Roa, Wilson; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2005-05-01

    An in vitro model was developed to study and demonstrate the potential and feasibility of magnetically targeted deposition of aerosols for potential applications in lung cancer treatment. Also, a numerical particle tracing model was developed to predict the targeting behavior of the in vitro system; the results from the numerical and experimental studies were in agreement.

  7. Individual Aerosol Particles from Biomass Burning in Southern Africa. 1; Compositions and Size Distributions of Carbonaceous Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Simonics, Renata; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    Individual aerosol particles in smoke plumes from biomass fires and in regional hazes in southern Africa were studied using analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which allowed detailed characterization of carbonaceous particle types in smoke and determination of changes in particle properties and concentrations during smoke aging. Based on composition, morphology, and microstructure, three distinct types of carbonaceous particles were present in the smoke: organic particles with inorganic (K-salt) inclusions, tar ball particles, and soot. The relative number concentrations of organic particles were largest in young smoke, whereas tar balls were dominant in a slightly aged (1 hour) smoke from a smoldering fire. Flaming fires emitted relatively more soot particles than smoldering fires, but soot was a minor constituent of all studied plumes. Further aging caused the accumulation of sulfate on organic and soot particles, as indicated by the large number of internally mixed organic/sulfate and soot/sulfate particles in the regional haze. Externally mixed ammonium sulfate particles dominated in the boundary layer hazes, whereas organic/sulfate particles were the most abundant type in the upper hazes. Apparently, elevated haze layers were more strongly affected by biomass smoke than those within the boundary layer. Based on size distributions and the observed patterns of internal mixing, we hypothesize that organic and soot particles are the cloud-nucleating constituents of biomass smoke aerosols. Sea-salt particles dominated in the samples taken in stratus clouds over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Namibia, whereas a distinct haze layer above the clouds consisted of aged biomass smoke particles.

  8. Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 1. Compositions and size distributions of carbonaceous particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pósfai, MiháLy; Simonics, RenáTa; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2003-07-01

    Individual aerosol particles in smoke plumes from biomass fires and in regional hazes in southern Africa were studied using analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which allowed detailed characterization of carbonaceous particle types in smoke and determination of changes in particle properties and concentrations during smoke aging. Based on composition, morphology, and microstructure, three distinct types of carbonaceous particles were present in the smoke: organic particles with inorganic (K-salt) inclusions, "tar ball" particles, and soot. The relative number concentrations of organic particles were largest in young smoke, whereas tar balls were dominant in a slightly aged (˜1 hour) smoke from a smoldering fire. Flaming fires emitted relatively more soot particles than smoldering fires, but soot was a minor constituent of all studied plumes. Further aging caused the accumulation of sulfate on organic and soot particles, as indicated by the large number of internally mixed organic/sulfate and soot/sulfate particles in the regional haze. Externally mixed ammonium sulfate particles dominated in the boundary layer hazes, whereas organic/sulfate particles were the most abundant type in the upper hazes. Apparently, elevated haze layers were more strongly affected by biomass smoke than those within the boundary layer. Based on size distributions and the observed patterns of internal mixing, we hypothesize that organic and soot particles are the cloud-nucleating constituents of biomass smoke aerosols. Sea-salt particles dominated in the samples taken in stratus clouds over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Namibia, whereas a distinct haze layer above the clouds consisted of aged biomass smoke particles.

  9. Ice Nucleation Activity of Various Agricultural Soil Dust Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Thea; Höhler, Kristina; Funk, Roger; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Nadolny, Jens; Steinke, Isabelle; Suski, Kaitlyn J.; Ullrich, Romy; Wagner, Robert; Weber, Ines; DeMott, Paul J.; Möhler, Ottmar

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations at the cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) suggest that agricultural soil dust has an ice nucleation ability that is enhanced up to a factor of 10 compared to desert dust, especially at temperatures above -26 °C (Steinke et al., in preparation for submission). This enhancement might be caused by the contribution of very ice-active biological particles. In addition, soil dust aerosol particles often contain a considerably higher amount of organic matter compared to desert dust particles. To test agricultural soil dust as a source of ice nucleating particles, especially for ice formation in warm clouds, we conducted a series of laboratory measurements with different soil dust samples to extend the existing AIDA dataset. The AIDA has a volume of 84 m3 and operates under atmospherically relevant conditions over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and humidity. By controlled adiabatic expansions, the ascent of an air parcel in the troposphere can be simulated. As a supplement to the AIDA facility, we use the INKA (Ice Nucleation Instrument of the KArlsruhe Institute of Technology) continuous flow diffusion chamber based on the design by Rogers (1988) to expose the sampled aerosol particles to a continuously increasing saturation ratio by keeping the aerosol temperature constant. For our experiments, soil dust was dry dispersed into the AIDA vessel. First, fast saturation ratio scans at different temperatures were performed with INKA, sampling soil dust aerosol particles directly from the AIDA vessel. Then, we conducted the AIDA expansion experiment starting at a preset temperature. The combination of these two different methods provides a robust data set on the temperature-dependent ice activity of various agriculture soil dust aerosol particles with a special focus on relatively high temperatures. In addition, to extend the data set, we investigated the role of biological and organic matter in more

  10. A dual-wavelength single particle aerosol fluorescence monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Paul H.; Stanley, Warren R.; Foot, Virginia; Baxter, Karen; Barrington, Stephen J.

    2005-10-01

    Laser diodes and light-emitting diodes capable of continuous sub-300 nm radiation emission will ultimately represent optimal excitation sources for compact and fieldable bio-aerosol monitors. However, until such devices are routinely available and whilst solid-state UV lasers remain relatively expensive, other low-cost sources of UV can offer advantages. This paper describes one such prototype that employs compact xenon discharge UV sources to excite intrinsic fluorescence from individual particles within an ambient aerosol sample. The prototype monitor samples ambient air via a laminar sheathed-flow arrangement such that particles within the sample flow column are rendered in single file as they intersect the beam from a continuous-wave 660nm diode laser. Each individual particle produces a scattered light signal from which an estimate of particle size (down to ~1 um) may be derived. This same signal also initiates the sequential firing (~10 us apart) of two xenon sources which irradiate the particle with UV pulses centred upon ~280 nm and ~370 nm wavelength, optimal for excitation of bio-fluorophores tryptophan and NADH respectively. For each excitation wavelength, fluorescence is detected across two bands embracing the peak emissions of the same bio-fluorophores. Thus, for each particle, a 2-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix is recorded together with an estimate of particle size. Current measurement rates are up to ~125 particles/s (limited by the xenon recharge time), corresponding to all particles for concentrations up to ~2 x 104 particles/l. Developments to increase this to ~500 particles/s are in hand. Analysis of results from aerosols of E.coli, BG spores, and a variety of non-biological materials are given.

  11. Ice cloud processing of ultra-viscous/glassy aerosol particles leads to enhanced ice nucleation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Skrotzki, J.; Leisner, T.; Wilson, T. W.; Malkin, T. L.; Murray, B. J.

    2012-09-01

    The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA), levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition) before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30% with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosol particles that have re-vitrified in contact

  12. Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, P. H.; Stanley, W. R.; Hirst, E.; Foot, E. V.; Baxter, K. L.; Barrington, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    We describe a prototype low-cost multi-channel aerosol fluorescence sensor designed for unattended deployment in medium to large area bio-aerosol detection networks. Individual airborne particles down to ~1μm in size are detected and sized by measurement of light scattered from a continuous-wave diode laser (660nm). This scatter signal is then used to trigger the sequential firing of two xenon sources which irradiate the particle with UV pulses at ~280 nm and ~370 nm, optimal for excitation of bio-fluorophores tryptophan and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) respectively. For each excitation wavelength, fluorescence is detected across two bands embracing the peak emissions of the same bio-fluorophores. Current measurement rates are up to ~125 particles/s, corresponding to all particles for concentrations up to 1.3 x 104 particles/l. Developments to increase this to ~500 particles/s are in hand. Device sensitivity is illustrated in preliminary data recorded from aerosols of E.coli, BG spores, and a variety of non-biological materials.

  13. Mass Spectrometry of Liquid Aniline Aerosol Particles by IR/UV Laser Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zelenyuk, A; Cabalo, J; Baer, T; Miller, R E

    1999-05-01

    The first results are reported from a new single-particle two-color laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer, incorporating a combination of infrared (CO(2)) and UV (excimer) laser irradiation. This combination of lasers has the capability to effectively separate the desorption or evaporation step from the ionization step, thereby greatly improving the analytical capabilities of such an instrument. The results on liquid aerosols, such as aniline, show that prior evaporation of the aerosol particle with the IR laser increases the ion signal produced by the excimer laser by more than 2 orders of magnitude. In the case of nitrobenzene aerosols, the excimer laser alone produces no ions, while a very large signal is observed when the aerosol is first irradiated with the CO(2) laser. A simple model, based on the Coulomb explosion of the ionized aerosol, is used to estimate the number of ions generated by the excimer laser (∼10(5) ions). Experimental evidence based on the observed time delay of protonated aniline parent ions indicates that the laser irradiation of the liquid aerosol results in a stable neutral plasma which separates into positive and negative charges only after a 100-500-ns delay.

  14. Characterization of ultrafine particle number concentration and new particle formation in urban environment of Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Huang, W.-R.; Tsai, C.-Y.

    2013-04-01

    An intensive aerosol characterization experiment was performed at the Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory (TARO, 25.02° N, 121.53° E) in the urban area of Taipei, Taiwan during July 2012. Number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles were measured continuously, which were accompanied by concurrent measurements of mass concentration of submicron particles, PM (d ≤ 1 μm), and photolysis rate of ozone, J(O1D). The averaged number concentrations of total (Ntotal), accumulation mode (Nacu), Aitken mode (Ntotal), and nucleation mode (Nnuc) particles were 7.6 × 103 cm-3, 1.2 × 103 cm-3, 4.4 × 103 cm-3, and 1.9 × 103 cm-3, respectively. Accordingly, the ultrafine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm) accounted for 83% of the total number concentration of particles measured in this study (10 ≤ d ≤ 429 nm), indicating the importance of UFPs to the air quality and radiation budget in Taipei and its surrounding areas. An averaged Nnuc/NOx ratio of ~60 cm-3 ppbv-1 was derived from nighttime measurements, which was suggested to be the characteristic of vehicle emissions that contributed to the "urban background" of nucleation mode particles throughout a day. On the contrary, it was found that the number concentration of nucleation mode particles was independent of NOx and could be elevated up to 10 times the "urban background" levels during daytime, suggesting a substantial amount of nucleation mode particles produced from photochemical processes. Consistency in the time series of the nucleation mode particle concentration and the proxy of H2SO4 production, UVB·SO2, for new particle formation (NPF) events showed that photo-oxidation of SO2 was responsible for the formation of new particles in our study area. Moreover, analysis upon the diameter growth rate, GR, and formation rate of nucleation mode particles, J10-25, found that the values of GR (8.5 ± 6.8 nm h-1) in Taipei were comparable to other urban areas, whereas the values of J10-25 (2.2 ± 1

  15. Improved Tandem Measurement Techniques for Aerosol Particle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Vivek Kumar

    Non-spherical, chemically inhomogeneous (complex) nanoparticles are encountered in a number of natural and engineered environments, including combustion systems (which produces highly non-spherical aggregates), reactors used in gas-phase materials synthesis of doped or multicomponent materials, and in ambient air. These nanoparticles are often highly diverse in size, composition and shape, and hence require determination of property distribution functions for accurate characterization. This thesis focuses on development of tandem mobility-mass measurement techniques coupled with appropriate data inversion routines to facilitate measurement of two dimensional size-mass distribution functions while correcting for the non-idealities of the instruments. Chapter 1 provides the detailed background and motivation for the studies performed in this thesis. In chapter 2, the development of an inversion routine is described which is employed to determine two dimensional size-mass distribution functions from Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer tandem measurements. Chapter 3 demonstrates the application of the two dimensional distribution function to compute cumulative mass distribution function and also evaluates the validity of this technique by comparing the calculated total mass concentrations to measured values for a variety of aerosols. In Chapter 4, this tandem measurement technique with the inversion routine is employed to analyze colloidal suspensions. Chapter 5 focuses on application of a transverse modulation ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a mass spectrometer to study the effect of vapor dopants on the mobility shifts of sub 2 nm peptide ion clusters. These mobility shifts are then compared to models based on vapor uptake theories. Finally, in Chapter 6, a conclusion of all the studies performed in this thesis is provided and future avenues of research are discussed.

  16. Impeded ice nucleation in glassy and highly viscous aerosol particles: the role of water diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.; Zobrist, B.; Krieger, U. K.; Luo, B. P.; Soonsin, V.; Pedernera, D. A.; Koop, T.

    2010-05-01

    In situ and remote observations in the upper troposphere have disclosed the existence of water vapor pressures up to and even above water saturation. Under such conditions ice particle formation by homogeneous nucleation is expected to set in followed by ice crystal growth until the supersaturation is consumed. While the highest measured water vapor values might not withstand rigorous quality checks, values up to water saturation seem to be occurring. Since air masses appear to contain sufficient numbers of aerosol particles for cloud formation, the question arises why these aerosols are not successful at nucleating ice. The atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of various inorganic and organic components, whereas the organic fraction can represent more than 50% of the total aerosol mass. The homogeneous ice nucleation threshold was established for atmospherically relevant salt solutions and sulfuric acid, but only for a few organic species. The organic aerosol fraction tends to remain liquid instead of crystallizing as the temperature is decreased and, thus, organic aerosol particles may form highly viscous liquids. When the viscosity of such liquids reaches values in the order of 1012 Pa s, the molecular motion becomes so slow, that the sample vitrifies at the glass transition temperature Tg. If aerosol particles were present as glasses, this would influence several physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere significantly: Water uptake from the gas phase would be drastically impeded and ice nucleation inhibited. We investigated the glass transition temperature of a series of aqueous organic solutions such as polyols, sugars and dicarboxylic acids as a function of the solute concentration using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). These measurements show that the higher the molar mass of the organic solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. Aerosol particles containing larger (≥150 g mol-1) organic molecules

  17. Ambient particle characterization by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry in an urban area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Li, Mei; Huang, Zhengxu; Gao, Wei; Nian, Huiqing; Fu, Zhong; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Zhou, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the composition and possible sources of aerosol particles in Beijing urban area, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed from April 22 to May 4, 2011. 510,341 particles out of 2,953,200 sized particles were characterized by SPAMS in combination with the ART-2a neural network algorithm. The particles were classified as rich-K (39.79%), carbonaceous species (32.7%), industry metal (19.2%), dust (5.7%), and rich-Na (1.76%). Industrial emissions related particles, rich-Fe, rich-Pb, and K-nitrate, were the major components of aerosol particles during haze periods, which were mainly from the steel plants and metal smelting processes around Beijing. Under stagnant meterological conditions, these regional emissions have a vital effect on haze formation. Organic carbon (OC) particles were attributed to biomass burning. NaK-EC was likely to come from local traffic emissions. Internally mixed organic and elemental carbon (OCEC) was found to be from possible sources of local traffic emission and biomass burning. It was found that coarse dust particles were mainly composed of four different types of dust particles, dust-Si, dust-Ca, dust-Al, and dust-Ti. It is the first time that SPAMS was used to study a dust storm in Beijing. Our results showed that SPAMS could be a powerful tool in the identification and apportionment of aerosol sources in Beijing, providing useful reference information for environmental control and management.

  18. Dispersion of aerosol particles in the atmosphere: Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haszpra, Tímea; Lagzi, István; Tél, Tamás

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of dispersion and deposition of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is an essential issue, because they have an effect on the biosphere and atmosphere. Moreover, aerosol particles have different transport properties and chemical and physical transformations in the atmosphere compared to gas phase air pollutants. The motion of a particle is described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The large-scale dynamics in the horizontal direction can be described by the equations of passive scalar advection, but in the vertical direction a well-defined terminal velocity should be taken into account as a term added to the vertical wind component. In the planetary boundary layer turbulent diffusion has an important role in the particle dispersion, which is taken into account by adding stochastic terms to the deterministic equations above. Wet deposition is also an essential process in the lower levels of the atmosphere, however, its precise parameterization is a challenge. For the simulations the wind field and other necessary data were taken from the ECMWF ERA-Interim database. In the case of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (March-April 2011) radioactive aerosol particles were also released in the planetary boundary layer. Simulations (included the continuous and varying emission from the nuclear power plant) will be presented for the period of 14-23 March. Results show that wet deposition also has to be taken into consideration in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Furthermore, dynamical system characteristics are evaluated for the aerosol particle dynamics. The escape rate of particles was estimated both with and without turbulent diffusion, and in both cases when there was no wet deposition and also when wet deposition was taken into consideration.

  19. Aerosol and CCN properties at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica: seasonality, new particle formation events and properties around precipitation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; De Backer, Hugo; Herenz, Paul; Wex, Heike; Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, several complementary ground-based instruments for measuring the aerosol composition of the Antarctic atmosphere have been operated at the Belgian Antarctic research station Princess Elisabeth, in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (71.95° S, 23.35° E, 1390 m asl.). In addition, three ground-based remote sensing instruments for cloud and precipitation observations have been installed for continuous operation, including a ceilometer (cloud base height, type, vertical extent), a 24 Ghz micro-rain radar (vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (cloud base temperature). The station is inhabited from November to end of February and operates under remote control during the other months. In this contribution, the general aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties will be described with a special focus on new particle formation events and around precipitation events. New particle formation events are important for the atmospheric aerosol budget and they also show that aerosols are not only transported to Antarctica but are also produced there, also inland. Aerosols are essential for cloud formation and therefore also for precipitation, which is the only source for mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet. Measured aerosol properties comprise size distribution, total number, total mass concentration, mass concentration of light-absorbing aerosol and absorption coefficient and total scattering coefficient. In addition, a CCN counter has been operated during austral summers 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The baseline total number concentration N-total was around some hundreds of particles/cm3. During new particle formation events N-total increased to some thousands of particles/cm3. Simultaneous measurements of N-total, size distribution and CCN number revealed that mostly the number of particles smaller than 100 nm increased and that the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei increased only very

  20. Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere through particle charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, P.; Yelle, R. V.; Koskinen, T.; Bazin, A.; Vuitton, V.; Vigren, E.; Galand, M. F.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Wahlund, J.; Crary, F.; Snowden, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of Titan's lower thermosphere and ionosphere by Cassini instruments demonstrate the presence of large mass negative ions of a few thousand amu, and the presence of positive ions up to a few hundred amu [1,2]. The mechanisms though responsible for the production of these large ions have so far remained elusive. A recent Titan flyby that probed deeper layers of Titan's thermosphere than usual, revealed a discrepancy in the observed positive ion and electron density, with the electron density lower than the abundance required to satisfy charge balance [3]. The remaining electron density was found in the form of the large mass negative ions. Aerosols can be charged on interaction with electrons and ions, while this charge can affect the particle coagulation, thus, their subsequent growth. Given the above observations we investigate here the potential role of aerosols in Titan's ionosphere and how this interaction affects the aerosol evolution. This investigation is performed with the use of a model that couples between the ionospheric photochemical evolution and the microphysical growth of aerosols in a self-consistent approach. Our results show that particle charging has an important role in the ionosphere. Most of the produced particles in the ionosphere attain a negative charge. Thus, they act as a sink for the free electrons with the remaining free electron densities consistent with the recent Cassini observations. Being negatively charged, the particles repel each other reducing in this way the coagulation rates and the growth of the aerosols. On the other hand, the negatively charged particles attract the abundant positive ions, which results to enhanced collisions between them. The mass added to the particles by the ions leads to an increase in their size and an increase in the resulting mass flux of the aerosols. Our simulated mass per charge spectra provide excellent fits to the observed positive and negative ion spectra from the Cassini Plasma

  1. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon in Biomass Burning Aerosol Particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Aiona, Paige K; Li, Ying; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning are a significant source of brown carbon (BrC) in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the molecular composition of freshly emitted biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) samples collected during test burns of sawgrass, peat, ponderosa pine, and black spruce. We demonstrate that both the BrC absorption and the chemical composition of light-absorbing compounds depend significantly on the type of biomass fuels. Common BrC chromophores in the selected BBOA samples include nitro-aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, and polyphenols spanning a wide range of molecular weights, structures, and light absorption properties. A number of biofuel-specific BrC chromophores are observed, indicating that some of them may be used as source-specific markers of BrC. On average, ∼50% of the light absorption in the solvent-extractable fraction of BBOA can be attributed to a limited number of strong BrC chromophores. The absorption coefficients of BBOA are affected by solar photolysis. Specifically, under typical atmospheric conditions, the 300 nm absorbance decays with a half-life of ∼16 h. A "molecular corridor" analysis of the BBOA volatility distribution suggests that many BrC compounds in the fresh BBOA have low saturation mass concentration (<1 μg m(-3)) and will be retained in the particle phase under atmospherically relevant conditions.

  2. Biological aerosol particles as a key determinant of ice nuclei populations in a forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobo, Yutaka; Prenni, Anthony J.; DeMott, Paul J.; Huffman, J. Alex; McCluskey, Christina S.; Tian, Guoxun; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2013-09-01

    primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) are known to have very high ice nucleating ability under mixed-phase cloud conditions. However, since the abundances of ice nucleation active PBAPs in the atmosphere are generally thought to be extremely small, their importance has remained uncertain. Here we present evidence for the role of PBAPs as atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) active at temperatures ranging from about -34°C to -9°C in a midlatitude ponderosa pine forest ecosystem in summertime. Our measurements show that the number concentrations of IN active at these temperatures were positively correlated with number concentrations of ambient fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs). Notably, the number concentrations of IN active at warmer temperatures increased quite rapidly in response to increases in the number concentrations of FBAPs. Moreover, we show that a newly-proposed parameterization related to the number concentrations of FBAPs can better reproduce the number concentrations of IN active over the entire temperature range examined, as compared with parameterizations related solely to the number concentrations of total aerosol particles with diameters larger than 0.5 µm as proposed previously. These results suggest that certain PBAPs released from forest biota can indeed play a key role in determining atmospheric IN populations in this ecosystem, especially at warmer temperatures, potentially leading to ice initiation in nearby mixed-phase clouds.

  3. Polarization properties of aerosol particles over western Japan: classification, seasonal variation, and implications for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Osada, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Wang, Zhe; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Zifa

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based observation of the polarization properties of aerosol particles using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) was made from 27 October 2013, to 31 December 2015, at a suburban site in the Kyushu area of Japan. We found that the depolarization ratio (DR, the fraction of s-polarized signal in the total backward light scattering signal) of aerosol particles showed prominent seasonal variability, with peaks in spring (0.21-0.23) and winter (0.19-0.23), and a minimum value (0.09-0.14) in summer. The aerosol compositions in both fine mode (aerodynamic diameter of particle, Dp < 2.5 µm) and coarse mode (2.5 µm < Dp < 10 µm), and the size-dependent polarization characteristics were analyzed for long-range transport dust particles, sea salt, and anthropogenic pollution-dominant aerosols. The DR value increased with increasing particle size, and DR = 0.1 was a reliable threshold value to identify the sphericity of supermicron (Dp > 1 µm) particles. Occurrence of substandard air quality days in Kyushu was closely related with mixed type (coexistence of anthropogenic pollutants and dust particles in the atmosphere), especially in winter and spring, indicating that dust events in the Asian continent played a key role in the cross-boundary transport of continental pollution. Backward trajectory analysis demonstrated that air masses originating from the western Pacific contained large amounts of spherical particles due to the influence of sea salt, especially in summer; however, for air masses from the Asian continent, the dependence of number fraction of spherical particles on air relative humidity was insignificant, indicating the predominance of less-hygroscopic substances (e.g., mineral dust), although the mass concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants were elevated.

  4. Source appointment of fine particle number and volume concentration during severe haze pollution in Beijing in January 2013.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yuesi; Hu, Bo; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-04-01

    Extreme haze episodes repeatedly shrouded Beijing during the winter of 2012-2013, causing major environmental and health problems. To better understand these extreme events, particle number size distribution (PNSD) and particle chemical composition (PCC) data collected in an intensive winter campaign in an urban site of Beijing were used to investigate the sources of ambient fine particles. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis resolved a total of eight factors: two traffic factors, combustion factors, secondary aerosol, two accumulation mode aerosol factors, road dust, and long-range transported (LRT) dust. Traffic emissions (54%) and combustion aerosol (27%) were found to be the most important sources for particle number concentration, whereas combustion aerosol (33%) and accumulation mode aerosol (37%) dominated particle volume concentrations. Chemical compositions and sources of fine particles changed dynamically in the haze episodes. An enhanced role of secondary inorganic species was observed in the formation of haze pollution. Regional transport played an important role for high particles, contribution of which was on average up to 24-49% during the haze episodes. Secondary aerosols from urban background presented the largest contributions (45%) for the rapid increase of fine particles in the severest haze episode. In addition, the invasion of LRT dust aerosols further elevated the fine particles during the extreme haze episode. Our results showed a clear impact of regional transport on the local air pollution, suggesting the importance of regional-scale emission control measures in the local air quality management of Beijing.

  5. Ice cloud processing of ultra-viscous/glassy aerosol particles leads to enhanced ice nucleation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Skrotzki, J.; Leisner, T.; Wilson, T. W.; Malkin, T. L.; Murray, B. J.

    2012-04-01

    The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA), levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition) before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30% with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosols that have re-vitrified in contact with the

  6. Surface Chemistry at Size-Selected Nano-Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    A method has been developed to conduct surface chemistry and extract surface kinetic rates from size-selected aerosol nanoparticles. The measurements encompass broad ranges of particle size, phase, and composition. Results will be presented on the uptake of water by aerosolized soot nanoparticles of radius between 10 and 40 nm. Water uptake was monitored by tandem differential mobility analysis (T-DMA), which is capable of measuring changes in particle diameter as little as 0.2 nm. Soot particles were produced in an ethene diffusion flame and extracted into an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The particles were subjected to various thermal and oxidative treatments, and the effects of these treatments on the ability of soot to adsorb monolayer quantities of water was determined. The results are important because soot nucleates atmospheric cloud particles. More generally, the results represent one of the first kinetic and mechanistic studies of gas-phase nanoparticle reactivity. Co-author: Henry Ajo, University of Minnesota

  7. Urban background levels of particle number concentration and sources in Vilnius, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; Plauškaitė, Kristina; Dudoitis, Vadimas; Ulevicius, Vidmantas

    2014-06-01

    This study presents results of research on urban aerosol particles with a focus on the aerosol particle number concentration (PNC) and the particle size distribution. The real time measurements of aerosol PNC (> 4.5 nm) and number size distributions (9-840 nm) were performed. The seasonal variations essentially comprised the minimum monthly mean in October 2010 (3400 ± 3000 cm- 3) and the maximum in April 2011 (19,000 ± 15,000 cm- 3). The mean annual PNC was 10,000 ± 8000 cm- 3 with an average mode size of 30-50 nm. The presence of strong diurnal patterns in aerosol PNC was evident as a direct effect of three sources of aerosol particles (nucleation, traffic, and residential heating). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) were used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of PNC in Vilnius. The results of trajectory clustering and the PSCF method demonstrated that possible additional source areas contributing to the elevated particle number concentration in Vilnius could be industrial areas in central Europe. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed highest loadings for PNC, PM10, NOx, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations, indicating combustion processes occurring in vehicle engines and use of sulfur-containing fossil fuels for residential heating.

  8. Relationship Between Aerosol Number Size Distribution and Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient in an Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Matthew; Matthews, James; Bacak, Asan; Silva, Hugo; Priestley, Michael; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley

    2016-04-01

    Small ions are created in the atmosphere by ground based radioactive decay and solar and cosmic radiation ionising the air. The ionosphere is maintained at a high potential relative to the Earth due to global thunderstorm activity, a current from the ionosphere transfers charge back to the ground through the weakly ionised atmosphere. A potential gradient (PG) exists between the ionosphere and the ground that can be measured in fair weather using devices such as an electric field mill. PG is inversely-proportional to the conductivity of the air and therefore to the number of ions of a given electrical mobility; a reduction of air ions will cause an increase of PG. Aerosols in the atmosphere act as a sink of air ions with an attachment rate dependent on aerosol size distribution and ion mobility. These relationships have been used to infer high particulate, and hence pollution, levels in historic datasets of atmospheric PG. A measurement campaign was undertaken in Manchester, UK for three weeks in July and August where atmospheric PG was measured with an electric field mill (JCI131, JCI Chilworth) on a second floor balcony, aerosol size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI3936), aerosol concentration measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC, Grimm 5.403) and local meteorological measurements taken on a rooftop measurement site ~200 m away. Field mill and CPC data were taken at 1 s intervals and SMPS data in 2.5 minute cycles. Data were excluded for one hour either side of rainfall as rainclouds and droplets can carry significant charge which would affect PG. A quantity relating to the attachment of ions to aerosol (Ion Sink) was derived from the effective attachment coefficient of the aerosols. Further measurements with the field mill and CPC were taken at the same location in November 2015 when bonfire events would be expected to increase aerosol concentrations. During the summer measurements, particle number count (PNC

  9. Modeling Gas-Particle Partitioning of SOA: Effects of Aerosol Physical State and RH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Seinfeld, J.

    2011-12-01

    Aged tropospheric aerosol particles contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. In liquid aerosol particles non-ideal mixing of all species determines whether the condensed phase undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation or whether it is stable in a single mixed phase, and whether it contains solid salts in equilibrium with their saturated solution. The extended thermodynamic model AIOMFAC is able to predict such phase states by representing the variety of organic components using functional groups within a group-contribution concept. The number and composition of different condensed phases impacts the diversity of reaction media for multiphase chemistry and the gas-particle partitioning of semivolatile species. Recent studies show that under certain conditions biogenic and other organic-rich particles can be present in a highly viscous, semisolid or amorphous solid physical state, with consequences regarding reaction kinetics and mass transfer limitations. We present results of new gas-particle partitioning computations for aerosol chamber data using a model based on AIOMFAC activity coefficients and state-of-the-art vapor pressure estimation methods. Different environmental conditions in terms of temperature, relative humidity (RH), salt content, amount of precursor VOCs, and physical state of the particles are considered. We show how modifications of absorptive and adsorptive gas-particle mass transfer affects the total aerosol mass in the calculations and how the results of these modeling approaches compare to data of aerosol chamber experiments, such as alpha-pinene oxidation SOA. For a condensed phase in a mixed liquid state containing ammonium sulfate, the model predicts liquid-liquid phase separation up to high RH in case of, on average, moderately hydrophilic organic compounds, such as first generation oxidation products of alpha-pinene. The computations also reveal that treating liquid phases as ideal

  10. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, S.; Müller, T.; Weinhold, K.; Zikova, N.; Santos, S.; Marinoni, A.; Bischof, O. F.; Kykal, C.; Ries, L.; Meinhardt, F.; Aalto, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates accuracy, particle sizing, and unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10-20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 μm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 μm in aerodynamic diameter should be only used with caution. For particles larger than 3 μm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. This uncertainty of the particle number size distribution has especially to be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3

  11. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Zikova, Nadezda; Martins dos Santos, Sebastiao; Marinoni, Angela; Bischof, Oliver F.; Kykal, Carsten; Ries, Ludwig; Meinhardt, Frank; Aalto, Pasi; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates, particle sizing, and the unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10 % to 20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 µm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 µm in aerodynamic diameter should only be used with caution. For particles larger than 3 µm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. Particularly this uncertainty of the particle number size distribution must be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3 µm

  12. Chemical evolution of multicomponent aerosol particles during evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardini, Alessandro; Riipinen, Ilona; Pagels, Joakim; Eriksson, Axel; Worsnop, Douglas; Switieckli, Erik; Kulmala, Markku; Bilde, Merete

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have an important but not well quantified effect on climate and human health. Despite the efforts made in the last decades, the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not fully understood. The uncertainty is partly due to the complex chemical composition of the particles which comprise inorganic and organic compounds. Many organics (like dicarboxylic acids) can be present both in the gas and in the condensed phase due to their low vapor pressure. Clearly, an understanding of this partition is crucial to address any other issue in atmospheric physics and chemistry. Moreover, many organics are water soluble, and their influence on the properties of aqueous solution droplets is still poorly characterized. The solid and sub-cooled liquid state vapor pressures of some organic compounds have been previously determined by measuring the evaporation rate of single-compound crystals [1-3] or binary aqueous droplets [4-6]. In this work, we deploy the HTDMA technique (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) coupled with a 3.5m laminar flow-tube and an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) for determining the chemical evolution during evaporation of ternary droplets made of one dicarboxylic acid (succinic acid, commonly found in atmospheric samples) and one inorganic compound (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) in different mixing ratios, in equilibrium with water vapor at a fixed relative humidity. In addition, we investigate the evaporation of multicomponent droplets and crystals made of three organic species (dicarboxylic acids and sugars), of which one or two are semi-volatile. 1. Bilde M. and Pandis, S.N.: Evaporation Rates and Vapor Pressures of Individual Aerosol Species Formed in the Atmospheric Oxidation of alpha- and beta-Pinene. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2001. 2. Bilde M., et al.: Even-Odd Alternation of Evaporation Rates and Vapor Pressures of C3-C9 Dicarboxylic Acid Aerosols

  13. Thermophoretic motion of large heated aerosol spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malai, N. V.; Limanskaya, A. V.; Shchukin, E. R.

    2016-03-01

    The stationary motion of a large spherical aerosol particle in the external field of a temperature gradient in zero gravity is theoretically described using the Stokes approximation and the assumption that the average temperature of the particle surface differs considerably from the temperature of the surrounding gaseous medium. The gas dynamics equations are solved taking into account the power-law temperature dependence of the molecular transport coefficients (viscosity, thermal conductivity) and the density of the gaseous medium. Numerical estimates show that the dependence of the thermophoretic force and velocity on the average temperature of the particle surface is nonlinear.

  14. Evaluation of the tropospheric aerosol number concentrations simulated by two versions of the global model ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Kazil, J.; Feichter, J.

    2009-04-01

    Since its first version developed by Stier et al. (2005), the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM has gone through further development and updates. The changes in the model include (1) a new time integration scheme for the condensation of the sulfuric acid gas on existing particles, (2) a new aerosol nucleation scheme that takes into account the charged nucleation caused by cosmic rays, and (3) a parameterization scheme explicitly describing the conversion of aerosol particles to cloud nuclei. In this work, simulations performed with the old and new model versions are evaluated against some measurements reported in recent years. The focus is on the aerosol size distribution in the troposphere. Results show that modifications in the parameterizations have led to significant changes in the simulated aerosol concentrations. Vertical profiles of the total particle number concentration (diameter > 3nm) compiled by Clarke et al. (2002) suggest that, over the Pacific in the upper free troposphere, the tropics are associated with much higher concentrations than the mid-latitude regions. This feature is more reasonably reproduced by the new model version, mainly due to the improved results of the nucleation mode aerosols. In the lower levels (2-5 km above the Earth's surface), the number concentrations of the Aitken mode particles are overestimated compared to both the Pacific data given in Clarke et al. (2002) and the vertical profiles over Europe reported by Petzold et al. (2007). The physical and chemical processes that have led to these changes are identified by sensitivity tests. References: Clarke and Kapustin: A Pacific aerosol survey - part 1: a decade of data on production, transport, evolution and mixing in the troposphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 363-382, 2002. Petzold et al.: Perturbation of the European free troposphere aerosol by North American forest fire plumes during the ICARTT-ITOP experiment in summer 2004, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5105-5127, 2007

  15. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particles in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Microanalysis of Aerosol Impactor Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Herein is reported activities to support the characterization of the aerosol in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) collected during the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA) missions in 1994. Through a companion proposal, another group was to measure the size distribution of aerosols in the 0.008 to 2 micrometer diameter range and to collect for us impactor samples of particles larger than about 0.02 gm. In the first year, we conducted laboratory studies related to particulate deposition patterns on our collection substrates, and have performed the analysis of many ASHOE/MAESA aerosol samples from 1994 using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). We have been building an "aerosol climatology" with these data that documents the types and relative abundances of particles observed at different latitudes and altitudes. The second year (and non-funded extension periods) saw continued analyses of impactor aerosol samples, including more ASHOE/MAESA samples, some northern hemisphere samples from the NASA Stratospheric Photochemistry Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) program for comparison, and a few aerosol samples from the NASA Stratospheric TRacers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) program. A high-resolution field emission microscope was used for the analysis and re-analysis of a number of samples to determine if this instrument was superior in performance to our conventional electron microscope. In addition, some basic laboratory studies were conducted to determine the minimum detectable and analyzable particle size for different types of aerosols. In all, 61 aerosol samples were analyzed, with a total of over 30,000 individual particle analyses. In all analyzed samples, sulfate particles comprised the major aerosol number fraction. It must be stressed that particles composed of more than one species, for example sulfate and organic carbon, were classified

  16. Continuous measurements of aerosol particles in Arctic Russia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Brus, David; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrjö; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Ivakhov, Victor; Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71o 36' N; 128o 53' E) on the shore of the Laptev Sea has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol physical properties, which have been successfully continued since summer 2010. These, together with the FMI measurements in Pallas station in northern Finland since 1999, provide important information on the

  17. Urban organic aerosols measured by single particle mass spectrometry in the megacity of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Harrison, R. M.

