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Sample records for aerosol properties observed

  1. CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Properties Near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol properties. Characterizing this zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects as well as for improving satellite measurements of aerosol properties. We present a statistical analysis of a global dataset of CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) Lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone extends as far as 15 km away from clouds and it is ubiquitous over all oceans. The use of only high confidence level cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD) data confirms the findings. However, the results underline the need for caution to avoid biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects.

  2. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  3. AIP1OGREN: Aerosol Observing Station Intensive Properties Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, Annette; Flynn, Connor

    2017-09-15

    The aip1ogren value-added product (VAP) computes several aerosol intensive properties. It requires as input calibrated, corrected, aerosol extensive properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, primarily) from the Aerosol Observing Station (AOS). Aerosol extensive properties depend on both the nature of the aerosol and the amount of the aerosol. We compute several properties as relationships between the various extensive properties. These intensive properties are independent of aerosol amount and instead relate to intrinsic properties of the aerosol itself. Along with the original extensive properties we report aerosol single-scattering albedo, hemispheric backscatter fraction, asymmetry parameter, and Ångström exponent for scattering and absorption withmore » one-minute averaging. An hourly averaged file is produced from the 1-minute files that includes all extensive and intensive properties as well as submicron scattering and submicron absorption fractions. Finally, in both the minutely and hourly files the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency is provided.« less

  4. Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption Properties from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jethva, H.; Ahn, Chang-Woo

    2012-01-01

    The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measurement can be explained, using an approximations of Beer's Law (BL), as the upwelling reflectance at the cloud top attenuated by the absorption effects of the overlying aerosol layer. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud-top in an aerosol-free atmospheric column is mainly a function of cloud optical depth (COD). In the proposed method of AAE derivation, the first step is determining COD which is retrieved using a previously developed color-ratio based approach. In the second step, corrections for molecular scattering effects are applied to both the observed ad the calculated cloud reflectance terms, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by an inversion of the BL approximation. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results making use of OMI multi-spectral measurements in the UV-Vis. will be presented.

  5. Aerosol Properties Observed in the Subtropical North Pacific Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royalty, T. M.; Phillips, B. N.; Dawson, K. W.; Reed, R.; Meskhidze, N.; Petters, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    The impact of anthropogenic aerosol on climate forcing remains uncertain largely due to inadequate representation of natural aerosols in climate models. The marine boundary layer (MBL) might serve as a model location to study natural aerosol processes. Yet source and sink mechanisms controlling the MBL aerosol number, size distribution, chemical composition, and hygroscopic properties remain poorly constrained. Here aerosol size distribution and water uptake measurements were made aboard the R/V Hi'ialakai from 27 June to 3 July 2016 in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Size distributions were predominantly bimodal with an average integrated number concentration of 197 ± 98 cm-3. Hygroscopic growth factors were measured using the tandem differential mobility analyzer technique for dry 48, 96, and 144 nm particles. Mode kappa values for these were 0.57 ± 0.12, 0.51 ± 0.09, and 0.52 ± 0.08, respectively. To better understand remote MBL aerosol sources, a new algorithm was developed which decomposes hygroscopicity distributions into three classes: carbon-containing particles, sulfate-like particles, and sodium-containing particles. Results from this algorithm showed low and steady sodium-containing particle concentrations while the sulfate-like and carbon-containing particle concentrations varied during the cruise. According to the classification scheme, carbon-containing particles contributed at least 3-7%, sulfate-like particles contributed at most 77-88% and sodium-containing particles at least contributed 9-16% to the total aerosol number concentration. Size distribution and hygroscopicity data, in conjunction with air mass back trajectory analysis, suggested that the aerosol budget in the subtropical North Pacific MBL may be controlled by aerosol entrainment from the free troposphere.

  6. Evaluating Aerosol Optical Properties in the NASA MERRA-2 Reanalysis Using NASA Lidar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowottnick, E. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Yorks, J. E.; Burton, S. P.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Since about 2000 NASA has produced a number of aerosol lidar data sets from ground-based (MPLNET), airborne (CPL, HSRL, DIAL), and space-based (CALIOP, CATS) platforms that complement passive ground-based and satellite observations during Earth Observing System (EOS) period by providing measurements of particulate backscatter, extinction, and depolarization ratio at various wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm). Here, we utilize these observations to evaluate simulated aerosol optical properties in the recent NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2, 1980 - Present). Aerosols in MERRA-2 are simulated using an online version of the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) model that simulates dust, sea-salt, sulfates, black carbon, and organic carbon. MERRA-2 assimilates both meteorology and bias-corrected column aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from spaceborne AVHRR, MODIS Aqua/Terra, and MISR sensors, as well as AERONET ground based sun photometers. While MERRA-2 is constrained in the total aerosol loading through assimilation of AOT, the aerosol vertical distribution and composition are sensitive to assumptions in the model physics, particle size distribution, and preconfigured lookup tables of aerosol optical properties. Aerosol lidar data sets provide a unique opportunity to refine the assumptions about aerosol optical properties assigned to the aerosol species simulated in MERRA-2. After identifying case studies within the NASA lidar record that characterize individual aerosol types (e.g. dust) simulated in MERRA-2, simulated aerosol backscatter, extinction, and depolarization properties for that type are compared to corresponding observed quantities to identify and correct biases in the assumed aerosol optical properties and particle size distributions used in MERRA-2.

  7. Martian upper atmospheric aerosol properties from Phobos eclipse observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, Mark T.

    2015-11-01

    Solar occultation photometry is a useful method for probing upper atmospheric aerosols, using a long atmospheric path for direct extinction measurements. During April-June 2015, the Mars Science Laboratory’s Mastcam was used for solar occultation photometry by proxy: 3 eclipse ingresses by Phobos into Mars’ shadow were observed, as were 3 egresses from the shadow. The observations occurred in late Southern summer, at LS 331-352°. The observations of the moon’s brightness sample the Martian atmosphere along the lines of site from the Sun to Phobos. The ingresses and egresses sampled longitudes up to 1000s of km west or east of the rover’s position, respectively; sampled latitudes from 30° S to 7° S over time; and sampled local sunset or sunrise, respectively. Each eclipse was imaged with both Mastcam cameras, M-100 with an RGB filter (638, 551, and 493 nm) and M-34 with an 867-nm filter. Light-curves for the eclipses were derived from the images and interpreted via a geometric model of the event, accounting for the full range of lines of sight through the atmosphere. The altitude of 50% extinction was found to vary within the 40-60 km range. Extinction varied with wavelength: four events showed significantly higher extinction in the blue, with a monotonic decrease with wavelength, interpreted as a result of 0.3-0.4 μm dust aerosols. Two events (one of each type) showed no significant wavelength variation of extinction, interpreted as a result of large (>1 μm) aerosols. One of these, probing local sunrise conditions, may suggest a thin layer of CO2 ice cloud. Future work may allow retrieval of vertical gradients in aerosol size near the mid-point of the sensitive region (i.e., altitudes near that of 50% transmission and/or path optical depth unity) and/or identification of discrete layers vs. well-mixed aerosols (for instance, clouds vs. dust)

  8. Weekly periodicities of aerosol properties observed at an urban location in India

    SciTech Connect

    Satheesh, S K; Vinoj, V; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Multi-year (~7 years) observations of aerosol optical and microphysical properties were conducted at a tropical urban location in Bangalore, India. As a consequence of rapid urbanization, Bangalore presents high local atmospheric emissions, which makes it an interesting site to study the effect of anthropogenic activities on aerosol properties. It has been found that both column (aerosol optical depth, AOD) and ground-level measurements (black carbon (BC) and composite aerosol mass) exhibit a weekly cycle with low aerosol concentrations on weekends. In comparison to the weekdays, the weekend reductions of aerosol optical depth, black carbon and composite aerosol mass concentrations were ~15%,more » 25% and 24%, respectively. The magnitude of weekend reduction of black carbon is as much as ~1 μg m -3. The similarity in the weekly cycle between the column and surface measurements suggests that the aerosol column loading at this location is governed by local anthropogenic emissions. The strongest weekly cycle in composite aerosol mass concentration was observed in the super micron mass range (>1 μm). The weekly cycle of composite aerosol mass in the sub micron mass range (<1 μm) was weak in comparison to the super micron aerosol mass.« less

  9. Characterization of Spectral Absorption Properties of Aerosols Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ahn, C.

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) is generally represented in terms of the Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE), a parameter that describes the dependence of AAOD with wavelength. The AAE parameter is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses high spectral resolution measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measured reflectance (rho lambda) is approximately given by Beer's law rho lambda = rho (sub 0 lambda) e (exp -mtau (sub abs lambda)) where rho(sub 0 lambda) is the cloud reflectance, m is the geometric slant path and tau (sub abs lambda) is the spectral AAOD. The rho (sub 0 lambda) term is determined by means of radiative transfer calculations using as input the cloud optical depth derived as described in Torres et al. [JAS, 2012] that accounts for the effects of aerosol absorption. In the second step, corrections for molecular and aerosol scattering effects are applied to the cloud reflectance term, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by inverting the equation above. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results will be presented. The technique can be easily applied to hyper-spectral satellite measurements that include UV such as OMI, GOME and SCIAMACHY, or to multi-spectral visible measurements by other sensors provided that the aerosol-above-cloud events are easily identified.

  10. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  11. Properties of arctic haze aerosol from lidar observations during iarea 2015 campaign on spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Ritter, Christoph; Böckmann, Christine; Engelmann, Ronny

    2018-04-01

    Arctic Haze event was observed on 5-8 April 2015 using simultaneously Near-range Aerosol Raman Lidar of IGFUW and Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar of AWI, both based at AWIPEV German-French station in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. The alterations in particle abundance and altitude of the aerosol load observed on following days of the event is analyzed. The daytime profiles of particle optical properties were obtained for both lidars, and then served as input for microphysical parameters inversion. The results indicate aerosol composition typical for the Arctic Haze. However, in some layers, a likely abundance of aqueous aerosol or black carbon originating in biomass burning over Siberia, changes measurably the Arctic Haze properties.

  12. Studying Aerosol Properties with Astronomical Observations Using a Scattered Moonlight Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Amy; Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Szyszka, Cezary; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We are developing a new technique for monitoring the atmosphere with astronomical observations and our scattered moonlight model. This could be used to determine the size distributions and amounts of various aerosol particles. By taking the Moon as an illuminating source in sky observations, it is possible to iteratively find aerosol properties for a given time and location. There is a wealth of astronomical data over the last decade taken at Cerro Paranal in Chile where this technique can be applied. Our advanced scattered moonlight model is part of a sky radiance and transmission model developed for the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The moon model can calculate the amount of scattered moonlight present in a given astronomical observation based on the positions of the Moon and target, lunar phase, and atmospheric properties. This model is more physical than previous works in astronomy, which were almost completely empirical. For the original astronomical purpose, the model uses typical size distributions of remote continental tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols and the measured extinction curve from standard star observations to calculate the scattering and absorption of the moonlight to determine the amount of light that would eventually arrive to the telescope. Because the model incorporates the properties of the aerosols, in principle we can use this model with sky background observations to find the aerosol composition. The sky observations would first need to be analysed with our full sky model to calculate the other sky background components, and a derived extinction curve from standard star observations. Then with our moon model we could iteratively find the best aerosol composition for the data. This would require optical and near infrared spectra for an unique, optimized solution. This technique for studying aerosol properties would provide data from a new perspective. The investigated aerosols would be nocturnal, from a

  13. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Wilcox, Eric M.; Bender, Frida A.-M.

    2017-04-01

    There are multiple factors which affect the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including the atmospheric vertical structure and dominant meteorological conditions in addition to aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. As bio- and fossil fuel combustion has increased in southeast Asia, corresponding increases in atmospheric aerosol pollution have been seen over the surrounding regions. These emissions notably include black carbon (BC) aerosols, which absorb rather than reflect solar radiation, affecting the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean through direct warming in addition to modifying cloud microphysical properties. The CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign was conducted during the winter monsoon season (February and March) of 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, a region dominated by trade cumulus clouds. During CARDEX, small unmanned aircraft were deployed, measuring aerosol, radiation, cloud, water vapor fluxes, and meteorological properties while a surface observatory collected continuous measurements of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV), water vapor fluxes, surface and total-column aerosol, and cloud liquid water path (LWP). We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV)

  14. On the observability of chemical and physical aerosol properties by optical observations: Inverse modelling with variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnert, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Determining size-resolved chemical composition of aerosols is important for modelling the aerosols' direct and indirect climate impact, for source-receptor modelling, and for understanding adverse health effects of particulate pollutants. Obtaining this kind of information from optical remote sensing observations is an ill-posed inverse problem. It can be solved by variational data assimilation in conjunction with an aerosol transport model. One important question is how much information about the particles' physical and chemical properties is contained in the observations. We perform a numerical experiment to test the observability of size-dependent aerosol composition by remote sensing observations. An aerosol transport model is employed to produce a reference and a perturbed aerosol field. The perturbed field is taken as a proxy for a background estimate subject to uncertainties. The reference result represents the `true' state of the system. Optical properties are computed from the reference results and are assimilated into the perturbed model. The assimilation results reveal that inverse modelling of optical observations significantly improves the background estimate. However, the optical observations alone do not contain sufficient information for producing a faithful retrieval of the size-resolved aerosol composition. The total mass mixing ratios, on the other hand, are retrieved with remarkable accuracy.

  15. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Wilcox, Eric M.; Bender, Frida A.-M.

    2016-04-01

    There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric vertical structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season.In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements were made of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and the liquid water path (LWP) of trade cumulus clouds, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol from instrumentation at a ground observatory and on small unmanned aircraft. We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV < 40 kg m-2), a criterion which acts to filter the data to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region.We then use the aircraft and ground-based measurements to explore possible mechanisms behind this observed aerosol-LWP correlation. The increase in cloud liquid water is found to coincide with a lowering of the cloud base, which is itself attributable to increased boundary layer humidity in polluted conditions. High pollution is found to correlate with both higher temperatures and higher humidity measured throughout the boundary layer. A large-scale analysis, using satellite observations and meteorological reanalysis, corroborates these covariations: high-pollution cases are shown to originate as a highly polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a northwesterly

  16. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, K.; Praveen, P. S.; Thomas, R. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Wilcox, E.; Bender, F. A.-M.

    2015-10-01

    There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood, as changes in atmospheric conditions due to aerosol may change the expected magnitude of indirect effects by altering cloud properties in unexpected ways. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season. In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements of atmospheric precipitable water vapor and the liquid water path (LWP) of trade cumulus clouds were made, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol. Here we present evidence of a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP which becomes clear after the data are filtered to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region. We then use the aircraft and ground observatory measurements to explore the mechanisms behind the observed aerosol-LWP correlation. We determine that increased boundary-layer humidity lowering the cloud base is responsible for the observed increase in cloud liquid water. Large-scale analysis indicates that high pollution cases originate with a highly-polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a northwesterly direction. This polluted mass exhibits higher temperatures and humidity than the clean case, the former of which may be attributable to heating due to aerosol absorption of solar radiation over the subcontinent. While high temperature conditions dispersed along with the high-aerosol

  17. Synergy of Satellite-Surface Observations for Studying the Properties of Absorbing Aerosols in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    Through interaction with clouds and alteration of the Earth's radiation budget, atmospheric aerosols significantly influence our weather and climate. Monsoon rainfalls, for example, sustain the livelihood of more than half of the world's population. Thus, understanding the mechanism that drives the water cycle and freshwater distribution is high-lighted as one of the major near-term goals in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Strategy. Every cloud droplet/ice-crystal that serves as an essential element in portraying water cycle and distributing freshwater contains atmospheric aerosols at its core. In addition, the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol properties is complex due to their dynamic nature. In fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities and regional/long-range transport of dust aerosols. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of absorbing aerosols on regional-to-global climate requires not only modeling efforts but also continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites the Earth Observing System - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, we have gradually developed and refined the SMART (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) and COMMIT (Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile observatories, a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement the satellite observations. In this talk, we will present SMART-COMMIT which has played key roles, serving as network or supersite

  18. Relationship between column aerosol optical properties and surface aerosol gravimetric concentrations during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network - Northeast ASIA 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, U.; Kim, J.; Seo, S.; Choi, M.; Kim, W. V.; Holben, B. N.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. This study aims to identify the important parameters that affecting the relationship between those variables during the DRAGON - northeast Asia 2012 campaign. Column aerosol optical properties from ten Cimel sun photometers at DRAGON sites in Seoul, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) and particulate matter (PM10) sampling from 40 NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research of South Korea) measurement sites in Seoul during the period of 1st March - 31th May 2012 were employed in this study. The key parameters in relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM are reported to be aerosol vertical profile and hygroscopicity of the aerosols. The meteorological conditions including relative humidity, surface temperature, and wind speed that could affect those parameters were investigated.

  19. Observation of optical properties and sources of aerosols at Buddha's birthplace, Lumbini, Nepal: environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kang, Shichang; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Cong, Zhiyuan; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Panday, Arnico K; Holben, Brent N

    2018-03-15

    For the first time, aerosol optical properties are measured over Lumbini, Nepal, with CIMEL sunphotometer of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program. Lumbini is a sacred place as the birthplace of Lord Buddha, and thus a UNESCO world heritage site, located near the northern edge of the central Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and before the Himalayan foothills (and Himalayas) to its north. Average aerosol optical depth (AOD) is found to be 0.64 ± 0.38 (0.06-3.28) over the sampling period (January 2013-December 2014), with the highest seasonal AOD during the post-monsoon season (0.72 ± 0.44). More than 80% of the daily averaged AOD values, during the monitoring period, are above 0.3, indicating polluted conditions in the region. The levels of aerosol load observed over Lumbini are comparable to those observed at several heavily polluted sites in the IGP. Based on the relationship between AOD and Ångstrom exponent (α), anthropogenic, biomass burning, and mixed aerosols are found to be the most prevalent aerosol types. The aerosol volume-size distribution is bi-modal during all four seasons with modes centered at 0.1-0.3 and 3-4 μm. For both fine and coarse modes, the highest volumetric concentration of ~ 0.08 μm -3  μm -2 is observed during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. As revealed by the single-scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter (AP), and refractive index (RI) analyses, aerosol loading over Lumbini is dominated by absorbing, urban-industrial, and biomass burning aerosols.

  20. Systematic Satellite Observations of the Impact of Aerosols from Passive Volcanic Degassing on Local Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebmeier, S.K.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Grainger, R. G.; Mather, T. A.; Carboni, E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of volcanic emissions, especially from passive degassing and minor explosions, is a source of uncertainty in estimations of aerosol indirect effects. Observations of the impact of volcanic aerosol on clouds contribute to our understanding of both present-day atmospheric properties and of the pre-industrial baseline necessary to assess aerosol radiative forcing. We present systematic measurements over several years at multiple active and inactive volcanic islands in regions of low present-day aerosol burden. The timeaveraged indirect aerosol effects within 200 kilometers downwind of island volcanoes are observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 2002-2013) and Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR, 2002- 2008) data. Retrievals of aerosol and cloud properties at Kilauea (Hawaii), Yasur (Vanuatu) and Piton de la Fournaise (la Reunion) are rotated about the volcanic vent to be parallel to wind direction, so that upwind and downwind retrievals can be compared. The emissions from all three volcanoes - including those from passive degassing, Strombolian activity and minor explosions - lead to measurably increased aerosol optical depth downwind of the active vent. Average cloud droplet effective radius is lower downwind of the volcano in all cases, with the peak difference ranging from 2 - 8 micrometers at the different volcanoes in different seasons. Estimations of the difference in Top of Atmosphere upward Short Wave flux upwind and downwind of the active volcanoes from NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) suggest a downwind elevation of between 10 and 45 Watts per square meter at distances of 150 - 400 kilometers from the volcano, with much greater local (less than 80 kilometers) effects. Comparison of these observations with cloud properties at isolated islands without degassing or erupting volcanoes suggests that these patterns are not purely orographic in origin. Our observations of unpolluted

  1. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    DOE PAGES

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; ...

    2016-04-27

    There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric vertical structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season.In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements were made of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV)more » and the liquid water path (LWP) of trade cumulus clouds, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol from instrumentation at a ground observatory and on small unmanned aircraft. We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV < 40 kg m –2), a criterion which acts to filter the data to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region.We then use the aircraft and ground-based measurements to explore possible mechanisms behind this observed aerosol–LWP correlation. The increase in cloud liquid water is found to coincide with a lowering of the cloud base, which is itself attributable to increased boundary layer humidity in polluted conditions. High pollution is found to correlate with both higher temperatures and higher humidity measured throughout the boundary layer. A large-scale analysis, using satellite observations and meteorological reanalysis, corroborates these covariations: high-pollution cases are shown to originate as a highly polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a

  2. Systematic Satellite Observations of the Impact of Aerosols from Passive Volcanic Degassing on Local Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebmeier, S. K.; Sayer, A. M.; Grainger, R. G.; Mather, T. A.; Carboni, E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of volcanic emissions is a significant source of uncertainty in estimations of aerosol indirect radiative forcing, especially with respect to emissions from passive de-gassing and minor explosions. Understanding the impact of volcanic emissions on indirect radiative forcing is important assessing present day atmospheric properties and also to define the pre-industrial baseline to assess anthropogenic perturbations. We present observations of the time-averaged indirect aerosol effect within 200 km downwind of isolated island volcanoes in regions of low present-day aerosol burden using MODIS and AATSR data. Retrievals of aerosol and cloud properties at Kilauea (Hawaii), Yasur (Vanuatu) and Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion) are rotated about the volcanic vent according to wind direction, so that retrievals downwind of the volcano can be averaged to improve signal to noise ratio. The emissions from all three volcanoes, including those from passive degassing, strombolian activity and minor explosions lead to measurably increased aerosol optical depth downwind of the active vent. Average cloud droplet effective radius is lower downwind of the volcano in all cases, with the peak difference in effective radius ranging from 48 microns at the different volcanoes. A comparison of these observations with cloud properties at isolated islands with no significant source of aerosol suggests that these patterns are not purely orographic in origin. This approach sets out a first step for the systematic measurement of the effects of present day low altitude volcanic emissions on cloud properties, and our observations of unpolluted, isolated marine settings may capture processes similar to those in the preindustrial marine atmosphere.

  3. Light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Lee, H.

    2011-12-01

    We compared light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia from black carbon (BC) mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements at four sites: Korea Climate Observatory-Gosan (KCO-G), Korea Climate Observatory-Anmyeon (KCO-A), Maldives Climate Observatory-Hanimaadhoo (MCO-H) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P). No significant seasonal variations of BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at MCO-H during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at KCO-G and KCO-A is higher than that in MCO-H due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at NCO-P is 0.14, which is two times great than that in MCO-H and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at NCO-P is the lowest among four sites. Consistently, the highest elemental carbon to sulfate ratio is found at NCO-P.

  4. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  5. Observations of Aerosol Optical Properties over 15 AERONET Sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. D.; Lagrosas, N.; Uy, S. N.; Holben, B. N.; Dorado, S.; Tobias, V., Jr.; Anh, N. X.; Po-Hsiung, L.; Janjai, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Liew, S. C.; Lim, H. S.; Lestari, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mean column-integrated optical properties from ground sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are studied to provide an overview of the characteristics of aerosols over the region as part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) mission. The 15 AERONET sites with the most available level 2 data products are selected from Thailand (Chiang Mai, Mukdahan, Songkhla and Silpakorn University), Malaysia (University Sains Malaysia), Laos (Vientiane), Vietnam (Bac Giang, Bac Lieu and Nha Trang), Taiwan (National Cheng Kung University and Central Weather Bureau Taipei), Singapore, Indonesia (Bandung) and the Philippines (Manila Observatory and Notre Dame of Marbel University). For all 15 sites, high angstrom exponent values (α>1) have been observed. Chiang Mai and USM have the highest mean Angstrom exponent indicating the dominance of fine particles that can be ascribed to biomass burning and urbanization. Sites with the lowest Angstrom exponent values include Bac Lieu (α=1.047) and Manila Observatory (α=1.021). From the average lognormal size distribution curves, Songkhla and NDMU show the smallest annual variation in the fine mode region, indicating the observed fine aerosols are local to the sites. The rest of the sites show high variation which could be due to large scale forcings (e.g., monsoons and biomass burnings) that affect aerosol properties in these sites. Both high and low single scattering albedo at 440 nm (ω0440) values are found in sites located in major urban areas. Silpakorn University, Manila Observatory and Vientiane have all mean ω0440 < 0.90. Singapore and CWB Taipei have ω0440 > 0.94. The discrepancy in ω0 suggests different types of major emission sources present in urban areas. The absorptivity of urban aerosols can vary depending on the strength of traffic emissions, types of fuel combusted and automobile engines used, and the effect of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season. High aerosol optical depth values (τa550

  6. Aircraft observations of the physical and radiative properties of biomass aerosol particles during SAFARI-2000.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, S. R.; Haywood, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    An initial analysis will be shown from the ~80 h of data collected between 2--18 September 2000 by the UK Met Office C-130 aircraft during the dry season campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000). The talk will concentrate on the physical and optical properties of the biomass aerosol. The evolution of the particle size spectrum and its optical properties at emission and after ageing will be shown. The vertical distribution of the biomass plume over the land and sea will be compared in view of the local meteorology. A generalised three log-normal model is shown to represent aged biomass aerosol over the sea areas, both in terms of the number and mass particle size spectra, but also derived optical properties (e.g. asymmetry factor, single scatter albedo (ω 0) and extinction coefficient) as calculated using Mie theory and appropriate refractive indices. ω 0 was determined independently using a particle soot absorption photometer (giving the absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 0.567 μ m) and a nephelometer (giving the scattering coefficients at 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65 μ m). Good agreement was found between the measurements and those obtained from the Mie calculations and observed size distributions. A typical value of ω 0 at 0.55 μ m for aged biomass aerosol was 0.90. The radiative properties of the biomass aerosol over both land and sea will be summarised. Stratocumulus cloud was present on some of the days over the sea and the surprising lack of interaction between the elevated biomass plume (containing significant levels of cloud condensation nuclei) and the cloud capping the marine boundary layer will be illustrated. Using the cloud-free and cloudy case studies we can begin to elucidate the levels of direct and indirect forcing of the biomass aerosol on a regional scale. >http://www.mrfnet.demon.co.uk/africa/SAFARI2000.htm

  7. Observations of aerosol optical properties at a coastal site in Hong Kong, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaping; Virkkula, Aki; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Nie, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zheng; Huang, Xin; Wang, Tao; Cui, Long; Ding, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Temporal variations in aerosol optical properties were investigated at a coastal station in Hong Kong based on the field observation from February 2012 to February 2015. At 550 nm, the average light-scattering (151 ± 100 Mm-1) and absorption coefficients (8.3 ± 6.1 Mm-1) were lower than most of other rural sites in eastern China, while the single-scattering albedo (SSA = 0.93 ± 0.05) was relatively higher compared with other rural sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Correlation analysis confirmed that the darkest aerosols were smaller in particle size and showed strong scattering wavelength dependencies, indicating possible sources from fresh emissions close to the measurement site. Particles with Dp of 200-800 nm were less in number, yet contributed the most to the light-scattering coefficients among submicron particles. In summer, both ΔBC / ΔCO and SO2 / BC peaked, indicating the impact of nearby combustion sources on this site. Multi-year backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) and potential source contribution (PSC) analysis revealed that these particles were mainly from the air masses that moved southward over Shenzhen and urban Hong Kong and the polluted marine air containing ship exhausts. These fresh emission sources led to low SSA during summer months. For winter and autumn months, contrarily, ΔBC / ΔCO and SO2 / BC were relatively low, showing that the site was more under influence of well-mixed air masses from long-range transport including from South China, East China coastal regions, and aged aerosol transported over the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan, causing stronger abilities of light extinction and larger variability of aerosol optical properties. Our results showed that ship emissions in the vicinity of Hong Kong could have visible impact on the light-scattering and absorption abilities as well as SSA at Hok Tsui.

  8. Long-term Observation of Aerosol Optical Properties at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yicheng; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Wang, Jiaping; Chi, Xuguang; Qi, Ximeng; Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Longfei; Xie, Yuning

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence the earth's radiation budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and contribute substantial uncertainty in the estimation of climate forcing. Thorough and comprehensive measurements on different parameters including absorption and scattering coefficient, wavelength dependence and angular dependence along with their daily and seasonal variation help to understand the influence of aerosol on radiation. 2-years continuous measurement of aerosol optical properties has been conducted from June 2013 to May 2015 at the Station for Observing Regional Process of Earth System (SORPES) station, which is a regional background station located in downwind direction of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) urban agglomeration in China. A 7-wavelenths aethalometer and a 3-wavelenths nephelometer were used to measure absorption and scattering coefficient, and also other parameters like single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption angstrom Exponent (AAE), scattering angstrom exponent (SAE) and back-scattering refraction. In addtion, simultaneous measurements on chemical composition and particle size distribution were performed so as to investigate the dependencies of aerosol optical properties on chemical composition and size distribution. To get further insight on the influencing factors, Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) was employed for source identification in this study. The averages of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and SSA are 26.0±18.7 Mm-1, 426±327 Mm-1 , 0.936±0.3 at 520nm respectively for whole period. SAE between 450 and 635nm is 1.299±0.34 and have strong negative correlation with particle Surface Mean Diameter (SMD). AAE between 370 and 950nm is 1.043±0.15 for whole period but growth to more than 1.6 in all identified Biomass Burning (BB) events.

  9. Evaluation of simulated aerosol properties with the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM using observations from the IMPACT field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, G.-J.; ten Brink, H.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; de Leeuw, G.; Mensah, A.; Minikin, A.; Otjes, R.

    2010-08-01

    In May 2008, the measurement campaign IMPACT for observation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud properties was conducted in Cabauw, The Netherlands. With a nudged version of the coupled aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we simulate the size distribution and chemical composition of the aerosol and the associated aerosol optical thickness (AOT) for the campaign period. Synoptic scale meteorology is represented realistically through nudging of the vorticity, the divergence, the temperature and the surface pressure. Simulated concentrations of aerosol sulfate and organics at the surface are generally within a factor of two from observed values. The monthly averaged AOT from the model is 0.33, about 20% larger than observed. For selected periods of the month with relatively dry and moist conditions discrepancies are approximately -30% and +15%, respectively. Discrepancies during the dry period are partly caused by inaccurate representation of boundary layer (BL) dynamics by the model affecting the simulated AOT. The model simulates too strong exchange between the BL and the free troposphere, resulting in weaker concentration gradients at the BL top than observed for aerosol and humidity, while upward mixing from the surface layers into the BL appears to be underestimated. The results indicate that beside aerosol sulfate and organics also aerosol ammonium and nitrate significantly contribute to aerosol water uptake. The simulated day-to-day variability of AOT follows synoptic scale advection of humidity rather than particle concentration. Even for relatively dry conditions AOT appears to be strongly influenced by the diurnal cycle of RH in the lower boundary layer, further enhanced by uptake and release of nitric acid and ammonia by aerosol water.

  10. Characteristics of aerosol light scattering and absorption properties observed at Gosan, Korea, during GOPOEX 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C.; Kim, S. W.; Sheridan, P. J.; Gustafsson, O.; Lee, M.; Yoon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic fine pollution and wind-blown mineral dust aerosols have a significant effect on the regional radiation budget by scattering or absorbing the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. We investigate the optical and physical properties of dust and pollution aerosols at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Korea during Gosan Pollution Experiment 2014 (GOPOEX 2014; January 2014).Mean values of aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient during GOPOEX 2014 were 72 ± 86 Mm-1 and 6 ± 5 Mm-1 at 550 nm, respectively. Aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient during dust episodes were 245 ± 171 Mm-1 and 22 ± 13 Mm-1 at 550 nm, which were approximately 3.5 times greater than mean values during GOPOEX 2014. Values for scattering and absorption coefficient of pollution episodes were recorded as 153 ± 95 Mm-1 and 12 ± 7 Mm-1 at 550 nm. Therefore, single scattering albedo of pollution episodes (0.92 ± 0.02) was slightly higher than those of dust episodes (0.90 ± 0.03). This is because that pollutant aerosols include more scattering fraction such as SO42-, and NO3- in fine particulate matter emitted from industrial areas in the eastern coastal region of China while dust aerosols are transported from North China to Gosan.Aerosol optical properties are influenced by where the air mass is transported from, either South China or North China. The mean values of aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient when air mass was transported from South China were 136 ± 132 Mm-1 and 15 ± 14 Mm-1 at 550 nm whereas those from North China were 108 ± 112 Mm-1 and 8 ± 7 Mm-1 at 550 nm. Single scattering albedo are almost identical as 0.9 ± 0.03 for both air masses.Carbonaceous composition of aerosols, which occupy a considerable fraction of fine particulate matter, also depends on the origin of the air mass. Radiocarbon (14C) is a good indicator for distinguishing between fossil combustion and biomass combustion. Detailed source

  11. Variation of aerosol optical properties from AERONET observation at Mt. Muztagh Ata, Eastern Pamirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ni; Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhang, Chenglong; Xu, Tianli; Lazhu

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the ground-based remote sensing Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), and volume size distribution were investigated for the period June to December 2011 at Mt. Muztagh Ata (Muztagata), Eastern Pamirs. The monthly average values of AOD (500 nm) and α (440-870 nm) varied from 0.08 ± 0.02 to 0.16 ± 0.11, and from 0.56 ± 0.06 to 0.93 ± 0.28, respectively. The daily AOD averages 0.14 ± 0.07, with the maximum (0.5) occurring in August and the minimum (0.05) occurring in November. A small increase in AOD is expected with a noticeable decrease in the α value. The daily α averages 0.70 ± 0.27, and most exponents are less than 1, indicating the majority of larger aerosol particles. The volume size distribution of aerosol particles shows bimodal log-normal characteristics, with a fine mode radius of 0.2 μm and a coarse mode radius of 3 μm. The MODIS AOD and AERONET AOD display a similar variation, while the former is always noticeably higher than the latter with a difference of 0.1-0.4, indicating that the MODIS data might overestimate the aerosol load. Our results indicate that high aerosol volume concentration occurs in summer with the dominance of coarse particles over Muztagh Ata. The low AOD shows a clean atmosphere in this region, revealing that it is an atmospheric background site for continental aerosol monitoring.

  12. Factors Influencing Aerosol Concentrations and Properties over the Tropical Eastern Pacific: Observations from TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Chen, G.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Dibb, J.; Scheuer, E.; Lathem, T.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA Tropical Composition Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) mission was conducted during summer 2007 and had the primary objective of gaining a better understanding of composition and dynamics of the upper troposphere over the tropical eastern pacific region. Based in San Jose, Costa Rica, the mission employed instrumented aircraft along with ground, balloon, and satellite borne sensors to determine the spatial distribution of trace gas and aerosol species as well as moisture and clouds between the surface and roughly 16 km altitude over Central America, the eastern Pacific, the western Caribbean and northern South America. Because of its heavy payload and long endurance capability, the NASA DC-8 aircraft was the primary sampling platform for the lower-tropospheric altitude regime (i.e., below 12 km). It carried both remote and in situ instruments and was used to characterize cloud inflow and outflow as well as the microphysical properties of maritime convective systems. Because of their roles in regulating atmospheric radiation transfer and cloud formation and microphysics, flight plans placed particular emphasis on determining the sources and properties of the aerosol particles present within the region. A preliminary analysis of the DC-8 data set suggests that the following sources/processes had the greatest impact on aerosol number and mass loading: dust transport from Africa; sea salt production over the ocean; urban and biogenic emissions over the continent; secondary aerosol formation in volcanic plumes; nucleation in cloud outflow; and cloud scavenging. In this presentation, we will examine the microphysical, optical and hydration properties of each aerosol type and assess the overall impact of the source/sink processes to the regional aerosol budget. We will also contrast the microphysical properties of the Saharan Dust sampled over the Caribbean with those measured in fresh dust layers over the eastern Atlantic from the DC-8 during the summer 2006

  13. Martian aerosols: Near-infrared spectral properties and effects on the observation of the surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erard, Stephane; Mustard, John; Murchie, Scott; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Cerroni, Priscilla; Caradini, Angioletta

    1994-01-01

    Imaging sprectroscopic measurements (ISM) of Mars acquired by the ISM instrument on Phobos-2 are used to investigate the NIR spectral properties of aerosols and the effects of atmospheric scattering on inferred mineralogy of the surface. Estimates of aerosols spectra between 0.77 and 2.6 micrometers are derived above Tharsis and Ophir Planum. The spectral continua are consistent with the particle size distribution derived using data from the solar occultation experiment on-board the spacecraft (effective radius approximately = 1.2 micrometers, with an effective variance approximately = 0.2). The aerosols spectra contain water-ice absorption features and possibly absorptions due to clay and/or sulfates. The largest effect of the aerosols on surface spectra is in dark regions, where the continuum spectral slope becomes more negative and the 1-micrometers absorption due to Fe in pyroxene is shifted toward longer wavelengths. The effects of aerosols on spectra of bright regions are insufficiently large to change mineralogic interpretations based on ISM data, i.e., that bright regions in Tharsis are dominated spectrally by hematite, but that additional ferric minerals are probably present in other areas including Arabia.

  14. Aerosol characterization and radiative properties over Kavaratti, a remote island in southern Arabian Sea from the period of observations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Piyushkumar N; Dumka, U C; Babu, K N; Mathur, A K

    2017-12-01

    Long-term measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) using sun/sky radiometer for a period of five years (2009-2014) from the remote island location at Kavaratti (KVT; 10.56°N, 72.64°E) in the southern Arabian sea have been analysed. Climatologically, AODs decrease from October to reach maximum of ~0.6 (at 500nm) in March, followed by a sudden fall towards May. Significant modulations of intra-seasonal timescales over this general pattern are noticed due to the changes in the relative strength of distinctively different sources. The corresponding changes in aerosol inversion parameters reveal the presence of coarse-mode aerosols during spring and fine-mode absorbing aerosols in autumn and winter months. An overall dominance of a mixed type of aerosols (~41%) with maximum in winter (~53%) was found via the AOD 500 vs. Ångström exponent (α 440-870 ) relationship, while biomass-burning aerosols or thick urban/industrial plumes contribute to ~19%. Spectral dependence of Ångström exponent and aerosol absorbing properties were used to identify the aerosol types and its modification processes. Based on air mass back trajectory analysis, we revealed that the advection of aerosols from Indian subcontinent and western regions plays a major role in modifying the optical properties of aerosols over the observational site. The shortwave aerosol direct radiative forcing estimated via SBDART model ranges from -11.00Wm -2 to -7.38Wm -2 , -21.51Wm -2 to -14.33Wm -2 and 3.17Wm -2 and 10.0Wm -2 at top of atmosphere, surface and within the atmosphere, respectively. This atmospheric forcing translates into heating rate of 0.62-1.04Kday -1 . Furthermore, the vertical profiles of aerosols and heating rate exhibit significant increase in lower (during winter and autumn) and mid troposphere (during spring). This may cause serious climate implications over Kavaratti with further consequences on cloud microphysics and monsoon rainfall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Optimal estimation retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from SAGE~II satellite observations in the volcanically unperturbed lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, D.; Grainger, R. G.; McDonald, A. J.; Deshler, T.

    2010-05-01

    Stratospheric aerosol particles under non-volcanic conditions are typically smaller than 0.1 μm. Due to fundamental limitations of the scattering theory in the Rayleigh limit, these tiny particles are hard to measure by satellite instruments. As a consequence, current estimates of global aerosol properties retrieved from spectral aerosol extinction measurements tend to be strongly biased. Aerosol surface area densities, for instance, are observed to be about 40% smaller than those derived from correlative in situ measurements (Deshler et al., 2003). An accurate knowledge of the global distribution of aerosol properties is, however, essential to better understand and quantify the role they play in atmospheric chemistry, dynamics, radiation and climate. To address this need a new retrieval algorithm was developed, which employs a nonlinear Optimal Estimation (OE) method to iteratively solve for the monomodal size distribution parameters which are statistically most consistent with both the satellite-measured multi-wavelength aerosol extinction data and a priori information. By thus combining spectral extinction measurements (at visible to near infrared wavelengths) with prior knowledge of aerosol properties at background level, even the smallest particles are taken into account which are practically invisible to optical remote sensing instruments. The performance of the OE retrieval algorithm was assessed based on synthetic spectral extinction data generated from both monomodal and small-mode-dominant bimodal sulphuric acid aerosol size distributions. For monomodal background aerosol, the new algorithm was shown to fairly accurately retrieve the particle sizes and associated integrated properties (surface area and volume densities), even in the presence of large extinction uncertainty. The associated retrieved uncertainties are a good estimate of the true errors. In the case of bimodal background aerosol, where the retrieved (monomodal) size distributions naturally

  16. Photometry and polarimetry of Titan - Pioneer 11 observations and their implications for aerosol properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomasko, M. G.; Smith, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Pioneer 11 measurements of Titan's limb darkening and polarization at red and blue wavelengths are refined, and the integrated disk brightness measurements at phase angles from 22 to 96 deg, over which Titan's phase coefficient averages about 0.014 magnitudes/deg in both colors, are reduced. Comparisons of the data with vertically homogeneous multiple scattering models indicate that the single-scattering phase functions of the aerosols in both colors are flat at scattering angles between 80 and 150 deg, with a small peak at larger scattering angles. Although a vertically homogeneous model in which particles are assumed to scatter as spheres cannot simultaneously match the polarization observations of both colors for any refractive index, observed polarizations are most sensitive to the particle properties near optical depth 1/2 in each color. Models based on single scattering by spheres can therefore be successful over a range of refractive indices, if the size of the particles increases with depth and if the cross section of the particles increases sufficiently rapidly with decreasing wavelength.

  17. A Compact Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Observations of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John W.; Cook, Anthony L.

    2002-01-01

    We are in the process of developing a nadir-viewing, aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) at NASA Langley Research Center. The system is designed to measure backscatter and extinction of aerosols and tenuous clouds. The primary uses of the instrument will be to validate spaceborne aerosol and cloud observations, carry out regional process studies, and assess the predictions of chemical transport models. In this paper, we provide an overview of the instrument design and present the results of simulations showing the instrument's capability to accurately measure extinction and extinction-to-backscatter ratio.

  18. Aerosol Chemical and Physical Properties Observed over Puerto Rico in the Tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusino-Atresino, R.; Xia, L.; Song, F.; Gao, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Tropospheric aerosols that originate in Africa and are transported over the Atlantic Ocean have potential impacts over the Caribbean region. To investigate aerosol properties over this region, air sampling was conducted at San Juan Cape (18.46°N, 66.12°W), Puerto Rico during the summer months in 2006. Aerosol samples were collected by both commercial PM2.5 sampler and in-house fabricated TSP sampler. Analyses of aerosols were made through the use of the following instrumental methods: (1)Ion Chromatography for the determinations of water-soluble cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and anions (fluoride, acetate, propionate, methanesulfonate, chloride, nitrate, succinate, malonate, sulfate and oxalate); (2)Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for the concentrations of selected trace elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cd, Pb, Sb, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn and V); (3)Scanning Electron Microscopy for individual aerosol particle characterization. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated to determine the strength of crustal source. Preliminary results indicate that sodium (22 - 99 μg m- 3) and ammonium (1.1 - 50 μg m-3) were the major cations and chloride (1.5 - 99 μg m-3) and sulfate (35 μg m-3) were the dominant anions. Malonate (3.8 - 6.9 μg m- 3) was the most abundant organic anion. Atmospheric concentrations of iron ranged 0.30 - 3.3 ng m- 3. The elements, Sc, Cd, Pb, Sb, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn and V, were enriched by factors of 600 to 40,000 relative to their natural abundance in crustal soil. Principal components analysis indicates six assemblages of fifteen types of aerosol particles, dominated by Si - rich particles.

  19. Chemical and Physical Properties of Bulk Aerosols within Four Sectors Observed during TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Fuelberg, E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Kiley, C. M.; Russo, R.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical aerosol data collected on the DC-8 during TRACE-P were grouped into four sectors based on back trajectories. The four sectors represent long-range transport from the west (WSW), regional circulation over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (SE Asia), polluted transport from Northern Asia with substantial sea salt at low altitudes (NNW) and a substantial amount of dust (Channel). WSW has generally low mixing ratios at both middle and high altitudes, with the bulk of the aerosol mass due to non-sea-salt water-soluble inorganic species. Low altitude SE Asia also has low mean mixing ratios in general, with the majority of the aerosol mass comprised of non-sea-salts, however, soot is also relatively important m this region. "w had the highest mean sea salt mixing ratios, with the aerosol mass at low altitudes (a km) evenly divided between sea salts, mm-sea-salts, and dust. The highest mean mixing ratios of water-soluble ions and soot were observed at the lowest altitudes (a km) in the Channel sector. The bulk of the aerosol mass exported from Asia emanates h m Channel at both low and midaltitudes, due to the prevalence of dust compared to other sectors. Number densities show enhanced fine particles for Channel and NNW, while their volume distributions are enhanced due to sea salt and dust Low-altitude Channel exhibits the highest condensation nuclei ((34) number densities along with enhanced scattering coefficients, compared to the other sectors. At midaltitudes (2-7 km), low mean CN number densities coupled with a high proportion of nonvolatile particles (265%) observed in polluted sectors (Channel and NNW) are attributed to wet scavenging which removes hygroscopic CN particles. Low single scatter albedo m SE Asia reflects enhanced soot

  20. An assessment of aerosol optical properties from remote-sensing observations and regional chemistry-climate coupled models over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios-Peña, Laura; Baró, Rocío; Baklanov, Alexander; Balzarini, Alessandra; Brunner, Dominik; Forkel, Renate; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; María López-Romero, José; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Pérez, Juan Luis; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Schröder, Wolfram; Werhahn, Johannes; Wolke, Ralf; Žabkar, Rahela; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols modify the radiative budget of the Earth due to their optical, microphysical and chemical properties, and are considered one of the most uncertain climate forcing agents. In order to characterise the uncertainties associated with satellite and modelling approaches to represent aerosol optical properties, mainly aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE), their representation by different remote-sensing sensors and regional online coupled chemistry-climate models over Europe are evaluated. This work also characterises whether the inclusion of aerosol-radiation (ARI) or/and aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) help improve the skills of modelling outputs.Two case studies were selected within the EuMetChem COST Action ES1004 framework when important aerosol episodes in 2010 all over Europe took place: a Russian wildfire episode and a Saharan desert dust outbreak that covered most of the Mediterranean Sea. The model data came from different regional air-quality-climate simulations performed by working group 2 of EuMetChem, which differed according to whether ARI or ACI was included or not. The remote-sensing data came from three different sensors: MODIS, OMI and SeaWIFS. The evaluation used classical statistical metrics to first compare satellite data versus the ground-based instrument network (AERONET) and then to evaluate model versus the observational data (both satellite and ground-based data).Regarding the uncertainty in the satellite representation of AOD, MODIS presented the best agreement with the AERONET observations compared to other satellite AOD observations. The differences found between remote-sensing sensors highlighted the uncertainty in the observations, which have to be taken into account when evaluating models. When modelling results were considered, a common trend for underestimating high AOD levels was observed. For the AE, models tended to underestimate its variability, except when considering a sectional approach in

  1. Variability of aerosol properties over Eastern Europe observed from ground and satellites in the period from 2003 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovchaliuk, A.; Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Goloub, P.; Dubovik, O.; Holdak, A.; Ducos, F.; Sosonkin, M.

    2013-01-01

    deviations are explained by the spatial inhomogeneity of the surface polarization that has stronger effect on aerosol retrieval for clear atmospheric conditions with low aerosol loading when surface impact on satellite observations is more pronounced. In addition, the preliminary analysis of the detailed aerosol properties derived by new generation PARASOL algorithm was accomplished. The AOT and single scattering albedo retrieved by the algorithm over Kyiv were compared with the closest AERONET retrievals within two hour of satellite overpass time and the stable atmospheric conditions.

  2. Absorption Properties of Mediterranean Aerosols Obtained from Multi-year Ground-based and Satellite Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallet, M.; Dubovik, O.; Nabat, P.; Dulac, F.; Kahn, R.; Sciare, J.; Paronis, D.; Leon, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol absorption properties are of high importance to assess aerosol impact on regional climate. This study presents an analysis of aerosol absorption products obtained over the Mediterranean Basin or land stations in the region from multi-year ground-based AERONET and satellite observations with a focus on the Absorbing Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and their spectral dependence. The AAOD and Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) data set is composed of daily averaged AERONET level 2 data from a total of 22 Mediterranean stations having long time series, mainly under the influence of urban-industrial aerosols and/or soil dust. This data set covers the 17 yr period 1996-2012 with most data being from 2003-2011 (approximately 89 percent of level-2 AAOD data). Since AERONET level-2 absorption products require a high aerosol load (AOD at 440 nm greater than 0.4), which is most often related to the presence of desert dust, we also consider level-1.5 SSA data, despite their higher uncertainty, and filter out data with an Angstrom exponent less than 1.0 in order to study absorption by carbonaceous aerosols. The SSA data set includes both AERONET level-2 and satellite level-3 products. Satellite-derived SSA data considered are monthly level 3 products mapped at the regional scale for the spring and summer seasons that exhibit the largest aerosol loads. The satellite SSA dataset includes the following products: (i) Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) over 2000-2011, (ii) Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-UV algorithm over 2004-2010, and (iii) MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep-Blue algorithm over 2005-2011, derived only over land in dusty conditions. Sun-photometer observations show that values of AAOD at 440 nm vary between 0.024 +/- 0.01 (resp. 0.040 +/- 0.01) and 0.050 +/- 0.01 (0.055 +/- 0.01) for urban (dusty) sites. Analysis shows that the Mediterranean urban-industrial aerosols appear "moderately

  3. Influence of biogenic pollen on optical properties of atmospheric aerosols observed by lidar over Gwangju, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Young Min; Müller, Detlef; Lee, Hanlim; Choi, Tae Jin

    2013-04-01

    For the first time, optical properties of biogenic pollen, i.e., backscatter coefficients and depolarization ratios at 532 nm were retrieved by lidar observations. The extinction coefficient was derived with the assumption of possible values of the extinction-to-backscatter (lidar) ratio. We investigate the effect of the pollen on the optical properties of the observed atmospheric aerosols by comparing lidar and sun/sky radiometer measurements carried out at the lidar site. The observations were made with a depolarization lidar at the Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) in Gwangju, Korea (35.13°N, 126.50°E) during an intensive observational period that lasted from 5 to 7 May 2009. The pollen concentration was measured with a Burkard trap sampler at the roof top of the Gwangju Bohoon hospital which is located 1 km away from the lidar site. During the observation period, high pollen concentrations of 1360, 2696, and 1952 m-3 day-1 were measured on 5, 6, and 7 May, respectively. A high lidar depolarization ratio caused by biogenic pollen was only detected during daytime within the planetary boundary layer which was at 1.5-2.0 km height above ground during the observational period. The contribution of biogenic pollen to the total backscatter coefficient was estimated from the particle depolarization ratio. Average hourly values of pollen optical depth were retrieved by integrating the pollen extinction coefficients. We find average values of 0.062 ± 0.037, 0.041 ± 0.028 and 0.067 ± 0.036 at 532 nm on 5, 6, and 7 May, respectively. The contribution of pollen optical depth to total aerosol optical depth was 2-34%. The sun/sky radiometer data show that biogenic pollen can affect optical properties of atmospheric aerosol by increasing aerosol optical depth and decreasing the Ångström exponent during daytime during the season of high pollen emission.

  4. Physical properties of aerosols in Titan's atmosphere as deduced from visible observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rages, K.; Pollack, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the absolute value of Titan's albedo and its variation with increasing phase angle has yielded constraints on the optical properties and average particle size of the aerosols responsible for the scattering of visible light. The real index of refraction of the scattering material lies within the range 1.5 approximately less than nr approximately less than 2.0 and the average particle size is somewhere between 0.2 micrometer and 0.4 micrometer. The amount of limb darkening produced by these models leads to an occultation radius of approximately 2700 km.

  5. Application of aerosol optical properties to estimate aerosol type from ground-based remote sensing observation at urban area of northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Wu, Yunfei; Xia, Xiangao; Zhu, Jun; Dubovik, Oleg; Estelles, Victor; Ma, Yanjun; Wang, Yangfeng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye; Shi, Guangyu

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol optical properties were derived from ground-based sunphotometer observations between 2009-2013 at three urban sites of Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun in northeastern China. The annual means for extinction aerosol optical depths (EAOD) at 500 nm were 0.57±0.38, 0.52±0.35, and 0.41±0.31 at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun, respectively. The corresponding annual means for the extinction Angstrom exponents (EAE) computed for the wavelengths of 440 and 870 nm were 0.86±0.32, 0.86±0.34 and 0.91±0.35, respectively, indicating that urban area of Northeast China were affected by both coarse and fine particles. Hygroscopic growth in summer and incursions of dust aerosols in spring were evidently revealed from the analysis of the relationship between EAE and δEAE (the EAE difference, δEAE=EAE(440,670)-EAE(670,870)). The annual mean absorption aerosol optical depths (AAOD440 nm) values at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun were 0.15±0.11, 0.10±0.07, 0.08±0.04, respectively. The annual mean absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE440-870 nm) values were 0.86±0.24, 1.19±0.39, 1.33±0.36 at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun, respectively. When the AAEs were close to unity at Anshan, the absorption aerosol particles evidently consisted of black carbon from coal combustion and motor vehicles. Larger AAEs at Fushun were indicative of absorbing aerosols mainly from biomass burning and mineral dust. The AAE at Shenyang was<1 which may be consistent with black carbon particles with absorbing or non-absorbing coatings. Analysis of the relationship between the AAEs and extinction Angstrom exponents showed that the aerosol populations at these three sites could be classified as "mixed-small particles" including anthropogenic particles and secondary organic aerosol with highly variable sphericity fractions.

  6. Global Aerosol Observations

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... volcanoes, breaking ocean waves, and urban and industrial pollution sources. MISR retrieves aerosol amount with high accuracy at ... May, very thick aerosols extend northwards across the deserts of Mali, Niger and Chad, while in southern Africa, this is the least ...

  7. Observation and analysis of aerosol optical properties and aerosol growth in two New Year celebrations in Manila Observatory (14.64N, 127.07E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrosas, N.; Bautista, D. L. B.; Miranda, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties and growth were measured during 2014 and 2016 New Year celebrations at Manila Observatory, Philippines. Measurements were done using a USB2000 spectrometer from 22:00 of 31 December 2013 to 03:00 of 01 January 2014 and from 18:00 of 31 December 2015 to 05:30 01 January 2016. A xenon lamp was used as a light source 150m from the spectrometer. Fireworks and firecrackers were the main sources of aerosols during these festivities. Data were collected every 60s and 10s for 2014 and 2016 respectively. The aerosol volume size distribution was derived using the parametric inversion method proposed by Kaijser (1983). The method is performed by selecting 8 wavelengths from 387.30nm to 600.00nm. The reference intensities were obtained when firework activities were considerably low and the air was assumed to be relatively clean. Using Mie theory and assuming that the volume size distribution is a linear combination of 33 bimodal lognormal distribution functions with geometric mean radii between 0.003um and 1.2um, a least-square minimization process was implemented between measured optical depths and computed optical depths. The 2016 New Year distribution showed mostly a unimodal size distribution (mean radius = 0.3um) from 23:00 to 05:30 (Fig. 1a). The mean Angstrom coefficient value during the same time interval was approximately 0.75. This could be attributed to a constant RH (100%) during this time interval. A bimodal distribution was observed when RH value was 94% from 18:30 to 21:30. The transition to a unimodal distribution was observed at 21:00 when the RH value changes from 94% to 100%. In contrast to the 2016 New Year celebration, the 2014 size distribution was bimodal from 23:30 to 02:30 (Fig 1b). The bimodal distribution is the result of firework activities before New Year. Aerosol growth was evident when the size distribution became unimodal after 02:30 (mean radius = 1.1um). The mean Angstrom coefficient, when the size distribution is

  8. Variability of aerosol properties over Eastern Europe observed from ground and satellites in the period from 2003 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovchaliuk, A.; Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Goloub, P.; Dubovik, O.; Holdak, A.; Ducos, F.; Sosonkin, M.

    2013-07-01

    explained by the spatial inhomogeneity of the surface polarization that has a stronger effect on aerosol retrieval for clear atmospheric conditions with low aerosol loading when surface impact on satellite observations is more pronounced. In addition, the preliminary analysis of the detailed aerosol properties derived by a new generation PARASOL algorithm was evaluated. The comparison of AOT and single scattering albedo retrieved from the POLDER/PARASOL observations over Kyiv with the closest AERONET retrievals within 30 min of satellite overpass time and with a cloudless day shows acceptable agreement of the aerosol dynamics. The correspondence of those data is observed even for extreme AOT440 value 1.14, which was caused by the forest and peat fires in August 2010.

  9. Combining external and internal mixing representation of atmospheric aerosol for optical properties calculations: focus on absorption properties over Europe and North America using AERONET observations and AQMEII simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curci, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    the coating formation). We compare sunphotometer observations from the AERosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) across Europe and North America for the year 2010 with simulations from the Air Quality Modeling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII, http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The calculation of optical properties from simulated aerosol profiles is carried out using a single post-processing tool (FlexAOD, http://pumpkin.aquila.infn.it/flexaod/) that allows explicit and flexible assignment of the underlying assumptions mentioned above. We found that the combination of externally and internally mixed particles weighted through the F_in fraction gives the best agreement between models and observations, in particular regarding the single-scattering albedo.

  10. CCN and aerosol properties at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica, combined with cloud and precipitation observations and air mass origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Alexander; Delcloo, Andy; De Backer, Hugo; Laffineur, Quentin; Herenz, Paul; Wex, Heike; Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Since 2010, several complementary ground-based instruments for measuring the aerosol composition of the Antarctic atmosphere have been operated at the Belgian Antarctic research station Princess Elisabeth, in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (71.95° S, 23.35° E, 1390 m asl.). In addition, several ground-based remote sensing instruments for cloud and precipitation observations have been installed for continuous operation, including a ceilometer (cloud base height, type, vertical extent) and a 24 Ghz micro-rain radar (vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity). The station is inhabited from November through end of February and is operated under remote control during the other months. Knowledge on atmospheric aerosols is essential because they affect not only the Earth's radiation budget, but also cloud properties by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Via cloud formation, aerosols are therefore important also for precipitation, which is the only source of mass gain to the Antarctic ice sheet. In this contribution, results of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements will be shown with a focus on their properties around events with precipitation, drifting snow and changing cloud conditions. Also, the influence of air mass origin will be analysed. The aerosol total number concentration N-total showed a clear seasonal cycle with some hundreds of particles/cm3 during austral summer and some tens of particles/cm3 during winter. Mostly in summer, N-total increased to some thousands of particles/cm3 during short periods (hours to one day). Simultaneous measurements of N-total, size distribution (measured in 99 log- channels between 90 and 7000 nm) and CCN number (N-ccn) revealed that then mostly the number of particles smaller than 90 nm increased, indicating new particle formation events. New particle formation events indicated that aerosols were not only transported to Antarctica but could also be produced there

  11. ISAMS observations of stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Alyn; Remedios, John J.; Dudhia, Anu; Corney, Marie; Kerridge, Brian J.; Rodgers, Clive D.; Taylor, Fredric W.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric (ISAMS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) incorporates a 12.1 micron window channel for the measurement of aerosol opacity. The retrieval scheme is discussed briefly and preliminary observations of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol cloud are presented and compared with SAGE 2 observations at 1.02 microns. The effect of aerosol on other ISAMS channels and its spectral dependence is discussed.

  12. A Long-term Record of Saharan Dust Aerosol Properties from TOMS Observations: Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between the strong Rayleigh scattering in the near UV spectral region (330-380 nm) and the processes of aerosol absorption and scattering, produce a clear spectral signal in the upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere. This interaction is the basis of the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol retrieval technique that can be used for their characterization and to differentiate non-absorbing sulfates from strongly UV-absorbing aerosols such as mineral dust. For absorbing aerosols, the characterization is in terms of the optical depth and single scattering albedo with assumptions about the aerosol plume height. The results for non-absorbing aerosols are not dependent on plume height. Although iron compounds represent only between 5% to 8% of desert dust aerosol mass, hematite (Fe2O3) accounts for most of the near UV absorption. Because of the large ultraviolet absorption characteristic of hematite, the near UV method of aerosol sensing is especially suited for the detection and characterization of desert dust aerosols. Using the combined record of near UV measurements by the Nimbus7 (1978-1992) and Earth Probe (1996-present) TOMS instruments, a global longterm climatology of near UV optical depth and single scattering albedo has been produced. The multi-year long record of mineral aerosol properties over the area of influence of the Saharan desert, will be discussed.

  13. Dust aerosol properties and radiative forcing observed in spring during 2001-2014 over urban Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingna; Lü, Rui; Kumar, K Raghavendra; Ma, Jia; Zhang, Qiuju; Jiang, Yilun; Kang, Na; Yang, Suying; Wang, Jing; Li, Mei

    2016-08-01

    The ground-based characteristics (optical and radiative properties) of dust aerosols measured during the springtime between 2001 and 2014 were investigated over urban Beijing, China. The seasonal averaged aerosol optical depth (AOD) during spring of 2001-2014 was about 0.78 at 440 nm. During dust days, higher AOD occurred associated with lower Ångström exponent (AE). The mean AE440-870 in the springtime was about 1.0, indicating dominance of fine particles over the region. The back-trajectory analysis revealed that the dust was transported from the deserts of Inner Mongolia and Mongolia arid regions to Beijing. The aerosol volume size distribution showed a bimodal distribution pattern, with its highest peak observed in coarse mode for all episodes (especially for dust days with increased volume concentration). The single scattering albedo (SSA) increased with wavelength on dust days, indicating the presence of more scattering particles. Furthermore, the complex parts (real and imaginary) of refractive index showed distinct characteristics with lower imaginary values (also scattering) on dust days. The shortwave (SW; 0.2-4.0 μm) and longwave (LW; 4-100 μm) aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) values were computed from the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model both at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and the bottom of atmosphere (BOA) during dust and non-dust (dust free) days, and the corresponding heating rates and forcing efficiencies were also estimated. The SW (LW) ARF, therefore, produced significant cooling (warming) effects at both the TOA and the BOA over Beijing.

  14. Factors influencing the microphysics and radiative properties of liquid-dominated Arctic clouds: Insight from observations of aerosol and clouds during ISDAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Michael E.; Liu, Peter S. K.; Strapp, J. Walter; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Shantz, Nicole C.; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft measurements during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in April 2008 are used to investigate factors influencing the microphysics and radiative properties of springtime Arctic clouds. The analysis is focused on low-level, liquid-dominated clouds in two separate regimes with respect to cloud and aerosol properties: single-layer stratocumulus with below-cloud aerosol concentrations (Na) less than 250 cm-3 (clean cases); and layered stratocumulus with Na > 500 cm-3 below cloud base, associated with a biomass burning aerosol (polluted cases). For each regime, vertical profiles through cloud are used to determine cloud microphysical and radiative properties. The polluted cases were correlated with warmer, geometrically thicker clouds, with higher droplet number concentrations (Nd), liquid water paths (LWP), optical depths (τ), and albedo (A) relative to clean cases. The mean cloud droplet effective radii (reff), however, were similar (5.7 μm) for both aerosol-cloud regimes. This discrepancy resulted mainly from the higher LWP of clouds in polluted cases, which can be explained by both meteorological (temperature, dynamics) and microphysical (precipitation inhibition) factors. Adiabatic parcel model simulations demonstrate that differences in droplet activation between the aerosol-cloud regimes may play a role, as the higher Na in polluted cases limits activation to larger and/or more hygroscopic particles. The observations and analysis presented here demonstrate the complex interactions among environmental conditions, aerosol, and the microphysics and radiative properties of Arctic clouds.

  15. Impact of long-range transport pollution on aerosol properties over West Africa: observations during the DACCIWA airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Deroubaix, Adrien; Brito, Joel; Dupuy, Régis; Colomb, Aurélie; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Sellegri, Karine; Chazette, Patrick; Duplissy, Jonathan; Flamant, Cyrille

    2017-04-01

    Southern West Africa (SWA) is a region highly vulnerable to climate change. Emissions of anthropogenic pollution have increased substantially over the past decades in the region and are projected to keep increasing. The region is also strongly impacted by important natural pollution from distant locations. Biomass burning mainly from vegetation fires in Central Africa and mineral dust from the Saharan and Sahel-Sudan regions are advected by winds to the SWA region especially in summer. Both biomass burning and mineral dust aerosols scatter and absorb solar radiation and are able to significantly modify the regional radiative budget. Presently, the potential radiative impact of dust and biomass burning particles on SWA is unclear due to inadequate data information on the aerosols properties and vertical distribution. In the framework of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, an unprecedented field campaign took place in summer 2016 in West Africa. The ATR-42 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE performed twenty flights to sample the local air pollution from maritime traffic and coastal megacities, as well as regional pollution from biomass burning and desert dust. The aircraft was equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the aerosol optical properties (CAPS, nephelometer, PSAP), the aerosol size distribution (SMPS, GRIMM, USHAS, PCASP, FSSP) and the aerosol chemical composition (SP2, AMS). A mini backscattered lidar system provided additional measurements of the aerosol vertical structure and the aerosol optical properties such as the particulate depolarization ratio. The CHIMERE chemistry and transport model has been used to characterize the source area and the long-range transport of dust and biomass burning plumes. Here, we investigate the aerosol microphysical, chemical and optical properties of biomass burning and dust aerosols transported in SWA. In particular the following questions will be

  16. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of tar balls observed during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Day, D.; Lee, T.; Wang, C.; Carrico, C.; Carrillo, J.; Cowin, J. P.; Collett, J.; Iedema, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western United States and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field-collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or "tar balls," were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (λ = 370 and 880 nm) occurred during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence but do uptake some water at high (˜83%) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate forcing.

  17. Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties of Tar Balls Observed During the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Jenny L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, Alexander

    2005-11-09

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western U. S., and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls”, were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (λ = 370 and 880 nm) occurredmore » during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence, but do uptake some water at high (~83 %) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light, and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate fence.« less

  18. Size-resolved aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties in the remote marine South China Sea - Part 1: Observations and source classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Samuel A.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Blake, Donald R.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Xian, Peng; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Sessions, Walter R.; Simpas, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Ship-based measurements of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties are presented for 2 weeks of observations in remote marine regions of the South China Sea/East Sea during the southwestern monsoon (SWM) season. Smoke from extensive biomass burning throughout the Maritime Continent advected into this region during the SWM, where it was mixed with anthropogenic continental pollution and emissions from heavy shipping activities. Eight aerosol types were identified using a k-means cluster analysis with data from a size-resolved CCN characterization system. Interpretation of the clusters was supplemented by additional onboard aerosol and meteorological measurements, satellite, and model products for the region. A typical bimodal marine boundary layer background aerosol population was identified and observed mixing with accumulation mode aerosol from other sources, primarily smoke from fires in Borneo and Sumatra. Hygroscopicity was assessed using the κ parameter and was found to average 0.40 for samples dominated by aged accumulation mode smoke; 0.65 for accumulation mode marine aerosol; 0.60 in an anthropogenic aerosol plume; and 0.22 during a short period that was characterized by elevated levels of volatile organic compounds not associated with biomass burning impacts. As a special subset of the background marine aerosol, clean air masses substantially scrubbed of particles were observed following heavy precipitation or the passage of squall lines, with changes in observed aerosol properties occurring on the order of minutes. Average CN number concentrations, size distributions, and κ values are reported for each population type, along with CCN number concentrations for particles that activated at supersaturations between 0.14 and 0.85 %.

  19. Analysis Of Irtf Spex Near-infrared Observations Of Uranus: Aerosol Optical Properties And Latitudinally Variable Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Dane; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Hurley, J.; Orton, G. S.; Davis, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    We present results from the analysis of near-infrared spectra of Uranus observed in August 2009 with the SpeX spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Spectra range from 0.8 to 1.8 μm at a spatial resolution of 0.5” and a spectral resolution of R = 1,200. This data is particularly well-suited to characterize the optical properties of aerosols in the Uranian stratosphere and upper troposphere. This is in part due to its coverage shortward of 1.0 μm where methane absorption, which dominates the features in the Uranian near-infrared spectrum, weakens slightly. Another particularly useful aspect of the data is it’s specific, highly spectrally resolved (R > 4,000) coverage of the collision-induced hydrogen quadrupole absorption band at 825 nm, enabling us to differentiate between methane abundance and cloud opacity. An optimal-estimation retrieval code, NEMESIS, is used to analyze the spectra, and atmospheric models are developed that represent good agreement with data in the full spectral range analyzed. Aerosol single-scattering albedos that reveal a strong wavelength dependence will be discussed. Additionally, an analysis of latitudinal methane variability is undertaken, utilizing two methods of analysis. First, a reflectance study from locations along the central meridian is undertaken. The spectra from these locations are centered around 825 nm, where the collision-induced absorption feature of hydrogen is utilized to distinguish between latitudinal changes in the spectrum due to aerosol opacity and those due to methane variability. Secondly, high resolution retrievals from 0.8 - 0.9 μm portion of the spectrum and spectral resolutions between R = 4,000 and 4,500 are used to make the same distinction. Both methods will be compared and discussed, as will their indications supporting a methane enrichment in the equatorial region of the planet.

  20. Analysis of the sensitivity of thermal infrared nadir satellite observations to the chemical and micro-physical properties of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Sèze, Geneviève; Legras, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Secondary sulphate aerosols are the predominant typology of aerosols in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), and can have an important impact on radiative transfer and climate, cirrus formation and chemistry in the UTLS. Despite their importance, the satellite observation at the regional scale of sulphate aerosols in the UTLS is limited. In this work, we address the sensitivity of the thermal infrared satellite observations to secondary sulphate aerosols in the UTLS. The absorption properties of sulphuric acid/water droplets, for different sulphuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The absorption coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indexes taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques : Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the absorption of idealized aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on the radiance spectra observed by these simulated satellite instruments. We found a marked spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulphate and bi-sulphate ions and the undissociated sulphuric acid, with absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1. Micro-windows with a sensitivity to chemical and micro-physical properties of the sulphate aerosol layer are identified, and the role of interfering species, and temperature and water vapour profile is discussed.

  1. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  2. 2014 iAREA campaign on aerosol in Spitsbergen - Part 2: Optical properties from Raman-lidar and in-situ observations at Ny-Ålesund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Neuber, R.; Schulz, Alexander; Markowicz, K. M.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Lisok, J.; Makuch, P.; Pakszys, P.; Markuszewski, P.; Rozwadowska, A.; Petelski, T.; Zielinski, T.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Gausa, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work multi wavelength Raman lidar data from Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen have been analysed for the spring 2014 Arctic haze season, as part of the iAREA campaign. Typical values and probability distributions for aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarisation, the lidar ratio and the color ratio for 4 different altitude intervals within the troposphere are given. These quantities and their dependencies are analysed and the frequency of altitude-dependent observed aerosol events are given. A comparison with ground-based size distribution and chemical composition is performed. Hence the aim of this paper is to provide typical and statistically meaningful properties of Arctic aerosol, which may be used in climate models or to constrain the radiative forcing. We have found that the 2014 season was only moderately polluted with Arctic haze and that sea salt and sulphate were the most dominant aerosol species. Moreover the drying of an aerosol layer after cloud disintegration has been observed. Hardly any clear temporal evolution over the 4 week data set on Arctic haze is obvious with the exception of the extinction coefficient and the lidar ratio, which significantly decreased below 2 km altitude by end April. In altitudes between 2 and 5 km the haze season lasted longer and the aerosol properties were generally more homogeneous than closer to the surface. Above 5 km only few particles were found. The variability of the lidar ratio is discussed. It was found that knowledge of the aerosol's size and shape does not determine the lidar ratio. Contrary to shape and lidar ratio, there is a clear correlation between size and backscatter: larger particles show a higher backscatter coefficient.

  3. Integrating CALIPSO aerosol profiles and AIRS CO observations into OMI aerosol algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Ahn, C.

    2010-12-01

    The near-UV remote sensing of aerosols from OMI measurements provides global distribution of aerosol properties, in particular aerosol absorption. Recently, the OMI aerosol algorithm has gone through a major stage of development which includes incorporation of organics in the existing carbonaceous aerosol model, use of CALIPSO and AIRS observation of vertical profile of aerosols and CO respectively. The new OMI aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo retrieved with the assumption of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in the near-UV (a proxy for organics), are found to be in much better agreement with that of AERONET. The identification of aerosol type has been made robust by combined use of CO and aerosol index from AIRS and OMI respectively. The vertical profile of aerosols measured by CALIPSO has been used to derive a global distribution of aerosol layer height, which acts as a priori to OMI aerosol algorithm. The comparative analysis shows that using additional formation from other sensors improves the accuracy of OMI aerosol retrieval.

  4. Space-borne Observations of Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Coakley, J. A.; Fraser, R. S.

    2005-12-01

    As early as 1963, photographs of the twilight horizon from the Vostok-6 spaceship were used by G. V. Rozenberg and V. V. Nikolaeva-Tereshkova to derive profiles of stratospheric aerosols. The launch of the ATS III satellite in 1967 sparked interest in using satellites to observe aerosol emission, transport, and their effects on climate, precipitation and health. The first use of autonomous satellites in aerosol research appears to be by Toby Carlson and Joe Prospero who tracked dust from the Sahara to the Americas in the early `70s using ATS III images. The launch of the calibrated Landsat instrument in 1972 allowed Bob Fraser to perform quantitative analyses of dust column concentrations for individual scenes. GOES launched in 1975 provided hourly data that allowed Walter Lyons and J.C. Dooley in the late 70's to report on the transport of sulfate air pollution which was later followed by estimates of the export of sulfate aerosol from the US to the Atlantic Ocean. With the launch of SAGE in 1979, Pat McCormick and co-workers began long term observations of statospheric aerosols. The launch of TIROS(N) and the AVHRR in 1979 marked the start of concerted efforts by Larry Stowe and his colleagues to produce operationally an aerosol product over oceans from the NOAA polar orbiting satellite. With the launch of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanners in the late 1980's, Sundar Christopher and his colleagues began linking AVHRR-derived aerosol burdens to their effects on the Earth's radiation budget. A remarkable aspect of this early work is that instruments like the AVHRR, Landsat, and GOES imager were not originally designed to perform quantitative estimates of aerosol properties. In fact, corrections for the effects of aerosols in determining ocean reflectances implemented primarily through the work of Howard Gordon, facilitated much improved pictures of chlorophyll in the upper oceans than had been hoped for from CZCS data collected in the late 70's. This

  5. Statistically Optimized Inversion Algorithm for Enhanced Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from Spectral Multi-Angle Polarimetric Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovik, O; Herman, M.; Holdak, A.; Lapyonok, T.; Taure, D.; Deuze, J. L.; Ducos, F.; Sinyuk, A.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed development is an attempt to enhance aerosol retrieval by emphasizing statistical optimization in inversion of advanced satellite observations. This optimization concept improves retrieval accuracy relying on the knowledge of measurement error distribution. Efficient application of such optimization requires pronounced data redundancy (excess of the measurements number over number of unknowns) that is not common in satellite observations. The POLDER imager on board the PARASOL microsatellite registers spectral polarimetric characteristics of the reflected atmospheric radiation at up to 16 viewing directions over each observed pixel. The completeness of such observations is notably higher than for most currently operating passive satellite aerosol sensors. This provides an opportunity for profound utilization of statistical optimization principles in satellite data inversion. The proposed retrieval scheme is designed as statistically optimized multi-variable fitting of all available angular observations obtained by the POLDER sensor in the window spectral channels where absorption by gas is minimal. The total number of such observations by PARASOL always exceeds a hundred over each pixel and the statistical optimization concept promises to be efficient even if the algorithm retrieves several tens of aerosol parameters. Based on this idea, the proposed algorithm uses a large number of unknowns and is aimed at retrieval of extended set of parameters affecting measured radiation.

  6. Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Healy, R. M.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the NE Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Black carbon concentrations in polluted air were between 300-400 ng m-3, and in clean marine air were less than 50 ng m-3. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water

  7. Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J.; Healy, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Kulmala, M.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-09-01

    As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June, 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the N. E. Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water soluble organic carbon, which, in turn, was dominated by methanesulphonic acid (MSA). Sulphate concentrations were

  8. Modeling the Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosols: Young Smoke Aerosols From Savanna Fires and Comparisons to Observations from SAFARI 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matichuk, R. I.; Smith, J. A.; Toon, O. B.; Colarso, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    Annually, farmers in southern Africa manage their land resources and prepare their fields for cultivation by burning crop residual debris, with a peak in the burning season occurring during August and September. The emissions from these fires in southern Africa are among the greatest from fires worldwide, and the gases and aerosol particles produced adversely affect air quality large distances from their source regions, and can even be tracked in satellite imagery as they cross the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. During August and September 2000 an international group of researchers participating in the Southern African Regional Science Initiate field experiment (SAFARI 2000) made extensive ground-based, airborne, and satellite measurements of these gases and aerosols in order to quantify their amounts and effects on Earth's atmosphere. In this study we interpreted the measurements of smoke aerosol particles made during SAFARI 2000 in order to better represent these particles in a numerical model simulating their transport and fate. Typically, smoke aerosols emitted from fires are concentrated by mass in particles about 0.3 micrometers in diameter (1,000,000 micrometers = 1 meter, about 3 feet); for comparison, the thickness of a human hair is about 50 micrometers, almost 200 times as great. Because of the size of these particles, at the surface they can be easily inhaled into the lungs, and in high concentrations have deleterious health effects on humans. Additionally, these particles reflect and absorb sunlight, impacting both visibility and the balance of sunlight reaching -Earth's surface, and ultimately play a role in modulating Earth's climate. Because of these important effects, it is important that numerical models used to estimate Earth's climate response to changes in atmospheric composition accurately represent the quantity and evolution of smoke particles. In our model, called the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) we used

  9. Aerosol Remote Sensing from OMI Observations: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo; Jethva, Hiren T.

    2014-01-01

    The unique advantage of OMI observations for the characterization of aerosol properties is the availability of radiance measurement at near UV wavelengths. In spite of its coarse spatial resolution, OMI's near UV observations make possible the characterization of aerosol absorption properties. This capability is unavailable in any of the currently operational high spatial resolution aerosol sensors. A unique decadal record of aerosol absorption optical depth and single scattering albedo from near UV observations has been produced from OMI observations. In this presentation we will review the evolution of OMI's aerosol retrieval capability over the past ten years including retrieval algorithm improvements, assessment of retrieved products, and development of new retrieval capabilities to infer the optical depth of aerosol layers located above clouds.

  10. Stratospheric Aerosol--Observations, Processes, and Impact on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kresmer, Stefanie; Thomason, Larry W.; von Hobe, Marc; Hermann, Markus; Deshler, Terry; Timmreck, Claudia; Toohey, Matthew; Stenke, Andrea; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Weigel, Ralf; hide

    2016-01-01

    Interest in stratospheric aerosol and its role in climate have increased over the last decade due to the observed increase in stratospheric aerosol since 2000 and the potential for changes in the sulfur cycle induced by climate change. This review provides an overview about the advances in stratospheric aerosol research since the last comprehensive assessment of stratospheric aerosol was published in 2006. A crucial development since 2006 is the substantial improvement in the agreement between in situ and space-based inferences of stratospheric aerosol properties during volcanically quiescent periods. Furthermore, new measurement systems and techniques, both in situ and space based, have been developed for measuring physical aerosol properties with greater accuracy and for characterizing aerosol composition. However, these changes induce challenges to constructing a long-term stratospheric aerosol climatology. Currently, changes in stratospheric aerosol levels less than 20% cannot be confidently quantified. The volcanic signals tend to mask any nonvolcanically driven change, making them difficult to understand. While the role of carbonyl sulfide as a substantial and relatively constant source of stratospheric sulfur has been confirmed by new observations and model simulations, large uncertainties remain with respect to the contribution from anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. New evidence has been provided that stratospheric aerosol can also contain small amounts of nonsulfatematter such as black carbon and organics. Chemistry-climate models have substantially increased in quantity and sophistication. In many models the implementation of stratospheric aerosol processes is coupled to radiation and/or stratospheric chemistry modules to account for relevant feedback processes.

  11. Global CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Changes Near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have found that clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol optical properties and particle size. Characterizing this transition zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects, and also for improving satellite retrievals of aerosol properties. This letter presents a statistical analysis of a monthlong global data set of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone is ubiquitous over all oceans and extends up to 15 km away from clouds. They also show that near-cloud enhancements in backscatter and particle size are strongest at low altitudes, slightly below the top of the nearest clouds. Also, the enhancements are similar near illuminated and shadowy cloud sides, which confirms that the asymmetry of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer reflectances found in an earlier study comes from 3-D radiative processes and not from differences in aerosol properties. Finally, the effects of CALIPSO aerosol detection and cloud identification uncertainties are discussed. The findings underline the importance of accounting for the transition zone to avoid potential biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects.

  12. Temporal variations in optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol derived from daytime Raman lidar observations over Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2017-11-01

    In July 2013, favorable weather conditions caused a severe events of advection of biomass burning particles of Canadian forest fires to Europe. The smoke layers were widely observed, especially in Western Europe. An unusual atmospheric aerosol composition was measured at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, Central Poland, during a short event that occurred between 11 and 21 UTC on 10th July 2013. Additionally to the smoke layer, mineral dust was detected in a separate layer. The long-range dust transport pathway followed an uncommon way; originating in Western Sahara, passing above middle Atlantic, and circulating over British Islands, prior to its arrival to Poland. An effective radius of 560 nm was obtained for Saharan dust over Warsaw. This relatively small effective radius is likely due to the long time of the transport. The aerosol-polarization-Raman PollyXT-UW lidar was used for a successful daytime Raman retrieval of the aerosol optical properties at selected times during this short event. The aerosol vertical structure during the inflow over Warsaw in terms of optical properties and depolarization was analyzed, indicating clear distinction of the layers. The microphysical properties were inverted from the lidar derived optical data for selected ranges as representing the smoke and the mineral dust. For smoke, the effective radius was in the range of 0.29-0.36 μm and the complex refractive index 1.36 + 0.008i, on average. For dust, the values of 0.33-0.56 μm and 1.56 + 0.004i were obtained. An evolution of the aerosol composition over Warsaw during the day was analyzed.

  13. Validation of TOMS Aerosol Products using AERONET Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Holben, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol algorithm uses measurements of radiances at two near UV channels in the range 331-380 nm to derive aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo. Because of the low near UV surface albedo of all terrestrial surfaces (between 0.02 and 0.08), the TOMS algorithm has the capability of retrieving aerosol properties over the oceans and the continents. The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely derives spectral aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo at a large number of sites around the globe. We have performed comparisons of both aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo derived from TOMS and AERONET. In general, the TOMS aerosol products agree well with the ground-based observations, Results of this validation will be discussed.

  14. Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE- Asia campaign. 2; A case study of lidar ratio closure and aerosol radiative effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmanoski, Maja; Box, M. A.; Schmid, B.; Box, G. P.; Wang, J.; Russell, P. B.; Bates, D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flagan, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    For a vertical profile with three distinct layers (marine boundary, pollution and dust), observed during the ACE-Asia campaign, we carried out a comparison between the modeled lidar ratio vertical profile and that obtained from collocated airborne NASA AATS-14 sunphotometer and shipborne Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) measurements. Vertically resolved lidar ratio was calculated from two size distribution vertical profiles - one obtained by inversion of sunphotometer-derived extinction spectra, and one measured in-situ - combined with the same refractive index model based on aerosol chemical composition. The aerosol model implies single scattering albedos of 0.78 - 0.81 and 0.93 - 0.96 at 0.523 microns (the wavelength of the lidar measurements), in the pollution and dust layers, respectively. The lidar ratios calculated from the two size distribution profiles have close values in the dust layer; they are however, significantly lower than the lidar ratios derived from combined lidar and sunphotometer measurements, most probably due to the use of a simple nonspherical model with a single particle shape in our calculations. In the pollution layer, the two size distribution profiles yield generally different lidar ratios. The retrieved size distributions yield a lidar ratio which is in better agreement with that derived from lidar/sunphotometer measurements in this layer, with still large differences at certain altitudes (the largest relative difference was 46%). We explain these differences by non-uniqueness of the result of the size distribution retrieval and lack of information on vertical variability of particle refractive index. Radiative transfer calculations for this profile showed significant atmospheric radiative forcing, which occurred mainly in the pollution layer. We demonstrate that if the extinction profile is known then information on the vertical structure of absorption and asymmetry parameter is not significant for estimating forcing at TOA and the surface

  15. Setup and first airborne application of an aerosol optical properties package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Herber, Andreas; Mattis, Ina; Berg, Marcel; De Faira, Julia; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical and optical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The prototype of the IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2E) consists of two modified CAPS (Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift) instruments from Aerodyne Research, Inc. and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). The CAPS PMex monitor provides a measurement of the optical extinction (the sum of scattering and absorption) of an ambient sample of particles. There is a choice of 5 different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (530 nm), red (630 nm), far red (660 nm) and near infrared (780 nm) - which match the spectral bands of most other particle optical properties measurement equipment. In our prototype setup we used the instrument operating at 630nm wavelength (red). The second CAPS instrument we have chosen is the CAPS NO2 monitor. This instrument provides a direct absorption measurement of nitrogen dioxide in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum (450 nm). Unlike standard chemiluminescence-based monitors, the instrument requires no conversion of NO2 to another species and thus is not sensitive to other nitro-containing species. In the final IAGOS Setup, up to 4 CAPS might be used to get additional aerosol properties using the

  16. An Observation-based Study of the Sensitivity of Dust Aerosol Net Direct Radiative Effects to the Physical and Optical Properties of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Yu, H.; Kato, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dust aerosols play an important role in the radiative energy budget of Earth-Atmospheric system. They participate in Earth's energy budget directly by absorbing and scattering radiation, which is so called direct radiative effect (DRE). Many previous studies have focused on studying the DRE of dust in the shortwave (SW) domain. However, dust aerosols are large enough in size to have significant longwave(LW) DRE. Recently, dust longwave(LW) DRE have obtained more and more interest from scientists, but the DRE of dust aerosols remains uncertain in magnitude and even sign in recent assessments. These uncertainties are mainly in the microphysical and optical properties of dust. The first objective of this research is to perform an observation-based sensitivity study of dust SW, LW and net DRE to dust size distribution, shape and refractive index. Different sets of dust size distribution, shape and refractive index are used in this research to compute the optical properties. We use the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model driven by atmospheric profiles and aerosol extinction profiles derived from CALIPSO in CERES, CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS merged product (CCCM) to compute both SW and LW forcing efficiency. Then the sensitivity of dust DRE to those properties will be analyzed. In addition, an optimal combination of dust size distribution and refractive index, which provides good agreement with CERES observation in both outgoing longwave radiation and upward shortwave radiation, will be found. The second objective of this research is to evaluate dust net DRE in North Atlantic region by using the optimal combination mentioned previously.

  17. Influences of aerosol physiochemical properties and new particle formation on CCN activity from observation at a suburban site of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Zhang, Fang; Li, Zhanqing; Sun, Li; Wang, Zhenzhu; Li, Ping; Sun, Yele; Ren, Jingye; Wang, Yuying; Cribb, Maureen; Yuan, Cheng

    2017-05-01

    With the aim of understanding the impact of aerosol particle size and chemical composition on CCN activity, the size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN), particle number size distribution (PSD) (10-600 nm), and bulk chemical composition of particles with a diameter < 1.0 μm (PM1) were measured simultaneously at Xinzhou, a suburban site in northern China, from 22 July to 26 August 2014. The NCCN was measured at five different supersaturations (SS) ranging from 0.075%-0.76%. Diurnal variations in the aerosol number concentration (NCN), NCCN, the bulk aerosol activation ratio (AR), the hygroscopicity parameter (κchem), and the ratio of 44 mass to charge ration (m/z 44) to total organic signal in the component spectrum (f44), and the PSD were examined integrally to study the influence of particle size and chemical composition on CCN activation. We found that particle size was more related to the CCN activation ratios in the morning, whereas in the afternoon ( 1400 LST), κchem and f44 were more closely associated with the bulk AR. Assuming the internal mixing of aerosol particles, NCCN was estimated using the bulk chemical composition and real-time PSD. We found that the predicted CCN number concentrations were underestimated by 20-30% at SS < 0.2% probably due to the measurement uncertainties. Estimates were more accurate at higher SS levels, suggesting that the hygroscopicity parameter based on bulk chemical composition information can provide a good estimate of CCN number concentrations. We studied the impacts of new particle formation (NPF) events on size-resolved CCN activity at the ;growth; stage and ;leveling-off; stage during a typical NPF event by comparing with the case during non-NPF event. It has been found that CCN activation was restrained at the ;growth; stage during which larger particle diameters were needed to reach an activation diameter(Da), and the bulk AR decreased as well. However, during the ;leveling

  18. Observations of a large mid-tropospheric aerosol plume: High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) optical properties, Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) back trajectory analysis and Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA) chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, B.; Pierce, R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of a large, elevated aerosol plume were made from the National Science Foundation Gulfstream V (GV) aircraft. The aircraft, operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), was returning from the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogen species and Oxy-genated VOC (TORERO) field project. G5-HSRL observations on Feb 29, 2012 show an aerosol plume along more than 700 km of flight track at altitudes between 2 and 10 km MSL. Optical properties of the aerosol plume, including backscatter cross section, depolarization ratio and extinction will be presented. We will present back trajectory analysis using the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) to locate possible origins of the plume. The Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA) will also be used to identify some of the chemical properties of the plume as the GV passed through the plume on its descent into the Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport.

  19. A study of aerosol properties based on observations of particulate matter from the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Anondo; Toohey, Darin W.

    2016-08-01

    The United States Embassy in Beijing, China publicly released a record of mass concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 µm and smaller in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), from April 2008 to the present, measured with a beta attenuation monitor (BAM). We compare these measurements with observations of particulate matter recorded at the Beijing Institute of Atmospheric Physics and observations of visibility recorded at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) to assess their value as a record of air quality in the greater Beijing metropolitan area. We find that the PM2.5 observations correlate well with the other observations of particulate matter (PM) over the period 1 January-1 February 2013 using a tapered element oscillating microbalance and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and they exhibit a clear inverse correlation with visibility measured at BCIA. Using inverse visibility as a proxy of radiation extinction, we determine a dry mass extinction efficiency and a dependence of radiation extinction on relative humidity, which is consistent with other studies of polluted urban environments. We deduce a strong degree of homogeneity of particulate pollution across the Beijing metropolitan region and conclude that the U.S. Embassy measurements are a reliable sample of this particulate pollution during periods of photochemical smog. The U.S. Embassy observations of PM2.5 appear to remain consistent throughout the available record and can serve as a useful dataset for studying future trends in particulate matter as China implements ambitious measures to improve air quality in the region.

  20. Global aerosol optical properties and application to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol retrieval over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Dubovik, Oleg

    2007-07-01

    As more information about global aerosol properties has become available from remotely sensed retrievals and in situ measurements, it is prudent to evaluate this new information, both on its own and in the context of satellite retrieval algorithms. Using the climatology of almucantur retrievals from global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer sites, we perform cluster analysis to determine aerosol type as a function of location and season. We find that three spherical-derived types (describing fine-sized dominated aerosol) and one spheroid-derived types (describing coarse-sized dominated aerosol, presumably dust) generally describe the range of AERONET observed global aerosol properties. The fine-dominated types are separated mainly by their single scattering albedo (ω0), ranging from nonabsorbing aerosol (ω0 ˜ 0.95) in developed urban/industrial regions, to moderately absorbing aerosol (ω0 ˜ 0.90) in forest fire burning and developing industrial regions, to absorbing aerosol (ω0 ˜ 0.85) in regions of savanna/grassland burning. We identify the dominant aerosol type at each site, and extrapolate to create seasonal 1° × 1° maps of expected aerosol types. Each aerosol type is bilognormal, with dynamic (function of optical depth) size parameters (radius, standard deviation, volume distribution) and complex refractive index. Not only are these parameters interesting in their own right, they can also be applied to aerosol retrieval algorithms, such as to aerosol retrieval over land from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Independent direct-Sun AERONET observations of spectral aerosol optical depth (τ) are consistent the spectral dependence of the models, indicating that our derived aerosol models are relevant.

  1. Toward Creating A Global Retrospective Climatology of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Robert J.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are thought to cause a significant direct and indirect climate forcing, but the magnitude of this forcing remains highly uncertain because of poor knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and their temporal changes. The standard long-term global product, the one-channel Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness over the ocean, relies on a single predefined aerosol model and can be inaccurate in many cases. Furthermore, it provides no information on aerosol column number density, thus making it impossible to estimate the indirect aerosol effect on climate. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data can be used to detect absorbing aerosols over land, but are insensitive to aerosols located below one kilometer. It is thus clear that innovative approaches must be employed in order to extract a more quantitative and accurate aerosol climatology from available satellite and other measurements, thus enabling more reliable estimates of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings. The Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) was established in 1998 as part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). Its main objective is to analyze satellite radiance measurements and field observations to infer the global distribution of aerosols, their properties, and their seasonal and interannual variations. The overall goal is to develop advanced global aerosol climatologies for the period of satellite data and to make the aerosol climatologies broadly available through the GACP web site.

  2. Aerosol optical properties variability during biomass burning events observed by the eole-aias depolarization lidars over Athens, Greece (2007-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonaki, Maria; Papayannis, Alexandros; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Argyrouli, Athina; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Tsaknakis, Georgios; Soupiona, Ourania

    2018-04-01

    The EOLE multi-wavelength aerosol Ramandepolarization lidar, and the AIAS depolarization lidar, in synergy with a sun photometer (CIMEL), were used, in the period 2007-2016, to provide the vertical profiles of the aerosol optical properties over Athens, Greece. More than 30 biomass burning events (fresh and aged smoke particles) were observed, with smoke layers between 1.5 up to 4-5 km height, while their duration ranged from 1-3 days. Lidar ratio (LR) values ranged from 40-105 sr (at 355 nm) and from 40-100 sr (at 532 nm), while the linear particle depolarization ratio (LPDR) at both 355 and 532 nm, remained <7%. The extinction-related Ångström exponent (AEa) at 355 nm/532 nm) ranged from 0.3 to 2.1. Additionally, a case of a near-range transport of biomass burning aerosols arriving over Athens up to 4 km height, between 27 and 28 June 2016, was studied. For this case, we found LRs of the order of 70±5 sr (355 nm) and 65±15 sr (532 nm) and AEa(355 nm/532 nm) around 1.

  3. Chemical Properties of Combustion Aerosols: An Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of pyrogenic and anthropogenic sources emit fine aerosols to the atmosphere. The physical and chemical properties of these aerosols are of interest due to their influence on climate, human health, and visibility. Aerosol chemical composition is remarkably complex. ...

  4. Giant aerosol observations with cloud radar: methodology and effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guma Claramunt, Pilar; Madonna, Fabio; Amodeo, Aldo; Bauer-Pfundstein, Matthias; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2017-04-01

    Giant aerosol particles can act as Giant Cloud Condensation Nuclei (GCCN), and determine the droplet concentration at the cloud formation, the clouds albedo and lifetime, and the precipitation formation. In addition, depending on their composition, they can also act as IN. It is not yet clear if they can also expedite rain processes. The main techniques used nowadays in measuring aerosols, which are lidar and sun photometer, cannot retrieve aerosol microphysical properties for particles bigger than a few microns, which means that they do not account for giant aerosols. Therefore, the distribution and impact in the atmosphere and climate of these particles is not well known and the aerosol transport models largely underestimate them. Recent studies have demonstrated that cloud radars are able to detect ultragiant volcanic aerosols also at a large distance from the source. In this study, an innovative methodology for the observation of giant aerosols using the millimeter wavelength radar has been developed and applied to 6 years of measurements carried out at CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO), in Potenza, South Italy, finding more than 40 giant aerosol events per year and a good agreement with the aerosol climatologic data. Besides, the effects of giant aerosols in the local and regional meteorology have been studied by correlating several atmospheric variables in the time period following the observation of giant particles. The meteorological situation has been assessed through the data classification into cases characterized by different pressure vertical velocities at the upper atmosphere (400 hPa), Giant aerosols are correlated to lower values of the Cloud Optical Depth (COD) in presence of stable or unstable atmospheric conditions while higher values are found for an intermediate stability. The giant aerosols effects on the Liquid Water Path (LWP) are closely linked to those in the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOD). The highest increases in the LWP occurs

  5. [Ultraviolet Mie lidar observations of aerosol extinction in a dust storm case over Macao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiao-jun; Cheng, A Y S; Zhu, Jian-hua; Fong, S K; Chang, S W; Tam, K S; Viseu, A

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol over Macao was monitored by using a 355 nm Mie scattering lidar during the dust event on March 22nd, 2010. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients were obtained and correlated with local PM10 concentration. The near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients have good agreement with PM10 concentration values. The aerosol extinction vertical profiles showed that there were distinct layers of dust aerosol concentration. The source and tracks of dust aerosol were analyzed by back-trajectory simulation. Observations showed that this lidar could run well even in dust storm episode, and it would help to further the study on aerosol properties over Macao.

  6. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with

  7. COMMIT in 7-SEAS/BASELInE: Operation of and Observations from a Novel, Mobile Laboratory for Measuring In-Situ Properties of Aerosols and Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantina, Peter; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Loftus, Adrian M.; Kuo, Ferret; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Sayer, Andrew M.; Wang, Shen-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Hsu, N. Christina; hide

    2016-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols (particularly biomass-burning aerosols) have important implications for air quality and climate studies in Southeast Asia (SEA). This paper describes the purpose, operation, and datasets collected from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Chemical, Optical, and Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT) laboratory, a mobile platform designed to measure trace gases and optical/microphysical properties of naturally occurring and anthropogenic aerosols. More importantly, the laboratory houses a specialized humidification system to characterize hygroscopic growth/enhancement, a behavior that affects aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions and is generally underrepresented in the current literature. A summary of the trace gas and optical/microphysical measurements is provided, along with additional detail and analysis of data collected from the hygroscopic system during the 2015 Seven South-East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) field campaign. The results suggest that data from the platform are reliable and will complement future studies of aerosols and air quality in SEA and other regions of interest.

  8. Sunphotometer network for monitoring aerosol properties in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Pereira, Alfredo; Vermote, E.; Reagan, J. A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Tanre, D.; Slutsker, I.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite platforms have provided a methodology for regional and global remote sensing of aerosols. New systems will significantly improve that capability during the EOS era; however, the voluminous 20 year record of satellite data has produced only regional snapshots of aerosol loading and have not yielded a data base of the optical properties of those aerosols which are fundamental to our understanding of their influence on climate change. The prospect of fully understanding the properties of the aerosols with respect to climate change is small without validation and augmentation by ancillary ground based observations. Sun photometry was demonstrated to be an effective tool for ground based measurements of aerosol optical properties from fire emissions. Newer technology has expanded routine sun photometer measurements to spectral observations of solar aureole and almucantar allowing retrievals of size distribution, scattering phase function, and refractive index. A series of such observations were made in Brazil's Amazon basin from a network of six simultaneously recording instruments deployed in Sep. 1992. The instruments were located in areas removed from local aerosol sources such that sites are representative of regional aerosol conditions. The overall network was designed to cover the counter clockwise tropospheric circulation of the Amazon Basin. Spectral measurements of sun, aureole and sky data for retrieval of aerosol optical thickness, particle size distribution, and scattering phase function as well as measurements of precipitable water were made during noncloudy conditions.

  9. Background aerosol over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau: observed characteristics of aerosol mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Cong, Z.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.; Wan, X.; Pan, Y.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, G.; Kang, S.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), an observation network was established within the region's various ecosystems, including at Ngari, Qomolangma (QOMS), Nam Co, and SouthEastern Tibetan (SET) stations. In this paper we illustrate aerosol mass loadings by integrating in situ measurements with satellite and ground-based remote sensing datasets for the 2011-2013 period, on both local and large scales. Mass concentrations of these surface atmospheric aerosols were relatively low and varied with land cover, showing a general tendency of Ngari and QOMS (barren sites) > Nam Co (grassland site) > SET (forest site). Bimodal mass distributions of size-segregated particles were found at all sites, with a relatively small peak in accumulation mode and a more notable peak in coarse mode. Diurnal variations in fine aerosol masses generally displayed a bi-peak pattern at the QOMS, Nam Co and SET stations and a single-peak pattern at the Ngari station, controlled by the effects of local geomorphology, mountain-valley breeze circulation and aerosol emissions. Combining surface aerosols data and atmospheric-column aerosol optical properties, the TSP mass and aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) generally decreased as land cover changed from barren to forest, in inverse relation to the PM2.5 ratios. The seasonality of aerosol mass parameters was land-cover dependent. Over forest and grassland areas, TSP mass, PM2.5 mass, MISR-AOD and fine-mode AOD were higher in spring and summer, followed by relatively lower values in autumn and winter. At the barren site (the QOMS station), there were inconsistent seasonal variations between surface TSP mass (PM2.5 mass) and atmospheric column AOD (fine-mode AOD). Our findings implicate that, HTP aerosol masses (especially their reginal characteristics and fine particle emissions) need to be treated sensitively in relation to assessments of their climatic

  10. Modeling the Relationships Between Aerosol Properties and the Direct and Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    1994-01-01

    Aerosols may affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing visible and infrared energy, They may also affect climate indirectly by modifying the properties of clouds through microphysical processes, and by altering abundances of radiatively important gases through heterogeneous chemistry. Researchers understand which aerosol properties control the direct effect of aerosols on the radiation budget. Unfortunately, despite an abundance of data on certain types of aerosols, much work remains to be done to determine the values of these properties. For instance we have little idea about the global distribution, seasonal variation, or interannual variability of the aerosol optical depth. Also we do not know the visible light absorption properties of tropical aerosols which may contain much debris from slash and burn agriculture. A positive correlation between aerosol concentrations and albedos of marine stratus clouds is observed, and the causative microphysics is understood. However, models suggest that it is difficult to produce new particles in the marine boundary layer. Some modelers have suggested that the particles in the marine boundary layer may originate in the free troposphere and be transported into the boundary layer. Others argue that the aerosols are created in the marine boundary layer. There are no data linking aerosol concentration and cirrus cloud albedo, and models suggest cirrus properties may not be very sensitive to aerosol abundance. There is clear evidence of a radiatively significant change in the global lower stratospheric ozone abundance during the past few decades. These changes are caused by heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of particles. The rates of these reactions depend upon the chemical composition of the particles. Although rapid advances in understanding heterogeneous chemistry have been made, much remains to be done.

  11. Approaches to Observe Anthropogenic Aerosol-Cloud Interactions.

    PubMed

    Quaas, Johannes

    Anthropogenic aerosol particles exert an-quantitatively very uncertain-effective radiative forcing due to aerosol-cloud interactions via an immediate altering of cloud albedo on the one hand and via rapid adjustments by alteration of cloud processes and by changes in thermodynamic profiles on the other hand. Large variability in cloud cover and properties and the therefore low signal-to-noise ratio for aerosol-induced perturbations hamper the identification of effects in observations. Six approaches are discussed as a means to isolate the impact of anthropogenic aerosol on clouds from natural cloud variability to estimate or constrain the effective forcing. These are (i) intentional cloud modification, (ii) ship tracks, (iii) differences between the hemispheres, (iv) trace gases, (v) weekly cycles and (vi) trends. Ship track analysis is recommendable for detailed process understanding, and the analysis of weekly cycles and long-term trends is most promising to derive estimates or constraints on the effective radiative forcing.

  12. Long term (2007-2013) observations of columnar aerosol optical properties and retrieved size distributions over Anantapur, India using multi wavelength solar radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Obul Reddy, K.; Balakrishnaiah, G.; Rama Gopal, K.; Siva Kumar Reddy, N.; Chakradhar Rao, T.; Lokeswara Reddy, T.; Nazeer Hussain, S.; Vasudeva Reddy, M.; Reddy, R. R.; Boreddy, S. K. R.; Suresh Babu, S.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the long - term observational studies on aerosol optical properties measured at Sri Krishnadevaraya University (SKU) campus (14° 62‧ N, 77° 65‧ E, 331m asl), Anantapur, in southern India during 2007-2013 using a ground based Multi - Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR). Seasonal mean values of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) for the whole study period were observed to be 0.34 ± 0.03, 0.45 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.04, and 0.31 ± 0.03 during the winter, summer, monsoon and post - monsoon, respectively. Annual mean values of Ångström exponent (α) (turbidity coefficient (β)) varied from 0.68 ± 0.25 (0.18 ± 0.03) to 1.1 ± 0.12 (0.32 ± 0.12) during 2007-2013. However, high values of α in the range of 0.8-1.1 were observed during the winter, while low values in the range 0.3-0.7 were noticed during the monsoon. The frequency distribution of AODs during winter in the range of 0.2-0.4 is about 78%, while summer these were shifted from 0.3 to 0.6 around ∼70%, which indicated the dust strongly affects this region. The accumulated frequencies of Ångström exponent (α) less than 1.0 and greater than 1.0 were about 69% and 31%, respectively, occurred in the summer months indicates the dominance of coarse particles. Columnar size distributions, retrieved from the spectral optical depths, in general, show a bimodal log normal distribution in the optically active size range. The seasonal mean effective radius (Reff) was found to be high in monsoon (∼0.61 μm) and low in winter (∼0.38 μm). The highest mean mass loading values are lies between 475 ± 36 to 769 ± 49 mg m-2 during the summer, whereas the lowest value in the range 204 ± 19 to 278 ± 23 mg m-2 during the monsoon. The difference between α and curvature effect have been studied as a function of AOD on seasonal basis. Finally, to understand the contribution of long range transported aerosols, we have investigated this analysis making use of back trajectories obtained from the HYSPLIT

  13. Large Contribution of Coarse Mode to Aerosol Microphysical and Optical Properties: Evidence from Ground-Based Observations of a Transpacific Dust Outbreak at a High-Elevation North American Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, E.; Pekour, M.; Flynn, C.

    2017-05-01

    Our work is motivated by previous studies of the long-range trans-Atlantic transport of Saharan dust and the observed quasi-static nature of coarse mode aerosol with a volume median diameter (VMD) of approximately 3.5 µm. We examine coarse mode contributions from the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust to North American aerosol microphysical and optical properties using a dataset collected at the high-elevation, mountain-top Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL, 3.22 km above sea level [ASL]) and the nearby Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF, 2.76 km ASL). Data collected during the SPL Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX, March 2011) are complemented bymore » quasi-global high-resolution model simulations coupled with aerosol chemistry. We identify dust event associated mostly with Asian plume (about 70% of dust mass) where the coarse mode with moderate (~4 µm) VMD is distinct and contributes substantially to aerosol microphysical (up to 70% for total volume) and optical (up to 45% for total scattering and aerosol optical depth) properties. Our results, when compared with previous Saharan dust studies, suggest a fairly invariant behavior of coarse mode dust aerosols. If confirmed in additional studies, this invariant behavior may simplify considerably model parameterizations for complex and size-dependent processes associated with dust transport and removal.« less

  14. Confronting the Uncertainty in Aerosol Forcing Using Comprehensive Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. S.; Regayre, L. A.; Yoshioka, M.; Pringle, K.; Sexton, D.; Lee, L.; Carslaw, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of aerosols on cloud droplet concentrations and radiative properties is the largest uncertainty in the overall radiative forcing of climate over the industrial period. In this study, we take advantage of a large perturbed parameter ensemble of simulations from the UK Met Office HadGEM-UKCA model (the aerosol component of the UK Earth System Model) to comprehensively sample uncertainty in aerosol forcing. Uncertain aerosol and atmospheric parameters cause substantial aerosol forcing uncertainty in climatically important regions. As the aerosol radiative forcing itself is unobservable, we investigate the potential for observations of aerosol and radiative properties to act as constraints on the large forcing uncertainty. We test how eight different theoretically perfect aerosol and radiation observations can constrain the forcing uncertainty over Europe. We find that the achievable constraint is weak unless many diverse observations are used simultaneously. This is due to the complex relationships between model output responses and the multiple interacting parameter uncertainties: compensating model errors mean there are many ways to produce the same model output (known as model equifinality) which impacts on the achievable constraint. However, using all eight observable quantities together we show that the aerosol forcing uncertainty can potentially be reduced by around 50%. This reduction occurs as we reduce a large sample of model variants (over 1 million) that cover the full parametric uncertainty to around 1% that are observationally plausible.Constraining the forcing uncertainty using real observations is a more complex undertaking, in which we must account for multiple further uncertainties including measurement uncertainties, structural model uncertainties and the model discrepancy from reality. Here, we make a first attempt to determine the true potential constraint on the forcing uncertainty from our model that is achievable using a comprehensive

  15. Optical Properties of Titan's Aerosol Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Sandra I.; Contreras, G.; Agarwal, V.