    2011-02-01

    During the month of October 2006, as part of the REPARTEE-I experiment (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) an Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at an urban background location in the city of London, UK. Fifteen particle types were classified, some of which were accompanied by Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) quantitative aerosol mass loading measurements (Dall'Osto et al., 2009a, b). In this manuscript the origins and properties of four particle types associated with locally generated aerosols, independent of the air mass type advected into London, are examined. One particle type, originating from lubricating oil (referred to as Ca-EC), was associated with morning rush hour traffic emissions. A second particle type, composed of both inorganic and organic species (called Na-EC-OC), was found enhanced in particle number concentration during evening time periods, and is likely to originate from a source operating at this time of day, or more probably from condensation of semi-volatile species, and contains both primary and secondary components. A third class, internally mixed with organic carbon and sulphate (called OC), was found to spike both in the morning and evenings. The fourth class (SOA-PAH) exhibited maximum frequency during the warmest part of the day, and a number of factors point towards secondary production from traffic-related volatile aromatic compounds. Single particle mass spectra of this particle type showed an oxidized polycyclic aromatic compound signature. Finally, a comparison of ATOFMS particle class data is made with factors obtained by Positive Matrix Factorization from AMS data.. Both the Ca-EC and OC particle types correlate with the AMS HOA primary organic fraction (R2 = 0.65 and 0.50 respectively), and Na-EC-OC, but not SOA-PAH, which correlates weakly with the AMS OOA secondary organic aerosol factor (R2 = 0.35). A detailed analysis was conducted to identify ATOFMS particle type(s) representative

  18. Mass absorption indices of various types of natural aerosol particles in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K

    1975-12-01

    The mass absorption index of aerosol particles has been measured in the 2-17-microm wavelength region. The measurements were performed on films of aerosol particles that were collected by an automatic jet impactor at polluted and various uncontaminated remote sites. All but marine aerosols possess strong absorption bands in the transparent part of the atmospheric long-wave spectrum, indicating marked influence of aerosol particles on the radiation budget of the atmosphere.

  19. Reconciling satellite aerosol optical thickness and surface fine particle mass through aerosol liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thien Khoi V.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Carlton, Annmarie G.

    2016-11-01

    Summertime aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the southeast U.S. is sharply enhanced over wintertime values. This seasonal pattern is unique and of particular interest because temperatures there have not warmed over the past 100 years. Patterns in surface fine particle mass are inconsistent with satellite reported AOT. In this work, we attempt to reconcile the spatial and temporal distribution of AOT over the U.S. with particle mass measurements at the surface by examining trends in aerosol liquid water (ALW), a particle constituent that scatters radiation and affects satellite AOT but is removed in mass measurements at routine surface monitoring sites. We employ the thermodynamic model ISORROPIAv2.1 to estimate ALW mass concentrations at Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments sites using measured ion mass concentrations and North American Regional Reanalysis meteorological data. Excellent agreement between Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations AOT and estimated ALW provides a plausible explanation for the discrepancies in the geographical patterns of AOT and aerosol mass measurements.

  20. A numerical study of the particle size distribution of an aerosol undergoing turbulent coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reade, Walter C.; Collins, Lance R.

    2000-07-01

    Coagulation and growth of aerosol particles subject to isotropic turbulence has been explored using direct numerical simulations. The computations follow the trajectories of 262 144 initial particles as they are convected by the turbulent flow field. Collision between two parent particles leads to the formation of a new daughter particle with the mass and momentum (but not necessarily the energy) of the parent particles. The initially monodisperse population of particles will develop a size distribution over time that is controlled by the collision dynamics. In an earlier study, Sundaram & Collins (1997) showed that collision rates in isotropic turbulence are controlled by two statistics: (i) the radial distribution of the particles and (ii) the relative velocity probability density function. Their study considered particles that rebound elastically; however, we find that the formula that they derived is equally valid in a coagulating system. However, coagulation alters the numerical values of these statistics from the values they attain for the elastic rebound case. This difference is substantial and must be taken into consideration to properly predict the evolution of the size distribution of a population of particles. The DNS results also show surprising trends in the relative breadth of the particle size distribution. First, in all cases, the standard deviation of the particle size distribution of particles with finite Stokes numbers is much larger than the standard deviation for either the zero-Stokes-number or infinite-Stokes-number limits. Secondly, for particles with small initial Stokes numbers, the standard deviation of the final particle size distribution decreases with increasing initial particle size; however, the opposite trend is observed for particles with slightly larger initial Stokes numbers. An explanation for these phenomena can be found by carefully examining the functional dependence of the radial distribution function on the particle size

  1. Investigation of the seasonal variations of aerosol physicochemical properties and their impact on cloud condensation nuclei number concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Timothy S.

    strongly absorbing carbonaceous particles generated from the flaming combustion mode. The cases represented complex mixtures of the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Lastly, SQ3 is addressed by using a multi-platform dataset from the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Graciosa, Azores, 2009-2010 field campaign. The seasonal aerosol particle volume and number size distributions, AOD, and AEAOD during the CAP-MBL campaign have shown that a low overall mean AOD440 of 0.12 denoted a clean environment over this region that typically contains MBL sea salt. In terms of aerosol volume, a bimodal signal was prominent where the coarse mode influence (r ≥ 1 μm) dominated that of the fine mode (r < 1 μm) throughout the year. However, there are considerable continental fine mode aerosols advected to the Azores region during summer months, including Saharan mineral dust, volcanic ash, biomass smoke, and pollution from North American as identified by HYSPLIT backward trajectories. These aerosol types have been shown to have impacts on MBL cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that are likely different from coarse mode marine aerosols (e.g., sea salt) (Remillard et al. 2014; Wood et al. 2014). The alternating presence of dominant clean air masses with periodic episodes of polluted air masses will provide a substantial variety in aerosol properties during the summer. This will provide a great opportunity to investigate the interactions between aerosol and cloud properties in terms of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE).

  2. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR AN OFFICE AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses an evaluation of the effect of percent outdoor air supplied and occupation level on the particle size distributions and mass concentrations for a typical office building. (NOTE: As attention has become focused on indoor air pollution control, it has become i...

  3. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

  4. Neural networks for aerosol particles characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnik, V. V.; Loiko, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Multilayer perceptron neural networks with one, two and three inputs are built to retrieve parameters of spherical homogeneous nonabsorbing particle. The refractive index ranges from 1.3 to 1.7; particle radius ranges from 0.251 μm to 56.234 μm. The logarithms of the scattered radiation intensity are used as input signals. The problem of the most informative scattering angles selection is elucidated. It is shown that polychromatic illumination helps one to increase significantly the retrieval accuracy. In the absence of measurement errors relative error of radius retrieval by the neural network with three inputs is 0.54%, relative error of the refractive index retrieval is 0.84%. The effect of measurement errors on the result of retrieval is simulated.

  5. Comparison of the Grimm 1.108 and 1.109 portable aerosol spectrometer to the TSI 3321 aerodynamic particle sizer for dry particles.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Ott, Darrin; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T

    2006-11-01

    This study compared the response of two optical particle counters with that of an aerodynamic particle sizer. The optical particle counters rely on the amount of incident light scattered at 90 degrees by a particle to measure particle number concentration by optical particle size. Two models of optical particle counters from Grimm Technologies were used: the portable aerosol spectrometer (PAS) 1.108 (0.3-20 microm in 15 channels); and the PAS 1.109 (0.2-20 microm in 30 size channels). With a substantially different operating principle from that employed by the optical particle counters, the aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) model 3321 (TSI, Inc., St Paul, MN, USA) sizes particles according to their behavior in an accelerating flow to provide particle number concentration by aerodynamic size over a slightly narrower size range (0.5-20 microm) in 52 channels. The responses of these instruments were compared for three sizes of monodisperse solid aerosols composed of polystyrene latex spheres and a polydisperse aerosol composed of Arizona test dust. The PASs provided similar results to those from the APS. However, there were systematic differences among instruments in number and mass concentration measurement that depended upon particle size.

  6. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    The two α-dicarbonyls glyoxal (CHOCHO; GLY) and methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MGLY) have attracted increasing attention over the past years because of their potential role in secondary organic aerosol formation. Recently Sinreich et al. (2010) suggested the open ocean as an important (so far unknown) source for GLY in the atmosphere. To date, there are few available field data of these compounds in the marine area. In this study we present measurements of GLY and MGLY in seawater and marine aerosol particles sampled during a transatlantic Polarstern cruise in spring 2011. In seawater we especially investigated the sea surface microlayer (sampled with the glass plate technique) as it is the direct interface between ocean and atmosphere. Analytical measurements were based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The results show that GLY and MGLY are present in the sea surface microlayer of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). Significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the sea surface microlayer was found implying photochemical production of the two carbonyls though a clear connection to global radiation was not observed. On aerosol particles, both carbonyls were detected (average concentration 0.2 ng m-3) and are strongly connected to each other, suggesting similar formation mechanisms. Both carbonyls show a very good correlation with particulate oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. A slight correlation of the two carbonyls in the sea surface microlayer and in the aerosol particles was found at co-located sampling areas. In summary, the results of GLY and MGLY in marine aerosol particles and in the oceanic water give first insights towards interaction processes of these alpha dicarbonyls between ocean and atmosphere (van Pinxteren and Herrmann (2013

  7. Morphology and Optical Properties of Mixed Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Mehrnoush M.; Krieger, Ulrich; Rudich, Yinon; Marcolli, Claudia; Peter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Experiments and modeling studies have shown that deliquesced aerosols can be present not only as one-phase system containing organics, inorganic salts and water, but often as two-phase systems consisting of a predominantly organic and a predominantly inorganic aqueous phase 1,2. Recent laboratory studies conducted with model mixtures representing tropospheric aerosols1,2,3, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from smog chamber experiments4, and field measurements5 suggest that liquid- liquid phase separations (LLPS) is indeed a common phenomenon in mixed organic/ ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. During LLPS, particles may adopt different morphologies mainly core- shell and partially engulfed. A core- shell configuration will have consequences for heterogeneous chemistry and hygroscopicity and as a result will alter the optical properties of the particles since the aqueous inorganic-rich phase will be totally enclosed by a probably highly viscous organic coating with low diffusivity for reactants and water. The primary objective of this project is to establish a method for investigating the morphology of mixed inorganic and absorbing organic compounds of atmospheric relevance and study their radiative properties before, during, and after phase transitions mainly during LLPS. This will be the first study looking into the radiative effect of LLPS in detail. In this first experiment, the behavior of single droplets of carminic acid (CA)/ AS/ H2O mixture was monitored during relative humidity (RH) cycles using optical microscopy. The same mixture particle was levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and the change in its absorption properties was measured at varying RH. We also intend to determine the occurrence of LLPS in accumulation- sized particles and the change in their absorption using a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer. If LLPS alters the absorptive properties of the suggested model aerosols significantly, absorption measurements of accumulation mode

  8. Particle Characterization and Ice Nucleation Efficiency of Field-Collected Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.; Moffet, R.; Nizkorodov, S.; Roedel, T.; Sterckx, L.; Tivanski, A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation by heterogeneous nucleation is one of the least understood processes resulting in cirrus and mixed-phase clouds which affect the global radiation budget, the hydrological cycle, and water vapor distribution. In particular, how organic aerosol affect ice nucleation is not well understood. Here we report on heterogeneous ice nucleation from particles collected during the CalNex campaign at the Caltech campus site, Pasadena, on May 19, 2010 at 6am-12pm (A2) and 12pm-6pm (A3) and May 23 at 6am-12pm (B2) and 6pm-12am (B4). The ice nucleation onsets and water uptake were determined as a function of temperature (200-273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice). The ice nucleation efficiency was related to the particle chemical composition. Single particle characterization was provided by using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The STXM/NEXAFS analysis indicates that the morning sample (A2) constitutes organic particles and organic particles with soot and inorganic inclusions. The afternoon sample (A3) is dominated by organic particles with a potentially higher degree of oxidation associated with soot. The B2 sample shows a higher number fraction of magnesium-containing particle indicative of a marine source and ~93% of the particles contained sulfur besides oxygen and carbon as derived from CCSEM/EDX analysis. The B4 sample lacks the strong marine influence and shows higher organic content. Above 230 K, we observed water uptake followed by condensation freezing at mean RH of 93-100% and 89-95% for A2 and A3, respectively. This indicates that the aged A3 particles are efficient ice nuclei (IN) for condensation freezing. Below 230 K A2 and A3 induced deposition ice nucleation between 125-155% RHice (at mean values of 134-150% RHice). The B2 and B4

  9. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsmuth, M.; Gäggeler, H. W.; von Glasow, R.; Ammann, M.

    2002-06-01

    Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2) and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr) aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  10. Tracking Water Diffusion Fronts in a Highly Viscous Aerosol Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Field measurements indicate that atmospheric secondary aerosol particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state [1]. In contrast to liquid state particles, the gas phase equilibration is kinetically limited and governed by condensed phase diffusion. In recent water diffusion experiments on highly viscous single aerosol particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) we observed a characteristic shift behavior of the Mie whispering gallery modes (WGM) indicative of the changing radial structure of the particle, thus providing us with an experimental method to track the diffusion process inside the particle. When a highly viscous, homogeneous particle is exposed to an abrupt increase in relative humidity, the rapid gas phase diffusion and strong concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the condensed phase lead to extremely steep water concentration gradients inside the particle, reminiscent of diffusion fronts. The resulting quasi step-like concentration profile motivates the introduction of a simple core-shell model describing the morphology of the non-equilibrium particle during humidification. The subsequent particle growth and reduction of the shell refractive index can be observed as red and blueshift behavior of the WGM, respectively. The shift pattern can be attributed to a core-shell radius ratio and particle radius derived from model calculations [2]. If supplemented with growth information obtained from the WGM redshift and thermodynamic equilibrium data, we can infer a comprehensive picture of the time evolution of the diffusion fronts in the framework of our core-shell model. The measured time dependent concentration profile is then compared with simulations solving the non-linear diffusion equation [3] [1] Virtanen, A., et al., Nature, 467, 824-827, 2010 [2] Kaiser, T., Schweiger, G., Computers in Physics, Vol. 7, No. 6, 682-686, Nov/Dec 1993 [3] Zobrist, B., Soonsin, V., Luo, B.P., Peter, T. et al., Phys. Chem. Chem

  11. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate.

  12. Characterization of new particle and secondary aerosol formation during summertime in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Gong, S. L.; Shen, X. J.; Yang, S.

    2011-07-01

    Size-resolved aerosol number and mass concentrations and the mixing ratios of O3 and various trace gases were continuously measured at an urban station before and during the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (5 June to 22 September, 2008). 23 new particle formation (NPF) events were identified; these usually were associated with changes in wind direction and/or rising concentrations of gas-phase precursors or after precipitation events. Most of the NPF events started in the morning and continued to noon as particles in the nucleation mode grew into the Aitken mode. From noon to midnight, the aerosols grew into the accumulation mode through condensation and coagulation. Ozone showed a gradual rise starting around 10:00 local time, reached its peak around 15:00 and then declined as the organics increased. The dominant new particle species were organics (40-75% of PM1) and sulphate; nitrate and ammonium were more minor contributors.

  13. Hydrolysis of organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang; Shilling, John E.; Song, Chen; Hiranuma, Naruki; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2012-10-19

    Organonitrate (ON) groups are important substituents in secondary organic aerosols. Model simulations and laboratory studies indicate a large fraction of ON groups in aerosol particles, but much lower quantities are observed in the atmosphere. Hydrolysis of ON groups in aerosol particles has been proposed recently. To test this hypothesis, we simulated formation of ON molecules in a reaction chamber under a wide range of relative humidity (0% to 90%). The mass fraction of ON groups (5% to 20% for high-NOx experiments) consistently decreased with increasing relative humidity, which was best explained by hydrolysis of ON groups at a rate of 4 day-1 (lifetime of 6 hours) for reactions under relative humidity greater than 20%. In addition, we found that secondary nitrogen-containing molecules absorb light, with greater absorption under dry and high-NOx conditions. This work provides the first evidence for particle-phase hydrolysis of ON groups, a process that could substantially reduce ON group concentration in the atmosphere.

  14. The effect of formaldehyde and nitrogen-containing compounds on the size and volume of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millage, K.; Galloway, M. M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol can interact with clouds in many ways, often resulting in the redistribution or absorption of solar energy or changes in precipitation efficiency. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in particular has been linked to climate change and a reduction in the number and size of cloud particles. The reactions of nitrogen containing compounds (primary amines, amino acids and ammonium sulfate) with carbonyl compounds (such as formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde) are potential sources of SOA. Aerosol containing formaldehyde and nitrogen-containing compounds (glycine, methylamine, arginine, or ammonium sulfate) was generated from buffered solutions (pH 5.4) using a nebulizer. The aerosol was then equilibrated into a chamber containing humid air (82-84% RH), and particle sizes were measured using a SMPS system over a period of 1 hour in order to examine how the size and volume of the aerosol particles changed. Formaldehyde concentrations were varied over multiple experiments. Arginine displayed a trend of increasing relative particle size with increasing formaldehyde concentration. Ammonium sulfate and formaldehyde displayed a decrease in relative particle sizes from 0:1 to 2:1 ratios of formaldehyde to ammonium sulfate, but then an increase in relative particle sizes with increasing amounts of formaldehyde. Similarly, glycine and methylamine initially displayed decreasing relative particle sizes, until reaching a 1:1 ratio of each to formaldehyde at which point the relative particle sizes steadily increased. These effects were likely caused by the evaporation of first-generation imine products.

  15. Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2, Compositions and aging of inorganic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Pósfai, MiháLy; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2003-07-01

    Individual aerosol particles collected over southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 field study were studied using transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The sizes, shapes, compositions, mixing states, surface coatings, and relative abundances of aerosol particles from biomass burning, in boundary layer hazes, and in the free troposphere were compared, with emphasis on aging and reactions of inorganic smoke particles. Potassium salts and organic particles were the predominant species in the smoke, and most were internally mixed. More KCl particles occur in young smoke, whereas more K2SO4 and KNO3 particles were present in aged smoke. This change indicates that with the aging of the smoke, KCl particles from the fires were converted to K2SO4 and KNO3 through reactions with sulfur- and nitrogen-bearing species from biomass burning as well as other sources. More soot was present in smoke from flaming grass fires than bush and wood fires, probably due to the predominance of flaming combustion in grass fires. The high abundance of organic particles and soluble salts can affect the hygroscopic properties of biomass-burning aerosols and therefore influence their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Particles from biomass burning were important constituents of the regional hazes.

  16. Self-assembly of marine exudate particles and their impact on the CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, S.; Zimmermann, K.; Ryder, O. S.; Campbell, N.; Collins, D. B.; Gianneschi, N.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous self-assembly of marine exudate particles has previously been observed in filtered seawater samples. The chemicophysical properties of these particles may alter the chemical composition and CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol, yet to date simultaneous measurement of seawater exudate particle formation rates and number distributions, with aerosol particle formation rates and CCN activity are lacking. Here, we use a novel Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) system to experimentally mimic a phytoplankton bloom via sequential addition of biological surrogates, including sterol, galactose, lipopolysaccharide, BSA protein, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Nascent sea-spray aerosol are generated in the MART system via a continuous plunging waterfall. Exudate particle assembly in the water is monitored via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain both the assembly kinetics of the particles as well as particle number distributions Simultaneous characterization of both particle production rates and super-saturated particle hygroscopicity are also discussed. This study permits analysis of the controlling role of the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon in setting the production rates of colloidal material in the surface oceans.

  17. Measurements of extinction by aerosol particles in the near-infrared using continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Daniel; King, Simon J; Kim, Jin; Reid, Jonathan P; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2011-02-10

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy using a fiber-coupled continuous wave distributed feedback laser at a wavelength of 1520 nm has been used to measure extinction of light by samples of nearly monodisperse aerosol particles <1 μm in diameter. A model is tested for the analysis of the sample extinction that is based on the Poisson statistics of the number of particles within the intracavity laser beam: variances of measured extinction are used to derive values of the scattering cross section for size-selected aerosol particles, without need for knowledge of the particle number density or sample length. Experimental parameters that influence the performance of the CRD system and the application and limitations of the statistical model are examined in detail. Determinations are reported of the scattering cross sections for polystyrene spheres (PSSs), sodium chloride, and ammonium sulfate, and, for particles greater than 500 nm in diameter, are shown to be in agreement with the corresponding values calculated using Mie theory or Discrete Dipole Approximation methods. For smaller particles, the experimentally derived values of the scattering cross section are larger than the theoretical predictions, and transmission of a small fraction of larger particles into the cavity is argued to be responsible for this discrepancy. The effects of cubic structure on the determination of optical extinction efficiencies of sodium chloride aerosol particles are examined. Values are reported for the real components of the refractive indices at 1520 nm of PSS, sodium chloride, and ammonium sulfate aerosol particles.

  18. Aerosol Particle Property Comparisons Between MISR and AERONET Retrieved Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOT) data from the Multi-angle ImagingSpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite have already been systematically compared with ground-based data from the AERONET network. As a result of that study, MISR data are now being reprocessed with improved aerosol algorithms and aerosol models. The follow-on study reported here systematically compares MISR and AERONET particle micro-physical properties. This project is currently underway. Our goal is to use the statistical power of numerous AERONET measurements to map the behavior of the MISR property retrievals, identify strength and surprises in the MISR data, and use this information both to refine further the MISR retrieval algorithms and to assess the likely error envelopes in the MISR products. Multi-year data from 36 carefully chosen sites having good long-term measurement records are stratified by broad classes of aerosol air mass types: maritime, biomass burning, desert dust, pollution, and continental aerosols. Available AERONET spectral AOT measurements for two-hour windows around MISR overpass times are interpolated to MISR wavelengths and averaged, and AOT variability over the two-hour window is noted. Sky-scan AERONET data, taken only once an hour, are also were interpolated to MISR wavelengths, and are averaged over a four-hour window provided the variability is smaller than MISR sensitivity to particle properties based on previous work. MISR retrievals over the 17.6 km standard retrieval regions that include the AERONET sites are preferentially used for the comparison. The MISR measurements are averages of over all "successful" aerosol type models in the MISR algorithm climatology, where success is measured by the degree to which multi-angle, multi-spectral top-of-atmosphere radiances match modeled radiances, using several chi-squared tests. Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, and size distribution mean values and variance

  19. Advances in Quantifying the Radiative Effects of Aerosol Particles on Climate from Airborne Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, K. S.; Coddington, O.; Bergstrom, R.; Redemann, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, large uncertainties persist in estimates of climate forcing by aerosol particles. One contributor to this uncertainty is the poorly quantified vertical distribution of solar radiation absorbed by aerosol particles, from the regional to global scale. Another is the spectral and spatial variability of surface albedo, an effect that can dominate the top-of-atmosphere perturbations due to aerosol scattering and absorption, particularly over land. Over the past three years a number of intensive airborne field experiments (ICARTT, MILAGRO, GoMACCS) have contributed significantly to our understanding of the impact of pollution outflow from urban-industrial centers on radiative forcing, using spectrally resolved radiometric measurements and novel observationally-based methods to derive forcing efficiency and flux divergence. We present an overview of some of the most significant advances in direct radiative forcing realized by these studies, and recommendations on where the greatest challenges remain. In addition we present findings from these experiments on the influence of aerosol particles on cloud radiative properties, a potentially greater effect but even more uncertain than direct radiative forcing.

  20. A concept of an automated function control for ambient aerosol measurements using mobility particle size spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, S.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-04-01

    An automated function control unit was developed to regularly check the ambient particle number concentration derived from a mobility particle size spectrometer as well as its zero-point behaviour. The function control allows unattended quality assurance experiments at remote air quality monitoring or research stations under field conditions. The automated function control also has the advantage of being able to get a faster system stability response than the recommended on-site comparisons with reference instruments. The method is based on a comparison of the total particle number concentration measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer and a condensation particle counter while removing diffusive particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter. In practice, the small particles are removed by a set of diffusion screens, as traditionally used in a diffusion battery. Another feature of the automated function control is to check the zero-point behaviour of the ambient aerosol passing through a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The performance of the function control is illustrated with the aid of a 1-year data set recorded at Annaberg-Buchholz, a station in the Saxon air quality monitoring network. During the period of concern, the total particle number concentration derived from the mobility particle size spectrometer slightly overestimated the particle number concentration recorded by the condensation particle counter by 2 % (grand average). Based on our first year of experience with the function control, we developed tolerance criteria that allow a performance evaluation of a tested mobility particle size spectrometer with respect to the total particle number concentration. We conclude that the automated function control enhances the quality and reliability of unattended long-term particle number size distribution measurements. This will have beneficial effects for intercomparison studies involving different measurement sites, and help provide a higher

  1. The relation between aerosol particles and lightning in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucienska, B.; Cervantes Villa, J. S.; Raga, G. B.

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of lightning activity registered by the World Wide Lightning Location Network and aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer indicate that spatial and temporal variations in cloud-to-ground lightning density over Mexico are linked to variations in aerosol amounts. Average lightning activity registered on days with moderate AOD is higher than that registered on days with low AOD for most of the continental areas and coastal maritime regions. This finding could be explained either by the aerosol effect on thunderstorms electrical activity or by a similar influence of meteorological conditions on both lightning and AOD. Analysis of temporal variations of electrical activity show that over large continental areas a significant lightning density is observed during spring, at the very beginning of rainy seasons. In May, when rainfall is relatively low, an exceptionally high lightning activity is also registered over the Pacific, in the region located south to Isthmus of Tehuantepec. This signal of high lightning density propagates hundreds of kilometers away from the coast. We hypothesize that high lightning activity during spring observed over both continental and oceanic regions is linked to the presence of aerosol particle generated by biomass burning which peaks in April and May.

  2. Infrared spectroscopic methods for the study of aerosol particles using White cell optics: Development and characterization of a new aerosol flow tube.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Juan J; Fochesatto, Javier G; Last, Deborah J; Percival, Carl J; Horn, Andrew B

    2008-12-01

    A description of a new aerosol flow tube apparatus for measurements in situ under atmospherically relevant conditions is presented here. The system consists of a laboratory-made nebulizer generation system and a flow tube with a White cell-based Fourier transform IR for the detection system. An assessment of the White cell coupled to the flow tube was carried out by an extensive set of experiments to ensure the alignment of the infrared beam and optimize the performance of this system. The detection limit for CO was established as (1.0+/-0.3) ppm and 16 passes was chosen as the optimum number of passes to be used in flow tube experiments. Infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize dry aerosol particles in the flow tube. Pure particles composed of ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 mum for size diameter and (0.8-4.9)x10(6) particles/cm(3) for density number were generated by nebulization of aqueous solutions. Direct measurements of the aerosol particle size agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements using Mie calculations, where the difference residual value is in the order of 0.2%. The infrared detection limit for ammonium sulfate aerosol particles was determined as d(p)=0.9 mum and N=5x10(3) particles/cm(3) with sigma=1.1 by Mie calculation. Alternatively, Mie calculations were performed to determine the flexibility in varying the optical length when aerosol particles are sent by the injector. The very good agreement between the values retrieved for aerosol particles injected through the flow tube or through the injector clearly validates the estimation of the effective optical path length for the injector. To determine the flexibility in varying the reaction zone length, analysis of the extinction spectra as function of the position of the injector was carried out by monitoring the integrated area of different absorption modes of the ammonium sulfate. We conclude that the aerosol loss in the

  3. Infrared spectroscopic methods for the study of aerosol particles using White cell optics: Development and characterization of a new aerosol flow tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nájera, Juan J.; Fochesatto, Javier G.; Last, Deborah J.; Percival, Carl J.; Horn, Andrew B.

    2008-12-01

    A description of a new aerosol flow tube apparatus for measurements in situ under atmospherically relevant conditions is presented here. The system consists of a laboratory-made nebulizer generation system and a flow tube with a White cell-based Fourier transform IR for the detection system. An assessment of the White cell coupled to the flow tube was carried out by an extensive set of experiments to ensure the alignment of the infrared beam and optimize the performance of this system. The detection limit for CO was established as (1.0±0.3) ppm and 16 passes was chosen as the optimum number of passes to be used in flow tube experiments. Infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize dry aerosol particles in the flow tube. Pure particles composed of ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 μm for size diameter and (0.8-4.9)×106 particles/cm3 for density number were generated by nebulization of aqueous solutions. Direct measurements of the aerosol particle size agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements using Mie calculations, where the difference residual value is in the order of 0.2%. The infrared detection limit for ammonium sulfate aerosol particles was determined as dp=0.9 μm and N =5×103 particles/cm3 with σ =1.1 by Mie calculation. Alternatively, Mie calculations were performed to determine the flexibility in varying the optical length when aerosol particles are sent by the injector. The very good agreement between the values retrieved for aerosol particles injected through the flow tube or through the injector clearly validates the estimation of the effective optical path length for the injector. To determine the flexibility in varying the reaction zone length, analysis of the extinction spectra as function of the position of the injector was carried out by monitoring the integrated area of different absorption modes of the ammonium sulfate. We conclude that the aerosol loss in the flow tube

  4. Time evolution and emission factors of aerosol particles from day and night time savannah fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, Johan Paul; Tiitta, Petri; Venter, Andrew; Jaars, Kerneels; Josipovic, Miroslav; van Zyl, Pieter; Kulmala, Markku; Laakso, Lauri

    2013-04-01

    number and size of particles larger than 100 nm; if this is not accounted for the current emission factors may underestimate the CCN-sized particle yield from savannah fires by a factor of two to three. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Academy of Finland under the project Atmospheric monitoring capacity building in Southern Africa (project number 132640), by the Saastamoinen säätiö, by the North-West University and by the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence program (project number 1118615). References IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007. Pope, C. A., and Dockery, D. W.: Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect, J Air Waste Manag. Assoc., 56, 709-742, 2006. Swap, R. J., Annegarn, H. J., Suttles, J. T., King, M. D., Platnick, S., Privette, J. L., and Scholes, R. J.: Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8465, doi:10.1029/2003JD003747, 2003. Vakkari, V., Beukes, J. P., Laakso, H., Mabaso, D., Pienaar, J. J., Kulmala, M., and Laakso, L.: Long-term observations of aerosol size distributions in semi-clean and polluted savannah in South Africa, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 24043-24093, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-24043-2012, 2012.

  5. Lake spray aerosol generation: a method for producing representative particles from freshwater wave breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Nathaniel W.; Axson, Jessica L.; Watson, Alexa; Pratt, Kerri A.; Ault, Andrew P.

    2016-09-01

    Wave-breaking action in bodies of freshwater produces atmospheric aerosols via a similar mechanism to sea spray aerosol (SSA) from seawater. The term lake spray aerosol (LSA) is proposed to describe particles formed by this mechanism, which have been observed over the Laurentian Great Lakes. Though LSA has been identified from size distribution measurements during a single measurement campaign, no measurements of LSA composition or relationship to bubble-bursting dynamics have been conducted. An LSA generator utilizing a plunging jet, similar to many SSA generators, was constructed for the generation of aerosol from freshwater samples and model salt solutions. To evaluate this new generator, bubble and aerosol number size distributions were measured for salt solutions representative of freshwater (CaCO3) and seawater (NaCl) at concentrations ranging from that of freshwater to seawater (0.05-35 g kg-1), synthetic seawater (inorganic), synthetic freshwater (inorganic), and a freshwater sample from Lake Michigan. Following validation of the bubble and aerosol size distributions using synthetic seawater, a range of salt concentrations were investigated. The systematic studies of the model salts, synthetic freshwater, and Lake Michigan sample indicate that LSA is characterized by a larger number size distribution mode diameter of 300 nm (lognormal), compared to seawater at 110 nm. Decreasing salt concentrations from seawater to freshwater led to greater bubble coalescence and formation of larger bubbles, which generated larger particles and lower aerosol number concentrations. This resulted in a bimodal number size distribution with a primary mode (180 ± 20 nm) larger than that of SSA, as well as a secondary mode (46 ± 6 nm) smaller than that of SSA. This new method for studying LSA under isolated conditions is needed as models, at present, utilize SSA parameterizations for freshwater systems, which do not accurately predict the different size distributions observed

  6. Scanning Transmission X-ray microscopy Imaging of Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, M. K.; Kilcoyne, A.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D. K.; Fakra, S.; Robinson, M.; Chase, K.

    2003-12-01

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopes (STXM) are used to image a diversity of carbon and metal containing items such as biofilms in soils, magnetic materials, polymers and meteorites. Studies on particles collected on SiO2 filters from biomass burns in Flagstaff, Arizona and individual aerosols collected in South Africa on TEM grids are underway at beamlines 5.3.2 and 11.0.2 at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Sub micron particles are imaged in the transmission mode over the energy range of 280 - 1900 eV. Spectromicroscopic studies on individual particles using near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) probe multiple species within or on the same particle. In (STXM) an X-ray beam is focused with a zone plate onto a sample and the transmitted radiation is detected. Since the signal is obtained in the transmission mode, optically thin samples are required. Hence, atmospheric aerosols with submicron thickness and diameter are well suited for this method. Near edge spectra of various elements were scanned in step sizes from 0.1-0.5 eV around characteristic absorption edges, creating 2 dimensional images at each energy. While STXM images are taken with a lower spatial resolution (currently 40 nm) than microscopies such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, detailed chemical information with spatial distributions, and oxidation states is obtained. A particular focus of this work is to obtain more detailed information on the type of carbons, multiply, or singly bonded and whether or not carbon is bonded to oxygen. The ultimate goal is discrimination between organic and black carbon within individual aerosol particles and determining if organic carbon, black carbon, and metal species are distributed homogeneously throughout aerosol particles. Initial scans of the samples from Flagstaff show spectral evidence of aromatic carbon, without distinct C=O signatures. NEXAFS

  7. Individual Aerosol Particle Types Produced by Savanna Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posfai, M.; Simonics, R.; Li, J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Buseck, P. R.; Buseck, P. R.

    2001-12-01

    We used analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study individual aerosol particles that were collected on the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the Safari2000 Dry Season Experiment. Our goals were to study the compositions, morphologies, and mixing states of carbonaceous particles, in order to better understand the physical and chemical properties of biomass smoke on the individual-particle level. The compositions of single particles were determined using energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Energy-loss maps obtained with the TEM are useful for studying the spatial distribution of light elements such as carbon within the particles; thus, they provide a detailed picture of complex particles. Carbonaceous particles were assigned into three main groups on the basis of morphology and composition: "organic particles with inorganic inclusions," "tar balls," and "soot." Soot is recognized by its characteristic morphology and microstructure. The distinction between "organic particles with inorganic inclusions" and "tar balls" is somewhat arbitrary, since the two criteria that are used for their distinction (composition and aspect ratio) change continually. The relative concentrations of the three major particle types vary with the type of fire and distance from fire. In the plume of a smoldering fire west of Beria (August 31) the relative concentration of tar balls increased with aging of the plume. Tar balls have a fairly narrow size distribution with a maximum between 100 and 200 nm (diameter). The inorganic K-salt inclusions (KCl, K2SO4, KNO3) within "organic particles" should make these particles hygroscopic, regardless of the properties of the organic compounds. Aging causes the conversion of KCl into K2SO4, KNO3. Aerosol production from flaming and smoldering fires was compared over Kruger National Park on August 17; more soot and more Cl-rich inclusions

  8. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  9. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels

  10. ModelE2-TOMAS development and evaluation using aerosol optical depths, mass and number concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Shindell, D. T.