    2006-09-01

    In the upper Titan's atmosphere its main constituents, CH4 and N2, are photolyzed and radiolyzed by solar photons and magnetospheric electrons. The primary products of these chemical interactions evolve to heavier organic compounds which are likely to associate to form the haze layers observed on Titan's upper atmosphere. Different theories and models have been used to explain the physical, chemical and optical properties of the haze material, but only with limited success. Among the parameters involved in these models, the complex refractive index is one of the most critical due to the influence that chemical composition and structural organization of the solid have on the n and k values. As part of a continued systematical study for the synthesis and characterization of Titan's aerosol analogues initiated in our group, we have subjected mixtures of CH4 in N2 to laser irradiation to produce layer of aerosol analogues. A set of optical properties values directly calculated from the transmission and reflectance curves, as well as a chemical characterization, by tandem mass spectroscopy, of the laboratory analogues will be presented. Our experimental protocol avoids some of the difficulties usually faced on laboratory simulations (over-irradiation, contamination with atmospheric oxygen, accurate ratio of initial gas mixture), porosity influences will also be discussed. The optical values can be used to determine how the chemical and optical properties of these aerosols influence the matching with the observed geometric albedo spectrum and how they participate in the radiative equilibrium processes in Titan's atmosphere. They will certainly help in the interpretation of the observations made by the Huygens descend through Titan's atmosphere last January and in all the new information about Titan generated since then. Financial support from CONACyT (40449) and PROMEP (103.5/03/1134) is acknowledged. SIRJ acknowledges a travel grant from PIFI 3.2.

  16. Sources and properties of Amazonian aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Baumgardner, Darrel; Chen, Qi; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex; Heald, Colette L.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; McMurry, Peter H.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Pöschl, Ulrich; Prather, Kimberly A.; Roberts, Gregory C.; Saleska, Scott R.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Swietlicki, Erik; Trebs, Ivonne

    2010-04-01

    This review provides a comprehensive account of what is known presently about Amazonian aerosol particles and concludes by formulating outlook and priorities for further research. The review is organized to follow the life cycle of Amazonian aerosol particles. It begins with a discussion of the primary and secondary sources relevant to the Amazonian particle burden, followed by a presentation of the particle properties that characterize the mixed populations present over the Amazon Basin at different times and places. These properties include number and mass concentrations and distributions, chemical composition, hygroscopicity, and cloud nucleation ability. The review presents Amazonian aerosol particles in the context of natural compared to anthropogenic sources as well as variability with season and meteorology. This review is intended to facilitate an understanding of the current state of knowledge on Amazonian aerosol particles specifically and tropical continental aerosol particles in general and thereby to enhance future research in this area.

  17. Global Analysis of Aerosol Properties Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waquet, F.; Peers, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Riedi, J.; Tanre, D.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial varability of Aerosol Above Cloud (AAC) properties are derived from passive satellite data for the year 2008. A significant amount of aerosols are transported above liquid water clouds on the global scale. For particles in the fine mode (i.e., radius smaller than 0.3 m), including both clear sky and AAC retrievals increases the global mean aerosol optical thickness by 25(+/- 6%). The two main regions with man-made AAC are the tropical Southeast Atlantic, for biomass burning aerosols, and the North Pacific, mainly for pollutants. Man-made AAC are also detected over the Arctic during the spring. Mineral dust particles are detected above clouds within the so-called dust belt region (5-40 N). AAC may cause a warming effect and bias the retrieval of the cloud properties. This study will then help to better quantify the impacts of aerosols on clouds and climate.

  18. Using Retrieved Aerosol Spectral Properties to Characterize Aerosol Composition and Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spectral dependence of aerosol properties, such as aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), can be used to infer aerosol composition. In particular, aerosol mixtures dominated by dust absorption will have monotonically increasing SSA with wavelength while that dominated by black carbon absorption has monotonically decreasing SSA spectra. However, spectral AAOD and SSA measured in reality may differ from these extreme cases, due to the complicated composition and mixing states. In this study, we use spectral SSA and AAOD retrieved from AERONET measurements, assisted by CALIPSO aerosol type product and Mie calculations, to characterize aerosol mixtures over representative regions. Moreover, in addition to the monotonically increasing or decreasing AAOD and SSA spectra, we find the spectral dependence of these two parameters are frequently peaked (at 675 nm or 870 nm) over several places including East Asia, India, West Africa and South America. We thus suggest that SSA spectral curvature, defined as the negative of the second derivative of SSA as a function of wavelength, can provide additional information on the composition of these aerosol mixtures. Further analysis indicates that moderate mixing of black carbon with dust or organic carbon is mainly responsible for producing the SSA curvature. An optimization scheme was developed to match the observed AAOD and SSA spectra with Mie calculations assuming different aerosol composition and mixing states. Results suggest that while external mixing can explain most of the observed AAOD and SSA spectral dependence, internal mixing or core-shell mode is also likely under many circumstances, such as East Asia during winter and post-monsoon and winter seasons over India. This method offers the potential to quantitatively infer aerosol composition from these spectral measurements of aerosol optical properties.

  19. The statistical distribution of aerosol properties in sourthern West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslett, Sophie; Taylor, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael; Bower, Keith; Dorsey, James; Crawford, Ian; Brito, Joel; Denjean, Cyrielle; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Batenburg, Anneke; Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Borrmann, Stephan; Sauer, Daniel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Lee, James; Vaughan, Adam; Coe, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    The population and economy in southern West Africa have been growing at an exceptional rate in recent years and this trend is expected to continue, with the population projected to more than double to 800 million by 2050. This will result in a dramatic increase in anthropogenic pollutants, already estimated to have tripled between 1950 and 2000 (Lamarque et al., 2010). It is known that aerosols can modify the radiative properties of clouds. As such, the entrainment of anthropogenic aerosol into the large banks of clouds forming during the onset of the West African Monsoon could have a substantial impact on the region's response to climate change. Such projections, however, are greatly limited by the scarcity of observations in this part of the world. As part of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, three research aircraft were deployed, each carrying equipment capable of measuring aerosol properties in-situ. Instrumentation included Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS), Single Particle Soot Photometers (SP2), Condensation Particle Counters (CPC) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS). Throughout the intensive aircraft campaign, 155 hours of scientific flights covered an area including large parts of Benin, Togo, Ghana and parts of Côte D'Ivoire. Approximately 70 hours were dedicated to the measurement of cloud-aerosol interactions, with many other flights producing data contributing towards this objective. Using datasets collected during this campaign period, it is possible to build a robust statistical understanding of aerosol properties in this region for the first time, including size distributions and optical and chemical properties. Here, we describe preliminary results from aerosol measurements on board the three aircraft. These have been used to describe aerosol properties throughout the region and time period encompassed by the DACCIWA aircraft campaign. Such statistics will be invaluable for improving future

  20. Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.

  1. Climatology of aerosol properties and clear-sky shortwave radiative effects using Lidar and Sun photometer observations in the Dakar site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, A.; Goloub, P.; Derimian, Y.; Tanré, D.; Podvin, T.; Blarel, L.; Deroo, C.; Marticorena, B.; Diallo, A.; Ndiaye, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis of nearly a decade of continuous aerosol observations performed at the Mbour site (Senegal) with Sun photometer, Lidar, and Tapered Electromagnetic Oscillating Microbalance. This site is influenced all year-round by desert dust and sporadically, in wintertime, by biomass burning particles. Different patterns are revealed for winter and summer, seasons associated to air masses of different origin. The summer (wet season) is characterized by a high aerosol loading (optical thickness, AOT, around 0.57 at 532 nm) composed of large and weakly absorbing particles (Angstrom exponent, α, of 0.23 and single-scattering albedo, ϖ0, of 0.94 at 532 nm). A lower aerosol loading (AOT = 0.32) is observed during winter (dry season) for finer and absorbing particles (α = 0.48 and ϖ0 = 0.87) revealing the presence of biomass burning aerosols and a greater proportion of local emissions. This latter anthropogenic contribution is visible at weekly and daily scales through AOT cycles. A decrease of about 30% in AOT has been featured in autumn since 2003. The derivation of the extinction profiles highlights a dust transport close to the ground during winter and in an aloft layer (up to 5 km) during summer. Accurate calculations of the daily aerosol radiative effect in clear-sky conditions are finally addressed. From spring to winter, seasonal shortwave radiative forcing averages of 14.15, 11.15, 8.92, and 12.06 W m-2 have been found respectively. Up to 38% of the solar clear-sky atmospheric heating can be attributed to the aerosols in this site.

  2. Composition and physical properties of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer and the North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengfei; Toon, Owen B; Neely, Ryan R; Martinsson, Bengt G; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A M

    2015-04-16

    Recent studies revealed layers of enhanced aerosol scattering in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Asia (Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)) and North America (North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer (NATAL)). We use a sectional aerosol model (Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA)) coupled with the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) to explore the composition and optical properties of these aerosol layers. The observed aerosol extinction enhancement is reproduced by CESM1/CARMA. Both model and observations indicate a strong gradient of the sulfur-to-carbon ratio from Europe to the Asia on constant pressure surfaces. We found that the ATAL is mostly composed of sulfates, surface-emitted organics, and secondary organics; the NATAL is mostly composed of sulfates and secondary organics. The model also suggests that emission increases in Asia between 2000 and 2010 led to an increase of aerosol optical depth of the ATAL by 0.002 on average which is consistent with observations. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer is composed of sulfate, primary organics, and secondary organics The North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer is mostly composed of sulfate and secondary organics Aerosol Optical Depth of Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer increases by 0.002 from 2000 to 2010.

  3. Remote Sensing of Spectral Aerosol Properties: A Classroom Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Pinker, Rachel T.

    2006-01-01

    Bridging the gap between current research and the classroom is a major challenge to today s instructor, especially in the sciences where progress happens quickly. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland teamed up in designing a graduate class project intended to provide a hands-on introduction to the physical basis for the retrieval of aerosol properties from state-of-the-art MODIS observations. Students learned to recognize spectral signatures of atmospheric aerosols and to perform spectral inversions. They became acquainted with the operational MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm over oceans, and methods for its evaluation, including comparisons with groundbased AERONET sun-photometer data.

  4. Aerosol Properties of the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Lavvas, P.; Koskinen, T., E-mail: panayotis.lavvas@univ-reims.fr

    2017-09-20

    We use a model of aerosol microphysics to investigate the impact of high-altitude photochemical aerosols on the transmission spectra and atmospheric properties of close-in exoplanets, such as HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b. The results depend strongly on the temperature profiles in the middle and upper atmospheres, which are poorly understood. Nevertheless, our model of HD 189733 b, based on the most recently inferred temperature profiles, produces an aerosol distribution that matches the observed transmission spectrum. We argue that the hotter temperature of HD 209458 b inhibits the production of high-altitude aerosols and leads to the appearance of amore » clearer atmosphere than on HD 189733 b. The aerosol distribution also depends on the particle composition, photochemical production, and atmospheric mixing. Due to degeneracies among these inputs, current data cannot constrain the aerosol properties in detail. Instead, our work highlights the role of different factors in controlling the aerosol distribution that will prove useful in understanding different observations, including those from future missions. For the atmospheric mixing efficiency suggested by general circulation models, we find that the aerosol particles are small (∼nm) and probably spherical. We further conclude that a composition based on complex hydrocarbons (soots) is the most likely candidate to survive the high temperatures in hot-Jupiter atmospheres. Such particles would have a significant impact on the energy balance of HD 189733 b’s atmosphere and should be incorporated in future studies of atmospheric structure. We also evaluate the contribution of external sources to photochemical aerosol formation and find that their spectral signature is not consistent with observations.« less

  5. Aerosol Properties of the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, P.; Koskinen, T.

    2017-09-01

    We use a model of aerosol microphysics to investigate the impact of high-altitude photochemical aerosols on the transmission spectra and atmospheric properties of close-in exoplanets, such as HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b. The results depend strongly on the temperature profiles in the middle and upper atmospheres, which are poorly understood. Nevertheless, our model of HD 189733 b, based on the most recently inferred temperature profiles, produces an aerosol distribution that matches the observed transmission spectrum. We argue that the hotter temperature of HD 209458 b inhibits the production of high-altitude aerosols and leads to the appearance of a clearer atmosphere than on HD 189733 b. The aerosol distribution also depends on the particle composition, photochemical production, and atmospheric mixing. Due to degeneracies among these inputs, current data cannot constrain the aerosol properties in detail. Instead, our work highlights the role of different factors in controlling the aerosol distribution that will prove useful in understanding different observations, including those from future missions. For the atmospheric mixing efficiency suggested by general circulation models, we find that the aerosol particles are small (˜nm) and probably spherical. We further conclude that a composition based on complex hydrocarbons (soots) is the most likely candidate to survive the high temperatures in hot-Jupiter atmospheres. Such particles would have a significant impact on the energy balance of HD 189733 b’s atmosphere and should be incorporated in future studies of atmospheric structure. We also evaluate the contribution of external sources to photochemical aerosol formation and find that their spectral signature is not consistent with observations.

  6. Aerosol properties in the upper clouds of Venus from glory observations by the Venus Monitoring Camera (Venus Express mission)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Petrova, Elena V.; Shalygina, Oksana S.

    2018-01-01

    From the angular positions of the glory features observed on the upper cloud deck of Venus in three VMC channels (at 0.365, 0.513, and 0.965 μm), the dominating sizes of cloud particles and their refractive indices have been retrieved, and their spatial and temporal variations have been analyzed. For this, the phase profiles of brightness were compared to the single-scattering phase functions of particles of different sizes, since diffuse multiple scattering in the clouds does not move the angular positions of the glory, which is produced by the single scattering by cloud particles, but only makes them less pronounced. We presented the measured phase profiles in two ways: they were built for individual images and for individual small regions observed in series of successive images. The analysis of the data of both types has yielded consistent results. The presently retrieved radii of cloud particle average approximately 1.0-1.2 μm (though some values reach 1.4 μm) and demonstrate a variable pattern versus latitude and local solar time (LST). The decrease of particle sizes at high latitudes (down to 0.6 μm at 60°S) earlier found from the 0.965-μm and partly 0.365-μm data has been definitely confirmed in the analysis of the data of all three channels considered. To obtain the consistent estimates of particle sizes from the UV glory maximum and minimum positions, we have to vary the effective variance of the particle sizes, while it was fixed constant in our previous studies. The twofold increase of this parameter (from 0.07 to 0.14) diminishes the estimates of particle sizes by 10-15%, while the effect on the retrieved refractive index is negligible. The obtained estimates of the refractive index are more or less uniformly distributed over the covered latitude and LST ranges, and most of them are higher than those of concentrated sulfuric acid solution. This confirms our previous result obtained only at 0.965 μm, and now we may state that the cases of a

  7. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Main; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Duncan, Bryan; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption, and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  8. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Duncan, Bryan; Ginoux, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine what are the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption, and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  9. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Torres, Omar; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET, satellite retrievals from the TOMS instrument, and field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption. and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  10. Effect of Dust and Anthropogenic Aerosols on Columnar Aerosol Optical Properties over Darjeeling (2200 m asl), Eastern Himalayas, India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Adak, Anandamay; Singh, Ajay K.; Devara, Panuganti C. S.; Raha, Sibaji

    2012-01-01

    Background The loading of atmospheric particulate matter (aerosol) in the eastern Himalaya is mainly regulated by the locally generated anthropogenic aerosols from the biomass burning and by the aerosols transported from the distance sources. These different types of aerosol loading not only affect the aerosol chemistry but also produce consequent signature on the radiative properties of aerosol. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive study has been made to study the seasonal variations in aerosol components of fine and coarse mode aerosols and black carbon along with the simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth on clear sky days over Darjeeling, a high altitude station (2200 masl) at eastern Himalayas during the year 2008. We observed a heavy loading of fine mode dust component (Ca2+) during pre-monsoon (Apr – May) which was higher by 162% than its annual mean whereas during winter (Dec – Feb), the loading of anthropogenic aerosol components mainly from biomass burning (fine mode SO4 2− and black carbon) were higher (76% for black carbon and 96% for fine mode SO4 2−) from their annual means. These high increases in dust aerosols during pre-monsoon and anthropogenic aerosols during winter enhanced the aerosol optical depth by 25 and 40%, respectively. We observed that for every 1% increase in anthropogenic aerosols, AOD increased by 0.55% during winter whereas for every 1% increase in dust aerosols, AOD increased by 0.46% during pre-monsoon. Conclusion/Significance The natural dust transport process (during pre-monsoon) plays as important a role in the radiation effects as the anthropogenic biomass burning (during winter) and their differential effects (rate of increase of the AOD with that of the aerosol concentration) are also very similar. This should be taken into account in proper modeling of the atmospheric environment over eastern Himalayas. PMID:22792264

  11. Effect of dust and anthropogenic aerosols on columnar aerosol optical properties over Darjeeling (2200 m asl), eastern Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay K; Adak, Anandamay; Singh, Ajay K; Devara, Panuganti C S; Raha, Sibaji

    2012-01-01

    The loading of atmospheric particulate matter (aerosol) in the eastern Himalaya is mainly regulated by the locally generated anthropogenic aerosols from the biomass burning and by the aerosols transported from the distance sources. These different types of aerosol loading not only affect the aerosol chemistry but also produce consequent signature on the radiative properties of aerosol. An extensive study has been made to study the seasonal variations in aerosol components of fine and coarse mode aerosols and black carbon along with the simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth on clear sky days over Darjeeling, a high altitude station (2200 masl) at eastern Himalayas during the year 2008. We observed a heavy loading of fine mode dust component (Ca(2+)) during pre-monsoon (Apr-May) which was higher by 162% than its annual mean whereas during winter (Dec-Feb), the loading of anthropogenic aerosol components mainly from biomass burning (fine mode SO(4)(2-) and black carbon) were higher (76% for black carbon and 96% for fine mode SO(4)(2-)) from their annual means. These high increases in dust aerosols during pre-monsoon and anthropogenic aerosols during winter enhanced the aerosol optical depth by 25 and 40%, respectively. We observed that for every 1% increase in anthropogenic aerosols, AOD increased by 0.55% during winter whereas for every 1% increase in dust aerosols, AOD increased by 0.46% during pre-monsoon. The natural dust transport process (during pre-monsoon) plays as important a role in the radiation effects as the anthropogenic biomass burning (during winter) and their differential effects (rate of increase of the AOD with that of the aerosol concentration) are also very similar. This should be taken into account in proper modeling of the atmospheric environment over eastern Himalayas.

  12. Particle Property Data Quality Flags for the MISR Aerosol Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.; Garay, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The MISR instrument aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite has the unique capability to retrieve aerosol properties under favorable conditions. General aerosol type retrieval quality guidelines are provided in the MISR Data Quality Statement and related publications. The retrieved value of aerosol type is more sensitive to scene conditions than aerosol optical depth, and more difficult to validate, as there is very little coincident aerosol type validation data. Here we report on the steps we are taking to provide an aerosol-type data quality flag, to be provided with each individual retrieval result. Due to the lack of validation data for comparison, our main approach is to evaluate the self-consistency of aerosol type retrieval values for regions where particular aerosol types are known to dominate. Some factors affecting aerosol type retrieval quality that can be assessed pre-retrieval are the number of MISR cameras available, the range of scattering angles viewed, and surface conditions such as shallow water or seasonal coastal runoff. Factors that must be assessed post-retrieval include values of retrieved aerosol optical depth and the number and type of mixtures successfully passing the MISR algorithm acceptance criteria. Regional monthly plots with MISR measurements binned at 0.5 degree resolution and color-coded stratification of one or more parameters are the main tools for identifying locations and times where different aerosol types are retrieved. The statistics of individual MISR values such as mid-visible AOD, number and type of mixtures passing, number of cameras used, the range and maximum scattering angles, are studied as joint distributions on a region-by-region basis. From these, a synthesis of the self-consistency and agreement with expectation is made, effectively indicating the quality of the aerosol type constrains to the extent possible, and thresholds for assigning quality flags are assessed. Multiple-month summaries

  13. The impact of Mount Etna's sulphur emissions to the atmospheric composition, aerosol properties and radiative transfer in the central Mediterranean: 14 years of statistic analysis using observations and Lagrangian modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Zanetel, Claudia; di Sarra, Alcide; Salerno, Giuseppe; Tapparo, Andrea; Briole, Pierre; Legras, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions influence tropospheric and stratospheric composition, the Earth's radiation budget from the regional to the global scale, and then the Earth's climate. While the impact of the strong explosive eruptions reaching the stratosphere is relatively well known, the influence of the more frequent weak volcanic activity, including passive degassing, on the tropospheric aerosol properties and on the radiation budget is still largely unknown. Most of the radiative effects of moderate eruptions are associated with changes of the aerosol size distribution, composition, and shape. Emission of primary particles, mainly ash, and secondary aerosols through gas-to-particle conversion of volatile sulphur compounds contribute to affect the aerosol properties. Mount Etna's continuous degassing and episodic explosive eruptions is an important source of particles and gases for the Mediterranean atmosphere, with, e.g., ten times larger emissions of volatile sulphur compounds than the anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. The impact of Mount Etna on the atmospheric composition, the aerosol chemical, microphysical and optical properties, the clouds occurrence and properties, the radiative balance and the regional climate in the Mediterranean are not known and probably underestimated. In this contribution, the downwind impact of Mount Etna's sulphur emissions in the central Mediterranean is estimated over the period 2000-2013 using long-term series of sulphur dioxide column and Ångströms exponent observations at the the ENEA (Ente Nazionale per l'Energia e l'Ambiente) Station for Climate Observations on the small island of Lampedusa (35.5°N, 12.6°E). These observations are linked to the information on the volcanic source, in terms of 1) the local dynamics, using a long series of trajectories and plume dispersion information obtained with the FLEXPART Lagrangian mode, and 2) the emission strength, using the long-term series of daily sulphur dioxide

  14. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  15. Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Kahn, Ralph A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Yu, Hongbin; Rind, David; Feingold, Graham; Quinn, Patricia K.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Streets, David G.; DeCola, Phillip; hide

    2009-01-01

    This report critically reviews current knowledge about global distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosols, as they relate to aerosol impacts on climate. It assesses possible next steps aimed at substantially reducing uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Current measurement techniques and modeling approaches are summarized, providing context. As a part of the Synthesis and Assessment Product in the Climate Change Science Program, this assessment builds upon recent related assessments, including the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4, 2007) and other Climate Change Science Program reports. The objectives of this report are (1) to promote a consensus about the knowledge base for climate change decision support, and (2) to provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the climate-relevant impacts of anthropogenic aerosols for policy makers, policy analysts, and general public, both within and outside the U.S government and worldwide.

  16. Physical properties of the stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of the equilibrium vapor pressure over nitric acid solutions with observed water and nitric acid partial pressures in the stratosphere implies that nitric acid cannot be present as an aerosol particle in the lower stratosphere. A similar comparison for sulfuric acid solutions indicates that sulfuric acid aerosol particles are 75% H2SO4 by weight in water, in good agreement with direct observations. The freezing curve of H2SO4 solutions requires that the H2SO4 aerosol particles be solid or supercooled. The equilibrium vapor pressure of H2SO4 in the stratosphere is of the order of 20 picotorr. At stratospheric temperatures, ammonium sulfate is in a ferroelectric phase. As a result, polar molecules may form a surface coating on these aerosols, which may be a fertile ground for further chemical reaction.

  17. Classifying aerosol type using in situ surface spectral aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Lauren; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick; Jefferson, Anne; Sharma, Sangeeta; Kim, Jeong Eun; Sherman, James P.; Sorribas, Mar; Kalapov, Ivo; Arsov, Todor; Angelov, Christo; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Labuschagne, Casper; Kim, Sang-Woo; Hoffer, András; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chia, Hao-Ping; Bergin, Michael; Sun, Junying; Liu, Peng; Wu, Hao

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of aerosol size and composition is important for determining radiative forcing effects of aerosols, identifying aerosol sources and improving aerosol satellite retrieval algorithms. The ability to extrapolate aerosol size and composition, or type, from intensive aerosol optical properties can help expand the current knowledge of spatiotemporal variability in aerosol type globally, particularly where chemical composition measurements do not exist concurrently with optical property measurements. This study uses medians of the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE), absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from 24 stations within the NOAA/ESRL Federated Aerosol Monitoring Network to infer aerosol type using previously published aerosol classification schemes.Three methods are implemented to obtain a best estimate of dominant aerosol type at each station using aerosol optical properties. The first method plots station medians into an AAE vs. SAE plot space, so that a unique combination of intensive properties corresponds with an aerosol type. The second typing method expands on the first by introducing a multivariate cluster analysis, which aims to group stations with similar optical characteristics and thus similar dominant aerosol type. The third and final classification method pairs 3-day backward air mass trajectories with median aerosol optical properties to explore the relationship between trajectory origin (proxy for likely aerosol type) and aerosol intensive parameters, while allowing for multiple dominant aerosol types at each station.The three aerosol classification methods have some common, and thus robust, results. In general, estimating dominant aerosol type using optical properties is best suited for site locations with a stable and homogenous aerosol population, particularly continental polluted (carbonaceous aerosol), marine polluted (carbonaceous aerosol mixed with sea salt) and continental dust/biomass sites

  18. Impact of dust and smoke mixing on column-integrated aerosol properties from observations during a severe wildfire episode over Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Amo, J L; Estellés, V; Marcos, C; Segura, S; Esteve, A R; Pedrós, R; Utrillas, M P; Martínez-Lozano, J A

    2017-12-01

    The most destructive wildfire experienced in Spain since 2004 occurred close to Valencia in summer 2012. A total of 48.500ha were affected by two wildfires, which were mostly active during 29-30 June. The fresh smoke plume was detected at the Burjassot measurement station simultaneously to a severe dust episode. We propose an empirical method to evaluate the dust and smoke mixing and its impact on the microphysical and optical properties. For this, we combine direct-sun measurements with a Cimel CE-318 sun-photometer with an inversion methodology, and the Mie theory to derive the column-integrated size distribution, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g). The mixing of dust and smoke greatly increased the aerosol load and modified the background aerosol properties. Mineral dust increased the aerosol optical depth (AOD) up to 1, while the smoke plume caused an extreme AOD peak of 8. The size distribution of the mixture was bimodal, with a fine and coarse modes dominated by the smoke particles and mineral dust, respectively. The SSA and g for the dust-smoke mixture show a marked sensitivity on the smoke mixing-ratio, mainly at longer wavelengths. Mineral dust and smoke share a similar SSA at 440nm (~0.90), but with opposite spectral dependency. A small dust contribution to the total AOD substantially affects the SSA of the mixture, and also SSA at 1020nm increases from 0.87 to 0.95. This leads to a different spectral behaviour of SSA that changes from positive (smoke plume) to negative (dust), depending on the dust and smoke mixing-ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerosol optical properties observation and its relationship to meteorological conditions and emission during the Chinese National Day and Spring Festival holiday in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhao, Hujia; Gui, Ke; Sun, Tianze; An, Linchang; Yu, Jie; Liu, Chong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-11-01

    The reduction of traffic flow in downtown areas during the Chinese National Day holiday and the fireworks during the Spring Festival provide a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of urban anthropogenic activities on aerosol optical properties during these important Chinese festivals in Beijing. The National Day in 2014 and 2015 and Spring Festival in 2015 and 2016 were selected as study periods. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased over the all holiday periods and the average AODs during the 2015 National Day, 2015 Spring Festival and 2016 Spring Festival were about 81%, 21% and 36% higher than the background levels, respectively. The average AOD in 2014 National Day holiday was lower than background level partly influenced by precipitation event. The absorption AOD (AAOD) at 440 nm showed consistent variations with the AOD and the average AAODs during the 2015 National Day, 2015 Spring Festival and 2016 Spring Festival holidays were about 75%, 19% and 23% higher than the background level, respectively. The mean values of single scattering albedo were greater than the background level during the Spring Festival holidays, whereas the values during the National Day holiday in 2015 were lower partly due to the reduction of vehicular emissions in downtown areas. Fine- and coarse-mode particle volumes during pollution periods in holidays were 0.04-0.25 μm3 and 0.03-0.15 μm3 larger than background level, respectively. The results of potential source contribution function and concentration-weighted trajectory analyses identified the areas south of Beijing as the main source regions of PM2.5 and were responsible for the extremely high PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing during the holiday periods. The findings of this study may aid understanding the effects of human activities on aerosol optical properties over Beijing area and contribute to improving regional air quality.

  20. Retrieval of aerosol optical properties over land using PMAp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Ruediger; Poli, Gabriele; Holdak, Andriy

    2015-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol optical properties is an important task for industry and climate forecasting. An ideal instrument should include observations with moderate spectral and high spatial resolutions for a wide range of wavelengths (from the UV to the TIR), measurements of the polarization state at different wavelengths and measurements of the same scene for different observation geometries. As such an ideal instrument is currently unavailable the usage of different instruments on one satellite platform is an alternative choice. Since February 2014, the Polar Multi sensor Aerosol product (PMAp) is delivered as operational GOME product to our customers. The algorithms retrieve aerosol optical properties over ocean (AOD, volcanic ash, aerosol type) using a multi-sensor approach (GOME, AVHRR, IASI). The next releases of PMAp will provide an extended set of aerosol and cloud properties which include AOD over land and an improved volcanic ash retrieval combining AVHRR and IASI. This presentation gives an overview on the existing product and the prototypes in development. The major focus is the discussion of the AOD retrieval over land implemented in the upcoming PMAp2 release. In addition, the results of our current validation studies (e.g. comparisons to AERONET, other satellite platforms and model data) are shown.

  1. Physical and Chemical Properties of Anthropogenic Aerosols: An overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of anthropogenic sources emit fine aerosols to the atmosphere. The physical and chemical properties of these aerosols are of interest due to their influence on climate, human health, and visibility. Aerosol chemical composition is complex. Combustion aerosols can c...

  2. Characterizing Arctic aerosol properties for evaluation of aerosol-cloud interactions on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, J.; de Boer, G.; Maahn, M.; McComiskey, A. C.; Solomon, A.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) have the potential to modulate cloud microphysical properties. In regions such as the Arctic, aerosol-cloud interactions are severely understudied yet have significant implications for surface radiation. Further, uncertainties in model representations of heterogeneous nucleation are a significant hindrance to simulating Arctic mixed-phase cloud processes. Characterizing aerosol chemical, physical, and cloud nucleating properties is pertinent to evaluating of the role of aerosols in altering Arctic cloud microphysics, lifetime and radiative forcing. We present an analysis of in situ observations of a wide range of aerosol properties on the North Slope of Alaska. Airborne measurements of aerosol and cloud properties from the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME-V) campaign during the summer of 2015 provide valuable insight into the vertical and spatial heterogeneity of aerosols and their potential to influence cloud formation over the North Slope, which is controlled by both long-range transported and regional sources. We compare these observations to previous airborne field campaign measurements to delineate the diversity in the vertical distribution of aerosols over several time periods. Ground-based observations are utilized to support ARM-ACME-V airborne measurements and to evaluate the sources of aerosol in the boundary layer as compared to the free troposphere. Ultimately, this detailed information is used to inform the parameterization of CCN and INPs in large-eddy simulations to evaluate the sensitivity of cloud radiative forcing to different aerosol conditions. The goal is to improve process understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in Arctic mixed-phase clouds and their subsequent impacts on the surface energy budget.

  3. Evaluations of tropospheric aerosol properties simulated by the community earth system model with a sectional aerosol microphysics scheme.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengfei; Toon, Owen B; Bardeen, Charles G; Mills, Michael J; Fan, Tianyi; English, Jason M; Neely, Ryan R

    2015-06-01

    A sectional aerosol model (CARMA) has been developed and coupled with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Aerosol microphysics, radiative properties, and interactions with clouds are simulated in the size-resolving model. The model described here uses 20 particle size bins for each aerosol component including freshly nucleated sulfate particles, as well as mixed particles containing sulfate, primary organics, black carbon, dust, and sea salt. The model also includes five types of bulk secondary organic aerosols with four volatility bins. The overall cost of CESM1-CARMA is approximately ∼2.6 times as much computer time as the standard three-mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1-MAM3) and twice as much computer time as the seven-mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1-MAM7) using similar gas phase chemistry codes. Aerosol spatial-temporal distributions are simulated and compared with a large set of observations from satellites, ground-based measurements, and airborne field campaigns. Simulated annual average aerosol optical depths are lower than MODIS/MISR satellite observations and AERONET observations by ∼32%. This difference is within the uncertainty of the satellite observations. CESM1/CARMA reproduces sulfate aerosol mass within 8%, organic aerosol mass within 20%, and black carbon aerosol mass within 50% compared with a multiyear average of the IMPROVE/EPA data over United States, but differences vary considerably at individual locations. Other data sets show similar levels of comparison with model simulations. The model suggests that in addition to sulfate, organic aerosols also significantly contribute to aerosol mass in the tropical UTLS, which is consistent with limited data.

  4. Evaluations of tropospheric aerosol properties simulated by the community earth system model with a sectional aerosol microphysics scheme

    PubMed Central

    Toon, Owen B.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Mills, Michael J.; Fan, Tianyi; English, Jason M.; Neely, Ryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A sectional aerosol model (CARMA) has been developed and coupled with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Aerosol microphysics, radiative properties, and interactions with clouds are simulated in the size‐resolving model. The model described here uses 20 particle size bins for each aerosol component including freshly nucleated sulfate particles, as well as mixed particles containing sulfate, primary organics, black carbon, dust, and sea salt. The model also includes five types of bulk secondary organic aerosols with four volatility bins. The overall cost of CESM1‐CARMA is approximately ∼2.6 times as much computer time as the standard three‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM3) and twice as much computer time as the seven‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM7) using similar gas phase chemistry codes. Aerosol spatial‐temporal distributions are simulated and compared with a large set of observations from satellites, ground‐based measurements, and airborne field campaigns. Simulated annual average aerosol optical depths are lower than MODIS/MISR satellite observations and AERONET observations by ∼32%. This difference is within the uncertainty of the satellite observations. CESM1/CARMA reproduces sulfate aerosol mass within 8%, organic aerosol mass within 20%, and black carbon aerosol mass within 50% compared with a multiyear average of the IMPROVE/EPA data over United States, but differences vary considerably at individual locations. Other data sets show similar levels of comparison with model simulations. The model suggests that in addition to sulfate, organic aerosols also significantly contribute to aerosol mass in the tropical UTLS, which is consistent with limited data. PMID:27668039

  5. The optical properties, physical properties and direct radiative forcing of urban columnar aerosols in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Bingliang; Wang, Tijian; Liu, Jane; Che, Huizheng; Han, Yong; Fu, Yu; Li, Shu; Xie, Min; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Pulong; Chen, Huimin; Yang, Xiu-qun; Sun, Jianning

    2018-02-01

    The optical and physical properties as well as the direct radiative forcings (DRFs) of fractionated aerosols in the urban area of the western Yangtze River Delta (YRD) are investigated with measurements from a Cimel sun photometer combined with a radiation transfer model. Ground-based observations of aerosols have much higher temporal resolutions than satellite retrievals. An initial analysis reveals the characteristics of the optical properties of different types of fractionated aerosols in the western YRD. The total aerosols, mostly composed of scattering components (93.8 %), have mean optical depths of 0.65 at 550 nm and refractive index of 1.44 + 0.0084i at 440 nm. The fine aerosols are approximately four times more abundant and have very different compositions from coarse aerosols. The absorbing components account for only ˜ 4.6 % of fine aerosols and 15.5 % of coarse aerosols and have smaller sizes than the scattering aerosols within the same mode. Therefore, fine particles have stronger scattering than coarse ones, simultaneously reflecting the different size distributions between the absorbing and scattering aerosols. The relationships among the optical properties quantify the aerosol mixing and imply that approximately 15 and 27.5 % of the total occurrences result in dust- and black-carbon-dominating mixing aerosols, respectively, in the western YRD. Unlike the optical properties, the size distributions of aerosols in the western YRD are similar to those found at other sites over eastern China on a climatological scale, peaking at radii of 0.148 and 2.94 µm. However, further analysis reveals that the coarse-dominated particles can also lead to severe haze pollution over the YRD. Observation-based estimations indicate that both fine and coarse aerosols in the western YRD exert negative DRFs, and this is especially true for fine aerosols (-11.17 W m-2 at the top of atmosphere, TOA). A higher absorption fraction leads directly to the negative DRF being

  6. Sensitivity test of GOCI dust aerosol index with aerosol absorptivity by using radiative transfer simulation and comparison with AERONET aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Park, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    For the monitoring of aerosol properties in East Asia using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), the GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed and has been improved continuously since 2011. GOCI YAER algorithm contains several aerosol models consisted of various optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine-mode fraction (FMF), and single scattering albedo (SSA) for assuming every possible aerosol status. Then, AOD at 550 nm is retrieved from selected aerosol models which show least difference between observed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and simulated TOA reflectance in terms of spectral AODs. Current inversion method is optimized for spectral AODs, especially AOD at 550 nm. Therefore, GOCI YAER AOD, FMF, and Angstrom exponent show reliable accuracy with ground-based AERONET and satellite-based MODIS and VIIRS products. However, SSA shows least accuracy (R = 0.2) with AERONET SSA, which is different from AOD, FMF, and AE. To improve accuracy of SSA retrieval, the inversion method should reflect a characteristic of aerosol absorptivity well, not only in the aerosol model construction as forward modeling. UV aerosol index from TOMS and OMI measurements, calculated by using 354 and 388 nm, provides the extent of aerosol absorptivity, which can be used for the improvement of aerosol model quality between absorbing and non-absorbing aerosol model. Instead of UV index, a dust aerosol index (DAI) can be calculated using two visible channels such as 412 and 443 (or 490) nm. Heavy dust plume, which is coarse and absorbing aerosol, in 47 April 2012 show DAI of 5, but heavy haze plume, which is fine and non-absorbing aerosol, in 6 May 2012 shows DAI close to 0. To find relationship between DAI and aerosol absorptivity properties, sensitivity is tested by using radiative transfer model (RTM), and retrieved GOCI DAI from observed TOA reflectance is compared with ground-based AERONET SSA and other optical properties. Both of

  7. Comparisons Between MISR and AERONET Retrieved Aerosol Particle Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Barbara J. Gaitley1, Ralph Kahn2, 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109; 818-354-0552; 2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; e-mail: barbara.gaitley@jpl.nasa.gov As a further step in validating the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol products, an extensive statistical comparison of particle micro-physical properties has been completed against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, and size distribution characteristic values and variance envelopes for individual sites and aggregates are compared, stratified by expected aerosol air mass type, optical depth magnitude and season. Specific examples illustrating strengths and weaknesses of this approach will be shown. Eight years of data from 52 geographically diverse sites having good long-term measurement records are first stratified based on six broad aerosol air mass type categories: maritime, biomass burning, desert dust, urban pollution, continental and mixed dust+smoke aerosols. The number of actual coincident measurements is limited by requiring AERONET direct sun aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data be obtained from a two-hour window centered on the MISR overpass time, and AERONET sky scans, which provide particle micro-physical properties and are taken only once an hour, obtained from a four-hour window also centered on the overpass. 3995 coincident observations are included in the data set. Both AERONET sun and sky data are averaged over the measurements obtained within these windows and are then interpolated to the MISR characteristic wavelengths to facilitate comparison. All AERONET measurements are Level 1.5, Version 2 data. A previous, systematic comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depth data [Kahn, Gaitley et al., JGR 110, 2005] identified specific, suggested improvements to the early post-launch MISR Standard Aerosol retrieval algorithms

  8. CALIPSO Observations of Volcanic Aerosol in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Pitts, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    In the stratosphere, the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) has observed the presence of aerosol plumes associated with the eruptions several volcanoes including Montserrat (May 2006), Chaiten (May 2008), and Kasatochi (August 2008). While the dense ash plumes from these eruptions dissipate relatively quickly, CALIPSO continued to detect an enhanced aerosol layer from the Montserrat eruption from the initial observations in June 2006 well into 2008. Solar occultation missions were uniquely capable of monitoring stratospheric aerosol. However, since the end of long-lived instruments like the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II), there has been no clear space-based successor instrument. A number of active instruments, some employing new techniques, are being evaluated as candidate sources of stratospheric aerosol data. Herein, we examine suitability of the CALIPSO 532-nm aerosol backscatter coefficient measurements.

  9. Background aerosol over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau: observed characteristics of aerosol mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Wan, Xin; Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Guoshuai; Wang, Zhongyan; Wang, Yongjie; Kang, Shichang

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), an observation network was established within the region's various ecosystems, including at the Ngari, Qomolangma (QOMS), Nam Co, and Southeastern Tibetan (SET) stations. In this paper we illustrate aerosol mass loadings by integrating in situ measurements with satellite and ground-based remote sensing datasets for the 2011-2013 period, on both local and large scales. Mass concentrations of these surface atmospheric aerosols were relatively low and varied with land cover, showing a general tendency of Ngari and QOMS (barren sites) > Nam Co (grassland site) > SET (forest site). Daily averages of online PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 µm) at these sites were sequentially 18.2 ± 8.9, 14.5 ± 7.4, 11.9 ± 4.9 and 11.7 ± 4.7 µg m-3. Correspondingly, the ratios of PM2.5 to total suspended particles (TSP) were 27.4 ± 6.65, 22.3 ± 10.9, 37.3 ± 11.1 and 54.4 ± 6.72 %. Bimodal mass distributions of size-segregated particles were found at all sites, with a relatively small peak in accumulation mode and a more notable peak in coarse mode. Diurnal variations in fine-aerosol masses generally displayed a bi-peak pattern at the QOMS, Nam Co and SET stations and a single-peak pattern at the Ngari station, controlled by the effects of local geomorphology, mountain-valley breeze circulation and aerosol emissions. Dust aerosol content in PM2.1 samples gave fractions of 26 % at the Ngari station and 29 % at the QOMS station, or ˜ 2-3 times that of reported results at human-influenced sites. Furthermore, observed evidence confirmed the existence of the aerodynamic conditions necessary for the uplift of fine particles from a barren land surface. Combining surface aerosol data and atmospheric-column aerosol optical properties, the TSP mass and aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) generally decreased as land cover changed from

  10. Aerosol Properties and Radiative Forcing over Kanpur during Severe Aerosol Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Sinha, P. R.; Vinoj, V.

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols over India exhibit large spatio-temporal fluctuation driven by the local monsoon system, emission rates and seasonally-changed air masses. The northern part of India is well-known for its high aerosol loading throughout the year due to anthropogenic emissions, dust influence and biomass burning. On certain circumstances and, under favorable weather conditions, the aerosol load can be severe, causing significant health concerns and climate implications. The present work analyzes the aerosol episode (AE) days and examines the modification in aerosol properties and radiative forcing during the period 2001-2010 based on Kanpur-AERONET sun photometer data. As AEs are considered the daysmore » having daily-mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) above the decadal mean + 1 STD (standard deviation); the threshold value is defined at 0.928. The results identify 277 out of 2095 days (13.2%) of AEs over Kanpur, which are most frequently observed during post-monsoon (78 cases, 18.6%) and monsoon (76, 14.7%) seasons due to biomass-burning episodes and dust influence, respectively. On the other hand, the AEs in winter and pre-monsoon are lower in both absolute and percentage values (65, 12.5% and 58, 9.1%, respectively). The modification in aerosol properties on the AE days is strongly related to season. Thus, in post-monsoon and winter the AEs are associated with enhanced presence of fine-mode aerosols and Black Carbon from anthropogenic pollution and any kind of burning, while in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons they are mostly associated with transported dust. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) calculated using SBDART shows much more surface (~-69 to -97 Wm-2) and Top of Atmosphere cooling (-20 to -30 Wm-2) as well as atmospheric heating (~43 to 71 Wm-2) during the AE days compared to seasonal means. These forcing values are mainly controlled by the higher AODs and the modified aerosol characteristics (Angstrom α, SSA) during the AE days in each season and may

  11. What we can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space. Recent advances in modeling the Earth's climate have brought us to a point where the contributions made by aerosols to the global radiation budget noticeably affect the results. Knowledge of both aerosol optical depth and the microphysical properties of particles is needed to adequately model aerosol effects. This talk explores the ability of multiangle, multi-spectral remote sensing observations anticipated from the EOS MISR instrument, to retrieve aerosol optical depth and information about mixes of particle types, globally, at 17.6 km spatial resolution. The instrument is scheduled for launch into a 10:30 AM, sun-synchronous polar orbit in 1999.

  12. Ground-based Network and Supersite Measurements for Studying Aerosol Properties and Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.

    2008-01-01

    From radiometric principles, it is expected that the retrieved properties of extensive aerosols and clouds from reflected/emitted measurements by satellite (and/or aircraft) should be consistent with those retrieved from transmitted/emitted radiance observed at the surface. Although space-borne remote sensing observations contain large spatial domain, they are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite datasets. The development and deployment of AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sunphotometer network and SMART-COMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile supersite are aimed for the optimal utilization of collocated ground-based observations as constraints to yield higher fidelity satellite retrievals and to determine any sampling bias due to target conditions. To characterize the regional natural and anthropogenic aerosols, AERONET is an internationally federated network of unique sunphotometry that contains more than 250 permanent sites worldwide. Since 1993, there are more than 480 million aerosol optical depth observations and about 15 sites have continuous records longer than 10 years for annual/seasonal trend analyses. To quantify the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system and the atmospheric processes, SMART-COMMIT instrument into three categories: flux radiometer, radiance sensor and in-situ probe. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over eight years, SMART-COMMIT have gradually refine( and been proven vital for field deployment. In this paper, we will demonstrate the

  13. Characterization of absorbing aerosol types using ground and satellites based observations over an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Samina; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Humera

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, for the first time, an effort has been made to seasonally characterize the absorbing aerosols into different types using ground and satellite based observations. For this purpose, optical properties of aerosol retrieved from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were utilized over Karachi for the period 2012 to 2014. Firstly, OMI AODabs was validated with AERONET AODabs and found to have a high degree of correlation. Then, based on this validation, characterization was conducted by analyzing aerosol Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), Angstrom Exponent (AE), Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Aerosol Index (AI) and their mutual correlation, to identify the absorbing aerosol types and also to examine the variability in seasonal distribution. The absorbing aerosols were characterized into Mostly Black Carbon (BC), Mostly Dust and Mixed BC & Dust. The results revealed that Mostly BC aerosols contributed dominantly during winter and postmonsoon whereas, Mostly Dust were dominant during summer and premonsoon. These types of absorbing aerosol were also confirmed with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) observations.

  14. The Dynamics of Fine Mode Aerosol Optical Properties in South Korea from AERONET and Aircraft Observations with a Focus on Cases with Large Cloud Fraction and/or Fog During KORUS-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Sinyuk, A.; Sorokin, M. G.; Kraft, J.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Crawford, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The focus of our investigation is of major fine mode aerosol pollution events in South Korea, particularly when cloud fraction is high. This work includes the analysis of AERONET data utilizing the Spectral Deconvolution Algorithm to enable detection of fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) near to clouds. Additionally we analyze the newly developed AERONET V3 data sets that have significant changes to cloud screening algorithms. Comparisons of aerosol optical depth are made between AERONET Versions 2 and 3 for both long-term climatology data and for specific 2016 cases, especially in May and June 2016 during the KORUS-AQ field campaign. In general the Version 3 cloud screening allows many more fine mode AOD observations to reach Level 2 when cloud amount is high, as compared to Version 2, thereby enabling more thorough analysis of these types of cases. Particular case studies include May 25-26, 2016 when cloud fraction was very high over much of the peninsula, associated with a frontal passage and advection of pollution from China. Another interesting case is June 9, 2016 when there was fog over the West Sea, and this seems to have affected aerosol properties well downwind over the Korean peninsula. Both of these days had KORUS-AQ research aircraft flights that provided observations of aerosol absorption, particle size distributions and vertical profiles of extinction. AERONET retrievals and aircraft in situ measurements both showed high single scattering albedo (weak absorption) on these cloudy days. We also investigate the relationship between aerosol fine mode radius and AOD and the relationship between aerosol single scattering albedo and fine mode particle radius from the AERONET almucantar retrievals for the interval of April through June 2016 for 17 AERONET sites in South Korea. Strongly increasing fine mode radius (leading to greater scattering efficiency) as fine mode AOD increased is one factor contributing to a trend of increasing single scattering

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing in summer 2006: 2. Local and column aerosol optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Hitoshi; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka

    2010-11-23

    Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-chem model calculations were conducted to study aerosol optical properties around Beijing, China, during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) period. In this paper, we interpret aerosol optical properties in terms of aerosol mass concentrations and their chemical compositions by linking model calculations with measurements. In general, model calculations reproduced observed features of spatial and temporal variations of various surface and column aerosol optical parameters in and around Beijing. Spatial and temporal variations of aerosol absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficient corresponded well to those of elemental carbon (primary aerosol),more » sulfate (secondary aerosol), and the total aerosol mass concentration, respectively. These results show that spatial and temporal variations of the absorption coefficient are controlled by local emissions (within 100 km around Beijing during the preceding 24 h), while those of the scattering coefficient are controlled by regional-scale emissions (within 500 km around Beijing during the preceding 3 days) under synoptic-scale meteorological conditions, as discussed in our previous study of aerosol mass concentration. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction revealed that the contribution of secondary aerosols and their water uptake increased with altitude within the planetary boundary layer, leading to a considerable increase in column aerosol optical depth (AOD) around Beijing. These effects are the main factors causing differences in regional and temporal variations between particulate matter (PM) mass concentration at the surface and column AOD over a wide region in the northern part of the Great North China Plain.« less

  16. Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects and Heating in the New Era of Active Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus, Alexander V.

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the global energy budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Despite their impacts, aerosols remain a significant source of uncertainty in our ability to predict future climate. Multi-sensor observations from the A-Train satellite constellation provide valuable observational constraints necessary to reduce uncertainties in model simulations of aerosol direct effects. This study will discuss recent efforts to quantify aerosol direct effects globally and regionally using CloudSat's radiative fluxes and heating rates product. Improving upon previous techniques, this approach leverages the capability of CloudSat and CALIPSO to retrieve vertically resolved estimates of cloud and aerosol properties critical for accurately evaluating the radiative impacts of aerosols. We estimate the global annual mean aerosol direct effect to be -1.9 +/- 0.6 W/m2, which is in better agreement with previously published estimates from global models than previous satellite-based estimates. Detailed comparisons against a fully coupled simulation of the Community Earth System Model, however, reveal that this agreement on the global annual mean masks large regional discrepancies between modeled and observed estimates of aerosol direct effects related to model biases in cloud cover. A low bias in stratocumulus cloud cover over the southeastern Pacific Ocean, for example, leads to an overestimate of the radiative effects of marine aerosols. Stratocumulus clouds over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean can enhance aerosol absorption by 50% allowing aerosol layers to remain self-lofted in an area of subsidence. Aerosol heating is found to peak at 0.6 +/- 0.3 K/day an altitude of 4 km in September when biomass burning reaches a maximum. Finally, the contributions of observed aerosols components are evaluated to estimate the direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols. Aerosol forcing is computed using satellite-based radiative kernels that describe the

  17. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Properties under Thin Cirrus from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew Mark.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of aerosol optical properties using shortwave bands from passive satellite sensors, such as MODIS, is typically limited to cloud-free areas. However, if the clouds are thin enough (i.e. thin cirrus) such that the satellite-observed reflectance contains signals under the cirrus layer, and if the optical properties of this cirrus layer are known, the TOA reflectance can be corrected for the cirrus layer to be used for retrieving aerosol optical properties. To this end, we first correct the TOA reflectances in the aerosol bands (0.47, 0.55, 0.65, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.12 micron for ocean algorithm and 0.412, 0.47, and 0.65 micron for deep blue algorithm) for the effects of thin cirrus using 1.38 micron reflectance and conversion factors that convert cirrus reflectance in 1.38 micron band to those in aerosol bands. It was found that the conversion factors can be calculated by using relationships between reflectances in 1.38 micron band and minimum reflectances in the aerosol bands (Gao et al., 2002). Refer to the example in the figure. Then, the cirrus-corrected reflectance can be calculated by subtracting the cirrus reflectance from the TOA reflectance in the optically thin case. A sensitivity study suggested that cloudy-sky TOA reflectances can be calculated with small errors in the form of simple linear addition of cirrus-only reflectances and clear-sky reflectances. In this study, we correct the cirrus signals up to TOA reflectance at 1.38 micron of 0.05 where the simple linear addition is valid without extensive radiative transfer simulations. When each scene passes the set of tests shown in the flowchart, the scene is corrected for cirrus contamination and passed into aerosol retrieval algorithms.

  18. The spatial-temporal variations in optical properties of atmosphere aerosols derived from AERONET dataset over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Gu, X.; Cheng, T.; Li, Z.; Yu, T.

    2013-10-01

    The spatial-temporal properties of aerosol types over China are studied using the radiance measurements and inversions data at four Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations in China. Based on a cluster analysis, five aerosol classes were identified including a coarse-sized dominated aerosol type (presumably dust) and four fine-sized dominated aerosol types ranging from non-absorbing to highly absorbing fine aerosols. The optical properties and seasonal variations of these aerosol types are investigated. The results of analysis show that: (1) the highly absorbing aerosols usually occur in winter, (2) non-absorbing aerosols are frequently observed in summer; (3) coarse-sized dominated aerosols are frequently occurred in spring.

  19. Answering the Call for Model-Relevant Observations of Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rozenhaimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Stier, P.; Schutgens, N.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a technique for combining multiple A-Train aerosol data sets, namely MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP aerosol backscatter retrievals (hereafter referred to as MOC retrievals) to estimate full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately to calculate the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE). We present MOC results using almost two years of data collected in 2007 and 2008, and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of the MOC retrievals and MOC-based calculations of seasonal clear-sky DARE to values derived from four models that participated in the Phase II AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. Comparisons of seasonal aerosol property to AeroCom Phase II results show generally good agreement best agreement with forcing results at TOA is found with GMI-MerraV3.We discuss the challenges in making observations that really address deficiencies in models, with some of the more relevant aspects being representativeness of the observations for climatological states, and whether a given model-measurement difference addresses a sampling or a model error.