    2014-09-01

    The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional microphysics model (TOMAS) has been integrated into the state-of-the-art general circulation model, GISS ModelE2. TOMAS has the flexibility to select a size resolution as well as the lower size cutoff. A computationally efficient version of TOMAS is used here, which has 15 size bins covering 3 nm to 10 μm aerosol dry diameter. For each bin, it simulates the total aerosol number concentration and mass concentrations of sulphate, pure elementary carbon (hydrophobic), mixed elemental carbon (hydrophilic), hydrophobic organic matter, hydrophilic organic matter, sea salt, mineral dust, ammonium, and aerosol-associated water. This paper provides a detailed description of the ModelE2-TOMAS model and evaluates the model against various observations including aerosol precursor gas concentrations, aerosol mass and number concentrations, and aerosol optical depths. Additionally, global budgets in ModelE2-TOMAS are compared with those of other global aerosol models, and the TOMAS model is compared to the default aerosol model in ModelE2, which is a bulk aerosol model. Overall, the ModelE2-TOMAS predictions are within the range of other global aerosol model predictions, and the model has a reasonable agreement with observations of sulphur species and other aerosol components as well as aerosol optical depth. However, ModelE2-TOMAS (as well as the bulk aerosol model) cannot capture the observed vertical distribution of sulphur dioxide over the Pacific Ocean possibly due to overly strong convective transport. The TOMAS model successfully captures observed aerosol number concentrations and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Anthropogenic aerosol burdens in the bulk aerosol model running in the same host model as TOMAS (ModelE2) differ by a few percent to a factor of 2 regionally, mainly due to differences in aerosol processes including deposition, cloud processing, and emission parameterizations. Larger differences are found for naturally

  11. Effect of aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers on the lung in mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic humidifiers silently generate water droplets as a cool fog and produce most of the dissolved minerals in the fog in the form of an aerosolized “white dust.” However, the health effect of these airborne particles is largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers and to investigate their effect on the lung tissue of mice. Methods An ultrasonic humidifier was operated with tap water, high-silica water, ultrapure water, or other water types. In a chamber (0.765 m3, ventilation ratio 11.5 m3/hr), male ICR mice (10-week-old) were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol-containing vapor generated by the humidifier. After exposure for 7 or 14 days, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected from each mouse and examined by microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and light and electron microscopy. Results Particles generated from the humidifier operated with tap water had a mass concentration of 0.46 ± 0.03 mg/m3, number concentration of (5.0 ± 1.1) × 104/cm3, and peak size distribution of 183 nm. The particles were phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung of mice. Inhalation of particles caused dysregulation of genes related to mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, MHC molecules and endocytosis, but did not induce any signs of inflammation or tissue injury in the lung. Conclusion These results indicate that aerosol particles released from ultrasonic humidifiers operated with tap water initiated a cellular response but did not cause severe acute inflammation in pulmonary tissue. Additionally, high mineral content tap water is not recommended and de-mineralized water should be recommended in order to exclude any adverse effects. PMID:24359587

  12. Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols I: uranium concentration in aerosols as a function of time and particle size.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Cheng, Yung Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L; Traub, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing DU were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time, particularly within the first minute after a shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s after perforation, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% after 30 min. The initial and maximum uranium concentrations were lower in the Bradley vehicle than those observed in the Abrams tank, and the concentration levels decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in a cyclone sampler, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h after perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages ranged from 38 to 72% for the Abrams tank with conventional armor. In most cases, it varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Neither the Abrams tank with DU armor nor the Bradley vehicle results were specifically correlated with particle size and can best be represented by their average uranium mass concentrations of 65

  13. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twohy, C. H.; Anderson, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Andrejczuk, M.; Adams, A.; Lytle, M.; George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Saide, P.; Spak, S.; Zuidema, P.; Leon, D.

    2013-03-01

    The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics, including their significance, from eight flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number that influence droplet concentration. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were smaller in regions of enhanced particles near shore. However, physically thinner clouds, and not just higher droplet number concentrations from pollution, both contributed to the smaller droplets. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500-1000 km offshore, and actually slightly lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower liquid water paths

  14. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  15. PD-FiTE - an efficient method for calculating gas / liquid equilibria in atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, D.; Lowe, D.; McFiggans, G.; Barley, M.

    2009-04-01

    necessary to further include an as yet unspecified number of condensing organic species, thus increasing the computational burden of any existing framework. Using this coupled approach we derive optimised model parameters describing the interaction between different chemical components, resulting in a significant increase in computational performance, in some cases giving a four fold decrease in the required number of floating point operations, whilst remaining accurate. Overall, comparisons with the most accurate inorganic activity coefficient model available (Clegg et al1998) and an existing parameterisation (MTEM) (Zaveri et al 2005) indicate that the methodology behind PD-FiTE gives an increase in accuracy for calculating the vapour pressure of all condensing gases when averaged over the parameterisation space of the system H+-NH4+-Na+-SO42--HSO4--NO3--Cl-. Following this, the reduced parameterisation is coupled into a combined chemistry / microphysical aerosol model in a dynamical simulation of aerosol composition. This demonstrates the robustness of our model and also demonstrates the implications of its use. As a simple test case we investigate the response of a typical marine aerosol passing through a polluted environment. This shows the robustness of PD-FiTE and illustrates its usefulness in capturing the fine details of important phenomena such as the outgassing of HCl in response to HNO3 uptake by sea-salt particles. Further, since semi-volatile organic compounds are ubiquitous and secondary organic aerosol is thought to be a major fraction of submicron aerosol mass, the inclusion of organic compounds into the framework will be reported. References: Clegg, S. L., et al. (1992), Thermodynamics of Multicomponent, Miscible, Ionic-Solutions .2. Mixtures Including Unsymmetrical Electrolytes,Journal of Physical Chemistry, 96, 9470-9479. Topping, D.O. et al (2008). An Efficient and Accurate Scheme for the Partitioning of Atmospheric Semi-Volatile Components - 1

  16. Chemical composition and sources of aerosol particles at Zeppelin Mountain (Ny Ålesund, Svalbard): An electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbruch, Stephan; Wiesemann, David; Ebert, Martin; Schütze, Katharina; Kallenborn, Roland; Ström, Johan

    2012-03-01

    Aerosol particles were collected at the Zeppelin Mountain Atmospheric Research Station (474 m asl) near Ny Ålesund (Svalbard, Norway) on 27 different days between July 2007 and December 2008. The size, morphology and chemical composition of 57,617 individual particles were studied by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Based on chemical composition, morphology, mixing state and stability under electron bombardment, the particles were assigned to one of the following groups: sea salt, aged sea salt, Ca sulphates, Na sulphates, carbonates, soot, silicates, fly ashes, secondary aerosol, secondary aerosol plus sodium, secondary aerosol plus soot, mixed particles and others. Sea salt, aged sea salt, silicates and mixed particles (mixtures of sea salt, silicates and Ca sulphates) are the most abundant groups for particles with aerodynamic diameters > 0.5 μm, secondary aerosol, mixed particles and secondary aerosol with soot inclusions below 0.5 μm. Silicate fly ashes (major source coal burning) and metal fly ashes (from metallurgical high temperature processes) occur only at very low number concentrations. In contrast to previous work, the fly ash abundance is not correlated with air masses that crossed industrialized regions in Central and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia or Russia. These observations indicate a significant reduction of long-range transport of heavy metals to Svalbard. Soot (external and internally mixed with secondary aerosol) shows a pronounced seasonal pattern with a much lower abundance during summer compared to spring, autumn and winter. The soot abundance is not correlated with the air mass back-trajectories. During summer (July and August), soot was only observed when cruise ships were present in the area around Ny Ålesund (Kongsfjorden). Pronounced seasonal patterns were observed for the abundance of the mineral dust component which is generally lower in summer compared to the other seasons. The

  17. Relationship between aerosol oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Lambe, A.; Ahern, A.; Williams, L. R.; Ehn, M.; Mikkila, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Brune, W. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J.; Petdjd, T. T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Laaksonen, A.; Kolb, C. E.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments investigated the relationship between degree of oxidation and hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles. The hygroscopic growth factor (HGF), the CCN activity (κCCN) and the degree of aerosol oxidation (represented by the atomic O:C ratio) were measured for α-pinene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), m-xylene and α pinene/m-xylene mixture SOA generated via OH radical oxidation in an aerosol flow reactor. Our results show that both HGF and κCCN increase with O:C. The TMB and m-xylene SOA were, respectively, the least and most hygroscopic of the system studied. An average HGF of 1.25 and a κCCN of 0.2 were measured at O:C of 0.65, in agreement with results reported for ambient data. The HGF based κ(κHGF) under predicted the κCCN values of 20 to 50% for all but the TMB SOA. Within the limitations of instrumental capabilities, we define the extent to which the hygroscopic properties of SOA particles can be predicted from their oxidation level and provide parameterizations suitable for interpreting ambient data.

  18. Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to pyrethrin aerosol: effects of aerosol particle size, concentration, and exposure conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of laboratory studies were conducted to assess effect of droplet size on efficacy of pyrethrin aerosol against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, the confused flour beetle. A vertical flow aerosol exposure chamber that generated a standardized particle size diameter was used for...

  19. Characterization of particle number size distribution and new particle formation in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Chuan; Peng, Jianfei; He, Lingyan; Cao, Liming; Zhu, Qiao; Cui, Jie; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of particle number size distribution (PND) and new particle formation (NPF) events in Southern China is essential for mitigation strategies related to submicron particles and their effects on regional air quality, haze, and human health. In this study, seven field measurement campaigns were conducted from December 2013 to May 2015 using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at four sites in Southern China, including three urban sites and one background site. Particles were measured in the size range of 15-615nm, and the median particle number concentrations (PNCs) were found to vary in the range of 0.3×10(4)-2.2×10(4)cm(-3) at the urban sites and were approximately 0.2×10(4)cm(-3) at the background site. The peak diameters at the different sites varied largely from 22 to 102nm. The PNCs in the Aitken mode (25-100nm) at the urban sites were up to 10 times higher than they were at the background site, indicating large primary emissions from traffic at the urban sites. The diurnal variations of PNCs were significantly influenced by both rush hour traffic at the urban sites and NPF events. The frequencies of NPF events at the different sites were 0%-30%, with the highest frequency occurring at an urban site during autumn. With higher SO2 concentrations and higher ambient temperatures being necessary, NPF at the urban site was found to be more influenced by atmospheric oxidizing capability, while NPF at the background site was limited by the condensation sink. This study provides a unique dataset of particle number and size information in various environments in Southern China, which can help understand the sources, formation, and the climate forcing of aerosols in this quickly developing region, as well as help constrain and validate NPF modeling.

  20. Atmospheric Condensational Properties of Ultrafine Chain and Fractal Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, William H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose for the research sponsored by this grant was to lay the foundations for qualitative understanding and quantitative description of the equilibrium vapor pressure of water vapor over the irregularly shaped, carbonaceous particles that are present in the atmosphere. This work apparently was the first systematic treatment of the subject. Research was conducted in two complementary components: 1. Calculations were performed of the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over particles comprised of aggregates of spheres in the 50-200 nm radius range. The purposes of this work were two-fold. First, since no systematic treatment of this subject had previously been conducted, its availability would be directly useful for quantitative treatment for a limited range of atmospheric aerosols. Second, it would provide qualitative indications of the effects of highly irregular particle shape on equilibrium vapor pressure of aggregates comprised of smaller spheres.

  1. Characterization of ultrafine particle number concentration and new particle formation in an urban environment of Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Huang, W.-R.; Tsai, C.-Y.

    2013-09-01

    An intensive aerosol characterization experiment was performed at the Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory (TARO, 25.02° N, 121.53° E) in the urban area of Taipei, Taiwan, during July 2012. Number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles were measured continuously, which were accompanied by concurrent measurements of mass concentration of submicron particles, PM1 (d ≤ 1 μm), and photolysis rate of ozone, J(O1D). The averaged number concentrations of total (Ntotal), accumulation mode (Nacu), Aitken mode (NAitken), and nucleation mode (Nnuc) particles were 13.9 × 103 cm-3, 1.2 × 103 cm-3, 6.1 × 103 cm-3, and 6.6 × 103 cm-3, respectively. Accordingly, the ultrafine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm) accounted for 91% of the total number concentration of particles measured in this study (10 ≤ d ≤ 429 nm), indicating the importance of UFPs to the air quality and radiation budget in Taipei and its surrounding areas. An averaged Nnuc / NOx ratio of 192.4 cm-3 ppbv-1 was derived from nighttime measurements, which was suggested to be the characteristic of vehicle emissions that contributed to the "urban background" of nucleation mode particles throughout a day. On the contrary, it was found that the number concentration of nucleation mode particles was independent of NOx and could be elevated up to 10 times of the "urban background" levels during daytime, suggesting a substantial amount of nucleation mode particles produced from photochemical processes. Averages (± 1σ) of the diameter growth rate (GR) and formation rate of nucleation mode particles, J10, were 11.9 ± 10.6 nm h-1 and 6.9 ± 3.0 cm-3 s-1, respectively. Consistency in the time series of the nucleation mode particle concentration and the proxy of H2SO4 production, UVB · SO2/CS, for new particle formation (NPF) events suggested that photooxidation of SO2 was likely one of the major mechanisms for the formation of new particles in our study area. Moreover, it was revealed that the

  2. A New Electrospray Aerosol Generator with High Particle Transmission Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Huijing; Patel, Anand C.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2012-01-01

    A new single-capillary electrospray (ES) aerosol generator has been developed for monodisperse particle production with maximal transmission efficiency. The new generator consists of both a spray chamber in a point-to-orifice-plate configuration and a charge reduction chamber that can hold up to 4 Nuclespot ionizers (Model P-2042, NRD Inc.). The 2 chambers are partitioned by an orifice plate. To optimize the particle transmission efficiency of the prototype, a systematic study was performed on the generator by varying the system setup and operation. Two key dimensions of the generator setup, the orifice diameter and the distance from the capillary tip to the orifice plate, were varied. Fluorescence analysis was applied to characterize the loss of ES-generated particles at different locations of the prototype. It was found that particle loss in the generator could be reduced by either increasing the orifice diameter or decreasing the distance between the capillary tip and the orifice plate. Increasing either the total radioactivity of the ionizers or the flowrate of the particle carrier gas also further decreased the particle loss in the system. The maximum particle transmission efficiency of 88.0% was obtained with the spray chamber fully opened to the charge reduction chamber, the capillary tip at the same level as the orifice plate, and 4 bipolar ionizers installed. PMID:22829715

  3. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Lin, Horn-Bond

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  4. Concentrations, size distributions and temporal variations of fluorescent biological aerosol particles in southern tropical India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, Aswathy; Krishna R, Ravi; CV, Biju; Huffman, Alex; Poschl, Ulrich; Gunthe, Sachin

    2015-04-01

    Biological aerosols constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials and structures that are suspended in the atmosphere. They play an important role in the atmospheric physical, chemical and biological processes and health of living being by spread of diseases among humans, plants, and, animals. The atmospheric abundance, sources, physical properties of PBAPs as compared to non-biological aerosols, however, is poorly characterized. The Indian tropical region, where large fraction of the world's total population is residing, experiences a distinctive meteorological phenomenon by means of Indian Summer Monsoon (IMS). Thus, the properties and characteristics of biological aerosols are also expected to be very diverse over the Indian subcontinent depending upon the seasons. Here we characterize the number concentration and size distribution of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAP) at a high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) in South India during the South-West monsoon, which constitute around 80 percent of the annual rainfall in Munnar. Continuous three months measurements (from 01 June 2014 to 21 Aug 2104) FBAPs were carried out at Munnar using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) during IMS. The mean number and mass concentration of coarse FBAP averaged over the entire campaign was 1.7 x 10-2 cm-3 and 0.24 µg m-3 respectively, which corresponds to 2 percent and 6 percent of total aerosol particle number and mass concentration. In agreement to other previous measurements the number size distribution of FBAP also peaks at 3.2 micron indicating the strong presence of fungal spores. This was also supported by the Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis of bioaerosols on filter paper. They also displayed a strong diurnal cycle with maximum concentration occurring at early morning hours. During periods of heavy and continuous rain where the wind is consistently blowing from South-West direction it was

  5. T-matrix calculations of fractal black carbon atmospheric aerosol particle optical scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anna; Boness, David

    2008-05-01

    To better constrain global climate change computer models, and thereby to more fully understand the full extent of anthropogenic climate change, it is necessary to understand the physics of light scattering from those atmospheric aerosol particles that are caused by human activities. The IPCC AR4 report on the physical basis of climate change lists uncertainty in the effects of black carbon aerosol particles, caused by burning fossil fuels and organic matter, as one of the greatest uncertainties in current climate change understanding. This study hopes to increase the knowledge of how aerosols contribute to radiative forcing by using more realistic modeling of scattering properties. We use D. W. Mackowski's T- matrix code on fractal aggregates of uniform spherical monomers and compare this with fractal scattering predicted by the Raleigh-Debye-Gans approximation. The T-matrix code is checked for accuracy with one spherical particle as found with Mie theory. Scattering properties found using the T-matrix method are performed as a function of fractal dimension and number of monomers. Preliminary results will be presented. Future work will involve comparison with soot particle optical scattering measurements made at Seattle University.

  6. Source contributions to black carbon mass fractions in aerosol particles over the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Seizi; Maeda, Takahisa; Kaneyasu, Naoki

    Aerosol particle number size distributions above 0.3 μm in diameter and black carbon mass concentrations in aerosols were observed on Chichi-jima of the Ogasawara Islands in the northwestern Pacific from January 2000 to December 2002. Chichi-jima is suitable to observe polluted air masses from East Asia in winter and clean air masses over the western North Pacific in summer. In winter, aerosols over Chichi-jima were strongly affected by anthropogenic emissions in East Asia. The form of energy consumption in East Asia varies in various regions. Hence, each source region is expected to be characterized by an individual black carbon mass fraction. A three-dimensional Eulerian transport model was used to estimate contribution rates to air pollutants from each source region in East Asia. Because the Miyake-jima eruption began at the end of June 2000, the influence of smokes from Miyake-jima was also considered in the model calculation. The results of model calculations represent what must be noticed about smokes from volcanoes including Miyake-jima to interpret temporal variations of sulfur compounds over the northwestern Pacific. To evaluate black carbon mass fractions in anthropogenic aerosols as a function of source region, the relationships between the volume concentration of aerosol particles and the black carbon mass concentration in the winter were classified under each source region in East Asia. Consequently, the black carbon mass fractions in aerosols from China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula, and other regions were estimated to be 9-13%, 5-7%, and 4-5%, respectively.

  7. A role of aerosol particles in forming urban skyglow and skyglow from distant cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kómar, Ladislav

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles may represent the largest uncertainty about skyglow change in many locations under clear-sky conditions. This is because aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and influence the ground-reaching radiation in different ways depending on their concentrations, origins, shapes, sizes, and compositions. Large particles tend to scatter in Fraunhofer diffraction regime, while small particles can be treated in terms of Rayleigh formalism. However, the role of particle microphysics in forming the skyglow still remains poorly quantified. We have shown in this paper that the chemistry is somehow important for backscattering from large particles that otherwise work as efficient attenuators of light pollution if composed of absorbing materials. The contribution of large particles to the urban skyglow diminishes as they become more spherical in shape. The intensity of backscattering from non-absorbing particles is more-or-less linearly decreasing function of particle radius even if number size distribution is inversely proportional to the fourth power of particle radius. This is due to single particle backscattering that generally increases steeply as the particle radius approaches large values. Forward scattering depends on the particle shape but is independent of the material composition, thus allowing for a simplistic analytical model of skyglow from distant cities. The model we have developed is based on mean value theorem for integrals and incorporates the parametrizable Garstang's emission pattern, intensity decay along optical beam path, and near-forward scattering in an atmospheric environment. Such model can be used by modellers and experimentalists for rapid estimation of skyglow from distant light sources.

  8. Morphology and Optical Properties of Mixed Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Mehrnoush M.; Krieger, Ulrich; Rudich, Yinon; Marcolli, Claudia; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Experiments and modeling studies have shown that deliquesced aerosols can exist not only as one-phase system containing organics, inorganic salts and water, but often as two-phase systems consisting of a predominantly organic and a predominantly inorganic aqueous phase (1,2). Recent laboratory studies conducted with model mixtures representing tropospheric aerosols (1,2,3), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from smog chamber experiments (4), and field measurements (5) suggest that liquid-liquid phase separations (LLPS) is indeed a common phenomenon in mixed organic/ inorganic particles. During LLPS, particles may adopt different morphologies mainly core-shell and partially engulfed. A core-shell configuration will have consequences for heterogeneous chemistry and hygroscopicity and as a result will alter the optical properties of the particles in particular for organic phases containing absorbing molecules, e.g. brown carbon. The primary objective of this project is to establish a method for investigating the morphology of mixed inorganic and absorbing organic compounds of atmospheric relevance and study their radiative properties before, during, and after phase transitions mainly during LLPS. This will be the first study looking into the radiative effect of LLPS in detail. Our ternary model system consist of ammonium sulfate (AS)/ Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)/ and water (H2O). Carminic acid (CA) was added as a proxy for an absorbing organic compound to the system. The behavior of single droplets of above ternary mixture was monitored during relative humidity (RH) cycles using optical microscopy. The same ternary mixture particle was levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and the change in its absorption properties was measured at varying RH. In addition, Mie-code modeling is used to predict the absorption efficiency of the same ternary system and the result will be compared with the data obtained from EDB experiment. We also intend to determine the occurrence of

  9. Gas uptake and chemical aging of semisolid organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Ammann, Markus; Koop, Thomas; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2011-07-05

    Organic substances can adopt an amorphous solid or semisolid state, influencing the rate of heterogeneous reactions and multiphase processes in atmospheric aerosols. Here we demonstrate how molecular diffusion in the condensed phase affects the gas uptake and chemical transformation of semisolid organic particles. Flow tube experiments show that the ozone uptake and oxidative aging of amorphous protein is kinetically limited by bulk diffusion. The reactive gas uptake exhibits a pronounced increase with relative humidity, which can be explained by a decrease of viscosity and increase of diffusivity due to hygroscopic water uptake transforming the amorphous organic matrix from a glassy to a semisolid state (moisture-induced phase transition). The reaction rate depends on the condensed phase diffusion coefficients of both the oxidant and the organic reactant molecules, which can be described by a kinetic multilayer flux model but not by the traditional resistor model approach of multiphase chemistry. The chemical lifetime of reactive compounds in atmospheric particles can increase from seconds to days as the rate of diffusion in semisolid phases can decrease by multiple orders of magnitude in response to low temperature or low relative humidity. The findings demonstrate that the occurrence and properties of amorphous semisolid phases challenge traditional views and require advanced formalisms for the description of organic particle formation and transformation in atmospheric models of aerosol effects on air quality, public health, and climate.

  10. Aerosol mass spectrometry: particle-vaporizer interactions and their consequences for the measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.-M.; Faber, P.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is a frequently used instrument for on-line measurement of the ambient sub-micron aerosol composition. With the help of calibrations and a number of assumptions on the flash vaporization and electron impact ionization processes, this instrument provides robust quantitative information on various non-refractory ambient aerosol components. However, when measuring close to certain anthropogenic or marine sources of semi-refractory aerosols, several of these assumptions may not be met and measurement results might easily be incorrectly interpreted if not carefully analyzed for unique ions, isotope patterns, and potential slow vaporization associated with semi-refractory species. Here we discuss various aspects of the interaction of aerosol particles with the AMS tungsten vaporizer and the consequences for the measurement results: semi-refractory components - i.e., components that vaporize but do not flash-vaporize at the vaporizer and ionizer temperatures, like metal halides (e.g., chlorides, bromides or iodides of Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Pb, Sr, Zn) - can be measured semi-quantitatively despite their relatively slow vaporization from the vaporizer. Even though non-refractory components (e.g., NH4NO3 or (NH4)2SO4) vaporize quickly, under certain conditions their differences in vaporization kinetics can result in undesired biases in ion collection efficiency in thresholded measurements. Chemical reactions with oxygen from the aerosol flow can have an influence on the mass spectra for certain components (e.g., organic species). Finally, chemical reactions of the aerosol with the vaporizer surface can result in additional signals in the mass spectra (e.g., WO2Cl2-related signals from particulate Cl) and in conditioning or contamination of the vaporizer, with potential memory effects influencing the mass spectra of subsequent measurements. Laboratory experiments that investigate these particle-vaporizer interactions are

  11. Deposition of Particles in the Alveolar Airways: Inhalation and Breath-Hold with Pharmaceutical Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Navvab; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that factors such as airway wall motion, inhalation waveform, and geometric complexity influence the deposition of aerosols in the alveolar airways. However, deposition fraction correlations are not available that account for these factors in determining alveolar deposition. The objective of this study was to generate a new space-filling model of the pulmonary acinus region and implement this model to develop correlations of aerosol deposition that can be used to predict the alveolar dose of inhaled pharmaceutical products. A series of acinar models was constructed containing different numbers of alveolar duct generations based on space-filling 14-hedron elements. Selected ventilation waveforms were quick-and-deep and slow-and-deep inhalation consistent with the use of most pharmaceutical aerosol inhalers. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to predict aerosol transport and deposition in the series of acinar models across various orientations with gravity where ventilation was driven by wall motion. Primary findings indicated that increasing the number of alveolar duct generations beyond 3 had a negligible impact on total acinar deposition, and total acinar deposition was not affected by gravity orientation angle. A characteristic model containing three alveolar duct generations (D3) was then used to develop correlations of aerosol deposition in the alveolar airways as a function of particle size and particle residence time in the geometry. An alveolar deposition parameter was determined in which deposition correlated with d2t over the first half of inhalation followed by correlation with dt2, where d is the aerodynamic diameter of the particles and t is the potential particle residence time in the alveolar model. Optimal breath-hold times to allow 95% deposition of inhaled 1, 2, and 3 μm particles once inside the alveolar region were approximately >10, 2.7, and 1.2 s, respectively. Coupling of the deposition

  12. Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1997-12-01

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

  13. Aircraft observations of the physical and radiative properties of biomass aerosol particles during SAFARI-2000.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, S. R.; Haywood, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    An initial analysis will be shown from the ~80 h of data collected between 2--18 September 2000 by the UK Met Office C-130 aircraft during the dry season campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000). The talk will concentrate on the physical and optical properties of the biomass aerosol. The evolution of the particle size spectrum and its optical properties at emission and after ageing will be shown. The vertical distribution of the biomass plume over the land and sea will be compared in view of the local meteorology. A generalised three log-normal model is shown to represent aged biomass aerosol over the sea areas, both in terms of the number and mass particle size spectra, but also derived optical properties (e.g. asymmetry factor, single scatter albedo (ω 0) and extinction coefficient) as calculated using Mie theory and appropriate refractive indices. ω 0 was determined independently using a particle soot absorption photometer (giving the absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 0.567 μ m) and a nephelometer (giving the scattering coefficients at 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65 μ m). Good agreement was found between the measurements and those obtained from the Mie calculations and observed size distributions. A typical value of ω 0 at 0.55 μ m for aged biomass aerosol was 0.90. The radiative properties of the biomass aerosol over both land and sea will be summarised. Stratocumulus cloud was present on some of the days over the sea and the surprising lack of interaction between the elevated biomass plume (containing significant levels of cloud condensation nuclei) and the cloud capping the marine boundary layer will be illustrated. Using the cloud-free and cloudy case studies we can begin to elucidate the levels of direct and indirect forcing of the biomass aerosol on a regional scale. >http://www.mrfnet.demon.co.uk/africa/SAFARI2000.htm

  14. Number size distribution measurements of biological aerosols under contrasting environments and seasons from southern tropical India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, Aswathy; Cv, Biju; Krishna, Ravi; Huffman, Alex; Poschl, Ulrich; Gunthe, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Biological aerosols constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials and structures that are suspended in the atmosphere. They play an important role in the atmospheric physical, chemical and biological processes and health of living being by spread of diseases among humans, plants, and, animals. The atmospheric abundance, sources, physical properties of PBAPs as compared to non-biological aerosols, however, is poorly characterized. Though omnipresent, their concentration and composition exhibit large spatial and temporal variations depending up on their sources, land-use, and local meteorology. The Indian tropical region, which constitutes approximately 18% of the world's total population exhibits vast geographical extend and experiences a distinctive meteorological phenomenon by means of Indian Summer Monsoon (IMS). Thus, the sources, properties and characteristics of biological aerosols are also expected to have significant variations over the Indian subcontinent depending upon the location and seasons. Here we present the number concentration and size distribution of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAP) from two contrasting locations in Southern tropical India measured during contrasting seasons using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS). Measurements were carried out at a pristine high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) during two contrasting seasons, South-West Monsoon (June-August, 2014) and winter (Jan - Feb, 2015) and in Chennai, a coastal urban area, during July - November 2015. FBAP concentrations at both the locations showed large variability with higher concentrations occurring at Chennai. Apart from regional variations, the FBAP concentrations also exhibited variations over two different seasons under the same environmental condition. In Munnar the FBAP concentration increased by a factor of four from South-West Monsoon to winter season. The average size distribution of FBAP at both

  15. On the submicron aerosol distributions and CCN number concentrations in and around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yum, S. S.; Shim, S.; Kim, W. J.; Park, M.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Yoon, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    Total number concentrations of particles having diameter larger than 10 nm (NCN), cloud condensation nuclei at several supersaturation (S) values (NCCN), and the number size distribution of particles for 10-414 nm particle diameter range were measured in Seoul between 2004 and 2010. Overall average values of NCN and geometric mean diameter are 17 811 ± 5581 cm-3 and 48 ± 6 nm, respectively. Average NCCN at 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8% S are 4145 ± 2016, 5323 ± 2453 and 6067 ± 2780 cm-3, respectively and corresponding NCCN / NCN are 0.26 ± 0.11, 0.33 ± 0.11 and 0.37 ± 0.12. There is a clear seasonal variation of aerosol concentration, which seems to be due to the monsoon. NCN and NCCN are also found to be dependent on the volume of traffic and the height of planetary boundary layer, respectively. During the two aircraft campaigns in 2009 and 2011, NCN and NCCN at 0.6% S were measured in and around the Korean Peninsula. During the 2011 campaign, aerosol scattering coefficient was also measured. NCN and NCCN 0.6 in the lower altitudes were generally higher than at higher altitudes, except for the cases when particle formation and growth events are thought to occur at higher altitudes. NCN and NCCN 0.6 show generally a positive correlation with aerosol scattering coefficients but its correspondence tends to vary with altitude. Occasional instances of low (< 0.3) NCCN 0.6 / NCN in the boundary layer are demonstrated to be associated with particle formation and growth events. With the support of ground measurements, it is confirmed that a particle formation and growth event indeed occurred on a flight day over the Yellow Sea and the areal extent of the event is estimated to be greater than 100 km × 450 km. With the combination of the current and several relevant previous studies, a composite map of NCN and NCCN in and around the Korean Peninsula is produced. Overall, the exhibited concentrations are typical of the values measured over the polluted regions elsewhere in the

  16. Relationships among particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentrations in automotive engine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Maynard, Andrew D; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentration measured simultaneously in a foundry and an automotive engine machining and assembly center. Aerosol concentrations were measured throughout each plant with a condensation particle counter for number concentration, a diffusion charger for active surface area concentration, and an optical particle counter for respirable mass concentration. At selected locations, particle size distributions were characterized with the optical particle counter and an electrical low pressure impactor. Statistical analyses showed that active surface area concentration was correlated with ultrafine particle number concentration and weakly correlated with respirable mass concentration. Correlation between number and active surface area concentration was stronger during winter (R2 = 0.6 for both plants) than in the summer (R2 = 0.38 and 0.36 for the foundry and engine plant respectively). The stronger correlation in winter was attributed to use of direct-fire gas fired heaters that produced substantial numbers of ultrafine particles with a modal diameter between 0.007 and 0.023 mu m. These correlations support findings obtained through theoretical analysis. Such analysis predicts that active surface area increasingly underestimates geometric surface area with increasing particle size, particularly for particles larger than 100 nm. Thus, a stronger correlation between particle number concentration and active surface area concentration is expected in the presence of high concentrations of ultrafine particles. In general, active surface area concentration may be a concentration metric that is distinct from particle number concentration and respirable mass concentration. For future health effects or toxicological studies involving nano-materials or ultrafine aerosols, this finding needs to be considered, as exposure metrics may influence data interpretation.

  17. EVALUATION OF ACOUSTIC FORCES ON A PARTICLE IN AEROSOL MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    The acoustic force exerted on a solid particle was evaluated to develop a fundamental understanding of the critical physical parameters or constraints affecting particle motion and capture in a collecting device. The application of an acoustic force to the collection of a range of submicron-to-micron particles in a highly turbulent airflow stream laden with solid particles was evaluated in the presence of other assisting and competing forces. This scoping estimate was based on the primary acoustic force acting directly on particles in a dilute aerosol system, neglecting secondary interparticle effects such as agglomeration of the sub-micron particles. A simplified analysis assuming a stable acoustic equilibrium with an infinite sound speed in the solid shows that for a solid-laden air flow in the presence of a standing wave, particles will move toward the nearest node. The results also show that the turbulent drag force on a 1-{micro}m particle resulting from eddy motion is dominant when compared with the electrostatic force or the ultrasonic acoustic force. At least 180 dB acoustic pressure level at 1 MHz is required for the acoustic force to be comparable to the electrostatic or turbulent drag forces in a high-speed air stream. It is noted that particle size and pressure amplitude are dominant parameters for the acoustic force. When acoustic pressure level becomes very large, the acoustic energy will heat up the surrounding air medium, which may cause air to expand. With an acoustic power of about 600 watts applied to a 2000-lpm air flow, the air temperature can increase by as much as 15 C at the exit of the collector.

  18. Relationship between aerosol oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Williams, L. R.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Brune, W. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Kolb, C. E.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments investigated the relationship between oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles generated via OH radical oxidation in an aerosol flow reactor. The hygroscopic growth factor at 90% RH (HGF90%), the CCN activity ($\\kappa$ORG,CCN) and the level of oxidation (atomic O:C ratio) of the SOA particles were measured. Both HGF90% and $\\kappa$ORG,CCN increased with O:C; the HGF90% varied linearly with O:C, while $\\kappa$ORG,CCN mostly followed a nonlinear trend. An average HGF90% of 1.25 and $\\kappa$ORG,CCN of 0.19 were measured for O:C of 0.65, in agreement with results reported for ambient data. The $\\kappa$ORG values estimated from the HGF90% ($\\kappa$ORG,HGF) were 20 to 50% lower than paired $\\kappa$ORG,CCN values for all SOA particles except 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), the least hygroscopic of the SOA systems. Within the limitations of instrumental capabilities, we show that differences in hygroscopic behavior among the investigated SOA systems may correspond to differences in elemental composition.

  19. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.