  20. Characterization of properties and spatiotemporal fields of mineral aerosol and its radiative impact using calipso data in conjunction with A-train satellite and ground-based observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyung Jin

    Atmospheric mineral aerosol (or dust) plays an important role in the Earth.s system. However, quantification of dust impacts has long been associated with large uncertainties because of the complex nature of mineral aerosol. A better understanding of the properties and spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric dust on the regional and global scales is needed to improve predictions of the impact that dust radiative forcing and heating/cooling rates have on the weather and climate. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission provides unique measurements of vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds and their properties during day and nighttime over all types of surfaces. This information has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the properties and effects of aerosol and clouds. This dissertation presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of CALIPSO lidar (version 2 and version 3.01) data in conjunction with A-Train satellite and ground-based observations aimed at characterizing mineral aerosol in East Asia and other major dust sources. The specific objectives were to characterize the spatial distribution and properties of atmospheric dust in the dust source regions using new CALIOP (version 3.01) data in conjunction with satellite MODIS, OMI, and CloudSat data and ground-based meteorological and lidar data; investigate changes in the vertical distribution and properties of dust during mid- and long-range transport; perform a modeling of the optical properties of nonspherical dust particles, and assess the radiative forcing and heating/cooling rates of atmospheric dust by performing radiative transfer modeling constrained by satellite data in major dust source regions. Our research revealed significant biases in CALIPSO version 2 data, especially in the presence of dense dust plumes and dust-cloud mixed scenes. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from CALIOP backscatter profiles was

  1. Using OMI Observations to Measure Aerosol Absorption of Biomass Burning Aerosols Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Jethva, Hiren

    2011-01-01

    The presence of absorbing aerosol layers above clouds is unambiguously detected by the TOMS/OMI UV Aerosol Index (AI) that uses satellite observations at two near-UV channels. A sensitivity study using radiative transfer calculations shows that the AI signal of resulting from the presence of aerosols above clouds is mainly driven by the aerosol absorption optical depth and the optical depth of the underlying cloud. Based on these results, an inversion algorithm has been developed to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of aerosol layers above clouds. In this presentation we will discuss the sensitivity analysis, describe the retrieval approach, and present results of applications of the retrieval method to OMI observations over the South Atlantic Ocean. Preliminary error analyses, to be discussed, indicate that the AOD can be underestimated (up to -30%) or overestimated (up to 60%) depending on algorithmic assumptions.

  2. Thermo-optical properties of residential coals and combustion aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintér, Máté; Ajtai, Tibor; Kiss-Albert, Gergely; Kiss, Diána; Utry, Noémi; Janovszky, Patrik; Palásti, Dávid; Smausz, Tomi; Kohut, Attila; Hopp, Béla; Galbács, Gábor; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we present the inherent optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols generated from various coals (hard through bituminous to lignite) and their correlation with the thermochemical and energetic properties of the bulk coal samples. The nanoablation method provided a unique opportunity for the comprehensive investigation of the generated particles under well controlled laboratory circumstances. First, the wavelength dependent radiative features (optical absorption and scattering) and the size distribution (SD) of the generated particulate matter were measured in-situ in aerosol phase using in-house developed and customised state-of-the-art instrumentation. We also investigated the morphology and microstructure of the generated particles using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Diffraction (ED). The absorption spectra of the measured samples (quantified by Absorption Angström Exponent (AAE)) were observed to be distinctive. The correlation between the thermochemical features of bulk coal samples (fixed carbon (FC) to volatile matter (VM) ratio and calorific value (CV)) and the AAE of aerosol assembly were found to be (r2 = 0.97 and r2 = 0.97) respectively. Lignite was off the fitted curves in both cases most probably due to its high optically inactive volatile material content. Although more samples are necessary to be investigated to draw statistically relevant conclusion, the revealed correlation between CV and Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) implies that climatic impact of coal combusted aerosol could depend on the thermal and energetic properties of the bulk material.

  3. How accurately can the aerosol forcing be diagnosed using present day observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Ghan, Steven; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Much of the uncertainty in anthropogenic forcing of climate change comes from uncertainties in the radiative forcing due to aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci). As aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei can have a strong influence on the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), previous studies have used the observed sensitivity of CDNC to aerosol properties as an emergent constraint on the strength of the RFaci. However, recent studies have suggested that this sensitivity in the present-day atmosphere is not the same as the sensitivity in the pre-industrial atmosphere, making it unsuitable for use as a constraint on the strength of the RFaci. In this study, we investigate a variety of methods and aerosol proxies in a selection of global aerosol-climate models to examine to what extent present-day aerosol-cloud relationships can be used to diagnose the RFaci. Using a simple linear sensitivity of the CDNC to aerosol perturbations, especially in clean regions, can result in large errors. However, we show that if suitable choices of aerosol proxy and spatial scale are made and if non-linearities in the sensitivity are accounted for, it is possible to diagnose the anthropogenic change in CDNC and so the RFaci using present day aerosol-cloud relationships and knowledge of the anthropogenic aerosol perturbation.

  4. CALIPSO Observations of Stratospheric Aerosols: A Preliminary Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Pitts, Michael C.; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    We have examined the 532-nm aerosol backscatter coefficient measurements by the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for their use in the observation of stratospheric aerosol. CALIPSO makes observations that span from 82 S to 82 N each day and, for each profile, backscatter coefficient values reported up to approx. 40 km. The possibility of using CALIPSO for stratospheric aerosol observations is demonstrated by the clear observation of the 20 May 2006 eruption of Montserrat in the earliest CALIPSO data in early June as well as by observations showing the 7 October 2006 eruption of Tavurvur (Rabaul). However, the very low aerosol loading within the stratosphere makes routine observations of the stratospheric aerosol far more difficult than relatively dense volcanic plumes. Nonetheless, we found that averaging a complete days worth of nighttime only data into 5-deg latitude by 1-km vertical bins reveals a stratospheric aerosol data centered near an altitude of 20 km, the clean wintertime polar vortices, and a small maximum in the lower tropical stratosphere. However, the derived values are clearly too small and often negative in much of the stratosphere. The data can be significantly improved by increasing the measured backscatter (molecular and aerosol) by approximately 5% suggesting that the current method of calibrating to a pure molecular atmosphere at 30 km is most likely the source of the low values.

  5. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  6. Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties over the ARM SGP Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Jonsson, H.; Strawa, A.; Provencal, B.; Covert, D.; Arnott, P.; Bucholtz, A.; Pilewskie, P.; Pommier, J.; Rissman, T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet one of its goals - to relate observations of radiative fluxes and radiances to the atmospheric composition - the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has pursued measurements and modeling activities that attempt to determine how aerosols impact atmospheric radiative transfer, both directly and indirectly. However, significant discrepancies between aerosol properties measured in situ or remotely remain. To this end, the ARM program will conduct an Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP) in May 2003 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north central Oklahoma. The IOP involves airborne measurements from two airplanes over the heavily instrumented SGP site. We will give an overview of early airborne results obtained aboard Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. The aircraft will carry instrumentation to perform in-situ measurements of aerosol absorption, scattering, extinction and particle size including such novel techniques as the photoacoustic and cavity ring-down methods. Aerosol optical depth and extinction will be measured with the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel sunphotometer. Furthermore up- and downwelling solar (broadband and spectral) and infrared radiation will be measured using three different instruments. The up-looking radiation instruments will be mounted on a newly developed stabilized platform, which will keep the instruments level up to aircraft pitch and roll angles of 10 degrees. Additional effort will be directed toward measurement of cloud condensation nucleus concentration as a function of supersaturation and relating CCN concentration to aerosol composition and size distribution. This relation is central to description of the aerosol indirect effect.

  7. Aerosol particle vertical distributions and optical properties over Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Boon Ning; Campbell, James R.; Salinas, Santo V.; Chang, Chew Wai; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Holben, Brent N.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2013-11-01

    As part of the Seven Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and a Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) instrument have been deployed at Singapore to study the regional aerosol environment of the Maritime Continent (MC). Using coincident AERONET Level 2.0 and MPLNET Level 2.0a data from 24 September 2009 to 31 March 2011, the seasonal variability of aerosol particle vertical distributions and optical properties is examined. On average, the bulk (˜65%) of aerosol extinction is found below 1.5 km with substantial aerosol loading (˜35%) above. Possibly due to the transition from El Niño to La Niña conditions and subsequent reduction in fire events, the MPLNET mean integrated aerosol extinction is observed to be the lowest for July-September 2010, which coincides with the typical MC biomass burning season. On the other hand, the highest mean integrated extinctions are derived for January-March 2010 and 2011, which can be attributed to off-season MC biomass burning smoke and anthropogenic pollution. The seasonal lidar ratios also show higher occurrences ≥60 sr, which are indicative of biomass burning smoke, for October 2009-June 2010, but such occurrences decrease from July 2010 to March 2011 when La Niña conditions prevail. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) identifies five primary aerosol vertical profile types over Singapore, i.e. strongly-capped/deep near-surface layer (SCD; 0-1.35 km), enhanced mid-level layer (EML; 1.35-2.4 km), enhanced upper-level layer (EUL; 2.4-3.525 km), deep contiguous layer (DCL; 3.525-4.95 km) and deep multi-layer (DML; >4.95 km). PCA also identifies an off-season MC biomass burning smoke event from 22 February to 8 March 2010, which is subsequently examined in detail.

  8. Infrared properties of Titan's clouds and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Using Voyager 1 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) data, the infrared properties of Titan's north polar hood continuum were deduced. Stratospheric opacities were found to increase monotonically with wavenumber between 250 and 600/cm. The increase becomes more extreme with decreasing altitude; this behavior is consistent with a photochemical aerosol overlying layers of condensated organics lower down. Stratospheric optical thicknesses of order 0.1 were found at 600/cm, which became smaller as the wavelength decreased. An aerosol mass mixing ratio approximately 6 x 10 exp -8 and a mass flux approximately 10 exp -14 g/sq cm/s was inferred at 160 km. The column abundance for condensed C4N2 was found to exceed that for the vapor by a factor of 30 or more. An upper limit of 4 x 10 exp -10 was inferred for the mole fraction of gaseous C4N2.

  9. Characterization of aerosol optical properties using multiple clustering techniques over Zanjan, Iran, during 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Gharibzadeh, Maryam; Alam, Khan; Abedini, Yousefali; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari; Masoumi, Amir; Bibi, Humera

    2018-04-10

    Discrimination of aerosol types is very important, because different aerosols are created from diverse sources having different chemical, physical, and optical properties. In the present study, we have analyzed the seasonal classification of aerosol types by multiple clustering techniques, using AERosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) data during 2010-2013 over Zanjan, Iran. We found that aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed pronounced seasonal variations of a summer high and winter low. Conversely, the values of the Angstrom exponent (AE) in winter and fall were higher than in spring and summer, which confirmed the presence of fine particles, while the low value of AE in the summer and spring represented the existence of coarse particles. Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) variations revealed the presence of scattering aerosols like dust in spring, summer, and fall while the dominance of absorbing-type aerosols in winter were also observed. The influence of local anthropogenic activities has caused a higher concentration of fine aerosols, and a higher fine mode fraction (FMF) of AOD in winter was recorded. Classification of aerosol types was carried out by analyzing different aerosol properties such as AOD versus AE, extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) versus SSA, EAE versus absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE), FMF AOD versus EAE, and SSA versus FMF AOD. The analysis revealed the presence of dust and polluted dust in spring, summer, and fall in the atmosphere of Zanjan. Urban/industrial aerosols were available in all seasons, especially in fall and winter. The mixed aerosols existed in all seasons over the study location; however, no biomass burning aerosols were found. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) aerosol subtype profiles showed the dominance of dust and polluted dust in spring and summer. However, the presence of polluted dust and industrial smoke during fall and winter were also noted over the study site.

  10. MISR Satellite Observations of Aerosol Types Affecting Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Franklin, M.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based observations of pollutants and concentrations of particulate matter (PM), that includes small particles designated PM2.5 and dust-dominated PM10, are the gold standard in studies of environmental impacts on human health. However, because monitoring stations are costly, they typically provide only limited spatial coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. We will demonstrate how data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument that has been flying on NASA's Terra Earth Observing System satellite since early 2000 can be used to provide estimates of surface PM types. The current MISR operational aerosol retrieval uses a combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property information (including dust AOD) globally at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Using the same algorithm with data collected in all 36-channels at 275 m resolution (Local Mode), which is available over greater Los Angeles area, and also was activated during 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California field campaign, high-resolution 4.4 km aerosol retrievals were performed in addition to the standard 17.6 km retrievals. The 4.4 km spatial resolution of the PM information data is fine enough to be able to resolve local differences in PM loading that may be important for understanding regional health effects of pollution in the region. In particular, we demonstrate that MISR high-resolution AOD retrievals are in better agreement with ground-based aerosol observations and reveal more details about the aerosol spatial variability compared to the MISR standard 17.6 km product. Then we will discuss techniques and show examples of the application of high-resolution MISR data to provide estimates of surface PM for the greater Los Angeles area in 2008 and for California San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Finally, we will discuss future NASA instruments that will provide new information allowing for better

  11. XBAER-derived aerosol optical thickness from OLCI/Sentinel-3 observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Rozanov, Vladimir; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.; Richter, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    A cloud identification algorithm used for cloud masking, which is based on the spatial variability of reflectances at the top of the atmosphere in visible wavelengths, has been developed for the retrieval of aerosol properties by MODIS. It is shown that the spatial pattern of cloud reflectance, as observed from space, is very different from that of aerosols. Clouds show a high spatial variability in the scale of a hundred metres to a few kilometres, whereas aerosols in general are homogeneous. The concept of spatial variability of reflectances at the top of the atmosphere is mainly applicable over the ocean, where the surface background is sufficiently homogeneous for the separation between aerosols and clouds. Aerosol retrievals require a sufficiently accurate cloud identification to be able to mask these ground scenes. However, a conservative mask will exclude strong aerosol episodes and a less conservative mask could introduce cloud contamination that biases the retrieved aerosol optical properties (e.g. aerosol optical depth and effective radii). A detailed study on the effect of cloud contamination on aerosol retrievals has been performed and parameters are established determining the threshold value for the MODIS aerosol cloud mask (3×3-STD) over the ocean. The 3×3-STD algorithm discussed in this paper is the operational cloud mask used for MODIS aerosol retrievals over the ocean.A prolonged pollution haze event occurred in the northeast part of China during the period 16-21 December 2016. To assess the impact of such events, the amounts and distribution of aerosol particles, formed in such events, need to be quantified. The newly launched Ocean Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3 is the successor of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). It provides measurements of the radiance and reflectance at the top of the atmosphere, which can be used to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from synoptic to global scales. In this

  12. 3D aerosol climatology over East Asia derived from CALIOP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongbo; Sun, Xuejin; Zhang, Chuanliang; Zhang, Riwei; Li, Yan; Li, Haoran

    2017-03-01

    The seasonal mean extinction coefficient profile (ECP), single scattering albedo (SSA), and scattering phase function (SPF) derived from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) version 3 Level 2 5-km aerosol profile product (2011-2014) were compiled into a three-dimensional (3D) aerosol climatology for East Asia. The SSA and SPF were calculated as the weighted averages of the scattering properties of the CALIOP aerosol subtypes. The weights were set to the occurrence frequencies of the subtypes. The single scattering properties of each subtype were extrapolated from the volume-based size distribution and complex refractive indexes based on Mie calculations. For the high-loading episodes (aerosol optical depth ≥ 0.6), the exponential ECP structures were most frequently observed over the farmland and desert areas, along with the uplifted ECP structures over the marine and coastal areas. Besides the desert areas, high-loading episodes also occurred over areas with frequent agricultural and industry activities. Unlike the conventional half-3D aerosol climatology (vertically constant SSA and SPF), this newly generated climatology specified SSA and SPF in the full-3D space (full-3D aerosol climatology). Errors on the shortwave radiative heating rate (SW RHR) due to the half-3D aerosol climatology approximation were quantified. The SW RHR errors were around ±1 K/day, implying that the half-3D aerosol climatology should be used with caution in climate modeling. This study is among the first to generate a full-3D aerosol climatology from the CALIOP data. This full-3D aerosol climatology is potentially useful for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling.

  13. Improvements to the OMI Near-uv Aerosol Algorithm Using A-train CALIOP and AIRS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Ahn, C.; Zhong, C.

    2014-01-01

    The height of desert dust and carbonaceous aerosols layers and, to a lesser extent, the difficulty in assessing the predominant size mode of these absorbing aerosol types, are sources of uncertainty in the retrieval of aerosol properties from near UV satellite observations. The availability of independent, near-simultaneous measurements of aerosol layer height, and aerosol-type related parameters derived from observations by other A-train sensors, makes possible the direct use of these parameters as input to the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) near UV retrieval algorithm. A monthly climatology of aerosol layer height derived from observations by the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) sensor, and real-time AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) CO observations are used in an upgraded version of the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm. AIRS CO measurements are used as a reliable tracer of carbonaceous aerosols, which allows the identification of smoke layers in areas and times of the year where the dust-smoke differentiation is difficult in the near-UV. The use of CO measurements also enables the identification of elevated levels of boundary layer pollution undetectable by near UV observations alone. In this paper we discuss the combined use of OMI, CALIOP and AIRS observations for the characterization of aerosol properties, and show a significant improvement in OMI aerosol retrieval capabilities.

  14. Simultaneous observations of aerosols, clouds, and radiometric fluxes using light-weight autonomous UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Ramanathan, V.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Nguyen, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Maldives Air Campaign (MAC) demonstrated a novel application of stacked autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs) for atmospheric science research; see abstract by Ramanathan et al. in this session. Simultaneous observations from three AUAVs of aerosols, clouds and radiometric fluxes provide insight into aerosol-cloud interactions and subsequent effects on cloud radiative properties. Ground-based measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) also quantify the cloud-nucleating ability of the boundary layer aerosols. During the experiment, long-range transport of aerosols from the Arabian Peninsula and India was observed and its impact of cloud physical and radiometric properties has been detected. To accomplish this campaign, aerosol, cloud, radiometric instruments, and an integrated data acquisition system have been miniaturized with a total payload weight and power less than 5 kg and 50 W, respectively. The AUAV payloads are mission-specific and outfitted to perform a defined set of measurements depending on the scientific goals. These measurements include aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop concentration and size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), atmospheric turbulence, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. The data collected during the MAC campaign has been validated using standard calibration routines in conjunction with comparisons to ground- based instruments in both laboratory and in situ (in aircraft) settings. All instruments have been thoroughly tested and calibrated prior to deployment.

  15. Climate Response of Observationally-Constrained Aerosol Radiative Effect in CAM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Farahani, A.; Hassan, T.; Allen, R.

    2017-12-01

    In the 5th IPCC report, the direct anthropogenic radiative forcing (RF) from aerosol radiation interactions is estimated to be -0.35±0.5 Wm-2 , and these estimates depend heavily on aerosol simulations. To circumvent some of the uncertainties associated with model-based approaches, studies have constrained aerosol radiative properties with observations. The recent study of Chung et al. (2016) integrate a suite of satellite and ground-based observations to constrain total aerosol optical depth, its fine-mode fraction, and the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. They infer a global direct anthropogenic RF less negative than -0.35 Wm-2. Here, we evaluate the climate response to the Chung et al. (2016) fine model aerosol radiative effect using CAM4. Equilibrium simulations are conducted with both prescribed sea surface temperatures and a slab ocean model, with monthly observationally-constrained aerosol forcings incorporated into the CAM4 radiation module. We investigate the global semi-direct effect and the differential responses of low clouds over the sea relative to land. Mechanisms for this contrast are explored, including differential changes in stability and relative humidity over land versus sea. In addition, we investigate the effect of observationally-constrained aerosols on global and regional precipitation, tropical belt width, and the Arctic oscillation.

  16. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud Properties During the MILAGRO Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Stohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of Direct Climate Forcing (DCF) due to aerosols in cloudy areas has historically been a difficult task, mainly because of a lack of appropriate measurements. Recently, passive remote sensing instruments have been developed that have the potential to retrieve both cloud and aerosol properties using polarimetric, multiple view angle, and multi spectral observations, and therefore determine DCF from aerosols above clouds. One such instrument is the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), an airborne prototype of a sensor on the NASA Glory satellite, which unfortunately failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011. In the spring of 2006, the RSP was deployed on an aircraft based in Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign. On 13 March, the RSP over flew an aerosol layer lofted above a low altitude marine stratocumulus cloud close to shore in the Gulf of Mexico. We investigate the feasibility of retrieving aerosol properties over clouds using these data. Our approach is to first determine cloud droplet size distribution using the angular location of the cloud bow and other features in the polarized reflectance. The selected cloud was then used in a multiple scattering radiative transfer model optimization to determine the aerosol optical properties and fine tune the cloud size distribution. In this scene, we were able to retrieve aerosol optical depth, the fine mode aerosol size distribution parameters and the cloud droplet size distribution parameters to a degree of accuracy required for climate modeling. This required assumptions about the aerosol vertical distribution and the optical properties of the coarse aerosol size mode. A sensitivity study was also performed to place this study in the context of future systematic scanning polarimeter observations, which found that the aerosol complex refractive index can also be observed accurately if the aerosol optical depth is

  17. Characterization of aerosol events based on the column integrated optical aerosol properties and polarimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, Florian; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Zawadzka, Olga

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties are very useful tools for analyzing their radiative effects, which are directly or indirectly related to the global radiation budget. Investigation of column-integrated aerosol optical properties is a worldwide and well-accepted method. The introduction of new methodologies, like those of operation with polarimetric measurements, represent a new challenge to interpret the measurement data and give more detailed information about the aerosol events and their characteristics. Aerosol optical properties during the period June - August 2015 in AERONET Strzyzow station in Poland were analyzed. The aerosol properties like aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, fine mode fraction, fine mode contribution on AOD, asymmetry parameter, single scattering angle are analyzed synergistically with the polarimetric measurements of the degree of polarization in different solar zenith and zenith viewing angles at several wavelengths. The overall results show that aerosol events in Strzyzow were characterized mostly by fine mode aerosols. Backward-trajectories suggest that the majority of air masses come from the west. The principal component of the aerosol load was urban/industrial contamination, especially from the inner part of the continent. Additionally, the maximal values of the degree of linear polarization were found to be dependent on the solar zenith and zenith viewing angles and aerosol optical properties like aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent. These dependencies were further analyzed in a specific case with very high mean values of AOD500 (0.59) and AE440-870 (1.91). The diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties investigated during this special case, suggest that biomass burning products are the main cause of that aerosol load over the stations.

  18. A comprehensive climatology of Arctic aerosol properties on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, Jessie; de Boer, Gijs; Shupe, Matthew; McComiskey, Allison

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating aerosol properties has implications for the formation of Arctic clouds, resulting in impacts on cloud lifetime, precipitation processes, and radiative forcing. There are many remaining uncertainties and large discrepancies regarding modeled and observed Arctic aerosol properties, illustrating the need for more detailed observations to improve simulations of Arctic aerosol and more generally, projections of the components of the aerosol-driven processes that impact sea ice loss/gain. In particular, the sources and climatic effects of Arctic aerosol particles are severely understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive, long-term record of aerosol observations from the North Slope of Alaska baseline site at Barrow. These measurements include sub- and supermicron (up to 10 μm) total mass and number concentrations, sub- and supermicron soluble inorganic and organic ion concentrations, submicron metal concentrations, submicron particle size distributions, and sub- and supermicron absorption and scattering properties. Aerosol extinction and number concentration measurements extend back to 1976, while the remaining measurements were implemented since. Corroboration between the chemical, physical, and optical property measurements is evident during periods of overlapping observations, demonstrating the reliability of the measurements. During the Arctic Haze in the winter/spring, high concentrations of long-range transported submicron sea salt, mineral dust, industrial metals, pollution (non-sea salt sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), and biomass burning species are observed concurrent with higher concentrations of particles with sizes that span the submicron range, enhanced absorption and scattering coefficients, and largest Ångström exponents. The summer is characterized by high concentrations of small biogenic aerosols (< 100 nm) and low extinction coefficients. Fall is characterized by clean conditions, with supermicron sea salt representing the dominant aerosol

  19. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM): VOLCANIC AEROSOLS DERIVED FROM EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Michael J.; Schmidt, Anja; Easter, Richard

    2016-03-06

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosol properties from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-loss enhancements of recent volcanic activity. Attribution of climate and ozone variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the apparent rate of global average temperature increases, and variable recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. We have developed a climatology of global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014 calculated based on volcanic and non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources. We have complied a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptionsmore » between 1990 and 2014, and a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in version 5 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, a component of the Community Earth System Model. Our climatology shows remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD climatology represents a significant improvement over satellite-based analyses, which ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD climatology significantly improves on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses 60% of the SAD measured in situ. Our climatology of aerosol properties is publicly available on the Earth System Grid.« less

  20. Fog and Cloud Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M. A.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, G. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.

  1. Vertical profiles of atmospheric fluorescent aerosols observed by a mutil-channel lidar spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Huang, J.; Zhou, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Bi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Zhongwei Huang1*, Jianping Huang1, Tian Zhou1, Nobuo Sugimoto2, Jianrong Bi1 and Jinsen Shi11Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. 2Atmospheric Environment Division, National Institutes for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan Email: huangzhongwei@lzu.edu.cn Abstract Atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on regional and globe climate. The challenge in quantifying aerosol direct radiative forcing and aerosol-cloud interactions arises from large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of aerosol concentrations, compositions, sizes, shape and optical properties (IPCC, 2007). Lidar offers some remarkable advantages for determining the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols and their related optical properties. To investigate the characterization of atmospheric aerosols (especially bioaerosols) with high spatial and temporal resolution, we developed a Raman/fluorescence/polarization lidar system employed a multi-channel spectrometer, with capabilities of providing measurements of Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence excitation at 355 nm from atmospheric aerosols. Meanwhile, the lidar system operated polarization measurements both at 355nm and 532nm wavelengths, aiming to obtain more information of aerosols. It employs a high power pulsed laser and a received telescope with 350mm diameter. The receiver could simultaneously detect a wide fluorescent spectrum about 178 nm with spectral resolution 5.7 nm, mainly including an F/3.7 Crossed Czerny-Turner spectrograph, a grating (1200 gr/mm) and a PMT array with 32 photocathode elements. Vertical structure of fluorescent aerosols in the atmosphere was observed by the developed lidar system at four sites across northwest China, during 2014 spring field observation that conducted by Lanzhou University. It has been proved that the developed lidar could detect the fluorescent aerosols with high temporal and

  2. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  3. Aerosols, light, and water: Measurements of aerosol optical properties at different relative humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Daniel

    The Earth's atmosphere is composed of a large number of different gases as well as tiny suspended particles, both in solid and liquid state. These tiny particles, called atmospheric aerosols, have an immense impact on our health and on our global climate. Atmospheric aerosols influence the Earth's radiation budget both directly and indirectly. In the direct effect, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight changing the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. Aerosols indirectly influence the Earth's radiation budget by modifying the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds as well as their water content and lifetime. In ambient conditions, aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth due to the influence of relative humidity (RH), scattering more light than when the particles are dry. The quantitative knowledge of the RH effect and its influence on the light scattering coefficient and, in particular, on the phase function and polarization of aerosol particles is of substantial importance when comparing ground based observations with other optical aerosol measurements techniques such satellite and sunphotometric retrievals of aerosol optical depth and their inversions. This dissertation presents the aerosol hygroscopicity experiment investigated using a novel dryer-humidifier system, coupled to a TSI-3563 nephelometer, to obtain the light scattering coefficient (sp) as a function of relative humidity (RH) in hydration and dehydration modes. The measurements were performed in Porterville, CA (Jan 10-Feb 6, 2013), Baltimore, MD (Jul 3-30, 2013), and Golden, CO (Jul 12-Aug 10, 2014). Observations in Porterville and Golden were part of the NASA-sponsored DISCOVER-AQ project. The measured sp under varying RH in the three sites was combined with ground aerosol extinction, PM2:5mass concentrations, particle composition measurements, and compared with airborne observations performed during campaigns. The enhancement factor, f(RH), defined as the ratio of sp

  4. Comparison of Observed and Modeled Regional Scale Aerosol Characteristics for ACE-ASIA and TRACE-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A.; Carmichael, G.; Tang, Y.; McNaughton, C.

    2002-12-01

    During spring of 2001 we measured aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties for Asian aerosol with our similar instrument sets [University of Hawaii] from two aircraft - the NASA P3-B (TRACE-P) and NSF C-130 (ACE-ASIA). Observed aerosol characteristics included aerosol number concentration, measured with Ultrafine Condensation Nuclei counter (UCN) and CN counters; size distributions, obtained from a radial differential mobility analyzer (RDMA), a laser optical particle counter (OPC), aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and wing mounted probes; aerosol light scattering and absorption obtained from nephelometers and a Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). On the C-130 a dry and humidified nephelometer was operated to measure humidity dependence of aerosol light scattering, f(RH). Size distributions and number concentrations were measured with thermal aerosol volatilization to infer particles volatility and refractory properties linked to dust and soot aerosol components. Here we compare these observations to results from the University of Iowa CFORS/STEM model of related aerosol characteristics during these measurement periods. This model includes a wide variety of aerosol chemical and optical properties - black and organic carbon (BC and OC), dust, sulfate concentrations and calculated aerosol optical depth. This comparison is based not only on case studies bur also on regional scale air mass characterization. To facilitate this comparison a set of scatter "signature" plots of measured aerosol parameters like f(RH) vs. fractional submicron aerosol surface area or submicron refractory volume vs. total aerosol absorption is used. This approach generates clusters of data characteristics for different air masses. The model shows a high degree of consistency in identifying the main features of biomass burning, urban/industrial pollution, and dust events. This combination of measured and modeled aerosol parameters is shown to be valuable in quantifying the

  5. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer: Balloon-Borne Measurements, Satellite Observations and Modeling Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Natarajan, M.; Deshler, Terry; Liu, H.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Gadhavi, H.; Jayaraman, A.; Pandit, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations and numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) can provide a conduit for gas-phase pollutants in south Asia to reach the lower stratosphere. Now, observations from the CALIPSO satellite have revealed the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols associated with ASM anticyclone, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, climate, and chemical processes in the UTLS. Here, we show in situ measurements from balloon-borne instrumentation, aircraft and satellite observations, combined with trajectory and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations to explore the origin, composition, physical and optical properties of aerosols in the ATAL. In particular, we show balloon-based observations from our BATAL-2015 field campaign to India and Saudi Arabia in summer 2015, including in situ backscatter measurements from COBALD instruments, and some of the first observations of size and volatility of aerosols in the ATAL layer using optical particle counters (OPCs). Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations point to deep convection over North India as a principal source of ATAL aerosols. Available aircraft observations suggest significant sulfur and carbonaceous contributions to the ATAL, which is supported by simulations using the GEOS-Chem CTM. Source elimination studies conducted with the GEOS-Chem indicate that 80-90% of ATAL aerosols originate from south Asian sources, in contrast with some earlier studies.

  6. Development of a remote sensing algorithm to retrieve atmospheric aerosol properties using multiwavelength and multipixel information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Makiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-06-01

    We developed a satellite remote sensing algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical properties using satellite-received radiances for multiple wavelengths and pixels. Our algorithm utilizes spatial inhomogeneity of surface reflectance to retrieve aerosol properties, and the main target is urban aerosols. This algorithm can simultaneously retrieve aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) for fine- and coarse-mode aerosols, soot volume fraction in fine-mode aerosols (SF), and surface reflectance over heterogeneous surfaces such as urban areas that are difficult to obtain by conventional pixel-by-pixel methods. We applied this algorithm to radiances measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite/Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observations-Cloud and Aerosol Image (GOSAT/TANSO-CAI) at four wavelengths and were able to retrieve the aerosol parameters in several urban regions and other surface types. A comparison of the retrieved AOTs with those from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicated retrieval accuracy within ±0.077 on average. It was also found that the column-averaged SF and the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) underwent seasonal changes as consistent with the ground surface measurements of SSA and black carbon at Beijing, China.

  7. Observational Study and Parameterization of Aerosol-fog Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J.; Guo, X.; Liu, Y.; Fang, C.; Su, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that human activities such as increased aerosols affect fog occurrence and properties significantly, and accurate numerical fog forecasting depends on, to a large extent, parameterization of fog microphysics and aerosol-fog interactions. Furthermore, fogs can be considered as clouds near the ground, and enjoy an advantage of permitting comprehensive long-term in-situ measurements that clouds do not. Knowledge learned from studying aerosol-fog interactions will provide useful insights into aerosol-cloud interactions. To serve the twofold objectives of understanding and improving parameterizations of aerosol-fog interactions and aerosol-cloud interactions, this study examines the data collected from fogs, with a focus but not limited to the data collected in Beijing, China. Data examined include aerosol particle size distributions measured by a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X), fog droplet size distributions measured by a Fog Monitor (FM-120), Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), liquid water path measured by radiometers and visibility sensors, along with meteorological variables measured by a Tethered Balloon Sounding System (XLS-Ⅱ) and Automatic Weather Station (AWS). The results will be compared with low-level clouds for similarities and differences between fogs and clouds.

  8. Observationally constrained estimates of carbonaceous aerosol radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chul E; Ramanathan, V; Decremer, Damien

    2012-07-17

    Carbonaceous aerosols (CA) emitted by fossil and biomass fuels consist of black carbon (BC), a strong absorber of solar radiation, and organic matter (OM). OM scatters as well as absorbs solar radiation. The absorbing component of OM, which is ignored in most climate models, is referred to as brown carbon (BrC). Model estimates of the global CA radiative forcing range from 0 to 0.7 Wm(-2), to be compared with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's estimate for the pre-Industrial to the present net radiative forcing of about 1.6 Wm(-2). This study provides a model-independent, observationally based estimate of the CA direct radiative forcing. Ground-based aerosol network data is integrated with field data and satellite-based aerosol observations to provide a decadal (2001 through 2009) global view of the CA optical properties and direct radiative forcing. The estimated global CA direct radiative effect is about 0.75 Wm(-2) (0.5 to 1.0). This study identifies the global importance of BrC, which is shown to contribute about 20% to 550-nm CA solar absorption globally. Because of the inclusion of BrC, the net effect of OM is close to zero and the CA forcing is nearly equal to that of BC. The CA direct radiative forcing is estimated to be about 0.65 (0.5 to about 0.8) Wm(-2), thus comparable to or exceeding that by methane. Caused in part by BrC absorption, CAs have a net warming effect even over open biomass-burning regions in Africa and the Amazon.

  9. Observationally constrained estimates of carbonaceous aerosol radiative forcing

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chul E.; Ramanathan, V.; Decremer, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols (CA) emitted by fossil and biomass fuels consist of black carbon (BC), a strong absorber of solar radiation, and organic matter (OM). OM scatters as well as absorbs solar radiation. The absorbing component of OM, which is ignored in most climate models, is referred to as brown carbon (BrC). Model estimates of the global CA radiative forcing range from 0 to 0.7 Wm-2, to be compared with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s estimate for the pre-Industrial to the present net radiative forcing of about 1.6 Wm-2. This study provides a model-independent, observationally based estimate of the CA direct radiative forcing. Ground-based aerosol network data is integrated with field data and satellite-based aerosol observations to provide a decadal (2001 through 2009) global view of the CA optical properties and direct radiative forcing. The estimated global CA direct radiative effect is about 0.75 Wm-2 (0.5 to 1.0). This study identifies the global importance of BrC, which is shown to contribute about 20% to 550-nm CA solar absorption globally. Because of the inclusion of BrC, the net effect of OM is close to zero and the CA forcing is nearly equal to that of BC. The CA direct radiative forcing is estimated to be about 0.65 (0.5 to about 0.8) Wm-2, thus comparable to or exceeding that by methane. Caused in part by BrC absorption, CAs have a net warming effect even over open biomass-burning regions in Africa and the Amazon. PMID:22753522

  10. Aerosol Size Distribution Modification by Interaction with Fog or Clouds Observed by AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas Avila, M.; Singh, R.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of aerosol optical properties due to the interaction with fog or clouds is examined from measurements made by sun/sky radiometers at several AERONET sites. Almucantar retrievals, which utilize measured sky radiances and spectral aerosol optical depth, are examined for cases where fog and/or clouds have recently dissipated or advected away. Retrieved volume size distributions for cases identified as aerosol modified by cloud show very large median fine mode radius (~0.25-0.42 microns), which often show a bimodal sub-micron distribution. This bimodal accumulation mode distribution may be due to one mode (the larger one) from cloud-processed aerosol and the other from interstitial aerosol, or possibly from two different aerosol species (differing chemical composition) with differing hygroscopic growth factors. The size of the fine mode particles from AERONET retrieved for these cases exceeds the size of sub-micron sized particles retrieved for nearly all other aerosol types, suggesting significant modification of aerosols within the fog or cloud environment. The almucantar retrievals are analyzed from the Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India (fog in January), Arica on the northern coast of Chile (stratocumulus), Fresno, CA in the San Joaquin Valley (fog in winter), and several other sites including Beijing with aerosol observations made when clouds dissipate or gaps occur in cloud cover. Aerosols of this type and large size range may also be formed in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the ‘shoulder’ of larger size particles in regions where sulfate aerosol is a significant component. In-situ measured aerosol size distributions made during fog events are compared to the AERONET retrievals.

  11. What We Can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R.

    1999-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space.

  12. Particle Property Data Quality Flags for the MISR Aerosol Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.; Garay, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The MISR instrument aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite has the unique capability to retrieve aerosol properties under favorable conditions. General aerosol type retrieval quality guidelines are provided in the MISR Data Quality Statement and related publications. Here we report on the steps we are taking to provide an aerosol-type data quality flag, to be provided with each individual retrieval result. Some factors affecting retrieval quality that can be assessed pre-retrieval are the number of cameras available, the range of scattering angles and surface conditions such as shallow water or seasonal coastal runoff. Factors that must be assessed post-retrieval include low values of retrieved optical depth and the number and type of mixtures successfully passing the MISR algorithm acceptance criteria. Regional monthly plots with MISR measurements binned at 0.5 degree resolution with color-coded stratification of one or more parameters is the main method for identifying locations and times where particle properties are retrieved. Individual MISR values such as mid-visible AOD, number and type of mixtures passing, number of cameras used, the range and maximum scattering angles are plotted individually or as joint distributions. Initially, thresholds and conditions are determined for each MISR parameter separately. Finally, MISR parameters are combined for a given month and region, with their thresholds, to show the overall quality of the retrieval for determining particle properties. Multi-month summaries for more than twelve years of MISR data will aid in assessing quality. Seasons and regions that regularly show poorly constrained aerosol type results are identified, as are times and places where particle property information can be used with confidence. This work is performed in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and in part at the NASA

  13. Observations of enhanced aerosol longwave radiative forcing over an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, A. S.; Pandithurai, G.; Safai, P. D.; Kewat, S.

    2008-02-01

    Collocated measurements of sun/sky radiance, aerosol chemical composition and radiative fluxes have been utilized to estimate longwave aerosol radiative forcing over Pune, an Indian urban site during dry winter [Dec2004 to Feb2005] by two methods. Hybrid method which uses observed downwelling and modeled upwelling longwave fluxes for different aerosol loadings yielded a surface forcing of 9.4 Wm-2. Model approach includes utilization of skyradiometer derived spectral aerosol optical properties in the visible and near infra-red wavelengths, modeled aerosol properties in 1.2-40 μm using observed soot and chemical composition data, MODIS water vapor and TOMS column ozone in a radiative transfer model. Estimates from model method showed longwave enhancement of 6.5 and 8.2 Wm-2 at the surface with tropical model atmosphere and temporally varying profiles of temperature and humidity, respectively. Study reveals that about 25% of the aerosol shortwave cooling is being compensated by increase in longwave radiation due to aerosol absorption.

  14. Characterization of intense aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean basin from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The properties and distribution of aerosols over the broader Mediterranean region are complex since particles of different nature are either produced within its boundaries or transported from other regions. Thus, coarse dust aerosols are transported primarily from Sahara and secondarily from Middle East, while fine polluted aerosols are either produced locally from anthropogenic activities or they are transported from neighbouring or remote European areas. Also during summer biomass aerosols are transported towards the Mediterranean, originating from massive and extended fires occurring in northern Balkans and Eastern Europe and favoured by the prevailing synoptic conditions. In addition, sea-salt aerosols originate from the Mediterranean Sea or the Atlantic Ocean. Occasionally, aerosols are encountered at very high concentrations (aerosol episodes or events) significantly affecting atmospheric dynamics and climate as well as human health. Given the coexistence of different aerosols as internal and external mixtures characterizing and discriminating between the different types of aerosol episodes is a big challenge. A characterization and classification of intense aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean basin (March 2000 - February 2007) is attempted in the present study. This is achieved by implementing an objective and dynamic algorithm which uses daily aerosol optical properties derived from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. The aerosol episodes are first classified into strong and extreme ones, according to their intensity, by means of aerosol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550nm). Subsequently, they are discriminated into the following aerosol types: (i) biomass/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) sea-salt like (SS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The classification is based on aerosol optical properties accounting for the particles' size (Ångström exponent, Effective radius), the

  15. Validation of Retrieved Aerosol Optical Properties over Northeast Asia for Five Years from GOSAT TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, S.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Go, S.; Lim, H.; Goo, T. Y.; Nakajima, T.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    An aerosol retrieval algorithm was developed from Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD), size distribution of aerosol, and aerosol type in 0.1 degree grid resolution by look-up tables, which is used in retrieving optical properties of aerosol using inversion products from Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) sun-photometer observation. To improve the accuracy of aerosol algorithm, first, this algorithm considered the annually estimated radiometric degradation factor of TANSO-CAI suggested by Kuze et al. (2014). Second, surface reflectance was determined by two methods: one using the clear sky composite method from CAI measurements and the other the database from MODerate resolution Imaging Sensor (MODIS) surface reflectance data. At a given pixel, the surface reflectance is selected by using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) depending on season (Hsu et al., 2013). In this study, the retrieved AODs were compared with those of AERONET and MODIS dataset for different season over five years. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and CAI show reasonable agreement with correlation coefficients of 0.65 ~ 0.97 and regression slopes between 0.7 and 1.2 for the whole period, depending on season and sites. Moreover, those between MODIS and CAI for the same period show agreements with correlation coefficients of 0.7 ~ 0.9 and regression slopes between 0.7 and 1.0, depending on season and regions. The results show reasonably good correlation, however, the largest error source in aerosol retrieval has been surface reflectance of TANSO-CAI due to its 3-days revisit orbit characteristics.

  16. Intercomparison of CALIOP Cloud and Aerosol Profiles with in situ Marine Stratocumulus Observations during ORACLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, A.; Small Griswold, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the ORACLES ( ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) field campaign that occurred during the months of August and September 2016 off the coast of Namibia is to measure the interactions of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) and clouds. In this region stratocumulus clouds are the dominant cloud type and are a critical component of Earth's radiation budget due to their high albedo and resulting cooling effect. They also impact the hydrological cycle through drizzle production. BBA are the predominant aerosol type in this region and also play multiple roles by modifying the atmospheric temperature structure through absorbing solar radiation and altering cloud properties by serving as CCN. These processes of aerosol-cloud interactions are poorly understood, thus the use of multiple measurement techniques, including space-borne remotely sensed data and in situ measurements, offer a more in depth look into these interactions. To address this complex system we combine satellite data from CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) and in situ data from the FPDR-PDI. CALIOP Level 2 Lidar Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) data was collected and analyzed for the years 2006-2015 to establish a climatological profile for aerosol and clouds in the region. Individual swaths observed during the 2016 field project are used to compare with in situ measurements. The VFM data provides aerosol and cloud types in categories based on their optical properties, along with their vertical structures in the atmosphere. To determine actual microphysical cloud properties we use a FPDR-PDI to measure instantaneous cloud drop size, cloud drop concentration, drop size distributions and liquid water content. This work compares average CALIOP aerosol and cloud profiles across the ORACLES region, including the stratocumulus to cumulus transition, with the in situ FPDR-PDI data to confirm cloud altitude and thickness and cloud-aerosol collocation.

  17. Ice Nucleation Properties of Amospherically Aged Biomass Burning Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polen, M.; Lawlis, E.; Sullivan, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning can sometimes emit surprisingly active ice nucleating particles, though these emissions are not at all consistent between biomass fuel sources and burns. Soot from biomass combustion has been attributed to some but not all of the ice nucleating potential of biomass burning aerosol (BBA), while fossil fuel combustion soot emits very weak ice nucleants. The causes of the sometimes significant but variable ice nucleating ability of BBA are still largely unknown. BBA experiences significant atmospheric aging as the plume evolves and mixes with background air, yet almost no reports exploring the effects of atmospheric aging on the freezing properties of BBA have been made. We have performed some of the first experiments to determine the effects of simulated atmospheric aging on these ice nucleation properties, using a chamber reactor. The fresh and aged BBA was collected for subsequent droplet freezing array analysis using an impinger sampler to collect aerosol in water, and by deposition onto substrates in a MOUDI sampler. Droplets containing the chamber particles were then suspended in oil on a cold plate for freezing temperature spectrum measurement. Aging of Sawgrass flaming-phase combustion BBA by exposure to hydroxyl radicals (from H2O2 photolysis) enhanced the ice nucleation ability, observed by a shift to warmer droplet freezing temperatures by ~2-3°C. The changes in the aerosol's chemical composition during aging were observed using a laser ablation single-particle mass spectrometer and a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer. We will report our observations of the effects of other types of simulated aging (including photochemistry under high and low NOx conditions, dark ozonolysis, and nitric acid exposure) on Sawgrass and BBA from other grass and palm fuels.

  18. Vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties based on aircraft measurements over the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junxia; Liu, Xingang; Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Li, Zhanqing; Li, Peiren; Ren, Gang; Jin, Lijun; Li, Runjun; Dong, Zipeng; Li, Yiyu; Yang, Junmei

    2015-08-01

    Vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties based on aircraft measurements over the Loess Plateau were measured for the first time during a summertime aircraft campaign, 2013 in Shanxi, China. Data from four flights were analyzed. The vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficients (σsc), absorption coefficients (σab), Angström exponent (α), single scattering albedo (ω), backscattering ratio (βsc), aerosol mass scattering proficiency (Qsc) and aerosol surface scattering proficiency (Qsc(')) were obtained. The mean statistical values of σsc were 77.45 Mm(-1) (at 450 nm), 50.72 Mm(-1) (at 550n m), and 32.02 Mm(-1) (at 700 nm). The mean value of σab was 7.62 Mm(-1) (at 550 nm). The mean values of α, βsc and ω were 1.93, 0.15, and 0.91, respectively. Aerosol concentration decreased with altitude. Most effective diameters (ED) of aerosols were less than 0.8 μm. The vertical profiles of σsc,, α, βsc, Qsc and Qsc(') showed that the aerosol scattering properties at lower levels contributed the most to the total aerosol radiative forcing. Both α and βsc had relatively large values, suggesting that most aerosols in the observational region were small particles. The mean values of σsc, α, βsc, Qsc, Qsc('), σab and ω at different height ranges showed that most of the parameters decreased with altitude. The forty-eight hour backward trajectories of air masses during the observation days indicated that the majority of aerosols in the lower level contributed the most to the total aerosol loading, and most of these particles originated from local or regional pollution emissions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. An Observational Study of the Relationship between Cloud, Aerosol and Meteorology in Broken Low-Level Cloud Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Schuster, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    Global satellite analyses showing strong correlations between aerosol optical depth and 3 cloud cover have stirred much debate recently. While it is tempting to interpret the results as evidence of aerosol enhancement of cloud cover, other factors such as the influence of meteorology on both the aerosol and cloud distributions can also play a role, as both aerosols and clouds depend upon local meteorology. This study uses satellite observations to examine aerosol-cloud relationships for broken low-level cloud regions off the coast of Africa. The analysis approach minimizes the influence of large-scale meteorology by restricting the spatial and temporal domains in which the aerosol and cloud properties are compared. While distributions of several meteorological variables within 5deg 5deg latitude-longitude regions are nearly identical under low and high aerosol optical depth, the corresponding distributions of single-layer low cloud properties and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes differ markedly, consistent with earlier studies showing increased cloud cover with aerosol optical depth. Furthermore, fine-mode fraction and Angstrom Exponent are also larger in conditions of higher aerosol optical depth, even though no evidence of systematic latitudinal or longitudinal gradients between the low and high aerosol optical depth populations are observed. When the analysis is repeated for all 5deg 5deg latitude-longitude regions over the global oceans (after removing cases in which significant meteorological differences are found between the low and high aerosol populations), results are qualitatively similar to those off the coast of Africa.

  20. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  1. Optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of aerosol properties in Kishinev, Moldova are being carried out within the framework of the international AERONET program managed by NASA/GSFC since 1999. Direct solar and sky diffuse radiances are measured by using of sunphotometer Cimel-318. Aerosol optical properties are retrieved from measured radiances by using of smart computational procedures developed by the AERONET's team. The instrument is situated at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station giving the opportunity to make simultaneous spectral (win sunphotometer) and broadband (with the set of sensors from radiometric complex) solar radiation. Detailed description of the station and investigations in progress can be found at the http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E; 205 m a.s.l). Summary of aerosol optical and microphysical properties retrieved from direct solar and diffuse sky radiance observations at Moldova site from September 1999 to June 2009 are presented below. Number of measurements (total): 1695 Number of measurements (for ?o, n, k): 223 Range of aerosol optical depth (AOD) @440 nm: 0.03 < ?(440) < 2.30, < ?(440)>=0.25 Range of Ångström parameter < α440_870 >: 0.14 < α < 2.28 Asymmetry factor (440/670/870/1020): 0.70/0.63/0.59/0.58 ±0.04 Refraction (n) and absorption (k) indices@440 nm: 1.41 ± 0.06; 0.009 ± 0.005 Single scattering albedo < ?o >(440/670/870/1020): 0.93/0.92/0.90/0.89 ±0.04 Parameters of volume particle size distribution function: (fine mode) volume median radius r v,f , μm: 0.17 ± 0.06 particle volume concentration Cv,f, μm3/μm2: 0.04 ± 0.03 (coarse mode) volume median radius rv,c , μm: 3.08 ± 0.64 particle volume concentration Cv,c, μm3/μm2: 0.03 ± 0.03 Climatic norms of AOD@500 nm and Ångström parameter < α440_870 > at the site of observation are equal to 0.21 ± 0.06 and 1.45 ± 0.14, respectively. The aerosol type in Moldova may be considered as 'urban

  2. The Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols at the CALNEX Pasadena Site During May-June 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties observed at the Pasadena, CA site during the CALNEX field campaign during May - June 2010 are summarized. The aerosol albedometer was employed to provide measurements of fine mode aerosol extinction, scattering, absorption coefficients, and single scatter albedo (bext, bscat, babs and SSA) at 532 nm. Values of aerosol extinction and scattering were generally < 300 Mm-1 with campaign average values of bext, bscat, babs and S.S.A of 77 Mm-1, 70 Mm-1, 7 Mm-1, 0.89, respectively. An exemplary measurement period between May 30 - June 8 2010 provided an opportunity to study diurnal trends in optical properties during a period of high aerosol loading. During this period, optical extinction, scattering, and SSA tended to peak during the mid-morning hours. Correlation of aerosol PM2.5 extinction and scatter coefficients with reconstructed mass concentration has yielded values for mass scatter and mass extinction coefficients. Additionally, aerosol absorption coefficients (babs) have been compared directly to mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) yielding a campaign average mass absorption efficiency of 10.3 ± 0.7 m2 / g. The data reported may prove useful to document historical trends of aerosol optical properties within the LA basin, to reconstruct optical parameters from mass concentration data, and offer insights of direct forcing of aerosols within the region.

  3. Spatial heterogeneities in aerosol properties over Bay of Bengal inferred from ship-borne and MODIS observations during ICARB-W cruise campaign: Implications to radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra Kumar, K.; Narasimhulu, K.; Balakrishnaiah, G.; Suresh Kumar Reddy, B.; Rama Gopal, K.; Reddy, R. R.; Reddy, L. S. S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Suresh Babu, S.; Dutt, C. B. S.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive investigations during the last decade have clearly established that aerosols have a significant impact on the climate. This paper reports the results of the spatial variations in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and fine mode fraction (FMF) characteristics as a function of latitude and longitude over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO) during ICARB-W cruise period of 27th December 2008-30th January 2009 from onboard Sunphotometer and MODIS (Terra, Aqua) satellite measurements. Very high AOD 500 (0.7-0.8) occurred over the north head BoB adjacent to the northeastern Indian coast and the lowest AOD 500 (0.1-0.2) occurred in central BoB far away from the coasts, and in a small area in the northeastern part close to Myanmar coast as well as over NIO. The highest values (as high as 1.2) of Ångström exponent, α occurring over northeast BoB (regions close to Bangladesh and Myanmar) indicate relative abundance of accumulation mode particles and very low values of α (below 0.7) over central part of BoB as well as southern BoB/NIO suggesting dominance of coarse-mode sea spray aerosols. Terra/Aqua MODIS AOD 550 and cruise measured AOD 500 using Sunphotometer showed good agreement ( R2 = 0.92) over the BoB. The total mass concentrations over BoB during cruise period were remarkably high, with a mean value of 28.4 ± 5.7 μg m -3. Aerosol FMF was higher than 0.7 over the BoB, while FMF over NIO was about 0.5. NCEP reanalysis data on winds at 850 hPa, along with 5-days airmass back trajectories via HYSPLIT model, suggested transport of continental aerosols from the central and northern India over the BoB by the strong westerly/northwesterly winds. Regionally averaged clear sky aerosol (net) forcing over BoB during the winter is -28.9 W m -2 at the surface and -10.4 W m -2 at the top of the atmosphere whereas, the ARF values estimated over NIO at TOA, surface and in the atmosphere are -6.4, -18.3 and +11.9 W m -2, respectively.

  4. Assessment of 10 Year Record of Aerosol Optical Depth from OMI UV Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Changwoo; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption in the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Another important advantage of using near UV observations for aerosol characterization is the low surface albedo of all terrestrial surfaces in this spectral region that reduces retrieval errors associated with land surface reflectance characterization. In spite of the 13 × 24 square kilometers coarse sensor footprint, the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single-scattering albedo under cloud-free conditions from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nanometers. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. OMAERUV's performance is also evaluated with respect to those of the Aqua-MODIS Deep Blue and Terra-MISR AOD algorithms over arid and semi-arid regions in Northern Africa. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability.