  20. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their

  1. Microscopic Characterization of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particle Aging in the Outflow from Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, R. C.; Henn, T. R.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Fast, J.; Barnard, J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Cliff, S.S.; Perry, K. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2009-09-16

    This study was part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area during spring 2006. The physical and chemical transformations of particles aged in the outflow from Mexico City were investigated for the transport event of 22 March 2006. A detailed chemical analysis of individual particles was performed using a combination of complementary microscopy and micro-spectroscopy techniques. The applied techniques included scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (CCSEM/EDX). As the aerosol plume evolves from the city center, the organic mass per particle increases and the fraction of carbon-carbon double bonds (associated with elemental carbon) decreases. Organic functional groups enhanced with particle age include: carboxylic acids, alkyl groups, and oxygen bonded alkyl groups. At the city center (T0) the most prevalent aerosol type contained inorganic species (composed of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and potassium) coated with organic material. At the T1 and T2 sites, located northeast of T0 (~;;29 km and ~;;65 km, respectively), the fraction of homogenously mixed organic particles increased in both size and number. These observations illustrate the evolution of the physical mixing state and organic bonding in individual particles in a photochemically active environment.

  2. Physicochemical Characterization of Coarse Lake Spray Aerosol Particle from Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. P.; Axson, J. L.; May, N.; Pratt, K.; Colon-Bernal, I. D.

    2015-12-01

    Wave breaking across bodies of water releases coarse particles into the air which can impact climate and human health. Freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes, can generate lake spray aerosols (LSA), similarly to how sea spray is generated, during periods of high winds and wave action. This LSA has the potential to impact climate through direct and indirect effects (ie. scattering/absorption and cloud nucleation) and are suggested to impact human health via inhalation of these particles during algal bloom periods characterized by toxic cyanobacteria. Very few studies have been conducted to assess the physicochemical properties of freshwater LSA. Prior work in our lab included the construction and characterization of a laboratory based LSA generator. In this work, we examine laboratory generated aerosol particles from laboratory based freshwater standards, freshwater samples collected from Lake Michigan, and ambient particles collected during a wave event on the shores of Lake Michigan in the summer of 2015. Particle size distributions, number concentrations, and chemical composition are presented and discussed as a function of laboratory generated and ambient collected LSA. Results indicate that there are characteristic particles that represent LSA. This study represents the next step towards evaluating and understanding the potential for coarse LSA to impact climate and health in the Great Lakes region.

  3. Springtime precipitation effects on the abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles and HULIS in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Siyao; Ren, Hong; Fan, Songyun; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-07-01

    Bioaerosols and humic-like substances (HULIS) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, which can affect regional climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and some of which can damage human health. Up to date, release of bioaerosols and HULIS initiated by precipitation is still poorly understood. Here we present different release processes for bioaerosols, non-bioaerosols and HULIS during a precipitation event in Beijing, China. Large fungal-spore-like aerosols were emitted at the onset and later weak stage of precipitation, the number concentration of which increased by more than two folds, while the number concentration of bacteria-like particles doubled when the precipitation strengthened. Besides, a good correlation between protein-like substances that were measured simultaneously by on-line and off-line fluorescence techniques consolidated their applications to measure bioaerosols. Furthermore, our EEM results suggest that the relative contribution of water-soluble HULIS to microbial materials was enhanced gradually by the rain event.

  4. Multiphase OH oxidation kinetics of organic aerosol: The role of particle phase state and relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, Jonathan H.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Organic aerosol can exhibit different phase states in response to changes in relative humidity (RH), thereby influencing heterogeneous reaction rates with trace gas species. OH radical uptake by laboratory-generated levoglucosan and methyl-nitrocatechol particles, serving as surrogates for biomass burning aerosol, is determined as a function of RH. Increasing RH lowers the viscosity of amorphous levoglucosan aerosol particles enabling enhanced OH uptake. Conversely, OH uptake by methyl-nitrocatechol aerosol particles is suppressed at higher RH as a result of competitive coadsorption of H2O that occupies reactive sites. This is shown to have substantial impacts on organic aerosol lifetimes with respect to OH oxidation. The results emphasize the importance of organic aerosol phase state to accurately describe the multiphase chemical kinetics and thus chemical aging process in atmospheric models to better represent the evolution of organic aerosol and its role in air quality and climate.

  5. Dynamics of Aerosol Particles in Stationary, Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Lance R.; Meng, Hui

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the dynamics of sub-Kolmogorov-size aerosol particles in stationary isotropic turbulence has been performed. The study combined direct numerical simulations (DNS; directed by Prof. Collins) and high-resolution experimental measurements (directed by Prof. Meng) under conditions of nearly perfect geometric and parametric overlap. The goal was to measure the accumulation of particles in low-vorticity regions of the flow that arises from the effect commonly referred to as preferential concentration. The grant technically was initiated on June 13, 2000; however, funding was not available until July 11, 2000. The grant was originally awarded to Penn State University (numerical simulations) and SUNY-Buffalo (experiments); however, Prof. Collins effort was moved to Cornell University on January 2002 when he joined that university. He completed the study there. A list of the specific tasks that were completed under this study is presented.

  6. Real-Time Detection Method And System For Identifying Individual Aerosol Particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric Evan; Fergenson, David Philip

    2005-10-25

    A method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are compared against and identified with substantially matching known particle types by producing positive and negative test spectra of an individual aerosol particle using a bipolar single particle mass spectrometer. Each test spectrum is compared to spectra of the same respective polarity in a database of predetermined positive and negative spectra for known particle types and a set of substantially matching spectra is obtained. Finally the identity of the individual aerosol particle is determined from the set of substantially matching spectra by determining a best matching one of the known particle types having both a substantially matching positive spectrum and a substantially matching negative spectrum associated with the best matching known particle type.

  7. Extraction of Optical Constants from Mid-IR Spectra of Small Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Dubowski, Y.; Linker, R.

    2008-12-01

    was tested on crystalline ammonium sulfate aerosols, enabling comparison with existing data. Solutions were used to create aerosol flows with various size distributions and total number of particles. Particle size distribution and mid-IR spectra were recorded simultaneously using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system placed in series with a long-path IR cell. The optical constants estimated experimentally using the proposed method matched closely those previously reported by Earle et al., 2006. References Wagner R., Benz S., Mohler O., Saathoff H., Schnaiter M.,Schurath U., 2005, JPC A, 109, 7099-7112 Dohm, M.T., Potscavage, A. M., and Niedziela, R. F., 2004, JPC A, 108, 5365-5376 Earle M.E., R. G. Pancescu, B. Cosic, A. Y. Zasetsky, and J. J. Sloan, 2006, JPC A, 110, 13022-13028 Ohta,K. and Ishid, H., 1988, Applied Spec., 42(6), 952-957 Bohren and Huffman, 1983, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, Wiley-VCH publication. class="ab'>

  8. On the submicron aerosol distributions and CCN number concentrations in and around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yum, S. S.; Shim, S.; Kim, W. J.; Park, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, M.-H.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2014-08-01

    Total number concentrations of particles having a diameter larger than 10 nm (NCN), cloud condensation nuclei at several supersaturation (S) values (NCCN) and number size distributions of particles with 10-414 nm diameter were measured in Seoul between 2004 and 2010. Overall average values of NCN and geometric mean diameter were 17 811 ± 5581 cm-3 and 48 ± 6 nm. Average NCCN at 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% S were 4145 ± 2016, 5323 ± 2453 and 6067 ± 2780 cm-3 and corresponding NCCN / NCN were 0.26 ± 0.11, 0.33 ± 0.11 and 0.37 ± 0.12. There is a clear seasonal variation in aerosol concentration, which seems to be due to the monsoon. NCN and NCCN are also found to depend on the volume of traffic and the height of the planetary boundary layer, respectively. During aircraft campaigns in 2009 and 2011, NCN and NCCN at 0.6% S (N0.6%) were measured in and around the Korean Peninsula. During the 2011 campaign, the aerosol scattering coefficient was also measured. NCN and N0.6% in the lower altitudes were generally higher than at higher altitudes, except for cases when particle formation and growth events were thought to occur at higher altitudes. NCN and N0.6% generally show a positive correlation with aerosol scattering coefficients but this correspondence tends to vary with altitude. Occasional instances of low (< 0.3) N0.6% / NCN in the boundary layer are demonstrated to be associated with particle formation and growth events. With the support of ground measurements, it is confirmed that a particle formation and growth event did indeed occur over the Yellow Sea on a flight day, and the areal extent of this event is estimated to be greater than 100 km × 450 km. With the combination of the current and several relevant previous studies, a composite map of NCN and NCCN in and around the Korean Peninsula is produced. Overall, the exhibited concentrations are typical of values measured over polluted regions elsewhere on the globe. Moreover, there is a generally decreasing trend

  9. Effect of aerosol number concentration on cloud droplet dispersion: An LES study and implications for aerosol indirect forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    Through three-dimensional LES simulations of marine stratocumulus we explore the factors that control the cloud spectral relative dispersion (ratio of cloud droplet spectral width to the mean radius of the distribution) as a function of aerosol number concentration and the extent to which the relative dispersion either enhances or mitigates the Twomey effect. We find that relative dispersion decreases with increasing aerosol number concentration (for aerosol number concentrations less than about 1000 cm- 3) because smaller droplets resulting from higher aerosol number concentrations inhibit precipitation and lead to: (1) less spectral broadening by suppressed collision and coalescence processes; and (2) more spectral narrowing by droplet condensational growth at higher updraft velocity, because reduced drizzle latent heating at cloud top results in increased boundary layer turbulent kinetic energy production by buoyancy and thereby stronger turbulence. Increased spectral broadening owing to increased cloud-top entrainment mixing, also as a result of increased boundary layer turbulence, is relatively insignificant compared with (1) and (2). The coefficient k, an important parameter that relates cloud droplet effective radius and volume mean radius in large-scale models, is a function of skewness and relative dispersion of the distribution and is negatively correlated with relative dispersion. Increasing k with increasing aerosol number concentration leads to maximum enhancement of the cloud susceptibility (the change of cloud optical depth due to change of cloud droplet number concentration) over that attributable to the Twomey effect alone by about 4.2% and 39% for simulated FIRE and ASTEX cases, respectively.

  10. Investigations of Physicochemical Properties of Size-Resolved, Subsaturated, Atmospheric Aerosol Particles: Instrument Development, Field Measurements, and Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, Taylor

    Aerosol particle properties and their impact on air quality, clouds, and the hydrologic cycle remain a critically important factor for the understanding of our atmosphere. Particle hygroscopic growth leads to impacts on direct and indirect radiative forcing properties, the likelihood for particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol-cloud interactions. Current instruments measuring hygroscopic growth have a number of limitations, lacking either the ability to measure size-resolved particles or process samples at a fast enough resolution to be suitable for airborne deployment. Advanced in-situ airborne particle retrieval and measurements of aerosol hygroscopic growth and scattering properties are analyzed and discussed. To improve the analysis of cloud nuclei particles, an updated counterflow virtual impact inlet was characterized and deployed during the 2011 E-PEACE field campaign. Theoretical and laboratory based cut size diameters were determined and validated against data collected from an airborne platform. In pursuit of higher quality aerosol particle hygroscopicity measurements, a newer instrument, the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity probe (DASH-SP) has been developed in the recent past and only flown on a handful of campaigns. It has been proven to provide quality, rapid, size-resolved hygroscopic growth factor data, but was further improved into a smaller form factor making it easier for deployment on airborne platforms. It was flown during the 2013 SEAC4RS field campaign and the data was analyzed to composite air mass based hygroscopicity and refractive index (real portion only) statistics. Additionally, a comparison of bulk and size-resolved hygroscopic growth measurements was conducted. Significant findings include a potential particle size bias on bulk scattering measurements as well as a narrow range of ambient real portion of refractive index values. An investigation into the first reported ambient hygroscopicity

  11. Investigate the relationship between multiwavelength lidar ratios and aerosol size distributions using aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hua, Dengxin; Mao, Jiandong; Zhou, Chunyan

    2017-02-01

    The real aerosol size distributions were obtained by aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer (APS) in China YinChuan. The lidar ratios at wavelengths of 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm were calculated using Mie theory. The effective radius of aerosol particles reff and volume C/F ratio (coarse/fine) Vc/f were retrieved from the real aerosol size distributions. The relationship between multiwavelength lidar ratios and particle reff and Vc/f were investigated. The results indicate that the lidar ratio is positive correlated to the particle reff and Vc/f. The lidar ratio is more sensitive to the coarse particles. The short wavelength lidar ratio is more sensitive to the particle Vc/f and the long wavelength lidar ratio is more sensitive to the particle reff. The wavelength dependency indicated that the lidar ratios decrease with increasing the wavelength. The lidar ratios are almost irrelevant to the shape and total particles of aerosol size distributions.

  12. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the Southeast Pacific ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twohy, C. H.; Anderson, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Andrejczuk, M.; Adams, A.; Lytle, M.; George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Saide, P.; Spak, S.; Zuidema, P.; Leon, D.

    2012-08-01

    The Southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles such as power plants, urban pollution and smelters on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics from seven flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were more numerous and smaller near shore, and there was less drizzle. Higher droplet number concentration and physically thinner clouds both contributed to the smaller droplets near shore. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500-1000 km offshore, and actually lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower liquid water paths there. Differences in the size

  13. Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jonathan; Luhrs, Claudia C; Richard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

  14. Improving aerosol distributions below clouds by assimilating satellite-retrieved cloud droplet number

    PubMed Central

    Saide, Pablo E.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Spak, Scott N.; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Limitations in current capabilities to constrain aerosols adversely impact atmospheric simulations. Typically, aerosol burdens within models are constrained employing satellite aerosol optical properties, which are not available under cloudy conditions. Here we set the first steps to overcome the long-standing limitation that aerosols cannot be constrained using satellite remote sensing under cloudy conditions. We introduce a unique data assimilation method that uses cloud droplet number (Nd) retrievals to improve predicted below-cloud aerosol mass and number concentrations. The assimilation, which uses an adjoint aerosol activation parameterization, improves agreement with independent Nd observations and with in situ aerosol measurements below shallow cumulus clouds. The impacts of a single assimilation on aerosol and cloud forecasts extend beyond 24 h. Unlike previous methods, this technique can directly improve predictions of near-surface fine mode aerosols responsible for human health impacts and low-cloud radiative forcing. Better constrained aerosol distributions will help improve health effects studies, atmospheric emissions estimates, and air-quality, weather, and climate predictions. PMID:22778436

  15. Improving aerosol distributions below clouds by assimilating satellite-retrieved cloud droplet number.

    PubMed

    Saide, Pablo E; Carmichael, Gregory R; Spak, Scott N; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J Kirk

    2012-07-24

    Limitations in current capabilities to constrain aerosols adversely impact atmospheric simulations. Typically, aerosol burdens within models are constrained employing satellite aerosol optical properties, which are not available under cloudy conditions. Here we set the first steps to overcome the long-standing limitation that aerosols cannot be constrained using satellite remote sensing under cloudy conditions. We introduce a unique data assimilation method that uses cloud droplet number (N(d)) retrievals to improve predicted below-cloud aerosol mass and number concentrations. The assimilation, which uses an adjoint aerosol activation parameterization, improves agreement with independent N(d) observations and with in situ aerosol measurements below shallow cumulus clouds. The impacts of a single assimilation on aerosol and cloud forecasts extend beyond 24 h. Unlike previous methods, this technique can directly improve predictions of near-surface fine mode aerosols responsible for human health impacts and low-cloud radiative forcing. Better constrained aerosol distributions will help improve health effects studies, atmospheric emissions estimates, and air-quality, weather, and climate predictions.

  16. On the role of ice-nucleating aerosol in the formation of ice particles in tropical mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladino, Luis A.; Korolev, Alexei; Heckman, Ivan; Wolde, Mengistu; Fridlind, Ann M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.

    2017-02-01

    Over the decades, the cloud physics community has debated the nature and role of aerosol particles in ice initiation. The present study shows that the measured concentration of ice crystals in tropical mesoscale convective systems exceeds the concentration of ice nucleating particles (INPs) by several orders of magnitude. The concentration of INPs was assessed from the measured aerosol particle concentration in the size range of 0.5 to 1 µm. The observations from this study suggest that primary ice crystals formed on INPs make only a minor contribution to the total concentration of ice crystals in tropical mesoscale convective systems. This is found by comparing the predicted INP number concentrations with in situ ice particle number concentrations. The obtained measurements suggest that ice multiplication is the likely explanation for the observed high concentrations of ice crystals in this type of convective system.

  17. Laboratory and Ambient Studies Using an Automated Semi-Continuous Single-Particle Aerosol Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, D., III; Hill, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Single-particle Raman spectra can yield extensive information about in-situ ambient particulate composition. However, Raman spectral measurements of individual aerosol particles typically require collection of samples in the field followed by offline Raman spectral measurements in a laboratory. The process requires considerable operator time. We report results obtained with an automated, single-particle Aerosol Raman Spectrometer built by Battelle, which is the core of Battelle's Resource Effective Bioidentification System (REBS). This instrument collects aerosol particles onto a metallized polymer tape and simultaneously measures Raman spectra of particles obtained during the previous collection period. At the end of each collection period (typically 15 minutes), the tape is advanced and the next collection and measurement period is begun. In this way, particles are semi-continuously sampled and their Raman spectra are measured. We show laboratory data from different sizes of polystyrene latex spheres. We also show results from calcium sulfate particles, vehicular emission soot, and other particles. We discuss the influence of imaging time on the quality of the Raman spectra measured and on the ability of the instrument to resolve aerosol particles. Finally, we present results from an outdoor sampling period during the summer of 2015 where the instrument ran unattended for more than one week collecting particles and measuring their Raman spectra. We suggest that the routine use of such an automated particle-sampling instrument should increase our understanding of inorganic and organic aerosols including biological aerosols and sources and fates of these particles.

  18. Composition and hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at Mt. Lu in South China: Implications for acid precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weijun; Chi, Jianwei; Shi, Zongbo; Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yan; Li, Tao; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Daizhou; Wang, Zifa; Shi, Chune; Liu, Liangke; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of aerosol particles were studied at Mt. Lu, an elevated site (115°59‧E, 29°35‧N, 1165 m) within the acid precipitation area. Northeast winds transport copious amounts of air pollutants and water vapor from the Yangtze River Delta into this acid precipitation area. NH4+ and SO42- are the dominant ions in PM2.5 and determine aerosol acidity. Individual particle analysis shows abundant S-rich and metals (i.e. Fe-, Zn-, Mn-, and Pb-rich) particles. Unlike aerosol particles in North China and urban areas, there are little soot and mineral particles at Mt. Lu. Lack of mineral particles contributed to the higher acidity in precipitation in the research area. Nano-sized spherical metal particles were observed to be embedded in 37% of S-rich particles. These metal particles were likely originated from heavy industries and fired-power plants. Hygroscopic experiments show that most particles start to deliquesce at 73-76% but organic coating lowers the particle deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) to 63-73%. The DRHs of these aerosol particles are clearly smaller than that of pure ammonium sulfate particles which is 80%. Since RH in ambient air was relatively high, ranging from 65% to 85% during our study period, most particles at our sampling site were in liquid phase. Our results suggest that liquid phase reactions in aerosol particles may contribute to SO2 to sulfuric acid conversion in the acid precipitation area.

  19. A combined particle trap/HTDMA hygroscopicity study of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardini, A. A.; Sjogren, S.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U. K.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Peter, T.

    2008-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are often mixtures of inorganic and organic material. Organics can represent a large fraction of the total aerosol mass and are comprised of water-soluble and insoluble compounds. Increasing attention was paid in the last decade to the capability of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles to take up water (hygroscopicity). We performed hygroscopicity measurements of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and carboxylic acids (citric, glutaric, adipic acid) in parallel with an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds were chosen to represent three distinct physical states. During hygroscopicity cycles covering hydration and dehydration measured by the EDB and the HTDMA, pure citric acid remained always liquid, adipic acid remained always solid, while glutaric acid could be either. We show that the hygroscopicity of mixtures of the above compounds is well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relationship as long as the two-component particle is completely liquid in the ammonium sulfate/citric acid and in the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid cases. However, we observe significant discrepancies compared to what is expected from bulk thermodynamics when a solid component is present. We explain this in terms of a complex morphology resulting from the crystallization process leading to veins, pores, and grain boundaries which allow for water sorption in excess of bulk thermodynamic predictions caused by the inverse Kelvin effect on concave surfaces.

  20. A particle-particle collision strategy for arbitrarily shaped particles at low Stokes numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghooghi, Mohsen; Borazjani, Iman

    2016-11-01

    We present a collision strategy for particles with any general shape at low Stokes numbers. Conventional collision strategies rely upon a short -range repulsion force along particles centerline, which is a suitable choice for spherical particles and may not work for complex-shaped particles. In the present method, upon the collision of two particles, kinematics of particles are modified so that particles have zero relative velocity toward each other along the direction in which they have the minimum distance. The advantage of this novel technique is that it guaranties to prevent particles from overlapping without unrealistic bounce back at low Stokes numbers, which may occur if repulsive forces are used. This model is used to simulate sedimentation of many particles in a vertical channel and suspensions of non-spherical particles under simple shear flow. This work was supported by the American Chemical Society (ACS) Petroleum Research Fund (PRF) Grant Number 53099-DNI9. The computational resources were partly provided by the Center for Computational Research (CCR) at the University at Buffalo.

  1. Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Gitelson, A.; Karnieli, A.; Ganor, E.; Fraser, R. S.; Nakajima, T.; Mattoo, S.; Holben, B. N.

    1994-05-01

    Ground-based measurements of the solar transmission and sky radiance in a horizontal plane through the Sun are taken in several geographical regions and aerosol types: dust in a desert transition zone in Israel, sulfate particles in Eastern and Western Europe, tropical aerosol in Brazil, and mixed continental/maritime aerosol in California. Stratospheric aerosol was introduced after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Therefore measurements taken before the eruption are used to analyze the properties of tropospheric aerosol; measurements from 1992 are also used to detect the particle size and concentration of stratospheric aerosol. The measurements are used to retrieve the size distribution and the scattering phase function at large scattering angles of the undisturbed aerosol particles. The retrieved properties represent an average on the entire atmospheric column. A comparison between the retrieved phase function for a scattering angle of 120°, with phase function predicted from the retrieved size distribution, is used to test the assumption of particle homogeneity and sphericity in radiative transfer models (Mie theory). The effect was found to be small (20%±15%). For the stratospheric aerosol (sulfates), as expected, the phase function was very well predicted using the Mie theory. A model with a power law size distribution, based on the spectral dependence of the optical thickness, a, cannot estimate accurately the phase function (up to 50% error for λ = 0.87 μm). Before the Pinatubo eruption the ratio between the volumes of sulfate and coarse particles was very well correlated with α. The Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol destroyed this correlation. The aerosol optical properties are compared with analysis of the size, shape, and composition of the individual particles by electron microscopy of in situ samples. The measured volume size distributions before the injection of stratospheric aerosol consistently show two modes, sulfate particles with rm

  2. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  3. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H.; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-01-01

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  4. Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particle Concentrations and Size Distributions Measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, J. A.; Treutlein, B.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-12-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany, we used an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) to measure fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs), which can be regarded as viable bioaerosol particles representing a lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (< 1 µm), but not for coarse particles (1 - 20 µm). Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August - December 2006), the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3x10-2 cm-3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number [1]. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1 µg m-3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 µm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 µm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6 x 10-2 cm-3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 µm, ~5 µm, and ~13 µm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be explained by single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively. The observed number concentrations and characteristic sizes of FBAPs are consistent with microscopic, biological and chemical analyses of

  5. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, J. A.; Treutlein, B.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-08-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany, we used an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) to measure fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs), which can be regarded as viable bioaerosol particles representing a lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (<1 μm), but not for coarse particles (1-20 μm). Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August-December 2006), the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3×10-2 cm-3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1 μg m-3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 μm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 μm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6×10-2 cm-3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 μm, ~5 μm, and ~13 μm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be explained by single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively. The observed number concentrations and characteristic sizes of FBAPs are consistent with microscopic, biological and chemical analyses of PBAPs in

  6. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, J. A.; Treutlein, B.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany we used an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) to measure Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAPs), which provide an estimate of viable bioaerosol particles and can be regarded as an approximate lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (<1 μm), but not for coarse particles (1-20 μm). Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August-December 2006), the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3×10-2 cm-3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1μg m-3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 μm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 μm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6×10-2 cm-3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle (24-h) with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 μm, ~5 μm, and ~13 μm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively. The observed number concentrations and characteristic sizes of FBAPs are consistent with microscopic, biological and chemical

  7. Aerosol effective density measurement using scanning mobility particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance with the estimation of involved uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Bighnaraj; Aggarwal, Shankar G.; Sinha, Deepak; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have used a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to estimate the effective density of aerosol particles. This approach is tested for aerosolized particles generated from the solution of standard materials of known density, i.e. ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN) and sodium chloride (SC), and also applied for ambient measurement in New Delhi. We also discuss uncertainty involved in the measurement. In this method, dried particles are introduced in to a differential mobility analyser (DMA), where size segregation is done based on particle electrical mobility. Downstream of the DMA, the aerosol stream is subdivided into two parts. One is sent to a condensation particle counter (CPC) to measure particle number concentration, whereas the other one is sent to the QCM to measure the particle mass concentration simultaneously. Based on particle volume derived from size distribution data of the SMPS and mass concentration data obtained from the QCM, the mean effective density (ρeff) with uncertainty of inorganic salt particles (for particle count mean diameter (CMD) over a size range 10-478 nm), i.e. AS, SC and AN, is estimated to be 1.76 ± 0.24, 2.08 ± 0.19 and 1.69 ± 0.28 g cm-3, values which are comparable with the material density (ρ) values, 1.77, 2.17 and 1.72 g cm-3, respectively. Using this technique, the percentage contribution of error in the measurement of effective density is calculated to be in the range of 9-17 %. Among the individual uncertainty components, repeatability of particle mass obtained by the QCM, the QCM crystal frequency, CPC counting efficiency, and the equivalence of CPC- and QCM-derived volume are the major contributors to the expanded uncertainty (at k = 2) in comparison to other components, e.g. diffusion correction, charge correction, etc. Effective density for ambient particles at the beginning of the winter period in New Delhi was measured to be 1.28 ± 0.12 g cm-3

  8. Aerosol effective density measurement using scanning mobility particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance with the estimation of involved uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, B.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Sinha, D.; Gupta, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we have used scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to estimate the effective density of aerosol particles. This approach is tested for aerosolized particles generated from the solution of standard materials of known density, i.e. ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN) and sodium chloride (SC), and also applied for ambient measurement in New Delhi. We also discuss uncertainty involved in the measurement. In this method, dried particles are introduced in to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), where size segregation was done based on particle electrical mobility. At the downstream of DMA, the aerosol stream is subdivided into two parts. One is sent to a condensation particle counter (CPC) to measure particle number concentration, whereas other one is sent to QCM to measure the particle mass concentration simultaneously. Based on particle volume derived from size distribution data of SMPS and mass concentration data obtained from QCM, the mean effective density (ρeff) with uncertainty of inorganic salt particles (for particle count mean diameter (CMD) over a size range 10 to 478 nm), i.e. AS, SC and AN is estimated to be 1.76 ± 0.24, 2.08 ± 0.19 and 1.69 ± 0.28 g cm-3, which are comparable with the material density (ρ) values, 1.77, 2.17 and 1.72 g cm-3, respectively. Among individual uncertainty components, repeatability of particle mass obtained by QCM, QCM crystal frequency, CPC counting efficiency, and equivalence of CPC and QCM derived volume are the major contributors to the expanded uncertainty (at k = 2) in comparison to other components, e.g. diffusion correction, charge correction, etc. Effective density for ambient particles at the beginning of winter period in New Delhi is measured to be 1.28 ± 0.12 g cm-3. It was found that in general, mid-day effective density of ambient aerosols increases with increase in CMD of particle size measurement but particle photochemistry is an important

  9. Emissions and Characteristics of Ice Nucleating Particles Associated with Laboratory Generated Nascent Sea Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, C. S.; Hill, T. C. J.; Beall, C.; Sultana, C. M.; Moore, K.; Cornwell, G.; Lee, C.; Al-Mashat, H.; Laskina, O.; Trueblood, J.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate emission rates and activity spectra of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs) are required for proper representation of aerosol-cloud interactions in atmospheric modeling studies. However, few investigations have quantified or characterized oceanic INP emissions. In conjunction with the Center for Aerosol Impacts on the Climate and the Environment, we have directly measured changes in INP emissions and properties of INPs from nascent sea spray aerosol (SSA) through the evolution of phytoplankton blooms. Multiple offline and online instruments were used to monitor aerosol chemistry and size, and bulk water characteristics during two phytoplankton bloom experiments. Two methods were utilized to monitor the number concentrations of INPs from 0 to -34 °C: The online CSU continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) and collections processed offline using the CSU ice spectrometer. Single particle analyses were performed on ice crystal residuals downstream of the CFDC, presumed to be INPs, via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Raman microspectroscopy. Preliminary results indicate that laboratory-generated nascent SSA corresponds to number concentrations of INPs that are generally consistent with open ocean regions, based on current knowledge. STEM analyses revealed that the sizes of ice crystal residuals that were associated with nascent SSA ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 μm. Raman microspectroscopy analysis of 1 μm sized residuals found a variety of INP identities, including long chain organics, diatom fragments and polysaccharides. Our data suggest that biological processes play a significant role in ocean INP emissions by generating the species and compounds that were identified during these studies.

  10. Particle size distribution of ambient aerosols in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Padma; Srivastava, A; Yasmin, F; Ray, S; Gupta, N; Chauhan, C; Rao, C V C; Wate, S R

    2012-05-01

    Aerosol samples of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were collected from 38 sampling locations in and around the industrial area. The 24 h average mass concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) was 137.5 and 61.5 μg/m(3) respectively during summer, 122 and 97.5 μg/m(3) respectively in winter and 70 and 54 μg/m(3) respectively during post monsoon season. The relative contribution of coarse, fine and ultrafine particle to ambient air was analyzed for its temporal and seasonal variability in an industrialized area. This paper aims to establish baseline between PM(10) and PM(2.5) mass concentration levels.

  11. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Yee, L. D.; Schilling, K.; Loza, C. L.; Craven, J. S.; Zuend, A.; Ziemann, P. J.; Seinfeld, J.

    2013-12-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multi-generation gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a mid-experiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. The results of the current work have a number of implications for SOA models. While the dynamics of an aerosol size distribution reflects the mechanism of growth, we demonstrate here that it provides a key constraint in interpreting laboratory and ambient SOA formation. This work, although carried out specifically for the long chain alkane, dodecane, is expected to be widely applicable to other major classes of SOA precursors. SOA consists of a myriad of organic compounds containing various functional groups, which can generally undergo heterogeneous/multiphase reactions forming low-volatility products such as oligomers and other high molecular mass compounds. If particle-phase chemistry is indeed

  12. Raman microscopy of size-segregated aerosol particles, collected at the Sonnblick Observatory in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, Johannes; Kasper-Giebl, Anneliese; Kistler, Magdalena; Matzl, Julia; Schauer, Gerhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Lohninger, Johann; Lendl, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Size classified aerosol samples were collected using low pressure impactors in July 2013 at the high alpine background site Sonnnblick. The Sonnblick Observatory is located in the Austrian Alps, at the summit of Sonnblick 3100 m asl. Sampling was performed in parallel on the platform of the Observatory and after the aerosol inlet. The inlet is constructed as a whole air inlet and is operated at an overall sampling flow of 137 lpm and heated to 30 °C. Size cuts of the eight stage low pressure impactors were from 0.1 to 12.8 µm a.d.. Alumina foils were used as sample substrates for the impactor stages. In addition to the size classified aerosol sampling overall aerosol mass (Sharp Monitor 5030, Thermo Scientific) and number concentrations (TSI, CPC 3022a; TCC-3, Klotz) were determined. A Horiba LabRam 800HR Raman microscope was used for vibrational mapping of an area of about 100 µm x 100 µm of the alumina foils at a resolution of about 0.5 µm. The Raman microscope is equipped with a laser with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm and a grating with 300 gr/mm. Both optical images and the related chemical images were combined and a chemometric investigation of the combined images was done using the software package Imagelab (Epina Software Labs). Based on the well-known environment, a basic assignment of Raman signals of single particles is possible at a sufficient certainty. Main aerosol constituents e.g. like sulfates, black carbon and mineral particles could be identified. First results of the chemical imaging of size-segregated aerosol, collected at the Sonnblick Observatory, will be discussed with respect to standardized long-term measurements at the sampling station. Further, advantages and disadvantages of chemical imaging with subsequent chemometric investigation of the single images will be discussed and compared to the established methods of aerosol analysis. The chemometric analysis of the dataset is focused on mixing and variation of single compounds at

  13. Aerosol mass spectrometry: particle-vaporizer interactions and their consequences for the measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.-M.; Faber, P.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) is a frequently used instrument for on-line measurement of the ambient sub-micron aerosol composition. With the help of calibrations and a number of assumptions on the flash vaporization and electron impact ionization processes this instrument provides robust quantitative information on various ambient aerosol components. However, when measuring close to certain anthropogenic sources or in marine environments, several of these assumptions may not be met and measurement results might easily be misinterpreted. Here we discuss various aspects of the interaction of aerosol particles with the AMS tungsten vaporizer and the consequences for the measurement results: semi-refractory components, i.e. components that vaporize but do not flash vaporize at the vaporizer and ionizer temperatures, like metal halides (e.g. chlorides, bromides or iodides of Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Pb, Sr, Zn) can be measured semi-quantitatively despite their relatively slow vaporization from the vaporizer. Even though non-refractory components (e.g. NH4NO3 or (NH4)2SO4) vaporize quickly, their differences in vaporization kinetics can result in undesired biases in ion collection efficiency in the measurements. Chemical reactions with water vapor and oxygen from the aerosol flow can have an influence on the mass spectra for certain components (e.g. NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, organic species). Finally, chemical reactions of the aerosol with the vaporizer surface can result in additional signals in the mass spectra (e.g. WO2C2-related signals from particulate Cl) and in conditioning or contamination of the vaporizer with potential memory effects influencing the mass spectra of subsequent measurements. Laboratory experiments that investigate these particle-vaporizer interactions are presented and are discussed together with field results showing that measurements of typical continental or urban aerosols are not significantly affected while laboratory

  14. Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Gitelson, A.; Karnieli, A.; Ganor, E. (Editor); Fraser, R. S.; Nakajima, T.; Mattoo, S.; Holben, B. N.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of the solar transmission and sky radiance in a horizontal plane through the Sun are taken in several geographical regions and aerosol types: dust in a desert transition zone in Israel, sulfate particles in Eastern and Western Europe, tropical aerosol in Brazil, and mixed continental/maritime aerosol in California. Stratospheric aerosol was introduced after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Therefore measurements taken before the eruption are used to analyze the properties of tropospheric aerosol; measurements from 1992 are also used to detect the particle size and concentration of stratospheric aerosol. The measurements are used to retrieve the size distribution and the scattering phase function at large scattering angles of the undisturbed aerosol particles. The retrieved properties represent an average on the entire atmospheric column. A comparison between the retrieved phase function for a scattering angle of 120 deg, with phase function predicted from the retrieved size distribution, is used to test the assumption of particle homogeneity and sphericity in radiative transfer models (Mie theory). The effect was found to be small (20% +/- 15%). For the stratospheric aerosol (sulfates), as expected, the phase function was very well predicted using the Mie theory. A model with a power law distribution, based on the spectral dependence of the optical thickness, alpha, cannot estimate accurately the phase function (up to 50% error for lambda = 0.87 microns). Before the Pinatubo eruption the ratio between the volumes of sulfate and coarse particles was very well correlated with alpha. The Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol destroyed this correlation. The aerosol optical properties are compared with analysis of the size, shape, and composition of the individual particles by electron microscopy of in situ samples. The measured volume size distribution before the injection of stratospheric aerosol consistently show two modes, sulfate

  15. Real-time detection method and system for identifying individual aerosol particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric E.; Coffee, Keith R.; Frank, Matthias; Tobias, Herbert J.; Fergenson, David P.; Madden, Norm; Riot, Vincent J.; Steele, Paul T.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2007-08-21

    An improved method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are collimated, tracked, and screened to determine which ones qualify for mass spectrometric analysis based on predetermined qualification or selection criteria. Screening techniques include one or more of determining particle size, shape, symmetry, and fluorescence. Only qualifying particles passing all screening criteria are subject to desorption/ionization and single particle mass spectrometry to produce corresponding test spectra, which is used to determine the identities of each of the qualifying aerosol particles by comparing the test spectra against predetermined spectra for known particle types. In this manner, activation cycling of a particle ablation laser of a single particle mass spectrometer is reduced.