  5. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer - Part 2: Sensitivity of aerosol optical depth to relative humidity and aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Wagner, N. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Gordon, T. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Lack, D. A.; Liao, J.; Markovic, M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Perring, A. E.; Richardson, M. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Welti, A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Murphy, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made between May and September 2013. Regionally representative aggregate vertical profiles of median and interdecile ranges of the measured parameters were constructed from 37 individual aircraft profiles made in the afternoon when a well-mixed boundary layer with typical fair-weather cumulus was present (Wagner et al., 2015). We use these 0-4 km aggregate profiles and a simple model to calculate the sensitivity of aerosol optical depth (AOD) to changes in dry aerosol mass, relative humidity, mixed layer height, the central diameter and width of the particle size distribution, hygroscopicity, and dry and wet refractive index, while holding the other parameters constant. The calculated sensitivity is a result of both the intrinsic sensitivity and the observed range of variation of these parameters. These observationally based sensitivity studies indicate that the relationship between AOD and dry aerosol mass in these conditions in the southeastern US can be highly variable and is especially sensitive to relative humidity (RH). For example, calculated AOD ranged from 0.137 to 0.305 as the RH was varied between the 10th and 90th percentile profiles with dry aerosol mass held constant. Calculated AOD was somewhat less sensitive to aerosol hygroscopicity, mean size, and geometric standard deviation, σg. However, some chemistry-climate models prescribe values of σg substantially larger than we or others observe, leading to potential high biases in model-calculated AOD of ~ 25 %. Finally, AOD was least sensitive to observed variations in dry and wet aerosol refractive index and to changes in the height of the well-mixed surface layer. We expect these findings to be applicable to other moderately polluted and background continental airmasses in which an accumulation mode between 0.1-0.5 μm diameter dominates aerosol extinction.

  6. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer - Part 2: Sensitivity of aerosol optical depth to relative humidity and aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Charles A.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lack, Daniel A.; Liao, Jin; Markovic, Milos Z.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Perring, Anne E.; Richardson, Matthews S.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Welti, Andre; Ziemba, Luke D.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made between May and September 2013 in the southeastern United States (US). Regionally representative aggregate vertical profiles of median and interdecile ranges of the measured parameters were constructed from 37 individual aircraft profiles made in the afternoon when a well-mixed boundary layer with typical fair-weather cumulus was present (Wagner et al., 2015). We use these 0-4 km aggregate profiles and a simple model to calculate the sensitivity of aerosol optical depth (AOD) to changes in dry aerosol mass, relative humidity, mixed-layer height, the central diameter and width of the particle size distribution, hygroscopicity, and dry and wet refractive index, while holding the other parameters constant. The calculated sensitivity is a result of both the intrinsic sensitivity and the observed range of variation in these parameters. These observationally based sensitivity studies indicate that the relationship between AOD and dry aerosol mass in these conditions in the southeastern US can be highly variable and is especially sensitive to relative humidity (RH). For example, calculated AOD ranged from 0.137 to 0.305 as the RH was varied between the 10th and 90th percentile profiles with dry aerosol mass held constant. Calculated AOD was somewhat less sensitive to aerosol hygroscopicity, mean size, and geometric standard deviation, σg. However, some chemistry-climate models prescribe values of σg substantially larger than we or others observe, leading to potential high biases in model-calculated AOD of ˜ 25 %. Finally, AOD was least sensitive to observed variations in dry and wet aerosol refractive index and to changes in the height of the well-mixed surface layer. We expect these findings to be applicable to other moderately polluted and background continental air masses in which an accumulation mode between 0.1-0.5 µm diameter dominates aerosol extinction.

  7. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  8. Atmospheric aerosol and particle properties using lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun

    Characterization of airborne particulate matter, both dust particles and aerosols, has been a major challenge to researchers. Lidar (light detection and ranging) techniques have been used to make remote sensing measurements of the aerosol optical extinction and other properties of optical scattering from the particles in the atmosphere. In this thesis, a range of technologies available in the area of laser remote sensing have been used to study the optical properties of atmosphere, including the techniques of Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering and Raman scattering. Algorithms and techniques have been developed for analysis of data to calculate the atmospheric optical extinction in the troposphere using backscatter lidar and Raman lidar instruments, and models are described which have been developed to study the optical extinction and backscatter characteristics. The data obtained by Raman lidar and backscatter lidar during several different campaigns were analyzed. An algorithm for extinction at W wavelengths measured by Raman lidar has been developed in which the molecular scattering and ozone absorption are removed to obtain the aerosol optical extinction profile. The relationships between extinction profiles measured by Raman lidar and particulate matter (PM) mass concentration measurements of the ambient particles using point sensors at the surface are investigated. Model simulations have been developed to explain and quantify the relations between extinction and PM concentration. The ratio of the extinction coefficient profiles at different wavelengths has been analyzed to show unique information on particle sizes, which can not be obtained from a single extinction profile. Backscatter lidar has been used to study the atmospheric meteorological properties and characterize the fate (deposition and transport) of PM plumes originating from the mechanical disturbance of surface soil in one of our projects. A particle size distribution model has been developed

  9. Aerosol Observing System Surface Meteorology (AOSMET) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrouac, J.

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observing System (AOS) surface meteorology instrument is an ancillary sensor that provides temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation data relevant to the AOS. It consists of a Vaisala WXT520 Weather Transmitter mounted on top of the AOS aerosol inlet, at a height of approximately 10 meters.

  10. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  11. Evaluation of a size-resolved aerosol model based on satellite and ground observations and its implication on aerosol forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Yu, Fangqun

    2016-04-01

    The latest AeroCom phase II experiments have showed a large diversity in the simulations of aerosol concentrations, size distribution, vertical profile, and optical properties among 16 detailed global aerosol microphysics models, which contribute to the large uncertainty in the predicted aerosol radiative forcing and possibly induce the distinct climate change in the future. In the last few years, we have developed and improved a global size-resolved aerosol model (Yu and Luo, 2009; Ma et al., 2012; Yu et al., 2012), GEOS-Chem-APM, which is a prognostic multi-type, multi-component, size-resolved aerosol microphysics model, including state-of-the-art nucleation schemes and condensation of low volatile secondary organic compounds from successive oxidation aging. The model is one of 16 global models for AeroCom phase II and participated in a couple of model inter-comparison experiments. In this study, we employed multi-year aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 2004 to 2012 taken from ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite retrievals to evaluate the performance of the GEOS-Chem-APM in predicting aerosol optical depth, including spatial distribution, reginal variation and seasonal variabilities. Compared to the observations, the modelled AOD is overall good over land, but quite low over ocean possibly due to low sea salt emission in the model and/or higher AOD in satellite retrievals, specifically MODIS and MISR. We chose 72 AERONET sites having at least 36 months data available and representative of high spatial domain to compare with the model and satellite data. Comparisons in various representative regions show that the model overall agrees well in the major anthropogenic emission regions, such as Europe, East Asia and North America. Relative to the observations, the modelled AOD is

  12. Analysis and interpretation of lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained with a 48 in. telescope lidar system are compared with results obtained using a one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol model to analyze various microphysical processes influencing the formation of this aerosol. Special attention is given to the following problems: (1) how lidar data can help determine the composition of the aerosol particles and (2) how the layer corresponds to temperature profile variations. The lidar record during the period 1974 to 1979 shows a considerable decrease of the peak value of the backscatter ratio. Seasonal variations in the aerosol layer and a gradual decrease in stratospheric loading are observed. The aerosol model simulates a background stratospheric aerosol layer, and it predicts stratospheric aerosol concentrations and compositions. Numerical experiments are carried out by using the model and by comparing the theoretical results with the experimentally obtained lidar record. Comparisons show that the backscatter profile is consistent with the composition when the particles are sulfuric acid and water; it is not consistent with an ammonium sulfate composition. It is shown that the backscatter ratio is not sensitive to the composition or stratospheric loading of condensation nuclei such as meteoritic debris.

  13. Characterization of the Aerosol Instrument Package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Berg, Marcel; Tettig, Frank; Franke, Harald; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2C) consists of two modified Butanol based CPCs (Model Grimm 5.410) and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). A thermodenuder at 250°C is placed upstream the second CPC, thus the number concentrations of the total aerosol and the non-volatile aerosol fraction is measured. The Sky OPC measures the size distribution in the rage theoretically up to 32 μ m. Because of the inlet cut off diameter of D50=3 μ m we are using the 16 channel mode in the range of 250 nm - 2.5 μ m at 1 Hz resolution. In this presentation the IAGOS Aerosol package is characterized for pressure levels relevant for the planned application, down to cruising level of 150 hPa including the inlet system. In our aerosol lab we have tested the system against standard instrumentation with different aerosol test substances in a long duration test. Particle losses are characterized for the inlet system. In addition first results for airborne measurements are shown from a first field campaign.

  14. PARAGON: A Systematic, Integrated Approach to Aerosol Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Braverman, Amy J.; Davies, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Menzies, Robert T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Seinfeld, John H.; Anderson, Theodore L.; Charlson, Robert J.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Aerosols are generated and transformed by myriad processes operating across many spatial and temporal scales. Evaluation of climate models and their sensitivity to changes, such as in greenhouse gas abundances, requires quantifying natural and anthropogenic aerosol forcings and accounting for other critical factors, such as cloud feedbacks. High accuracy is required to provide sufficient sensitivity to perturbations, separate anthropogenic from natural influences, and develop confidence in inputs used to support policy decisions. Although many relevant data sources exist, the aerosol research community does not currently have the means to combine these diverse inputs into an integrated data set for maximum scientific benefit. Bridging observational gaps, adapting to evolving measurements, and establishing rigorous protocols for evaluating models are necessary, while simultaneously maintaining consistent, well understood accuracies. The Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) concept represents a systematic, integrated approach to global aerosol Characterization, bringing together modern measurement and modeling techniques, geospatial statistics methodologies, and high-performance information technologies to provide the machinery necessary for achieving a comprehensive understanding of how aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative processes impact the Earth system. We outline a framework for integrating and interpreting observations and models and establishing an accurate, consistent and cohesive long-term data record.

  15. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties and Direct Radiative Effects: Key Results from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Bergstrom, R. A.; Hignett, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Durkee, P. A.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative Forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the observed climate change of the past century and in predicting, future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) has endorsed a series of multiplatform aerosol field campaigns. The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) were the first IGAC campaigns to address the impact of anthropogenic aerosols. Both TARFOX and ACE-2 gathered extensive data sets on aerosol properties and radiative effects. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the eastern United States over the western Atlantic Ocean, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols carried over the eastern Atlantic from both European urban/industrial and African mineral sources. These aerosols often have a marked influence on the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by satellites, as illustrated in Figure 1. Shown there are contours of aerosol optical depth derived from radiances measured by the AVHRR sensor on the NOAA-11 satellite. The contours readily show that aerosols originating in North America, Europe, and Africa impact the radiative properties of air over the North Atlantic. However, the accurate derivation of flux chances, or radiative forcing, from the satellite-measured radiances or 'etrieved optical depths remains a difficult challenge. In this paper we summarize key Initial results from TARFOX and, to a lesser extent ACE-2, with a focus on those results that allow an improved assessment of the flux changes caused by North Atlantic aerosols at middle and high latitudes.

  16. Evaluation of Aerosol-cloud Interaction in the GISS Model E Using ARM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBoer, G.; Bauer, S. E.; Toto, T.; Menon, Surabi; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Observations from the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program are used to evaluate the ability of the NASA GISS ModelE global climate model in reproducing observed interactions between aerosols and clouds. Included in the evaluation are comparisons of basic meteorology and aerosol properties, droplet activation, effective radius parameterizations, and surface-based evaluations of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). Differences between the simulated and observed ACI are generally large, but these differences may result partially from vertical distribution of aerosol in the model, rather than the representation of physical processes governing the interactions between aerosols and clouds. Compared to the current observations, the ModelE often features elevated droplet concentrations for a given aerosol concentration, indicating that the activation parameterizations used may be too aggressive. Additionally, parameterizations for effective radius commonly used in models were tested using ARM observations, and there was no clear superior parameterization for the cases reviewed here. This lack of consensus is demonstrated to result in potentially large, statistically significant differences to surface radiative budgets, should one parameterization be chosen over another.

  17. Optical properties of boreal region biomass burning aerosols in central Alaska and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth at an Arctic coastal site

    Treesearch

    T.F. Eck; B.N. Holben; J.S. Reid; A. Sinyuk; E.J. Hyer; N.T. O' Neill; G.E. Shaw; J.R. Vande Castle; F.S. Chapin; O. Dubovik; A. Smirnov; E. Vermote; J.S. Schafer; D. Giles; I. Slutsker; M. Sorokine; W.W. Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter), Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major...

  18. Meteorological and aerosol effects on marine cloud microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Corrigan, C. E.; Roberts, G. C.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Bertram, A. K.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Wang, Z.; Wonaschütz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K. J.; Jonsson, H.; Toom, D.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation, cloud droplet distributions, and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets studies provided measurements in six case studies of cloud thermodynamic properties, initial particle number distribution and composition, and cloud drop distribution. In this study, we use simulations from a chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce observed cloud droplet distributions of the case studies. Four cases had subadiabatic lapse rates, resulting in fewer activated droplets, lower liquid water content, and higher cloud base height than an adiabatic lapse rate. A weighted ensemble of simulations that reflect measured variation in updraft velocity and cloud base height was used to reproduce observed droplet distributions. Simulations show that organic hygroscopicity in internally mixed cases causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (CR) (<0.01), except for cargo ship and smoke plumes, which increased CR by 0.02 and 0.07, respectively, owing to their high organic mass fraction. Organic hygroscopicity had larger effects on droplet concentrations for cases with higher aerosol concentrations near the critical diameter (namely, polluted cases with a modal peak near 0.1 µm). Differences in simulated droplet spectral widths (k) caused larger differences in CR than organic hygroscopicity in cases with organic mass fractions of 60% or less for the cases shown. Finally, simulations from a numerical parameterization of cloud droplet activation suitable for general circulation models compared well with the ACP model, except under high organic mass fraction.

  19. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Over the Land from the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    On Dec 18, 1999, NASA launched the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra mission, in a spectacular launch. The mission will provide morning (10:30 AM) global observations of aerosol and other related parameters. It will be followed a year later by a MODIS instrument on EOS Aqua for afternoon observations (1:30 PM). MODIS will measure aerosol over land and ocean with its eight 500 m and 250 m channels in the solar spectrum (0-41 to 2.2 micrometers). Over the land MODIS will measure the total column aerosol loading, and distinguish between submicron pollution particles and large soil particles. Standard daily products of resolution of ten kilometers and global mapped eight day and monthly products on a 1x1 degree global scale will be produced routinely and make available for no or small reproduction charge to the international community. Though the aerosol products will not be available everywhere over the land, it is expected that they will be useful for assessments of the presence, sources and transport of urban pollution, biomass burning aerosol, and desert dust. Other measurements from MODIS will supplement the aerosol information, e.g., land use change, urbanization, presence and magnitude of biomass burning fires, and effect of aerosol on cloud microphysics. Other instruments on Terra, e.g. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), will also measure aerosol, its properties and radiative forcing in tandem with the MODIS measurements. During the Aqua period, there are plans to launch in 2003 the Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations (PICASSO) mission for global measurements of the aerosol vertical structure, and the PARASOL mission for aerosol characterization. Aqua-MODIS, PICASSO and PARASOL will fly in formation for detailed simultaneous characterization of the aerosol three-dimensional field, which

  20. Simulation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System aerosol reanalysis products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Gassó, Santiago; Ahn, Changwoo; Buchard, Virginie; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Torres, Omar

    2017-11-01

    We provide an analysis of the commonly used Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) product for qualitative detection of the presence and loading of absorbing aerosols. In our analysis, simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances are produced at the OMI footprints from a model atmosphere and aerosol profile provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero). Having established the credibility of the MERRAero simulation of the OMI AI in a previous paper we describe updates in the approach and aerosol optical property assumptions. The OMI TOA radiances are computed in cloud-free conditions from the MERRAero atmospheric state, and the AI is calculated. The simulated TOA radiances are fed to the OMI near-UV aerosol retrieval algorithms (known as OMAERUV) is compared to the MERRAero calculated AI. Two main sources of discrepancy are discussed: one pertaining to the OMI algorithm assumptions of the surface pressure, which are generally different from what the actual surface pressure of an observation is, and the other related to simplifying assumptions in the molecular atmosphere radiative transfer used in the OMI algorithms. Surface pressure assumptions lead to systematic biases in the OMAERUV AI, particularly over the oceans. Simplifications in the molecular radiative transfer lead to biases particularly in regions of topography intermediate to surface pressures of 600 and 1013.25 hPa. Generally, the errors in the OMI AI due to these considerations are less than 0.2 in magnitude, though larger errors are possible, particularly over land. We recommend that future versions of the OMI algorithms use surface pressures from readily available atmospheric analyses combined with high-spatial-resolution topographic maps and include more surface pressure nodal points in their radiative transfer lookup tables.

  1. Simulation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index Using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Aerosol Reanalysis Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Gasso, Santiago; Ahn, Changwoo; Buchard, Virginie; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Torres, Omar

    2017-01-01

    We provide an analysis of the commonly used Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) product for qualitative detection of the presence and loading of absorbing aerosols. In our analysis, simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances are produced at the OMI footprints from a model atmosphere and aerosol profile provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero). Having established the credibility of the MERRAero simulation of the OMI AI in a previous paper we describe updates in the approach and aerosol optical property assumptions. The OMI TOA radiances are computed in cloud-free conditions from the MERRAero atmospheric state, and the AI is calculated. The simulated TOA radiances are fed to the OMI aerosol retrieval algorithms, and its retrieved AI (OMAERUV AI) is compared to the MERRAero calculated AI. Two main sources of discrepancy are discussed: one pertaining the OMI algorithm assumptions of the surface pressure, which are generally different from what the actual surface pressure of an observation is, and the other related to simplifying assumptions in the molecular atmosphere radiative transfer used in the OMI algorithms. Surface pressure assumptions lead to systematic biases in the OMAERUV AI, particularly over the oceans. Simplifications in the molecular radiative transfer lead to biases particularly in regions of topography intermediate to surface pressures of 600hPa and 1013.25hPa. Generally, the errors in the OMI AI due to these considerations are less than 0.2 in magnitude, though larger errors are possible, particularly over land. We recommend that future versions of the OMI algorithms use surface pressures from readily available atmospheric analyses combined with high-spatial resolution topographic maps and include more surface pressure nodal points in their radiative transfer lookup tables.

  2. Updating CMAQ secondary organic aerosol properties relevant for aerosol water interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compounds in CMAQ are updated with state-of-the-science estimates from structure activity relationships to provide consistency among volatility, molecular weight, degree of oxygenation, and solubility/hygroscopicity. These updated pro...

  3. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A primary, ACE-Asia objective was to quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Asia-Pacific region. Toward this end, radiometric and related aerosol measurements were made from ocean, land, air and space platforms. Models that predict aerosol fields guided the measurements and are helping integrate and interpret results. Companion overview's survey these measurement and modeling components. Here we illustrate how these components were combined to determine aerosol radiative. impacts and their relation to aerosol properties. Because clouds can obscure or change aerosol direct radiative effects, aircraft and ship sorties to measure these effects depended on predicting and finding cloud-free areas and times with interesting aerosols present. Pre-experiment satellite cloud climatologies, pre-flight aerosol and cloud forecasts, and in-flight guidance from satellite imagery all helped achieve this. Assessments of aerosol regional radiative impacts benefit from the spatiotemporal coverage of satellites, provided satellite-retrieved aerosol properties are accurate. Therefore, ACE-Asia included satellite retrieval tests, as part of many comparisons to judge the consistency (closure) among, diverse measurements. Early results include: (1) Solar spectrally resolved and broadband irradiances and optical depth measurements from the C-130 aircraft and at Kosan, Korea yielded aerosol radiative forcing efficiencies, permitting comparisons between efficiencies of ACE-Asia and INDOEX aerosols, and between dust and "pollution" aerosols. Detailed results will be presented in separate papers. (2) Based on measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo the estimated 24-h a average aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at the surface for photosynthetically active radiation (400 - 700 nm) in Yulin, China is approx. 30 W sq m per AOD(500 nm). (3) The R/V Brown cruise from Honolulu to Sea of Japan sampled an aerosol optical

  4. Identifying Aerosol Type/Mixture from Aerosol Absorption Properties Using AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Slutsker, I.; Li, Z.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols are generated in the atmosphere through anthropogenic and natural mechanisms. These sources have signatures in the aerosol optical and microphysical properties that can be used to identify the aerosol type/mixture. Spectral aerosol absorption information (absorption Angstrom exponent; AAE) used in conjunction with the particle size parameterization (extinction Angstrom exponent; EAE) can only identify the dominant absorbing aerosol type in the sample volume (e.g., black carbon vs. iron oxides in dust). This AAE/EAE relationship can be expanded to also identify non-absorbing aerosol types/mixtures by applying an absorption weighting. This new relationship provides improved aerosol type distinction when the magnitude of absorption is not equal (e.g, black carbon vs. sulfates). The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data provide spectral aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo - key parameters used to determine EAE and AAE. The proposed aerosol type/mixture relationship is demonstrated using the long-term data archive acquired at AERONET sites within various source regions. The preliminary analysis has found that dust, sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosol types/mixtures can be determined from this AAE/EAE relationship when applying the absorption weighting for each available wavelength (Le., 440, 675, 870nm). Large, non-spherical dust particles absorb in the shorter wavelengths and the application of 440nm wavelength absorption weighting produced the best particle type definition. Sulfate particles scatter light efficiently and organic carbon particles are small near the source and aggregate over time to form larger less absorbing particles. Both sulfates and organic carbon showed generally better definition using the 870nm wavelength absorption weighting. Black carbon generation results from varying combustion rates from a number of sources including industrial processes and biomass burning. Cases with primarily black carbon showed

  5. Multi-year Satellite and Surface Observations of AOD in support of Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.

    2012-11-01

    We use combined multi-year measurements from the surface and space for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol properties within a large (~400x400 km) region centered on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, along the East Coast of the United States. The ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements at Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) site and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on board the Terra and Aqua satellites provide horizontal and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, while the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) offers the altitudes of aerosol-layers. The combined ground-based and satellite measurements indicated several interestingmore » features among which were the large differences in the aerosol properties observed in July and February. We applied the climatology of aerosol properties for designing the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The TCAP field campaign involves 12-month deployment (started July 1, 2012) of the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod and complimentary aerosol observations from two research aircraft: the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) B200 King Air. Using results from the coordinated G-1 and B200 flights during the recent (July, 2012) Intensive Observation Period, we demonstrated that the G-1 in situ measurements and B200 active remote sensing can provide complementary information on the temporal and spatial changes of the aerosol properties off the coast of North America.« less

  6. Neural Networks algorithm development for polarimetric observations of above cloud aerosols (ACA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The direct and indirect radiative effects of above clouds aerosols (ACA) are still highly uncertain in current climate assessments. Much of this uncertainty is observational as most orbital remote sensing algorithms were not designed to simultaneously retrieve aerosol and cloud optical properties. Recently, several algorithms have been developed to infer ACA loading and properties using passive, single view angle instruments (OMI, MODIS). Yet, these are not operational and still require rigorous validation. Multiangle polarimetric instruments like POLDER, and RSP show promise for detection and quantification of ACA. However, the retrieval methods for polarimetric measurements entail some drawbacks such as assuming homogeneity of the underlying cloud field for POLDER and retrieved cloud effective radii as an input into RSP scheme. In addition, these methods require computationally expensive RT calculations, which precludes real-time polarimetric data analysis during field campaigns. Here we describe the development of a new algorithm to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and cloud optical properties from observations by polarimetrically sensitive instruments using Neural Networks (NN), which are computationally efficient and fast enough to produce results in the field. This algorithm is specific for ACA, and developed primarily to support the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign, which will acquire measurements of ACA in the South-East Atlantic Ocean during episodes of absorbing aerosols above Stratocumulus cloud decks in 2016-18. The algorithm will use a trained NN scheme for concurrent cloud and aerosol microphysical property retrievals that will be input to optimal estimation method. We will discuss the overall retrieval scheme, focusing on the input variables. Specifically, we use principle component analysis (PCA) to examine the information content available to describe the simulated cloud scenes (with adequate noise

  7. A Synergistic Approach to Estimating Aerosol Optical Depth over Ocean Using GOES Observations and Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Model Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleeger, C.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Smith, W., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols directly and indirectly affect Earth's energy balance. The aerosol indirect effect remains the largest uncertainty in global radiative forcing (IPCC, 2013). Various satellite sensors have been employed to estimate aerosol properties globally using multi-channel, multi-angle, polarization and/or Lidar approaches. Sensors able to portray the spatial and temporal dynamics of aerosol loading, such as MODIS and VIIRS, often have low revisiting frequency, i.e. two images per day for the same region. While sensors capable of observing columnar aerosol properties (e.g. CALIPSO, MISR, POLDER) have limited usage for climate study and operational air quality monitoring and forecast because of their narrow swath and sparse revisiting frequency. Imagers onboard Geostationary (GEO) satellite GOES East and West are able to provide half-hourly observations with wide coverage and moderate spatial resolution. However, their use for estimating aerosol optical depth is largely limited because only the visible channel (0.53 - 0.75 μm) can be applied with large uncertainties on spectral properties related to aerosol types. Toward the goal of optimizing aerosol assimilation and forecast in the GEOS-5 systems, we developed a synergistic approach to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD) over ocean. This algorithm utilizes GOES visible channel observations, look-up tables (LUTs) derived from a coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model (COART), and is constrained by MODIS-assimilated and GOCART-based GEOS-5 aerosol type information. In this presentation, we describe this algorithm; show the preliminary product, including AOD, aerosol type, and quality assurance; and present validations using AERONET observations and MODIS aerosol product.

  8. Use of A-Train Aerosol Observations to Constrain Direct Aerosol Radiative Effects (DARE) Comparisons with Aerocom Models and Uncertainty Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rozenhaimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Stier, P.; Schutgens, N.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a technique for combining multiple A-Train aerosol data sets, namely MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP aerosol backscatter retrievals (hereafter referred to as MOC retrievals) to estimate full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately to calculate the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE). We present MOC results using almost two years of data collected in 2007 and 2008, and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the MODIS Collection 6 AOD data derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the MOC retrievals towards higher latitudes. The MOC aerosol retrievals agree better with AERONET in terms of the single scattering albedo (ssa) at 441 nm than ssa calculated from OMI and MODIS data alone, indicating that CALIOP aerosol backscatter data contains information on aerosol absorption. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of the MOC retrievals and MOC-based calculations of seasonal clear-sky DARE to values derived from four models that participated in the Phase II AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. Overall, the MOC-based calculations of clear-sky DARE at TOA over land are smaller (less negative) than previous model or observational estimates due to the inclusion of more absorbing aerosol retrievals over brighter surfaces, not previously available for observationally-based estimates of DARE. MOC-based DARE estimates at the surface over land and total (land and ocean) DARE estimates at TOA are in between previous model and observational results. Comparisons of seasonal aerosol property to AeroCom Phase II results show generally good agreement best agreement with forcing results at TOA is found with GMI-MerraV3. We discuss sampling issues that affect the comparisons and the major challenges in extending our clear-sky DARE results to all

  9. Analysis of aerosol effects on warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta from multi-sensor satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqin; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhou, Putian; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Hong, Juan; Wang, Yonghong; Ding, Aijun; Guo, Huadong; Krüger, Olaf; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2017-05-01

    Aerosol effects on low warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, eastern China) are examined using co-located MODIS, CALIOP and CloudSat observations. By taking the vertical locations of aerosol and cloud layers into account, we use simultaneously observed aerosol and cloud data to investigate relationships between cloud properties and the amount of aerosol particles (using aerosol optical depth, AOD, as a proxy). Also, we investigate the impact of aerosol types on the variation of cloud properties with AOD. Finally, we explore how meteorological conditions affect these relationships using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. This study shows that the relation between cloud properties and AOD depends on the aerosol abundance, with a different behaviour for low and high AOD (i.e. AOD < 0.35 and AOD > 0.35). This applies to cloud droplet effective radius (CDR) and cloud fraction (CF), but not to cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). COT is found to decrease when AOD increases, which may be due to radiative effects and retrieval artefacts caused by absorbing aerosol. Conversely, CTP tends to increase with elevated AOD, indicating that the aerosol is not always prone to expand the vertical extension. It also shows that the COT-CDR and CWP (cloud liquid water path)-CDR relationships are not unique, but affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. Furthermore, separation of cases with either polluted dust or smoke aerosol shows that aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust, which is ascribed to the higher absorption efficiency of smoke than dust. The variation of cloud properties with AOD is analysed for various relative humidity and boundary layer thermodynamic and dynamic conditions, showing that high relative humidity favours larger cloud droplet particles and increases cloud formation, irrespective of vertical or horizontal level. Stable atmospheric conditions enhance cloud cover

  10. The regime of biomass burning aerosols over the Mediterranean basin based on satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaitzi, Nikoleta; Gkikas, Antonis; Papadimas, Christos. D.; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Torres, Omar; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles have significant effects on global and regional climate, as well as on regional air quality, visibility, cloud processes and human health.Biomass burning contributes by about 40% to the global emission of black carbonBC, and BB aerosols can exert a significant positive radiative forcing. The BB aerosols can originate from natural fires and human induced burning, such as wood or agricultural waste. However, the magnitude, but also the sign of the radiative forcing of BB aerosols is still uncertain, according to the third assessment report of IPCC (2013). Moreover, there are significant differences between different models as to their representation (inventories) of BB aerosols, more than for others, e.g. of fossil fuel origin. Therefore, it is important to better understand the spatial and temporal regime of BB aerosols. This is attempted here for the broader Mediterranean basin, which is a very interesting study area for aerosols, also being one of the most climaticallysensitive world regions. The determination of spatial and temporal regime of Mediterranean BB aerosols premises the identification of these particles at a complete spatial and long temporal coverage. Such a complete coverage is only ensured by contemporary satellite observations, which offer a challenging ability to characterize the existence of BB aerosols. This is possible thanks to the current availability of derived satellite products offering information on the size and absorption/scattering ability of aerosol particles. A synergistic use of such satellite aerosol data is made here, in conjunction with a developed algorithm, in order to identify the existence of BB aerosols over the Mediterranean basin over the 11-year period from 2005 to 2015. The algorithm operates, on a daily basis and at 1°×1°latitude-longitude resolution, setting threshold values (criteria) for specific physical and optical properties, which are representative of BB aerosols. More

  11. Laser radar observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Hirasawa, T.; Fukunishi, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Fujii, R.; Miyaoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The polar stratosphere has been speculated to be an active sink region of various stratospheric materials; ozone, water vapor, NOX, aerosol particles and so on, but this process is not theoretically and/or observationally made clear. The observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer using laser radar certainly contributes to the study of the global transport of these stratospheric minor constituents. In addition to this, from the viewpoint of aerosol science, there may be many interesting phenomena which cannot be found in the stratosphere at mid and low latitudes; the effect of precipitation of high energy molecules and atoms, of very cold winter stratosphere, of very cold mesopause in summer. Laser radar observation is one of the main activities of the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA) project at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica since May 1983. Laser radar measurement at Syowa Station is discussed in detail.

  12. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  13. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  14. Trends in the aerosol load properties over south eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orza, J. A. G.; Perrone, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term (2003-2013) variations in columnar aerosol properties at Lecce, a site representative of the central Mediterranean, have been analysed for trend assessment. The study focuses on aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 340, 440, 500 and 1020 nm and Ångström exponent (AE) for the pair 440-870 nm, retrieved from a sun photometer operating within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). A non-parametric trend analysis of the monthly mean, median and upper and lower tails (90th and 10th percentiles) suggests that the aerosol load has decreased during the study period, while the mean particle size remained unchanged. The characteristic advections reaching the study site were found by clustering analysis of back trajectories at 500, 1500 and 3000 m. Despite the strong influence they have on aerosol load and particle size, neither of the trends in advection routes could explain the tendencies found in the columnar aerosol properties. However, trends in aerosol data by advection type allow understanding the overall trends. Aerosol properties under flows with high residence time over continental Europe present differences according to the specific residing area. More specifically, no trend is found when flows arrive from Ukraine and the Balkans, while under advections from north-western/central Europe there are downward trends in the background levels and a reduction of the fine fraction. Negative trends are also found under flows with high residence time over the Mediterranean and northern Africa, again with differences according to the residing area.

  15. Investigating the Spectral Dependence of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odwuor, A.; Corr, C.; Pusede, S.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties, such as light absorption and scattering, are important for understanding how aerosols affect the global radiation budget and for comparison with data gathered from remote sensing. It has been established that the optical properties of aerosols are wavelength dependent, although some remote sensing measurements do not consider this. Airborne measurements of these optical properties were used to calculate the absorption Angstrom exponent, a parameter that characterizes the wavelength dependence of light absorption by aerosols, and single scattering albedo, which measures the relative magnitude of light scattering to total extinction (scattering and absorption combined). Aerosols produced by biomass burning in Saskatchewan, Canada in July 2008 and a forest fire in Southern California, U.S. in June 2016 were included in this analysis. These wildfires were sampled by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) and NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) missions, respectively. Aerosol absorption was measured using a particle soot photometer (PSAP) at 470, 532 and 660 nm. Scattering was measured using a 3-wavelength (450, 550 and 700 nm) nephelometer. Absorption Angstrom exponents were calculated at 470 and 660 nm and single scattering albedos were calculated at 450 and 550 nm. Results of this study indicate that disregarding the wavelength dependence of organic aerosol can understate the positive radiative forcing (warming) associated with aerosol absorption.

  16. Uncertainties of simulated aerosol optical properties induced by assumptions on aerosol physical and chemical properties: an AQMEII-2 perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of aerosol optical properties from aerosol mass is a process subject to uncertainty related to necessary assumptions on the treatment of the chemical species mixing state, density, refractive index, and hygroscopic growth. In the framework of the AQMEII-2 model in...

  17. Aerosol and Cloud Interaction Observed From High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Wenying; Schuster, Gregory L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies utilizing satellite retrievals have shown a strong correlation between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud cover. However, these retrievals from passive sensors are subject to many limitations, including cloud adjacency (or 3D) effects, possible cloud contamination, uncertainty in the AOD retrieval. Some of these limitations do not exist in High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) observations; for instance, HSRL observations are not a ected by cloud adjacency effects, are less prone to cloud contamination, and offer accurate aerosol property measurements (backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient, lidar ratio, backscatter Angstrom exponent,and aerosol optical depth) at a neospatial resolution (less than 100 m) in the vicinity of clouds. Hence, the HSRL provides an important dataset for studying aerosol and cloud interaction. In this study, we statistically analyze aircraft-based HSRL profiles according to their distance from the nearest cloud, assuring that all profile comparisons are subject to the same large-scale meteorological conditions. Our results indicate that AODs from HSRL are about 17% higher in the proximity of clouds (approximately 100 m) than far away from clouds (4.5 km), which is much smaller than the reported cloud 3D effect on AOD retrievals. The backscatter and extinction coefficients also systematically increase in the vicinity of clouds, which can be explained by aerosol swelling in the high relative humidity (RH) environment and/or aerosol growth through in cloud processing (albeit not conclusively). On the other hand, we do not observe a systematic trend in lidar ratio; we hypothesize that this is caused by the opposite effects of aerosol swelling and aerosol in-cloud processing on the lidar ratio. Finally, the observed backscatter Angstrom exponent (BAE) does not show a consistent trend because of the complicated relationship between BAE and RH. We demonstrate that BAE should not be used as a surrogate for Angstrom

  18. Chemical Composition and Size Distributions of Coastal Aerosols Observed on the U.S. East Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Song, F.; Jusino-Atresino, R.; Thuman, C.; Gao, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosol input is an important source of certain limiting nutrients, such as iron, for phytoplankton growth in several large oceanic regions. As the efficiency of biological uptake of nutrients may depend on the aerosol properties, a better knowledge of aerosol properties is critically important. Characterizing aerosols over the coastal ocean needs special attention, because the properties of aerosols could be altered by many anthropogenic processes in this land-ocean transition zone before they are transported over the remote ocean. The goal of this experiment was to examine aerosol properties, in particular chemical composition, particle-size distributions and iron solubility, over the US Eastern Seaboard, an important boundary for the transport of continental substances from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean. Our field sampling site was located at Tuckerton (39°N, 74°W) on the southern New Jersey coast. Fourteen sets of High-Volume aerosol samples and three sets of size segregated aerosol samples by a 10-stage MOUDI impactor were collected during 2007 and 2008. The ICP-MS methodology was used to analyze aerosol samples for the concentrations of thirteen trace elements: Al, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cd, Pb, Sb, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn and V. The IC procedures were applied to determine five cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and eleven anions (fluoride, acetate, propionate, formate, MSA, chloride, nitrate, succinate, malonate, sulfate and oxalate). The UV spectrometry was employed for the determination of iron solubility. Preliminary results suggest three major sources of aerosols: anthropogenic, crustal and marine. At this location, the concentrations of iron (II) ranged from 2.8 to 29ng m-3, accounting for ~20% of the total iron. The iron concentrations at this coastal site were substantially lower than those observed in Newark, an urban site in northern NJ. High concentrations of iron (II) were associated with both fine and coarse aerosol

  19. CALIPSO and MODIS Observations of Increases in Aerosol Optical Depths near Marine Stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, J. A.; Tahnk, W. R.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosols not only affect droplet sizes and number concentrations in marine stratocumulus but in turn the near cloud environment gives rise to changes in the aerosol particle concentrations and sizes. In addition, the clouds serve as reflectors that illuminate the adjacent cloud-free air. This extra illumination leads to overestimates of aerosol optical depths and fine mode fractions retrieved from multispectral satellite imagery. Large cloud-free ocean regions bounded on both ends, or if sufficiently large (>100 km), on at least one end by layers of marine stratocumulus, as deduced from CALIPSO lidar returns, were examined to deduce the effects of the clouds on the properties of nearby aerosols. CALIPSO aerosol optical depths composited for more than a year and covering the global oceans, 60°S-60°N, reveal that the fractional increase in aerosol optical depth in going from a cloud-free 5-km region more than 10 to 15 km from a cloud boundary to one adjacent the clouds is 10%-15% at both 532 and 1064 nm for both daytime and nighttime observations. All of the changes are statistically significant at the 90% confidence level or greater. The associated reduction in the 532/1064 Ånsgtröm Exponent is 0.023 for the nighttime observations, but owing to a poorer signal to noise ratio, no change in the Exponent is detected for the daytime observations. For comparison, the MODIS aerosol optical depths collocated with the daytime CALIPSO optical depths suggest that the fractional increases in aerosol optical depths in going from a cloud-free 10-km region 15 km from a cloud boundary to one adjacent the clouds is about 5% at both 550 and 850 nm. The associated reduction in the 550/850 Ånsgtröm Exponent is 0.053. The changes in aerosol properties die away within 10 to 20 km from the marine stratocumulus. The increases in aerosol scattering and reductions in Ånsgtröm Exponent suggest that near the clouds, the aerosol particles become larger. The fine mode fraction found in

  20. Retrieving the Height of Smoke and Dust Aerosols by Synergistic Use of VIIRS, OMPS, and CALIOP Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, N. Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jeong, Myeong-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol Single scattering albedo and Height Estimation (ASHE) algorithm was first introduced in Jeong and Hsu (2008) to provide aerosol layer height as well as single scattering albedo (SSA) for biomass burning smoke aerosols. One of the advantages of this algorithm was that the aerosol layer height can be retrieved over broad areas, which had not been available from lidar observations only. The algorithm utilized aerosol properties from three different satellite sensors, i.e., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), UV aerosol index (UVAI) from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and aerosol layer height from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Here, we extend the application of the algorithm to Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) data. We also now include dust layers as well as smoke. Other updates include improvements in retrieving the AOD of nonspherical dust from VIIRS, better determination of the aerosol layer height from CALIOP, and more realistic input aerosol profiles in the forward model for better accuracy.

  1. Satellite observation of aerosol - cloud interactions over semi-arid and arid land regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klüser, L.; Holzer-Popp, T.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite observations from three different sources are used to study the interactions between aerosol and ice clouds in five semi-arid and arid land regions over Africa and Asia, reaching from the South-African Kalahari to the Taklimakan and Gobi in Mongolia. (1) Six years of Aqua MODIS cloud and aerosol observations (including "Deep Blue" retrievals) which contain a qualitative separation into coarse and fine mode aerosol are analysed. (2) Five years of APOLLO cloud observations and SYNAER aerosol retrievals which allow discriminating between mineral dust and soot dominated cases from AATSR and SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT are exploited. (3) Moreover IASI provides one year of ice cloud and mineral dust observations over land retrieved with a newly developed method based on singular vector decomposition. Cloud top temperature observations are used to asses the state of convection and to statistically re-project observation distributions of cloud properties to background conditions. Then the difference between observation density distributions of background and re-projected aerosol-contaminated samples can be evaluated. By such way of analysis the influence of different cloud development stages, which also manifest in seasonal cycles of cloud properties, can be minimised. The analysis of the various observation density distributions shows that liquid water and ice effective radius is mainly decreased for increased total aerosol content for both aerosol types, biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust, separately. Two different modes of aerosol impacts on cloud optical depth can be shown. Optical depth is mainly increased, directly following the theory of the so-called "Twomey effect". In the West African Sahel a decrease of cloud water path (for both liquid water and ice) under the influence of absorbing aerosols results also in decreased optical depth. As at the same time the cloud fraction does not decrease under aerosol influence, the statistical decrease of mean

  2. Information Content of Bistatic Lidar Observations of Aerosols from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, a quantitative retrieval error-propagation study for a bistatic high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) system intended for detailed quasi-global monitoring of aerosol properties from space. Our results demonstrate that supplementing a conventional monostatic HSRL with an additional receiver flown in formation at a scattering angle close to 165 degrees dramatically increases the information content of the measurements and allows for a sufficiently accurate characterization of tropospheric aerosols. We conclude that a bistatic HSRL system would far exceed the capabilities of currently flown or planned orbital instruments in monitoring global aerosol effects on the environment and on the Earth's climate. We also demonstrate how the commonly used a priori 'regularization' methodology can artificially reduce the propagated uncertainties and can thereby be misleading as to the real retrieval capabilities of a measurement system.

  3. Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2013-11-01

    Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on themore » easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.« less

  4. Aerosol Effects on Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Optical Properties in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmot, K. E.; Bennartz, R.; Rausch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective radius are shown to be underestimated in the South Atlantic Ocean, where biomass-burning aerosols typically reside above low-level, liquid water stratocumulus clouds. A radiative transfer model is used to calculate top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for a case where an aerosol layer is elevated above a liquid cloud in the South Atlantic Ocean. Both absorbing and scattering aerosols are modeled at varying aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 0.86 μm and 2.10 μm. Optimal estimation methods are used to convert reflectance pairs into a retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius, similar to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, aboard Aqua satellite) algorithm. Absorbing aerosols lead to an underestimation of the retrieved cloud optical depth by up to 60 - 80%, while scattering aerosols can lead to an over- or underestimate of the optical depth by up to 10%, depending on the cloud thickness. Effective radius retrievals can be over- and underestimated if absorbing aerosols are present, depending on the AOD. Scattering aerosols result in an overestimation of effective radius by up to 0 - 10%. A-Train satellite observations from August 2006 - December 2010 in the South Atlantic Ocean also show that the MODIS biases in cloud optical depth and effective radius are likely affecting retrieved properties and hence retrieved cloud droplet number concentrations when the aerosol layer is vertically separated from the cloud.

  5. Observations of stratospheric aerosols associated with the El Chichon eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L.; Vaughan, G.; Jenkins, D. B.; Wareing, D.; Farrington, M.

    1986-01-01

    Lidar observations of aerosols were carried out at Aberystwyth between Nov. 1982 and Dec. 1985 using a frequency doubled and frequency tripled Nd/Yag laser and a receiver incorporating a 1 m diameter in a Newtonian telescope configuration. In analyses of the experimental data attention is paid to the magnitude of the coefficient relating extinction and backscatter, the choice being related to the possible presence of aerosols in the upper troposphere and the atmospheric densities employed in the normalisation procedure. The aerosol loading showed marked day to day changes in early months and an overall decay was apparent only after April 1983, this decay being consistent with an e sup -1 time of about 7 months. The general decay was accompanied by a lowering of the layer but layers of aerosols were shown intermittently at heights above the main layer in winter months. The height variations of photon counts corrected for range, or of aerosol backscatter ratio, showed clear signatures of the tropopause. A strong correlation was found between the heights of the tropopause identified from the lidar measurements and from radiosonde-borne temperature measurements. A notable feature of the observations is the appearance of very sharp height gradients of backscatter ratio which seem to be produced by differential advection.

  6. Hygroscopic properties of aminium sulfate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2017-03-01

    Alkylaminium sulfates originate from the neutralisation reaction between short-chained amines and sulfuric acid and have been detected in atmospheric aerosol particles. Their physicochemical behaviour is less well characterised than their inorganic equivalent, ammonium sulfate, even though they play a role in atmospheric processes such as the nucleation and growth of new particles and cloud droplet formation. In this work, a comparative evaporation kinetics experimental technique using a cylindrical electrodynamic balance is applied to determine the hygroscopic properties of six short-chained alkylaminium sulfates, specifically mono-, di-, and tri-methylaminium sulfate and mono-, di-, and tri-ethyl aminium sulfate. This approach allows for the retrieval of a water-activity-dependent growth curve in less than 10 s, avoiding the uncertainties that can arise from the volatilisation of semi-volatile components. Measurements are made on particles > 5 µm in radius, avoiding the need to correct equilibrium measurements for droplet-surface curvature with assumed values of the droplet-surface tension. Variations in equilibrium solution droplet composition with varying water activity are reported over the range 0.5 to > 0.98, along with accurate parameterisations of solution density and refractive index. The uncertainties in water activities associated with the hygroscopicity measurements are typically < ±0.2 % at water activities > 0.9 and ˜ ±1 % below 0.9, with maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factors of ±0.7 %. Comparison with previously reported measurements show deviation across the entire water activity range.

  7. Long term lidar measurements of aerosol properties over thessaloniki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomos, Nikolaos; Voudouri, Kalliopi A.; Giannakaki, Eleni; Amiridis, Vasilis; Filioglou, Maria; Papayannis, Alexandros; Balis, Dimitris S.

    2018-04-01

    In this study we present some first results on the potential of 15 years of lidar measurements over the lidar station of Thessaloniki to compile a climatology of the aerosol properties for the period 2001-2015. This is examined on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. Both the profile structure and the columnar properties of the aerosol extinction and backscatter products are examined. The results are compared for consistency against co-located sunphotometer measurements.

  8. Aerosol physical properties in the stratosphere (APPS) radiometer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Woodin, E. A.; Anderson, T. J.; Magee, R. J.; Karthas, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The measurement concepts and radiometer design developed to obtain earth-limb spectral radiance measurements for the Aerosol Physical Properties in the Stratosphere (APPS) measurement program are presented. The measurements made by a radiometer of this design can be inverted to yield vertical profiles of Rayleigh scatterers, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, aerosol extinction, and aerosol physical properties, including a Junge size-distribution parameter, and a real and imaginary index of refraction. The radiometer design provides the capacity for remote sensing of stratospheric constituents from space on platforms such as the space shuttle and satellites, and therefore provides for global measurements on a daily basis.

  9. Optical remote sensing techniques characterize the properties of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philbrick, Russell; Hallen, Hans; Wyant, Andrea; Wright, Tim; Snyder, Michelle

    2010-04-01

    Several laser remote sensing techniques are used to characterize the properties of aerosols. The various techniques include: backscatter, optical extinction using Raman scatter, and bistatic/multistatic scattering using the polarization ratio of the scattering phase function. The number density, size, and size distribution are obtained under the assumption of spherical scatterers. Other measurements can be used to describe additional properties, such as aerosol type based upon approximate refractive index and detected departure from spherical, when simultaneous measurements at several wavelengths and several angles are analyzed. Examples are shown to demonstrate our present capability to characterize aerosol particles using recently developed techniques.

  10. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: Implications for aerosol optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-04-14

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) inmore » two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Lastly, significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.« less

  11. Vertically resolved aerosol properties by multi-wavelength lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, M. R.; De Tomasi, F.; Gobbi, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    An approach based on the graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) is introduced to estimate the dependence on altitude of the aerosol fine mode radius (Rf) and of the fine mode contribution (η) to the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from three-wavelength lidar measurements. The graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) was applied to AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) spectral extinction observations and relies on the combined analysis of the Ångstrom exponent (å) and its spectral curvature Δå. Lidar measurements at 355, 532 and 1064 nm were used in this study to retrieve the vertical profiles of å and Δå and to estimate the dependence on altitude of Rf and η(532 nm) from the å-Δå combined analysis. Lidar measurements were performed at the Department of Mathematics and Physics of the Universita' del Salento, in south-eastern Italy. Aerosol from continental Europe, the Atlantic, northern Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea are often advected over south-eastern Italy and as a consequence, mixed advection patterns leading to aerosol properties varying with altitude are dominant. The proposed approach was applied to ten measurement days to demonstrate its feasibility in different aerosol load conditions. The selected days were characterized by AOTs spanning the 0.26-0.67, 0.15-0.39, and 0.04-0.27 range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively. Mean lidar ratios varied within the 31-83, 32-84, and 11-47 sr range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, for the high variability of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties. å values calculated from lidar extinction profiles at 355 and 1064 nm ranged between 0.1 and 2.5 with a mean value ± 1 standard deviation equal to 1.3 ± 0.7. Δå varied within the -0.1-1 range with mean value equal to 0.25 ± 0.43. Rf and η(532 nm) values spanning the 0.05-0.3 μm and the 0.3-0.99 range, respectively, were associated with the å-Δå data points. Rf and η values showed no dependence on the altitude. 60

  12. The Influence of Aerosol Composition on Photolysis Rates Based on Airborne Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, C.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Crawford, J. H.; Jordan, C. E.; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Madronich, S.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    The potential variability in modeled photolysis rates introduced by aerosol optical properties measured at visible wavelengths is presented here. Aerosol scattering and absorption were measured aboard the NASA P-3B aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) using a TSI Nephelometer and a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), respectively. To isolate the effect of aerosols on photolysis rates, cloud-free case studies were identified using aircraft videos for the four DISCOVER-AQ deployments: Baltimore, MD-Washington, D.C. in July 2011, the California Central Valley in January/February 2013, Houston, TX in September 2013, and Denver, CO in July 2014. For these case studies, absorption measurements at 470 and 532 nm were extrapolated to the Nephelometer wavelengths (450 and 550nm) using the 470-532nm absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE470-532) to calculate aerosol extinction and SSAs at these wavelengths. Photolysis rates were modeled using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet model version 5.2 (TUV 5.2) for three scenarios: 1) an aerosol-free case, 2) using a spectrally-flat SSA at 550nm and 3) using a spectrally-dependent SSA derived from scattering and absorption measurements. Modeled photolysis rates were compared to those measured aboard the P-3B during DISCOVER-AQ. The relationship between airborne measurements of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) made by a Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler (PILS), AAE470-532 and model/measurement discrepancies were explored to assess the influence of aerosol composition on photolysis rates. Additional comparisons between photolysis rates modeled with vertically-resolved aerosol optical properties and those modeled using column-average values were performed to assess the influence of aerosol vertical distribution on photolysis rates.

  13. Comparing multiple model-derived aerosol optical properties to spatially collocated ground-based and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocko, Ilissa B.; Ginoux, Paul A.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are a key factor governing Earth's climate and play a central role in human-caused climate change. However, because of aerosols' complex physical, optical, and dynamical properties, aerosols are one of the most uncertain aspects of climate modeling. Fortunately, aerosol measurement networks over the past few decades have led to the establishment of long-term observations for numerous locations worldwide. Further, the availability of datasets from several different measurement techniques (such as ground-based and satellite instruments) can help scientists increasingly improve modeling efforts. This study explores the value of evaluating several model-simulated aerosol properties with data from spatially collocated instruments. We compare aerosol optical depth (AOD; total, scattering, and absorption), single-scattering albedo (SSA), Ångström exponent (α), and extinction vertical profiles in two prominent global climate models (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, GFDL, CM2.1 and CM3) to seasonal observations from collocated instruments (AErosol RObotic NETwork, AERONET, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization, CALIOP) at seven polluted and biomass burning regions worldwide. We find that a multi-parameter evaluation provides key insights on model biases, data from collocated instruments can reveal underlying aerosol-governing physics, column properties wash out important vertical distinctions, and improved models does not mean all aspects are improved. We conclude that it is important to make use of all available data (parameters and instruments) when evaluating aerosol properties derived by models.

  14. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G.; Hashimoto, Bryce I.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March–May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls. PMID:24707452

  15. A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Sano, I.; Nishimori, A.; Sato, M.

    A comparison between aerosol properties and air pollutants over urban cities in Japan S. Mukai, I. Sano, A. Nishimori and M. Sato Kinki University For understanding urban aerosols, sun/sky photometry and polarimetry with PSR-1000 (Opto. Research) have been undertaken over Higashi-Osaka since 1996. Multi-spectral photometers CE-318 (Cimel Electronique) and POM-100P (Prede Co.) are set up later for an AERONET site and a SKYNET site, respectively. Radiometers provide us with the optical thickness of aerosols and Ångström exponent. Another aerosol properties, e.g., size distribution, refractive index, etc., are retrieved based on the inversion method. Higashi-Osaka, which means east side of Osaka, is an industrial city located between Osaka bay and Mt.Ikoma. Anthropogenic aerosols produced by industrial activity and oceanic aerosols flying from Osaka bay are mixed together and trapped just around our site due to reflection from Mt.Ikoma. Therefore our city is famous for heavy air pollution, and aerosols here have a complicated feature mixing with the anthropogenic compound and natural one externally and/or internally. On the other hand, suspended particles matter (SPM) concentrations at ground level are compiled for these 10 years in this city. Strictly speaking, it is difficult to relate SPM data directly to the aerosol properties, however it is possible to say that SPM data represents the mass concentration of atmospheric particles at ground level. In other word, air pollutants could have some relations to the emission and transportation of aerosols. After several aerosol parameters are derived from the measurements and compared with the SPM data, the HYSPLIT4 backward trajectory analysis is adopted to search the origin of atmospheric particles. It is found that aerosol index shows a proportional correlation with SPM concentration, and that our aerosols are contaminated not only by surroundings but also the large scale phenomena, e.g. yellow sand event from China

  16. Characterizing and Understanding Aerosol Optical Properties: CARES - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cappa, Christopher D; Atkinson, Dean B

    2017-12-17

    The scientific focus of this study was to use ambient measurements to develop new insights into the understanding of the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol particles. The study used data collected by the PI’s and others as part of both the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), which took place in and around Sacramento, CA, and the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) study. We focus on measurements that were made of aerosol particle optical properties, namely the wavelength-dependent light absorption, scattering and extinction. Interpretation of these optical property measurements ismore » facilitated through consideration of complementary measurements of the aerosol particle chemical composition and size distributions. With these measurements, we addressed the following general scientific questions: 1. How does light scattering and extinction by atmospheric aerosol particles depend on particle composition, water uptake, and size? 2. To what extent is light absorption by aerosol particles enhanced through the mixing of black carbon with other particulate components? 3. What relationships exist between intensive aerosol particle optical properties, and how do these depend on particle source and photochemical aging? 4. How well do spectral deconvolution methods, which are commonly used in remote sensing, retrieve information about particle size distributions?« less

  17. Radiative effects of absorbing aerosols over northeastern India: Observations and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Pathak, Binita; Subba, Tamanna; Chutia, Lakhima; Kundu, Shyam Sundar; Bharali, Chandrakala; Borgohain, Arup; Guha, Anirban; De, Barin Kumar; Singh, Brajamani; Chin, Mian

    2017-01-01

    Multiyear measurements of spectral properties of aerosol absorption are examined over four geographically distinct locations of northeastern India. Results indicated significant spatiotemporal variation in aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with highest values in winter and lowest in monsoon. The western parts of the region, close to the outflow of Indo-Gangetic Plains, showed higher values of σabs and black carbon (BC) concentration—mostly associated with fossil fuel combustion. But, the eastern parts showed higher contributions from biomass-burning aerosols, as much as 20-25% to the total aerosol absorption, conspicuously during premonsoon season. This is attributed to a large number of burning activities over the Southeast Asian region, as depicted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer fire count maps, whose spatial extent and magnitude peaks during March/April. The nearly consistent high values of aerosol index (AI) and layer height from Ozone Monitoring Instrument indicate the presence of absorbing aerosols in the upper atmosphere. The observed seasonality has been captured fairly well by Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) as well as Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations. The ratio of column-integrated optical depths due to particulate organic matter and BC from GOCART showed good coincidence with satellite-based observations, indicating the increased vertical dispersion of absorbing aerosols, probably by the additional local convection due to higher fire radiative power caused by the intense biomass-burning activities. In the WRF-Chem though underperformed by different magnitude in winter, the values are closer or overestimated near the burnt areas. Atmospheric forcing due to BC was highest ( 30 Wm-2) over the western part associated with the fossil fuel combustion.

  18. Evaluating Clouds, Aerosols, and their Interactions in Three Global Climate Models using COSP and Satellite Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, George; Jin, Ling; Bauer, S.

    2014-09-23

    Accurately representing aerosol-cloud interactions in global climate models is challenging. As parameterizations evolve, it is important to evaluate their performance with appropriate use of observations. In this work we compare aerosols, clouds, and their interactions in three climate models (AM3, CAM5, ModelE) to MODIS satellite observations. Modeled cloud properties were diagnosed using the CFMIP Observations Simulator Package (COSP). Cloud droplet number concentrations (N) were derived using the same algorithm for both satellite-simulated model values and observations. We find that aerosol optical depth tau simulated by models is similar to observations. For N, AM3 and CAM5 capture the observed spatial patternmore » of higher values in near-coast versus remote ocean regions, though modeled values in general are higher than observed. In contrast, ModelE simulates lower N in most near-coast versus remote regions. Aerosol- cloud interactions were computed as the sensitivity of N to tau for marine liquid clouds off the coasts of South Africa and Eastern Asia where aerosol pollution varies in time. AM3 and CAM5 are in most cases more sensitive than observations, while the sensitivity for ModelE is statistically insignificant. This widely used sensitivity could be subject to misinterpretation due to the confounding influence of meteorology on both aerosols and clouds. A simple framework for assessing the N – tau sensitivity at constant meteorology illustrates that observed sensitivity can change from positive to statistically insignificant when including the confounding influence of relative humidity. Satellite simulated values of N were compared to standard model output and found to be higher with a bias of 83 cm-3.« less

  19. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively.more » Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.« less

  20. Optical properties and source analysis of aerosols over a desert area in Dunhuang, Northwest china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yongjing; Xin, Jinyuan; Ma, Yining; Kong, Lingbin; Zhang, Kequan; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Xiuqin; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol observational data for 2012 obtained from Dunhuang Station of CARE-China (Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research Network of China) were analyzed to achieve in-depth knowledge of aerosol optical properties over Dunhuang region. The results showed that the annual average aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.32±0.06, and the Ångström exponent ( α) was 0.73 ± 0.27. Aerosol optical properties revealed significant seasonal characteristics. Frequent sandstorms in MAM (March-April-May) resulted in the seasonal maximum AOD, 0.41 ± 0.04, and a relatively smaller α value, 0.44±0.04. The tourism seasons, JJA (June-July-August) and SON (September-October-November) coincide with serious emissions of small anthropogenic aerosols. While in DJF (December-January-February), the composition of the atmosphere was a mixture of dust particles and polluted aerosols released by domestic heating; the average AOD and α were 0.29 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.17, respectively. Different air masses exhibited different degrees of influence on the aerosol concentration over Dunhuang in different seasons. During MAM, ranges of AOD (0.11-1.18) and α (0.06-0.82) were the largest under the dust influence of northwest-short-distance air mass in the four trajectories. Urban aerosols transported by northwest-short-distance air mass accounted for a very large proportion in JJA and the mixed aerosols observed in SON were mainly conveyed by air masses from the west. In DJF, the similar ranges of AOD and α under the three air mass demonstrated the analogous diffusion effects on regional pollutants over Dunhuang.

  1. Classification of aerosol properties derived from AERONET direct sun data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Koren, I.; Eck, T. F.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol spectral measurements by sunphotometers can be characterized by three independent pieces of information: 1) the optical thickness (AOT), a measure of the column aerosol concentration, 2) the optical thickness average spectral dependence, given by the Angstrom exponent (α), and 3) the spectral curvature of α (δα). We propose a simple graphical method to visually convert (α, δα) to the contribution of fine aerosol to the AOT and the size of the fine aerosols. This information can be used to track mixtures of pollution aerosol with dust, to distinguish aerosol growth from cloud contamination and to observe aerosol humidification. The graphical method is applied to the analysis of yearly records at 8 sites in 3 continents, characterized by different levels of pollution, biomass burning and mineral dust concentrations. Results depict the dominance of fine mode aerosols in driving the AOT at polluted sites. In stable meteorological conditions, we see an increase in the size of the fine aerosol as the pollution stagnates and increases in optical thickness. Coexistence of coarse and fine particles is evidenced at the polluted sites downwind of arid regions.

  2. Classification of aerosol properties derived from AERONET direct sun data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Koren, I.; Eck, T. F.

    2006-09-01

    Aerosol spectral measurements by sunphotometers can be characterized by three independent pieces of information: 1) the optical thickness (AOT), a measure of the column aerosol concentration, 2) the optical thickness average spectral dependence, given by the Angstrom exponent (α), and 3) the spectral curvature of α (δα). We propose a simple graphical method to visually convert (α, δα) to the contribution of fine aerosol to the AOT and the size of the fine aerosols. This information can be used to track mixtures of pollution aerosol with dust, to distinguish aerosol growth from cloud contamination and to observe aerosol humidification. The graphical method is applied to the analysis of yearly records at 8 sites in 3 continents, characterized by different levels of pollution, biomass burning and mineral dust concentrations. Results depict the dominance of fine mode aerosols in driving the AOT at polluted sites. In stable meteorological conditions, we see an increase in the size of the fine aerosol as the pollution stagnates and increases in optical thickness. Coexistence of coarse and fine particles is evidenced at the polluted sites downwind of arid regions.

  3. Aerosol properties derived from spectral actinic flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Cozic, J.; Wollny, A. G.; Brock, C. A.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2008-12-01

    Measurement of aerosol properties is very important for understanding climate change. Aerosol optical properties influence solar radiation throughout the troposphere. According to the Working Group I report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change [IPCC, 2007], aerosols have a direct radiative forcing of - 0.5±0.4 W/m2 with a medium to low level of scientific understanding. This relatively large uncertainty indicates the need for more frequent and precise measurements of aerosol properties. We will show how actinic flux measurements can be used to derive important optical aerosol parameters such as aerosol optical thickness and depth, surface albedo, angstrom exponent, radiative forcing by clouds and aerosols, aerosol extinction, and others. The instrument used for this study is a combination of two spectroradiometers measuring actinic flux in the ultraviolet and visible radiation range from 280 to 690 nm with a resolution of 1 nm. Actinic flux is measured as the radiation incident on a spherical surface with sensitivity independent of direction. In contrast, irradiance is measured as the radiation incident on a plane surface, which depends on the cosine of the incident angle. Our goal is to assess the capabilities of using spectral actinic flux measurements to derive various aerosol properties. Here we will compare 1) actinic flux measurements to irradiance measurements from the spectral solar flux radiometer (SSFR), 2) derived aerosol size distributions with measurements from a white light optical particle counter (WLOPC) and ultra high sensitivity aerosol size spectrometer (UHSAS), and 3) derived aerosol optical extinction with measurements from a cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectrometer (CRD-AES). These comparisons will utilize data from three recent field campaigns over New England and the Atlantic Ocean (ICARTT 2004), Texas and the Gulf of Mexico during (TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006), and Alaska and the Arctic Ocean (ARCPAC 2008) when the instruments

  4. Reducing multisensor monthly mean aerosol optical depth uncertainty: 2. Optimal locations for potential ground observation deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Li, Xichen; Carlson, Barbara E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Dubovik, Oleg; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-04-01

    Surface remote sensing of aerosol properties provides "ground truth" for satellite and model validation and is an important component of aerosol observation system. Due to the different characteristics of background aerosol variability, information obtained at different locations usually has different spatial representativeness, implying that the location should be carefully chosen so that its measurement could be extended to a greater area. In this study, we present an objective observation array design technique that automatically determines the optimal locations with the highest spatial representativeness based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) theory. The ensemble is constructed using aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from five satellite sensors. The optimal locations are solved sequentially by minimizing the total analysis error variance, which means that observations at these locations will reduce the background error variance to the largest extent. The location determined by the algorithm is further verified to have larger spatial representativeness than some other arbitrary location. In addition to the existing active Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites, the 40 selected optimal locations are mostly concentrated on regions with both high AOD inhomogeneity and its spatial representativeness, namely, the Sahel, South Africa, East Asia, and North Pacific Islands. These places should be the focuses of establishing future AERONET sites in order to further reduce the uncertainty in the monthly mean AOD. Observations at these locations contribute to approximately 50% of the total background uncertainty reduction.

  5. Fog Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET, Including Occurrences During Major Air Pollution Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Li, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A. T.; Schafer, J.; Artaxo, P.; Smirnov, A.; Chen, H.; Goloub, P.

    2015-12-01

    The modification of aerosol optical properties due to interaction with fog is examined from measurements made by sun/sky radiometers at several AERONET sites. Retrieved total column volume size distributions for cases identified as aerosol modified by fog often show very a large 'middle mode' submicron radius (~0.4 to 0.5 microns), which is typically seen as a component of a bimodal sub-micron distribution. These middle mode sized particles are often called cloud-processed or residual aerosol. This bimodal accumulation mode distribution may be due to one mode (the larger one) from fog-processed aerosol and the other from interstitial aerosol, or possibly from two different aerosol species (differing chemical composition) with differing hygroscopic growth factors. The size of the fine mode particles from AERONET retrieved for these cases exceeds the size of sub-micron sized particles retrieved for nearly all other aerosol types, suggesting significant modification of aerosols within the fog or cloud environment. In-situ measured aerosol size distributions made during other fog events are compared to the AERONET retrievals, and show close agreement in the residual mode particle size. Almucantar retrievals are analyzed from the Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India (fog in January), Beijing (fog in winter), Fresno, CA in the San Joaquin Valley (fog in winter), South Korea (Yellow Sea fog in spring), Arica on the northern coast of Chile (stratocumulus), and several other sites with aerosol observations made after fog dissipated. Additionally, several major air pollution events are discussed where extremely high aerosol concentrations were measured at the surface and during which fog also occurred, resulting in the detection very large fine mode aerosols (residual mode) from AERONET retrievals in some of these events. Low wind speeds that occurred during these events were conducive to both pollutant accumulation and also fog formation. The presence of fog then

  6. Fog Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET, Including Occurrences During Major Air Pollution Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Li, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A. T.; Schafer, J.; Artaxo, P.; Smirnov, A.; Chen, H.; Goloub, P.

    2014-12-01

    The modification of aerosol optical properties due to interaction with fog is examined from measurements made by sun/sky radiometers at several AERONET sites. Retrieved total column volume size distributions for cases identified as aerosol modified by fog often show very a large 'middle mode' submicron radius (~0.4 to 0.5 microns), which is typically seen as a component of a bimodal sub-micron distribution. These middle mode sized particles are often called cloud-processed or residual aerosol. This bimodal accumulation mode distribution may be due to one mode (the larger one) from fog-processed aerosol and the other from interstitial aerosol, or possibly from two different aerosol species (differing chemical composition) with differing hygroscopic growth factors. The size of the fine mode particles from AERONET retrieved for these cases exceeds the size of sub-micron sized particles retrieved for nearly all other aerosol types, suggesting significant modification of aerosols within the fog or cloud environment. In-situ measured aerosol size distributions made during other fog events are compared to the AERONET retrievals, and show close agreement in the residual mode particle size. Almucantar retrievals are analyzed from the Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India (fog in January), Beijing (fog in winter), Fresno, CA in the San Joaquin Valley (fog in winter), South Korea (Yellow Sea fog in spring), Arica on the northern coast of Chile (stratocumulus), and several other sites with aerosol observations made after fog dissipated. Additionally, several major air pollution events are discussed where extremely high aerosol concentrations were measured at the surface and during which fog also occurred, resulting in the detection very large fine mode aerosols (residual mode) from AERONET retrievals in some of these events. Low wind speeds that occurred during these events were conducive to both pollutant accumulation and also fog formation. The presence of fog then

  7. XBAER: A versatile algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Rozanov, Vladimir; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John; Jafariserajehlou, Soheila

    2017-04-01

    A new Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrieval algorithm for Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and similar instruments over land and ocean surfaces, referred to as eXtensible Bremen AErosol Retrieval (XBAER), has been successfully developed recently. A standalone cloud screening algorithm minimizes cloud contamination for aerosol retrieval in XBAER. XBAER algorithm has a generic surface parameterization for land and ocean. Instead of a global parameterization of surface spectral reflectance, XBAER uses a set of spectral coefficients to prescribe surface properties. In this manner, XBAER is not limited to dark surfaces (ocean, vegetation) and retrieves AOT over bright surface (desert, semiarid, and urban areas). XBAER uses MODIS Dark-Target assumptions and the expected aerosol type for a given region and season based on the analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) observations for both land and ocean. All above three steps allow XBAER to retrieve AOT over different surface types by a harmonized and generic retrieval algorithm. XBAER will extend its retrieval coverage to snow/ice surfaces under the support of "Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric an SurfaCe Processes and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3" project.

  8. Measurements of Aerosol Vertical Profiles and Optical Properties during INDOEX 1999 Using Micro-Pulse Lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.; Gordon, Howard R.; Johnson, James E.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-pulse lidar systems (MPL) were used to measure aerosol properties during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) 1999 field phase. Measurements were made from two platforms: the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, and the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Maldives. Sunphotometers were used to provide aerosol optical depths (AOD) needed to calibrate the MPL. This study focuses on the height distribution and optical properties (at 523 nm) of aerosols observed during the campaign. The height of the highest aerosols (top height) was calculated and found to be below 4 km for most of the cruise. The marine boundary layer (MBL) top was calculated and found to be less than 1 km. MPL results were combined with air mass trajectories, radiosonde profiles of temperature and humidity, and aerosol concentration and optical measurements. Humidity varied from approximately 80% near the surface to 50% near the top height during the entire cruise. The average value and standard deviation of aerosol optical parameters were determined for characteristic air mass regimes. Marine aerosols in the absence of any continental influence were found to have an AOD of 0.05 +/- 0.03, an extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S-ratio) of 33 +/- 6 sr, and peak extinction values around 0.05/km (near the MBL top). The marine results are shown to be in agreement with previously measured and expected values. Polluted marine areas over the Indian Ocean, influenced by continental aerosols, had AOD values in excess of 0.2, S-ratios well above 40 sr, and peak extinction values approximately 0.20/km (near the MBL top). The polluted marine results are shown to be similar to previously published values for continental aerosols. Comparisons between MPL derived extinction near the ship (75 m) and extinction calculated at ship-level using scattering measured by a nephelometer and absorption using a PSAP were conducted. The comparisons indicated that the MPL algorithm (using a constant S-ratio throughout the

  9. Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in northern, central and southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali, Giovanni; Estévez, Hector; Florean-Cruz, Claudia; Navarro-Medina, Abigail; Valdés-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonzo, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Velasco-Herrera, Víctor; Vázquez-Gálvez, Felipe

    2017-04-01

    The column-integrated optical properties of aerosol in the north, central and southern Mexico were investigated based on Sun/sky radiometer measurements made at Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Characterization of aerosol properties in these Mexico regions is important due to natural and anthropogenic significant events that occurred: dust storms from Sonora desert, biomass burning from south forest areas and urban/industrial from Mexico City due to the increases in fossil fuel combustion. Some cities in northern Mexico located near desert areas are affected by the dust from Sonora and Chihuahua deserts. These particles are suspended in the atmosphere due to strong wind activity that creates dust storms. In the central part of the Mexican territory, urban air pollution is one of the biggest problems. Mexico City is the most important urban area that face seriously environmental problem generated by daily anthropogenic emissions from activities of some 21 million people and the vast amount of industry. On the other hand, biomass burning in the Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Mexico, and Guatemala is an important source of anthropogenic aerosol in the troposphere (Crutzen and Andrade, 1990). The pollution from these fires affects air quality locally and is transported over the Gulf of Mexico to the United States (Wang et al., 2006). The aim of this work is to study the optical properties of different types of aerosols by analyzing a 5-year (2005-2010) data set from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). Time series of Angstrom exponent (α) and aerosol optical depth (τ) in 7 wavelengths from 340 to 1020 nm are shown. Additionally, a graphical framework to classify aerosol properties using direct sun-photometer observations in the different regions of Mexico is presented. That aerosol classification was made by applying the method described by Gobbi et al (2007), which relies on the combined analysis of α and its spectral curvature δα.

  10. Vertically resolved aerosol properties by multi wavelengths lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, M. R.; De Tomasi, F.; Gobbi, G. P.

    2013-07-01

    A new approach is introduced to characterize the dependence on altitude of the aerosol fine mode radius (Rf) and of the fine mode contribution (η) to the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) by three-wavelength lidar measurements. The introduced approach is based on the graphical method of Gobbi et al. (2007), which was applied to AERONET spectral extinction observations and relies on the combined analysis of the Ångstrom exponent (å) and its spectral curvature Δå. Lidar measurements at 355, 532 and 1064 nm were used in this study to retrieve the vertical profiles of å and Δå and to determine the dependence on altitude of Rf and η (532 nm) from the å-Δå combined analysis. Lidar measurements were performed at the Mathematics and Physics Department of Universita' del Salento, in south eastern Italy. Aerosol from continental Europe, the Atlantic, northern Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea are often advected over south eastern Italy and as a consequence, mixed advection patterns leading to aerosol properties varying with altitude are dominant. The proposed approach was applied to eleven measurement days to demonstrate its feasibility in different aerosol load conditions. The selected-days were characterized by AOTs spanning the 0.23-0.67, 0.15-0.41, and 0.04-0.25 range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively. Lidar ratios varied within the 28-80, 30-70, and 30-55 sr range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, for the high variability of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties. å(355 nm, 1064 nm) values retrieved from lidar measurements ranged between 0.12 and 2.5 with mean value ±1 standard deviation equal to 1.4 ± 0.5. Δå varied within the -0.10-0.87 range with mean value equal to 0.1 ± 0.4. Rf and η (532 nm) values spanning the 0.02-0.30 μm and the 0.30-0.99 range, respectively were associated to the å-Δå data points. Rf and η values showed no dependence on the altitude. 72% of the data points were in the Δå-å space delimited by the

  11. Ambient Observations of Aerosols, Novel Aerosol Structures, And Their Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, Nicholas D.

    The role of atmospheric aerosols remains a crucial issue in understanding and mitigating climate change in our world today. These particles influence the Earth by altering the Earth's delicate radiation balance, human health, and visibility. In particular, black carbon particulate matter remains the key driver in positive radiative forcing (i.e., warming) due to aerosols. Produced from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, these compounds can be found in many different forms around the globe. This thesis provides an overview of three research topics: (1) the ambient characterization of aerosols in the Northern Indian Ocean, measurement techniques used, and how these aerosols influence local, regional, and global climate; (2) the exploration of novel soot superaggregate particles collected in the Northern Indian Ocean and around the globe and how the properties of these particles relate to human health and climate forcing; and (3) how aerogelated soot can be produced in a novel, one-step method utilizing an inverted flame reactor and how this material could be used in industrial settings.

  12. Studying aerosol light scattering based on aspect ratio distribution observed by fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zheng, Xu; Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Zhanhua; Dubovik, Oleg; Chen, Xingfeng; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-08-07

    Particle shape is crucial to the properties of light scattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. A method of fluorescence microscopy direct observation was introduced to determine the aspect ratio distribution of aerosol particles. The result is comparable with that of the electron microscopic analysis. The measured aspect ratio distribution has been successfully applied in modeling light scattering and further in simulation of polarization measurements of the sun/sky radiometer. These efforts are expected to improve shape retrieval from skylight polarization by using directly measured aspect ratio distribution.

  13. Evaluating the representation of aerosol optical properties using an online coupled model over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios-Peña, Laura; Baró, Rocío; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Brunner, Dominik; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric aerosol particles on the Earth's climate mainly depend on their optical, microphysical and chemical properties, which modify the Earth's radiative budget. The aerosol radiative effects can be divided into direct and semi-direct effects, produced by the aerosol-radiation interactions (ARIs), and indirect effects, produced by aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs). In this sense the objective of this work is to assess whether the inclusion of aerosol radiative feedbacks in the online coupled WRF-Chem model improves the modelling outputs over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and surrounding water areas. For this purpose, the methodology is based on the evaluation of modelled aerosol optical properties under different simulation scenarios. The evaluated data come from two WRF-Chem simulations for the IP differing in the inclusion/no-inclusion of ARIs and ACIs (RF/NRF simulations). The case studies cover two episodes with different aerosol types over the IP in 2010, namely a Saharan dust outbreak and a forest fire episode. The evaluation uses observational data from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) stations and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE). Experimental data of aerosol vertical distribution from the EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) Granada station are used for checking the models. The results indicate that for the spatial distribution the best-represented variable is AOD and the largest improvements when including the aerosol radiative feedbacks are found for the vertical distribution. In the case of the dust outbreak, a slight improvement (worsening) is produced over the areas with medium (high/low) levels of AOD(-9 % / +12 % of improvement) when including the aerosol radiative feedbacks. For the wildfire episode, improvements of AOD representation (up to 11 %) over areas further away from emission sources are estimated

  14. Climatological Aspects of the Optical Properties of Fine/Coarse Mode Aerosol Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Sinyuk, A.; Pinker, R. T.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Chatenet, B.; Li, Z.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S.N.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol mixtures composed of coarse mode desert dust combined with fine mode combustion generated aerosols (from fossil fuel and biomass burning sources) were investigated at three locations that are in and/or downwind of major global aerosol emission source regions. Multiyear monitoring data at Aerosol Robotic Network sites in Beijing (central eastern China), Kanpur (Indo-Gangetic Plain, northern India), and Ilorin (Nigeria, Sudanian zone of West Africa) were utilized to study the climatological characteristics of aerosol optical properties. Multiyear climatological averages of spectral single scattering albedo (SSA) versus fine mode fraction (FMF) of aerosol optical depth at 675 nm at all three sites exhibited relatively linear trends up to 50% FMF. This suggests the possibility that external linear mixing of both fine and coarse mode components (weighted by FMF) dominates the SSA variation, where the SSA of each component remains relatively constant for this range of FMF only. However, it is likely that a combination of other factors is also involved in determining the dynamics of SSA as a function of FMF, such as fine mode particles adhering to coarse mode dust. The spectral variation of the climatological averaged aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) was nearly linear in logarithmic coordinates over the wavelength range of 440-870 nm for both the Kanpur and Ilorin sites. However, at two sites in China (Beijing and Xianghe), a distinct nonlinearity in spectral AAOD in logarithmic space was observed, suggesting the possibility of anomalously strong absorption in coarse mode aerosols increasing the 870 nm AAOD.

  15. Spectral Absorption Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Bond, T. C.; Quinn, P. K.; Sierau, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the solar spectral absorption optical depth of atmospheric aerosols for specific case studies during several field programs (three cases have been reported previously; two are new results). We combined airborne measurements of the solar net radiant flux density and the aerosol optical depth with a detailed radiative transfer model for all but one of the cases. The field programs (SAFARI 2000, ACE Asia, PRIDE, TARFOX, INTEX-A) contained aerosols representing the major absorbing aerosol types: pollution, biomass burning, desert dust and mixtures. In all cases the spectral absorption optical depth decreases with wavelength and can be approximated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE). We compare our results with other recent spectral absorption measurements and attempt to briefly summarize the state of knowledge of aerosol absorption spectra in the atmosphere. We discuss the limitations in using the AAE for calculating the solar absorption. We also discuss the resulting spectral single scattering albedo for these cases.

  16. Particle Property Data Quality Flags for the MISR Aerosol Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.; Garay, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Barbara J. Gaitley1, Ralph Kahn2, Michael Garay3, 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109; 818-354-0552; 2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; 3Raytheon Company, Pasadena, CA; e-mail: barbara.gaitley@jpl.nasa.gov. The MISR instrument aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite has the unique capability to retrieve aerosol properties under favorable conditions. Some factors affecting retrieval quality that can be assessed pre-retrieval are the number of cameras available, the range of scattering angles and surface conditions such as shallow water or seasonal coastal runoff. Factors that must be assessed post-retrieval include low values of retrieved optical depth and the number and type of mixtures successfully passing the MISR algorithm acceptance criteria. Global and regional monthly plots with MISR measurements binned at 0.5 degree resolution with color-coded stratification of the parameter shown is the main method for identifying locations and times where particle properties are retrieved. Individual MISR values such as mid-visible AOD, number and type of mixtures passing, number of cameras used, the range and maximum scattering angles are plotted individually. Thresholds and conditions are determined for each MISR parameter separately. Finally, MISR parameters are combined, with their thresholds, to show the overall quality of the retrieval for determining particle properties. Seasons and regions that regularly show poorly constrained aerosol type results are identified as are times and places where particle property information can be used with confidence. This work is performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  17. Spatial Variability of AERONET Aerosol Optical Properties and Satellite Data in South Korea during NASA DRAGON-Asia Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Son, Youn-Suk

    2016-04-05

    We investigated spatial variability in aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine-mode fraction (FMF), and single scattering albedo (SSA), observed at 21 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and satellite remote sensing data in South Korea during the spring of 2012. These dense AERONET networks established in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign enabled us to examine the spatially detailed aerosol size distribution and composition as well as aerosol levels. The springtime particle air quality was characterized by high background aerosol levels and high contributions of coarse-mode aerosols to total aerosols. We found that between-site correlations and coefficient of divergence for AOD and FMF strongly relied on the distance between sites, particularly in the south-north direction. Higher AOD was related to higher population density and lower distance from highways, and the aerosol size distribution and composition reflected source-specific characteristics. The ratios of satellite NO2 to AOD, which indicate the relative contributions of local combustion sources to aerosol levels, represented higher local contributions in metropolitan Seoul and Pusan. Our study demonstrates that the aerosol levels were determined by both local and regional pollution and that the relative contributions of these pollutions to aerosols generated spatial heterogeneity in the particle air quality.

  18. Dependence of columnar aerosol size distribution, optical properties, and chemical components on regional transport in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Qilei; Qian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal dependence of the columnar aerosol optical and chemical properties on regional transport in Beijing over 10 years (from January 2005 to December 2014) were analyzed by using the ground-based remote sensing combined with backward trajectory analysis. Daily air mass backward trajectories terminated in Beijing were computed with HYSPLIT-4 model and were categorized into five clusters. The columnar mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), dust (DU), aerosol water content (AW), and ammonium sulfate like aerosol (AS) of each cluster were retrieved from the optical data obtained from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) with five-component model. It was found that the columnar aerosol properties in different seasons were changed, and they were related to the air mass origins. In spring, aerosol was dominated by coarse particles. Summer was characterized by higher single scattering albedo (SSA), lower real part of complex refractive index (n), and obvious hygroscopic growth due to humid air from the south. During autumn and winter, there was an observable increase in absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT) and the imaginary part of complex refraction (k), with high levels of retrieved BC and BrC. However, concentrations of BC showed less dependence on the clusters during the two seasons owing to the widely spread coal heating in north China.

  19. Seasonal variability in aerosol, CCN and their relationship observed at a high altitude site in Western Ghats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leena, P. P.; Pandithurai, G.; Anilkumar, V.; Murugavel, P.; Sonbawne, S. M.; Dani, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. In the present work, aerosol-CCN variability and their relationship have been studied for the first time at Mahabaleshwar, a high altitude (1348 m AMSL) site in Western Ghats, using one year (June 2012-May 2013) of observations. Present study has been done in two sections in which first temporal variability (diurnal and seasonal) of aerosol and CCN has been analyzed. Later CCN to aerosol ratio and other microphysical properties have been investigated along with detail discussion on possible sources of aerosol. First part, i.e., diurnal variation in aerosol and CCN concentration has shown relatively higher values during early morning hours in monsoon season whereas in winter and pre-monsoon it was higher in the evening hours. Seasonal mean variation in aerosol and CCN (SS above 0.6 %) has shown higher (less) in monsoon (winter) season. Temporal variation reveals dominance of fine-mode aerosol during monsoon season over the study region. In the second part temporal variation of activation ratio, k value (exponent of CCN super-saturation spectra) and geometric mean aerosol diameter have been analyzed. Variation of activation ratio showed the ratio is higher in monsoon especially for SS 0.6-1 %. The analysis also showed high k value during monsoon season as compared to other seasons (pre-monsoon and winter) which may be due to dominance of hygroscopic aerosols in the maritime air masses from Arabian Sea and biogenic aerosol emissions from the wet forest. Analyzed mean aerosol diameter is much smaller during monsoon season with less variability compared to other seasons. Overall analysis showed that aerosol and CCN concentration was higher over this high altitude site despite of dominant sink processes such as cloud scavenging and washout mechanisms indicating local emissions and biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from wet forest

  20. A Ten-Year Global Record of Absorbing Aerosols Above Clouds from OMI's Near-UV Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be one of the leading uncertain components of climate models, primarily due to the lack of an adequate knowledge of the complex microphysical and radiative processes associated with the aerosol-cloud system. The situations when aerosols and clouds are found in the same atmospheric column, for instance, when light-absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated carbonaceous particles or wind-blown dust overlay low-level cloud decks, are commonly found over several regional of the world. Contrary to the cloud-free scenario over dark surface, for which aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect (negative radiative forcing) on climate, the overlapping situation of absorbing aerosols over cloud can potentially exert a significant level of atmospheric absorption and produces a positive radiative forcing at top-of-atmosphere. The magnitude of direct radiative effects of aerosols above cloud depends directly on the aerosol loading, microphysical-optical properties of the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud deck, and geometric cloud fraction. We help in addressing this problem by introducing a novel product of optical depth of absorbing aerosols above clouds retrieved from near-UV observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura platform. The presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud reduces the upwelling radiation reflected by cloud and produces a strong 'color ratio' effect in the near-UV region, which can be unambiguously detected in the OMI measurements. Physically based on this effect, the OMACA algorithm retrieves the optical depths of aerosols and clouds simultaneously under a prescribed state of atmosphere. The algorithm architecture and results from a ten-year global record including global climatology of frequency of occurrence and above-cloud aerosol optical depth, and a discussion on related future field campaigns are presented.

  1. Characterization of Aerosol Episodes in the Greater Mediterranean Sea Area from Satellite Observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMIAura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (a), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000e2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more than

  2. Combined observational and modeling efforts of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, Adrian; Tsay, Si-Chee; Nguyen, Xuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Low-level stratocumulus (Sc) clouds cover more of the Earth's surface than any other cloud type rendering them critical for Earth's energy balance, primarily via reflection of solar radiation, as well as their role in the global hydrological cycle. Stratocumuli are particularly sensitive to changes in aerosol loading on both microphysical and macrophysical scales, yet the complex feedbacks involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions remain poorly understood. Moreover, research on these clouds has largely been confined to marine environments, with far fewer studies over land where major sources of anthropogenic aerosols exist. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia (SEA) in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning (BB), exhibits highly consistent spatiotemporal distribution patterns, with major variability due to changes in aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from source regions, the transported BB aerosols often overlap with low-level Sc cloud decks associated with the development of the region's pre-monsoon system, providing a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring their complex micro- and macro-scale relationships. Compared to other locations worldwide, studies of springtime biomass-burning aerosols and the predominately Sc cloud systems over SEA and their ensuing interactions are underrepresented in scientific literature. Measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, whether ground-based or from satellites, generally lack information on microphysical processes; thus cloud-resolving models are often employed to simulate the underlying physical processes in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model has recently been enhanced with a triple-moment (3M) bulk microphysics scheme as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6 aerosol module. Because the aerosol burden not only affects cloud

  3. Deep Blue Retrievals of Asian Aerosol Properties During ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Cee; King, Michael D.; Herman, Jay R.

    2006-01-01

    During the ACE-Asia field campaign, unprecedented amounts of aerosol property data in East Asia during springtime were collected from an array of aircraft, shipboard, and surface instruments. However, most of the observations were obtained in areas downwind of the source regions. In this paper, the newly developed satellite aerosol algorithm called "Deep Blue" was employed to characterize the properties of aerosols over source regions using radiance measurements from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Based upon the ngstr m exponent derived from the Deep Blue algorithm, it was demonstrated that this new algorithm is able to distinguish dust plumes from fine-mode pollution particles even in complex aerosol environments such as the one over Beijing. Furthermore, these results were validated by comparing them with observations from AERONET sites in China and Mongolia during spring 2001. These comparisons show that the values of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical thickness from Deep Blue are generally within 20%-30% of those measured by sunphotometers. The analyses also indicate that the roles of mineral dust and anthropogenic particles are comparable in contributing to the overall aerosol distributions during spring in northern China, while fine-mode particles are dominant over southern China. The spring season in East Asia consists of one of the most complex environments in terms of frequent cloudiness and wide ranges of aerosol loadings and types. This paper will discuss how the factors contributing to this complexity influence the resulting aerosol monthly averages from various satellite sensors and, thus, the synergy among satellite aerosol products.

  4. Meteorological and Aerosol effects on Marine Cloud Microphysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Roberts, G.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Wang, Z.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.; Lin, J.; Nenes, A.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K.; Jonsson, H.; Albrecht, B. A.; Desiree, T. S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Seinfeld, J.; Zhao, R.

    2015-12-01

    Both meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation and consequently their droplet distributions and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (EPEACE) and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets (SOLEDAD) studies provide detailed measurements in 6 case studies of both cloud thermodynamic properties and initial particle number distribution and composition, as well as the resulting cloud drop distribution and composition. This study uses simulations of a detailed chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce the observed cloud droplet distribution and composition. Four of the cases examined had a sub-adiabatic lapse rate, which was shown to have fewer droplets due to decreased maximum supersaturation, lower LWC and higher cloud base height, consistent with previous findings. These detailed case studies provided measured thermodynamics and microphysics that constrained the simulated droplet size distribution sufficiently to match the droplet number within 6% and the size within 19% for 4 of the 6 cases, demonstrating "closure" or consistency of the measured composition with the measured CCN spectra and the inferred and modeled supersaturation. The contribution of organic components to droplet formation shows small effects on the droplet number and size in the 4 marine cases that had background aerosol conditions with varying amounts of coastal, ship or other non-biogenic sources. In contrast, the organic fraction and hygroscopicity increased the droplet number and size in the cases with generated smoke and cargo ship plumes that were freshly emitted and not yet internally mixed with the background particles. The simulation results show organic hygroscopicity causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (<0.7%) with the exception of the cargo ship plume and smoke plume which increased absolute cloud reflectivity fraction by 0

  5. Systematic Relationships Between Lidar Observables and Sizes And Mineral Composition Of Dust Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Stangl, Alexander; Perlwitz, Jan; Fridlind, Ann M.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Cairns, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of soil dust aerosol particles fundamentally affect their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates on the surface of dust particles, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Lidar measurements, such as extinction-to-backscatter, color and depolarization ratios, are frequently used to distinguish between aerosol types with different physical and chemical properties. The chemical composition of aerosol particles determines their complex refractive index, hence affecting their backscattering properties. Here we present a study on how dust aerosol backscattering and depolarization properties at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064 nm are related to size and complex refractive index, which varies with the mineral composition of the dust. Dust aerosols are represented by collections of spheroids with a range of prolate and oblate aspect ratios and their optical properties are obtained using T-matrix calculations. We find simple, systematic relationships between lidar observables and the dust size and complex refractive index that may aid the use of space-based or airborne lidars for direct retrieval of dust properties or for the evaluation of chemical transport models using forward simulated lidar variables. In addition, we present first results on the spatial variation of forward-simulated lidar variables based on a dust model that accounts for the atmospheric cycle of eight different mineral types plus internal mixtures of seven mineral types with iron oxides, which was recently implemented in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2.

  6. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by lidar at Wakkanai, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Itabe, Toshikazu; Mizutani, Kohei; Asai, Kazuhiro

    1994-02-01

    Dense stratospheric aerosol layers originating from the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991 were observed at the Wakkanai radio observatory (45.4°N, 141.7°E) of the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) using a Nd:YAG lidar system. These observations started in late August 1991, and the dense layer was first detected in early October 1991. The backscattering of the aerosol layers varied greatly in October and November 1991 then stabilized in December 1991. The integrated backscattering coefficient (IBC) at the beginning of 1992 was smaller than the values observed in October and November 1991. The IBC increased slightly during 1992, but began to decrease in 1993. The estimated surface area density of aerosol particles increased one to two orders of magnitude in late 1991 and early 1992 to about 10-7 cm2/cm3. The IBC and surface area started to decrease sooner at higher altitudes: in May 1992 from 25 to 30 km, in November 1992 from 20 to 25 km, and in February 1993 from 13 to 20 km in altitude. Calculation by Prather [1992] indicates that our estimated surface area correspond to about 30 to 50% less NOx. Almost same degree of decrease in NO2 was observed by Koike et al.[1993].

  7. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume concentrations of steady-state secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were measured in several hydrocarbon/NOx irradiation experiments. These measurements were used to estimate the thermal behavior of the particles that may be formed in the atmosphere. These laborator...

  8. Composition and physical properties of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer and the North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer: Composition of ATAL and NATAL

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Pengfei; Toon, Owen B.; Neely, Ryan R.; ...

    2015-04-10

    Recent studies revealed layers of enhanced aerosol scattering in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Asia (Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)) and North America (North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer (NATAL)). We use a sectional aerosol model (Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA)) coupled with the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) to explore the composition and optical properties of these aerosol layers. The observed aerosol extinction enhancement is reproduced by CESM1/CARMA. Both model and observations indicate a strong gradient of the sulfur-to-carbon ratio from Europe to the Asia on constant pressure surfaces. We found that themore » ATAL is mostly composed of sulfates, surface-emitted organics, and secondary organics; the NATAL is mostly composed of sulfates and secondary organics. In conclusion, the model also suggests that emission increases in Asia between 2000 and 2010 led to an increase of aerosol optical depth of the ATAL by 0.002 on average which is consistent with observations.« less

  9. Evidence for Natural Variability in Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Properties Due to Cloud-Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Bruce; Sharon, Tarah; Jonsson, Haf; Minnis, Patrick; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk; Khaiyer, Mandana M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, aircraft observations from the Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter are used to characterize the variability in drizzle, cloud, and aerosol properties associated with cloud rifts and the surrounding solid clouds observed off the coast of California. A flight made on 16 July 1999 provided measurements directly across an interface between solid and rift cloud conditions. Aircraft instrumentation allowed for measurements of aerosol, cloud droplet, and drizzle spectra. CCN concentrations were measured in addition to standard thermodynamic variables and the winds. A Forward Scatter Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) measured size distribution of cloud-sized droplets. A Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) was used to measure distributions of drizzle-sized droplets. Aerosol distributions were obtained from a Cloud Aerosol Scatterprobe (CAS). The CAS probe measured aerosols, cloud droplets and drizzle-sized drops; for this study. The CAS probe was used to measure aerosols in the size range of 0.5 micron - 1 micron. Smaller aerosols were characterized using an Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) sensor. The CPC was used to measure particles with diameters greater than 0.003 micron. By subtracting different count concentrations measured with the CPC, this probe was capable of identifying ultrafine particles those falling in the size range of 3 nanometers - 7 nanometers that are believed to be associated with new particle production.

  10. Global aerosol typing from a combination of A-Train satellite observations in clear-sky and above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Russell, P. B.; Vaughan, M.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Livingston, J. M.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    According to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the model estimates of Radiative Forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari) for individual aerosol types are less certain than the total RFari [Boucher et al., 2013]. For example, the RFari specific to Black Carbon (BC) is uncertain due to an underestimation of its mass concentration near source regions [Koch et al., 2009]. Several recent studies have evaluated chemical transport model (CTM) predictions using observations of aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) or Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) from satellite or ground-based instruments (e.g., Huneeus et al., [2010]). However, most passive remote sensing instruments fail to provide a comprehensive assessment of the particle type without further analysis and combination of measurements. To improve the predictions of aerosol composition in CTMs, we have developed an aerosol classification algorithm (called Specified Clustering and Mahalanobis Classification, SCMC) that assigns an aerosol type to multi-parameter retrievals by spaceborne, airborne or ground based passive remote sensing instruments [Russell et al., 2014]. The aerosol types identified by our scheme are pure dust, polluted dust, urban-industrial/developed economy, urban-industrial/developing economy, dark biomass smoke, light biomass smoke and pure marine. First, we apply the SCMC method to five years of clear-sky space-borne POLDER observations over Greece. We then use the aerosol extinction and SSA spectra retrieved from a combination of MODIS, OMI and CALIOP clear-sky observations to infer the aerosol type over the globe in 2007. Finally, we will extend the spaceborne aerosol classification from clear-sky to above low opaque water clouds using a combination of CALIOP AOD and backscatter observations and OMI absorption AOD values from near-by clear-sky pixels.

  11. Simultaneous observations of lower tropospheric continental aerosols with a ground-based, an airborne, and the spaceborne CALIOP lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Raut, J.-C.; Dulac, F.; Berthier, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Royer, P.; Sanak, J.; Loaëc, S.; Grigaut-Desbrosses, H.

    2010-08-01

    We present an original experiment with multiple lidar systems operated simultaneously to study the capability of the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), to infer aerosol optical properties in the lower troposphere over a midlatitude continental site where the aerosol load is low to moderate. The experiment took place from 20 June to 10 July 2007 in southern France. The results are based on three case studies with measurements coincident to CALIOP observations: the first case study illustrates a large-scale pollution event with an aerosol optical thickness at 532 nm (τa532) of ˜0.25, and the two other case studies are devoted to background conditions due to aerosol scavenging by storms with τa532 <0.1. Our experimental approach involved ground-based and airborne lidar systems as well as Sun photometer measurements when the conditions of observation were favorable. Passive spaceborne instruments, namely the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVERI) and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are used to characterize the large-scale aerosol conditions. We show that complex topographical structures increase the complexity of the aerosol analysis in the planetary boundary layer by CALIOP when τa532 is lower than 0.1 because the number of available representative profiles is low to build a mean CALIOP profile with a good signal-to-noise ratio. In a comparison, the aerosol optical properties inferred from CALIOP and those deduced from the other active and passive remote sensing observations in the pollution plume are found to be in reasonable agreement. Level-2 aerosol products of CALIOP are consistent with our retrievals.

  12. An offline constrained data assimilation technique for aerosols: Improving GCM simulations over South Asia using observations from two satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraskar, Ankit; Bhushan, Mani; Venkataraman, Chandra; Cherian, Ribu

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol properties simulated by general circulation models (GCMs) exhibit large uncertainties due to biases in model processes and inaccuracies in aerosol emission inputs. In this work, we propose an offline, constrained optimization based procedure to improve these simulations by assimilating them with observational data. The proposed approach explicitly incorporates the non-negativity constraint on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) which is a key metric to quantify aerosol distributions. The resulting optimization problem is quadratic programming in nature and can be easily solved by available optimization routines. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by performing offline assimilation of GCM simulated aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing over South Asia (40-120 E, 5-40 N), with satellite AOD measurements from two sensors, namely Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Uncertainty in observational data used in the assimilation is computed by developing different error bands around regional AOD observations, based on their quality assurance flags. The assimilation, evaluated on monthly and daily scales, compares well with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations as determined by goodness of fit statistics. Assimilation increased both model predicted atmospheric absorption and clear sky radiative forcing by factors consistent with recent estimates in literature. Thus, the constrained assimilation algorithm helps in systematically reducing uncertainties in aerosol simulations.

  13. Optical, size and mass properties of mixed type aerosols in Greece and Romania as observed by synergy of lidar and sunphotometers in combination with model simulations: a case study.

    PubMed

    Papayannis, A; Nicolae, D; Kokkalis, P; Binietoglou, I; Talianu, C; Belegante, L; Tsaknakis, G; Cazacu, M M; Vetres, I; Ilic, L

    2014-12-01

    A coordinated experimental campaign aiming to study the aerosol optical, size and mass properties was organized in September 2012, in selected sites in Greece and Romania. It was based on the synergy of lidar and sunphotometers. In this paper we focus on a specific campaign period (23-24 September), where mixed type aerosols (Saharan dust, biomass burning and continental) were confined from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) up to 4-4.5 km height. Hourly mean linear depolarization and lidar ratio values were measured inside the dust layers, ranging from 13 to 29 and from 44 to 65sr, respectively, depending on their mixing status and the corresponding air mass pathways over Greece and Romania. During this event the columnar Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values ranged from 0.13 to 0.26 at 532 nm. The Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) and the Polarization Lidar Photometer Networking (POLIPHON) codes were used and inter-compared with regards to the retrieved aerosol (fine and coarse spherical/spheroid) mass concentrations, showing that LIRIC generally overestimates the aerosol mass concentrations, in the case of spherical particles. For non-spherical particles the difference in the retrieved mass concentration profiles from these two codes remained smaller than ±20%. POLIPHON retrievals showed that the non-spherical particles reached concentrations of the order of 100-140 μg/m(3) over Romania compared to 50-75 μg/m(3) over Greece. Finally, the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) model was used to simulate the dust concentrations over the South-Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A New, More Physically Based Algorithm, for Retrieving Aerosol Properties over Land from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Mattoo, Shana

    2004-01-01

    The MOD Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) has been successfully retrieving aerosol properties, beginning in early 2000 from Terra and from mid 2002 from Aqua. Over land, the retrieval algorithm makes use of three MODIS channels, in the blue, red and infrared wavelengths. As part of the validation exercises, retrieved spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT) has been compared via scatterplots against spectral AOT measured by the global Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). On one hand, global and long term validation looks promising, with two-thirds (average plus and minus one standard deviation) of all points falling between published expected error bars. On the other hand, regression of these points shows a positive y-offset and a slope less than 1.0. For individual regions, such as along the U.S. East Coast, the offset and slope are even worse. Here, we introduce an overhaul of the algorithm for retrieving aerosol properties over land. Some well-known weaknesses in the current aerosol retrieval from MODIS include: a) rigid assumptions about the underlying surface reflectance, b) limited aerosol models to choose from, c) simplified (scalar) radiative transfer (RT) calculations used to simulate satellite observations, and d) assumption that aerosol is transparent in the infrared channel. The new algorithm attempts to address all four problems: a) The new algorithm will include surface type information, instead of fixed ratios of the reflectance in the visible channels to the mid-IR reflectance. b) It will include updated aerosol optical properties to reflect the growing aerosol retrieved from eight-plus years of AERONE". operation. c) The effects of polarization will be including using vector RT calculations. d) Most importantly, the new algorithm does not assume that aerosol is transparent in the infrared channel. It will be an inversion of reflectance observed in the three channels (blue, red, and infrared), rather than iterative single channel retrievals. Thus, this new

  15. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  16. Optical Properties and Aging of Light Absorbing Secondary Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiumeng; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-10-14

    The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA), commonly referred to as “brown carbon (BrC)”, has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various VOC precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time and relative humidity (RH) on the lightmore » absorption of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Light absorption of chamber generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficients (MAC) value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organonitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible and UV light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed-SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.« less

  17. International Workshop on Stratospheric Aerosols: Measurements, Properties, and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Following a mandate by the International Aerosol Climatology Program under the auspices of International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics International Radiation Commission, 45 scientists from five nations convened to discuss relevant issues associated with the measurement, properties, and effects of stratospheric aerosols. A summary is presented of the discussions on formation and evolution, transport and fate, effects on climate, role in heterogeneous chemistry, and validation of lidar and satellite remote sensing of stratospheric aerosols. Measurements are recommended of the natural (background) and the volcanically enhanced aerosol (sulfuric acid and silica particles), the exhaust of shuttle, civil aviation and supersonic aircraft operations (alumina, soot, and ice particles), and polar stratospheric clouds (ice, condensed nitric and hydrochloric acids).

  18. Contrasting influences of aerosols on cloud properties during deficient and abundant monsoon years

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nitin; Dave, Prashant; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Direct aerosol radiative forcing facilitates the onset of Indian monsoon rainfall, based on synoptic scale fast responses acting over timescales of days to a month. Here, we examine relationships between aerosols and coincident clouds over the Indian subcontinent, using observational data from 2000 to 2009, from the core monsoon region. Season mean and daily timescales were considered. The correlation analyses of cloud properties with aerosol optical depth revealed that deficient monsoon years were characterized by more frequent and larger decreases in cloud drop size and ice water path, but increases in cloud top pressure, with increases in aerosol abundance. The opposite was observed during abundant monsoon years. The correlations of greater aerosol abundance, with smaller cloud drop size, lower evidence of ice processes and shallower cloud height, during deficient rainfall years, imply cloud inhibition; while those with larger cloud drop size, greater ice processes and a greater cloud vertical extent, during abundant rainfall years, suggest cloud invigoration. The study establishes that continental aerosols over India alter cloud properties in diametrically opposite ways during contrasting monsoon years. The mechanisms underlying these effects need further analysis. PMID:28337991

  19. Contrasting influences of aerosols on cloud properties during deficient and abundant monsoon years.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nitin; Dave, Prashant; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2017-03-24

    Direct aerosol radiative forcing facilitates the onset of Indian monsoon rainfall, based on synoptic scale fast responses acting over timescales of days to a month. Here, we examine relationships between aerosols and coincident clouds over the Indian subcontinent, using observational data from 2000 to 2009, from the core monsoon region. Season mean and daily timescales were considered. The correlation analyses of cloud properties with aerosol optical depth revealed that deficient monsoon years were characterized by more frequent and larger decreases in cloud drop size and ice water path, but increases in cloud top pressure, with increases in aerosol abundance. The opposite was observed during abundant monsoon years. The correlations of greater aerosol abundance, with smaller cloud drop size, lower evidence of ice processes and shallower cloud height, during deficient rainfall years, imply cloud inhibition; while those with larger cloud drop size, greater ice processes and a greater cloud vertical extent, during abundant rainfall years, suggest cloud invigoration. The study establishes that continental aerosols over India alter cloud properties in diametrically opposite ways during contrasting monsoon years. The mechanisms underlying these effects need further analysis.

  20. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Derived From SeaWIFS - Retrieved Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Mong-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Wang, Menghua; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To understand climatic implications of aerosols over global oceans, the aerosol optical properties retrieved from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) are analyzed, and the effects of the aerosols on the Earth's radiation budgets (aerosol radiative forcing, ARF) are computed using a radiative transfer model. It is found that the distribution of the SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical thickness is distinctively zonal. The maximum in the equatorial region coincides with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the maximum in the Southern Hemispheric high latitudes coincides with the region of prevailing westerlies. The minimum aerosol optical thickness is found in the subtropical high pressure regions, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. These zonal patterns clearly demonstrate the influence of atmospheric circulation on the oceanic aerosol distribution. Over global oceans, aerosols reduce the annual mean net downward solar flux by 5.4 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere and by 6.1 W m-2 at the surface. The largest ARF is found in the tropical Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, the coastal regions of Southeast and East Asia, and the Southern Hemispheric high latitudes. During the period of the Indonesian big fires (September-December 1997), the cooling due to aerosols is greater than 15 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere and greater than 30 W m(exp -1) at the surface in the vicinity of the maritime continents. The atmosphere receives extra solar radiation by greater than 15 W m(exp -1) over a large area. These large changes in radiative fluxes are expected to have enhanced the atmospheric stability, weakened the atmospheric circulation, and augmented the drought condition during that period. It would be very instructive to simulate the regional climatic. The model-calculated clear sky solar flux at the top of the atmosphere is compared with that derived from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The net downward solar flux of

  1. Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 2: Time evolution of ozone profiles and of aerosol properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Altorio, Alfonso; Masci, Fabrizio; Rizi, Vincenzo; Visconti, Guido; Verdecchia, Marco

    1993-12-01

    Two lidar systems, an aerosol lidar and an O3 DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), have been routinely operated at the same site (L'Aquila, Italy; 42 deg N, 13 deg E) since August 1991. The multiwavelength analysis of the lidar signals allows to retrieve parameters related to equivalent aerosol size distributions and their optical properties. These are needed to correct the ozone DIAL profiles from the disturbance introduced by the stratospheric volcanic aerosols. The method and the confidence of the retrieved ozone profiles are discussed in a companion paper. Here we present the whole measurement series of ozone and backscattering ratio profiles during the period from August 1991 to December 1992. In addition, for some observations, the mode radius and the dispersion of the representative aerosol size distribution are reported. The time evolutions of aerosol surface area density and mass mixing ratio are also discussed within the uncertainties of the retrieval algorithm.