  16. Chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol particles at a remote coastal location, Mace Head, Ireland, during NAMBLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Bower, K. N.; Flynn, M. J.; McFiggans, G. B.; Topping, D. O.; Williams, P. I.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.

    2005-11-01

    Aerosol number concentrations and size distributions from 3 nm to 20 µm diameter were measured at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, Co. Galway, Ireland, a coastal site on the eastern seaboard of the north Atlantic Ocean. Both on and offline size resolved aerosol composition measurements were also made using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and ion chromatographic analysis of daily samples collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). Particle number concentrations, size distributions and AMS measurements were determined at 7 and 22 m above ground level to investigate local effects on the aerosol size distribution induced by the tidal zone. During periods of new particle formation ultrafine particle number concentrations are large and variable, however, outside these periods no variability in particle number was observed at any size, nor was the particle composition variable. Analysis of particle size distributions show that within each air mass observed particle number concentrations were very consistent. During anticyclonic periods and conditions of continental outflow Aitken and accumulation mode were enhanced by a factor of 5 compared to the marine sector, whilst coarse mode particles were enhanced during westerly conditions. Baseline marine conditions were rarely met at Mace Head during NAMBLEX and high wind speeds were observed for brief periods only. Loss rates of gaseous species to aerosol surfaces were calculated for a range of uptake coefficients. Even when the accommodation coefficient is unity, lifetimes of less than 100 s were never observed and rarely were lifetimes less than 500 s. Diffusional limitation to mass transfer is important in most conditions as the coarse mode is always significant, we calculate a minimum overestimate of 50% in the loss rate if this is neglected and so it should always be considered when calculating loss rates of gaseous species to particle surfaces. HO2 and HOI have accommodation

  17. Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. -N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 μm) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42−, followed by Na+, Cl, Org (total organics), NH4+, and NO3, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH4+ to SO42− equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO42−. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol

  18. Aerosol-CFD modelling of ultrafine and black carbon particle emission, dilution, and growth near roadways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Gong, S. L.; Gordon, M.; Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Stroud, C. A.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Brook, J. R.; Jia, C. Q.

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have shown that on-road vehicle emissions are the dominant source of ultrafine particles (UFP; diameter < 100 nm) in urban areas and near-roadway environments. In order to advance our knowledge on the complex interactions and competition among atmospheric dilution, dispersion and dynamics of UFPs, an aerosol dynamics-CFD coupled model is developed and validated against field measurements. A unique approach of applying periodic boundary conditions is proposed to model pollutant dispersion and dynamics in one unified domain from the tailpipe level to the ambient near-road environment. This approach significantly reduces the size of the computational domain, and therefore, allows fast simulation of multiple scenarios. The model is validated against measured turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and pollution gradients near a major highway. Through a model sensitivity analysis, the relative importance of individual aerosol dynamical processes on the total particle number concentration (N) and particle number-size distribution (PSD) near a highway is investigated. The results demonstrate that (1) coagulation has a negligible effect on N and particle growth, (2) binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN) of H2SO4-H2O is likely responsible for elevated N closest to the road, (3) N and particle growth are very sensitive to the condensation of semi-volatile organics (SVOCs), particle dry deposition, and the interaction between these processes. The results also indicate that, without the proper treatment of atmospheric boundary layer (i.e. its wind profile and turbulence quantities), the nucleation rate would be underestimated by a factor of 5 in the vehicle wake region due to overestimated mixing. Therefore, introducing ABL conditions to activity-based emission models may potentially improve their performance in estimating UFP traffic emissions.

  19. Chemical characterization of submicron aerosol and particle growth events at a national background site (3295 m a.s.l.) on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, W.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, Y. S.; Jiang, Q.; Wang, Q. Q.; Yang, W.; Wang, F.; Bai, Z. P.; Zhao, X. D.; Yang, Y. C.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols exert highly uncertain impacts on radiative forcing and also have detrimental effects on human health. While aerosol particles are widely characterized in megacities in China, aerosol composition, sources and particle growth in rural areas in the Tibetan Plateau remain less understood. Here we present the results from an autumn study that was conducted from 5 September to 15 October 2013 at a national background monitoring station (3295 m a.s.l.) in the Tibetan Plateau. The submicron aerosol composition and particle number size distributions were measured in situ with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The average mass concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1) is 11.4 μg m-3 (range: 1.0-78.4 μg m-3) for the entire study, which is much lower than observed at urban and rural sites in eastern China. Organics dominated PM1, accounting for 43 % on average, followed by sulfate (28 %) and ammonium (11 %). Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of ACSM organic aerosol (OA) mass spectra identified an oxygenated OA (OOA) and a biomass burning OA (BBOA). The OOA dominated OA composition, accounting for 85 % on average, 17 % of which was inferred from aged BBOA. The BBOA contributed a considerable fraction of OA (15 %) due to the burning of cow dung and straw in September. New particle formation and growth events were frequently observed (80 % of time) throughout the study. The average particle growth rate is 2.0 nm h-1 (range: 0.8-3.2 nm h-1). By linking the evolution of particle number size distribution to aerosol composition, we found an elevated contribution of organics during particle growth periods and also a positive relationship between the growth rate and the fraction of OOA in OA, which potentially indicates an important role of organics in particle growth in the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Regional-scale simulations of fungal spore aerosols using an emission parameterization adapted to local measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Hoose, C.; Gallagher, M.; Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D.; Pöschl, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Robinson, N. H.; Schnaiter, M.; Sodeau, J. R.; Toprak, E.; Vogel, H.

    2014-04-01

    Fungal spores as a prominent type of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) have been incorporated into the COSMO-ART regional atmospheric model, using and comparing three different emission parameterizations. Two literature-based emission rates derived from fungal spore colony counts and chemical tracer measurements were used as a parameterization baseline for this study. A third, new emission parameterization was adapted to field measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) from four locations across Northern Europe. FBAP concentrations can be regarded as a lower estimate of total PBAP concentrations. Size distributions of FBAP often show a distinct mode at approx. 3 μm, corresponding to a diameter range characteristic for many fungal spores. Previous studies have suggested the majority of FBAP in several locations are dominated by fungal spores. Thus, we suggest that simulated fungal spore concentrations obtained from the emission parameterizations can be compared to the sum of total FBAP concentrations. A comparison reveals that parameterized estimates of fungal spore concentrations based on literature numbers underestimate measured FBAP concentrations. In agreement with measurement data, the model results show a diurnal cycle in simulated fungal spore concentrations, which may develop partially as a consequence of a varying boundary layer height between day and night. Measured FBAP and simulated fungal spore concentrations also correlate similarly with simulated temperature and humidity. These meteorological variables, together with leaf area index, were chosen to drive the new emission parameterization discussed here. Using the new emission parameterization on a model domain covering Western Europe, fungal spores in the lowest model layer comprise a fraction of 15% of the total aerosol mass over land and reach average number concentrations of 26 L-1. The results confirm that fungal spores and biological particles may account for a

  1. Experimental Protocol to Investigate Particle Aerosolization of a Product Under Abrasion and Under Environmental Weathering.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Neeraj; Le Bihan, Olivier Louis; Bressot, Christophe; Morgeneyer, Martin

    2016-09-16

    The present article presents an experimental protocol to investigate particle aerosolization of a product under abrasion and under environmental weathering, which is a fundamental element to the approach of nanosafety-by-design of nanostructured products for their durable development. This approach is basically a preemptive one in which the focus is put on minimizing the emission of engineered nanomaterials' aerosols during the usage phase of the product's life cycle. This can be attained by altering its material properties during its design phase without compromising with any of its added benefits. In this article, an experimental protocol is presented to investigate the nanosafety-by-design of three commercial nanostructured products with respect to their mechanical solicitation and environmental weathering. The means chosen for applying the mechanical solicitation is an abrasion process and for the environmental weathering, it is an accelerated UV exposure in the presence of humidity and heat. The eventual emission of engineered nanomaterials is studied in terms of their number concentration, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition. The purpose of the protocol is to study the emission for test samples and experimental conditions which are corresponding to real life situations. It was found that the application of the mechanical stresses alone emits the engineered nanomaterials' aerosols in which the engineered nanomaterial is always embedded inside the product matrix, thus, a representative product element. In such a case, the emitted aerosols comprise of both nanoparticles as well as microparticles. But if the mechanical stresses are coupled with the environmental weathering, the experimental protocol reveals then the eventual deterioration of the product, after a certain weathering duration, may lead to the emission of the free engineered nanomaterial aerosols too.

  2. Effects of Hydrodynamic Interaction in Aerosol Particle Settling: Mesoscopic Particle-level Full Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuiqing; Yang, Mengmeng; Marshall, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    A new mesoscopic particle-level approach is developed for the full dynamics simulation (FDS) of the settling of systems of aerosol micro-particles. The approach efficiently combines an adhesive discrete-element method for particle motions and an Oseen dynamics method for hydrodynamic interactions. Compared to conventional Stokeslet and Oseenlet simulations, the FDS not only accounts for the cloud-scale fluid inertia effect and the particle inertia effect, but also overcomes the singularity problem using a soft-sphere model of adhesive contact. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions is investigated based on FDS results. The particle inertia is found to reduce the mobility of particle clouds and to elongate the cloud on vertical direction. Meanwhile, the fluid inertia decreases the settling velocity by weakening the hydrodynamic interaction and tends to flatten the cloud, leading to breakup. Expressions for the settling velocity of particle cloud are proposed with consideration of fluid inertia effect and the cloud shape. Finally, the transformation in settling behavior from a finite particle cloud to an unbounded uniform suspension is explained. This work has been funded by the National Natural Science Funds of China (No. 50976058), and by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2013CB228506).

  3. A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel for evaluating aerosol samplers and measuring particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Peter A; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Gao, Pengfei

    2011-08-01

    A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel was designed to maintain a uniform airflow and stable aerosol size distribution for evaluating aerosol sampler performance and determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials. The oval-shaped wind tunnel was designed to be small enough to fit onto a lab bench, have optimized dimensions for uniformity in wind speed and particle size distributions, sufficient mixing for even distribution of particles, and minimum particle losses. Performance evaluation demonstrates a relatively high level of spatial uniformity, with a coefficient of variation of 1.5-6.2% for wind velocities between 0.4 and 2.8 m s(-1) and, in this range, 0.8-8.5% for particles between 50 and 450 nm. Aerosol concentration stabilized within the first 5-20 min with, approximately, a count median diameter of 135 nm and geometric standard deviation of 2.20. Negligible agglomerate growth and particle loss are suggested. The recirculation design appears to result in unique features as needed for our research.

  4. METHODS OF CALCULATINAG LUNG DELIVERY AND DEPOSITION OF AEROSOL PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Lung deposition of aerosol is measured by a variety of methods. Total lung deposition can be measured by monitoring inhaled and exhaled aerosols in situ by laser photometry or by collecting the aerosols on filters. The measurements can be performed accurately for stable monod...

  5. Using high time resolution aerosol and number size distribution measurements to estimate atmospheric extinction.

    PubMed

    Malm, William C; McMeeking, Gavin R; Kreidenweis, Sonia M; Levin, Ezra; Carrico, Christian M; Day, Derek E; Collett, Jeffrey L; Lee, Taehyoung; Sullivan, Amy P; Raja, Suresh

    2009-09-01

    Rocky Mountain National Park is experiencing reduced visibility and changes in ecosystem function due to increasing levels of oxidized and reduced nitrogen. The Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur (RoMANS) study was initiated to better understand the origins of sulfur and nitrogen species as well as the complex chemistry occurring during transport from source to receptor. As part of the study, a monitoring program was initiated for two 1-month time periods--one during the spring and the other during late summer/fall. The monitoring program included intensive high time resolution concentration measurements of aerosol number size distribution, inorganic anions, and cations, and 24-hr time resolution of PM2.5 and PM10 mass, sulfate, nitrate, carbon, and soil-related elements concentrations. These data are combined to estimate high time resolution concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol mass and fine mass species estimates of ammoniated sulfate, nitrate, and organic and elemental carbon. Hour-by-hour extinction budgets are calculated by using these species concentration estimates and measurements of size distribution and assuming internal and external particle mixtures. Summer extinction was on average about 3 times higher than spring extinction. During spring months, sulfates, nitrates, carbon mass, and PM10 - PM2.5 mass contributed approximately equal amounts of extinction, whereas during the summer months, carbonaceous material extinction was 2-3 times higher than other species.

  6. Collision limited reaction rates for arbitrarily shaped particles across the entire diffusive Knudsen number range.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranganathan; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Hogan, Christopher J

    2011-08-07

    Aerosol particle reactions with vapor molecules and molecular clusters are often collision rate limited, hence determination of particle-vapor molecule and particle-molecular cluster collision rates are of fundamental importance. These collisions typically occur in the mass transfer transition regime, wherein the collision kernel (collision rate coefficient) is dependent upon the diffusive Knudsen number, Kn(D). While this alone prohibits analytical determination of the collision kernel, aerosol particle- vapor molecule collisions are further complicated when particles are non-spherical, as is often the case for particles formed in high temperature processes (combustion). Recently, through a combination of mean first passage time simulations and dimensional analysis, it was shown that the collision kernel for spherical particles and vapor molecules could be expressed as a dimensionless number, H, which is solely a function of Kn(D). In this work, it is shown through similar mean first passage times and redefinitions of H and Kn(D) that the H(Kn(D)) relationship found for spherical particles applies for particles of arbitrary shape, including commonly encountered agglomerate particles. Specifically, it is shown that to appropriately define H and Kn(D), two geometric descriptors for a particle are necessary: its Smoluchowski radius, which defines the collision kernel in the continuum regime (Kn(D)→0) and its orientationally averaged projected area, which defines the collision kernel in the free molecular regime (Kn(D)→∞). With these two parameters, as well as the properties of the colliding vapor molecule (mass and diffusion coefficient), the particle-vapor molecule collision kernel in the continuum, transition, and free molecular regimes can be simply calculated using the H(Kn(D)) relationship.

  7. Hygroscopicity and CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles and their relation to organics: Characteristics of urban aerosols in Nagoya, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    The size-resolved distributions of hygroscopic growth factor g and the ratios of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to condensation nuclei of atmospheric aerosols were investigated in Nagoya, Japan. The average of the distributions of g at 85% relative humidity was bimodal. The size-resolved mean κ derived from g showed an increasing trend with diameter: 0.17-0.33 at 24-359 nm. The κ values calculated from CCN activation curves were 37% higher than those derived from g. Only 9% of the 37% difference is explained by the difference in the κ of inorganics under subsaturated and supersaturated conditions, suggesting a contribution of organics to the remaining 28% difference. The size-averaged κ of organics (κorg) was calculated as 0.14 and 0.19 by two different methods. The number fractions of CCN predicted from the hygroscopicity data over the range of 24-359 nm are loosely consistent with those observed if the size- and time-averaged g is applied to all particles (differences: -30% to +10%). This consistency improves if size- and time-resolved g and g distribution are used (differences: -19% to -3%). Whereas the number fractions of CCN predicted from the composition data are greatly underestimated if organics are assumed to be insoluble (differences: -64% to -45%), they are more consistent if κorg of 0.14 or 0.19 is applied (differences: -10% to +14%). The results demonstrate the importance of the dependence of the g of particles on time and particle size and the hygroscopicity of organics for CCN number concentrations in the urban atmosphere.

  8. Vertical distribution of non-volatile species of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol observed by balloon-borne optical particle counter above Ny-Aalesund, Norway in the winter of 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, K.; Hayashi, M.; Shibata, T.; Neuber, R.; Ruhe, W.

    2015-12-01

    The polar lower stratosphere is the sink area of stratospheric global circulation. The composition, concentration and size distribution of aerosol in the polar stratosphere are considered to be strongly influenced by the transportations from mid-latitude to polar region and exchange of stratosphere to troposphere. In order to study the aerosol composition and size distribution in the Arctic stratosphere and the relationship between their aerosol microphysical properties and transport process, we carried out balloon-borne measurement of aerosol volatility above Ny-Aalesund, Norway in the winter of 2015. In our observation, two optical particle counters and a thermo denuder were suspended by one rubber balloon. A particle counter measured the heated aerosol size distribution (after heating at the temperature of 300 degree by the thermo denuder) and the other measured the ambient aerosol size distribution during the observation. The observation was carried out on 15 January, 2015. Balloon arrived at the height of 30km and detailed information of aerosol size distributions in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for both heated aerosol and ambient aerosol were obtained. As a Result, the number ratio of non-volatile particles to ambient aerosol particles in lower stratosphere (11-15km) showed different feature in particle size range of fine mode (0.3number ratio of non-volatile particles to ambient aerosol particles were 1-3% in fine mode range and 7-20% in coarse mode range. They suggested that fine particles are composed dominantly of volatile species (probably sulfuric acid), and coarse particles are composed of non-volatile species such as minerals, sea-salts. In our presentation, we show the obtained aerosol size distribution and discuss the aerosol compositions and their transport process.

  9. Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, Paul J.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Collins, Douglas B.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Ruppel, Matthew J.; Mason, Ryan H.; Irish, Victoria E.; Lee, Taehyoung; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Siek Rhee, Tae; Snider, Jefferson R.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Lewis, Ernie R.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Abbatt, Jonathan; Lee, Christopher; Sultana, Camille M.; Ault, Andrew P.; Axson, Jessica L.; Diaz Martinez, Myrelis; Venero, Ingrid; Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie; Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant B.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Bertram, Allan K.; Moffett, Bruce F.; Franc, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are vital for ice initiation in, and precipitation from, mixed-phase clouds. A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed. Here, we show that INPs are emitted using real wave breaking in a laboratory flume to produce SSA. The number concentrations of INPs from laboratory-generated SSA, when normalized to typical total aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer, agree well with measurements from diverse regions over the oceans. Data in the present study are also in accord with previously published INP measurements made over remote ocean regions. INP number concentrations active within liquid water droplets increase exponentially in number with a decrease in temperature below 0 °C, averaging an order of magnitude increase per 5 °C interval. The plausibility of a strong increase in SSA INP emissions in association with phytoplankton blooms is also shown in laboratory simulations. Nevertheless, INP number concentrations, or active site densities approximated using “dry” geometric SSA surface areas, are a few orders of magnitude lower than corresponding concentrations or site densities in the surface boundary layer over continental regions. These findings have important implications for cloud radiative forcing and precipitation within low-level and midlevel marine clouds unaffected by continental INP sources, such as may occur over the Southern Ocean.

  10. Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles

    PubMed Central

    DeMott, Paul J.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Ruppel, Matthew J.; Mason, Ryan H.; Irish, Victoria E.; Lee, Taehyoung; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Snider, Jefferson R.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Lewis, Ernie R.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Abbatt, Jonathan; Lee, Christopher; Sultana, Camille M.; Ault, Andrew P.; Axson, Jessica L.; Diaz Martinez, Myrelis; Venero, Ingrid; Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie; Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant B.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Bertram, Allan K.; Moffett, Bruce F.; Franc, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are vital for ice initiation in, and precipitation from, mixed-phase clouds. A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed. Here, we show that INPs are emitted using real wave breaking in a laboratory flume to produce SSA. The number concentrations of INPs from laboratory-generated SSA, when normalized to typical total aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer, agree well with measurements from diverse regions over the oceans. Data in the present study are also in accord with previously published INP measurements made over remote ocean regions. INP number concentrations active within liquid water droplets increase exponentially in number with a decrease in temperature below 0 °C, averaging an order of magnitude increase per 5 °C interval. The plausibility of a strong increase in SSA INP emissions in association with phytoplankton blooms is also shown in laboratory simulations. Nevertheless, INP number concentrations, or active site densities approximated using “dry” geometric SSA surface areas, are a few orders of magnitude lower than corresponding concentrations or site densities in the surface boundary layer over continental regions. These findings have important implications for cloud radiative forcing and precipitation within low-level and midlevel marine clouds unaffected by continental INP sources, such as may occur over the Southern Ocean. PMID:26699469

  11. Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles.

    PubMed

    DeMott, Paul J; Hill, Thomas C J; McCluskey, Christina S; Prather, Kimberly A; Collins, Douglas B; Sullivan, Ryan C; Ruppel, Matthew J; Mason, Ryan H; Irish, Victoria E; Lee, Taehyoung; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Rhee, Tae Siek; Snider, Jefferson R; McMeeking, Gavin R; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Lewis, Ernie R; Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Abbatt, Jonathan; Lee, Christopher; Sultana, Camille M; Ault, Andrew P; Axson, Jessica L; Diaz Martinez, Myrelis; Venero, Ingrid; Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie; Stokes, M Dale; Deane, Grant B; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L; Grassian, Vicki H; Bertram, Timothy H; Bertram, Allan K; Moffett, Bruce F; Franc, Gary D

    2016-05-24

    Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are vital for ice initiation in, and precipitation from, mixed-phase clouds. A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed. Here, we show that INPs are emitted using real wave breaking in a laboratory flume to produce SSA. The number concentrations of INPs from laboratory-generated SSA, when normalized to typical total aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer, agree well with measurements from diverse regions over the oceans. Data in the present study are also in accord with previously published INP measurements made over remote ocean regions. INP number concentrations active within liquid water droplets increase exponentially in number with a decrease in temperature below 0 °C, averaging an order of magnitude increase per 5 °C interval. The plausibility of a strong increase in SSA INP emissions in association with phytoplankton blooms is also shown in laboratory simulations. Nevertheless, INP number concentrations, or active site densities approximated using "dry" geometric SSA surface areas, are a few orders of magnitude lower than corresponding concentrations or site densities in the surface boundary layer over continental regions. These findings have important implications for cloud radiative forcing and precipitation within low-level and midlevel marine clouds unaffected by continental INP sources, such as may occur over the Southern Ocean.

  12. Vertical distribution of the different types of aerosols in the stratosphere: Detection of solid particles and analysis of their spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Brogniez, Colette; Berthet, GwenaëL.; Bourgeois, Quentin; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Chartier, Michel; Balois, Jean-Yves; Verwaerde, Christian; Auriol, FréDéRique; Francois, Philippe; Daugeron, Daniel; Engrand, CéCile

    2008-11-01

    Stratospheric aerosols play a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. In the past, it was assumed that only liquid droplets are present in the stratosphere. Nevertheless, a few lidar measurements have shown that sudden enhancement of aerosol content in the middle stratosphere could be due to meteoritic debris. Aircraft measurements have shown that solid particles can be found in the lower stratosphere; these particles are mainly soot, but also include some interplanetary material. In order to better document the various characteristics of aerosols in the unperturbed stratosphere (i.e., free of volcanic aerosols), we have performed observations using different balloon-borne instruments (Stratospheric and Tropospheric Aerosol Counter (STAC), Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (SALOMON), and Micro Radiomètre Ballon (MicroRADIBAL)) and also some satellite data (Global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars Envisat (GOMOS-Envisat)). These instruments allow us to obtain the number of particles in different size classes, the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction, and the radiance of the light scattered by aerosols. Combining all the data together, it appears that significant amounts of particles are ubiquitous in the middle stratosphere, above the canonical sulfate aerosol layer. "Background" interplanetary dusts in low concentration are likely present in the stratosphere. Above 30 km, interplanetary dust and largest grains from meteoroid disintegration dominate. Although the disintegration of meteoroids occurs in the upper stratosphere or in the mesosphere at all latitudes, these solid aerosols can be transported to the polar regions by the general circulation and can descend into the middle and lower stratosphere during winter mesospheric descents. Between about 22 km and 30 km, soot particles contribute to the population of aerosols at all latitudes. These soot, likely originating from biomass burning at

  13. Electron mean free path from angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, Maximilian; Miguel-Sánchez, Javier; West, Adam H. C.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-06-14

    We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. First, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Second, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.

  14. Characteristics of aerosol and cloud particle size distributions in the tropical tropopause layer measured with optical particle counter and lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Maruyama, K.; Hayashi, M.; Ogino, S.-Y.; Ishimoto, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Matsui, I.; Sugimoto, N.; Yamashita, K.; Saga, K.; Iwamoto, K.; Kamiakito, Y.; Chabangborn, A.; Thana, B.; Hashizume, M.; Koike, T.; Oki, T.

    2007-07-01

    An optical particle counter (OPC) is used in conjunction with lidar measurements to examine the characteristics of the particle size distribution in cirrus cloud in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over Thailand where the TTL is defined as the height at which temperature is lower than -75°C in this paper. Of 11 OPC launches, cirrus cloud was detected at 10-15 km high on 7 occasions, cirrus was detected in the TTL in 6 cases, and simultaneous OPC and lidar measurements were made on two occasions. Comparison of lidar and OPC measurements reveal that the cloud heights of cirrus in the TTL varies by several hundred meters over distances of tens kilometers; hence the height is not always horizontally uniform. The mode radii of particles constituting the clouds are estimated by lidar and OPC measurements to be less than approximately 10 μm. The regression lines of the particle size distribution with and without cirrus cloud exhibit similar features at equivalent radii of <0.8 μm. Enhancement in the integrated number concentration at radii greater than 0.8 μm indicates that liquid particles tend to be frozen at a radius of 0.8 μm, with cirrus clouds above 10 km exhibiting similar features. On the other hand, enhancement in the particle size distribution at radii greater than 0.9 μm and a peak at around 0.8 μm in the ratio of the standard deviation of count values to that of the Poisson distribution of the averaged count values are common features of cirrus clouds in the TTL, where the ratio shows the vertical homogeneity of the particle number. These typical features suggest that the transition from liquid, sulfuric acid aerosol, to ice is more observable in the TTL and the timing of freezing may vary with height in the TTL.

  15. Seasonal and diurnal cycling of aerosol particles in and above the canopy in the Amazon rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditas, Florian; Pöhlker, Christopher; Barbosa, Henrique; Brito, Joel; Chi, Xuguang; Krüger, Mira L.; Moran, Daniel; Saturno, Jorge; Su, Hang; Ocimar Manzi, Antonio; Artaxo, Paulo; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazonian rain forest is one of the few continental regions, providing the opportunity to study pristine aerosols approximating a pre-industrial atmosphere. During the wet season, the ambient aerosol is usually unaffected by anthropogenic emission and dominated by a biosphere-atmosphere exchange. In contrast, during the dry season, anthropogenic pollution events (e.g., biomass burning) of regional and/or global character are observed. We will present measurements carried out at a remote research facility in the Amazonian rain forest (ATTO site, S 2° 08' 45'' W 59° 00' 20") approximately 150 km northeast of Manaus. The ATTO site is equipped with a variety of instruments to characterize microphysical and optical particle properties (i.e., particle number size distribution, total particle number concentration, BC mass, scattering coefficients, and chemical composition), which can be operated at two different inlet lines to investigate particles below (5 m) and above canopy (60 m). Since June 2014 a continuous data set of simultaneous particle number size distribution measurements below and above canopy is being collected covering nucleation to coarse mode sizes. The observed particle number size distributions show a pronounced diurnal cycle throughout all size ranges. The number concentration of Aitken and accumulation mode particles exhibits distinct minima before sunrise and a 'growth-like' behavior during daytime, while coarse mode particles show a rather broad minimum and gradual increase during daytime with maximum concentration during nighttime. As already reported by earlier studies, textbook-like new particle formation and growth is not observed in the Amazonian rain forest. Nevertheless, short particle bursts in the nucleation mode size range are regularly observed and show highest abundance in the first half of the night as well as a minimum during daytime. Simultaneous measurements below and above canopy show generally similar results indicating well

  16. A combined particle trap/HTDMA hygroscopicity study of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardini, A. A.; Sjogren, S.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U. K.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Peter, T.

    2008-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are often mixtures of inorganic and organic material. Organics can represent a large fraction of the total aerosol mass and are comprised of water-soluble and insoluble compounds. Increasing attention was paid in the last decade to the capability of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles to take up water (hygroscopicity). We performed hygroscopicity measurements of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and carboxylic acids (citric, glutaric, adipic acid) in parallel with an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds were chosen to represent three distinct physical states. During hygroscopicity cycles covering hydration and dehydration measured by the EDB and the HTDMA, pure citric acid remained always liquid, adipic acid remained always solid, while glutaric acid could be either. We show that the hygroscopicity of mixtures of the above compounds is well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relationship as long as the two-component particle is completely liquid in the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid system; deviations up to 10% in mass growth factor (corresponding to deviations up to 3.5% in size growth factor) are observed for the ammonium sulfate/citric acid 1:1 mixture at 80% RH. We observe even more significant discrepancies compared to what is expected from bulk thermodynamics when a solid component is present. We explain this in terms of a complex morphology resulting from the crystallization process leading to veins, pores, and grain boundaries which allow for water sorption in excess of bulk thermodynamic predictions caused by the inverse Kelvin effect on concave surfaces.

  17. Identification of characteristic mass spectrometric markers for primary biological aerosol particles and comparison with field data from submicron pristine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freutel, F.; Schneider, J.; Zorn, S. R.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Hoffmann, T.; Martin, S. T.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of primary biological aerosol (PBA) to the total aerosol particle concentration is estimated to range between 25 and 80%, depending on location and season. Especially in the tropical rain forest it is expected that PBA is a major source of particles in the supermicron range, and is also an important fraction of the submicron aerosol. PBA particles like plant fragments, pollen, spores, fungi, viruses etc. contain chemical compounds as proteins, sugars, amino acids, chlorophyll, and cellular material as cellulose. For this reason we have performed mass spectrometric laboratory measurements (Aerodyne C-ToF and W-ToF AMS, single particle laser ablation instrument SPLAT) on pure submicron aerosol particles containing typical PBA compounds in order to identify typical mass spectral patterns of these compounds and to explain the observed fragmentation patterns on the basis of molecular structures. These laboratory data were compared to submicron particle mass spectra obtained during AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment, Brazil, February/March 2008). The results indicate that characteristic m/z ratios for carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, saccharose, levoglucosan, mannitol) can be identified, for example m/z = 60(C2H4O2+) or m/z = 61(C2H5O2+). Certain characteristic peaks for amino acids were also identified in the laboratory experiments. In the field data from AMAZE-08, these characteristic peaks for carbohydrates and amino acids were found, and their contribution to the total organic mass was estimated to about 5%. Fragment ions from peptides and small proteins were also identified in laboratory experiments. Larger proteins, however, seem to become oxidized to CO2+ to a large extend in the vaporizing process of the AMS. Thus, detection of proteins in atmospheric aerosol particles with the AMS appears to be difficult.

  18. MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION OF SIZE AND COMPOSITION SELECTED AEROSOL PARTICLES. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was performed on individual,
    size-selected aerosol particles in the 2-8 mu m diameter range, Monodisperse aerosol droplets
    containing matrix, analyte, and solvent were generated and entrained in a dry stream of air, The dr...

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR GAS/PARTICLE PARTITIONING OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS. (R824970)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dynamic model is developed for gas-particle absorptive partitioning of semi-volatile organic aerosols. The model is applied to simulate a pair of m-xylene/NOx outdoor smog chamber experiments. In the presence of an inorganic seed aerosol a threshold ...

  20. Measurements of the absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles in suburb of Nanjing (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Weiwei; Yan, Jiade; Qian, Ling; Tong, Yaoqing; Lin, Zhenyi

    2008-08-01

    The absorption and scattering coefficients of atmospheric aerosols were continuously measured with a Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS, DMT Inc. USA) at a suburb site of Nanjing, one of the regions experiencing rapid industrialization in China. The measurements were carried out during autumn and winter 2007. A preliminary analysis of the data shows that, the scattering coefficient, Bscat, is two to ten times larger than the absorption coefficient, Babs, implying that the aerosols formed/emitted in this area are more scattering than previous assumed, and can be more important in cooling the Earth-atmosphere system. The results also indicate that the absolute values of both parameters are very much dependent on the meteorological conditions, such as wind speed and direction, fog, rain, etc. as well as the time of the day. Higher values often appear at nighttimes when wind is weak, especially when a temperature inverse layer is present near the surface. Higher values of Bscat and Babs were also observed under hazy and foggy weather conditions or when wind is blown from east, where a large industrial zone is located. Simultaneous measurements of the number concentrations, chemical compositions, and size distributions of aerosol particles are used to explain the characteristics of the changes in Bscat and Babs.

  1. [Factors influencing particle measurement of aerosols and their retention in the lung].

    PubMed

    Le Bouffant, L

    1977-01-01

    The dimensional characteristics of the particles of an aerosol depend on the means used for producing them. Mechanical spray and ultrasonic dispersion give polydispersed particles. On the other hand, centrifugal atomization produces a monodispersed aerosol. Particle retention in the lung system depends on the particle diameter. In addition, retention varies according to the respiratory characteristics: it is minimal for about 15 inspirations per minute. Using iron-59 labeled particles, it was shown that the degree of retention varies considerably from one individual to the other and accessibility to the depths of the lungs is decreased under the effect of certain lesions. Bronchial retention appears to be increased in smokers.

  2. Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of Antarctic sub-micrometre aerosol particles and observations of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Frey, A.; Virkkula, A.; Ehn, M.; Manninen, H. E.; Timonen, H.; Tolonen-Kivimäki, O.; Aurela, M.; Hillamo, R.; Kulmala, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Antarctic near-coastal sub-micrometre aerosol particle features in summer were characterised based on measured data on aerosol hygroscopicity, size distributions, volatility and chemical ion and organic carbon mass concentrations. Hysplit model was used to calculate the history of the air masses to predict the particle origin. Additional measurements of meteorological parameters were utilised. The hygroscopic properties of particles mostly resembled those of marine aerosols. The measurements took place at 130 km from the Southern Ocean, which was the most significant factor affecting the particle properties. This is explained by the lack of additional sources on the continent of Antarctica. The Southern Ocean was thus a likely source of the particles and nucleating and condensing vapours. The particles were very hygroscopic (HGF 1.75 at 90 nm) and very volatile. Most of the sub-100 nm particle volume volatilised below 100 °C. Based on chemical data, particle hygroscopic and volatile properties were explained by a large fraction of non-neutralised sulphuric acid together with organic material. The hygroscopic growth factors assessed from chemical data were similar to measured. Hygroscopicity was higher in dry continental air masses compared with the moist marine air masses. This was explained by the aging of the marine organic species and lower methanesulphonic acid volume fraction together with the changes in the inorganic aerosol chemistry as the aerosol had travelled long time over the continental Antarctica. Special focus was directed in detailed examination of the observed new particle formation events. Indications of the preference of negative over positive ions in nucleation could be detected. However, in a detailed case study, the neutral particles dominated the particle formation process. Freshly nucleated particles had the smallest hygroscopic growth factors, which increased subsequent to particle aging.

  3. Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of Antarctic sub-micrometre aerosol particles and observations of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Frey, A.; Virkkula, A.; Ehn, M.; Manninen, H. E.; Timonen, H.; Tolonen-Kivimäki, O.; Aurela, M.; Hillamo, R.; Kulmala, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Antarctic near-coastal sub-micrometre aerosol particle features in summer were characterised based on measured data on aerosol hygroscopicity, size distributions, volatility and chemical ion and organic carbon mass concentrations. Hysplit model was used to calculate the history of the air masses to predict the particle origin. Additional measurements of meteorological parameters were utilised. The hygroscopic properties of particles mostly resembled those of marine aerosols. The measurements took place at 130 km from the Southern Ocean, which was the most significant factor affecting the particle properties. This is explained by the lack of additional sources on the continent of Antarctica. The Southern Ocean was thus a likely source of the particles and nucleating and condensing vapours. The particles were very hygroscopic (HGF 1.75 at 90 nm) and very volatile. Most of the sub-100 nm particle volume volatilised below 100 °C. Based on chemical data, particle hygroscopic and volatile properties were explained by a large fraction of non-neutralised sulphuric acid together with organic material. The hygroscopic growth factors assessed from chemical data were similar to measured. Hygroscopicity was higher in dry continental air masses compared with the moist marine air masses. This was explained by the aging of the marine organic species and lower methanesulphonic acid volume fraction together with the changes in the inorganic aerosol chemistry as the aerosol had travelled long time over the continental Antarctica. Special focus was directed in detailed examination of the observed new particle formation events. Indications of the preference of negative over positive ions in nucleation could be detected. However, in a detailed case study, the neutral particles dominated the particle formation process. Freshly nucleated particles had the smallest hygroscopic growth factors, which increased subsequent to particle aging.

  4. Physical properties, chemical composition, sources, spatial distribution and sinks of indoor aerosol particles in a university lecture hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salma, I.; Dosztály, K.; Borsós, T.; Söveges, B.; Weidinger, T.; Kristóf, G.; Péter, N.; Kertész, Zs.

    2013-01-01

    PM10 mass, particle number (N) and CO2 concentrations, particle number size distributions and meteorological parameters were determined with high time resolution, and daily aerosol samples were collected in the PM10-2.0 and PM2.0 size fractions for chemical analysis in the middle of a university lecture hall for one week. Median concentrations for the PM10 mass and N of 15.3 μg m-3 and 3.7 × 103 cm-3, respectively were derived. The data are substantially smaller than the related outdoor levels or typical values for residences. There were considerable concentration differences for workdays, weekends and various lectures. Main sources of PM10 mass include the usage of chalk sticks for writing, wiping the blackboard, ordinary movements and actions of students and cleaning. High PM10 mass concentration levels up to 100 μg m-3 were realised for short time intervals after wiping the blackboard. The mass concentrations decreased rapidly after the emission source ceased to be active. Two classes of coarse particles were identified. General indoor dust particles exhibited a residence time of approximately 35 min, while the residence time for the chalk dust particles was approximately 20 min as lower estimates. Emission source rate for wiping the blackboard was estimated to be between 8 and 14 mg min-1. This represents a substantial emission rate but the source is active only up to 1 min. Suspension of the chalk (made mainly of gypsum) dust particles was confirmed by enrichment of Ca and S in the hall with respect to ambient urban aerosol. Contribution of ambient aerosol via the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) facility was considerable for time intervals when the indoor sources of PM10 mass were not intensive. The HVAC facility introduces, however, the major amount of aerosol particles from the outdoors as far as their number concentration is regarded. Mean contribution of ultrafine particles to the total particle number was (69 ± 7)%, which is smaller

  5. Calf Lung Surfactant Recovers Surface Functionality After Exposure to Aerosols Containing Polymeric Particles

    PubMed Central

    Farnoud, Amir M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent studies have shown that colloidal particles can disrupt the interfacial properties of lung surfactant and thus key functional abilities of lung surfactant. However, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between aerosols and surfactant films remain poorly understood, as our ability to expose films to particles via the aerosol route has been limited. The aim of this study was to develop a method to reproducibly apply aerosols with a quantifiable particle dose on lung surfactant films and investigate particle-induced changes to the interfacial properties of the surfactant under conditions that more closely mimic those in vivo. Methods: Films of DPPC and Infasurf® were exposed to aerosols containing polystyrene particles generated using a Dry Powder Insufflator™. The dose of particles deposited on surfactant films was determined via light absorbance. The interfacial properties of the surfactant were studied using a Langmuir-Wilhelmy balance during surfactant compression to film collapse and cycles of surface compression and expansion at a fast cycling rate within a small surface area range. Results: Exposure of surfactant films to aerosols led to reproducible dosing of particles on the films. In film collapse experiments, particle deposition led to slight changes in collapse surface pressure and surface area of both surfactants. However, longer interaction times between particles and Infasurf® films resulted in time-dependent inhibition of surfactant function. When limited to lung relevant surface pressures, particles reduced the maximum surface pressure that could be achieved. This inhibitory effect persisted for all compression-expansion cycles in DPPC, but normal surfactant behavior was restored in Infasurf® films after five cycles. Conclusions: The observation that Infasurf® was able to quickly restore its function after exposure to aerosols under conditions that better mimicked those in vivo suggests that particle

  6. Influence of particle size and chemistry on the cloud nucleating properties of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Coffman, D. J.; Covert, D. S.

    2008-02-01

    The ability of an aerosol particle to act as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is a function of the size of the particle, its composition and mixing state, and the supersaturation of the cloud. In-situ data from field studies provide a means to assess the relative importance of these parameters. During the 2006 Texas Air Quality - Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS), the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown encountered a wide variety of aerosol types ranging from marine near the Florida panhandle to urban and industrial in the Houston-Galveston area. These varied sources provided an opportunity to investigate the role of aerosol sources and chemistry in the potential activation of particles to form cloud droplets. Measurements were made of CCN concentrations, aerosol chemical composition in the size range relevant for particle activation in warm clouds, and aerosol size distributions. Variability in aerosol composition was parameterized by the mass fraction of Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA) for particle diameters less than 200 nm (vacuum aerodynamic). The HOA mass fraction in this size range was lowest for marine aerosol and highest for aerosol sampled close to anthropogenic sources. Combining all data from the experiment reveals that composition (defined by HOA mass fraction) explains 40% of the variance in the critical diameter for particle activation at the instrumental supersaturation (S) of 0.44%. Correlations between HOA mass fraction and aerosol mean diameter show that these two parameters are essentially independent of one another for this data set. We conclude that, based on the variability of the HOA mass fraction observed during TexAQS-GoMACCS, variability in particle composition played a significant role in determining the fraction of particles that could activate to form cloud droplets. Using a simple model based on Köhler theory and the assumption that HOA is insoluble, we estimate the degree to which calculated CCN

  7. Ice nucleation in the upper troposphere: Sensitivity to aerosol number density, temperature, and cooling rate

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.; Toon, O.B.

    1994-09-01

    We have investigated the processes that control ice crystal nucleation in the upper troposphere using a numerical model. Nucleation of ice resulting from cooling was simulated for a range of aerosol number densities, initial temperatures, and cooling rates. In contrast to observations of stratus clouds, we find that the number of ice crystals that nucleate in cirrus is relatively insensitive to the number of aerosols present. The ice crystal size distribution at the end of the nucleation process is unaffected by the assumed initial aerosol number density. Essentially, nucleation continues until enough ice crystals are present such that their deposition growth rapidly depletes the vapor and shuts off any further nucleation. However, the number of ice crystals nucleated increases rapidly with decreasing initial temperature and increasing cooling rate. This temperature dependence alone could explain the large ice crystal number density observed in very cold tropical cirrus.

  8. Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3− aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, H. M.; Draper, D. C.; Ayres, B. R.; ...

    2015-09-25

    Inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA) revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3−) concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of supermicron crustal and sea spray aerosol species, particularly Na+ and Ca2+, and with a shift towards aerosol with larger (1 to 2.5 μm) diameters. We suggest this nitrate aerosol forms by multiphase reactions of HNO3more » and particles, reactions that are facilitated by transport of crustal dust and sea spray aerosol from a source within the United States. The observed high aerosol acidity prevents the formation of NH4NO3, the inorganic nitrogen species often dominant in fine-mode aerosol at higher pH. In addition, calculation of the rate of the heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 on mineral aerosol supports the conclusion that aerosol NO3− is produced primarily by this process, and is likely limited by the availability of mineral cation-containing aerosol surface area. Modeling of NO3− and HNO3 by thermodynamic equilibrium models (ISORROPIA II and E-AIM) reveals the importance of including mineral cations in the southeastern United States to accurately balance ion species and predict gas–aerosol phase partitioning.« less

  9. Mixing state of ambient aerosols in Nanjing city by single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Xia, Li; Duan, Qing; Zou, Jianan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the mixing state and size-resolved aerosol in Nanjing, measurements were carried out for the period 14th January-1st February 2013 by using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS). A total of 10,864,766 particles were sized with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the range of 0.2-2.0 μm. Of which, 1,989,725 particles were successfully ionized. Aerosol particles employed for analyzing SPAMS data utilized 96% of the hit particles to identify 5 main particle groups. The particle classes include: K-rich particles (K-CN, K-Nitrate, K-Sulfate and K-Secondary), sodium particles, ammonium particles, carbon-rich particles (OC, EC and OCEC) and heavy-metal particles (Fe-Secondary, Pb-Nitrate, Cu-Mn-Secondary and V-Secondary). EC was the largest contributor with a fraction of 21.78%, followed by K-Secondary (17.87%), K-Nitrate (12.68%) and K-CN (11.25%). High particle level and high RH (relative humidity) are two important factors decreasing visibility in Nanjing. Different particle classes have distinct extinction effects. It anti-correlated well with visibility for the K-secondary, sodium, ammonium, EC, Fe-Secondary and K-Nitrate particles. The proportion of EC particles at 0.65-1.4 μm was up to 25% on haze days and was below 10% on clean days.

  10. Aerosol reduction/expansion synthesis (A-RES) for zero valent metal particles

    DOEpatents

    Leseman, Zayd; Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Soliman, Haytham

    2016-04-12

    Various embodiments provide methods of forming zero valent metal particles using an aerosol-reductive/expansion synthesis (A-RES) process. In one embodiment, an aerosol stream including metal precursor compound(s) and chemical agent(s) that produces reducing gases upon thermal decomposition can be introduced into a heated inert atmosphere of a RES reactor to form zero valent metal particles corresponding to metals used for the metal precursor compound(s).

  11. Size matters in the water uptake and hygroscopic growth of atmospherically relevant multicomponent aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Laskina, Olga; Morris, Holly S; Grandquist, Joshua R; Qin, Zhen; Stone, Elizabeth A; Tivanski, Alexei V; Grassian, Vicki H

    2015-05-14

    Understanding the interactions of water with atmospheric aerosols is crucial for determining the size, physical state, reactivity, and climate impacts of this important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Here we show that water uptake and hygroscopic growth of multicomponent, atmospherically relevant particles can be size dependent when comparing 100 nm versus ca. 6 μm sized particles. It was determined that particles composed of ammonium sulfate with succinic acid and of a mixture of chlorides typical of the marine environment show size-dependent hygroscopic behavior. Microscopic analysis of the distribution of components within the aerosol particles show that the size dependence is due to differences in the mixing state, that is, whether particles are homogeneously mixed or phase separated, for different sized particles. This morphology-dependent hygroscopicity has consequences for heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry as well as aerosol interactions with electromagnetic radiation and clouds.

  12. Particle Test Fluence: What's the Right Number?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    While we have been utilizing standard fluence levels such as those listed in the JESD57 document, we have begun revisiting what an appropriate test fluence is when it comes to qualifying a device for single events. Instead of a fixed fluence level or until a specific number of events occurs, a different thought process is required.

  13. Measurements of aerosol particles in the Škocjan Caves, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Irena; Iskra, Ivan; Podkrajšek, Boštjan; Gerjevič, Vanja Debevec

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, continuous aerosol measurements were performed in the Škocjan Caves, one of the most important cave systems in the world, and listed by UNESCO as a natural and cultural world heritage site since 1986. Measurements of PM10 were performed during three different periods: (1) in December 2011, the average background concentration was found to be about 4 μg m(-3); (2) in June 2012, a higher concentration was measured (8 μg m(-3)); and (3) from 8 to 20 August 2012, the highest concentration of 15.3 μg m(-3) was measured. Based on the PM10 measurement results, and as compared to similar measurements outside the cave, it can be hypothesized that the increase in the cave's aerosol concentration during the summer was connected to both the higher number of visitors and the polluted atmospheric air entering the cave upon entering of the cave system. Additional measurement of nanoparticles with scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (size between 14.1 and 710.5 nm) confirmed these findings; during the summer period, a severe raise in the total aerosol concentration of 30-50 times was found when groups of visitors entered the cave. Our results on nanoparticles demonstrated that we were able to detect very small changes and variations in aerosol concentration inside the cave. To our knowledge, these are the first results on nanoaerosol measurements in a cave, and we believe that such measurements may lead to the implementation of better protection of delicate cave systems.

  14. Particle size distribution of the stratospheric aerosol from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Malinina, Elizaveta; Rozanov, Vladimir; Hommel, Rene; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are of a great scientific interest because of their crucial role in the Earth's radiative budget as well as their contribution to chemical processes resulting in ozone depletion. While the permanent aerosol background in the stratosphere is determined by the tropical injection of SO2, COS and sulphate particles from the troposphere, major perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer result form an uplift of SO2 after strong volcanic eruptions. Satellite measurements in the visible spectral range represent one of the most important sources of information about the vertical distribution of the stratospheric aerosol on the global scale. This study employs measurements of the scattered solar light performed in the limb viewing geometry from the space borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY, which operated onboard the ENVISAT satellite, from August 2002 to April 2012. A retrieval approach to obtain parameters of the stratospheric aerosol particle size distribution will be reported along with the sensitivity studies and first results.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Pristine Aerosol Particles During the wet Season of Amazonia - Detection of Primary Biological Particles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Zorn, S. R.; Freutel, F.; Borrmann, S.; Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Flores, M.; Roldin, P.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    The contribution of primary biological aerosol (POA) particles to the natural organic aerosol is a subject of current research. Estimations of the POA contribution to the total aerosol particle concentration range between 25 and 80%, depending on location and season. Especially in the tropical rain forest it is expected that POA is a major source of supermicron, possibly also of submicron particles. During AMAZE (Amazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment), a field project near Manaus, Brazil, in February/March 2008, an Aerodyne ToF-AMS was equipped with a high pressure aerodynamic lens. This high pressure lens (operating pressure 14.6 torr) is designed with the objective to extend the detectable size range of the AMS into the supermicron size range where primary biological particles are expected. Size distribution measured by the AMS were compared with size distribution from an optical particle counter and indicate that the high pressure lens has a 50% cut-off at a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 1 μm, but still has significant transmission up to a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 2 μm, thus extending the detectable size range of the AMS into the coarse mode. The measuring instruments were situated in a container at ground level. The aerosol was sampled through a 40 m vertical, laminar inlet, which was heated and dried to maintain a relative humidity between 30 and 40%. The inlet was equipped with a 7 μm cut-off cyclone. Size distributions recorded with an optical particle counter parallel to the AMS show that the inlet transmitted aerosol particles up to an optically detected diameter of 10 μm. POA particles like plant fragments, pollen, spores, fungi, viruses etc. contain chemical compounds as proteins, sugars, amino acids, chlorophyll, and cellular material as cellulose. Laboratory experiments have been performed in order to identify typical mass spectral patterns of these compounds. These laboratory data were compared to size resolved particle

  16. The effect of aerosol vertical profiles on satellite-estimated surface particle sulfate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Zifeng; Wang, Jun; Ferrare, Richard A.; Newsom, Rob K.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-02-15

    The aerosol vertical distribution is an important factor in determining the relationship between satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and ground-level fine particle pollution concentrations. We evaluate how aerosol profiles measured by ground-based lidar and simulated by models can help improve the association between AOD retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and fine particle sulfate (SO4) concentrations using matched data at two lidar sites. At the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) site, both lidar and model aerosol profiles marginally improve the association between SO4 concentrations and MISR fractional AODs, as the correlation coefficient between cross-validation (CV) and observed SO4 concentrations changes from 0.87 for the no-scaling model to 0.88 for models scaled with aerosol vertical profiles. At the GSFC site, a large amount of urban aerosols resides in the well-mixed boundary layer so the column fractional AODs are already excellent indicators of ground-level particle pollution. In contrast, at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) site with relatively low aerosol loadings, scaling substantially improves model performance. The correlation coefficient between CV and observed SO4 concentrations is increased from 0.58 for the no-scaling model to 0.76 in the GEOS-Chem scaling model, and the model bias is reduced from 17% to 9%. In summary, despite the inaccuracy due to the coarse horizontal resolution and the challenges of simulating turbulent mixing in the boundary layer, GEOS-Chem simulated aerosol profiles can still improve methods for estimating surface aerosol (SO4) mass from satellite-based AODs, particularly in rural areas where aerosols in the free troposphere and any long-range transport of aerosols can significantly contribute to the column AOD.

  17. Measurement of Aerosol and Cloud Particles with PACS and HARP Hyperangular Imaging Polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Remer, L. A.; Sparr, L.; Buczkowski, S.; Munchak, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    PACS is new hyper-angular imaging polarimeter for aeorosol and cloud measurerents designed to meet the requirements of the proposed ACE decadal survey mission. The full PACS system consists of three wide field of view (110deg cross track) telescopes covering the UV, VNIR, and SWIR spectral ranges with angular coverage between +55 deg forward to -55deg backwards. The angular density can be selected to cover up to 100 different viewing angles at selected wavelengths. PACS_VNIR is a prototype airborne instrument designed to demonstrate PACS capability by deploying just one of the three wavelength modules of the full PACS. With wavelengths at 470, 550, 675, 760 and 875nm, PACS_VNIR flew for the first time during the PODEX experiment in January/February 2013 aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. PACS SWIR (1.64, 1.88, 2.1, and 2.25um) is currently under construction and should be operational in the lab by Fall/2013. PACS_ UV has been fully designed, but is not yet under construction. During the PODEX flights PACS_VNIR collected data for aerosol and clouds over variable surface types including, water, vegetation, urban areas, and snow. The data is currently being calibrated, geolocated and prepared for the inversion of geophysical parameters including water cloud size distribution and aerosol microphysical parameters. The large density of angles in PACS allows for the characterization of cloudbow features in relatively high spatial resolution in a pixel to pixel basis. This avoids the need for assumptions of cloud homogeneity over any distance. The hyperangle capability also allows detailed observation of cloud ice particles, surface characterization, and optimum selection of the number of angles desired for aerosol retrievals. The aerosol and cloud retrieval algorithms under development for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties from the PACS data will be discussed in this presentation. As an extension of the PACS concept we are currently developing the HARP (Hyper

  18. Finite-particle-number approach to physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1982-10-01

    Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

  19. EVOLUTION OF PARTICLE NUMBER DISTRIBUTION NEAR ROADWAYS. PART II: THE ROAD-TO-AMBIENT PROCESS (R827352C011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 'road-to-ambient' evolution of particle number distributions near the 405 and 710 freeways in Los Angeles, California, in both summer and winter, were analyzed and then simulated by a multi-component sectional aerosol dynamic model. Condensation/evaporation and dilution we...

  20. Applicability of the Effective-Medium Approximation to Heterogeneous Aerosol Particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation (EMA) is based on the assumption that a heterogeneous particle can have a homogeneous counterpart possessing similar scattering and absorption properties. We analyze the numerical accuracy of the EMA by comparing superposition T-matrix computations for spherical aerosol particles filled with numerous randomly distributed small inclusions and Lorenz-Mie computations based on the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. We verify numerically that the EMA can indeed be realized for inclusion size parameters smaller than a threshold value. The threshold size parameter depends on the refractive-index contrast between the host and inclusion materials and quite often does not exceed several tenths, especially in calculations of the scattering matrix and the absorption cross section. As the inclusion size parameter approaches the threshold value, the scattering-matrix errors of the EMA start to grow with increasing the host size parameter and or the number of inclusions. We confirm, in particular, the existence of the effective-medium regime in the important case of dust aerosols with hematite or air-bubble inclusions, but then the large refractive-index contrast necessitates inclusion size parameters of the order of a few tenths. Irrespective of the highly restricted conditions of applicability of the EMA, our results provide further evidence that the effective-medium regime must be a direct corollary of the macroscopic Maxwell equations under specific assumptions.

  1. Applicability of the effective-medium approximation to heterogeneous aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Liu, Li

    2016-07-01

    The effective-medium approximation (EMA) is based on the assumption that a heterogeneous particle can have a homogeneous counterpart possessing similar scattering and absorption properties. We analyze the numerical accuracy of the EMA by comparing superposition T-matrix computations for spherical aerosol particles filled with numerous randomly distributed small inclusions and Lorenz-Mie computations based on the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. We verify numerically that the EMA can indeed be realized for inclusion size parameters smaller than a threshold value. The threshold size parameter depends on the refractive-index contrast between the host and inclusion materials and quite often does not exceed several tenths, especially in calculations of the scattering matrix and the absorption cross section. As the inclusion size parameter approaches the threshold value, the scattering-matrix errors of the EMA start to grow with increasing the host size parameter and/or the number of inclusions. We confirm, in particular, the existence of the effective-medium regime in the important case of dust aerosols with hematite or air-bubble inclusions, but then the large refractive-index contrast necessitates inclusion size parameters of the order of a few tenths. Irrespective of the highly restricted conditions of applicability of the EMA, our results provide further evidence that the effective-medium regime must be a direct corollary of the macroscopic Maxwell equations under specific assumptions.

  2. Identifying Metals as Marker for Waste Burning Aerosol Particles in New Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sudhanshu

    2012-07-01

    {Identifying Metals as Marker for Waste Burning Aerosol Particles in New Delhi } Tracing of aerosol sources is an important task helpful for making control strategy, and for climate change study. However, it is a difficult job as aerosols have several sources, involve in complex atmospheric processing, degradation and removal processes. Several approaches have been used for this task, e.g., models, which are based on the input of chemical species; stable- and radio-isotope compositions of certain species; chemical markers in which trace metals are the better options because they persist in atmosphere until the life of a particle. For example, K and Hg are used for biomass and coal burning tracings, respectively. Open waste burning has recently been believed to be a considerable source of aerosols in several mega cities in India and China. To better understand this source contribution in New Delhi aerosols, we have conducted aerosol sampling at a landfill site (Okhla), and in proximity (within 1 km distance) of this site. Aerosol filter samples were acid digested in microwave digestion system and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma -- high resolution mass spectrometry (ICP-HRMS) for getting metal signatures in particles. The metals, e.g., Sn, Sb and As those are found almost negligible in remote aerosols, are maximized in these waste burning aerosols. Sample collected in other location of New Delhi also shows the considerable presence of these metals in particles. Preliminary studies of isotopic ratios of these metals suggested that these metals, especially Sn can be used as marker for tracing the open waste burning sources of aerosols in New Delhi.

  3. Balloon borne measurements of aerosol and cloud particles over Japan during PACDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, T.; Orikasa, N.; Nagai, T.; Murakami, M.; Tajiri, T.; Saito, A.; Yamashita, K.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the preliminary result of the balloon borne measurements of the aerosol and cloud microphysical properties over Tsukuba (36.1°N, 140.1°E), Japan, on 10 and 22 May 2007. The purpose of the measurement is to study the influence of Asian mineral dust on ice clouds formation in the middle and upper troposphere. The balloon measured the vertical distributions of aerosol number size distribution (0.13 to 3.9 μm in threshold radius, 8 sizes) by use of the optical particle counter, cloud size (10 μ m to 5 mm in the longest dimension), shape, and number concentration by use of the hydrometer videosonde, humidity by use of SnowWhite hygrometer, and temperature and pressure by use of Meisei RS-01G radiosonde between altitudes of 0 and 16 km. The aerosol size distribution showed bimodal distribution with mode radii of <0.13 μm (fine mode) and about 0.8 μm (coarse mode) over the troposphere (0-13.5 km in altitude). The number concentrations ranged from 150 to 1 cm-3 in the fine mode and from 3 to 0.1 cm-3 in the coarse mode. High depolarization ratio (>10%) obtained from the ground-based Raman lidar measurement revealed the presence of nonspherical dust in the coarse mode. Columnar, bullet-like, and irregular ice crystals with 10-400 μm in size were detected between altitudes of 8 and 13 km on 10 May and 10 and 13 km on 22 May. The maximum crystal concentration was 0.15 cm-3. We discuss the possibility of the formation of the ice cloud from the dust based on the result of the measurements.

  4. Particle number concentration, size distribution and chemical composition during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Xinming

    2014-09-01

    The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibility<2km) and moderate (2km≤visibility<3km) haze, mainly distributed in winter and spring. The mean particle number concentration was about 17,000/cm(3) in haze, more than 2 times that in clean days. The greatest increase of particle number concentration was in 0.5-1μm and 1-10μm size fractions during haze events, about 17.78 times and 8.78 times those of clean days. The largest increase of particle number concentration was within 50-100nm and 100-200nm fractions during photochemical smog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15μm(3)/cm(3) and 949, 649, 206μm(2)/cm(3), respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50nm decreased, but the particles of 50-200nm and 0.5-1μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) increased greatly, followed by Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-). These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes.

  5. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-01

    aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient number of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and is not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide range of solubilities.

  6. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE PAGES

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; ...

    2015-09-14

    , chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient number of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and is not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide range of solubilities.« less

  7. Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols II: particle size distributions as a function of time.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L; Guilmette, Raymond A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing DU from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluate particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using proportional counting, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements were quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 microm and a large size mode between 2 and 15 microm. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 microm shortly after perforation to around 1 microm at the end of the 2-h sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

  8. Contrasting the Evaporation and Condensation of Water from Glassy and Amorphous Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. P.; Bones, D. L.; Power, R.; Lienhard, D.; Krieger, U. K.

    2012-04-01

    The partitioning of water between the condensed and gas phases in atmospheric aerosol is usually assumed to occur instantaneously and to be regulated by solution thermodynamics. However, the persistence of high viscosity, glassy and amorphous aerosol to low relative humidity without crystallisation occurring is now widely recognised, suggesting that the timescale for water transport to or from the particle during condensation or evaporation may be significant. A kinetic limitation on water transport could have important implications for understanding hygroscopic growth measurements made on ambient particles, the ability of particles to act as ice nuclei or cloud condensation nuclei, the kinetics of chemical aging/heterogeneous chemistry, and the rate or condensation/evaporation of semi-volatile organic components. In this study we will report on measurements of the timescale of water transport to and from glassy aerosol and ultra-high viscosity solution droplets using aerosol optical tweezers to investigate the time-response of single particles to changes in relative humidity. As a benchmark system, mixed component aerosol particles containing sucrose and sodium chloride have been used; varying the mole fractions of the two solutes allows a wide range of solution viscosities to be studied. We will show that coarse particles can take many thousands of seconds to equilibrate in size and that the timescale correlates with the estimated bulk viscosity of the particle. We will also confirm that significant inhomogeneities in particle composition can be established during evaporation or condensation. Using the experimental data to benchmark a model for equilibration time, predictions can be made of the timescale for the equilibration of accumulation mode particles during water condensation or evaporation and these predictions will be described and their significance explored. Finally, the coalescence dynamics of highly viscous aerosol particles will be reported

  9. Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

  10. Size Resolved Measurements of Springtime Aerosol Particles over the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Samuel A.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Cliff, Stephen S.; Zhao, Yongjing; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chu, Yu-Chi; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Large sources of aerosol particles and their precursors are ubiquitous in East Asia. Such sources are known to impact the South China Sea (henceforth SCS), a sometimes heavily polluted region that has been suggested as particularly vulnerable to climate change. To help elucidate springtime aerosol transport into the SCS, an intensive study was performed on the remote Dongsha (aka Pratas) Islands Atoll in spring 2010. As part of this deployment, a Davis Rotating-drum Uniform size-cut Monitor (DRUM) cascade impactor was deployed to collect size-resolved aerosol samples at the surface that were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for concentrations of selected elements. HYSPLIT backtrajectories indicated that the transport of aerosol observed at the surface at Dongsha was occurring primarily from regions generally to the north and east. This observation was consistent with the apparent persistence of pollution and dust aerosol, along with sea salt, in the ground-based dataset. In contrast to the sea-level observations, modeled aerosol transport suggested that the westerly flow aloft (w700 hPa) transported smoke-laden air toward the site from regions from the south and west. Measured aerosol optical depth at the site was highest during time periods of modeled heavy smoke loadings aloft. These periods did not coincide with elevated aerosol concentrations at the surface, although the model suggested sporadic mixing of this free-tropospheric aerosol to the surface over the SCS. A biomass burning signature was not clearly identified in the surface aerosol composition data, consistent with this aerosol type remaining primarily aloft and not mixing strongly to the surface during the study. Significant vertical wind shear in the region also supports the idea that different source regions lead to varying aerosol impacts in different vertical layers, and suggests the potential for considerable vertical inhomogeneity in the SCS aerosol environment.

  11. Micro-physical properties of carbonaceous aerosol particles generated by laser ablation of a graphite target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Utry, N.; Pintér, M.; Tápai, Cs.; Kecskeméti, G.; Smausz, T.; Hopp, B.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    In this work the authors propose laser ablation as a highly versatile tool for carbonaceous aerosol generation. The generated carbonaceous particles can be used as a model aerosol for atmospheric black carbon. Various microphysical properties including mass concentration, size distribution and morphology of aerosol particles generated by laser ablation of a high purity graphite sample were investigated in detail. These measurements proved that the proposed method can be used to generate both primary particles and fractal aggregates with a high yield. As a further advantage of the method the size distribution of the generated aerosol can cover a wide range, and can be tuned accurately with laser fluence, the ambient composition or with the volumetric flow rate of the carrier gas.

  12. A wavelength-dispersive instrument for characterizing fluorescence and scattering spectra of individual aerosol particles on a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, Donald R.; Swanson, Benjamin E.; Huffman, J. Alex

    2016-08-01

    We describe a novel, low-cost instrument to acquire both elastic and inelastic (fluorescent) scattering spectra from individual supermicron-size particles in a multi-particle collection on a microscope slide. The principle of the device is based on a slitless spectroscope that is often employed in astronomy to determine the spectra of individual stars in a star cluster but had not been applied to atmospheric particles. Under excitation, most commonly by either a 405 nm diode laser or a UV light-emitting diode (LED), fluorescence emission spectra of many individual particles can be determined simultaneously. The instrument can also acquire elastic scattering spectra from particles illuminated by a white-light source. The technique also provides the ability to detect and rapidly estimate the number fraction of fluorescent particles that could contaminate a collection of non-fluorescent material, even without analyzing full spectra. Advantages and disadvantages of using black-and-white cameras compared to color cameras are given. The primary motivation for this work has been to develop an inexpensive technique to characterize fluorescent biological aerosol particles, especially particles such as pollen and mold spores that can cause allergies. An example of an iPhone-enabled device is also shown as a means for collecting data on biological aerosols at lower cost or by utilizing citizen scientists for expanded data collection.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were < 20% in low-energy input operation areas (ore crushing, hydroxide product drumming) and > 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to

  14. Comparison of sources of submicron particle number concentrations measured at two sites in Rochester, NY.

    PubMed

    Kasumba, John; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    Sources contributing to the submicron particles (100-470 nm) measured between January 2002 and December 2007 at two different New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) sites in Rochester, NY were identified and apportioned using a bilinear receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Measurements of aerosol size distributions and number concentrations for particles in the size range of 10-500 nm have been made since December 2001 to date in Rochester. The measurements are being made using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) consisting of a DMA and a CPC (TSI models 3071 and 3010, respectively). From December 2001 to March 2004, particle measurements were made at the NYS DEC site in downtown Rochester, but it was moved to the eastside of Rochester in May 2004. Each measurement period was divided into three seasons i.e., winter (December, January, and February), summer (June, July, and August), and the transitional periods (March, April, May, September, October, and November) so as to avoid experimental uncertainty resulting from too large season-to-season variability in ambient temperature and solar photon intensity that would lead to unstable/non-stationary size distributions. Therefore, the seasons were analyzed independently for possible sources. Ten sources were identified at both sites and these include traffic, nucleation, residential/commercial heating, industrial emissions, secondary nitrate, ozone- rich secondary aerosol, secondary sulfate, regionally transported aerosol, and a mixed source of nucleation and traffic. These results show that the measured total outdoor particle number concentrations in Rochester generally vary with similar temporal patterns, suggesting that the central monitoring site data can be used to estimate outdoor exposure in other parts of the city.

  15. Seasonality of ultrafine and sub-micron aerosols and the inferences on particle formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Chen, M.-J.; Huang, W.-R.; Huang, S.-H.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Lee, C. S.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100nm) and submicron particles (PM1, d ≤ 1 μm) in an East-Asian urban area, which are hypothesized to be affected by the interchange of summer and winter monsoons. An observation experiment was conducted at the TARO, an urban aerosol station in Taipei, Taiwan, from October 2012 to August 2013. The measurements included the mass concentration and chemical composition of UFPs and PM1, as well as the particle number concentration (PNC) and size distribution (PSD) with size range of 4-736 nm. The results indicate that the mass concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons with peak level of 18.5 μg m-3 in spring, whereas the highest UFPs concentration was measured in summertime with a seasonal mean of 1.62 μg m-3. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that the UFPs and PM1 were characterized by distinct composition; UFPs were composed mostly of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents in PM1. The seasonal median of total PNCs ranged from 13.9 × 103 cm-3 in autumn to 19.4 × 103 cm-3 in spring. The PSD information retrieved from the corresponding PNC measurements indicates that the nucleation mode PNC (N4-25) peaked at 11.6 × 103 cm-3 in winter, whereas the Aitken mode (N25-100) and accumulation mode (N100-736) exhibited summer maxima at 6.0 × 103 and 3.1 × 103 cm-3, respectively. The shift in PSD during summertime is attributed to the enhancement in the photochemical production of condensable organic matter that, in turn, contributes to the growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. In addition, remarkable photochemical production of particles was observed in spring and summer seasons, which was characterized with averaged particle growth and formation rates of 4.3 ± 0.8 nm h-1 and 1.6 ± 0.8 cm-3 s-1, respectively. The prevalence of new particle formation (NPF) in summer is

  16. Cloud droplet activation through oxidation of organic aerosol influenced by temperature and particle phase state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, Jonathan H.; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Arangio, Andrea; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Wang, Jian; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-02-01

    Chemical aging of organic aerosol (OA) through multiphase oxidation reactions can alter their cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and hygroscopicity. However, the oxidation kinetics and OA reactivity depend strongly on the particle phase state, potentially influencing the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion rate of carbonaceous aerosol. Here, amorphous Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) aerosol particles, a surrogate humic-like substance (HULIS) that contributes substantially to global OA mass, are oxidized by OH radicals at different temperatures and phase states. When oxidized at low temperature in a glassy solid state, the hygroscopicity of SRFA particles increased by almost a factor of two, whereas oxidation of liquid-like SRFA particles at higher temperatures did not affect CCN activity. Low-temperature oxidation appears to promote the formation of highly-oxygenated particle-bound fragmentation products with lower molar mass and greater CCN activity, underscoring the importance of chemical aging in the free troposphere and its influence on the CCN activity of OA.

  17. Aerosol size distribution and new particle formation events in the suburb of Xi'an, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Liu, Xiaodong; Dai, Jin; Wang, Zhao; Dong, Zipeng; Dong, Yan; Chen, Chuang; Li, Xingmin; Zhao, Na; Fan, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Particle number concentration and size distribution are important for better understanding the characteristics of aerosols. However, their measurements are scarce in western China. Based on the first measurement of particle number size distribution (10-487 nm) in the suburb of Xi'an, northwest China from November 2013 to December 2014, the seasonal, monthly and diurnal average particle number concentrations were investigated, and the characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) events and their dependencies on meteorological parameters also discussed. The results showed that the annual average particle number concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT), and Accumulation (NACC) size ranges were 960 cm-3, 4457 cm-3, 3548 cm-3, respectively. The mean total particle number concentration (NTOT) was 8965 cm-3 and largely dominated by particles in Aitken mode. The number concentration was dominated by particles around 67.3 nm in spring, summer and fall, while about 89.8 nm in winter. The percentage of the ultrafine size range (UFP, particles of diameter below 100 nm) to total particle number concentration was 63.2%, 69.6%, 62.2% and 58.1% in four seasons. The diurnal variation of the nucleation mode particles was mainly influenced by NPF events in summer, while by both traffic densities and NPF events in spring, fall and winter. The diurnal variation of the number concentration of Aitken mode particles correlated with the traffic emission in spring, fall and winter, while in summer it more correlated with contribution of the growth of the nucleation mode particles. The burst of nucleation mode particles typically started in the daytime (08:15-16:05, LST). The growth rates of nucleated particles ranged from 2.8 to 10.7 nm h-1 with an average of 5.0 ± 1.9 nm h-1. Among observed 66 NPF events from 347 effective measurement days, 85 percent of their air masses came from north or northwest China, resulting in a low concentration of pre-existing particles, and

  18. Measurement of the atmospheric aerosol particle size distribution in a highly polluted mega-city in Southeast Asia (Dhaka-Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Mamoon, Hassan Al; Ullah, Md. Basir; Ullah, Shah M.