  2. Evaluating clouds, aerosols, and their interactions in three global climate models using satellite simulators and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Jin, Ling; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bennartz, Ralf; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Ming, Yi; Guo, Huan; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2014-09-01

    Accurately representing aerosol-cloud interactions in global climate models is challenging. As parameterizations evolve, it is important to evaluate their performance with appropriate use of observations. In this investigation we compare aerosols, clouds, and their interactions in three global climate models (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory-Atmosphere Model 3 (AM3), National Center for Atmospheric Research-Community Atmosphere Model 5 (CAM5), and Goddard Institute for Space Studies-ModelE2) to Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. Modeled cloud properties are diagnosed using a MODIS simulator. Cloud droplet number concentrations (N) are computed identically from satellite-simulated and MODIS-observed values of liquid cloud optical depth and droplet effective radius. We find that aerosol optical depth (τa) simulated by models is similar to observations in many regions around the globe. For N, AM3 and CAM5 capture the observed spatial pattern of higher values in coastal marine stratocumulus versus remote ocean regions, though modeled values, in general, are higher than observed. Aerosol-cloud interactions were computed as the sensitivity of ln(N) to ln(τa) for coastal marine liquid clouds near South Africa (SAF) and Southeast Asia where τa varies in time. AM3 and CAM5 are more sensitive than observations, while the sensitivity for ModelE2 is statistically insignificant. This widely used sensitivity could be subject to misinterpretation due to the confounding influence of meteorology on both aerosols and clouds. A simple framework for assessing the sensitivity of ln(N) to ln(τa) at constant meteorology illustrates that observed sensitivity can change from positive to statistically insignificant when including the confounding influence of relative humidity. Satellite-simulated versus standard model values of N are compared; for CAM5 in SAF, standard model values are significantly lower than satellite

  3. Ground-based remote sensing of aerosol climatology in China: Aerosol optical properties, direct radiative effect and its parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Che, H.; Zhu, J.; Chen, H.; Cong, Z.; Deng, X.; Fan, X.; Fu, Y.; Goloub, P.; Jiang, H.; Liu, Q.; Mai, B.; Wang, P.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of aerosol optical properties and aerosol direct radiative effects (ADRE) are studied based on high quality aerosol data at 21 sunphotometer stations with at least 4-months worth of measurements in China mainland and Hong Kong. A parameterization is proposed to describe the relationship of ADREs to aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD) and single scattering albedo at 550 nm (SSA). In the middle-east and south China, the maximum AOD is always observed in the burning season, indicating a significant contribution of biomass burning to AOD. Dust aerosols contribute to AOD significantly in spring and their influence decreases from the source regions to the downwind regions. The occurrence frequencies of background level AOD (AOD < 0.10) in the middle-east, south and northwest China are very limited (0.4%, 1.3% and 2.8%, respectively). However, it is 15.7% in north China. Atmosphere is pristine in the Tibetan Plateau where 92.0% of AODs are <0.10. Regional mean SSAs at 550 nm are 0.89-0.90, although SSAs show substantial site and season dependence. ADREs at the top and bottom of the atmosphere for solar zenith angle of 60 ± 5° are -16-37 W m-2 and -66-111 W m-2, respectively. ADRE efficiency shows slight regional dependence. AOD and SSA together account for more than 94 and 87% of ADRE variability at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The overall picture of ADRE in China is that aerosols cool the climate system, reduce surface solar radiation and heat the atmosphere.

  4. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-08-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS), a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN < 150 cm-3, non-sea salt PM2.5=1μg m-3). However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea salt PM2.510-25 μg m-3). These

  5. Satellite observations of aerosol and CO over Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Steven T.; Gille, John C.; Edwards, David P.; Nandi, Sreela

    The development of remote sensing satellite technology potentially will lead to the technical means to monitor air pollution emitted from large cities on a global basis. This paper presents observations by the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) experiments of aerosol optical depths and CO mixing ratios, respectively, in the vicinity of Mexico City to illustrate current satellite capabilities. MOPITT CO mixing ratios over Mexico City, averaged between January-March 2002-2005, are 19% above regional values and the CO plume extends over 10° 2 in the free troposphere at 500 hPa. Time series of Red Automatica de Monitoreo Ambiental (RAMA) PM10, and (Aerosol Robotic Network) AERONET and MODIS aerosol optical depths, and RAMA and MOPITT CO time series are inter-compared to illustrate the different perspectives of ground based and satellite instrumentation. Finally, we demonstrate, by examining MODIS and MOPITT data in April 2003, that satellite data can be used to identify episodes in which pollution form fires influences the time series of ground based and satellite observations of urban pollution.

  6. Efflorescence upon humidification? X-ray microspectroscopic in situ observation of changes in aerosol microstructure and phase state upon hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Saturno, Jorge; Krüger, Mira L.; Förster, Jan-David; Weigand, Markus; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Bechtel, Michael; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2014-05-01

    The phase and mixing state of atmospheric aerosols is a central determinant of their properties and thus their role in atmospheric cycling and climate. Particularly, the hygroscopic response of aerosol particles to relative humidity (RH) variation is a key aspect of their atmospheric life cycle and impacts. Here we applied X-ray microspectroscopy under variable RH conditions to internally mixed aerosol particles from the Amazonian rain forest collected during periods with anthropogenic pollution. Upon hydration, we observed substantial and reproducible changes in particle microstructure, which appear as mainly driven by efflorescence and recrystallization of sulfate salts. Multiple solid and liquid phases were found to coexist, especially in intermediate humidity regimes. We show that X-ray microspectroscopy under variable RH is a valuable technique to analyze the hygroscopic response of individual ambient aerosol particles. Our initial results underline that RH changes can trigger strong particle restructuring, in agreement with previous studies on artificial aerosols.

  7. Reducing the uncertainty in background marine aerosol radiative properties using CAM5 model results and CALIPSO-retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Gantt, B.; Dawson, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Gasso, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abundance of natural aerosols in the atmosphere strongly affects global aerosol optical depth (AOD) and influences clouds and the hydrological cycle through its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Because the anthropogenic contribution to climate forcing represents the difference between the total forcing and that from natural aerosols, understanding background aerosols is necessary to evaluate the influences of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud reflectivity and persistence (so-called indirect radiative forcing). The effects of marine aerosols are explored using remotely sensed data obtained by Cloud-aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.0), coupled with the PNNL Modal Aerosol Model. CALIPSO-provided high resolution vertical profile information about different aerosol subtypes (defined as clean continental, marine, desert dust, polluted continental, polluted dust, and biomass burning), particulate depolarization ratio (or particle non-sphericity), reported aerosol color ratio (the ratio of aerosol backscatter at the two wavelengths) and lidar ratios over different parts of the oceans are compared to model-simulations to help evaluate the contribution of biogenic aerosol to CCN budget in the marine boundary layer. Model-simulations show that over biologically productive ocean waters primary organic aerosols of marine origin can contribute up to a 20% increase in CCN (at a supersaturation of 0.2%) number concentrations. Corresponding changes associated with cloud properties (liquid water path and droplet number) can decrease global annual mean indirect radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosol (less cooling) by ~0.1 Wm-2 (7%). This study suggests ignoring the complex chemical composition and size distribution of sea spray particles could result in considerable uncertainties in predicted anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect.

  8. Sensitivity of Multiangle Imaging to the Optical and Microphysical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Kahn, Ralph A.; Nelson, David; Yau, Kevin; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of biomass burning (BB) carbonaceous particles in the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Standard Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm is assessed, and algorithm refinements are suggested, based on a theoretical sensitivity analysis and comparisons with near-coincident AERONET measurements at representative BB sites. Over the natural ranges of BB aerosol microphysical and optical properties observed in past field campaigns, patterns of retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), particle size, and single scattering albedo (SSA) are evaluated. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, assuming total column AOD of 0.2, over a dark, uniform surface, MISR can distinguish two to three groups in each of size and SSA, except when the assumed atmospheric particles are significantly absorbing (mid-visible SSA approx.0.84), or of medium sizes (mean radius approx.0.13 pin); sensitivity to absorbing, medium-large size particles increases considerably when the assumed column AOD is raised to 0.5. MISR Research Aerosol Retrievals confirm the theoretical results, based on coincident AERONET inversions under BB-dominated conditions. When BB is externally mixed with dust in the atmosphere, dust optical model and surface reflection uncertainties, along with spatial variability, contribute to differences between the Research Retrievals and AERONET. These results suggest specific refinements to the MISR Standard Aerosol Algorithm complement of component particles and mixtures. They also highlight the importance for satellite aerosol retrievals of surface reflectance characterization, with accuracies that can be difficult to achieve with coupled surface-aerosol algorithms in some higher AOD situations.

  9. Characterizing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) Using Satellite Observations, Balloon Measurements and a Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Liu, H.; Deshler, T.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wegner, T.; Baker, N.; Gadhavi, H.; Ratnam, M. V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations and numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) provide a conduit for gas-phase pollutants in south Asia to reach the lower stratosphere. Now, observations from the CALIPSO satellite have revealed the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), associated with the ASM anticyclone. The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, climate, and chemical processes in the UTLS. Here, we show in situ measurements from balloon-borne instruments, aircraft, and satellite observations, together with trajectory and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations to explore the origin, composition, physical, and optical properties of aerosols in the ATAL. In particular, we show balloon-data from our BATAL-2015 field campaign to India and Saudi Arabia in summer 2015, which includes in situ backscatter measurements from COBALD instruments, and the first observations of size and volatility of aerosols in the ATAL layer using optical particle counters (OPCs). Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations point to deep convection over North India as a principal source of ATAL aerosols. Available aircraft observations suggest significant sulfur and carbonaceous components to the ATAL, which is supported by simulations using the GEOS-Chem CTM. Source elimination studies conducted with the GEOS-Chem indicate that ATAL aerosols originate primary from south Asian sources, in contrast with some earlier studies.

  10. What We Can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R.

    1999-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space.

  11. Assessment of aerosol optical property and radiative effect for the layer decoupling cases over the northern South China Sea during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (ω) ≈ 0.92 at 440 nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the ω (≈0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6 W m-2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  12. Assessment of Aerosol Optical Property and Radiative Effect for the Layer Decoupling Cases over the Northern South China Sea During the 7-SEAS Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pani, Shantau Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (omega) approx. = 0.92 at 440nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the omega (approx. = 0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6W/sq m2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  13. Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Gausa, M.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Berjón, A.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; de Frutos, A. M.; Bennouna, Y.; Blindheim, S.; Myhre, C. L.; Zibordi, G.; Wehrli, C.; Kratzer, S.; Hakansson, B.; Carlund, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Herber, A.; Torres, B.

    2012-06-01

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and transport patterns. This work evaluates data from operational sites with sun photometer measurements belonging either to national or international networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) and programs conducted in Scandinavia and Svalbard. We enumerate a list of sites, measurement type and periods together with observed aerosol properties. An evaluation and analysis of aerosol data was carried out with a review of previous results as well. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) are the current parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first evaluation of aerosol properties. AOD (500 nm) ranges from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites (Ny-Ålesund: 0.09; Andenes: 0.10; Sodankylä: 0.08), and it is somewhat higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols show larger mean size (AE = 1.2 at Andenes) than in Finland, with continental climate (AE = 1.5 at Sodankylä). Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters derived from inversion of sun/sky radiances were also investigated. This work makes special emphasis in the joint and collaborative effort of the various groups from different countries involved in this study. Part of the measurements presented here were involved in the IPY projects Polar-AOD and POLARCAT.

  14. Investigation of Atmospheric Aerosol properties by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevalia, Barry; Joseph, Kelli; Gasseller, Morewell

    The effects of aerosols on the atmosphere, climate, and public health are among the central topics in current environmental research. Aerosol particles scatter and absorb solar and terrestrial radiation, they are involved in the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, and they affect the abundance and distribution of atmospheric trace gases by chemical reactions and other multiphase processes. Moreover, airborne particles play an important role in the spreading of biological organisms, reproductive materials, and pathogens and they can cause or enhance respiratory, cardiovascular, infectious, and allergic diseases. In this study we use two distinct methods to characterize atmospheric aerosol particles. With the AFM, we use analytical and interpretative techniques to deduce fundamental physical properties of the aerosol particles such as particle sizes and morphology. The microscopy techniques are then compared and complemented with optical techniques that employ hand held sun photometers to measure aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of the atmosphere. The chemical nature of the aerosols is investigated by exposing the samples to a stream of ozone gas and then reimage them. Using this approach, we are only able to classify particles as organic, gr Maryam Foroozesh, Ph.D. Chair, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences Head, Department of Chemistry.

  15. Influence of Observed Diurnal Cycles of Aerosol Optical Depth on Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Eck, T. F.; Huttunen, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Lindfors, A. V.; Myhre, G.; Smirinov, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE). The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally.We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast) does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on 24 h ADRE was

  16. Explicit and Observation-based Aerosol Treatment in Tropospheric NO2 Retrieval over China from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Lin, J.; Boersma, F.; Pinardi, G.; Wang, Y.; Chimot, J.; Wagner, T.; Xie, P.; Eskes, H.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is influenced by aerosols substantially. Aerosols affect the retrieval of "effective cloud fraction (CF)" and "effective cloud top pressure (CP)" that are used in the subsequent NO2 retrieval to account for the presentence of clouds. And aerosol properties and vertical distributions directly affect the NO2 air mass factor (AMF) calculations. Our published POMINO algorithm uses a parallelized LIDORT-driven AMFv6 code to derive CF, CP and NO2 VCD. Daily information on aerosol optical properties are taken from GEOS-Chem simulations, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) further constrained by monthly MODIS AOD. However, the published algorithm does not include an observation-based constraint of aerosol vertical distribution. Here we construct a monthly climatological observation dataset of aerosol extinction profiles, based on Level-2 CALIOP data over 2007-2015, to further constrain aerosol vertical distributions. GEOS-Chem captures the temporal variations of CALIOP aerosol layer heights (ALH) but has an overall underestimate by about 0.3 km. It tends to overestimate the aerosol extinction by 10% below 2 km but with an underestimate by 30% above 2 km, leading to a low bias by 10-30% in the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCD. After adjusting GEOS-Chem aerosol extinction profiles by the CALIOP monthly ALH climatology, the retrieved NO2 VCDs increase by 4-16% over China on a monthly basis in 2012. The improved NO2 VCDs are better correlated to independent MAX-DOAS observations at three sites than POMINO and DOMINO are - especially for the polluted cases, R2 reaches 0.76 for the adjusted POMINO, much higher than that for the published POMINO (0.68) and DOMINO (0.38). The newly retrieved CP increases by 60 hPa on average, because of a stronger aerosol screening effect. Compared to the CF used in DOMINO, which implicitly includes aerosol information, our improved CF is much lower and can

  17. Volatility Properties of Internally- and Externally-Mixed Ambient Aerosols at an Anthropogenically-influenced Forest Site in Southeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Subramanian, R.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources has a significant contribution to ambient aerosol loadings in Southeastern USA and thus contributes to adverse health effects of air pollution and influences regional and global climate. Volatility properties of biogenic SOA determine its concentration, reactivity, and lifetime, but are still largely unknown. As part of a larger study to assess the effect of biogenic SOA on aerosol optical properties, a set of instruments, including scanning mobility sizers (SMPS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), and a thermodenuder, was deployed during June 2015 at a Duke Forest site near Chapel Hill, NC. The site is characterized by a significant contribution of both biogenic and urban (mostly traffic) sources. Measurements of changes in aerosol volume and optical size upon heating in the thermodenuder at different temperatures are used to derive volatility properties of the ambient aerosol. A limited set of experiments was carried out using the tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA) approach to investigate whether the ambient aerosol at the Duke Forest site is internally mixed with respect to its volatility properties. In this presentation we will discuss equilibrium and kinetic aspects of aerosol volatility observed during this study and implications of external vs. internal mixing for derivation of bulk volatility properties of ambient aerosol.

  18. New Directions: Emerging Satellite Observations of Above-cloud Aerosols and Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar and passive sensors with multi-wavelength and polarization capabilities onboard the A-Train provide unprecedented opportunities of observing above-cloud aerosols and direct radiative forcing. Significant progress has been made in recent years in exploring these new aerosol remote sensing capabilities and generating unique datasets. The emerging observations will advance the understanding of aerosol climate forcing.

  19. Lessons Learned About Organic Aerosol Formation in the Southeast U.S. Using Observations and Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work, modeling of isoprene SOA via heterogeneous uptake is explored and compared to observations from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS).

  20. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-01-01

    Remote sensing of cloud and aerosol optical properties is routinely obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Instruments that are being used to enhance our ability to characterize the global distribution of cloud and aerosol properties include well-calibrated multispectral radiometers that measure in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared. The availability of thermal channels to enhance detection of cloud when estimating aerosol properties is an important improvement. In this paper, we describe the radiative properties of clouds as currently determined from satellites (cloud fraction, optical thickness, cloud top pressure, and cloud particle effective radius) and highlight the global/regional cloud microphysical properties currently available for assessing climate variability and forcing. These include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius for selected geographical locations around the world. In addition, we will illustrate the radiative and microphysical properties of aerosol particles (in cloud free regions) that are currently available from space-based observations, and show the latitudinal distribution of aerosol optical properties over both land and ocean surfaces.

  1. Spectral aerosol optical properties from AERONET Sun-photometric measurements over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjobi, K. O.; He, Z.; Simmer, C.

    2008-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties including Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, τ aλ), Angstrom exponent (α), size distribution, single scattering albedo ( w o) were examined using long-term ground-based radiometric measurements at five West African sites; Dakar (14°42'N 17°29'W), Banizoumbou (13°45'N, 02°39'E), Agoufou (15°21'N,1°29'W), Ilorin (08°32'N, 04°34'E), and Ouagadougou (12°22'N, 1°31'W). Also included were observations made at the Cape Verde Islands (16° 45'N, 22° 57'W) to investigate the aerosol transport over the Atlantic Ocean. Results from multiyear observations show that monthly average AOD generally exhibits primary and secondary maximum in March and June respectively except Ilorin that shows peak value in January. The seasonal cycle of Angström exponent (α 440-870 nm) shows that minimum values are often associated with dust storm in all sites however, the monthly mean α440-870 nm yields high values at Ilorin, even for peak dust seasons. It suggests that fine mode aerosols dominate the daily aerosol optical influence even during the 'harmattan' season when biomass/urban pollution aerosol mixes with coarse mode dust originating aerosols at the sites. The retrieved aerosol size distributions for predominately fine mode particles (cases with α 440-870 nm> 0.5) at Ilorin and Cape Verde show an obvious steady increase in particle size as τa440 nm increased in both the modal maximum value and expansion of the fine mode boundary towards larger radius. The volume median radius of the size distribution of the coarse mode desert dust at Ilorin ranged from ˜ 1.9 to 3.2 μm with geometric standard deviation of 1.61 to 1.83. The coarse particle mode at Cape Verde shows very little dynamic changes as a function of aerosol optical depth. Results from estimated single scattering albedo ( wo) show wide differences in the observed magnitudes of the fine/coarse mode particle absorption at the sites under study. The differences in dust absorption may be adduced

  2. The jovian anticyclone BA. III. Aerosol properties and color change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; García-Melendo, E.; Legarreta, J.

    2009-10-01

    A study of the vertical cloud structure of oval BA and its red color change is presented in this third part of our complete analysis. A large interest in Jupiter's anticyclone BA was created by its reddening that occurred between 2005 and 2006. In this work we quantify the color change in oval BA by using images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in six filters from the near ultraviolet (F250W) to the deep methane band in the near infrared (F892N). Reflectivity changes are noteworthy in nadir viewing geometry at the ultraviolet and blue wavelengths (F250W, F330W and F435W filters) but almost undetectable or inside error bars in the rest of filters (F550M, F658N and F892N). The observed reflectivity variations are discussed in terms of a commonly accepted vertical cloud structure model for jovian anticyclones in order to explore some causes for the color alteration. Our models of the observed reflectivity variation show that the vortex clouds did not change its vertical extension (top pressure) or its optical depth. We find that a change occurred in the absorbing properties of the particles populating the upper aerosols (single scattering albedo and imaginary refractive index). A discussion on the thermo-physical and dynamical properties of the vortex that could be in the origin of the color change is also presented.

  3. Aerosol particle properties in a South American megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulke, Ana; Torres-Brizuela, Marcela; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cancelada, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    The subtropical city of Buenos Aires is located on the western shore of Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of Argentina. It is the second largest metropolitan area in South America, with a population density of around 14 thousand people per km2. When all 24 counties of the Great Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area are included it is the third-largest conurbation in Latin America, with a population of around fifteen million inhabitants. The generalized worldwide trend to concentrate human activities in urban regions that continue to expand in area, threatens the local and regional environment. Air pollution in the Buenos Aires airshed is due to local sources (mainly the mobile sources, followed by the electric power plants and some industries) and to distant sources (like biomass burning, dust, marine aerosols and occasionally volcanic ash) whose products arrive in the city area due to the regional transport patterns. Previous research suggests that ambient aerosol particle concentrations should be considered an air quality problem. A field campaign was conducted in Buenos Aires in 2011 in order to characterize some aerosol particles properties measured for the first time in the city. Measurements began in mid- April and continued until December. The field observations were done in a collaborative effort between the Universities of Mexico (UNAM) and Buenos Aires (UBA). A suite of instruments was installed on the roof of an UBA laboratory and classroom buildings (34.54° S, 58.44° W) at an altitude of approximately 30 m above sea level. The measurements included the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN) larger than approximately 50 nm, the mass concentration of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), the scattering (Bscat) and absorption (Babs) coefficients at 550 nm and the vertical profiles of backscattered light from aerosols at a wavelength of 910 nm using a ceilometer. In addition, a weather station recorded the meteorological

  4. Optical, microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols over a tropical rural site in Kenya, East Africa: Source identification, modification and aerosol type discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiyo, Richard; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Zhao, Tianliang

    2018-03-01

    A better understanding of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is a crucial challenge for climate change studies. In the present study, column-integrated aerosol optical and radiative properties observed at a rural site, Mbita (0.42°S, 34.20 °E, and 1125 m above sea level) located in Kenya, East Africa (EA) are investigated using ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data retrieved during January, 2007 to December, 2015. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD500 nm), Ångström exponent (AE440-870 nm), fine mode fraction of AOD500 nm (FMF500 nm), and columnar water vapor (CWV, cm) were found to be 0.23 ± 0.08, 1.01 ± 0.16, 0.60 ± 0.07, and 2.72 ± 0.20, respectively. The aerosol optical properties exhibited a unimodal distribution with substantial seasonal heterogeneity in their peak values being low (high) during the local wet (dry) seasons. The observed data showed that Mbita and its environs are significantly influenced by various types of aerosols, with biomass burning and/or urban-industrial (BUI), mixed (MXD), and desert dust (DDT) aerosol types contributing to 37.72%, 32.81%, and 1.40%, respectively during the local dry season (JJA). The aerosol volume size distribution (VSD) exhibited bimodal lognormal structure with a geometric mean radius of 0.15 μm and 3.86-5.06 μm for fine- and coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Further, analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter (ASY) and refractive index (RI) revealed dominance of fine-mode absorbing aerosols during JJA. The averaged aerosol direct radiative forcing (ARF) retrieved from the AERONET showed a strong cooling effect at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA) and significant warming within the atmosphere (ATM), representing the important role of aerosols played in this rural site of Kenya. Finally, the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model revealed that aerosols from distinct sources resulted in enhanced loading

  5. Global Observations of Aerosols and Clouds from Combined Lidar and Passive Instruments to Improve Radiation Budget and Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Current uncertainties in the effects of clouds and aerosols on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations - Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO-CENA) is a recently approved satellite mission within NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program which will address these uncertainties with a unique suite of active and passive instruments. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) demonstrated the potential benefits of space lidar for studies of clouds and aerosols. PICASSO-CENA builds on this experience with a payload consisting of a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive lidar, an oxygen A-band spectrometer (ABS), an imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and a wide field camera (WFC). Data from these instruments will be used to measure the vertical distributions of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosols and clouds which influence the Earth radiation budget. PICASSO-CENA will be flown in formation with the PM satellite of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide a comprehensive suite of coincident measurements of atmospheric state, aerosol and cloud optical properties, and radiative fluxes. The mission will address critical uncertainties iin the direct radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds as well as aerosol influences on cloud radiative properties and cloud-climate radiation feedbacks. PICASSO-CENA is planned for a three year mission, with a launch in early 2003. PICASSO-CENA is being developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES.

  6. Modelling the optical properties of aerosols in a chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, E.; Kahnert, M.

    2015-12-01

    According to the IPCC fifth assessment report (2013), clouds and aerosols still contribute to the largest uncertainty when estimating and interpreting changes to the Earth's energy budget. Therefore, understanding the interaction between radiation and aerosols is both crucial for remote sensing observations and modelling the climate forcing arising from aerosols. Carbon particles are the largest contributor to the aerosol absorption of solar radiation, thereby enhancing the warming of the planet. Modelling the radiative properties of carbon particles is a hard task and involves many uncertainties arising from the difficulties of accounting for the morphologies and heterogeneous chemical composition of the particles. This study aims to compare two ways of modelling the optical properties of aerosols simulated by a chemical transport model. The first method models particle optical properties as homogeneous spheres and are externally mixed. This is a simple model that is particularly easy to use in data assimilation methods, since the optics model is linear. The second method involves a core-shell internal mixture of soot, where sulphate, nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, sea salt, and water are contained in the shell. However, by contrast to previously used core-shell models, only part of the carbon is concentrated in the core, while the remaining part is homogeneously mixed with the shell. The chemical transport model (CTM) simulations are done regionally over Europe with the Multiple-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry (MATCH) model, developed by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The MATCH model was run with both an aerosol dynamics module, called SALSA, and with a regular "bulk" approach, i.e., a mass transport model without aerosol dynamics. Two events from 2007 are used in the analysis, one with high (22/12-2007) and one with low (22/6-2007) levels of elemental carbon (EC) over Europe. The results of the study help to assess the

  7. DACCIWA Cloud-Aerosol Observations in West Africa Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, J Christine; Blanchard, Yann; Hill, Peter

    2017-06-15

    Interactions between aerosols and clouds, and their effects on radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations, are one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. With reducing uncertainties in predictions of weather, climate, and climate impacts in mind, the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, funded by the European Commission, set out to improve our understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions in southern West Africa. This region is ideal for studying cloud-aerosol interactions because of its rich mix of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and diverse clouds, and because of the strong dependence on the regional and global climate of the sensitive West Africanmore » monsoon. The overview of DACCIWA is described in Knippertz et al. 2015. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team includes not only several European and African universities, but also Met Centres in the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. One of the crucial research activities in DACCIWA is the major field campaign in southern West Africa from June to July 2016, comprising a benchmark data set for assessing detailed processes on natural and anthropogenic emissions; atmospheric composition; air pollution and its impacts on human and ecosystem health; boundary layer processes; couplings between aerosols, clouds, and rainfall; weather systems; radiation; and the monsoon circulation. Details and highlights of the campaign can be found in Flamant et al. 2017. To provide aerosol/cloud microphysical and optical properties that are essential for model evaluations and for the linkage between ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility loaned two sun photometers to the DACCWIA team for the campaign from June 8 to July 29, 2016. The first sun photometer was deployed at Kumasi, Ghana (6.67962°N, 1.56019°W) by the University of

  8. Viscosity and electric properties of water aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavlov, A. V.; Sokolov, I. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    The flow of water mist in a narrow duct has been studied experimentally. The profile of the velocity of drops has been measured, and the viscosity of the mist has been calculated using the Navier-Stokes equation. It has been found that at low gradients of the rate of shear the viscosity of the mist can exceed that of clean air by tens and even hundreds of times. The electric charge of the drops has been measured. It has been found that the viscosity of the mist differs from that of clean air at gradients of the rate of shear that are less than the frequency of the establishment of electric equilibrium between the drops. A comparative analysis of the viscosities of the mist and a drop cluster has been carried out, and the dependence of the viscosity of the water aerosol on the radius and the charge of the drops has been predicted. The possible role of aerosols that contain submicron drops in the known "clear air turbulence" problem has been shown.

  9. Direct observational evidence of the influence of absorbing aerosols on surface energy partitioning during the monsoon onset period over Kanpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. N.; Sarangi, C.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed understanding of the radiative impact of ambient aerosols on land-atmosphere energy interactions during the onset period over the Indian summer monsoon region (ISMR) is essential for improving spatiotemporal prediction of the Indian summer monsoon. Transportation of air masses influenced by biomass burning outbreaks in the Himalayan foothills to Kanpur, located in ISMR, during May 2016 provides a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of absorbing aerosols on the Bowen ratio. Collocated half hourly observations of aerosol properties, surface energy balance and fluxes and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over Kanpur under clear sky conditions were used. During this period, increase in aerosol optical depth (AOD) was associated with decrease in single scattering albedo and increase in near surface PM2.5 concentrations indicating that the increase in columnar aerosol loading was primarily due to increase in absorbing aerosols near the surface. Our results show that the net radiation (NR) decreases by 130 Wm-2 per unit increase in AOD at the surface, most of which is due to interactions of aerosols with incoming shortwave radiation. Comparison of observed Bowen ratio for low- and high AOD scenarios illustrates that the increase in aerosol is associated with a reduction in the Bowen ratio for all values of NR. The decrease in sensible heat fluxes relative to the net radiation (SH/NR) per unit increase in AOD is 50 % during midday. We found that aerosol-induced stability in near surface temperature gradient suppresses energy dissipation by the sensible heat flux. Further, relative latent heat flux was found to increase 25 % per unit increase in AOD, mainly due to enhanced photosynthesis as a function of a greater fraction of diffuse radiation. This is evident from the more negative CO2 flux with AOD. Thus, this study provides the first observational evidence of the influence of absorbing aerosols on the Bowen ratio over this region of climatic importance.

  10. Constraining Absorption of Organic Aerosol from Biomass Burning with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions contribute to a large fraction of global organic aerosol (OA) emissions. In most models, radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) and OA from biomass burning offsets each other to give a small or close to zero total forcing, i.e., an estimate of 0 (-0.2 to +0.2) W m-2 by IPCC-AR5. Recent observational and modeling studies have shown the absorbing part of OA, referred to as "brown" carbon (BrC), to be a significant source of direct absorption of solar radiation thus positive forcing, in particular over regions dominated by biomass burning and biofuel emissions. Here we implement optical treatment for the BrC absorption in the CESM1/CAM5 model, and compare the calculated aerosol spectral absorption with ground-based AERONET and DOE/ARM observations. In this version of CAM5, biomass burning and biofuel OA are treated separately from fossil fuel OA with different imaginary refractive index. Because the absorption of BrC is highly variable and uncertain depending on source, aging, and mixing state, sensitivity studies of BrC refractive index parameterized by fuel type and ratio of BC to OA mass will be examined and the resulting uncertainty in the estimated forcing will be discussed. Preliminary results suggest the simulated wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption, as measured by the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE), increases from 0.9 for non-absorbing OA to 1.2 (or 1.0) for strongly (or moderately) absorbing BrC. The AAE calculated for the strongly absorbing BrC agrees with AERONET spectral observations at 440-870 nm over most regions but overpredicts for the open biomass burning-dominated South America and southern Africa, in which inclusion of moderately absorbing BrC exhibits better agreement.

  11. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from the Hyper Angular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) during the LMOS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, H. M.; Martins, J. V.; McBride, B.; Espinosa, R.; Fernandez Borda, R. A.; Remer, L.; Dubovik, O.

    2017-12-01

    The largest impediments to estimating climate change revolve around a lack of quantitative information on aerosol forcing and our poor understanding of aerosol-cloud processes and cloud feedbacks in the climate system. This is so because global aerosol and cloud data come from satellite sensors that, today, measure limited subsets of the full Stokes parameters. Most measure only spectral intensity at one geometry, or at a severely limited set of geometries, or measure polarization non-simultaneously using a filter wheel, with a low spatial resolution. To overcome this scientific gap, the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of UMBC developed the Hyper Angular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP): a very simple but highly effective sensor that can simultaneously measure 3 angles of polarization, at 4 different wavelengths, to observe the same target with up to 60 viewing angles, with no moving parts. The HARP-Cubesat mission will fly next January, with the main objective of proving the on-flight capabilities of a highly accurate wide FOV hyperangle imaging polarimeter for characterizing aerosol and cloud properties. AirHARP is an exact copy of the HARP sensor but prepared to fly on aircrafts. Here we report on preliminary aerosol data analysis from its first measurements during the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS) field campaign last June. We will discuss how the polarization measurements are inverted using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm to obtain the aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction and sphericity. For the flights on June 8th and 12th, we will compare the retrievals with those from the Aeronet station LMOS-ZION, specially setup for the campaign.

  12. Chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol during foggy and nonfoggy episodes: a relationship between organic and inorganic content of the aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, D. S.; Gupta, T.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-06-01

    An extensive field measurement during winter was carried out at a site located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) which gets heavily influenced by the fog during winter almost every year. The chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosols during foggy and nonfoggy episodes and chemical composition of the fogwater are presented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) as a tool for the source apportionment was employed to understand the sources of pollution. Four major sources viz. biomass burning, refractory, secondary and mineral dust were identified. Aerosols properties during foggy episodes were heavily influenced by almost all the sources and they caused considerable loading of almost all the organic and inorganic species during the period. The biomass generated aerosols were removed from the atmosphere by scavenging during foggy episodes. The wet removal of almost all the species by the fog droplets was observed. The K+, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC) and NO3- were most heavily scavenged among the species and their concentrations consequently became lower than the nonfoggy episode concentrations. The production of secondary inorganic aerosol, mainly sulfate and ammonium, during foggy episodes was considerably higher than nitrate which was rather heavily scavenged and removed by the fog droplets. The fogwater analysis showed that dissolved inorganic species play a vital role in processing of organic carbon such as the formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate inside the fog droplets. The formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate in aerosol and the influence of acidity on the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were rather found to be negligible. The study average inorganic component of the aerosol was considerably higher than the carbonaceous component during both foggy and nonfoggy episode. The secondary production of the aerosol changed the microphysical properties of aerosol which was reflected by

  13. Aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in the North Atlantic trades observed during the Barbados aerosol cloud experiment - Part 1: Distributions and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunsil; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Feingold, Graham; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Chuang, Patrick; Donaher, Shaunna L.

    2016-07-01

    Shallow marine cumulus clouds are by far the most frequently observed cloud type over the Earth's oceans; but they are poorly understood and have not been investigated as extensively as stratocumulus clouds. This study describes and discusses the properties and variations of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed in the North Atlantic trades during a field campaign (Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment- BACEX, March-April 2010), which took place off Barbados where African dust periodically affects the region. The principal observing platform was the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter (TO) research aircraft, which was equipped with standard meteorological instruments, a zenith pointing cloud radar and probes that measured aerosol, cloud, and precipitation characteristics.The temporal variation and vertical distribution of aerosols observed from the 15 flights, which included the most intense African dust event during all of 2010 in Barbados, showed a wide range of aerosol conditions. During dusty periods, aerosol concentrations increased substantially in the size range between 0.5 and 10 µm (diameter), particles that are large enough to be effective giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The 10-day back trajectories showed three distinct air masses with distinct vertical structures associated with air masses originating in the Atlantic (typical maritime air mass with relatively low aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer), Africa (Saharan air layer), and mid-latitudes (continental pollution plumes). Despite the large differences in the total mass loading and the origin of the aerosols, the overall shapes of the aerosol particle size distributions were consistent, with the exception of the transition period.The TO was able to sample many clouds at various phases of growth. Maximum cloud depth observed was less than ˜ 3 km, while most clouds were less than 1 km

  14. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  15. In situ photometric observations of angular scattering from atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Gibson, F W

    1976-10-01

    A large polar nephelometer was flown on a high-altitude balloon to 26.6 km over New Mexico in June 1974 just before the incursion of Fuego volcanic dust. Angular-scattering intensity and polarization observations depict the vertical structure of absolute optical parameters and, as a result, the distribution of atmospheric aerosols. An uncommon phenomenon was detected at 25 km: a stratospheric cloud near the San Andres mountains. These data are compared to findings from a previous flight in November 1970 in which significant altitudinal variability in the atmospheric scattering phase function was evident.

  16. Aerosol vertical distribution and optical properties over China from long-term satellite and ground-based remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Cao, Xianjie; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Naixiu; Sun, Lu; Logan, Timothy; Shi, Jinsen; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Yuemeng; Lin, Yun; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhou, Tian; Shi, Yingying; Zhang, Renyi

    2017-02-01

    The seasonal and spatial variations of vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols over China are studied using long-term satellite observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and ground-based lidar observations and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. The CALIOP products are validated using the ground-based lidar measurements at the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL). The Taklamakan Desert and Tibetan Plateau regions exhibit the highest depolarization and color ratios because of the natural dust origin, whereas the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin and Yangtze River Delta show the lowest depolarization and color ratios because of aerosols from secondary formation of the anthropogenic origin. Certain regions, such as the North China Plain in spring and the Loess Plateau in winter, show intermediate depolarization and color ratios because of mixed dust and anthropogenic aerosols. In the Pearl River Delta region, the depolarization and color ratios are similar to but higher than those of the other polluted regions because of combined anthropogenic and marine aerosols. Long-range transport of dust in the middle and upper troposphere in spring is well captured by the CALIOP observations. The seasonal variations in the aerosol vertical distributions reveal efficient transport of aerosols from the atmospheric boundary layer to the free troposphere because of summertime convective mixing. The aerosol extinction lapse rates in autumn and winter are more positive than those in spring and summer, indicating trapped aerosols within the boundary layer because of stabler meteorological conditions. More than 80 % of the column aerosols are distributed within 1.5 km above the ground in winter, when the aerosol extinction lapse rate exhibits a maximum seasonal average in all study regions except for the Tibetan Plateau. The aerosol extinction lapse rates in the polluted regions are higher

  17. Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  18. Synergic use of TOMS and AERONET observations for characterization of aerosol absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.

    2003-04-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  19. UAV measurements of aerosol properties at the Cyprus institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Kimmo; Sciare, Jean; Keleshis, Christos; Pikridas, Michael; Argyrides, Marios; Vouterakos, Panagiotis; Antoniou, Panyiota; Apostolou, Apostolos; Savvides, Constantinos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Biskos, George; Gao, Ru-Shan; Murphy, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Weber, Daniel; Bingemer, Heinz; Mocnik, Grisa

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide a cost-effective and easy-to-use method to document the vertical profiles of aerosol particles and their physical and optical properties, within and above the boundary layer. These observations combined with satellite and ground data together can provide important information and model constrains regarding the impact of aerosols on the air quality and regional climate. Cyprus is a unique place to observe long-range transported pollution and dust originating from different areas (Europe, Africa, Turkey, and Middle East) and perform such aerosol profiling. The USRL team at the Cyprus Institute has recently started weekly routine flights with a newly developed UAV fleet to build a unique dataset of vertical profile observations. Instrumentation on the UAVs includes miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP, Murphy et al., 2015), Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS, Gao et al., 2016), Ice nuclei sampler (IN) and Dual Wavelength absorption Prototype (DWP) together with the measured meteorological parameters (P, T and RH). The UAV fleet is still expanding, as well as the instrumentation, and preliminary test flights have led to very promising results. The UAV ascend up to approximately the middle of the boundary layer, defined by LIDAR measurements at Limassol, where the UAV will fly on one altitude for several minutes ensuring stable data collection. After flying on one altitude, the UAV will continue ascending above the boundary layer, where another level flight will take place for data gathering, before descending for safe landing. The miniSASP measures the sun irradiance and sky radiance at four wavelengths (460, 550, 670 and 680nm) by doing continuous almucantar scans every 30 s. The instrument installation compensates for the pitch and roll of the UAV with 4 Hz frequency. For this reason, the flights are designed to maintain level flight conditions, to ensure proper data acquisition, and to obtain data from

  20. Long-term variability of aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in Northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvärinen, Antti; Asmi, Eija; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrjö

    2017-04-01

    We introduce long term dataset of aerosol scattering and absorption properties and combined aerosol optical properties measured in Pallas Atmosphere-Ecosystem Supersite in Norhern Finland. The station is located 170 km north of the Arctic Circle. The station is affected by both pristine Arctic air masses as well as long transported air pollution from northern Europe. We studied the optical properties of aerosols and their radiative effects in continental and marine air masses, including seasonal cycles and long-term trends. The average (median) scattering coefficient, backscattering fraction, absorption coefficient and single scattering albedo at the wavelength of 550 nm were 7.9 (4.4) 1/Mm, 0.13 (0.12), 0.74 (0.35) 1/Mm and 0.92 (0.93), respectively. We observed clear seasonal cycles in these variables, the scattering coefficient having high values during summer and low in fall, and absorption coefficient having high values during winter and low in fall. We found that the high values of the absorption coefficient and low values of the single scattering albedo were related to continental air masses from lower latitudes. These aerosols can induce an additional effect on the surface albedo and melting of snow. We observed the signal of the Arctic haze in marine (northern) air masses during March and April. The haze increased the value of the absorption coefficient by almost 80% and that of the scattering coefficient by about 50% compared with the annual-average values. We did not observe any long-term trend in the scattering coefficient, while our analysis showed a clear decreasing trend in the backscattering fraction and scattering Ångström exponent during winter. We also observed clear relationship with temperature and aerosol scattering coefficient. We will present also how these different features affects to aerosol direct radiative forcing.

  1. Fusion of SeaWiFS and TOMS satellite data with surface observations and topographic data during extreme aerosol events.

    PubMed

    Falke, S R; Husar, R B; Schichtel, B A

    2001-11-01

    Spaceborne sensors allow near-continuous aerosol monitoring throughout the world. This paper illustrates the fusion of Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and TOMS satellite data with surface observations and topographic data during four extreme aerosol events: (1) the April 1998 Asian dust storm that impacted the west coast of North America, (2) the May 1998 Central American forest fire smoke that impacted eastern North America, (3) the intense fall 1999 northern California fires, and (4) the massive February 2000 Sahara dust storm. During these dust and smoke events, the aerosol was visualized on true color SeaWiFS images as a distinct yellowish dye, the result of the aerosol increasing the reflectance of darker surfaces (ocean and land) and decreasing the reflectance of clouds. TOMS imagery also indicated increased aerosol absorption in the affected areas, while surface monitors measured major reductions in visual range. Fusing these data aids in the determination of the aerosol's spatial, temporal, and optical properties and provides supporting evidence for characterizing what is being visualized as dust or smoke. A 3-dimensional perspective of the events is obtained when incorporating topographic data and provides insight into the vertical properties of the aerosol plumes.

  2. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties for Radiative Impact Assessments. Derived from Column Closure Analyses in TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip A.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the climate change of the past century and predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Both experiments used remote and in situ measurements from aircraft and the surface, coordinated with overpasses by a variety of satellite radiometers. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the United States over the western Atlantic, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols over the eastern Atlantic from both Europe and Africa. These aerosols often have a marked impact on satellite-measured radiances. However, accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) remains a difficult challenge. Here we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and ACE-2, with a focus on closure analyses that yield aerosol microphysical models for use in improved assessments of flux changes. We show how one such model gives computed radiative flux sensitivities (dF/dAOD) that agree with values measured in TARFOX and preliminary values computed for the polluted marine boundary layer in ACE-2. A companion paper uses the model to compute aerosol-induced flux changes over the North Atlantic from AVHRR-derived AOD fields.

  3. Theophylline cocrystals prepared by spray drying: physicochemical properties and aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials were determined. The in vitro aerosol performance of the spray-dried cocrystals, drug-alone and a drug-carrier aerosol, was assessed. The spray-dried particles had different size distributions, morphologies and surface energies. The milled samples had higher surface energy than those prepared by spray drying. Good agreement was observed between multi-stage liquid impinger and next-generation impactor in terms of assessing spray-dried THF particles. The fine particle fractions of both formulations were similar for THF, but drug-alone formulations outperformed drug-carrier formulations for the THF cocrystals. The aerosolization performance of different THF cocrystals was within the following rank order as obtained from both drug-alone and drug-carrier formulations: THF-NIC>THF-URE>THF-SAC. It was proposed that micromeritic properties dominate over particle surface energy in terms of determining the aerosol performance of THF cocrystals. Spray drying could be a potential technique for preparing cocrystals with modified physical properties.

  4. Improving National Air Quality Forecasts with Satellite Aerosol Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, Jassim; Szykman, James; Pierce, R. Bradley; Kittaka, Chieko; Neil, Doreen; Chu, D. Allen; Remer, Lorraine; Gumley, Liam; Prins, Elaine; Weinstock, Lewis; MacDonald, Clinton; Wayland, Richard; Dimmick, Fred; Fishman, Jack

    2005-09-01

    Accurate air quality forecasts can allow for mitigation of the health risks associated with high levels of air pollution. During September 2003, a team of NASA, NOAA, and EPA researchers demonstrated a prototype tool for improving fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality forecasts using satellite aerosol observations. Daily forecast products were generated from a near-real-time fusion of multiple input data products, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/ Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument on the NASA Terra satellite, PM2.5 concentration from over 300 state/local/national surface monitoring stations, meteorological fields from the NOAA/NCEP Eta Model, and fire locations from the NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) product. The products were disseminated via a Web interface to a small group of forecasters representing state and local air management agencies and the EPA. The MODIS data improved forecaster knowledge of synoptic-scale air pollution events, particularly over oceans and in regions devoid of surface monitors. Forecast trajectories initialized in regions of high AOD offered guidance for identifying potential episodes of poor air quality. The capability of this approach was illustrated with a case study showing that aerosol resulting from wildfires in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada is transported across the continent to influence air quality in the Great Lakes region a few days later. The timing of this demonstration was selected to help improve the accuracy of the EPA's AIRNow (www.epa.gov/airnow/) air quality index next-day PM2.5 forecast, which began on 1 October 2003. Based on the positive response from air quality managers and forecasters, this prototype was expanded and transitioned to an operational

  5. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over central Illinois and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. The primary profile location was within 15 km of the NOAA/ESRL surface aerosol monitoring station near Bondville, Illinois. Identical instruments at the surface and on the aircraft ensured that the data from both platforms would be directly comparable and permitted a determination of how representative surface aerosol properties were of the lower column. Aircraft profiles were also conducted occasionally at two other nearby locations to increase the frequency of A-Train satellite underflights for the purpose of comparing in situ and satellite-retrieved aerosol data. Measurements of aerosol properties conducted at low relative humidity over the Bondville site compare well with the analogous surface aerosol data and do not indicate any major sampling issues or that the aerosol is radically different at the surface compared with the lowest flyby altitude of ~ 240 m above ground level. Statistical analyses of the in situ vertical profile data indicate that aerosol light scattering and absorption (related to aerosol amount) decreases substantially with increasing altitude. Parameters related to the nature of the aerosol (e.g., single-scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, etc.), however, are relatively constant throughout the mixed layer, and do not vary as much as the aerosol amount throughout the profile. While individual profiles often showed more variability, the median in situ single-scattering albedo was 0.93-0.95 for all sampled altitudes. Several parameters (e.g., submicrometer scattering fraction, hemispheric backscattering fraction, and scattering

  6. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buseck, Peter R

    2016-04-01

    We determined the morphological, chemical, and thermal properties of aerosol particles generated by biomass burning during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) campaign during the wildland fire season in the Pacific Northwest from July to mid-September, 2013, and in October, 2013 from prescribed agricultural burns in the lower Mississippi River Valley. BBOP was a field campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The morphological information was both two-dimensional, as is typical of most microscopy images and that have many of the characteristic of shadows in that they lack depth data, and three-dimensionalmore » (3D). The electron tomographic measurements will provided 3D data, including the presence and nature of pores and interstices, and whether the individual particles are coated by or embedded within other materials. These microphysical properties were determined for particles as a function of time and distance from the respective sources in order to obtain detailed information regarding the time evolution of changes during aging.« less

  7. Synergistic analyses of optical and microphysical properties of agricultural crop residue burning aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shibata, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The present study deals with the spatial variability including the vertical structure of optical and microphysical properties of aerosols, during the crop residue burning season (October and November) of 2009 over the IGB. Increased number of fire counts observed by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) that is associated with high aerosol optical depth (MODIS-AOD > 0.7) and enhanced tropospheric columnar NO2 concentrations observed by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), suggests agriculture crop residue burning as a main source of aerosol loading over the IGB during October and November. PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) observations show an increase in fine mode AOD (at 865 nm) from October (0.1-0.2) to November (0.2-0.3) over the IGB, which is well corroborated with MODIS observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) data shows the elevated aerosol plume (4.0-4.5 km) over the north-west IGB (associated with burning activities) that could have been caused by positive buoyancy through pyro-convection. However, large concentrations of aerosol were found below 1.0 km altitude. The averaged vertical structure of crop residue burning aerosols shows an exponential decrease with altitude (mean scale height ˜1.44 ± 0.20 km). Aerosol optical and microphysical properties coupled with backward air trajectories analyses at Kanpur indicated regional transport of biomass burning aerosols in a downwind direction from north-west IGB to south-east IGB. Aerosol classification, using AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)-derived absorption properties coupled with size parameter (2006-2010) showed clear seasonal dependency of aerosol types which revealed the presence of biomass burning aerosols only during the crop

  8. Lidar Observations of Tropospheric Aerosols Over Northeastern South Africa During the ARREX and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ji, Qiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Piketh, Stuart J.; Barenbrug, Marguerite; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the ARREX-1999 and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season experiments a micropulse lidar (523 nm) instrument was operated at the Skukuza Airport in northeastern South Africa. The Mar was collocated with a diverse array of passive radiometric equipment. For SAFARI-2000 the processed Mar data yields a daytime time-series of layer mean/derived aerosol optical properties, including extinction-to-backscatter ratios and vertical extinction cross-section profile. Combined with 523 run aerosol optical depth and spectral Angstrom exponent calculations from available CIMEL sun-photometer data and normalized broadband flux measurements the temporal evolution of the near surface aerosol layer optical properties is analyzed for climatological trends. For the densest smoke/haze events the extinction-to-backscatter ratio is found to be between 60-80/sr, and corresponding Angstrom exponent calculations near and above 1.75. The optical characteristics of an evolving smoke event from SAFARI-2000 are extensively detailed. The advecting smoke was embedded within two distinct stratified thermodynamic layers, causing the particulate mass to advect over the instrument array in an incoherent manner on the afternoon of its occurrence. Surface broadband flux forcing due to the smoke is calculated, as is the evolution in the vertical aerosol extinction profile as measured by the Han Finally, observations of persistent elevated aerosol during ARREX-1999 are presented and discussed. The lack of corroborating observations the following year makes these observation; both unique and noteworthy in the scope of regional aerosol transport over southern Africa.

  9. A Survey of Airborne Observations of Biological Aerosol over the Continental United States during NASA SEAC4RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Venkateswaran, K.; Froyd, K.; Dibb, J. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Hudgins, C.; Lin, J. J.; Moore, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols play a significant role in regulating Earth's climate. Biological aerosols exist in the atmosphere in many forms including bacteria, fungal spores, pollens, viruses, and plant detritus. While laboratory studies have illustrated the potential for biological aerosol to act as efficient ice nuclei, ambient observations do not clearly show the significance of this mechanism for ice formation. Particularly lacking for assessing the role of biological aerosol on cloud processes are observations of the vertical extent of biological aerosol, especially in conjunction with strong convection as a pathway for redistributing particles from surface sources to the free troposphere. An extensive suite of instrumentation measuring aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties was deployed aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the SEAC4RS campaign (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) in August/September of 2013. Flights were focused on characterizing emissions and transport of aerosols in the Southeast United States, a region characterized by strong biogenic activity. Additionally, convection associated with the North American Monsoon and Atlantic-basin hurricanes was targeted. Airborne biological aerosol was specifically measured during SEAC4RS with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4A, Droplet Measurement Technologies). WIBS-4A utilizes a single-particle laser-induced fluorescence technique at two excitation wavelengths (280nm and 370nm) to identify biological aerosol, in addition to simultaneous determination of optical size and asymmetry factor for particles with diameter greater than 800nm. Single-particle mass spectrometry coupled with filter-based chemical composition and bacterial speciation analyses will be used to assess relationships with co-emitted mineral dusts. Vertical profiles for the background atmosphere will be compared to profiles influenced by convective storms to assess

  10. Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties at Four North American Surface Monitoring Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delene, David J.; Ogren, John A.

    2002-03-01

    Aerosol optical properties measured over several years at surface monitoring stations located at Bondville, Illinois (BND); Lamont, Oklahoma (SGP); Sable Island, Nova Scotia (WSA); and Barrow, Alaska (BRW), have been analyzed to determine the importance of the variability in aerosol optical properties to direct aerosol radiative forcing calculations. The amount of aerosol present is of primary importance and the aerosol optical properties are of secondary importance to direct aerosol radiative forcing calculations. The mean aerosol light absorption coefficient (ap) is 10 times larger and the mean aerosol scattering coefficient (sp) is 5 times larger at the anthropogenically influenced site at BND than at BRW. The aerosol optical properties of single scattering albedo (o) and hemispheric backscatter fraction (b) have variability of approximately ±3% and ±8%, respectively, in mean values among the four stations. To assess the importance of the variability in o and b on top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing calculations, the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (F/) is calculated. The F/ is defined as the aerosol forcing (F) per unit optical depth () and does not depend explicitly on the amount of aerosol present. Based on measurements at four North American stations, radiative transfer calculations that assume fixed aerosol properties can have errors of 1%-6% in the annual average forcing at the top of the atmosphere due to variations in average single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction among the sites studied. The errors increase when shorter-term variations in aerosol properties are considered; for monthly and hourly timescales, errors are expected to be greater than 8% and 15%, respectively, approximately one-third of the time. Systematic relationships exist between various aerosol optical properties [ap, o, b, F/, and Ångström exponent (å)] and the amount of aerosol present (measured by sp) that are qualitatively similar but quantitatively

  11. Monthly and seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing over Zanjan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharibzadeh, Maryam; Alam, Khan; Abedini, Yousefali; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari; Masoumi, Amir

    2017-11-01

    Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing over Zanjan in northwest of Iran has been analyzed during 2010-2013. The aerosol optical and radiative properties are less studied over Zanjan, and therefore, require a careful and in depth analysis. The optical properties like Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Ångström Exponent (AE), ASYmmetry parameter (ASY), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA), and Aerosol Volume Size Distribution (AVSD) have been evaluated using the ground-based AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. Higher AOD while relatively lower AE were observed in the spring and summer, which showed the presence of coarse mode particles in these seasons. An obvious increase of coarse mode particles in AVSD distribution, as well as a higher value of SSA represented considerable addition of coarse mode particles like dust into the atmosphere of Zanjan in these two seasons. Increase in AE, while a decrease in AOD was detected in the winter and fall. The presence of fine particles indicates the dominance of particles like urban-industrial aerosols from local sources especially in the winter. The Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model was utilized to calculate the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) at the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA), earth's surface and within the atmosphere. The annual averaged ARF values were -13.47 W m-2 and -36.1 W m-2 at the TOA and earth's surface, respectively, which indicate a significant cooling effect. Likewise, the ARF efficiencies at the TOA and earth's surface were -65.08 W m-2 and -158.43 W m-2, respectively. The annual mean atmospheric ARF and heating rate within the atmosphere were 22.63 W m-2 and 0.27 Kday-1 respectively, represented the warming effect within the atmosphere. Finally, a good agreement was found between AERONET retrieved ARF and SBDART simulated ARF.