    2012-11-01

    Aerosol particle size distribution was measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer continuously from January 21 to April 24, 2006 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Particles number, surface and mass distributions data were stored automatically with Aerosol Instrument Manager (AIM) software on average every half an hour in a computer attached to the APS. The grand total average of number, surface and mass concentrations were 8.2 × 103 ± 7.8 × 103 particles cm-3, 13.3 × 103 ± 11.8 × 103 μm2 cm-3 and 3.04 ± 2.10 mg m-3, respectively. Fine particles with diameter smaller than 1.0 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) dominated the number concentration, accounted for 91.7% of the total particles indicating vehicular emissions were dominating in Dhaka air either from fossil fuel burning or compressed natural gas (CNGs). The surface and mass concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 μm AD were about 56.0% and 26.4% of the total particles, respectively. Remarkable seasonal differences were observed between winter and pre-monsoon seasons with the highest monthly average in January and the lowest in April. Aerosol particles in winter were 3.79 times higher for number, 3.15 times for surface and 2.18 times for mass distributions than during the pre-monsoon season. Weekends had lower concentrations than weekdays due to less vehicular traffic in the streets. Aerosol particles concentrations were about 15.0% (ranging from 9.4% to 17.3%) higher during traffic peak hours (6:00am-8:00pm) than off hours (8:00pm-6:00am). These are the first aerosol size distribution measurements with respect to number, surface and mass concentrations in real time at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  19. Uptake of HNO3 to Deliquescent Sea-Salt and Mineral Dust Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimbaud, C.; Vlassenko, A.; Gaggeler, H.; Ammann, M.

    2002-12-01

    Uptake of HNO3 to aerosol particles is an important removal pathway of nitrogen oxides in the troposphere. Uptake of HNO3 to deliquescent sea-salt aerosol particles was studied in an aerosol flow reactor. Submicron sea-salt particles were used to avoid diffusion limitation in the gas-phase at atmospheric pressure. To overcome the sensitivity problems associated with low amount of reactants processed in such low aerosol masses, we used the short-lived radioactive tracer 13N to label the trace gas molecules at very low concentration. Uptake of HNO3 to deliquescent sea-salt particles was studied under a wide range of HNO3 concentration. Between 1 and 60 ppbv, the uptake coefficient was constant at 0.5+/-0.2 within the first few seconds, whereas at higher concentrations of about 600ppbv, the uptake coefficient rapidly dropped to 0.1 after about 1 second. This drop was due to complete release of chloride as HCl. The equilibrium conditions for these experiments were explored using the North American Aerosol Inorganics (AIM) model, which accounts for the activities of the concentrated solution of the deliquescent aerosol. It is concluded that the rates of uptake at low concentration were limited by the mass accommodation coefficient as both the diffusion in the liquid phase or the rate of release of HCl were not rate limiting. Using an identical approach, we started to investigate the uptake of HNO3 to mineral dust aerosol particles in a similar flow reactor, and first results will be presented. References Ammann, M, Using 13N as tracer in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry experiments, Radiochim. Acta., 89, 831-838, 2001 Guimbaud, C., F., Arens, L., Gutzwiller, H.W, Gäggeler, and M. Ammann, Uptake of HNO3 to Deliquescent Sea-Salt Aerosol Particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 2, 739-763, 2002

  20. Middle East measurements of concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles for coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, Sergey; Kopeika, Norman S.; Blaunstein, Natan S.

    2005-10-01

    Recently, an extension of the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) was proposed based on analysis of an extensive series of measurements at the Irish Atlantic Coast and at the French Mediterranean Coast. We confirm the relevance of that work for the distant eastern Meditteranean and extend several coefficients of that coastal model, proposed by Piazzola et al. for the Meditteranean Coast (a form of the Navy Aerosol Model), to midland Middle East coastal environments. This analysis is based on data collected at three different Middle East coastal areas: the Negev Desert (Eilat) Red Sea Coast, the Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) Coast, and the Mediterranean (Haifa) Coast. Aerosol size distributions are compared with those obtained through measurements carried out over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean Coasts, and Mediterranean, and Baltic Seas Coasts. An analysis of these different results allows better understanding of the similarities and differences between different coastal lake, sea, and open ocean zones. It is shown that in the coastal regions in Israel, compared to open ocean and other sea zones, larger differences in aerosol particle concentration are observed. The aerosol particle concentrations and their dependences on wind speed for these coastal zones are analyzed and discussed. We propose to classify the aerosol distribution models to either: 1. a coastal model with marine aerosol domination; 2. a coastal model with continental aerosol domination (referred to as midland coast in this work); or 3. a coastal model with balanced marine and continental conditions.

  1. Modeling of microphysics and optics of aerosol particles in the marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady

    2013-05-01

    We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, height above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH), are investigated. At present, the model covers the ranges H = 0 - 25 m, U = 3 - 18 km s-1, X ≤ 120 km and RH = 40 - 98%. The latest version of the Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles model (MaexPro) is described and applied for the computation and analysis of the spectral profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients α(λ) in the wavelength band λ = 0.2-12 μm. MaexPro is based on the aforementioned aerosol model assuming spherically shaped aerosol particles and the well-known Mie theory. The spectral profiles of α(λ) calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigating the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  2. Modeling source contributions to submicron particle number concentrations measured in Rochester, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Ogulei, D.; Hopke, P.K.; Chalupa, D.C.; Utell, M.J.

    2007-02-15

    An advanced receptor model was used to elicit source information based on ambient submicron (0.01-0.47 {mu}m) particle number concentrations, gaseous species, and meteorological variables measured at the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation central monitoring site in Rochester, NY. Four seasonal data sets (winter, spring, summer, and fall) were independently investigated. A total of ten different sources were identified, including two traffic factors, two nucleation factors, industrial emissions, residential/commercial heating, secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, ozone-rich secondary aerosol, and regionally transported aerosol. The resolved sources were generally characterized by similar number modes for either winter, spring, summer or fall. The size distributions for nucleation were dominated by the smallest particles ({lt}10-30 nm) that gradually grew to larger sizes as could be seen by observing the volume profiles. In addition, the nucleation factors were closely linked to traffic rush hours suggesting that cooling of tail-pipe emissions may have induced nucleation activity in the vicinity of the highways. Industrial emissions were dominated by emissions from coal-fired power plants that were located to the northwest of the sampling site. These facilities represent the largest point emission sources of SO{sub 2}, and probably ultrafine ({lt}0.1 {mu}m) or submicron particles, in Rochester. Regionally transported material was characterized by accumulation mode particles. Air parcel back-trajectories showed transport of air masses from the industrial midwest.

  3. Seasonal variation of free tropospheric aerosol particles at Mt. Tateyama, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, K.; Kido, M.; Iida, H.; Matsunaga, K.; Iwasaka, Y.; Nagatani, M.; Nakada, H.

    2003-12-01

    Number-size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles and O3 concentration were measured at Murododaira (36.6N, 137.6E, 2450 m above sea level (asl)) on the western flank of Mt. Tateyama in central Japan from January 1999 to November 2002. This study used nighttime data from 2400 to 0500 hours (local time) on the basis of analysis of their diurnal variation to characterize free tropospheric aerosols and O3 over Japan. The O3 concentration shows small variability (standard deviation of 4 ppbv) with the mean value of 40 ppbv in winter (October to February), large variability (8 ppbv) with the higher mean value of 51 ppbv in spring (March to May), and large variability (14 ppbv) with the lower mean value of 32 ppbv in summer (June to September). Highest monthly mean volume concentration (2.7 μm3/cm3) of accumulation particles (0.3 μm < D < 1.0 μm) was observed in June, while the mean value in winter (October to February) was 0.7 μm3/cm3. On the basis statistics of backward air trajectory analyses, a stagnant airflow in summer over the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea and near Japan is inferred to be a suitable meteorological condition to form enhanced volume concentration of accumulation particles during transport. Associating with the seasonal changes in the dominant air trajectories, SO2 emission from Miyakejima volcano since August 2000 is also an important source of the summer enhancement of accumulation particles. Highest monthly mean volume concentration (11.2 μm3/cm3) of coarse particles (D > 1.0 μm) was found in April, which was about 10 times higher than the mean value of 1.2 μm3/cm3 from summer to winter. Variability of daily nighttime volume concentrations of the coarse particles was high (standard deviation of 13.6 μm3/cm3) in spring and low (about 2 μm3/cm3) in the rest of the year. High volume concentration with large variability of the coarse particles in spring is caused by frequent arrival of Kosa (yellow dust) particles from the Asian

  4. Springtime precipitation effects on the abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles and HULIS in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Siyao; Ren, Hong; Fan, Songyun; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-01-01

    Bioaerosols and humic-like substances (HULIS) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, which can affect regional climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and some of which can damage human health. Up to date, release of bioaerosols and HULIS initiated by precipitation is still poorly understood. Here we present different release processes for bioaerosols, non-bioaerosols and HULIS during a precipitation event in Beijing, China. Large fungal-spore-like aerosols were emitted at the onset and later weak stage of precipitation, the number concentration of which increased by more than two folds, while the number concentration of bacteria-like particles doubled when the precipitation strengthened. Besides, a good correlation between protein-like substances that were measured simultaneously by on-line and off-line fluorescence techniques consolidated their applications to measure bioaerosols. Furthermore, our EEM results suggest that the relative contribution of water-soluble HULIS to microbial materials was enhanced gradually by the rain event. PMID:27470588

  5. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Yinon; Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven; Haspel, Carynelisa

    2014-05-01

    In cold high altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and mid-latitudes, ice partciles that are exposed to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. In this talk we will describe experiements that simulate the atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols. We find that aerosols with high organic content can form highly porous particles (HPA) with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogenous aerosol following ice subliation. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure follwoing ice sublimation. We find that the highly porous aerosol scatter solar light less efficiently than non-porous aerosol particles. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  6. Regional-scale simulations of fungal spore aerosols using an emission parameterization adapted to local measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Hoose, C.; Gallagher, M.; Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D.; Pöschl, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Robinson, N. H.; Schnaiter, M.; Sodeau, J. R.; Stengel, M.; Toprak, E.; Vogel, H.

    2015-06-01

    fraction of 15% of the total aerosol mass over land and reach average number concentrations of 26 L-1. The results confirm that fungal spores and biological particles may account for a major fraction of supermicron aerosol particle number and mass concentration over vegetated continental regions and should thus be explicitly considered in air quality and climate studies.

  7. Characterisation of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles during South-West Monsoon from a High Altitude Site in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, A. E.; R, R.; V, B. C.; Huffman, J. A.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Biological aerosols (Bioaerosols) constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials that are suspended in the atmosphere. Though ubiquitous in earth's atmosphere, bioaerosols are poorly characterized in terms of their atmospheric abundance, sources and physical properties. Here we discuss the number concentration and size distribution of coarse mode (>1µm) biological aerosols measured at a relatively clean high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) located in the Western Ghats mountain ranges of Southern Tropical India. The fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) were continuously measured using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) from 01 June to 21 August 2014 (South-West Monsoon Period) which showed some interesting patterns. The mean number and mass concentration of coarse FBAP during the campaign was observed to be 1.7 x 10-2cm-3 and 0.24µg m-3 respectively, which corresponds to 2% and 9% of coarse total aerosol particles (TAP) number and mass concentration. FBAP concentration decreased significantly during periods of heavy and continuous rain with constant South-West winds. This may be due to the clean marine influx coming from the ocean and continuous washout. The Relative Humidity (RH) and temperature remained consistent during this period without any strong diurnal pattern. When the wind fluctuated in North-West directions, the FBAP concentration increased to even an order of magnitude higher than the periods of South-West winds which can be attributed to the transported bioaerosols from the nearby vegetated area. In spite of variability in the number concentrations, the size distribution of FBAP exhibited a prominent peak at ~3 μm throughout the campaign, which should be fungal spores. They also exhibited a strong diurnal pattern with high concentrations occuring during the night time which peaks in the early morning hours.Biological aerosols (Bioaerosols) constitute a wide range of dead and

  8. Single-Particle Measurements of Midlatitude Black Carbon and Light-Scattering Aerosols from the Boundary Layer to the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, J. P.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Thomson, D. S.; Watts, L. A.; Wilson, J. C.; Reeves, J. M.; Darbeheshti, M.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Kok, G. L.; Chung, S. H.; Schulz, M.; Hendricks, J.; Lauer, A.; Kaercher, B.; Slowik, J. G.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Thompson, T. L.; Langford, A. O.; Loewenstein, M.; Aikin, K. C.

    2006-01-01

    A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) was flown on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft in November 2004 from Houston, Texas. The SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence to detect individual black carbon (BC) particles in an air sample in the mass range of approx.3-300 fg (approx.0.15-0.7 microns volume equivalent diameter). Scattered light is used to size the remaining non-BC aerosols in the range of approx.0.17-0.7 microns diameter. We present profiles of both aerosol types from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere from two midlatitude flights. Results for total aerosol amounts in the size range detected by the SP2 are in good agreement with typical particle spectrometer measurements in the same region. All ambient incandescing particles were identified as BC because their incandescence properties matched those of laboratory-generated BC aerosol. Approximately 40% of these BC particles showed evidence of internal mixing (e.g., coating). Throughout profiles between 5 and 18.7 km, BC particles were less than a few percent of total aerosol number, and black carbon aerosol (BCA) mass mixing ratio showed a constant gradient with altitude above 5 km. SP2 data was compared to results from the ECHAM4/MADE and LmDzT-INCA global aerosol models. The comparison will help resolve the important systematic differences in model aerosol processes that determine BCA loadings. Further intercomparisons of models and measurements as presented here will improve the accuracy of the radiative forcing contribution from BCA.

  9. Formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high-temperature environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wu, Jheng-Syun

    2008-05-01

    The formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high temperatures are studied experimentally. By conducting a drop-tube furnace, fuel pyrolysis processes in industrial furnaces are simulated in which three different reaction temperatures of 1000, 1200, and 1400 degrees C are considered. Experimental observations indicate that when the reaction temperature is 1000 degrees C, submicron particles are produced, whereas the particle size is dominated by nanoscale for the temperature of 1400 degrees C. Thermogravimetric analysis of the aerosol particles stemming from the pyrolysis temperature of 1000 degrees C reveals that the thermal behavior of the aerosol is characterized by a three-stage reaction with increasing heating temperature: (1) a volatile-reaction stage, (2) a weak-reaction stage, and (3) a soot-reaction stage. However, with the pyrolysis temperature of 1400 degrees C, the volatile- and weak-reaction stages almost merge together and evolve into a chemical-frozen stage. The submicron particles (i.e., 1000 degrees C) are mainly composed of volatiles, tar, and soot, with the main component of the nanoscale particles (i.e., 1400 degrees C) being soot. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in the aerosols are also analyzed. It is found that the PAH content in generated aerosols decreases dramatically as the pyrolysis temperature increases.

  10. Particle-Resolved Modeling of Aerosol Mixing State in an Evolving Ship Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemer, N. S.; Tian, J.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Schlager, H.; Petzold, A.

    2011-12-01

    The aerosol mixing state is important since it impacts the particles' optical and CCN properties and thereby their climate impact. It evolves continuously during the particles' residence time in the atmosphere as a result of coagulation with other particles and condensation of secondary aerosol species. This evolution is challenging to represent in traditional aerosol models since they require the representation of a multi-dimensional particle distribution. While modal or sectional aerosol representations cannot practically resolve the aerosol mixing state for more than a few species, particle-resolved models store the composition of many individual aerosol particles directly. They thus sample the high-dimensional composition state space very efficiently and so can deal with tens of species, fully resolving the mixing state. Here we use the capabilities of the particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC to simulate the evolution of particulate matter emitted from marine diesel engines and compare the results to aircraft measurements made in the English Channel in 2007 as part of the European campaign QUANTIFY. The model was initialized with values of gas concentrations and particle size distributions and compositions representing fresh ship emissions. These values were obtained from a test rig study in the European project HERCULES in 2006 using a serial four-stroke marine diesel engine operating on high-sulfur heavy fuel oil. The freshly emitted particles consisted of sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon and ash. We then tracked the particle population for several hours as it evolved undergoing coagulation, dilution with the background air, and chemical transformations in the aerosol and gas phase. This simulation was used to compute the evolution of CCN properties and optical properties of the plume on a per-particle basis. We compared our results to size-resolved data of aged ship plumes from the QUANTIFY Study in 2007 and showed that the model was able to reproduce

  11. Variation in penetration of submicrometric particles through electrostatic filtering facepieces during exposure to paraffin oil aerosol.

    PubMed

    Plebani, Carmela; Listrani, Stefano; Tranfo, Giovanna; Tombolini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Several studies show the increase of penetration through electrostatic filters during exposure to an aerosol flow, because of particle deposition on filter fibers. We studied the effect of increasing loads of paraffin oil aerosol on the penetration of selected particle sizes through an electrostatic filtering facepiece. FFP2 facepieces were exposed for 8 hr to a flow rate of 95.0 ± 0.5 L/min of polydisperse paraffin aerosol at 20.0 ± 0.5 mg/m(3). The penetration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DEHS) monodisperse neutralized aerosols, with selected particle size in the 0.03-0.40 μm range, was measured immediately prior to the start of the paraffin aerosol loading and at 1, 4, and 8 hr after the start of paraffin aerosol loading. Penetration through isopropanol-treated facepieces not oil paraffin loaded was also measured to evaluate facepiece behavior when electrostatic capture mechanisms are practically absent. During exposure to paraffin aerosol, DEHS penetration gradually increased for all aerosol sizes, and the most penetrating particle size (0.05 μm at the beginning of exposure) shifted slightly to larger diameters. After the isopropanol treatment, the higher penetration value was 0.30 μm. In addition to an increased penetration during paraffin loading at a given particle size, the relative degree of increase was greater as the particle size increased. Penetration value measured after 8 hr for 0.03-μm particles was on average 1.6 times the initial value, whereas it was about 8 times for 0.40-μm particles. This behavior, as well evidenced in the measurements of isopropanol-treated facepieces, can be attributed to the increasing action in particle capture of the electrostatic forces (Coulomb and polarization), which depend strictly on the diameter and electrical charge of neutralized aerosol particles. With reference to electrostatic filtering facepieces as personal protective equipment, results suggest the importance of complying with the manufacturer

  12. A Method for Measuring the Density of Irregularly Shaped Aerosol Particles Such as Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hout, R.; Katz, J.

    2003-12-01

    Prediction of the long distance dispersal of (biological) aerosol particles, such as pollen, in the atmosphere is of great importance in pollution control and allergy studies. The particle parameters affecting dispersal include size, shape and density. In this work a simple method has been tested and implemented for measuring the density of aerosols without prior knowledge of their size and shape. The method is based on measurement of the settling velocity of particles in two fluids with different density and viscosity at low Reynolds numbers (Stokes flow). Consequently, the settling velocity is proportional to the particle size and density. For two statistically similar samples of particles, based on pdf of equivalent projected area diameter, the pdf of the particle settling velocity was measured in two fluids with different density and viscosity (Dow Corning 200 fluid). For known fluid properties, the resulting particle density is then proportional to the ratio of the settling velocities in the two fluids. The method was used to determine the density of corn (Zea Mays) pollen. The pollen settling velocity was measured in a square settling chamber (5x5x45cm) using in-line digital holography that allows in-focus tracking of the pollen in a 3-D sample volume. Additional advantages of in-line digital holography are its simple setup and the possibility of recording holographic movies. The measured mean corn pollen density was 1119.3 kg/m3 with an absolute error of 45.2 kg/m3. Pdf's of size distributions (based on projected areas) of corn pollen were determined using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These observations were performed with pollen immersed in both Dow Corning 200 fluids as well as in a dry state. No change in size and shape were observed. However when immersed in water, the corn pollen grew and became nearly spherical. Thus, for a known pollen density and size distribution, Stokes' Law for a sphere could be used to predict the

  13. Electrical Mobility Spectrometer Using a Diethylene Glycol Condensation Particle Counter for Measurement of Aerosol Size Distributions Down to 1 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; Chen, M.; Attoui, M.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-02-01

    We report a new scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) for measuring number size distributions of particles down to {approx}1 nm mobility diameter. This SMPS includes an aerosol charger, a TSI 3085 nano differential mobility analyzer (nanoDMA), an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid, and a conventional butanol CPC (the 'booster') to detect the small droplets leaving the DEG UCPC. The response of the DEG UCPC to negatively charged sodium chloride particles with mobility diameters ranging from 1-6 nm was measured. The sensitivity of the DEG UCPC to particle composition was also studied by comparing its response to positively charged 1.47 and 1.70 nm tetra-alkyl ammonium ions, sodium chloride, and silver particles. A high resolution differential mobility analyzer was used to generate the test particles. These results show that the response of this UCPC to sub-2 nm particles is sensitive to particle composition. The applicability of the new SMPS for atmospheric measurement was demonstrated during the Nucleation and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (NCCN) field campaign (Atlanta, Georgia, summer 2009). We operated the instrument at saturator and condenser temperatures that allowed the efficient detection of sodium chloride particles but not of air ions having the same mobility. We found that particles as small as 1 nm were detected during nucleation events but not at other times. Factors affecting size distribution measurements, including aerosol charging in the 1-10 nm size range, are discussed. For the charger used in this study, bipolar charging was found to be more effective for sub-2 nm particles than unipolar charging. No ion induced nucleation inside the charger was observed during the NCCN campaign.

  14. Discrimination and classification of bio-aerosol particles using optical spectroscopy and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversole, Jay D.

    2011-03-01

    For more than a decade now, there has been significant emphasis for development of sensors of agent aerosols, especially for biological warfare (BW) agents. During this period, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and other labs have explored the application of optical and spectroscopic methods relevant to biological composition discrimination to aerosol particle characterization. I will first briefly attempt to establish the connection between sensor performance metrics which are statistically determined, and aerosol particle measurements through the use of computational models, and also describe the challenge of ambient background characterization that would be needed to establish more reliable and deterministic sensor performance predictions. Greater attention will then be devoted to a discussion of basic particle properties and their measurement. The NRL effort has adopted an approach based on direct measurements on individual particles, principally of elastic scatter and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), rather than populations of particles. The development of a LIF instrument using two sequential excitation wavelengths to detect fluorescence in discrete spectral bands will be described. Using this instrument, spectral characteristics of particles from a variety of biological materials including BW agent surrogates, as well as other ``calibration'' particles and some known ambient air constituents will be discussed in terms of the dependence of optical signatures on aerosol particle composition, size and incident laser fluence. Comparison of scattering and emission measurements from particles composed of widely different taxa, as well as from similar species under different growth conditions highlight the difficulties of establishing ground truth for complex biological material compositions. One aspect that is anticipated to provide greater insight to this type of particle classification capability is the development of a fundamental computational model of

  15. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high

  16. Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter κ (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter κ featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median κ-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The κ-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, κ was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with κ-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low κ-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

  17. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  18. Individual aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions below convective cloud bases in the Oman mountain region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-03-01

    An airborne study of cloud microphysics provided an opportunity to collect aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions of natural convection systems for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particles were collected simultaneously on lacey carbon and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids, providing information on particle morphology and chemistry and a unique record of the particle's physical state on impact. In total, 22 particle categories were identified, including single, coated, aggregate, and droplet types. The fine fraction comprised up to 90% mixed cation sulfate (MCS) droplets, while the coarse fraction comprised up to 80% mineral-containing aggregates. Insoluble (dry), partially soluble (wet), and fully soluble particles (droplets) were recorded on Ca-C grids. Dry particles were typically silicate grains; wet particles were mineral aggregates with chloride, nitrate, or sulfate components; and droplets were mainly aqueous NaCl and MCS. Higher numbers of droplets were present in updrafts (80% relative humidity (RH)) compared with ambient conditions (60% RH), and almost all particles activated at cloud base (100% RH). Greatest changes in size and shape were observed in NaCl-containing aggregates (>0.3 µm diameter) along updraft trajectories. Their abundance was associated with high numbers of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplets, as well as large droplet sizes in updrafts. Thus, compositional dependence was observed in activation behavior recorded for coarse and fine fractions. Soluble salts from local pollution and natural sources clearly affected aerosol-cloud interactions, enhancing the spectrum of particles forming CCN and by forming giant CCN from aggregates, thus, making cloud seeding with hygroscopic flares ineffective in this region.

  19. LOAC (Light Optical Particle Counter): a new small aerosol counter with particle characterization capabilities for surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Jégou, Fabrice; Jeannot, Matthieu; Jourdain, Line; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Thaury, Claire; Tonnelier, Thierry; Verdier, Nicolas; Charpentier, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The determination of the size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols with conventional optical counters is difficult when different natures of particles are present (droplets, soot, mineral dust, secondary organic or mineral particles...). Also, a light and cheap aerosol counter that can be used at ground, onboard drones or launched under all kinds of atmospheric balloons can be very useful during specific events as volcanic plumes, desert dust transport or local pollution episodes. These goals can be achieved thanks to a new generation of aerosol counter, called LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter). The instrument was developed in the frame of a cooperation between French scientific laboratories (CNRS), the Environnement-SA and MeteoModem companies and the French Space Agency (CNES). LOAC is a small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams, having a low electrical power consumption. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles. The first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of 0.3-100 micrometerers. At such an angle close to forward scattering, the signal is much more intense and the measurements are the least sensitive to the particle nature. The second angle is at 60°, where the scattered light is strongly dependent on the particle refractive index and thus on the nature of the aerosols. The ratio of the measurements at the two angles is used to discriminate between the different types of particles dominating the nature of the aerosol particles in the different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, soil dust and soot. Since 2011, we have operated LOAC in various environments (Arctic, Mediterranean, urban and peri-urban…) under different kinds of balloons including zero pressure stratospheric, tethered, drifting tropospheric, and meteorological sounding balloons. For the last case, the total weight of the gondola

  20. Isotope Analysis of Individual Aerosol Particles - a New Tool for Studying Heterogeneous Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterholler, B.; Hoppe, P.; Huth, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Foley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Sources of atmospheric sulfur and its oxidation pathways are studied by isotope analysis of sulfate particles. conventional gas mass spectrometry averages the isotopic compositions of millions of aerosol grains and, therefore, several different types of sulphur aerosol. The new Cameca NanoSIMS 50 ion microprobe technique permits isotope analyses of individual aerosol particles down to 0.5 μm diameter. Combining the chemical composition and isotopic signature of individual particles enables source apportionment of non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate and elucidating mixing processes between nss sulfate and sea-salt sulfate for each sample. Results from aerosol samples collected in Mace Head (Western Ireland) are presented. These samples represent different airmass types, such as clean marine boundary layer air, moderately polluted air and strongly polluted air transported from the continent. Fresh aerosol preserves the original isotopic signature of sea-salt and nss sulfate in separate particles, the latter being present predominantly in the form of ammonium sulfate. This enables us to identify oxidation of nss sulfate in deliquescent sea salt particles by means of their sulfur isotope ratio. Cloud processing however, leads to a complete homogenization as far as the sulfur isotopic signature is concerned.

  1. The Humidity Dependence of N2O5 Uptake to Citric Acid Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzinic, G.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Tuerler, A.; Ammann, M.

    2013-12-01

    Dinitrogen pentoxide is a significant reactive intermediate in the night time chemistry of nitrogen oxides. Depending on atmospheric conditions it can act either as a NO3 radical reservoir or as a major NOx sink by heterogeneous hydrolysis on aerosol surfaces. As such, it can influence tropospheric ozone production and therefore the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The heterogeneous loss of N2O5 to aerosol particles has remained uncertain, and reconciling lab and field data has demonstrated some gaps in our understanding of the detailed mechanism. We used the short-lived radioactive tracer 13N to study N2O5 uptake kinetics on aerosol particles in an aerosol flow reactor at ambient pressure, temperature and relative humidity. Citric acid, representing strongly oxidized polyfunctional organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols, has been chosen as a proxy due to its well established physical properties. Aerosol uptake measurements were performed with citric acid aerosols in a humidity range of 15-75 % RH, within which the uptake coefficient varies between about 0.001 and about 0.02. Taking into account the well established hygroscopic properties of citric acid, we interpret uptake in terms of disproportionation of N2O5 into nitrate ion and nitronium ion and reaction of the latter with liquid water.

  2. Submicron Aerosol Characterization of Water by a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    relevant to modern science and industry. N *% ~ ~ ~?1 *1?%~%~ 0.0 :~. % % his ’i tl’tt Security Classif ication KIEV WORDS Submricron aerosols Water ...7 :-711 no0 StIHICRON AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER DY A vi1 DIFFERENTIAL NOBILITY PA.. (U) DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT SUFFIELD RALSTON... WATER BY A DIFFERENTIAL MOBILITY PARTICLE SIZER (U) by B. Kournikakis, A. Gunning, J. Fildes and J. Ho Project No. 251SD EL .TE APR 099?07uD February

  3. Digital holography for observing aerosol particles undergoing Brownian motion in microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Travaini, S.; Belosi, F.; Vedernikov, A.; Dubois, F.; Queeckers, P.; Legros, J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Brownian diffusion of aerosol particles was studied in microgravity conditions using a digital holographic velocimeter. Based on digital image processing, the observed volume, recorded on a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, is reconstructed slice by slice in order to achieve a full focused volume. Three dimensional coordinates of the particles are retrieved by such procedures and particle trajectories are reconstructed by analysing the sequence of the particle position. We deduced that the displacement of particles in microgravity, due to Brownian motion, follows a Gaussian distribution, like at 1 g. Particle sizes obtained from SEM measurements were in good agreement with those calculated from the three dimensional trajectories provided by the holographic microscope.

  4. Liquid-liquid phase separation in atmospheric aerosol particles: dependence on organic functionalities and mixture complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U. K.; Zuend, A.; Peter, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the troposphere, aerosol particles undergo phase transitions such as deliquescence and efflorescence during humidity cycles (Marcolli and Krieger, 2006). In addition, interactions between organic and inorganic compounds lead to liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) (Ciobanu et al., 2009). Recent studies on a limited number of model systems have shown that oxygen-to-carbon ratios (O:C) of the organic aerosol fraction might be a good predictor for LLPS in mixed organic/ammonium sulfate (AS) particles (Bertram et al., 2011; Song et al., 2011). However, in order to corroborate this hypothesis experiments with an organic fraction that consists of a higher number of components with different O:C ratios and functional groups are needed. In order to determine the influence of O:C ratio, the specific organic functionalities and the mixture complexity on LLPS, we subjected organic/AS particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate to relative humidity (RH) cycles and observed phase changes using optical microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. To determine the influence of mixture complexity, we mixed together up to 10 organic compounds. We also prepared mixtures that were rich in different types of functional groups like polyols, aromatics and dicarboxylic acids which were identified from field measurements. We screened for a miscibility gap by varying the organic-to-inorganic ratio from 2:1 to 1:6. AS in the investigated single particles effloresced at 27 - 50 %RH and deliquesced at 72 - 79 %RH during humidity cycles. The occurrence of LLPS is determined to a high degree by the O:C of the organics: there was no LLPS for mixtures with O:C > 0.8 and there was always LLPS for mixtures with O:C < 0.57. In the range in between, we observed a dependence on the specific functional groups: a high share of aromatic functionalities shifts the range of O:C for which LLPS occurs to lower values. A correlation was also found for the onset RH of LLPS as a function of O

  5. Influence of atmospheric dispersion and new particle formation events on ambient particle number concentration in Rochester, United States, and Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Evans, Greg J; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David; Utell, Mark J

    2006-04-01

    Continuous measurements of particle number concentrations were performed in Rochester, NY, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada during the 2003 calendar year. Strong seasonal dependency in particle number concentration was observed at two sites. The average number concentration of ambient particles was 9670 +/- 6960 cm(-3) in Rochester, whereas in Toronto the average number of particles was 28,010 +/- 13,350 cm(-3). The particle number concentrations were higher in winter months than in summer months by a factor of 1.5 in Rochester and 1.6 in Toronto. In general, there were also distinct diurnal variations of aerosol number concentration. The highest weekdays/weekends ratio of number concentration was typically observed during the rush-hour period in winter months with a ratio of 2.1 in Rochester and 2.0 in Toronto. The correlation in the total particle number concentrations between the two urban sites was stronger in winter because of the common urban traffic patterns, but weaker in summer because of local sulfur dioxide (SO2)-related particle formation events in Rochester in the summer. Strong morning particle formation events were frequently observed during colder winter months. Good correlations between particle number and carbon monoxide (CO) as well as temperature suggested that motorvehicle emissions lead to the formation of new particles as the exhaust mixes with the cold air. Regional nucleation and growth events frequently occurred in April. Local SO2-related particle formation events most frequently occurred in August. SO2 and UV-B were highly correlated with particle concentration, suggesting a high association of photochemical processes with these local events. A high directionality in a northerly direction was observed for particle number and SO2, indicating the influence of point sources located north of Rochester.

  6. Particle Morphology and Size Results from the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Fischer, David; Meyer, Marit; Mulholland, George; Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Bryg, Victoria; Cleary, Thomas; Yang, Jiann

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from the Reflight of the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME-2) which was conducted during Expedition 24 (July-September 2010). The reflight experiment built upon the results of the original flight during Expedition 15 by adding diagnostic measurements and expanding the test matrix. Five different materials representative of those found in spacecraft (Teflon, Kapton, cotton, silicone rubber and Pyrell) were heated to temperatures below the ignition point with conditions controlled to provide repeatable sample surface temperatures and air flow. The air flow past the sample during the heating period ranged from quiescent to 8 cm/s. The smoke was initially collected in an aging chamber to simulate the transport time from the smoke source to the detector. This effective transport time was varied by holding the smoke in the aging chamber for times ranging from 11 to 1800 s. Smoke particle samples were collected on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids for post-flight analysis. The TEM grids were analyzed to observe the particle morphology and size parameters. The diagnostics included a prototype two-moment smoke detector and three different measures of moments of the particle size distribution. These moment diagnostics were used to determine the particle number concentration (zeroth moment), the diameter concentration (first moment), and the mass concentration (third moment). These statistics were combined to determine the diameter of average mass and the count mean diameter and, by assuming a log-normal distribution, the geometric mean diameter and the geometric standard deviations can also be calculated. Overall the majority of the average smoke particle sizes were found to be in the 200 nm to 400 nm range with the quiescent cases producing some cases with substantially larger particles.

  7. Simulating the Evolution of Soot Mixing State with a Particle-Resolved Aerosol Model

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Nicole; West, Matt; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.

    2009-05-05

    The mixing state of soot particles in the atmosphere is of crucial importance for assessing their climatic impact, since it governs their chemical reactivity, cloud condensation nuclei activity and radiative properties. To improve the mixing state representation in models, we present a new approach, the stochastic particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC, which explicitly resolves the composition of individual particles in a given population of different types of aerosol particles. This approach accurately tracks the evolution of the mixing state of particles due to emission, dilution, condensation and coagulation. To make this direct stochastic particle-based method practical, we implemented a new multiscale stochastic coagulation method. With this method we achieved optimal efficiency for applications when the coagulation kernel is highly non-uniform, as is the case for many realistic applications. PartMC-MOSAIC was applied to an idealized urban plume case representative of a large urban area to simulate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types due to coagulation and condensation. For this urban plume scenario we quantified the individual processes that contribute to the aging of the aerosol distribution, illustrating the capabilities of our modeling approach. The results showed for the first time the multidimensional structure of particle composition, which is usually lost in internally-mixed sectional or modal aerosol models.