  12. Long-term observations of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in Barbados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, Mira L.; Klimach, Thomas; Krüger, Ovid O.; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Ditas, Florian; Praß, Maria; Holanda, Bruna; Su, Hang; Weber, Bettina; Pöhlker, Christopher; Farrell, David A.; Stevens, Bjorn; Prospero, Joseph M.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Long-term observation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations has been conducted at the Ragged Point site in Barbados since August 2016. Ragged Point is a well-established station to monitor the transatlantic transport of Saharan dust outbreaks [1]. In the absence of dust plumes, it represents an ideal site to analyze the maritime boundary layer aerosol that is transported with the trade winds over the Atlantic towards Barbados [2,3]. Broad aerosol size distribution (10 nm to 10 µm) as well as size-resolved CCN measurements at 10 different supersaturations from 0.05 % to 0.84 % have been conducted. The continuous online analyses are supplemented by intensive sampling periods to probe specific aerosol properties with various offline techniques (i.e., microscopy and spectroscopy). Aerosol key properties from our measurements are compared with the continuous and in depth observation of cloud properties at Deebles Point, which is in close neighborhood to the Ragged Point site [2]. Moreover, our activities have been synchronized with the HALO-NARVAL-2 aircraft campaign in August 2016 that added further detailed information on shallow cumulus clouds, which are characteristic for the Atlantic trade winds and represent a crucial factor in the Earth climate system. Our measurements have the following two focal points: (i) We aim to obtain a detailed CCN climatology for the alternation of maritime and dust-impacted episodes at this unique coastal location. This study will complement our recent in-depth analysis for the long-term CCN variability at a remote rain forest location [4]. (ii) Furthermore, we aim to collect detailed information on the role of different aerosol populations on the properties of the climatically important shallow cumulus clouds. References: [1] Prospero, J. M., Collard, F. X., Molinie, J., Jeannot, A. (2014), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28, 757-773. [2] Stevens, B., et al. (2016), Bulletin of the American

  13. Continuous measurements of Arctic boundary layer aerosol physical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Lihavainen, H.; Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Reshetnikov, A.; Ivakhov, V.; Uttal, T.; Makshtas, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded on the shore of the Arctic Ocean, in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71_360N; 128_530E) has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol particle physical and optical properties. Measurements were initiated in summer 2010 and further extended in summer 2013. Together with the FMI measurements in Pallas GAW station in northern Finland since 1999

  14. Lidar Observations of Arctic Aerosols and Clouds in the Free Troposphere for More than Fifteen Months over Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Shiobara, M.; Takano, T.

    2015-12-01

    The information on spatial distributions and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds is crucial for the studies on their direct and indirect impacts on Arctic climate. Observations of tropospheric aerosols and clouds by Mie/depolarization lidar have been made for more than a year at Ny-Ålesund (79◌N, 12◌E) since March 2014 by using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and its wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. The backscattering coefficients at these two wavelengths, and depolarization ratio at 532nm of aerosols and clouds are obtained by the lidar observations. Figures show the results of aerosols for more than a year. Fig. 1 shows the mean backscattering coefficient of aerosols (BSC) at 532 nm, and Fig. 2 shows mean particle depolarization ratio of aerosols (PDR) at 532 nm in 1 km intervals (0.4 km for the lowest height interval) to 5 km in altitude since March 2014 to May 2015. There is a maximum in backscattering coefficient at spring as indicated by previous studies on Arctic aerosols. In addition, there is another maximum at autumn in depolarization ratio and in color ratio, or the ratio of BSC at 1064 nm to BSC at 532 nm.

  15. 3D Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Interaction Observed in Collocated MODIS and ASTER Images of Cumulus Cloud Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    3D aerosol-cloud interaction is examined by analyzing two images containing cumulus clouds in biomass burning regions in Brazil. The research consists of two parts. The first part focuses on identifying 3D clo ud impacts on the reflectance of pixel selected for the MODIS aerosol retrieval based purely on observations. The second part of the resea rch combines the observations with radiative transfer computations to identify key parameters in 3D aerosol-cloud interaction. We found that 3D cloud-induced enhancement depends on optical properties of nearb y clouds as well as wavelength. The enhancement is too large to be ig nored. Associated biased error in 1D aerosol optical thickness retrie val ranges from 50% to 140% depending on wavelength and optical prope rties of nearby clouds as well as aerosol optical thickness. We caution the community to be prudent when applying 1D approximations in comp uting solar radiation in dear regions adjacent to clouds or when usin g traditional retrieved aerosol optical thickness in aerosol indirect effect research.

  16. Improving Aerosol and Visibility Forecasting Capabilities Using Current and Future Generations of Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    accuracy of aerosol speciation in NAAPS through the use of a 3-D aerosol assimilation method on satellite-based lidar observations and a generalized...future. Evaluating MODIS collection 6 dark target over water aerosol products for multi-sensor data fusion (Shi et al. 2014: presented at the 2014 AGU...Lee, Evaluating MODIS Collection 6 Dark Target Over Water Aerosol Products for Multi-sensor Data Fusion , Abstract A21F-3093, presented at 2014 Fall

  17. Decadal-scale trends in regional aerosol particle properties and their linkage to emission changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Gu, Yu; Diner, David; Worden, John; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Xing, Jia; Garay, Michael; Huang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Understanding long-term trends in aerosol loading and properties is essential for evaluating the health and climatic effects of these airborne particulates as well as the effectiveness of pollution control policies. While many studies have used satellite data to examine the trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD), very few have investigated the trends in aerosol properties associated with particle size, morphology, and light absorption. In this study, we investigate decadal-scale (13-15 year) trends in aerosol loading and properties during 2001-2015 over three populous regions: the Eastern United States (EUS), Western Europe (WEU), and Eastern and Central China (ECC). We use observations from MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Relationships between aerosol property trends and air pollutant emission changes are examined. We find that annual mean AOD shows pronounced decreasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, as a result of considerable emission reductions in all major pollutants except for mineral dust and ammonia (NH3). Over the ECC region, AOD increases before 2006 due to emission increases induced by rapid economic development, fluctuates between 2006 and 2011, and subsequently decreases after 2011 in conjunction with effective emission reduction in anthropogenic primary aerosols, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The fraction of small-size AOD (<0.7 μm diameter), Ångstrom exponent and single-scattering albedo have generally decreased, while the fractions of large-size (>1.4 μm diameter), nonspherical and absorbing AOD have generally shown increasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, indicating that fine and light-scattering aerosol constituents have been more effectively reduced than coarse and light-absorbing constituents. These trends are consistent with the larger reduction ratios in SO2 and NOx emissions than in primary aerosols, including mineral dust and black carbon (BC

  18. Multi-wavelength Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Observations of Aerosol Above Clouds in California during DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately representing the vertical profile of aerosols is important for determining their radiative impact, which is still one of the biggest uncertainties in climate forcing. Aerosol radiative forcing can be either positive or negative depending on aerosol absorption properties and underlying albedo. Therefore, accurately characterizing the vertical distribution of aerosols, and specifically aerosols above clouds, is vital to understanding climate change. Unlike passive sensors, airborne lidar has the capability to make vertically resolved aerosol measurements of aerosols above and between clouds. Recently, NASA Langley Research Center has built and deployed the world's first airborne multi-wavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar, HSRL-2. The HSRL-2 instrument employs the HSRL technique to measure extinction at both 355 nm and 532 nm and also measures aerosol depolarization and backscatter at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, number concentration, and single scattering albedo). HSRL-2 was deployed in the San Joaquin Valley, California, from January 16 to February 6, 2013, on the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality). On February 6, the observation region was mostly cloudy, and HSRL-2 saw two distinct aerosol layers above the clouds. One layer was aged boundary-layer pollution located just above cloud top at approximately 1.5 km above sea level. An aged smoke layer was also observed over land and over the ocean at altitudes 4-7 km ASL. In this study, we will show HSRL-2 products for these cases, and compare them with airborne in situ measurements of the 1.5-km layer from a coincident flight of the NASA P3B. We will also compare and contrast the HSRL-2 measurements of these two aerosol layers with each other and the clear-air boundary

  19. MODIS Observation of Aerosols over Southern Africa During SAFARI 2000: Data, Validation, and Estimation of Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram; Remer, Lorraine; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Tanre, Didier; Levy, Robert; Li, Rong-Rong; Kleidman, Richard; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Aerosol properties, including optical thickness and size parameters, are retrieved operationally from the MODIS sensor onboard the Terra satellite launched on 18 December 1999. The predominant aerosol type over the Southern African region is smoke, which is generated from biomass burning on land and transported over the southern Atlantic Ocean. The SAFARI-2000 period experienced smoke aerosol emissions from the regular biomass burning activities as well as from the prescribed burns administered on the auspices of the experiment. The MODIS Aerosol Science Team (MAST) formulates and implements strategies for the retrieval of aerosol products from MODIS, as well as for validating and analyzing them in order to estimate aerosol effects in the radiative forcing of climate as accurately as possible. These activities are carried out not only from a global perspective, but also with a focus on specific regions identified as having interesting characteristics, such as the biomass burning phenomenon in southern Africa and the associated smoke aerosol, particulate, and trace gas emissions. Indeed, the SAFARI-2000 aerosol measurements from the ground and from aircraft, along with MODIS, provide excellent data sources for a more intensive validation and a closer study of the aerosol characteristics over Southern Africa. The SAFARI-2000 ground-based measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from both the automatic Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and handheld Sun photometers have been used to validate MODIS retrievals, based on a sophisticated spatio-temporal technique. The average global monthly distribution of aerosol from MODIS has been combined with other data to calculate the southern African aerosol daily averaged (24 hr) radiative forcing over the ocean for September 2000. It is estimated that on the average, for cloud free conditions over an area of 9 million square kin, this predominantly smoke aerosol exerts a forcing of -30 W/square m C lose to the terrestrial

  20. Observed aerosol optical depth and angstrom exponent in urban area of Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Xie, Min; Han, Yong; Zhuang, Bingliang

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties at Gulou station in Nanjing, China were measured and analyzed from April 2011 to April 2012. The annual median of aerosol optical depth (hereafter called as AOD) at 440 nm was 0.73 and the corresponding annual median of angstrom exponent (hereafter called as AE) between 440 nm and 870 nm was 1.28. The monthly median of AOD440nm presented a seasonal variation, which revealed a maximum in August (1.22) and a minimum in February (0.51), while the monthly median of AE showed a minimum in May (0.79) and a maximum in December (1.42). AOD and AE accumulated mainly between 0.40-0.90 (68%) and 1.20-1.50 (68%) respectively in Nanjing. The observation data showed that high AODs (>1.00) were clustered in the fine mode growth wing and the coarse mode. Comparison was made between two typical cases under different weather conditions and the results showed that Nanjing is influenced by the dust aerosol from Northwest China and Mongolia under dust weather in spring and the anthropogenic aerosol from local emission and surrounding industrialization region under haze weather.

  1. Effect of sea breeze circulation on aerosol mixing state and radiative properties in a desert setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derimian, Yevgeny; Choël, Marie; Rudich, Yinon; Deboudt, Karine; Dubovik, Oleg; Laskin, Alexander; Legrand, Michel; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Koren, Ilan; Unga, Florin; Moreau, Myriam; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Karnieli, Arnon

    2017-09-01

    Chemical composition, microphysical, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel are found to be influenced by daily occurrences of sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Abrupt increases in aerosol volume concentration and shifts of size distributions towards larger sizes, which are associated with increase in wind speed and atmospheric water content, were systematically recorded during the summertime at a distance of at least 80 km from the coast. Chemical imaging of aerosol samples showed an increased contribution of highly hygroscopic particles during the intrusion of the sea breeze. Besides a significant fraction of marine aerosols, the amount of internally mixed marine and mineral dust particles was also increased during the sea breeze period. The number fraction of marine and internally mixed particles during the sea breeze reached up to 88 % in the PM1-2. 5 and up to 62 % in the PM2. 5-10 size range. Additionally, numerous particles with residuals of liquid coating were observed by SEM/EDX analysis. Ca-rich dust particles that had reacted with anthropogenic nitrates were evidenced by Raman microspectroscopy. The resulting hygroscopic particles can deliquesce at very low relative humidity. Our observations suggest that aerosol hygroscopic growth in the Negev Desert is induced by the daily sea breeze arrival. The varying aerosol microphysical and optical characteristics perturb the solar and thermal infrared radiations. The changes in aerosol properties induced by the sea breeze, relative to the background situation, doubled the shortwave radiative cooling at the surface (from -10 to -20.5 W m-2) and increased by almost 3 times the warming of the atmosphere (from 5 to 14 W m-2), as evaluated for a case study. Given the important value of observed liquid coating of particles, we also examined the possible influence of the particle homogeneity assumption on the retrieval of aerosol microphysical characteristics

  2. Climatological aspects of aerosol optical properties in North China Plain based on ground and satellite remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiangao; Chen, Hongbin; Goloub, Philippe; Zong, Xuemei; Zhang, Wenxing; Wang, Pucai

    2013-09-01

    Aerosol data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) recorded during the new millennium were used to investigate the spatio-temporal variation of aerosol optical properties in the North China Plain (114-120°E; 34.5-41°N). The external linear mixing of both fine and coarse mode components dominated variations of the refractive index and the single scattering albedo (ω) in spring and winter when the fine mode fraction (FMF) was <0.6-0.7. The effective radius of fine mode component increased rapidly with FMF in every season when FMF exceeded ˜0.6-0.7, and thereby when ω increased significantly. With the exception of dust cases, aerosols resembled the mixed category in every season except summer; summer aerosols resembled the industry/urban category. The aerosol layer height was observed to be 2-3 km in summer; however, aerosols were trapped below 1-2 km in fall and winter. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by the MODIS was in good agreement with the AERONET AOD (R>0.80). The MODIS tended to overestimate AOD in spring and summer. This feature was most prominent at 660 nm; therefore, MODIS Ångström exponents were poorly derived. A strong correlation (R>0.7) between the AERONET AODs in Beijing and the MODIS level 2.0 pixel AODs persisted for a large and strongly anisotropic area of ˜17,000 km2 in winter to ˜100,000 km2 in fall, indicating that the aerosol pollution is regional in nature. A decreasing trend was derived for the AERONET and MODIS AOD data, although no trends were significant. Further understanding of the seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties in this polluted region would help to improve satellite aerosol retrieval and to promote regional climate change research.

  3. Identification of aerosol types over Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to optical properties and associated radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, A K; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2015-08-01

    The aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are a mixture of sulfate, dust, black carbon, and other soluble and insoluble components. It is a challenge not only to identify these various aerosol types, but also to assess the optical and radiative implications of these components. In the present study, appropriate thresholds for fine-mode fraction and single-scattering albedo have been used to first identify the aerosol types over IGB. Four major aerosol types may be identified as polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), black carbon-enriched (BCE), and organic carbon-enriched (OCE). Further, the implications of these different types of aerosols on optical properties and radiative forcing have been studied. The aerosol products derived from CIMEL sun/sky radiometer measurements, deployed under Aerosol Robotic Network program of NASA, USA were used from four different sites Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, spread over Pakistan and Northern India. PD is the most dominant aerosol type at Karachi and Jaipur, contributing more than 50% of all the aerosol types. OCE, on the other hand, contributes only about 12-15% at all the stations except at Kanpur where its contribution is ∼38%. The spectral dependence of AOD was relatively low for PD aerosol type, with the lowest AE values (<0.5); whereas, large spectral dependence in AOD was observed for the remaining aerosol types, with the highest AE values (>1.0). SSA was found to be the highest for OCE (>0.9) and the lowest for BCE (<0.9) type aerosols, with drastically different spectral variability. The direct aerosol radiative forcing at the surface and in the atmosphere was found to be the maximum at Lahore among all the four stations in the IGB.

  4. Information Content of Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements: Polarimetric vs Intensity- Only Retrieval of Aerosol Radiative Properties and Surface Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacis, A. A.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Cairns, B.

    2008-12-01

    Despite extensive global studies and analyses, accurate knowledge of aerosol optical depth, particle size, and composition remains remarkably elusive. A similar lack of accuracy also exists for the spectral characterization of land, vegetation, and ocean albedo. Both dilemmas appear to have a common cause, and a common solution - and the cause is not inadequate calibration. The problem is that both aerosol and the land surface contribute comparable amounts of scattered radiation to TOA observed intensity. In spectral intensity space, both aerosols and the land surface have relatively bland spectral signatures which are difficult to separate without making ad hoc assumptions, either about the radiative properties of the aerosol, or the spectral dependence of the surface albedo. Thanks to basic physics, polarimetric reflectivity of natural surfaces such as bare soil, vegetation, water, or snow is spectrally gray, although these surfaces do exhibit significant polarization dependence on the viewing geometry and solar illumination. This characteristic of typical surface properties can be exploited to permit accurate, and simultaneous, retrieval of aerosol radiative properties and surface albedo. We describe in-depth analyses of aerosol radiative property retrievals based on current satellite algorithms, and provide recommendations to improve remote sensing retrievals of aerosol radiative properties and land surface spectral albedo.

  5. Combining Passive Polarimetric and Lidar Observations from TCAP to Vertically Partition a Multi-Modal Aerosol Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, B.; Ottaviani, M.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Chowdhary, J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Mack, T. L.; Hare, R. J.; Cleckner, C. S.; Rogers, R.; Mueller, D.; Burton, S. P.; Obland, M. D.; Scarino, A. J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    The first airborne deployment associated with the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign was carried out on Cape Cod, Massachusetts during July 2012 using the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G-1) and the NASA Langley B200. The first column located on Cape Cod has the surface based ARM Mobile Facility, which measures aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics, as its anchor point. The second column, 200 km to the East, was chosen to facilitate characterization of the large gradient of AOD near the coast of New England. The G-1 was equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to measure the size, composition and optics of aerosols, together with spectral Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) above the aircraft using the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research. The G1 generally flew at low altitude except when profiling the two columns. The B200, flew at ~ 9 km, above the G1, and operated the world's first airborne three backscatter (355, 532 and 1064 nm) and two extinction (355 and 532 nm) channel high-spectral-resolution lidar, HSRL-2 and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), which provides multi-angle multi-spectral observations of the intensity and polarization over a spectral range from 410 to 2260 nm. The TCAP measurements are ideal for remote sensing of aerosols since a dark ocean allows the full power of the passive intensity and polarization observations to be explored. RSP observations over the ocean have previously been used to retrieve the AOD, particle size and complex refractive index of aerosols, but it was noted that the vertical distribution of the aerosols could affect the accuracy of the retrieval. In this paper we combine HSRL-2 and RSP data to retrieve and partition a multi-modal aerosol model through the column. The lidar intensive variables (ratios of the lidar observations) that do not depend on aerosol load are used to constrain the microphysics of the aerosol modes. Where the classification technique presented

  6. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    region compared with the Rainforest environment. This was reflected in the single scattering albedo of the regional smoke haze, with values of 0.9 observed in the Rainforest environments compared with a value of 0.8 in the Cerrado region. This contrast results in a net cooling and warming respectively in terms of the aerosol direct radiative effect. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, with little evidence for additional coating upon advection and dilution. This is consistent with organic aerosol mass being approximately constant when accounting for dilution both close to source and on the regional scale. However, the bulk organic aerosol composition became increasingly oxidised with distance from source. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts. Biomass burning layers were observed aloft in the free troposphere, which has potential implications for atmospheric stability profiles and cloud formation. The results presented enhance our knowledge of biomass burning aerosol in a sensitive region of the globe, where relatively few measurement campaigns have taken place previously.

  7. MODIS Aerosol Observations used to Constrain Dust Distributions and Lifecycle in the NASA GEOS-5 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, P.; Nowottnick, E.; daSilva, A.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 240 Tg of mineral dust aerosol are transported annually from Saharan Africa to the Atlantic Ocean. Dust affects the Earth radiation budget, and plays direct (through scattering and absorption of radiation) and indirect (through modification of cloud properties and environment) roles in climate. Deposition of dust to the surface provides an important nutrient source to terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. Dust is additionally a contributor to adverse air quality. Among the tools toward understanding the lifecycle and impacts of mineral dust aerosols are numerical models. Important constraints on these models come from quantitative satellite observations, like those from the space-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In particular, Kauhan et al. [2005] used MODIS aerosol observations to infer transport and deposition fluxes of Saharan dust over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Amazonian basins. Those observations are used here to constrain the transport of dust and its interannual variability simulated in the NASA GEOS-5 general circulation model and data assimilation system. Significant uncertainty exists in the MODIS-derived fluxes, however, due to uncertainty in the wind fields provided by meteorological analyses in this region. That same uncertainty in the wind fields is manifest in our GEOS-5 simulations of dust distributions. Here we use MODIS observations to investigate the seasonality and location of the Saharan dust plume and explore through sensitivity analysis of our model the meteorological controls on the dust distribution, including dust direct radiative effects and sub-gridscale source and sink processes.

  8. Inferring Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Exponent using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Jethva, H. T.; Ahn, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellite-based method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols are present above clouds. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud top is attenuated by the absorption effects of the overlying aerosol layer. This attenuation effect can be described using an approximations of Beer's Law. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud-top in an aerosol-free atmospheric column is mainly a function of cloud optical depth (COD). In the proposed method of AAE derivation, the first step is determining COD which is retrieved using a previously developed color-ratio based approach. In the second step, the spectral AAOD is derived by an inversion of the measured spectral reflectance. The proposed technique will be discussed and application results making use of OMI multi-spectral measurements in the UV-Vis. will be presented.

  9. Investigation of the seasonal variations of aerosol physicochemical properties and their impact on cloud condensation nuclei number concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Timothy S.

    Aerosols are among the most complex yet widely studied components of the atmosphere not only due to the seasonal variability of their physical and chemical properties but also their effects on climate change. The three main aerosol types that are known to affect the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere are: mineral dust, anthropogenic pollution, and biomass burning aerosols. In order to understand how these aerosols affect the atmosphere, this dissertation addresses the following three scientific questions through a combination of surface and satellite observations: SQ1: What are the seasonal and regional variations of aerosol physico-chemical properties at four selected Asian sites? SQ2: How do these aerosol properties change during transpacific and intra-continental long range transport? SQ3: What are the impacts of aerosol properties on marine boundary layer cloud condensation nuclei number concentration? This dissertation uses an innovative approach to classify aerosol properties by region and season to address SQ1. This is useful because this method provides an additional dimension when investigating the physico-chemical properties of aerosols by linking a regional and seasonal dependence to both the aerosol direct and indirect effects. This method involves isolating the aerosol physico-chemical properties into four separate regions using AERONET retrieved Angstrom exponent (AEAOD) and single scattering co-albedo (o oabs) to denote aerosol size and absorptive properties. The aerosols events are then clustered by season. The method is first applied to four AERONET sites representing single mode aerosol dominant regions: weakly absorbing pollution (NASA Goddard), strongly absorbing pollution (Mexico City), mineral dust (Solar Village), and biomass burning smoke (Alta Floresta). The method is then applied to four Asian sites that represent complicated aerosol components. There are strong regional and seasonal influences of the four aerosol types over the

  10. Development of 2-D-MAX-DOAS and retrievals of trace gases and aerosols optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan

    Air pollution is a major problem worldwide that adversely a_ects human health, impacts ecosystems and climate. In the atmosphere, there are hundreds of important compounds participating in complex atmospheric reactions linked to air quality and climate. Aerosols are relevant because they modify the radiation balance, a_ect clouds, and thus Earth albedo. The amount of aerosol is often characterized by the vertical integral through the entire height of the atmosphere of the logarithm fraction of incident light that is extinguished called Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The AOD at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is 0.19 (multi annual global mean), and that over oceans is 0.13. About 43 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions, sample spatial scales that resemble satellite ground-pixels and atmospheric models, and help integrate remote sensing and in-situ observations to obtain optical closure on the effects of aerosols and trace gases in our changing environment. In this work, I present the recent development of the University of Colorado two dimensional (2-D) Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure the azimuth and altitude distribution of trace gases and aerosol optical properties simultaneously with a single instrument. The instrument measures solar scattered light from any direction in the sky, including direct sun light in the hyperspectral domain. In Chapter 2, I describe the capabilities of 2-D measurements in the context of retrievals of azimuth distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), and glyoxal (CHOCHO), which are precursors for tropospheric O3 and aerosols. The measurements were carried out during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign in Mainz, Germany and show the ability to bridge spatial scales to

  11. Ensemble-Based Assimilation of Aerosol Observations in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    MERRA-2 is the latest Aerosol Reanalysis produced at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO) from 1979 to present. This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled to GOCART aerosols and includes assimilation of bias corrected Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from AVHRR over ocean, MODIS sensors on both Terra and Aqua satellites, MISR over bright surfaces and AERONET data. In order to assimilate lidar profiles of aerosols, we are updating the aerosol component of our assimilation system to an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) type of scheme using ensembles generated routinely by the meteorological assimilation. Following the work performed with the first NASA's aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero), we first validate the vertical structure of MERRA-2 aerosol assimilated fields using CALIOP data over regions of particular interest during 2008.

  12. Observationally Constrained Estimates of Aerosol Indirect and Semi-direct Radiative forcing over Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S.; Dey, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be the one of the largest sources of uncertainty in quantifying the aerosol climate forcing (IPCC, 2013). Most of the studies on aerosol-cloud climate interaction over Indian Ocean (like INDOEX, CAIPEEX campaign etc.) are limited to either one particular season or a particular region. Here we developed a theoretical framework to quantify aerosol indirect radiative forcing using MODIS aerosol and cloud products of 15 years (2000-2015) period over the Indian Ocean. This framework relies on the observationally constrained estimate of aerosol-induced change in cloud albedo We partitioned the change in cloud albedo into change in cloud water path (CWP) and effective radius of clouds (Reff) in response to an aerosol optical depth (ta). Cloud albedo response to an increase in ta is most sensitive in the range of CWP between 120-300 gm/m2 for a range of Reff varying from 8-24 mm. Using this framework, aerosol forcing during a transition from indirect to semi-direct effect is calculated. The analysis shows best outputs over the Arabian Sea in comparison with Bay of Bengal and the South Indian Ocean. The results provide observationally constrained estimates of aerosol indirect and semi-direct forcing in the Indian Ocean which can be helpful in evaluating the climate model performance in context of such complex interactions. Keywords: Aerosol-cloud interaction, Aerosol-cloud climate interaction, semi-direct effect, aerosol Indirect effect, Radiative forcing.

  13. Long term measurements of aerosol optical properties at a pristine forest site in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Artaxo, P.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Paixão, M.; Cirino, G. G.; Arana, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Fors, E. O.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Leal, L. S. M.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-09-01

    A long term experiment was conducted in a pristine area in the Amazon forest, with continuous in situ measurements of aerosol optical properties between February 2008 and April 2011, comprising, to our knowledge, the longest database ever in Amazonia. Two types of aerosol particles, with significantly different optical properties were identified: coarse mode predominant biogenic aerosols in the wet season (January-June), naturally released by the forest metabolism, and fine mode dominated biomass burning aerosols in the dry season (July-December), transported from regional fires. Dry particle median scattering coefficients at the wavelength of 550 nm increased from 6.3 Mm-1 to 22 Mm-1, whereas absorption at 637 nm increased from 0.5 Mm-1 to 2.8 Mm-1 from wet to dry season. Most of the scattering in the dry season was attributed to the predominance of fine mode particles (40-80% of PM10 mass), while the enhanced absorption coefficients are attributed to the presence of light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning. As both scattering and absorption increased in the dry season, the single scattering albedo (SSA) did not show a significant seasonal variability, in average 0.86 ± 0.08 at 637 nm for dry particles. Measured particle optical properties were used to estimate the aerosol forcing efficiency at the top of the atmosphere. Results indicate that in this pristine forest site the radiative balance was dominated by the cloud cover, or, in other words, the aerosol indirect effect predominated over the direct effect, particularly in the wet season. Due to the high cloud fractions, the aerosol forcing efficiency was below -3.5 W m-2 in 70% of the wet season days and in 46% of the dry season days. These values are lower than the ones reported in the literature, which are based on remote sensing data. Besides the seasonal variation, the influence of external aerosol sources was observed occasionally. Periods of influence of the Manaus urban plume were detected

  14. Long term measurements of aerosol optical properties at a primary forest site in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Artaxo, P.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Paixão, M.; Cirino, G. G.; Arana, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Fors, E. O.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Leal, L. S. M.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-03-01

    A long term experiment was conducted in a primary forest area in Amazonia, with continuous in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties between February 2008 and April 2011, comprising, to our knowledge, the longest database ever in the Amazon Basin. Two major classes of aerosol particles, with significantly different optical properties were identified: coarse mode predominant biogenic aerosols in the wet season (January-June), naturally released by the forest metabolism, and fine mode dominated biomass burning aerosols in the dry season (July-December), transported from regional fires. Dry particle median scattering coefficients at the wavelength of 550 nm increased from 6.3 Mm-1 to 22 Mm-1, whereas absorption at 637 nm increased from 0.5 Mm-1 to 2.8 Mm-1 from wet to dry season. Most of the scattering in the dry season was attributed to the predominance of fine mode (PM2) particles (40-80% of PM10 mass), while the enhanced absorption coefficients are attributed to the presence of light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning. As both scattering and absorption increased in the dry season, the single scattering albedo (SSA) did not show a significant seasonal variability, in average 0.86 ± 0.08 at 637 nm for dry aerosols. Measured particle optical properties were used to estimate the aerosol forcing efficiency at the top of the atmosphere. Results indicate that in this primary forest site the radiative balance was dominated by the cloud cover, particularly in the wet season. Due to the high cloud fractions, the aerosol forcing efficiency absolute values were below -3.5 W m-2 in 70% of the wet season days and in 46% of the dry season days. Besides the seasonal variation, the influence of out-of-Basin aerosol sources was observed occasionally. Periods of influence of the Manaus urban plume were detected, characterized by a consistent increase on particle scattering (factor 2.5) and absorption coefficients (factor 5). Episodes of biomass burning and mineral dust

  15. Mixing State and Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosol during the SAMBBA 2012 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Jennifer; Brooks, Barbara; McQuaid, Jim; Osborne, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of black carbon are a global phenomenon associated with combustion activities with an estimated 40 % of global emissions from biomass burning. These emissions are typically dominated in regional hotspots, such as along the edges of the Amazon Basin, and contribute to the regional air quality and have associated health impacts as well as the global climatic impacts of this major source of black carbon as well as other radiatively active species. New airborne measurements will be presented of biomass burning emissions across the Amazon region from the South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) campaign based at Porto Vehlo, Rondônia, Brazil in September 2012. This airborne campaign aboard the FAAM BAe-146 coincided with the seasonal peak in South American biomass burning emissions, which make up the most dominant source of atmospheric pollutants in the region at this time. SAMBBA included dedicated flights involving in-situ measurements and remote sensing of single plume studies through to multi-plume sampling of smouldering and flaming vegetation fires, regional haze sampling, and measurements of biogenic aerosol and gases across Amazonas. This presentation summarises early findings from the SAMBBA aircraft observations focusing on the relationship between biomass burning aerosol properties; size distributions, aerosol mixing state and optical properties from a suite of instruments onboard the FAAM BAe-146. The interplay of these properties influences the regional radiative balance impacting on weather and climate. The Leeds airborne VACC (Volatile Aerosol Concentration and Composition) instrument is designed to investigate the volatility properties of different aerosol species in order to determine aerosol composition; furthermore it can be used to infer the mixing state of the aerosol. Size distributions measured with the volatility system will be compared with ambient size distribution measurements this allows information on organic coating

  16. Sensitivity of Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations to Aerosol Sphericity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; West, Robert; McDonald, Duncan; Rheingans, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Multi-angle, multi-spectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), can distinguish spherical from non-spherical particles over calm ocean for mineral-dust-like particles with the range of sizes and column amounts expected under natural conditions. The ability to make such distinctions is critical if remote sensing of atmospheric aerosol properties is to provide significant new contributions to our understanding of the global-scale, clear-sky solar radiation balance.

  17. A COMPARISON OF CMAQ-BASED AEROSOL PROPERTIES WITH IMPROVE, MODIS, AND AERONET DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare select aerosol Properties derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model-simulated aerosol mass concentrations with routine data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer...

  18. Multi-peak accumulation and coarse modes observed from AERONET retrieved aerosol volume size distribution in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yuhuan; Chen, Yu; Cuesta, Juan; Ma, Yan

    2016-08-01

    We present characteristic peaks of atmospheric columnar aerosol volume size distribution retrieved from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) ground-based Sun-sky radiometer observation, and their correlations with aerosol optical properties and meteorological conditions in Beijing over 2013. The results show that the aerosol volume particle size distribution (VPSD) can be decomposed into up to four characteristic peaks, located in accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. The mean center radii of extra peaks in accumulation and coarse modes locate around 0.28 (±0.09) to 0.38 (±0.11) and 1.25 (±0.56) to 1.47 (±0.30) μm, respectively. The multi-peak size distributions are found in different aerosol loading conditions, with the mean aerosol optical depth (440 nm) of 0.58, 0.49, 1.18 and 1.04 for 2-, 3-I/II and 4-peak VPSD types, while the correspondingly mean relative humidity values are 58, 54, 72 and 67 %, respectively. The results also show the significant increase (from 0.25 to 0.40 μm) of the mean extra peak median radius in the accumulation mode for the 3-peak-II cases, which agrees with aerosol hygroscopic growth related to relative humidity and/or cloud or fog processing.

  19. Derivation of stratospheric aerosol properties from the ORA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, F.; Fussen, D.

    The solar Occultation RAdiometer (ORA) is a seven broadband channel instrument working in the UV to near-IR range, that was launched in 1992 on board the EUropean REtrievable CArrier for a 1-year mission. About 7000 orbital occultations of the Sun have been recorded and processed through vertical and spectral inversions. Starting from the wavelength dependence of the retrieved aerosol extinction coefficient, properties of particle size distribution have been derived within the frame of the Mie theory, with a vertical regularization. The inversion algorithm will be presented as well as important results about the time evolution of stratospheric aerosols in the post-Pinatubo period. Global profiles of particle size distribution properties will be presented and interpreted.

  20. Aerosol optical properties over the midcontinental United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Markham, Brian L.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Aro, Theo. O.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and sky radiation measurements were analyzed to obtain aerosol properties such as the optical thickness and the size distribution. The measurements were conducted as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment during the second intensive field campaign (IFC) from June 25 to July 14, 1987, and the fifth IFC from July 25 to August 12, 1989, on the Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. Correlations with climatological and meteorological parameters show that during the period of observations in 1987, two types of air masses dominated the area: an air mass with low optical thickness and low temperature air associated with a northerly breeze, commonly referred to as the continental air, and an air mass with a higher optical thickness and higher temperature air associated with a southerly wind which we call 'Gulf air'. The size distributions show a predominance of the larger size particles in 'Gulf air'. Because of the presence of two contrasting air masses, correlations with parameters such as relative humidity, specific humidity, pressure, temperature, and North Star sky radiance reveal some interesting aspects. In 1989, clear distinctions between continental and Gulf air cannot be made; the reason for this will be discussed.

  1. Aerosol Properties Changes of Northeast Asia due to a Severe Dust Storm in April 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li; Wang, Shupeng; Yu, Tao; Gu, Xingfa; Zhang, Xingying; Wang, Weihe; Ren, Suling

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on analyzing the aerosol properties changes due to the dust storm named as "China's Great Wall of Dust" oriented from Taklimakan desert in April, 2014. Dust identification IDDI (Infrared Difference Dust Index) images from FY-2E and true color composite images from FY-3C MERSI (Medium Resolution Spectral Imager) show the breakout and transport of the dust storm.From 4-day forward air mass trajectories, the dusty air masses were mostly transported within the lower boundary layer(<3km) over the Northwest China on April 23rd and April 24th, however they were progressively increasing in altitude to above 5km above the surface when they reached the central part of north China region (32°N-42°N; 105°E-123°E). 3-hourly data records at surface stations suggest that anticyclonic circulation occupying southern Xinjiang basin and cyclonic circulation maintaining in Mongolia formed the typical Synoptic condition which leaded to the strong dust storm. Aerosol Index (AI) results of TOU (Total Ozone Unit) aboard FY-3B are first developed and used in studying the affected areas due to the dust storm. The retrieved aerosol indexes show sensitivity to the dust particles. The dust affected areas agree with the synoptic meteorological condition analysis, which prove the synoptic meteorological condition is the main reason for the break out and transport of the dust storm. Anomalies of the average MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) distributions over Northeast Asia during the dust storm to the average of that in April between 2010-2014 show high aerosol loading due to the dust storm. Compared with the 5-year average AOD in April, aerosol loading during this dust storm was much higher, with AOD values at 550nm up to 2.9 observed over the northwest China.The dust storm also brought different change in the aerosol microphysical properties between Beijing and Dalanzadgad. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals

  2. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over Central Illinois and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-07-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over Eastern and Central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. The primary profile location was within 10 km of the NOAA/ESRL surface aerosol monitoring station near Bondville, Illinois. Identical instruments at the surface and on the aircraft ensured that the data from both platforms would be directly comparable and permitted a determination of how representative surface aerosol properties were of the lower column. Aircraft profiles were also conducted occasionally at two other nearby locations to increase the frequency of A-Train satellite underflights for the purpose of comparing in situ and satellite-retrieved aerosol data. Measurements over the Bondville site compare well with the surface aerosol data and do not indicate any major sampling issues or that the aerosol is radically different at the surface compared with the lowest flyby altitude of ~240 m a.g.l. Statistical analyses of the in situ vertical profile data indicate that aerosol loading (e.g. light scattering and absorption) decreases substantially with increasing altitude. Parameters related to the nature of the aerosol (e.g. single-scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, etc.), however, are relatively constant throughout the mixed layer, and do not vary as much as the aerosol amount throughout the profile. While individual profiles often showed more variability, the median in situ single-scattering albedo was 0.93-0.95 for all sampled altitudes. Several parameters (e.g. submicrometer scattering fraction, hemispheric backscattering fraction, and scattering Ångström exponent) suggest that the fraction of smaller particles in the aerosol is larger near the

  3. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, I. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Petelina, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of clouds, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can form and grow, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS), we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the Southern and Northern Polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high in the lower stratosphere during the extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to discuss possible production of stratospheric aerosols under the influence of cosmic ray induced ionization. The observed effect is marginally detectable for the analyzed severe SEP event and can be undetectable for the majority of weak-moderate events. The present

  4. Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

    2013-05-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from

  5. Studing Taklamakan aerosol properties with Lidar (STAPL)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By now, the global impacts of atmospheric dust have been well-established. Nevertheless, relevant properties such as size distribution, depolarization ratio, and even single-scattering albedo have been shown to vary substantially between dust producing regions and are also strongly dependent on the ...

  6. Effects of Evolving Size Distributions on Biomass Burning Aerosol Properties in Southern Africa Smoke Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichuk, R. I.; Toon, O. B.; Colarco, P. R.; Smith, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the importance of aerosol optical properties when employing a realistic smoke aerosol size distribution in an offline three-dimensional chemical transport model used to simulate the evolution of smoke aerosols from biomass burning fires. Our model is driven by assimilated meteorology from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and is initialized with measurements collected during the Southern African Aerosol Regional Science Initiative campaign (SAFARI 2000). The model uses a bin representation of a smoke aerosol size distribution and allows aerosols to age by coagulation and hydration. We consider two cases for our simulation: one in which we transport an aerosol particle size distribution that evolves by coagulation and hydration, and another in which we simply transport the mass of the aerosol species and assume its optical properties. The smoke aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo at 500 nm were calculated from the model results for both of these cases and compared to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index, the MODIS aerosol optical thickness, and the aerosol optical thickness, particle size distribution, and single scattering albedo retrieved from Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) sun/sky photometers. The results from this study will be useful in future applications relating to the optical properties of evolving smoke aerosols from biomass burning fires.

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Biogenic Aerosol Precursor Emissions and Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, D.; Feichter, J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.

    2008-12-01

    The coupling between climate and biogeochemical processes remains an area where considerable progress remains to be made in order to advance our understanding the interactions between the many components of the global climate system. Among these many processes, the emission of aerosol precursor gases from plants has been the subject of extensive study over the past two decades. Many studies have shown that emission of identified precursors from plants - in particular, isoprene and monoterpenes - is sensitive to ambient temperature, as well as, at least in the case of isoprene, to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). These dependencies are accounted for in several models of biogenic emissions, and such models have been deployed within global climate models to generate present-day and future estimates of biogenic precursor emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Several such studies indicate a large increase in future emissions and SOA burden, due to the observed sharp increase of emissions with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the hypothesis has been advanced that such an increase can constitute a negative feedback in a warming climate, through the cooling effect of organic aerosols. However, evidence has emerged that biogenic precursor emission is also negatively correlated to CO2 concentration. In this study, two model climates, one representative of present conditions, the other of a warmer, high-CO2 climate, are used to study biogenic emissions and the resulting aerosol forcing. For emission modeling, we apply both the well-known MEGAN emission model embedded in the global aerosol/climate model ECHAM5/HAM (which can take account of temperature and PAR variations), and the dynamic vegation model LPJ-GUESS, which can, in addition, account for CO2 dependency. Results indicate that CO2 inhibition of biogenic emission maay significantly dampen, or even reverse the sign of, this biospheric climate feedback mechanism.

  8. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Above Clouds from OMI Observations: Sensitivity Analysis, Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol load reaching the free troposphere is frequently located above low clouds. Most commonly observed aerosols above clouds are carbonaceous particles generally associated with biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and mineral aerosols originated in arid and semi-arid regions and transported across large distances, often above clouds. Because these aerosols absorb solar radiation, their role in the radiative transfer balance of the earth atmosphere system is especially important. The generally negative (cooling) top of the atmosphere direct effect of absorbing aerosols, may turn into warming when the light-absorbing particles are located above clouds. The actual effect depends on the aerosol load and the single scattering albedo, and on the geometric cloud fraction. In spite of its potential significance, the role of aerosols above clouds is not adequately accounted for in the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing effects due to the lack of measurements. In this paper we discuss the basis of a simple technique that uses near-UV observations to simultaneously derive the optical depth of both the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud for overcast conditions. The two-parameter retrieval method described here makes use of the UV aerosol index and reflectance measurements at 388 nm. A detailed sensitivity analysis indicates that the measured radiances depend mainly on the aerosol absorption exponent and aerosol-cloud separation. The technique was applied to above-cloud aerosol events over the Southern Atlantic Ocean yielding realistic results as indicated by indirect evaluation methods. An error analysis indicates that for typical overcast cloudy conditions and aerosol loads, the aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 54% whereas the cloud optical depth can be derived within 17% of the true value.

  9. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Based on Combined A-Train Observations: Towards All-sky Estimates and Attribution to Aerosol Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; Burton, S.; Livingston, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We describe a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) measurements for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Initial calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals compare well with over-ocean and top of the atmosphere IPCC-2007 model-based results, and with more recent assessments in the "Climate Change Science Program Report: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts" (2009). We discuss some of the challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed. We also discuss a methodology for using the multi-sensor aerosol retrievals for aerosol type classification based on advanced clustering techniques. The combination of research results permits conclusions regarding the attribution of aerosol radiative forcing to aerosol type.

  10. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) Investigating the OMI Aerosol Products Using Simulated Aerosol and Atmospheric Fields from the NASA GEOS-5 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colarco, P. R.; Gasso, S.; Jethva, H. T.; Buchard, V.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; daSilva, A.

    2016-12-01

    Output from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model is used to simulate the top-of-atmosphere 354 and 388 nm radiances observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura spacecraft. The principle purpose of developing this simulator tool is to compute from the modeled fields the so-called OMI Aerosol Index (AI), which is a more fundamental retrieval product than higher level products such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD) or absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD). This lays the groundwork for eventually developing a capability to assimilate either the OMI AI or its radiances, which would provide further constraint on aerosol loading and absorption properties for global models. We extend the use of the simulator capability to understand the nature of the OMI aerosol retrieval algorithms themselves in an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). The simulated radiances are used to calculate the AI from the modeled fields. These radiances are also provided to the OMI aerosol algorithms, which return their own retrievals of the AI, AOD, and AAOD. Our assessment reveals that the OMI-retrieved AI can be mostly harmonized with the model-derived AI given the same radiances provided a common surface pressure field is assumed. This is important because the operational OMI algorithms presently assume a fixed pressure field, while the contribution of molecular scattering to the actual OMI signal in fact responds to the actual atmospheric pressure profile, which is accounted for in our OSSE by using GEOS-5 produced atmospheric reanalyses. Other differences between the model and OMI AI are discussed, and we present a preliminary assessment of the OMI AOD and AAOD products with respect to the known inputs from the GEOS-5 simulation.

  11. Retrieval of tropospheric aerosol properties over land from visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance: Application over Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Robert Carroll

    Aerosols are major components of the Earth's global climate system, affecting the radiation budget and cloud processes of the atmosphere. When located near the surface, high concentrations lead to lowered visibility, increased health problems and generally reduced quality of life for the human population. Over the United States mid-Atlantic region, aerosol pollution is a problem mainly during the summer. Satellites, such as the MODerate Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), from their vantage point above the atmosphere, provide unprecedented coverage of global and regional aerosols over land. During MODIS' eight-year operation, exhaustive data validation and analyses have shown how the algorithm should be improved. This dissertation describes the development of the 'second-generation' operational algorithm for retrieval of global tropospheric aerosol properties over dark land surfaces, from MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. New understanding about global aerosol properties, land surface reflectance characteristics, and radiative transfer properties were learned in the process. This new operational algorithm performs a simultaneous inversion of reflectance in two visible channels (0.47 and 0.66 mum) and one shortwave infrared channel (2.12 mum), thereby having increased sensitivity to coarse aerosol. Inversion of the three channels retrieves the aerosol optical depth (tau) at 0.55 mum, the percentage of non-dust (fine model) aerosol (eta) and the surface reflectance. This algorithm is applied globally, and retrieves tau that is highly correlated (y = 0.02 + 1.0x, R=0.9) with ground-based sunphotometer measurements. The new algorithm estimates the global, over-land, long-term averaged tau ˜ 0.21, a 25% reduction from previous MODIS estimates. This leads to reducing estimates of global, non-desert, over-land aerosol direct radiative effect (all aerosols) by 1.7 W·m-2 (0.5 W·m-2 over the entire globe), which significantly impacts assessment of aerosol direct radiative

  12. Optical properties of aerosols in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorov, Yu. V.; Keller, H. U.; Rodin, A. V.

    2008-04-01

    In the frame of fractal modeling of tholin aggregates we made a systematic analysis of their optical properties. Ballistic particle-cluster aggregation (BPCA) and diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) of spherical primary particles (monomers) identical in material composition were considered. Aggregates composed of identical particles (monodisperse cluster), as well as of size-distributed particles (polydisperse cluster), were simulated. To calculate the light-scattering models, the code based on the superposition T-matrix method is used. Orientationally averaged properties of light scattering by model particles were extracted, and the normalized phase function and the degree of linear polarization were calculated as functions of scattering angle. We concluded that: (a) aggregation mechanism as well as specific internal structure of the clusters play only a minor role, and for the future it is not necessary to investigate aggregates of different types; (b) the intensity is very sensitive both to the size parameter of forming particles x and to the size parameter of the aggregates X; (c) characterization of the aggregates by the number of monomers is insufficient to retrieve physical properties of aggregates from optical measurement; and (d) it is very desirable to include into the analysis polarization data calculated for the different clusters.

  13. Optical and radiative properties of aerosols over Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Romdhane, Haifa Ben; Ali, Mohammed Tauha; Armstrong, Peter; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-12-01

    The present study is on the aerosol optical and radiative properties in the short-wave radiation and its climate implications at the arid city of Abu Dhabi (24.42 ∘N, 54.61 ∘E, 4.5 m MSL), in the United Arab Emirates. The direct aerosol radiative forcings (ARF) in the short-wave region at the top (TOA) and bottom of the atmosphere (BOA) are estimated using a hybrid approach, making use of discrete ordinate radiative transfer method in conjunction with the short-wave flux and spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, over a period of 3 years (June 2012-July 2015), at Abu Dhabi located at the south-west coast of the Arabian Gulf. The inferred microphysical properties of aerosols at the measurement site indicate strong seasonal variations from the dominance of coarse mode mineral dust aerosols during spring (March-May) and summer (June-September), to the abundance of fine/accumulation mode aerosols mainly from combustion of fossil-fuel and bio-fuel during autumn (October-November) and winter (December-February) seasons. The monthly mean diurnally averaged ARF at the BOA (TOA) varies from -13.2 Wm-2 (˜-0.96 Wm-2) in November to -39.4 Wm-2 (-11.4 Wm-2) in August with higher magnitudes of the forcing values during spring/summer seasons and lower values during autumn/winter seasons. The atmospheric aerosol forcing varies from + 12.2 Wm-2 (November) to 28.2 Wm-2 (June) with higher values throughout the spring and summer seasons, suggesting the importance of mineral dust aerosols towards the solar dimming. Seasonally, highest values of the forcing efficiency at the surface are observed in spring (-85.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 τ -1) followed closely by winter (-79.2 ± 7.1 W m-2 τ -1) and the lowest values during autumn season (-54 ± 4.3 W m-2 τ -1). The study concludes with the variations of the atmospheric heating rates induced by the forcing. Highest heating rate is observed in June (0.39 K day -1) and the lowest in November (0.17 K day -1) and the temporal

  14. The analysis of in situ and retrieved aerosol properties measured during three airborne field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Chelsea A.

    Aerosols can directly influence climate, visibility, and photochemistry by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Aerosol chemical and physical properties determine how efficiently a particle scatters and/or absorbs incoming short-wave solar radiation. Because many types of aerosol can act as nuclei for cloud droplets (CCN) and a smaller population of airborne particles facilitate ice crystal formation (IN), aerosols can also alter cloud-radiation interactions which have subsequent impacts on climate. Thus aerosol properties determine the magnitude and sign of both the direct and indirect impacts of aerosols on radiation-dependent Earth System processes. This dissertation will fill some gaps in our understanding of the role of aerosol properties on aerosol absorption and cloud formation. Specifically, the impact of aerosol oxidation on aerosol spectral (350nm < lambda< 500nm) absorption was examined for two biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-S aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission in Spring and Summer 2008. Spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved using actinic flux measured aboard the NASA DC-8 was used to calculate the aerosol absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE) for a 6-day-old plume on April 17 th and a 3-hour old plume on June 29th. Higher AAE values for the April 17th plume (6.78+/-0.38) indicate absorption by aerosol was enhanced in the ultraviolet relative to the visible portion of the short-wave spectrum in the older plume compared to the fresher plume (AAE= 3.34 0.11). These differences were largely attributed to the greater oxidation of the organic aerosol in the April 17th plume which can arise either from the aging of primary organic aerosol or the formation of spectrally-absorbing secondary organic aerosol. The validity of the actinic flux retrievals used above were also evaluated in this work by the comparison of SSA retrieved using

  15. Characterization of Optical Properties of Desert Dust and Other Aerosols Using Postive Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hussein, T.; Neitola, K.; Khoder, M.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Almehmadi, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    To derive the comprehensive aerosol in situ characteristics at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia, an aerosol measurements station was established to Hada Al Sham, 60 km east from the Red Sea and the city of Jeddah. The present sturdy describes the observational data from February 2013 to February 2015 of scattering and absorption coefficients, Ångström exponents and single scattering albedo over the measurement period. As expected, the scattering coefficient was dominated by large desert dust particles with low Ångström scattering exponent. Especially from February to June the Ångström scattering exponent was clearly lower and scattering coefficients higher than total averages because of the dust outbreak season. Aerosol optical properties had clear diurnal cycle. The lowest scattering and absorption coefficients and aerosol optical depths were observed around noon. The observed diurnal variation is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). Positive Matrix Factorization mathematical tool was applied to the scattering and absorption coefficients and PM2.5 and coarse mode (PM10- PM2.5) mass concentrations to characterise aerosols from different sources. Analysis revealed three clearly different types of sources, anthropogenic, BC source and desert dust. These factors have clearly different seasonal and diurnal variation. The contribution of desert dust factor was dominating from February to May, whereas the contribution of anthropogenic factor is quite steady over the whole year. We estimated the mass absorption and scattering efficiencies for the factors and they agreed well with earlier observations. Hence, this method could be used to distinguish aerosol source characteristics, at least in fairly simple cases.

  16. Comparison of aerosol optical properties from Beijing and Kanpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shupeng; Fang, Li; Gu, Xingfa; Yu, Tao; Gao, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and almucantar retrievals (single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol size distribution) from 2005-2009 in Beijing and Kanpur are used to analyze differences and similarities in aerosol optical properties over these two regions. The examination of monthly mean AOD (440 nm) shows that maximum and minimum values occurred in summer and winter, respectively, for Beijing, while the range in AOD in Kanpur was lower. Precipitation in both Beijing and Kanpur peaked in summer; however, the columnar water vapor (CWV) exhibited a high correlation with AOD in Beijing ( R2 = 0.79) but had a weak relationship with AOD in Kanpur ( R2 = 0.13). The Angstrom exponent ( α, 440-870 nm) generally increased linearly as the fine mode fraction (FMF) of AOD (500 nm) increased for FMF < 90% in both regions, with a high correlation of R2 > 0.96. However a clear decrease in α for FMF > 90% found in Beijing is not shown distinctly in Kanpur, and is mainly due to the higher aerosol loading in this FMF bin at Beijing (AOD at 440 nm > 2.2) which results in a stronger coagulation of fine mode particles. B