  8. Shapes of internally mixed hygroscopic aerosol particles after deliquescence, and their effect on light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kouji; Freney, Evelyn J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2011-07-01

    Hygroscopic aerosol particles change the magnitude of light scattering through condensation and evaporation of water vapor. We collected aerosol particles from two megacities and observed the particle shapes at various values of relative humidity (RH) using an environmental cell within a transmission electron microscope. Many Mexico City samples had sulfate particles that were embedded within weakly hygroscopic organic aerosol, whereas the Los Angeles samples mainly consisted of externally mixed sulfate particles. For the Mexico City samples, when the RH was increased in the microscope, only the sulfate parts deliquesced, but the entire particle did not become spherical, i.e., particles containing deliquescent phases do not necessarily become spherical upon deliquescence. This result conflicts with the assumption used in many models, i.e., that deliquesced particles become spherical. Using a discrete-dipole approximation to calculate light scattering of simulated particles that resemble the observed ones, we show that, for particles >1.0 μm, the spherical-shape assumption used in Mie theory underestimates the light scattering by ˜50%, with the exact value depending on the sizes and relative volumes of the constituent phases.

  9. Anthropogenic monoterpene pollution episodes in a forest environment in association with aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Taipale, R.; Dal Maso, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Nieminen, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    Monoterpenes (MT) present in troposphere affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The oxidation of monoterpenes leading to secondary organic aerosol formation can affect aerosol loadings, and further influence the climate system. Identified sources of MT include biogenic and anthropogenic origins. In this study, we present a four-year set observation of MT to examine: 1. the origin and the quantification of elevated MT concentrations. 2. The influence of enhanced MT emissions on local air chemistry and possible associated pollutants. 3. Possible influence of anthropogenic MT emissions on physical and chemical properties of enhanced aerosol particles. VOC observations were continuously con-ducted using a PTR-MS from Jun. 12 2006 to Sep. 24 2007 and from Jun. 1 2008 to Mar. 3 2009. As an example, MT observed on March 8, 2007 are plotted in Figure 1 along with DMPS. The DMPS spectra show simultaneous elevations of Aitken-mode particles seen as red colors when monoterpenes are dramatically elevated during six short periods on this day. Out of the four-year dataset amounting to 580 days in total, 27.4% of the days showed MT pollution episodes. The sum of the total episode durations is equal to 3.62% time of the whole PTR-MS measurement period. The average concentration of MT was increased from 0.205 to 0.270 ppbv, which roughly results in 32% overestimation of biogenic MT without considering the influence of these anthropogenic emissions. The origin of episodes is mainly from the Korkeakoski sawmill which is ca. 6 km away from the SMEAR II station and 130 degrees South East direction. VOCs are the main pollutants from sawmill. We did not see clear connections between MT and other gas pollutants during MT episodes. The case studies have shown that other associated pollutants may be occasionally emitted. The strong link between anthropogenic MT and aerosol particles suggest that sawmills could be a main source of anthropogenic VOCs, as well as aerosol loading at the

  10. Differential aerosolization of algal and cyanobacterial particles in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen K; Singh, Surendra

    2010-10-01

    Aeroalgal sampling at short height (2.5 m) over natural aquatic and terrestrial algal sources revealed that despite of being similar in size (<1 mm), algal groups vary in their atmospheric abundance. Cyanobacteria were the most abundant, while chlorophytes and bacillariophytes though present, but rare. Statistical analysis (Akaike Information Criterion) showed that climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind velocity and sunshine hours) acted in concert, and mainly affected the release and subsequent vertical movement (aerosolization) of algae from natural sources. Variation in aerosolization may affect the atmospheric abundance of algae. These findings have important implication as dispersal limitation may influence the biogeography and biodiversity of microbial algae.

  11. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra

  12. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  13. Nanoparticle filtration performance of NIOSH-certified particulate air-purifying filtering facepiece respirators: evaluation by light scattering photometric and particle number-based test methods.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Samy; Eimer, Benjamin C

    2012-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test methods employ charge neutralized NaCl or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols to measure filter penetration levels of air-purifying particulate respirators photometrically using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester at 85 L/min. A previous study in our laboratory found that widely different filter penetration levels were measured for nanoparticles depending on whether a particle number (count)-based detector or a photometric detector was used. The purpose of this study was to better understand the influence of key test parameters, including filter media type, challenge aerosol size range, and detector system. Initial penetration levels for 17 models of NIOSH-approved N-, R-, and P-series filtering facepiece respirators were measured using the TSI 8130 photometric method and compared with the particle number-based penetration (obtained using two ultrafine condensation particle counters) for the same challenge aerosols generated by the TSI 8130. In general, the penetration obtained by the photometric method was less than the penetration obtained with the number-based method. Filter penetration was also measured for ambient room aerosols. Penetration measured by the TSI 8130 photometric method was lower than the number-based ambient aerosol penetration values. Number-based monodisperse NaCl aerosol penetration measurements showed that the most penetrating particle size was in the 50 nm range for all respirator models tested, with the exception of one model at ~200 nm size. Respirator models containing electrostatic filter media also showed lower penetration values with the TSI 8130 photometric method than the number-based penetration obtained for the most penetrating monodisperse particles. Results suggest that to provide a more challenging respirator filter test method than what is currently used for respirators containing electrostatic media, the test method should utilize a sufficient number

  14. HDL particle number and size as predictors of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kontush, Anatol

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that reduced concentrations of circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles can be superior to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Measurements of HDL particle numbers, therefore, bear a potential for the improved assessment of cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, such measurement can be relevant for the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches targeting HDL. Modern in-depth analyses of HDL particle profile may further improve evaluation of cardiovascular risk. Although clinical relevance of circulating concentrations of HDL subpopulations to cardiovascular disease remains controversial, the negative relationship between the number of large HDL particles and cardiovascular disease suggests that assessment of HDL particle profile can be clinically useful. Reduced mean HDL size is equally associated with cardiovascular disease in large-scale clinical studies. Since HDL-C is primarily carried in the circulation by large, lipid-rich HDL particles, the inverse relationship between HDL size and cardiovascular risk can be secondary to those established for plasma levels of HDL particles, HDL-C, and large HDL. The epidemiological data thereby suggest that HDL particle number may represent a more relevant therapeutic target as compared to HDL-C.

  15. On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles in the Antarctic stratosphere was developed and applied to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The theory suggests that the condensed ice particles are composed primarily of nitric acid and water, with small admixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in solid solution. The proposed particle formation mechanism is in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinction observed in the winter polar stratosphere.

  16. Global Civil Aviation Black Carbon Particle Mass and Number Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stettler, M. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a product of incomplete combustion emitted by aircraft engines. In the atmosphere, BC particles strongly absorb incoming solar radiation and influence cloud formation processes leading to highly uncertain, but likely net positive warming of the earth's atmosphere. At cruise altitude, BC particle number emissions can influence the concentration of ice nuclei that can lead to contrail formation, with significant and highly uncertainty climate impacts. BC particles emitted by aircraft engines also degrade air quality in the vicinity of airports and globally. A significant contribution to the uncertainty in environmental impacts of aviation BC emissions is the uncertainty in emissions inventories. Previous work has shown that global aviation BC mass emissions are likely to have been underestimated by a factor of three. In this study, we present an updated global BC particle number inventory and evaluate parameters that contribute to uncertainty using global sensitivity analysis techniques. The method of calculating particle number from mass utilises a description of the mobility of fractal aggregates and uses the geometric mean diameter, geometric standard deviation, mass-mobility exponent, primary particle diameter and material density to relate the particle number concentration to the total mass concentration. Model results show good agreement with existing measurements of aircraft BC emissions at ground level and at cruise altitude. It is hoped that the results of this study can be applied to estimate direct and indirect climate impacts of aviation BC emissions in future studies.

  17. Impacts of oxidation aging on secondary organic aerosol formation, particle growth rate, cloud condensation nuclei abundance, and aerosol climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.

    2014-12-01

    Particle composition measurements indicate that organic aerosol (OA) makes up ~20-90% of submicron particulate mass and secondary OA (SOA) accounts for a large fraction (~ 72 ±21%) of these OA masses at many locations around the globe. The volatility changes of secondary organic gases (SOG) associated with oxidation aging as well as the contribution of highly oxidized low volatile SOG (LV-SOG) to the condensational growth of secondary particles have been found to be important in laboratory and field measurements but are poorly represented in global models. A novel scheme to extend the widely used two-product SOA formation model, by adding a third product arising from the oxidation aging (i.e., LV-SOG) and considering the dynamic transfer of mass from higher to lower volatile products, has been developed and implemented into a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and a community atmosphere model (CESM-CAM5). The scheme requires only minor changes to the existing two-product SOA formation model and is computationally efficient. With the oxidation rate constrained by laboratory measurements, we show that the new scheme predicts a much higher SOA mass concentrations, improving the agreement with aerosol mass spectrometer SOA measurements. The kinetic condensation of LV-SOG on ultrafine particles, simulated by a size-resolved (sectional) advanced particle microphysics (APM) model incorporated into in GEOS-Chem and CAM5, increases the particle growth rate substantially and improves the agreement of simulated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations with observations. Based on GEOS-Chem-APM simulations, the new SOA formation scheme increases global mean low troposphere SOA mass concentration by ~130% and CCN abundance by ~ 15%, and optical depth of secondary particles and coated black carbon and primary organic carbon particles by ~10%. As a result, aerosol radiative cooling effect (direct + first indirect) is enhanced by -0.9 W/m2, with large spatial

  18. Temperature-dependent particle-number projected moment of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2008-05-15

    Expressions of the parallel and perpendicular temperature-dependent particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia have been established by means of a discrete projection method. They generalize that of the FTBCS method and are well adapted to numerical computation. The effects of particle-number fluctuations have been numerically studied for some even-even actinide nuclei by using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It has been shown that the parallel moment of inertia is practically not modified by the use of the projection method. In contrast, the discrepancy between the projected and FTBCS perpendicular moment of inertia values may reach 5%. Moreover, the particle-number fluctuation effects vary not only as a function of the temperature but also as a function of the deformation for a given temperature. This is not the case for the system energy.

  19. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K.; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M.; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S.; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A.; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wagner, Paul E.; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2016-10-01

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by 0.22 W m-2 (27%) to -0.60 W m-2. Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  20. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty J; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-10-25

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by [Formula: see text] (27%) to [Formula: see text] Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  1. Collection efficiency of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles explored via light-scattering single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley Robinson, Ellis; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas; Donahue, Neil M.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the collection efficiency and effective ionization efficiency for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles made from α-pinene + O3 using the single-particle capabilities of the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). The mean count-based collection efficiency (CEp) for SOA across these experiments is 0.30 (±0.04 SD), ranging from 0.25 to 0.40. The mean mass-based collection efficiency (CEm) is 0.49 (±0.07 SD). This sub-unit collection efficiency and delayed vaporization is attributable to particle bounce in the vaporization region. Using the coupled optical and chemical detection of the light-scattering single-particle (LSSP) module of the AMS, we provide clear evidence that delayed vaporization is somewhat of a misnomer for these particles: SOA particles measured as a part of the AMS mass distribution do not vaporize at a slow rate; rather, they flash-vaporize, albeit often not on the initial impact with the vaporizer but instead upon a subsequent impact with a hot surface in the vaporization region. We also find that the effective ionization efficiency (defined as ions per particle, IPP) decreases with delayed arrival time. CEp is not a function of particle size (for the mobility diameter range investigated, 170-460 nm), but we did see a decrease in CEp with thermodenuder temperature, implying that oxidation state and/or volatility can affect CEp for SOA. By measuring the mean ions per particle produced for monodisperse particles as a function of signal delay time, we can separately determine CEp and CEm and thus more accurately measure the relative ionization efficiency (compared to ammonium nitrate) of different particle types.

  2. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  3. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-07-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in all PM0.2-1 samples were ammonium sulphates with/without carbon and dark inclusion(s) (number proportion of particles 54-86%), carbon/sulphate mixture with dark inclusions(s) (4-10%), internally mixed soot/sulphate particles (2-22%), soot (0-12%) and K-rich particles with S and/or C (0-9%). During the pollution episode (PM1.6~18 μg m-3, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%, also fly ash particles), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period (PM1.6~2 μg m-3, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-. During the intermediate period (PM1.6~5 μg m-3, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest in the PM3.3-11 samples (0-81% and 0-22%, respectively). The origin of different particle types and the

  4. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was identified between the FBAP

  5. Modelling non-equilibrium secondary organic aerosol formation and evaporation with the aerosol dynamics, gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model ADCHAM

    SciTech Connect

    Roldin, P.; Eriksson, A. C.; Nordin, E. Z.; Hermansson, E.; Mogensen, Ditte; Rusanen, A.; Boy, Michael; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Zelenyuk, Alla; Pagels, J.

    2014-08-11

    We have developed the novel Aerosol Dynamics, gas- and particle- phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM). The model combines the detailed gas phase Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2, an aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module (which considers acid catalysed oligomerization, heterogeneous oxidation reactions in the particle phase and non-ideal interactions between organic compounds, water and inorganic ions) and a kinetic multilayer module for diffusion limited transport of compounds between the gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk phase. In this article we describe and use ADCHAM to study: 1) the mass transfer limited uptake of ammonia (NH3) and formation of organic salts between ammonium (NH4+) and carboxylic acids (RCOOH), 2) the slow and almost particle size independent evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, and 3) the influence of chamber wall effects on the observed SOA formation in smog chambers.

  6. Quantifying Particle Numbers and Mass Flux in Drifting Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivelli, Philip; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Lehning, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We compare two of the most common methods of quantifying mass flux, particle numbers and particle-size distribution for drifting snow events, the snow-particle counter (SPC), a laser-diode-based particle detector, and particle tracking velocimetry based on digital shadowgraphic imaging. The two methods were correlated for mass flux and particle number flux. For the SPC measurements, the device was calibrated by the manufacturer beforehand. The shadowgrapic imaging method measures particle size and velocity directly from consecutive images, and before each new test the image pixel length is newly calibrated. A calibration study with artificially scattered sand particles and glass beads provides suitable settings for the shadowgraphical imaging as well as obtaining a first correlation of the two methods in a controlled environment. In addition, using snow collected in trays during snowfall, several experiments were performed to observe drifting snow events in a cold wind tunnel. The results demonstrate a high correlation between the mass flux obtained for the calibration studies (r ≥slant 0.93) and good correlation for the drifting snow experiments (r ≥slant 0.81). The impact of measurement settings is discussed in order to reliably quantify particle numbers and mass flux in drifting snow. The study was designed and performed to optimize the settings of the digital shadowgraphic imaging system for both the acquisition and the processing of particles in a drifting snow event. Our results suggest that these optimal settings can be transferred to different imaging set-ups to investigate sediment transport processes.

  7. [Comparative studies of particle distribution range of aerosol cromolyn sodium generated by MDI systems].

    PubMed

    Gradoń, L; Sosnowski, T R

    1999-05-01

    Particles size distribution of the sodium cromoglycate preparations: CROPOZ PLUS and CROMOGEN EB generated with MDI and for under-pressure releasing methods were measured. Results of measurements indicate a significant repeatability of each sample properties. An average contribution of mass of the respirable fraction for both aerosolized pharmaceuticals is in the range of 40% of the generated dose. CROMOGEN EB with optimizer (spacer) gives a higher contribution of the respirable fraction--up to 50% of dose, with simultaneous lower value of the released mass of aerosol. Particles size distribution of CROPOZ PLUS within a respirable fraction indicates an efficient penetration and deposition of particles in the upper, central and peripheral parts of tracheobronchial tree (TB). High contribution of submicron particles of CROMOGEN EB with optimizer gives efficient penetration and deposition of these particles in the lungs.

  8. Fabrication of a pure, uniform electroless silver film using ultrafine silver aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-07-20

    To obtain evenly distributed pure Ag particles with a narrow size distribution on a polymer membrane, a novel activation procedure with an environmentally friendly, cost-effective method was utilized as a pretreatment before electroless Ag deposition. The pretreatment was first performed on an untreated membrane surface by collecting ultrafine ambient spark-generated Ag aerosol particles. After annealing, the electroless Ag film was fabricated on the collected aerosol particles in the Ag electroless bath. Experimental characterizations showed that the ultrafine Ag particles were uniformly anchored onto the membrane surface through pretreatment, resulting in a pure Ag film of closely packed particles with a narrow size distribution on the membrane, and the properties were comparable to those of an Ag film on wet Sn-Ag-activated membranes.

  9. Submicrometer aerosol particle distributions in the upper troposphere over the mid-latitude North Atlantic-results from the third route of `CARIBIC'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, M.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Heintzenberg, J.; Martinsson, B. G.; Schlager, H.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2008-02-01

    Particle number and mass concentrations of submicrometer aerosol particles were determined for the upper troposphere over the mid-latitude North Atlantic within the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container project (CARIBIC, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). Between May 2001 and April 2002, 22 flights from Germany to the Caribbean were conducted using an automated measurement container on a B767 passenger aircraft. Spatial and seasonal probability distributions for ultrafine and Aitken mode particles as well as mass concentrations of particulate sulphur in 8-12 km altitude are presented. High particle number concentrations (mostly 2500-15 000 particles cm-3 STP) are particularly found in summer over the western North Atlantic Ocean close to the North American continent. The distributions together with an analysis of particle source processes show that deep vertical transport is the dominant process leading to most of the events with high particle number concentrations (>~8000 particles cm-3 STP) for ultrafine particles as well as for Aitken mode particles. This study emphasizes the importance of deep vertical transport and cloud processing for the concentration of aerosol particles in the upper troposphere.

  10. Relationship and variations of aerosol number and PM 10 mass concentrations in a highly polluted urban environment—New Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mönkkönen, P.; Uma, R.; Srinivasan, D.; Koponen, I. K.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hämeri, K.; Suresh, R.; Sharma, V. P.; Kulmala, M.

    Measurements of the aerosol number concentration and the PM 10 mass concentrations of urban background aerosols in different seasons were performed in New Delhi 2002, including the simultaneous measurements of NO 2, SO 2 and CO concentrations. The results indicate an interesting relationship between the aerosol number and the PM 10 mass concentrations. The number concentration increases with the mass concentration up to 300 μg m -3. However, after this point, the number concentration decreases even if the mass concentration increases. An explanation for this nonlinear behavior is proposed through a dynamic model involving the coagulation sink concept. The linear relationship between the mass and the number concentration in ambient air is valid if the mass concentration is relatively low. A high sink, however, means that the number concentration cannot be high—resulting in a decline in the number vs. mass plot. Clear diurnal, weekly and seasonal variations in concentrations were observed. High number concentrations of aerosols were observed in the mornings (7-8 a.m.) and in the evenings (7-10 p.m.). The number concentration was highest in March and lowest in June and the mass concentration was highest in November and lowest in June. The number concentration was higher during weekdays, but the mass concentration was higher during weekends. The number concentration correlates with the NO 2 concentration, which indicates that one major source of aerosol particles for the monitored site in New Delhi may be vehicular emission, but also domestic use of fossil fuels and biofuels cannot be neglected.

  11. Comparison of POLDER Derived Aerosol Optical Thickness to Surface Monitor Fine Particle Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, J.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Chiapello, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Particulate Matter (PM) mass measured at the ground level is a common way to quantify the amount of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is used as a standard to evaluate air quality. Satellite remote sensing is well suited for a daily monitoring of the aerosol load. However, there are no straightforward relationship between aerosol optical properties derived from the satellite sensor and the PM mass at the ground. This paper is focused on the use of Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectance (POLDER-2) derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) for the monitoring of PM2.5. We present a correlation study between PM2.5 data collected in the frame of the French Environmental protection agency, aerosol optical properties derived from Sun photometer measurements, and POLDER derived-AOT over the land. POLDER AOT retrieval algorithm over the land is based on the use of the measurement of the linear polarized light in the 670 nm and 865 nm channels. We show that only the fine fraction (below 0.3 μm) of the aerosol size distribution contributes to the signal in polarization and then to the POLDER derived-AOT and then is well suited for monitoring of fine particle. The correlation between POLDER AOT and PM2.5 is significant (R between 0.6 and 0.7) over several sites. We present a tentative evaluation of Air Quality Categories from satellite data.

  12. Sub-micron particle number size distributions characteristics at an urban location, Kanpur, in the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, V. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bhattu, Deepika; Shamjad, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present long-term measurements of sub-micron particle number size distributions (PNSDs) conducted at an urban location, Kanpur, in India, from September 2007 to July 2011. The mean Aitken mode (NAIT), accumulation mode (NACCU), the total particle (NTOT), and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were 12.4 × 103 cm- 3, 18.9 × 103 cm- 3, 31.9 × 103 cm- 3, and 7.96 μg m- 3, respectively, within the observed range at other urban locations worldwide, but much higher than those reported at urban sites in the developed nations. The total particle volume concentration appears to be dominated mainly by the accumulation mode particles, except during the monsoon months, perhaps due to efficient wet deposition of accumulation mode particles by precipitation. At Kanpur, the diurnal variation of particle number concentrations was very distinct, with highest during morning and late evening hours, and lowest during the afternoon hours. This behavior could be attributed to the large primary emissions of aerosol particles and temporal evolution of the planetary boundary layer. A distinct seasonal variation in the total particle number and BC mass concentrations was observed, with the maximum in winter and minimum during the rainy season, however, the Aitken mode particles did not show a clear seasonal fluctuation. The ratio of Aitken to accumulation mode particles, NAIT/NACCU, was varied from 0.1 to 14.2, with maximum during April to September months, probably suggesting the importance of new particle formation processes and subsequent particle growth. This finding suggests that dedicated long-term measurements of PNSDs (from a few nanometer to one micron) are required to systematically characterize new particle formation over the Indian subcontinent that has been largely unstudied so far. Contrarily, the low NAIT/NACCU during post-monsoon and winter indicated the dominance of biomass/biofuel burning aerosol emissions at this site.

  13. Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... article title:  Aerosols over Central and Eastern Europe     View Larger Image ... last weeks of March 2003, widespread aerosol pollution over Europe was detected by several satellite-borne instruments. The Multi-angle ...

  14. The Dependence of Cloud Particle Size on Non-Aerosol-Loading Related Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, H.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    An enhanced concentration of aerosol may increase the number of cloud drops by providing more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn results in a higher cloud albedo at a constant cloud liquid water path. This process is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Many in situ and remote sensing observations support this hypothesis (Ramanathan et al. 2001). However, satellite observed relations between aerosol concentration and cloud drop size are not always in agreement with the AIE. Based on global analysis of cloud effective radius (r{sub e}) and aerosol number concentration (N{sub a}) derived from satellite data, Sekiguchi et al. (2003) found that the correlations between the two variables can be either negative, or positive, or none, depending on the location of the clouds. They discovered that significantly negative r{sub e} - N{sub a} correlation can only be identified along coastal regions of the continents where abundant continental aerosols inflow from land, whereas Feingold et al. (2001) found that the response of r{sub e} to aerosol loading is the greatest in the region where aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) is the smallest. The reason for the discrepancy is likely due to the variations in cloud macroscopic properties such as geometrical thickness (Brenguier et al. 2003). Since r{sub e} is modified not only by aerosol but also by cloud geometrical thickness (H), the correlation between re and {tau}{sub a} actually reflects both the aerosol indirect effect and dependence of H. Therefore, discussing AIE based on the r{sub e}-{tau}{sub a} correlation without taking into account variations in cloud geometrical thickness may be misleading. This paper is motivated to extract aerosols' effect from overall effects using the independent measurements of cloud geometrical thickness, {tau}{sub a} and r{sub e}.

  15. Lipkin method of particle-number restoration to higher orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. B.; Dobaczewski, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Yu, L. F.; Stoitsov, M. V.

    2014-07-01

    Background: On the mean-field level, pairing correlations are incorporated through the Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation, whereby the particle degrees of freedom are replaced by quasiparticles. This approach leads to a spontaneous breaking of the particle-number symmetry and mixing of states with different particle numbers. In order to restore the particle number, various methods have been employed, which are based on projection approaches before or after variation. Approximate variation-after-projection (VAP) schemes, utilizing the Lipkin method, have mostly been used within the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Purpose: Without employing the Lipkin-Nogami prescription, and using, instead, states rotated in the gauge space, we derive the Lipkin method of particle-number restoration up to sixth order and we test the convergence and accuracy of the obtained expansion. Methods: We perform self-consistent calculations using the higher-order Lipkin method to restore the particle-number symmetry in the framework of superfluid nuclear energy-density functional theory. We also apply the Lipkin method to a schematic exactly solvable two-level pairing model. Results: Calculations performed in open-shell tin and lead isotopes show that the Lipkin method converges at fourth order and satisfactorily reproduces the VAP ground-state energies and energy kernels. Near closed shells, the higher-order Lipkin method cannot be applied because of a nonanalytic kink in the ground-state energies as a function of the particle number. Conclusions: In open-shell nuclei, the higher-order Lipkin method provides a good approximation to the exact VAP energies. The method is computationally inexpensive, making it particularly suitable, for example, for future optimizations of the nuclear energy density functionals and simultaneous restoration of different symmetries.

  16. Atmospheric Black Carbon: Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Individual Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, M. K.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Marten, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of aerosols from both natural and anthropogenic sources affects the Earth's temperature and climate by altering the radiative properties of the atmosphere. Aerosols containing black carbon (BC) that are released into the atmosphere from the burning of biomass, natural fires and the combustion of coals, diesel and jet fuels, contribute a large positive component to this radiative forcing, thus causing a heating of the atmosphere. A distinct type of biomass burn aerosol referred to as "tar balls" has recently been reported in the literature and is characterized by a spherical morphology, high carbon content and ability to efficiently scatter and absorb light. At present, very little is known about the exact nature and variation of the range of BC aerosols in the atmosphere with regards to optical, chemical and physical properties. Additionally, the similarity of these aerosols to surrogates used in the laboratory as atmospheric mimics remains unclear. The local chemical bonding, structural ordering and carbon-to-oxygen ratios of a plethora of black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecular mass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric aerosols from a variety of sources are examined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. STXM/NEXAFS enables single aerosol particles of diameter upwards of 100 nm to be studied, which allows the diversity of atmospheric aerosol collected during a variety of field missions to be assessed. We apply a semi-quantitative peak fitting method to the recorded NEXAFS spectral fingerprints allowing comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS to BC aerosol originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burning events. This method allows us to distinguish between anthropogenic combustion and biomass burn aerosol using both chemical bonding and structural ordering information. The STXM/NEXAFS technique has also been utilized to

  17. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  18. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    The MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris, using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), giving detailed information on the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of black carbon (BC), measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), BC, and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy)). Plotting the equivalent ratios of different organic aerosol species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in London, Mexico City, and in New England, USA. Using the measured SOA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species together with organic aerosol formation

  19. Effect of particle settling on lidar profiles of long-range transported Saharan aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Josef; Groß, Silke

    2016-04-01

    A large amount of desert aerosol is transported in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) westwards from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean. Lidar profiles of transported Saharan aerosol may contain some information about the vertically-resolved aerosol microphysics that could be used to characterize processes that affected the measured aerosol during transport. We present modelled lidar profiles of long-range transported Saharan aerosol assuming that initially the SAL is well-mixed and that there is no vertical mixing of air within the SAL as soon as it reaches the Atlantic. We consider Stokes gravitational settling of aerosol particles over the ocean. The lidar profiles are calculated using optical models for irregularly-shaped mineral dust particles assuming settling-induced particle removal as function of distance from the SAL top. Within the SAL we find a decrease of both the backscatter coefficients and the linear depolarization ratios with decreasing distance from the SAL top. For example, the linear depolarization ratio at a wavelength of 532nm decreases from 0.289 at 1000m to 0.256 at 200m and 0.215 at 100m below SAL top. We compare the modelled backscatter coefficients and linear depolarization ratios to ground-based lidar measurements performed during the SALTRACE field campaign in Barbados (Caribbean) and find agreement within the estimated uncertainties. We discuss the uncertainties of our modeling approach in our presentation. Assumed mineral dust particle shapes, assumed particle mixture properties, and assumptions about processes in the SAL over the continent and the ocean are important aspects to be considered. Uncertainties are relevant for the potential of lidar measurements of transported Saharan dust to learn something about processes occuring in the SAL during long-range transport. We also compare our modeling results to modeling results previously published in the literature.

  20. Hygroscopic Measurements of Aerosol Particles in Colorado during the Discover AQ Campaign 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, D.; Delgado, R.; Espinosa, R.; Martins, J. V.; Hoff, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    In ambient conditions, aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth due to the influence of relative humidity (RH), scattering more light than when the particles are dry. The quantitative knowledge of the RH effect and its influence on the light scattering and, in particular, on the phase function and polarization of aerosol particles is of substantial importance when comparing ground observations with other optical aerosol measurements such satellite and sunphotometric retrievals of aerosol optical depth and their inversions. In the summer of 2014, the DISCOVER-AQ campaign was held in Colorado, where systematic and concurrent observations of column- integrated surface, and vertically-resolved distributions of aerosols and trace gases relevant to air quality and their evolution during the day were observed. Aerosol optical properties were measured in the UMBC trailer at the city of Golden using a TSI-3563 nephelometer and an in-situ Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-NEPH) designed and built by the LACO group at UMBC. The PI-NEPH measures aerosol phase matrix components in high angular range between 2 and 178 degrees scattering angle at three wavelengths (λ=473, 532 and 671nm). The two measured elements of the phase matrix, intensity (P11) and linear polarization (P12) provide extensive characterization of the scattering properties of the studied aerosol. The scattering coefficient, P11 and P12 were measured under different humidity conditions to obtain the enhancement factor f(RH) and the dependence of P11 and P12 to RH using a humidifier dryer system covering a RH range from 20 to 90%. The ratio between scattering coefficients at high and low humidity in Golden Colorado showed relatively low hygroscopic growth in the aerosol particles f(RH=80%) was 1.27±0.19 for the first three weeks of sampling. According to speciated measurements performed at the UMBC trailer, the predominance of dust and organic aerosols over more hygroscopic nitrate and sulfate in the

  1. Ultrasensitive detection of inhaled organic aerosol particles by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parkhomchuk, E V; Gulevich, D G; Taratayko, A I; Baklanov, A M; Selivanova, A V; Trubitsyna, T A; Voronova, I V; Kalinkin, P N; Okunev, A G; Rastigeev, S A; Reznikov, V A; Semeykina, V S; Sashkina, K A; Parkhomchuk, V V

    2016-09-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was shown to be applicable for studying the penetration of organic aerosols, inhaled by laboratory mice at ultra-low concentration ca. 10(3) cm(-3). We synthesized polystyrene (PS) beads, composed of radiocarbon-labeled styrene, for testing them as model organic aerosols. As a source of radiocarbon we used methyl alcohol with radioactivity. Radiolabeled polystyrene beads were obtained by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of synthesized (14)C-styrene initiated by K2S2O8 in aqueous media. Aerosol particles were produced by pneumatic spraying of diluted (14)C-PS latex. Mice inhaled (14)C-PS aerosol consisting of the mix of 10(3) 225-nm particles per 1 cm(3) and 5·10(3) 25-nm particles per 1 cm(3) for 30 min every day during five days. Several millions of 225-nm particles deposited in the lungs and slowly excreted from them during two weeks of postexposure. Penetration of particles matter was also observed for liver, kidneys and brain, but not for a heart.

  2. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D; Schilling, Katherine A; Loza, Christine L; Craven, Jill S; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-16

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process.

  3. Real-time characterization of the size and chemical composition of individual particles in ambient aerosol systems in Riverside, California

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.A.; Prather, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric aerosols, although ubiquitous, are highly diverse and continually fluctuating systems. A typical aerosol system may consist of particles with diameters between {approximately}0.002 {mu}m and {approximately}200 {mu}m. Even in rural or pristine areas, atmospheric particle concentration is significant, with concentrations up to 10{sup 8} particles/cm{sup 3} not being uncommon. Chemical composition of atmospheric particles vary from simple water droplets or acidic ices to soot particles and cigarette smoke. Due to changes in atmospheric conditions, processes such as nucleation, coagulation or heterogeneous chemistry may effect both physical and chemical properties of individual particles over relatively short time intervals. Recently, aerosol measurement techniques are focusing on determining the size and/or chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. This research group has recently developed aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), a technique which allows for real-time determination of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Single particle measurements are performed in one instrument using dual laser aerodynamic particle sizing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Aerosol-time-of-flight mass spectrometry is briefly described in several other abstracts in this publication.

  4. Impact of particle formation on atmospheric ions and particle number concentrations in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Jayaratne, E. R.; Morawska, L.

    2015-04-01

    A measurement campaign was conducted from 3 to 19 December 2012 at an urban site of Brisbane, Australia. Size distribution of ions and particle number concentrations were measured to investigate the influence of particle formation and biomass burning on atmospheric ion and particle concentrations. Overall ion and particle number concentrations during the measurement period were found to be (- 1.2 × 103 cm- 3 | + 1.6 × 103 cm- 3) and 4.4 × 103, respectively. The results of correlation analysis between concentrations of ions and nitrogen oxides indicated that positive and negative ions originated from similar sources, and that vehicle exhaust emissions had a more significant influence on intermediate/large ions, while cluster ions rapidly attached to larger particles once emitted into the atmosphere. Diurnal variations in ion concentration suggested the enrichment of intermediate and large ions on new particle formation event days, indicating that they were involved in the particle formation processes. Elevated total ions, particularly larger ions, and particle number concentrations were found during biomass burning episodes. This could be due to the attachment of cluster ions onto accumulation mode particles or production of charged particles from biomass burning, which were in turn transported to the measurement site. The results of this work enhance scientific understanding of the sources of atmospheric ions in an urban environment, as well as their interactions with particles during particle formation processes.

  5. Association of urban particle numbers and sources with lung function among children with asthma or allergies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Ru; Feng, Li-Ting; Chen, Bing-Yu; Kim, Ho; Yi, Seung-Muk; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies have reported sources of particle number pollution in urban air, but have not evaluated relationships between respiratory health and these sources. We compared, among children with asthma or allergies, the associations of spirometric lung functions with increased exposure to source-specific versus size-segregated particle number concentrations (PNC). Hourly measurements of PNC were acquired from the aerosol Supersite in New Taipei, Taiwan. Spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF) was recorded monthly for 59 children with asthma or allergies at five schools during 2007-2008. After co-pollutant adjustment for ozone, we found a 0.21 and 0.17 L decrease in FVC [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.35, -0.06 L] and FEV1 (95% CI: -0.32, -0.03 L), respectively, with an interquartile range increase (1879.7#/cm(3)) in secondary aerosol contribution observed on the previous day. In addition, we found no significant associations of FVC with accumulation mode (0.1 μm

  6. Evaluation of XMX/2L-MIL Virtual Impactor Performance and Capture and Retention of Aerosol Particles in Two Different Collection Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air...Breiman, T. Hennessy, E. T. Umland, and others. (1995). Evaluation of the Magnitude of the 1993 Hantavirus Outbreak in the Southwestern United States. The...Retention of Aerosol Particles in Two Different Collection Media 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S

  7. Elastic back-scattering patterns via particle surface roughness and orientation from single trapped airborne aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Richard; Wang, Chuji; Muñoz, Olga; Videen, Gorden; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Pan, Yong-Le

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for simultaneously measuring the back-scattering patterns and images of single laser-trapped airborne aerosol particles. This arrangement allows us to observe how the back-scattering patterns change with particle size, shape, surface roughness, orientation, etc. The recoded scattering patterns cover the angular ranges of θ=167.7-180° (including at 180° exactly) and ϕ=0-360° in spherical coordinates. The patterns show that the width of the average speckle intensity islands or rings is inversely proportional to particle size and how the shape of these intensity rings or islands also depends on the surface roughness. For an irregularly shaped particle with substantial roughness, the back-scattering patterns are formed with speckle intensity islands, the size and orientations of these islands depend more on the overall particle size and orientation, but have less relevance to the fine alteration of the surface structure and shapes. The back-scattering intensity at 180° is very sensitive to the particle parameters. It can change from a maximum to a minimum with a change of 0.1% in particle size or refractive index. The method has potential use in characterizing airborne aerosol particles, and may be used to provide back-scattering information for LIDAR applications.

  8. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological act